WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveys acs wide

  1. ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcanton, Julianne

    2006-07-01

    Existing HST observations of nearby galaxies comprise a sparse and highly non-uniform archive, making comprehensive comparative studies among galaxies essentially impossible. We propose to secure HST's lasting impact on the study of nearby galaxies by undertaking a systematic, complete, and carefully crafted imaging survey of ALL galaxies in the Local Universe outside the Local Group. The resulting images will allow unprecedented measurements of: {1} the star formation history {SFH} of a >100 Mpc^3 volume of the Universe with a time resolution of Delta[log{t}]=0.25; {2} correlations between spatially resolved SFHs and environment; {3} the structure and properties of thick disks and stellar halos; and {4} the color distributions, sizes, and specific frequencies of globular and disk clusters as a function of galaxy mass and environment. To reach these goals, we will use a combination of wide-field tiling and pointed deep imaging to obtain uniform data on all 72 galaxies within a volume-limited sample extending to 3.5 Mpc, with an extension to the M81 group. For each galaxy, the wide-field imaging will cover out to 1.5 times the optical radius and will reach photometric depths of at least 2 magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch throughout the limits of the survey volume. One additional deep pointing per galaxy will reach SNR 10 for red clump stars, sufficient to recover the ancient SFH from the color-magnitude diagram. This proposal will produce photometric information for 100 million stars {comparable to the number in the SDSS survey} and uniform multi-color images of half a square degree of sky. The resulting archive will establish the fundamental optical database for nearby galaxies, in preparation for the shift of high-resolution imaging to the near-infrared.

  2. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcanton, Julianne

    2006-12-01

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury program (ANGST) consists of a carefully crafted imaging survey of a volume-limited sample of galaxies in the Local Universe outside the Local Group. The resulting images will allow unprecedented measurements of: (1) the SFH of a >100 Mpc3 volume of the Universe with a time resolution of Delta[log(t)]=0.25; (2) correlations between spatially resolved SFHs and environment; (3) the structure and properties of thick disks and stellar halos; and (4) the color distributions, sizes, and specific frequencies of globular and disk clusters as a function of galaxy mass and environment. To reach these goals, we are using a combination of wide-field tiling, pointed deep imaging, and archival data to carry out a uniform analysis of the ancient and recent star formation histories of 70 galaxies within a volume-limited sample extending to 3.5 Mpc, with an extension to the M81 group. For all galaxies, a radial strip of imaging will cover out to beyond the optical radius and will reach photometric depths of at least 2 magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch throughout the limits of the survey volume. Additional deep pointings will reach SNR 10 for red clump stars, sufficient to recover the ancient star formation history (SFH) from the color-magnitude diagram for the galaxies that provide more than 99% of the star formation in the local volume. The resulting analysis will produce photometric information for several million stars.

  3. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area. (b...

  4. New Subarray Readout Patterns for the ACS Wide Field Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimowski, D.; Anderson, J.; Arslanian, S.; Chiaberge, M.; Grogin, N.; Lim, Pey Lian; Lupie, O.; McMaster, M.; Reinhart, M.; Schiffer, F.; Serrano, B.; Van Marshall, M.; Welty, A.

    2017-04-01

    At the start of Cycle 24, the original CCD-readout timing patterns used to generate ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) subarray images were replaced with new patterns adapted from the four-quadrant readout pattern used to generate full-frame WFC images. The primary motivation for this replacement was a substantial reduction of observatory and staff resources needed to support WFC subarray bias calibration, which became a new and challenging obligation after the installation of the ACS CCD Electronics Box Replacement during Servicing Mission 4. The new readout patterns also improve the overall efficiency of observing with WFC subarrays and enable the processing of subarray images through stages of the ACS data calibration pipeline (calacs) that were previously restricted to full-frame WFC images. The new readout patterns replace the original 512×512, 1024×1024, and 2048×2046-pixel subarrays with subarrays having 2048 columns and 512, 1024, and 2048 rows, respectively. Whereas the original square subarrays were limited to certain WFC quadrants, the new rectangular subarrays are available in all four quadrants. The underlying bias structure of the new subarrays now conforms with those of the corresponding regions of the full-frame image, which allows raw frames in all image formats to be calibrated using one contemporaneous full-frame "superbias" reference image. The original subarrays remain available for scientific use, but calibration of these image formats is no longer supported by STScI.

  5. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. V. The full ACS strong-lens sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wayth, Randall; Schlegel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the definitive data for the full sample of 131 strong gravitational lens candidates observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope by the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. All targets were selected for higher redshift emission lines and lower redshift

  6. American Community Survey (ACS) 5-Year Estimates for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population every year. These data have been apportioned...

  7. Final Report for the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    ACS was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia just before dawn on March 1, 2002. At the time of liftoff, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was reflecting the early morning sun as it moved across the sky. After successfully docking with HST, several components were replaced. One of the components was the Advanced Camera for Surveys built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC) in Boulder, Colorado. Over the life of the HST contract at BATC, hundreds of employees had the pleasure of working on the concept, design, fabrication, assembly, and test of ACS. Those employees thank NASA - Goddard Space Flight Center and the science team at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) for the opportunity to participate in building a great science instrument for HST.

  8. Working with the American Community Survey in R a guide to using the acs package

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, Ezra Haber

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a hands-on guide to the "acs" R package for demographers, planners, and other researchers who work with American Community Survey (ACS) data. It gathers the most common problems associated with using ACS data and implements functions as a package in the R statistical programming language. The package defines a new "acs" class object (containing estimates, standard errors, and metadata for tables from the ACS) with methods to deal appropriately with common tasks (e.g., creating and combining subgroups or geographies, automatic fetching of data via the Census API, mathematical operations on estimates, tests of significance, plots of confidence intervals).

  9. A wide-band AC-coupled current source for electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragós, R; Rosell, J; Riu, P

    1994-05-01

    A current source suitable for application in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is described. The first stage of the commercially available current-feedback amplifier AD844 constitutes a current-conveyor implementation and allows the construction of wide-bandwidth current sources, thus avoiding the mismatching and temperature-induced problems that arise in discrete realizations. The lack in gain accuracy of this circuit is overcome by the inclusion of its input buffer in an operational amplifier (op amp) feedback loop. Saturation problems that appear when placing a DC-blocking capacitor between the source and the electrode are solved by a DC feedback that maintains DC voltage at the output near to 0 V without reducing the output impedance of the source. Two AC-coupled current sources, in both inverting and non-inverting configurations, are described and their possible applications to EIT are listed.

  10. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. XIII. Discovery of 40 New Galaxy-scale Strong Lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shu, Yiping; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Auger, Matthew W.; Czoske, Oliver; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the full sample of 118 galaxy-scale strong-lens candidates in the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey for the Masses (S4TM) Survey, which are spectroscopically selected from the final data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Follow-up Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging observations

  11. Optical Metrology for the Filter Set for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Boucarut, Rene A.; Content, David A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Krebs, Carolyn A.; Miner, Linda A.; Norton, Todd A.; Mehalick, Kimberly; Petrone, Peter; Bush, Frank D.; hide

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) will employ a wide variety of spectral filtration components including narrow band, medium band, wide band, and far ultraviolet (FUV) long pass filters, spatially- variable filters (ramp filters), VIS/IR polarizers, NUV polarizers, FUV prisms, and a grism. These components are spread across ACS's Wide Field, High Resolution, and Solar Blind channels which provide diffraction-limited imaging of astronomical targets using aberration-correcting optics which remove most aberrations from HST's Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements which these filters must meet include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, and a high degree of parfocality. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The development of optical metrology stations used to demonstrate that each ACS filter will meet its design specifications is discussed. Of particular note are specially-designed spectral transmissometers and interferometers.

  12. Pixel History for Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borncamp, D.; Grogin, N.; Bourque, M.; Ogaz, S.

    2017-06-01

    Excess thermal energy present in a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) can result in additional electrical current. This excess charge is trapped within the silicon lattice structure of the CCD electronics. It can persist through multiple exposures and have an adverse effect on science performance of the detectors unless properly flagged and corrected for. The traditional way to correct for this extra charge is to take occasional long-exposure images with the camera shutter closed. These images, generally referred to as "dark" images, allow for the measurement of the thermal-electron contamination present in each pixel of the CCD lattice. This so-called "dark current" can then be subtracted from the science images by re-scaling the dark to the corresponding exposure times. Pixels that have signal above a certain threshold are traditionally marked as "hot" and flagged in the data quality array. Many users will discard these because of the extra current. However, these pixels may not be unusable because of an unreliable dark subtraction; if we find these pixels to be stable over an anneal period, we can properly subtract the charge and the extra Poisson noise from this dark current will be propagated into the error arrays. Here we present the results of a pixel history study that analyzes every individual pixel of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) CCDs over time and allows pixels that were previously flagged as unusable to be brought back into the science image as a reliable pixel.

  13. Gene Fusion: A Genome Wide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ping; Riley, Monica

    2001-01-01

    As a well known fact, organisms form larger and complex multimodular (composite or chimeric) and mostly multi-functional proteins through gene fusion of two or more individual genes which have independent evolution histories and functions. We call each of these components a module. The existence of multimodular proteins may improves the efficiency in gene regulation and in cellular functions, and thus may give the host organism advantages in adaptation to environments. Analysis of all gene fusions in present-day organisms should allow us to examine the patterns of gene fusion in context with cellular functions, to trace back the evolution processes from the ancient smaller and uni-functional proteins to the present-day larger and complex multi-functional proteins, and to estimate the minimal number of ancestor proteins that existed in the last common ancestor for all life on earth. Although many multimodular proteins have been experimentally known, identification of gene fusion events systematically at genome scale had not been possible until recently when large number of completed genome sequences have been becoming available. In addition, technical difficulties for such analysis also exist due to the complexity of this biological and evolutionary process. We report from this study a new strategy to computationally identify multimodular proteins using completed genome sequences and the results surveyed from 22 organisms with the data from over 40 organisms to be presented during the meeting. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  15. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Integrated Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-Chia; Blaurock, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Contents: introduction to WFIRST (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope) and integrated modeling; WFIRST stability requirement summary; instability mitigation strategies; dynamic jitter results; STOP (structural-thermal-optical performance) (thermal distortion) results; STOP and jitter capability limitations; model validation philosophy.

  16. A wide-frequency range AC magnetometer to measure the specific absorption rate in nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garaio, E., E-mail: eneko.garayo@ehu.es [Elektrizitatea eta Elektronika Saila, UPV/EHU, P.K. 644, Bilbao (Spain); Collantes, J.M. [Elektrizitatea eta Elektronika Saila, UPV/EHU, P.K. 644, Bilbao (Spain); Garcia, J.A. [Fisika Aplikatua II Saila, UPV/EHU, P.K. 644, Bilbao (Spain); Plazaola, F. [Elektrizitatea eta Elektronika Saila, UPV/EHU, P.K. 644, Bilbao (Spain); Mornet, S. [Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux, UPR 9048 CNRS / Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Couillaud, F. [Résonance Magnétique des Systèmes Biologiques, UMR 5536 CNRS / Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Sandre, O., E-mail: olivier.sandre@enscbp.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères Organiques, UMR 5629 CNRS / Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-11-15

    Measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial to assert their potential for magnetic hyperthermia. To perform this task, calorimetric methods are widely used. However, those methods are not very accurate and are difficult to standardize. In this paper, we present AC magnetometry results performed with a lab-made magnetometer that is able to obtain dynamic hysteresis-loops in the AC magnetic field frequency range from 50 kHz to 1 MHz and intensities up to 24 kA m{sup −1}. In this work, SAR values of maghemite nanoparticles dispersed in water are measured by AC magnetometry. The so-obtained values are compared with the SAR measured by calorimetric methods. Both measurements, by calorimetry and magnetometry, are in good agreement. Therefore, the presented AC magnetometer is a suitable way to obtain SAR values of magnetic nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We propose AC magnetometry as a method to measure the specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles suitable for magnetic hyperthermia therapy. • We have built a lab-made AC magnetometer, which is able to measure magnetic dynamic hysteresis-loops of nanoparticle dispersions. • The device works with AC magnetic field intensities up to 24 kA m{sup −1} in a frequency range from 75 kHz to 1 MHz. • The SAR values of maghemite nanoparticles around 12 nm in magnetic diameter dispersed in water are measured by the lab-made magnetometer and different calorimetric methods. • Although all methods are in good agreement, several factors (probe location, thermal inertia, losses, etc.) make calorimetric method less accurate than AC magnetometry.

  17. Calibration of BVRI Photometry for the Wide Field Channel of the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijit; Shaw, Richard A.; Claver, Jennifer A.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2011-04-01

    We present new observations of two Galactic globular clusters, PAL4 and PAL14, using the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and reanalyze archival data from a third, NGC2419. We matched our photometry of hundreds of stars in these fields from the ACS images to existing ground-based photometry of faint sequences that were calibrated on the standard BVRI system of Landolt. These stars are significantly fainter than those generally used for HST calibration purposes and therefore are much better matched to supporting precision photometry of ACS science targets. We were able to derive more accurate photometric transformation coefficients for the commonly used ACS broadband filters, compared with those published by Sirianni et al., due to the use of a factor of several more calibration stars that span a greater range of color. We find that the inferred transformations from each cluster individually do not vary significantly from the average, except for a small offset of the photometric zero point in the F850LP filter. Our results suggest that the published prescriptions for the time-dependent correction of CCD charge transfer efficiency appear to work very well over the ˜3.5 yr interval that spans our observations of PAL4 and PAL14 and the archived images of NGC2419.

  18. Wide-angle effects in future galaxy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jaiyul; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-02-01

    Current and future galaxy surveys cover a large fraction of the entire sky with a significant redshift range, and the recent theoretical development shows that general relativistic effects are present in galaxy clustering on very large scales. This trend has renewed interest in the wide-angle effect in galaxy clustering measurements, in which the distant-observer approximation is often adopted. Using the full wide-angle formula for computing the redshift-space correlation function, we show that compared to the sample variance, the deviation in the redshift-space correlation function from the simple Kaiser formula with the distant-observer approximation is negligible in galaxy surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Euclid and the BigBOSS, if the theoretical prediction from the Kaiser formula is properly averaged over the survey volume. We also find corrections to the wide-angle formula and clarify the confusion in literature between the wide-angle effect and the velocity contribution in galaxy clustering. However, when the FKP method is applied, substantial deviations can be present in the power spectrum analysis in future surveys, due to the non-uniform distribution of galaxy pairs.

  19. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. XII. Extending Strong Lensing to Lower Masses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shu, Yiping; Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Auger, Matthew W.; Czoske, Oliver; Marshall, Philip J.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    We present observational results from a new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot program to extend the methods of the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey to lower lens-galaxy masses. We discover 40 new galaxy-scale strong lenses, which we supplement with 58 previously discovered SLACS lenses. In

  20. In-situ AC electroosmotic and thermal perturbation effects for wide range of ionic strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hadjiaghaie Vafaie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AC electrokinetic flow is promising in designing microfluidic chips for manipulation of biological and chemical samples toward clinical diagnostics. Four pieces of electrodes are optimized to enhance mixing effect inside a straight microchannel. In this research, the mixing dependency on the ionic strength of solutions is investigated. AC electroosmotic secondary flow is responsible for the mixing at low ionic strength (σ < 5 mS m–1, whereas AC electrothermal secondary flow is proposed to mix high conductive mediums (σ > 5 mS m–1. The electrode-electrolyte impedance analysis is employed to facilitate the in-situation mixing process by choosing appropriate electrical excitation parameters for the electrodes.

  1. Star Formation Rate Indicators in Wide-Field Infrared Survey ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) traces the SFR, we analyse 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 m data in a sample of ∼ 140,000 star-forming galaxies or star-forming regions covering a wide range in metallicity 7.66 < 12 + \\log (O/H) ...

  2. Wide-Field Astronomical Surveys in the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.S.; /LSST Corp.; Becker, Andrew C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U.; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Condon, J.J.; /NRAO, Socorro; Connolly, A.J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Cooray, Asantha R.; /UC, Irvine; Covey, Kevin R.; /Harvard U.; Csabai, Istvan; /Eotvos U.; Ferguson, Henry C.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Kantor, Jeffrey; /LSST Corp.; Kent, Stephen M.; /Fermilab; Knapp, G.R.; /Princeton U.; Myers, Steven T.; /NRAO, Socorro; Neilsen, Eric H., Jr.; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst. /Caltech, IPAC /Potsdam, Max Planck Inst. /Harvard U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /NOAO, Tucson /Carnegie Mellon U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2011-11-14

    Wide-angle surveys have been an engine for new discoveries throughout the modern history of astronomy, and have been among the most highly cited and scientifically productive observing facilities in recent years. This trend is likely to continue over the next decade, as many of the most important questions in astrophysics are best tackled with massive surveys, often in synergy with each other and in tandem with the more traditional observatories. We argue that these surveys are most productive and have the greatest impact when the data from the surveys are made public in a timely manner. The rise of the 'survey astronomer' is a substantial change in the demographics of our field; one of the most important challenges of the next decade is to find ways to recognize the intellectual contributions of those who work on the infrastructure of surveys (hardware, software, survey planning and operations, and databases/data distribution), and to make career paths to allow them to thrive.

  3. Wide-Field Astronomical Surveys in the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.S.; /LSST Corp.; Becker, Andrew C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U.; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Condon, J.J.; /NRAO, Socorro; Connolly, A.J.

    2009-03-01

    Wide-angle surveys have been an engine for new discoveries throughout the modern history of astronomy, and have been among the most highly cited and scientifically productive observing facilities in recent years. This trend is likely to continue over the next decade, as many of the most important questions in astrophysics are best tackled with massive surveys, often in synergy with each other and in tandem with the more traditional observatories. We argue that these surveys are most productive and have the greatest impact when the data from the surveys are made public in a timely manner. The rise of the 'survey astronomer' is a substantial change in the demographics of our field; one of the most important challenges of the next decade is to find ways to recognize the intellectual contributions of those who work on the infrastructure of surveys (hardware, software, survey planning and operations, and databases/data distribution), and to make career paths to allow them to thrive.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. X. (den Brok+, 2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Seth, A.; Balcells, M.; Dominguez, L.; Graham, A. W.; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Jogee, S.; Lucey, J.; Phillipps, S.; Puzia, T.; Valentijn, E.; Kleijn, G. V.; Weinzirl, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Coma ACS Survey (Carter et al., 2008ApJS..176..424C) provides data in two passbands for 25 fields pointed at the core of the Coma cluster and at the outskirts. The exposure times in the two passbands, F814W and F475W (which are roughly equivalent to the IC and g band) were ~1400 and ~2600s. The

  5. The Sloan Lens ACS survey. IV. The mass density profile of early-type galaxies out to 100 effective radii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavazzi, Raphael; Treu, Tommaso; Rhodes, Jason D.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Massey, Richard J.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2007-01-01

    We present a weak-lensing analysis of 22 early-type (strong) lens galaxies, based on deep HST images obtained as part of the Sloan Lens ACS Survey. Using advanced techniques to control systematic uncertainties, we show that weak-lensing signal is detected out to similar to 300 h(-1) kpc (at the mean

  6. Design and Specification of Optical Bandpass Filters for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Tsevetanov, Zlatan; Woodruff, Bob; Mooney, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced optical bandpass filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have been developed on a filter-by-filter basis through detailed studies which take into account the instrument's science goals, available optical filter fabrication technology, and developments in ACS's charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector technology. These filters include a subset of filters for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are optimized for astronomical photometry using today's charge-coupled-devices (CCD's). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements for these filters include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, a high degree of parfocality, and immunity to environmental degradation. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The highly successful paradigm in which final specifications for flight filters were derived through interaction amongst the ACS Science Team, the instrument designer, the lead optical engineer, and the filter designer and vendor is described. Examples of iterative design trade studies carried out in the context of science needs and budgetary and schedule constraints are presented. An overview of the final design specifications for the ACS bandpass and ramp filters is also presented.

  7. [A Germany-wide survey on anaesthesia in thoracic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defosse, J; Schieren, M; Böhmer, A; von Dossow, V; Loop, T; Wappler, F; Gerbershagen, M U

    2016-06-01

    This study's objective was to evaluate current thoracic anaesthesia practice in Germany and to quantify potential differences depending on the hospital's level of care. A four-part online survey containing 28 questions was mailed to all anaesthesiology department chairs (n = 777) registered with the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine. The general response rate was 31.5 % (n = 245). High monthly volumes (>50 operations/month) of intrathoracic procedures, performed by specialized thoracic surgeons are mostly limited to hospitals of maximum care, university hospitals, and specialized thoracic clinics. In hospitals with a lower level of care, intrathoracic operations occur less frequently (1-5/month) and are commonly performed by general (69.3 %) rather than thoracic surgeons (15.4 %). Video-assisted thoracic surgeries are the most invasive intrathoracic procedures for most hospitals with a low level of care (61.5 %). Extended resections and pneumonectomies occur mainly in hospitals of maximum care and university hospitals. Thoracic anaesthesia is primarily performed by consultants or senior physicians (59.9 %). The double lumen tube (91.4 %) is the preferred method to enable one-lung ventilation (bronchial blockers: 2.7 %; missing answer: 5.9 %). A bronchoscopic confirmation of the correct placement of a double lumen tube is considered mandatory by 87.7 % of the respondents. Bronchial blockers are available in 64.7 % of all thoracic anaesthesia departments. While CPAP-valves for the deflated lung are commonly used (74.9 %), jet-ventilators are rarely accessible, especially in hospitals with a lower level of care (15.4 %). Although general algorithms for a difficult airway are widely available (87.7 %), specific recommendations for a difficult airway in thoracic anaesthesia are uncommon (4.8 %). Laryngeal mask airways (90.9 %) and videolaryngoscopy (88.8 %) are the primary adjuncts in store for a difficult

  8. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. XIII. Discovery of 40 New Galaxy-scale Strong Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yiping; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Auger, Matthew W.; Czoske, Oliver; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2017-12-01

    We present the full sample of 118 galaxy-scale strong-lens candidates in the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey for the Masses (S4TM) Survey, which are spectroscopically selected from the final data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Follow-up Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging observations confirm that 40 candidates are definite strong lenses with multiple lensed images. The foreground-lens galaxies are found to be early-type galaxies (ETGs) at redshifts 0.06–0.44, and background sources are emission-line galaxies at redshifts 0.22–1.29. As an extension of the SLACS Survey, the S4TM Survey is the first attempt to preferentially search for strong-lens systems with relatively lower lens masses than those in the pre-existing strong-lens samples. By fitting HST data with a singular isothermal ellipsoid model, we find that the total projected mass within the Einstein radius of the S4TM strong-lens sample ranges from 3 × 1010 M ⊙ to 2 × 1011 M ⊙. In Shu et al., we have derived the total stellar mass of the S4TM lenses to be 5 × 1010 M ⊙ to 1 × 1012 M ⊙. Both the total enclosed mass and stellar mass of the S4TM lenses are on average almost a factor of 2 smaller than those of the SLACS lenses, which also represent the typical mass scales of the current strong-lens samples. The extended mass coverage provided by the S4TM sample can enable a direct test, with the aid of strong lensing, for transitions in scaling relations, kinematic properties, mass structure, and dark-matter content trends of ETGs at intermediate-mass scales as noted in previous studies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with HST program #12210.

  9. Technical Aspects of the Advanced Camera For Surveys Repair (ACS-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen; Cheng, Edward S.; Sirianni, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The ACS Repair (ACS-R) team includes contributors from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Ball Aerospace, and Teledyne Imaging Sensors; It determined that all of the capabilities of the ACS could be restored and created a concept for the ACS-R component of SN4. ACSR will restore the WFC of ACS by replacing the existing CCD Electronics Box (CEB) with the CEB-Replacement (CEB-R) and providing power from a new Low Voltage Power Supply Replacement (LVPS-8). The new LVPS-R will also attempt to restore the HRC function by providing power through the original power bus. In this presentation, we faeus on the concept and technical aspects of the ACS-R.

  10. 75 FR 25320 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 1465-2 through 1465-4. OMB Control...

  11. 75 FR 9277 - Proposed Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment.... Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 1465-2 through 1465-4. OMB Control Number...

  12. 77 FR 64382 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 10-1465- 2 through 10-1465...

  13. 77 FR 2349 - Proposed Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 10-1465- 2...

  14. Infrared Testing of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope Grism Using Computer Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Margaret Z.; Content, David A.; Gong, Qian; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John G.; Marx, Catherine T; Whipple, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) were designed, manufactured and used to measure the performance of the grism (grating prism) prototype which includes testing Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). The grism in the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will allow the surveying of a large section of the sky to find bright galaxies.

  15. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  16. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. XI. THE REMARKABLY UNDISTURBED NGC 2403 DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne; Radburn-Smith, David [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: adrienne@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: dolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present detailed analysis of color-magnitude diagrams of NGC 2403, obtained from a deep (m {approx}< 28) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observation of the outer disk of NGC 2403, supplemented by several shallow (m {approx}< 26) HST Advanced Camera for Surveys fields. We derive the spatially resolved star formation history of NGC 2403 out to 11 disk scale lengths. In the inner portions of the galaxy, we compare the recent star formation rates (SFRs) we derive from the resolved stars with those measured using GALEX FUV + Spitzer 24{mu} fluxes, finding excellent agreement between the methods. Our measurements also show that the radial gradient in recent SFR mirrors the disk exponential profile to 11 scale lengths with no break, extending to SFR densities a factor of {approx}100 lower than those that can be measured with GALEX and Spitzer ({approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}). Furthermore, we find that the cumulative stellar mass of the disk was formed at similar times at all radii. We compare these characteristics of NGC 2403 to those of its ''morphological twins'', NGC 300 and M 33, showing that the structure and age distributions of the NGC 2403 disk are more similar to those of the relatively isolated system NGC 300 than to those of the Local Group analog M 33. We also discuss the environments and HI morphologies of these three nearby galaxies, comparing them to integrated light studies of larger samples of more distant galaxy disks. Taken together, the physical properties and evolutionary history of NGC 2403 suggest that the galaxy has had no close encounters with other M 81 group members and may be falling into the group for the first time.

  17. The HST/ACS Grism Parallel Survey: II. First Results and a Catalog of Faint Emission-Line Galaxies at z < 1.6

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdovsky, Igor; Yan, Lin; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Stern, Daniel; Kennicutt Jr., Robert; Spinrad, Hyron; Dawson, Steve

    2005-01-01

    We present the first results from the HST/ACS Grism Parallel Survey, a large program obtaining deep, slitless ACS grism spectroscopy of high-latitude HST parallel fields. We report on 11 high Galactic latitude fields here, each with grism integration times >12 ks. We identify 601 compact emission line galaxies at z 5 E-18 ergs/cm^2/s (3 sigma). We determine redshifts by cross correlation of the target spectra with template spectra, followed ...

  18. The Forest Service Safety Survey: results from an employee-wide safety attitude survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanessa R. Lane; Ken Cordell; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Gary T. Green; Neelam Poudyal; Susan Fox

    2014-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture launched a Safety Journey in 2011 aimed at elevating safety consciousness and practice in the Agency. All employees were required to attend an engagement session during the year to introduce them to the Safety Journey. In September, a survey was launched to help Forest Service leadership better understand employee...

  19. Efficient Wide Range Converters (EWiRaC): A new family of high efficient AC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    suffers a major penalty in efficiency when used at the low end of the voltage range (90VAC) in a universal voltage range application (90-270VAC). This paper addresses this problem by suggesting a new family of converters that effectively reduces the apparent voltage range with a factor of 2 by changing...... the converter topology according to the input voltage. This new converter type has been named: efficient wide range converter (EWiRaC). The performance of the EWiRaC is experimental verified in a universal input range (90-270VAC) application with an output voltage of 185VDC capable of 500W output power. The EWi...

  20. Testing a health research instrument to develop a state-wide survey on maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Angela L; Aitken, Clare A; Boyd, Jason; Porter, Maree

    2016-01-28

    Partnerships between researchers and end users are an important strategy for research uptake in policy and practice. This paper describes how collaboration between an academic research organisation (the Kolling Institute) and a government performance reporting agency (the New South Wales [NSW] Bureau of Health Information) contributed to the development of a new state-wide maternity care survey for NSW.

  1. The ACS survey of Galactic globular clusters - XIV. Bayesian single-population analysis of 69 globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Sarajedini, A.; von Hippel, T.; Stenning, D. C.; van Dyk, D. A.; Jeffery, E.; Robinson, E.; Stein, N.; Anderson, J.; Jefferys, W. H.

    2017-06-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging from the ACS Treasury Survey to determine fits for single population isochrones of 69 Galactic globular clusters. Using robust Bayesian analysis techniques, we simultaneously determine ages, distances, absorptions and helium values for each cluster under the scenario of a 'single' stellar population on model grids with solar ratio heavy element abundances. The set of cluster parameters is determined in a consistent and reproducible manner for all clusters using the Bayesian analysis suite BASE-9. Our results are used to re-visit the age-metallicity relation. We find correlations with helium and several other parameters such as metallicity, binary fraction and proxies for cluster mass. The helium abundances of the clusters are also considered in the context of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances and the multiple population scenario.

  2. Record year ahead for pipeline construction and world-wide construction scoreboard. [Survey of 200 companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of 200 companies indicates world-wide projects (excluding Russian and Chinese) will total 26,177 miles in 1976. Nearly all of the mileage will be in liquids and offshore construction. A breakdown of the survey shows: US construction, 7,647 miles, up 23.6 percent from 1975; outside US, 18,530 miles, up 7.8 percent from 1975; new compressor/pump station additions world-wide are expected to total 2,454,158 hp, up 173,628 hp over 1975. Details are given for US liquids projects, Gulf of Mexico projects, and onshore gas lines in the US. Data are tabulated for 240 companies including information on estimated costs, project location, length, pipeline characteristics, contractor, completion date, and project status. (MCW)

  3. NIR Imaging of the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Wide Survey Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myungshin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Oyabu, Shinki; Akari Nep Survey Team

    2008-02-01

    We propose to perform J- and H-band wide-field imaging of the north ecliptic pole (NEP) area which has been surveyed by the AKARI Infrared Space Telescope. The NEP-Wide survey, one of the AKARI's key scientific programs, images a 5.8 deg^2 circular area centered on the north ecliptic pole with contiguous 9 passbands between 2.5 and 24 (micron) to the flux limit ranging from 15 (mu)Jy to 500 (mu)Jy (plus FIR data), including 11, 15, and 18 (micron) bands where the Spitzer has limitations. Thus, NEP-Wide is the only wide-area IR survey that allows us to study the evolution of various mid-IR features from z=0 to z=2 such as PAHs, silicate absorptions, and power-slopes of AGNs, and their connection to IR-luminosity, star formation and AGN activities of IR sources not bright enough for the Spitzer spectroscopy. Optical imaging as well as radio/X-ray data exist over this field, however there is a gaping hole at NIR between the AKARI and the optical coverage. In order to fill the wavelength gap, we propose to obtain J-, and H-band images to 15 (mu)Jy at 5-σ using FLAMINGOS on the 2.1-m. Filling the hole in the spectral energy distribution will significantly increase the value of the NEP-Wide dataset by permitting us to add more accurate stellar mass and photo-z estimates, and also a large number of SEDs from optical to IR without a gap in wavelength coverage.

  4. EU experience on combating violence against women (on the basis of EU-wide survey findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Rudik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores of the EU experience on combating violence against women, in particular by providing policy-makers with comprehensive data on the scope, nature and character of this problem through organizing and conducting of special survey. Author analyses the findings of the first EU-wide survey on violence against women conducted by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights in 1992. Women were asked to provide information about their personal experience of various forms of violence, how often they have experienced cer¬tain types of violence, and what consequences violence has had on their lives. The results from the survey interviews can be looked at alongside existing data and gaps in knowledge on vio¬lence against women at EU and Member State level, and is ready to be used in the development of policies and action on the ground to combat this human rights violation.

  5. ACS Data Handbook v.6.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, S.; et al.

    2011-03-01

    ACS was designed to provide a deep, wide-field survey capability from the visible to near-IR using the Wide Field Camera (WFC), high resolution imaging from the near-UV to near-IR with the now-defunct High Resolution Camera (HRC), and solar-blind far-UV imaging using the Solar Blind Camera (SBC). The discovery efficiency of ACS's Wide Field Channel (i.e., the product of WFC's field of view and throughput) is 10 times greater than that of WFPC2. The failure of ACS's CCD electronics in January 2007 brought a temporary halt to CCD imaging until Servicing Mission 4 in May 2009, when WFC functionality was restored. Unfortunately, the high-resolution optical imaging capability of HRC was not recovered.

  6. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. XIII. ACS/WFC Parallel-Field Catalogues★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Aparicio, A.; Piotto, G.; Milone, A. P.; Nardiello, D.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T. M.; Cassisi, S.; Cunial, A.; Granata, V.; Ortolani, S.; van der Marel, R. P.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-01-01

    As part of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters, 110 parallel fields were observed with the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys, in the outskirts of 48 globular clusters, plus the open cluster NGC 6791. Totalling about 0.3 square degrees of observed sky, this is the largest homogeneous Hubble Space Telescope photometric survey of Galalctic globular clusters outskirts to date. In particular, two distinct pointings have been obtained for each target on average, all centred at about 6.5 arcmin from the cluster centre, thus covering a mean area of about 23 arcmin2 for each globular cluster. For each field, at least one exposure in both F475W and F814W filters was collected. In this work, we publicly release the astrometric and photometric catalogues and the astrometrised atlases for each of these fields.

  7. The ACS Nearby Galaxies Survey Treasury: Recovering Spatially Resolved Recent Star Formation Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Evan D.; ANGST Team

    2006-12-01

    Because the supergiant phase of stellar evolution is short relative to the main sequence phase, it is possible to use them as chronometers to reconstruct the spatially resolved recent star formation histories of galaxies (cf., Dohm-Palmer et al. 1997, AJ, 114, 2514). Under the aegis of a cycle 14 HST program to observe a sample of M81 group dwarf galaxies (GO-HST-10605), we have used the star formation history codes of Dolphin (2002, MNRAS, 332, 91) to re-engineer the programs used in Dohm-Palmer et al. and produced automated codes with a wide range of applicability. The ANGST database will allow us our first opportunity to make the transition from analyzing prototypes to analyzing a statistically meaningful sample of galaxies. This promises real progress in quantifying the role of feedback in the evolution of galaxies. This work is supported by NASA grants HST-GO-10605.01-A and HST-GO-10915.06-A

  8. Microlensing Surveys of M31 in the Wide Field Imaging ERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltz, E.

    2004-10-27

    The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is the closest large galaxy to the Milky Way, thus it is an important laboratory for studying massive dark objects in galactic halos (MACHOs) by gravitational microlensing. Such studies strongly complement the studies of the Milky Way halo using the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. We consider the possibilities for microlensing surveys of M31 using the next generation of wide field imaging telescopes with fields of view in the square degree range. We consider proposals for such imagers both on the ground and in space. For concreteness, we specialize to the SNAP proposal for a space telescope and the LSST proposal for a ground based telescope. We find that a modest space-based survey of 50 visits of one hour each is considerably better than current ground based surveys covering 5 years. Crucially, systematic effects can be considerably better controlled with a space telescope because of both the infrared sensitivity and the angular resolution. To be competitive, 8 meter class wide-field ground based imagers must take exposures of several hundred seconds with several day cadence.

  9. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Slitless Spectrometer: Design, Prototype, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Content, David; Dominguez, Margaret; Emmett, Thomas; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John; Kruk, Jeffrey; Marx, Catherine; Pasquale, Bert; Wallace, Thomas; hide

    2016-01-01

    The slitless spectrometer plays an important role in the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission for the survey of emission-line galaxies. This will be an unprecedented very wide field, HST quality 3D survey of emission line galaxies. The concept of the compound grism as a slitless spectrometer has been presented previously. The presentation briefly discusses the challenges and solutions of the optical design, and recent specification updates, as well as a brief comparison between the prototype and the latest design. However, the emphasis of this paper is the progress of the grism prototype: the fabrication and test of the complicated diffractive optical elements and powered prism, as well as grism assembly alignment and testing. Especially how to use different tools and methods, such as IR phase shift and wavelength shift interferometry, to complete the element and assembly tests. The paper also presents very encouraging results from recent element tests to assembly tests. Finally we briefly touch the path forward plan to test the spectral characteristic, such as spectral resolution and response.

  10. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. VIII. BARRED DISK GALAXIES IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, Irina; Jogee, Shardha; Weinzirl, Tim [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Erwin, Peter [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Trentham, Neil [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hammer, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Kleijn, Gijs V. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn (Australia); Carter, David; Mouhcine, Mustapha [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Birkenhead (United Kingdom); Balcells, Marc [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Peng, Eric W., E-mail: marinova@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: sj@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-02-20

    We use high-resolution ({approx}0.''1) F814W Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images from the Hubble Space Telescope ACS Treasury survey of the Coma cluster at z {approx} 0.02 to study bars in massive disk galaxies (S0s), as well as low-mass dwarf galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster, the densest environment in the nearby universe. Our study helps to constrain the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments and provides a comparison point for studies in lower density environments and at higher redshifts. Our results are: (1) we characterize the fraction and properties of bars in a sample of 32 bright (M{sub V} {approx}< -18, M{sub *} > 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }) S0 galaxies, which dominate the population of massive disk galaxies in the Coma core. We find that the measurement of a bar fraction among S0 galaxies must be handled with special care due to the difficulty in separating unbarred S0s from ellipticals, and the potential dilution of the bar signature by light from a relatively large, bright bulge. The results depend sensitively on the method used: the bar fraction for bright S0s in the Coma core is 50% {+-} 11%, 65% {+-} 11%, and 60% {+-} 11% based on three methods of bar detection, namely, strict ellipse fit criteria, relaxed ellipse fit criteria, and visual classification. (2) We compare the S0 bar fraction across different environments (the Coma core, A901/902, and Virgo) adopting the critical step of using matched samples and matched methods in order to ensure robust comparisons. We find that the bar fraction among bright S0 galaxies does not show a statistically significant variation (within the error bars of {+-}11%) across environments which span two orders of magnitude in galaxy number density (n {approx} 300-10,000 galaxies Mpc{sup -3}) and include rich and poor clusters, such as the core of Coma, the A901/902 cluster, and Virgo. We speculate that the bar fraction among S0s is not significantly enhanced in rich clusters compared to

  11. THE ACS VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XVII. THE SPATIAL ALIGNMENT OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS WITH EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiushi; Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordan, Andres [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Mei, Simona [University of Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); West, Michael J., E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn [Maria Mitchell Observatory, 4 Vestal Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We study the azimuthal distribution of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies and compare them to their host galaxies using data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. We find that in host galaxies with visible elongation ({epsilon} > 0.2) and intermediate to high luminosities (M{sub z} < -19), the GCs are preferentially aligned along the major axis of the stellar light. The red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations show strong alignment with the major axis of the host galaxy, which supports the notion that these GCs are associated with metal-rich field stars. The metal-rich GCs in lenticular galaxies show signs of being more strongly associated with disks rather than bulges. Surprisingly, we also find that the blue (metal-poor) GCs can also show the same correlation. If the metal-poor GCs are part of the early formation of the halo and built up through mergers, then our results support a picture where halo formation and merging occur anisotropically, and that the present-day major axis is an indicator of the preferred merging axis.

  12. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  13. Genome-wide profiling of histone modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac) and gene expression in rust (uromyces appendiculatus) inoculated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyappan, Vasudevan; Kalavacharla, Venu (Kal); Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Bhide, Ketaki P; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.

    2015-01-01

    Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2) and acetylation (H4K12ac) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation s...

  14. Understanding sub-stellar populations using wide-field infrared surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewett P.C.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses benchmark brown dwarfs in various environments, and focuses on those in wide binary systems. We present a summary of the recently discovered T dwarf population from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey, and describe the constraints that it places on our knowledge of the sub-stellar initial mass function. We also present some exciting results from our ongoing search for wide companions to this sample, that has so far revealed an M4-T8.5 binary system at ∼12 parsecs and also the first ever Tdwarf-white dwarf binary system. The T dwarfs in these binaries have their properties constrained by the primary object and are thus benchmark objects that are already testing the predictions of theoretical model atmospheres.

  15. Data mining analysis of factors influencing children's blood pressure in a nation-wide health survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiewicz, Piotr; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczyslaw

    2009-06-01

    Blood pressure in childhood and adolescents is important indicator of good health and strong predictor of BP in adulthood. Genetic susceptibility, environmental and socioeconomic factors are related both with life style, obesity and cardiovascular risk including elevated BP. Increased body mass index is strictly correlated with BP, and obesity and overweight is main intermediate phenotype of childhood hypertension. However, despite current obesity epidemic available data do not fully support the hypothesis that it has resulted in increase of BP in children. We analysed data obtained from 7591 children participating in nation-wide health survey using data mining methodology. Results reveal relationships of obesity and high blood pressure with school environment characteristics.

  16. 3D-HST: A WIDE-FIELD GRISM SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, Gabriel B. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Nelson, Erica; Bezanson, Rachel; Leja, Joel; Lundgren, Britt [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbe, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Da Cunha, Elisabete [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kriek, Mariska [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Erb, Dawn K. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Foerster Schreiber, Natascha [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Illingworth, Garth D.; Magee, Dan, E-mail: gbrammer@eso.org [Astronomy Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2012-06-01

    We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the physical processes that shape galaxies in the distant universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of {approx}7000 galaxies at 1 < z < 3.5, the epoch when {approx}60% of all star formation took place, the number density of quasars peaked, the first galaxies stopped forming stars, and the structural regularity that we see in galaxies today must have emerged. 3D-HST will cover three quarters (625 arcmin{sup 2}) of the CANDELS Treasury survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with the ACS/G800L grism in parallel. In the IR, these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}5 per resolution element at H{sub 140} {approx} 23.1 and a 5{sigma} emission-line sensitivity of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for typical objects, improving by a factor of {approx}2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1 to 1.6 {mu}m at a spatial resolution of {approx}0.''13, which, combined with their depth, makes them a unique resource for studying galaxy evolution. We present an overview of the preliminary reduction and analysis of the grism observations, including emission-line and redshift measurements from combined fits to the extracted grism spectra and photometry from ancillary multi-wavelength catalogs. The present analysis yields redshift estimates with a precision of {sigma}(z) = 0.0034(1 + z), or {sigma}(v) Almost-Equal-To 1000 km s{sup -1}. We illustrate how the generalized nature of the survey yields near-infrared spectra of remarkable quality for many different types of objects, including a quasar at z = 4.7, quiescent galaxies at z {approx} 2, and the most distant T-type brown dwarf star known. The combination of the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys

  17. Health seeking behavior following snakebites in Sri Lanka: Results of an island wide community based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediriweera, Dileepa Senajith; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Gunawardena, Nipul Kithsiri; Jayamanne, Shaluka Francis; Lalloo, David Griffith; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2017-11-01

    Sri Lanka has a population of 21 million and about 80,000 snakebites occur annually. However, there are limited data on health seeking behavior following bites. We investigated the effects of snakebite and envenoming on health seeking behavior in Sri Lanka. In a community-based island-wide survey conducted in Sri Lanka 44,136 households were sampled using a multistage cluster sampling method. An individual who reported experiencing a snakebite within the preceding 12 months was considered a case. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain details of the bite and health seeking behavior among cases. Among 165,665 individuals surveyed, there were 695 snakebite victims. 682 (98.1%) had sought health care after the bite; 381 (54.8%) sought allopathic treatment and 301 (43.3%) sought traditional treatment. 323 (46.5%) had evidence of probable envenoming, among them 227 (70.3%) sought allopathic treatment, 94 (29.1%) sought traditional treatment and 2 did not seek treatment. There was wide geographic variation in the proportion of seeking allopathic treatment from 90% in the Northern province. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that seeking allopathic treatment was independently associated with being systemically envenomed (Odds Ratio = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.36-2.90, P Sri Lanka, both allopathic and traditional treatments are sought following snakebite. The presence of probable envenoming was a major contribution to seeking allopathic treatment.

  18. Continent-wide survey reveals massive decline in African savannah elephants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Chase

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available African elephants (Loxodonta africana are imperiled by poaching and habitat loss. Despite global attention to the plight of elephants, their population sizes and trends are uncertain or unknown over much of Africa. To conserve this iconic species, conservationists need timely, accurate data on elephant populations. Here, we report the results of the Great Elephant Census (GEC, the first continent-wide, standardized survey of African savannah elephants. We also provide the first quantitative model of elephant population trends across Africa. We estimated a population of 352,271 savannah elephants on study sites in 18 countries, representing approximately 93% of all savannah elephants in those countries. Elephant populations in survey areas with historical data decreased by an estimated 144,000 from 2007 to 2014, and populations are currently shrinking by 8% per year continent-wide, primarily due to poaching. Though 84% of elephants occurred in protected areas, many protected areas had carcass ratios that indicated high levels of elephant mortality. Results of the GEC show the necessity of action to end the African elephants’ downward trajectory by preventing poaching and protecting habitat.

  19. Continent-wide survey reveals massive decline in African savannah elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Michael J; Schlossberg, Scott; Griffin, Curtice R; Bouché, Philippe J C; Djene, Sintayehu W; Elkan, Paul W; Ferreira, Sam; Grossman, Falk; Kohi, Edward Mtarima; Landen, Kelly; Omondi, Patrick; Peltier, Alexis; Selier, S A Jeanetta; Sutcliffe, Robert

    2016-01-01

    African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are imperiled by poaching and habitat loss. Despite global attention to the plight of elephants, their population sizes and trends are uncertain or unknown over much of Africa. To conserve this iconic species, conservationists need timely, accurate data on elephant populations. Here, we report the results of the Great Elephant Census (GEC), the first continent-wide, standardized survey of African savannah elephants. We also provide the first quantitative model of elephant population trends across Africa. We estimated a population of 352,271 savannah elephants on study sites in 18 countries, representing approximately 93% of all savannah elephants in those countries. Elephant populations in survey areas with historical data decreased by an estimated 144,000 from 2007 to 2014, and populations are currently shrinking by 8% per year continent-wide, primarily due to poaching. Though 84% of elephants occurred in protected areas, many protected areas had carcass ratios that indicated high levels of elephant mortality. Results of the GEC show the necessity of action to end the African elephants' downward trajectory by preventing poaching and protecting habitat.

  20. Precision Pointing for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope(WFIRST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric T.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Welter, Gary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission, scheduled for a mid-2020's launch, is currently in its definition phase. The mission is designed to investigate essential questions in the areas of dark energy, exoplanets, and infrared astrophysics. WFIRST will use a 2.4-meter primary telescope (same size as the Hubble Space Telescope's primary mirror) and two instruments: the Wide Field Instrument (WFI) and the Coronagraph Instrument (CGI). In order to address the critical science requirements, the WFIRST mission will conduct large-scale surveys of the infrared sky, requiring both agility and precision pointing (11.6 milli-arcsec stability, 14 milli-arcsec jitter). This paper describes some of the challenges this mission profile presents to the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) subsystem, and some of the design elements chosen to accommodate those challenges. The high-galactic-latitude survey is characterized by 3-minute observations separated by slews ranging from 0.025 deg to 0.8 deg. The need for observation efficiency drives the slew and settle process to be as rapid as possible. A description of the shaped slew profile chosen to minimize excitation of structural oscillation, and the handoff from star tracker-gyro control to fine guidance sensor control is detailed. Also presented is the fine guidance sensor (FGS), which is integral with the primary instrument (WFI). The FGS is capable of tracking up to 18 guide stars, enabling robust FGS acquisition and precision pointing. To avoid excitation of observatory structural jitter, reaction wheel speeds are operationally maintained within set limits. In addition, the wheel balance law is designed to maintain 1-Hz separation between the wheel speeds to avoid reinforcing jitter excitation at any particular frequency. The wheel balance law and operational implications are described. Finally, the candidate GNC hardware suite needed to meet the requirements of the mission is presented.

  1. Population stratification in the context of diverse epidemiologic surveys sans genome-wide data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Oetjens

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Population stratification or confounding by genetic ancestry is a potential cause of false associations in genetic association studies. Estimation of and adjustment for genetic ancestry has become common practice thanks in part to the availability of ancestry informative markers on genome-wide association study (GWAS arrays. While array data is now widespread, these data are not ubiquitous as several large epidemiologic and clinic-based studies lack genome-wide data. One such large epidemiologic-based study lacking genome-wide data accessible to investigators is the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, population-based cross-sectional surveys of Americans linked to demographic, health, and lifestyle data conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. DNA samples (n=14,998 were extracted from biospecimens from consented NHANES participants between 1991-1994 (NHANES III, phase 2 and 1999-2002 and represent three major self-identified racial/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic whites (n=6,634, non-Hispanic blacks (n=3,458, and Mexican Americans (n=3,950. We as the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE study genotyped candidate gene and GWAS-identified index variants in NHANES as part of the larger Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE I study for collaborative genetic association studies. To enable basic quality control such as estimation of genetic ancestry to control for population stratification in NHANES san genome-wide data, we outline here strategies that use limited genetic data to identify the markers optimal for characterizing genetic ancestry. From among 411 and 295 autosomal SNPs available in NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2002, we demonstrate that markers with ancestry information can be identified to estimate global ancestry. Despite limited resolution, global genetic ancestry is highly correlated with self-identified race for the majority of participants

  2. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey XV. The Formation Efficiencies of Globular Clusters in Early-Type Galaxies: The Effects of Mass and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Eric W.; Jordan, Andres; Cote, Patrick; Takamiya, Marianne; West, Michael J.; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei; Ferrarese, Laura; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L.; West, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    The fraction of stellar mass contained in globular clusters (GCs), also measured by number as the specific frequency, is a fundamental quantity that reflects both a galaxy's early star formation and its entire merging history. We present specific frequencies, luminosities, and mass fractions for the globular cluster systems of 100 early-type galaxies in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, the largest homogeneous catalog of its kind. We find that 1) GC mass fractions can be high in both giants and d...

  3. Can a clinical senate enhance state-wide clinician engagement? A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Julie A; Miller, Mary; Hutton, Marani

    2017-12-01

    Objective Clinician engagement correlates with quality, safety and efficacy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to explore whether a clinical senate model achieves clinical input into system manager and operational health service boards. Methods A mixed-methods survey was undertaken. Participants were current or immediate past members of the Clinical Senate of Western Australia (CS). For the 124 surveys sent out, the response rate was 60%. Results Respondents stated the CS played a role in clinician engagement (95%), contributed to healthcare reform (82%), knowledge of contemporary health issues (92%), feedback to decision makers (82%), clinician networking (94%), debate on important issues (93%), enabled clinicians to work on recommendations to improve health at a state level (87%), contributed to clinician thinking on health reform (88%) and enabled clinicians to share their knowledge (91%). Four major themes emerged in the qualitative analysis: (1) the need for a strong independent clinician forum and voice at a state level; (2) the need to strengthen clinician interactions with operational healthcare boards; (3) a strong belief that clinician engagement strengthened quality and safety outcomes at a state level; and (4) that membership was important and needed to be diverse, multidisciplinary and independent, but structurally representative of clinicians in the state. Conclusion A clinical senate model can facilitate state-wide clinician engagement. What is known about the topic? High levels of clinical engagement foster a culture within healthcare organisations that is associated with the delivery of sustained high-quality, safe and efficient services. This has led to a focus on strategies to optimise clinical engagement in healthcare planning and reform. However, there is limited data exploring how to achieve clinical engagement at a state, rather than local, level within the healthcare system. What does this paper add? This survey study evaluates the

  4. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure: a nation-wide survey among Danish doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, H

    1997-01-01

    ). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish...... doctors. Non-compliance with UP was associated with an increased risk of exposure and efforts to improve compliance with UP as well as implementation and evaluation of other preventive measures are needed.......Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6...

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MUSE-Wide survey: 831 emission line galaxies (Herenz+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herenz, E. C.; Urrutia, T.; Wisotzki, L.; Kerutt, J.; Saust, R.; Werhahn, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Caruana, J.; Diener, C.; Bacon, R.; Brinchman, J.; Schaye, J.; Maseda, M.; Weilbacher, P. M.

    2017-05-01

    This data release consists of an emission line galaxy catalogue containing 831 emission line galaxies detected in the first period of observations of the MUSE-Wide survey. We also release 1D PSF-weighted extracted spectra and 3D datacubes for each of those 831 sources. The emission line galaxy catalogue consists of two tables: A catalogue of all 831 detected emission line objects and a table of all 1652 detected emission lines in those objects. These tables are described in detail in Sect. 4.1 and 4.2 of the paper. Both tables are in the FITS binary table format, adhering to the FITS standard described in Pence et al. (2010A&A...524A..42P). (8 data files).

  6. San Pedro meeting on Wide Field Variability Surveys: Some concluding comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feast Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a written version of the closing talk at the 22nd Los Alamos Stellar pulsation conference on wide field variability surveys. It comments on some of the issues which arise from the meeting. These include the need for attention to photometric standardization (especially in the infrared and the somewhat controversial problem of statistical bias in the use of parallaxes (and other methods of distance determination. Some major advances in the use of pulsating variables to study Galactic structure are mentioned. The paper includes a clarification of apparently conflicting results from classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars in the inner Galaxy and bulge. The importance of understanding non-periodic phenomena in variable stars, particularly asymptotic giant branch variables and R Coronae Borealis stars, is stressed, especially for its relevance to mass-loss in which pulsation may only play a minor role.

  7. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rebull, L. M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), California Institute of Technology, M/S 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 169-530, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  8. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  9. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mchitarjan

    Full Text Available A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right.

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  11. Updated MDRIZTAB Parameters for ACS/WFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, S. L.; Avila, R. J.

    2017-03-01

    The Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) pipeline performs geometric distortion corrections, associated image combinations, and cosmic ray rejections with AstroDrizzle. The MDRIZTAB reference table contains a list of relevant parameters that controls this program. This document details our photometric analysis of Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel (ACS/WFC) data processed by AstroDrizzle. Based on this analysis, we update the MDRIZTAB table to improve the quality of the drizzled products delivered by MAST.

  12. A genome-wide association study in the Japanese population identifies susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes at UBE2E2 and C2CD4A-C2CD4B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Hara, Kazuo; Maeda, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    associations in UBE2E2 on chromosome 3 and in C2CD4A-C2CD4B on chromosome 15 at genome-wide significant levels (rs7612463 in UBE2E2, combined P = 2.27 × 10¿¿; rs7172432 in C2CD4A-C2CD4B, combined P = 3.66 × 10¿¿). The association of these two loci with T2D was replicated in other east Asian populations....... In the European populations, the C2CD4A-C2CD4B locus was significantly associated with T2D, and a combined analysis of all populations gave P = 8.78 × 10¿¹4, whereas the UBE2E2 locus did not show association to T2D. In conclusion, we identified two new loci at UBE2E2 and C2CD4A-C2CD4B associated...

  13. The MUSE-Wide survey: A first catalogue of 831 emission line galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herenz, Edmund Christian; Urrutia, Tanya; Wisotzki, Lutz; Kerutt, Josephine; Saust, Rikke; Werhahn, Maria; Schmidt, Kasper Borello; Caruana, Joseph; Diener, Catrina; Bacon, Roland; Brinchmann, Jarle; Schaye, Joop; Maseda, Michael; Weilbacher, Peter M.

    2017-09-01

    We present a first instalment of the MUSE-Wide survey, covering an area of 22.2 arcmin2 (corresponding to 20% of the final survey) in the CANDELS/Deep area of the Chandra Deep Field South. We use the MUSE integral field spectrograph at the ESO VLT to conduct a full-area spectroscopic mapping at a depth of 1 h exposure time per 1 arcmin2 pointing. We searched for compact emission line objects using our newly developed LSDCat software based on a 3D matched filtering approach, followed by interactive classification and redshift measurement of the sources. Our catalogue contains 831 distinct emission line galaxies with redshifts ranging from 0.04 to 6. Roughly one third (237) of the emission line sources are Lyman α emitting galaxies with 3 line (0.3 ≲ z ≲ 1.5), 189 by their [O III] line (0.21 ≲ z ≲ 0.85), and 46 by their Hα line (0.04 ≲ z ≲ 0.42). Comparing our spectroscopic redshifts to photometric redshift estimates from the literature, we find excellent agreement for z 3. Together with the catalogue we also release 1D PSF-weighted extracted spectra and small 3D datacubes centred on each of the 831 sources. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 094.A-0205.Data products are available via http://muse-vlt.eu/science/ and at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A12 .

  14. Modeling 237 Lyman-α spectra of the MUSE-Wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronke, Max

    2017-12-01

    We compare 237 Lyman-α (Lyα) spectra of the MUSE-Wide survey to a suite of radiative transfer simulations consisting of a central luminous source within a concentric, moving shell of neutral gas, and dust. This six parameter shell-model has been used numerously in previous studies, however, on significantly smaller data-sets. We find that the shell-model can reproduce the observed spectral shape very well - better than the also common "Gaussian-minus-Gaussian" model which we also fitted to the dataset. Specifically, we find that 94% of the fits possess a goodness-of-fit value of p(χ2) > 0.1. The large number of spectra allows us to robustly characterize the shell-model parameter range, and consequently, the spectral shapes typical for realistic spectra. We find that the vast majority of the Lyα spectral shapes require an outflow and only 5% are well-fitted through an inflowing shell. In addition, we find 46% of the spectra to be consistent with a neutral hydrogen column density http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/608/A139

  15. Surgical management of acute cholecystitis. Results of a nation-wide survey among Spanish surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Josep M; Nve, Esther; Jimeno, Jaime; Guirao, Xavier; Figueras, Joan; Arias-Díaz, Javier

    2014-10-01

    There is a wide variability in the management of acute cholecystitis. A survey among the members of the Spanish Association of Surgeons (AEC) analyzed the preferences of Spanish surgeons for its surgical management. The majority of the 771 responders didn't declare any subspecialty (41.6%), 21% were HPB surgeons, followed by colorectal and upper-GI specialities. Early cholecystectomy during the first admission is the preferred method of management of 92.3% of surgeons, but only 42.7% succeed in adopting this practice. The most frequent reasons for changing their preferred practice were: Patients not fit for surgery (43.6%) and lack of availability of emergency operating room (35.2%). A total of 88.9% perform surgery laparoscopically. The majority of AEC surgeons advise index admission cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, although only half of them succeed in its actual implementation. There is room for improvement in the management of acute cholecystitis in Spanish hospitals. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. FAINT TIDAL FEATURES IN GALAXIES WITHIN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY WIDE FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, Adam M.; Abraham, Roberto G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-01

    We present an analysis of the detectability of faint tidal features in galaxies from the wide-field component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. Our sample consists of 1781 luminous (M{sub r{sup '}}<-19.3 mag) galaxies in the magnitude range 15.5 mag < r' < 17 mag and in the redshift range 0.04 < z < 0.2. Although we have classified tidal features according to their morphology (e.g., streams, shells, and tails), we do not attempt to interpret them in terms of their physical origin (e.g., major versus minor merger debris). Instead, we provide a catalog that is intended to provide raw material for future investigations which will probe the nature of low surface brightness substructure around galaxies. We find that around 12% of the galaxies in our sample show clear tidal features at the highest confidence level. This fraction rises to about 18% if we include systems with convincing, albeit weaker tidal features, and to 26% if we include systems with more marginal features that may or may not be tidal in origin. These proportions are a strong function of rest-frame color and of stellar mass. Linear features, shells, and fans are much more likely to occur in massive galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10.5} M {sub Sun }, and red galaxies are twice as likely to show tidal features than are blue galaxies.

  17. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure: a nation-wide survey among Danish doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, H

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6.......6-3.1 PCE/pry and 6.0-6.9 MCE/pry). Finally Pathology, Internal medicine, Radiology and Paediatrics had a considerable risk (0.8-1.3 PCE/pry and 1.3-2.9 MCE/pry). Potential risk factors were examined by Poisson regression. Employment as senior as compared to junior doctor was associated with a higher risk...... of PCE (RR 2.2) and MCE (RR up to 2.7 depending on experience) among surgeons and an increased risk of PCE in anaesthetists (RR 1.7). In contrast, senior physicians in Internal medicine, Radiology and Paediatrics had a several fold lower risk of PCE (RR 0.6) and MCE (RR 0.6 in males, 0.3 in females...

  18. Deep wide-field near-infrared survey of the Carina Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Kuderna, B.; Ohlendorf, H.; King, R. R.; Hodgkin, S.; Irwin, M.; Lewis, J. R.; McCaughrean, M. J.; Zinnecker, H.

    2011-06-01

    Context. The Great Nebula in Carina is a giant H ii region and a superb location in which to study the physics of violent massive star formation, but the population of the young low-mass stars remained very poorly studied until recently. Aims: Our aim was to produce a near-infrared survey that is deep enough to detect the full low-mass stellar population (i.e. down to ≈0.1 M⊙ and for extinctions up to AV ≈ 15 mag) and wide enough to cover all important parts of the Carina Nebula complex (CNC), including the clusters Tr 14, 15, and 16 as well as the South Pillars region. Methods: We used HAWK-I at the ESO VLT to survey the central ≈0.36 deg2 area of the Carina Nebula. These data reveal more than 600 000 individual infrared sources down to magnitudes as faint as J ≈ 23, H ≈ 22, and Ks ≈ 21. The results of a recent deep X-ray survey (which is complete down to stellar masses of ~0.5-1 M⊙) are used to distinguish between young stars in Carina and background contaminants. We analyze color - magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to derive information about the ages and masses of the low-mass stars. Results: The ages of the low-mass stars agree with previous age estimates for the massive stars. The CMD suggests that ≈3200 of the X-ray selected stars have masses of M∗ ≥ 1 M⊙; this number is in good agreement with extrapolations of the field IMF based on the number of high-mass (M∗ ≥ 20 M⊙) stars and shows that there is no deficit of low-mass stars in the CNC. The HAWK-I images confirm that about 50% of all young stars in Carina are in a widely distributed, non-clustered spatial configuration. Narrow-band images reveal six molecular hydrogen emission objects (MHOs) that trace jets from embedded protostars. However, none of the optical HH objects shows molecular hydrogen emission, suggesting that the jet-driving protostars are located very close to the edges of the globules in which they are embedded. Conclusions: The near-infrared excess fractions for the

  19. Genome-Wide Survey of Genes Under Positive Selection in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Thaís Cabrera Galvão; Lobo, Francisco Pereira; Hongo, Jorge Augusto; Vicentini, Renato; Verma, Renu; Maluta, Renato Pariz; da Silveira, Wanderley Dias

    2017-05-01

    The ability to obtain bacterial genomes from the same host has allowed for comparative studies that help in the understanding of the molecular evolution of specific pathotypes. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a group of extraintestinal strains responsible for causing colibacillosis in birds. APEC is also suggested to possess a role as a zoonotic agent. Despite its importance, APEC pathogenesis still has several cryptic pathogenic processes that need to be better understood. In this work, a genome-wide survey of eight APEC strains for genes with evidence of recombination revealed that ∼14% of the homologous groups evaluated present signs of recombination. Enrichment analyses revealed that nine Gene Ontology (GO) terms were significantly more represented in recombinant genes. Among these GO terms, several were noted to be ATP-related categories. The search for positive selection in these APEC genomes revealed 32 groups of homologous genes with evidence of positive selection. Among these groups, we found several related to cell metabolism, as well as several uncharacterized genes, beyond the well-known virulence factors ompC, lamB, waaW, waaL, and fliC. A GO term enrichment test showed a prevalence of terms related to bacterial cell contact with the external environment (e.g., viral entry into host cell, detection of virus, pore complex, bacterial-type flagellum filament C, and porin activity). Finally, the genes with evidence of positive selection were retrieved from genomes of non-APEC strains and tested as were done for APEC strains. The result revealed that none of the groups of genes presented evidence of positive selection, confirming that the analysis was effective in inferring positive selection for APEC and not for E. coli in general, which means that the study of the genes with evidence of positive selection identified in this study can contribute for the better understanding of APEC pathogenesis processes.

  20. Performance Improvement of Near Earth Space Survey (NESS Wide-Field Telescope (NESS-2 Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yeol Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We modified the optical system of 500 mm wide-field telescope of which point spread function showed an irregularity. The telescope has been operated for Near Earth Space Survey (NESS located at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO in Australia, and the optical system was brought back to Korea in January 2008. After performing a numerical simulation with the tested value of surface figure error of the primary mirror using optical design program, we found that the surface figure error of the mirror should be fabricated less than root mean square (RMS λ/10 in order to obtain a stellar full width at half maximum (FWHM below 28 μm. However, we started to figure the mirror for the target value of RMS λ/20, because system surface figure error would be increased by the error induced by the optical axis adjustment, mirror cell installation, and others. The radius of curvature of the primary mirror was 1,946 mm after the correction. Its measured surface figure error was less than RMS λ/20 on the table of polishing machine, and RMS λ/15 after installation in the primary mirror cell. A test observation performed at Daeduk Observatory at Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute by utilizing the exiting mount, and resulted in 39.8 μm of stellar FWHM. It was larger than the value from numerical simulation, and showed wing-shaped stellar image. It turned out that the measured-curvature of the secondary mirror, 1,820 mm, was not the same as the designed one, 1,795.977 mm. We fabricated the secondary mirror to the designed value, and finally obtained a stellar FWHM of 27 μm after re-installation of the optical system into SSO NESS Observatory in Australia.

  1. Wide variation in organisation and clinical practice of paediatric intestinal failure teams: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelis, Esther; de Koning, Barbara; van Winckel, Myriam; Tabbers, Merit; Hill, Susan; Hulst, Jessie

    2017-11-22

    We aimed to assess the current organisation and clinical practice of teams treating children with intestinal failure (IF) across Europe and compare the results with the current guideline. A two-part online survey was sent to all the major European specialist IF services. The first part concerned general information about the team and patients monitored. The second part concerned important care topics such as vascular access and monitoring of complications. No patient identifiers were collected. Seventy-three respondents completed the first part, representing 61 teams in 20 countries. The median number of children on parenteral nutrition (PN) at home per team was 15 (range 1-125). Teams consisted of the following members: paediatric gastroenterologist (present in 100% of the teams), dietitian (95%), specialist nurse (92%), paediatric surgeon (89%), pharmacist (82%), psychologist (66%), social worker (62%), speech therapist (48%), physiotherapist (38%), general paediatrician (33%). The second part was completed by 67/73 respondents (59/61 teams). Vascular access care was comparable with the guideline. Somatostatin analogues were prescribed by 14% of the IF teams and probiotics by 44% of the teams. Prophylactic anticoagulation was used by 46% of the teams. In 81% of the teams a multicomponent lipid emulsion containing fish oil was routinely used. Bone densitometry was regularly performed in 75% of teams, but never performed in 19%. In conclusion, there is a wide diversity of composition of IF teams and their number of patients treated. Overall, there is good compliance to the current guideline. Clinical practice that varied most was the standard use of medication such as probiotics and somatostatin analogues, and standard monitoring of long-term complications. Experience regarding specific treatment options should be shared. Moreover, international agreement on standards of care with focus on implementation of the guideline is needed to optimise care and improve

  2. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Survey Boundaries, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_survey_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector polygons representing survey boundaries for the various data collection efforts used as sources in the larger Louisiana G-WIS database....

  3. Simulation of a wide area survey for NEOs with Pan-STARRS PS1 & PS2 Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.; Lilly (Schunova), Eva; Dukes, Martin Todd; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    We have performed a new survey simulation for a wide area survey with PS1 & PS2 as part of our quest to optimize the discovery rate of Near Earth Objects with the full Pan-STARRS system. The survey is intended to be as unbiased and as complete as possible given the available sky visibility and the anticipated performance of the PS1 and PS2 telescopes working together. The simulation includes a complete model of both telescopes, camera and slew overhead, sky visibility, moon phase, galactic plane exclusion, and weather. The performance of the resulting survey strategy is then evaluated using the method of Lilly et. al. 2017. This uses the Greenstreet et al. 2012 model with 50 million NEOs with absolute magnitudes 13 < H < 29 and the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS, Denneau et al. 2013) for linkages. The results are compared with other possible strategies.

  4. The Galactic Plane Exoplanet Survey (GPX) - an Amateur Designed Transiting Exoplanet Wide-Field Search (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benni, P.

    2017-06-01

    (Abstract only) GPX is designed to search high density star fields where other surveys, such as WASP, HATNet, XO, and KELT would find challenging due to blending of transit like events. Using readily available amateur equipment, a survey telescope (Celestron RASA, 279 mm f/2.2, based in Acton, Massachusetts) was configured first with a SBIG ST-8300M camera then later upgraded to an FLI ML16200 camera and tested under different sampling scenarios with multiple image fields to obtain a 9- to 11-minute cadence per field. The resultant image resolution of GPX is about 2 arcsec/pixel compared to 13.7±23 arcsec/pixel of the aforementioned surveys and the future TESS space telescope exoplanet survey.

  5. SkICAT: A cataloging and analysis tool for wide field imaging surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, N.; Fayyad, U. M.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Roden, J.

    1992-01-01

    We describe an integrated system, SkICAT (Sky Image Cataloging and Analysis Tool), for the automated reduction and analysis of the Palomar Observatory-ST ScI Digitized Sky Survey. The Survey will consist of the complete digitization of the photographic Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS-II) in three bands, comprising nearly three Terabytes of pixel data. SkICAT applies a combination of existing packages, including FOCAS for basic image detection and measurement and SAS for database management, as well as custom software, to the task of managing this wealth of data. One of the most novel aspects of the system is its method of object classification. Using state-of-theart machine learning classification techniques (GID3* and O-BTree), we have developed a powerful method for automatically distinguishing point sources from non-point sources and artifacts, achieving comparably accurate discrimination a full magnitude fainter than in previous Schmidt plate surveys. The learning algorithms produce decision trees for classification by examining instances of objects classified by eye on both plate and higher quality CCD data. The same techniques will be applied to perform higher-level object classification (e.g., of galaxy morphology) in the near future. Another key feature of the system is the facility to integrate the catalogs from multiple plates (and portions thereof) to construct a single catalog of uniform calibration and quality down to the faintest limits of the survey. SkICAT also provides a variety of data analysis and exploration tools for the scientific utilization of the resulting catalogs. We include initial results of applying this system to measure the counts and distribution of galaxies in two bands down to Bj is approximately 21 mag over an approximate 70 square degree multi-plate field from POSS-II. SkICAT is constructed in a modular and general fashion and should be readily adaptable to other large-scale imaging surveys.

  6. Genome-Wide Gene/Genome Dosage Imbalance Regulates Gene Expressions in Synthetic Brassica napus and Derivatives (AC, AAC, CCA, CCAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chen; Pan, Qi; Cui, Cheng; Xiang, Yi; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    Gene/genome dosage balance is an essential evolutionary mechanism for organisms to ensure a normal function, but the underlying causes of dosage-imbalance regulation remain poorly understood. Herein, the serial Brassica hybrids/polyploids (AC, AAC, CCA, CCAA) with different copies of A and C subgenomes from the same two parents of Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea were synthesized to investigate the effects of genome dosages on gene expressions and interactions by using RNA-Seq. The expression changes of A- and C-subgenome genes were consistent with dosage alterations. Dosage-dependent and -independent genes were grouped according to the correlations between dosage variations and gene expressions. Expression levels of dosage-dependent genes were strongly correlated with dosage changes and mainly contributed to dosage effects, while those of dosage-independent genes gave weak correlations with dosage variations and mostly facilitated dosage compensation. More protein-protein interactions were detected for dosage-independent genes than dosage-dependent ones, as predicted by the dosage balance hypothesis. Dosage-dependent genes more likely impacted the expressions by trans effects, whereas dosage-independent genes preferred to play by cis effects. Furthermore, dosage-dependent genes were mainly associated with the basic biological processes to maintain the stability of the growth and development, while dosage-independent genes were more enriched in the stress response related processes to accelerate adaptation. The present comprehensive analysis of gene expression dependent/independent on dosage alterations in Brassica polyploids provided new insights into gene/genome dosage-imbalance regulation of gene expressions.

  7. Genome-wide transcription survey on flavour production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoondermark-Stolk, Sung A.; Jansen, Michael; Verkleij, Arie J.; Verrips, C. Theo; Euverink, Gert-Jan W.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Boonstra, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as aroma producer in the preparation of fermented foods and beverages. During food fermentations, secondary metabolites like 3-methyl-1-butanol, 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate and 3-methylbutyrate emerge. These four compounds have

  8. The sloan lens acs survey. II. Stellar populations and internal structure of early-type lens galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Koopmans, Léon V.; Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    We use HST images to derive effective radii and effective surface brightnesses of 15 early-type (E+S0) lens galaxies identified by the SLACS Survey. Our measurements are combined with stellar velocity dispersions from the SDSS database to investigate for the first time the distribution of lens

  9. Collecting Genetic Samples in Population Wide (Panel) Surveys: Feasibility, Nonresponse and Selectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Schonlau; Martin Reuter; Juergen Schupp; Christian Montag; Bernd Weber; Thomas Dohmen; Nico A. Siegel; Uwe Sunde; Wagner, Gert G.; Armin Falk

    2010-01-01

    "Collecting biomarkers as part of general purpose surveys offers scientists - and social scientists in particular - the ability to study biosocial phenomena, e.g. the relation between genes and human behavior. The authors explore the feasibility of collecting buccal cells for genetic analyses with normal interviewers as part of a pretest for the German Socio-economic Panel Study (SOEP) using a probability sample. They introduce a new non-invasive technique for collecting cell material for gen...

  10. A Genome-Wide Survey of Transgenerational Genetic Effects in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Lauren; Tsang, KM; Croen, LA; Torres, AR; Kharrazi, M.; Delorenze, GN; Windham, GC; Yoshida, CK; Zerbo, O

    2013-01-01

    Effects of parental genotype or parent-offspring genetic interaction are well established in model organisms for a variety of traits. However, these transgenerational genetic models are rarely studied in humans. We have utilized an autism case-control study with 735 mother-child pairs to perform genome-wide screening for maternal genetic effects and maternal-offspring genetic interaction. We used simple models of single locus parent-child interaction and identified suggestive results (P

  11. Measuring galaxy [O ii] emission line doublet with future ground-based wide-field spectroscopic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Bacon, Roland; Mostek, Nick J.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Schlegel, David J.; Yèche, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of wide-field spectroscopic redshift surveys will map the large-scale galaxy distribution in the redshift range 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 2 to measure baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). The primary optical signature used in this redshift range comes from the [Oii] emission line doublet, which provides a unique redshift identification that can minimize confusion with other single emission lines. To derive the required spectrograph resolution for these redshift surveys, we simulate observations of the [Oii] (λλ 3727, 3729) doublet for various instrument resolutions, and line velocities. We foresee two strategies for the choice of the resolution for future spectrographs for BAO surveys. For bright [Oii] emitter surveys ([Oii] flux ~30 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 like SDSS-IV/eBOSS), a resolution of R ~ 3300 allows the separation of 90 percent of the doublets. The impact of the sky lines on the completeness in redshift is less than 6 percent. For faint [Oii] emitter surveys ([Oii] flux ~10 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 like DESi), the detection improves continuously with resolution, so we recommend the highest possible resolution, the limit being given by the number of pixels (4k by 4k) on the detector and the number of spectroscopic channels (2 or 3).

  12. Physiotherapy for plantar fasciitis: a UK-wide survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Rob; Palmer, Shea

    2017-06-01

    To identify how United Kingdom (UK) physiotherapists currently diagnose, assess and manage plantar fasciitis in routine practice. Online questionnaire survey. Practising physiotherapists across the UK who treat patients with plantar fasciitis. Physiotherapists were approached via 'interactive Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (CSP)' online networks and an email database of clinical educators in South West England. An online questionnaire was developed by reviewing similar existing physiotherapy surveys and consultation with experienced musculoskeletal researchers/clinicians. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. 285 physiotherapists responded, with 257 complete survey responses. Pain on palpation and early morning pain were the most common diagnostic criteria, with some physiotherapists using no formal test criteria. Advice (237/257, 92%), plantar fasciitis pathology education (207/257, 81%) and general stretching exercises (189/257, 74%) were most routinely used. Prefabricated orthotics, custom made orthotics and night splints were seldom always used. For the manual therapy approach, the most frequently used modalities were massage, myofascial release, specific soft tissue mobilisations and myofascial trigger point therapy. Commonly used outcome measures were pain assessment, functional tests and range of movement. Physiotherapists appeared to follow most of the established diagnostic criteria for PF, but have not followed established outcome measure guidelines. Advice as well as education with an emphasis on self-management including calf/hamstring stretching was the most commonly reported treatment approach. There was uncertainty whether this approach accurately reflected clinical practice used throughout the UK, owing to potential response bias/unknown response rate and the low number of patients with PF treated by the respondents. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 1997: Statistical Tables for Officers and Enlisted Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    to take part in this survey. " Your participation is voluntary. Please take the time to give careful , frank " answers. It should take about forty...0 Filipino - )Pacific islander (Guamanian, Samoan, etc) 10. Did you receive premarital counseling? -0 Eskiman/Aleut 0None of the above N -11. If yes...schedule 0 0 0 0 00 (2 O 01 I I Availability of health care 1&I0 0Q 1 and education services for l l®!@ ; - special needs C 0 0 0 0 (!0’ (D1 0 - m

  14. Genome-wide survey of recurrent HBV integration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sung, Wing-Kin; Zheng, Hancheng; Li, Shuyu

    2012-01-01

    gene are located. We also identified recurrent HBV integration events (in ≥ 4 HCCs) that were validated by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and Sanger sequencing at the known and putative cancer-related TERT, MLL4 and CCNE1 genes, which showed upregulated gene expression in tumor versus normal tissue. We also......To survey hepatitis B virus (HBV) integration in liver cancer genomes, we conducted massively parallel sequencing of 81 HBV-positive and 7 HBV-negative hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and adjacent normal tissues. We found that HBV integration is observed more frequently in the tumors (86.4%) than...

  15. Nepalese Homebrewed Alcoholic Beverages: Types, Ingredients, and Ethanol Concentration from a Nation Wide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, N; Aryal, K K; Paudel, M; Puri, R; Thapa, P; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, S; Stray-Pedersen, B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the enormous public health problems related to traditional alcohol consumption practice in Nepal, this area has been ignored and the information at the national level is limited. Thus this study is designed to explore the readily available commonly practiced Nepalese homebrewed alcoholic beverages, the ingredients used and alcohol strength (ethanol concentration). This study was carried out as a part of ongoing household survey on "Alcohol consumption practice among married women of reproductive age in Nepal". A total of 284 homebrewed alcoholic beverage (distilled 175, non-distilled:109) samples were collected from the 16 survey districts of Nepal during the period of April to August, 2013. Ethanol percentage was tested in research lab by using standard procedure. Readily available homebrewed alcoholic beverages in practice were mainly of two types "Distilled" (local Raksi) and "Non-distilled" (Jand, Chhyang, Tumba). Rice, wheat, barley, millet, maize, fruits, and pure sugar were the commonly used ingredients to prepare alcohol. Ethanol concentration in homebrewed alcohol was 14.0% (IQR: 10.0-19.0) ranging from 3% to 40% for distilled, and 5.2% (IQR: 3.5-9.8) ranging from 1% to 18.9% for nondistilled. A significant difference (Pbeverages in Nepal was more than the strength of factory produced beer. The alcohol strength varies across their types, ingredients used, residence and regions.

  16. Availability of services for parents living with mental disorders: a province-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Turan, Chelsea

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that parents living with mental disorders have limited access to parenting support. We conducted a survey of mental health agencies in Ontario, Canada, to establish a benchmark from which progress in service availability can be evaluated, and to identify any barriers to availability in terms of program location and parent gender. We surveyed 119 directors of community and inpatient mental health service agencies (54% response rate) and directors of 80 different agencies to which they referred clients for parenting support services (56% response rate). Respondents indicated the types of parenting support services they provided and the clientele they served. The most common parenting support service in mental health agencies was referral to another agency. Individuals with mental disorders were eligible for services at the referral agencies on a case-by-case basis, and few agencies had programs for children. Parenting services were associated with the number of staff in the agency and with offering programs in urban or both urban and rural locations, which perhaps also indicates larger size of the organization. Agencies served fathers and mothers approximately equally, but child care was uncommon. Integrated clinical services for parents living with mental disorders are lacking. Such services should be designed to treat mental health as well as provide parenting skills intervention and practical support for parents, consistent with a recovery model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A Genome-Wide Survey of Date Palm Cultivars Supports Two Major Subpopulations in Phoenix dactylifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lisa S; Seidel, Michael A; George, Binu; Mathew, Sweety; Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Torres, Maria F; Al-Dous, Eman K; Al-Azwani, Eman K; Diboun, Ilhem; Krueger, Robert R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Suhre, Karsten; Malek, Joel A

    2015-05-08

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is intimately tied to the history of human civilization. There are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors, and sizes growing mainly in arid lands from the west of North Africa to India. The origin of date palm domestication is still uncertain, and few studies have attempted to document genetic diversity across multiple regions. We conducted genotyping-by-sequencing on 70 female cultivar samples from across the date palm-growing regions, including four Phoenix species as the outgroup. Here, for the first time, we generate genome-wide genotyping data for 13,000-65,000 SNPs in a diverse set of date palm fruit and leaf samples. Our analysis provides the first genome-wide evidence confirming recent findings that the date palm cultivars segregate into two main regions of shared genetic background from North Africa and the Arabian Gulf. We identify genomic regions with high densities of geographically segregating SNPs and also observe higher levels of allele fixation on the recently described X-chromosome than on the autosomes. Our results fit a model with two centers of earliest cultivation including date palms autochthonous to North Africa. These results adjust our understanding of human agriculture history and will provide the foundation for more directed functional studies and a better understanding of genetic diversity in date palm. Copyright © 2015 Mathew et al.

  18. A genome-wide survey of transgenerational genetic effects in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Tsang

    Full Text Available Effects of parental genotype or parent-offspring genetic interaction are well established in model organisms for a variety of traits. However, these transgenerational genetic models are rarely studied in humans. We have utilized an autism case-control study with 735 mother-child pairs to perform genome-wide screening for maternal genetic effects and maternal-offspring genetic interaction. We used simple models of single locus parent-child interaction and identified suggestive results (P<10(-4 that cannot be explained by main effects, but no genome-wide significant signals. Some of these maternal and maternal-child associations were in or adjacent to autism candidate genes including: PCDH9, FOXP1, GABRB3, NRXN1, RELN, MACROD2, FHIT, RORA, CNTN4, CNTNAP2, FAM135B, LAMA1, NFIA, NLGN4X, RAPGEF4, and SDK1. We attempted validation of potential autism association under maternal-specific models using maternal-paternal comparison in family-based GWAS datasets. Our results suggest that further study of parental genetic effects and parent-child interaction in autism is warranted.

  19. A genome-wide survey of transgenerational genetic effects in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kathryn M; Croen, Lisa A; Torres, Anthony R; Kharrazi, Martin; Delorenze, Gerald N; Windham, Gayle C; Yoshida, Cathleen K; Zerbo, Ousseny; Weiss, Lauren A

    2013-01-01

    Effects of parental genotype or parent-offspring genetic interaction are well established in model organisms for a variety of traits. However, these transgenerational genetic models are rarely studied in humans. We have utilized an autism case-control study with 735 mother-child pairs to perform genome-wide screening for maternal genetic effects and maternal-offspring genetic interaction. We used simple models of single locus parent-child interaction and identified suggestive results (Peffects, but no genome-wide significant signals. Some of these maternal and maternal-child associations were in or adjacent to autism candidate genes including: PCDH9, FOXP1, GABRB3, NRXN1, RELN, MACROD2, FHIT, RORA, CNTN4, CNTNAP2, FAM135B, LAMA1, NFIA, NLGN4X, RAPGEF4, and SDK1. We attempted validation of potential autism association under maternal-specific models using maternal-paternal comparison in family-based GWAS datasets. Our results suggest that further study of parental genetic effects and parent-child interaction in autism is warranted.

  20. A genome wide survey of SNP variation reveals the genetic structure of sheep breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Kijas

    Full Text Available The genetic structure of sheep reflects their domestication and subsequent formation into discrete breeds. Understanding genetic structure is essential for achieving genetic improvement through genome-wide association studies, genomic selection and the dissection of quantitative traits. After identifying the first genome-wide set of SNP for sheep, we report on levels of genetic variability both within and between a diverse sample of ovine populations. Then, using cluster analysis and the partitioning of genetic variation, we demonstrate sheep are characterised by weak phylogeographic structure, overlapping genetic similarity and generally low differentiation which is consistent with their short evolutionary history. The degree of population substructure was, however, sufficient to cluster individuals based on geographic origin and known breed history. Specifically, African and Asian populations clustered separately from breeds of European origin sampled from Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America. Furthermore, we demonstrate the presence of stratification within some, but not all, ovine breeds. The results emphasize that careful documentation of genetic structure will be an essential prerequisite when mapping the genetic basis of complex traits. Furthermore, the identification of a subset of SNP able to assign individuals into broad groupings demonstrates even a small panel of markers may be suitable for applications such as traceability.

  1. A genome wide survey of SNP variation reveals the genetic structure of sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijas, James W; Townley, David; Dalrymple, Brian P; Heaton, Michael P; Maddox, Jillian F; McGrath, Annette; Wilson, Peter; Ingersoll, Roxann G; McCulloch, Russell; McWilliam, Sean; Tang, Dave; McEwan, John; Cockett, Noelle; Oddy, V Hutton; Nicholas, Frank W; Raadsma, Herman

    2009-01-01

    The genetic structure of sheep reflects their domestication and subsequent formation into discrete breeds. Understanding genetic structure is essential for achieving genetic improvement through genome-wide association studies, genomic selection and the dissection of quantitative traits. After identifying the first genome-wide set of SNP for sheep, we report on levels of genetic variability both within and between a diverse sample of ovine populations. Then, using cluster analysis and the partitioning of genetic variation, we demonstrate sheep are characterised by weak phylogeographic structure, overlapping genetic similarity and generally low differentiation which is consistent with their short evolutionary history. The degree of population substructure was, however, sufficient to cluster individuals based on geographic origin and known breed history. Specifically, African and Asian populations clustered separately from breeds of European origin sampled from Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America. Furthermore, we demonstrate the presence of stratification within some, but not all, ovine breeds. The results emphasize that careful documentation of genetic structure will be an essential prerequisite when mapping the genetic basis of complex traits. Furthermore, the identification of a subset of SNP able to assign individuals into broad groupings demonstrates even a small panel of markers may be suitable for applications such as traceability.

  2. The SLUGGS survey: wide-field stellar kinematics of early-type galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Jacob A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Foster, Caroline, E-mail: romanow@ucolick.org [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2014-08-20

    We present stellar kinematics of 22 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), based on two-dimensional (2D) absorption line stellar spectroscopy out to ∼2-4 R {sub e} (effective radii), as part of the ongoing SLUGGS Survey. The galaxies span a factor of 20 in intrinsic luminosity, as well as a full range of environment and ETG morphology. Our data consist of good velocity resolution (σ{sub inst} ∼ 25 km s{sup –1}) integrated stellar-light spectra extracted from the individual slitlets of custom made Keck/DEIMOS slitmasks. We extract stellar kinematics measurements (V, σ, h {sub 3}, and h {sub 4}) for each galaxy. Combining with literature values from smaller radii, we present 2D spatially resolved maps of the large-scale kinematic structure in each galaxy. We find that the kinematic homogeneity found inside 1 R {sub e} often breaks down at larger radii, where a variety of kinematic behaviors are observed. While central slow rotators remain slowly rotating in their halos, central fast rotators show more diversity, ranging from rapidly increasing to rapidly declining specific angular momentum profiles in the outer regions. There are indications that the outer trends depend on morphological type, raising questions about the proposed unification of the elliptical and lenticular (S0) galaxy families in the ATLAS{sup 3D} survey. Several galaxies in our sample show multiple lines of evidence for distinct disk components embedded in more slowly rotating spheroids, and we suggest a joint photometric-kinematic approach for robust bulge-disk decomposition. Our observational results appear generally consistent with a picture of two-phase (in-situ plus accretion) galaxy formation.

  3. A Proteome-wide, Quantitative Survey of In Vivo Ubiquitylation Sites Reveals Widespread Regulatory Roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Sebastian Alexander; Beli, Petra; Weinert, Brian Tate

    2011-01-01

    % of the known ubiquitylation sites and contains 10,254 novel sites on proteins with diverse cellular functions including cell signaling, receptor endocytosis, DNA replication, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle progression. Our method enables site-specific quantification of ubiquitylation in response to cellular......Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin is a fundamentally important regulatory mechanism. However, proteome-wide analysis of endogenous ubiquitylation remains a challenging task, and almost always has relied on cells expressing affinity tagged ubiquitin. Here we combine single......-step immunoenrichment of ubiquitylated peptides with peptide fractionation and high-resolution mass spectrometry to investigate endogenous ubiquitylation sites. We precisely map 11,054 endogenous putative ubiquitylation sites (diglycine-modified lysines) on 4,273 human proteins. The presented data set covers 67...

  4. A survey of kidney disease and risk-factor information on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, José Luis; Zadshir, Ashraf; Norris, Keith

    2004-11-11

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is epidemic, and informing those at risk is a national health priority. However, the discrepancy between the readability of health information and the literacy skills of those it targets is a recognized barrier to communicating health information that may promote good health outcomes. Because the World Wide Web has become one of the most important sources of health information, we sought to assess the readability of commonly available CKD information. Twelve highly cited English-language, kidney disease Web sites were identified with 4 popular search engines. Each Web site was reviewed for the availability of 6 domains of information germane to CKD and risk-factor information. We estimated readability scores with the Flesch-Kincaid and Flesch Reading Ease Index methods. The deviation of readability scores for CKD information from readability appropriate to average literacy skills and the limited literacy skills of vulnerable populations (low socioeconomic status, health disparities, and elderly) were calculated. Eleven Web sites met the inclusion criteria. Six of 11 sites provided information on all 6 domains of CKD and risk-factor information. Mean readability scores for all 6 domains of CKD information exceeded national average literacy skills and far exceeded the fifth-grade-level readability desired for informing vulnerable populations. Information about CKD and diabetes consistently had higher readability scores. Information on the World Wide Web about CKD and its risk factors may not be readable for comprehension by the general public, especially by underserved minority populations with limited literacy skills. Barriers to health communication may be important contributors to the rising CKD epidemic and disparities in CKD health status experienced by minority populations.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Wide-field spectrosc. survey of GCs in Virgo cluster (Ko+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Y.; Hwang, H. S.; Lee, M. G.; Park, H. S.; Lim, S.; Sohn, J.; Jang, I. S.; Hwang, N.; Park, B.-G.

    2017-08-01

    We selected globular cluster (GC) candidates using the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS; Ferrarese+ 2012ApJS..200....4F) archival images covering the central region of the Virgo cluster. The NGVS is a wide-field imaging survey of the Virgo cluster using MegaCam with a field of view of 1°x1° attached at the Canada-French-Hawaii Telescope. We carried out spectroscopic observation of GC candidates in the Virgo using the Hectospec mounted on the 6.5m Multiple-Mirror Telescope in queue mode under program ID 2014A-UAO-G18 (PI: Myung Gyoon Lee) between 2014 February and March (wavelength range: 3650Å to 9200Å). (3 data files).

  6. System-Wide Inpatient Portal
 Implementation: Survey of Health Care Team Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Jennifer L; Sieck, Cynthia J; Walker, Daniel M; Huerta, Timothy R; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2017-09-14

    Inpatient portals, a new type of patient portal tailored specifically to the hospital setting, can allow patients to access up-to-date health information and exchange secure communications with their care team. As such, inpatient portals present an opportunity for patients to increase engagement in their care during a time of acute crisis that emphasizes focus on a patient's health. While there is a large body of research on patient portals in the outpatient setting, questions are being raised specifically about inpatient portals, such as how they will be incorporated into the flow of patient care in hectic, stressed, team-based hospital settings. Our aim is to improve understanding about hospital care team members' perceptions of the value of an interactive patient portal for admitted patients, as well as to ascertain staff orientation toward this new technology. Throughout the course of 2016, an inpatient portal, MyChart Bedside (MCB) was implemented across a five-hospital health system. The portal is a tablet-based app that includes a daily schedule, lab/test results, secure messaging with the care team, a place to take notes, and access to educational materials. Within a month of initial rollout, hospital care team members completed a 5-minute, anonymous online survey to assess attitudes and perceptions about MCB use and staff training for the new technology. Throughout the health system, 686 staff members completed the survey: 193 physicians (23.6%), 439 nurses (53.7%), and 186 support staff (22.7%). Questions about the importance of MCB, self-efficacy in using MCB with patients, and feelings about sufficient training and resources showed that an average of 40-60% of respondents in each group reported a positive orientation toward the MCB technology and training received. This positive orientation was highest among support staff, lower among nurses, and lowest for physicians (all differences by staff role were statistically significant at PMCB and its

  7. Preliminary Analysis of Ground-based Orbit Determination Accuracy for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sease, Brad

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a 2.4-meter telescope planned for launch to the Sun-Earth L2 point in 2026. This paper details a preliminary study of the achievable accuracy for WFIRST from ground-based orbit determination routines. The analysis here is divided into two segments. First, a linear covariance analysis of early mission and routine operations provides an estimate of the tracking schedule required to meet mission requirements. Second, a simulated operations scenario gives insight into the expected behavior of a daily Extended Kalman Filter orbit estimate over the first mission year given a variety of potential momentum unloading schemes.

  8. News, views, trends: a world-wide survey of recent developments, fresh ideas and production plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    Recent developments in the tobacco industry in several countries are described: 1) in the USSR the policy is not to encourage smoking but to produce pleasant cigarettes which are as harmless as possible; 2) in the US, a survey shows that in 1975 not more than 12.4% of men over age 21 smoked a pipe; 3) in Britain a new cigarette tax structure will cripple the cigarette industry's coupon scheme of which manufacturers make great use to secure brand loyalty; 4) in the Philippines a proposal to print a health warning on cigarette packets and in advertisements might affect cigarette and tobacco taxes, which contribute 47% of government income; 5) in the Netherlands health warnings will be printed on cigarette packs, 6) in Austria there has been an increase of 4.2% in cigarette smoking since late 1975; 7) in Poland anti-smoking officials have proposed that the name of the popular "Sport" cigarette be changed; 8) in Indonesia there has been a recovery in kretek sales; 9) in Denmark cigarette consumption increased 6% from 1974; and 10) in western Europe it has been shown that up to 99% of grocery stores in Ireland sell tobacco products, 91% in Britain, 30% in Austria, 17% in Spain, and 7% in Italy.

  9. Wide-Field Lensing Mass Maps from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C; Vikram, V; Jain, B; Bacon, D; Amara, A; Becker, M R; Bernstein, G; Bonnett, C; Bridle, S; Brout, D; Busha, M; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Hartley, W; Jarvis, M; Kacprzak, T; Kovács, A; Lahav, O; Lin, H; Melchior, P; Peiris, H; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E; Sánchez, C; Sheldon, E; Troxel, M A; Wechsler, R; Zuntz, J; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Annis, J; Bauer, A H; Benoit-Lévy, A; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Carnero Rosell, A; Carrasco Kind, M; Castander, F J; Crocce, M; D'Andrea, C B; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Evrard, A E; Fausti Neto, A; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D; Kent, S; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Maia, M A G; March, M; Martini, P; Merritt, K W; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Neilsen, E; Nichol, R C; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Sevilla, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Tucker, D; Walker, A R

    2015-07-31

    We present a mass map reconstructed from weak gravitational lensing shear measurements over 139  deg2 from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. The mass map probes both luminous and dark matter, thus providing a tool for studying cosmology. We find good agreement between the mass map and the distribution of massive galaxy clusters identified using a red-sequence cluster finder. Potential candidates for superclusters and voids are identified using these maps. We measure the cross-correlation between the mass map and a magnitude-limited foreground galaxy sample and find a detection at the 6.8σ level with 20 arc min smoothing. These measurements are consistent with simulated galaxy catalogs based on N-body simulations from a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant. This suggests low systematics uncertainties in the map. We summarize our key findings in this Letter; the detailed methodology and tests for systematics are presented in a companion paper.

  10. Current practices in percutaneous nephrolithotomy in Mexico: results of a nation-wide electronic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Christian I Villeda; Roca, Benjamin E Montaño; Molina, Ricardo A Castillejos; Mendez-Probst, Carlos E

    2015-11-01

    Practice patterns and choice of technological instruments in PCNL are not always standardized. There are no previous reports on the PCNL practice tendencies and patterns in Latin America. The aim of the study is to describe the current practice patterns of PCNL among the members of the Mexican Society of Urology ("Sociedad Mexicana de Urologia"). Observational and descriptive study. A 9-item closed questionnaire on PCNL practice patterns was answered by members of the Mexican Society of Urology in a secure website hosted survey after e-mail invitation. A descriptive numerical and graphical analysis was performed. A total of 90 contestants were registered out of 492 potential participants. PCNL is performed by 80% of the participants, with an average of 16 procedures per year. Percutaneous tracts are commonly obtained by urologists on the same day of the procedure. Sequential and telescopic dilators are equally preferred over balloons. The pneumatic litotriptor is the most common choice and CT scan and X-ray are equally used as follow-up. The practice patterns of PCNL from Mexican urologists are different from other international reports. Influence of socio-economic circumstances is inferred.

  11. Genome-wide survey of pseudogenes in 80 fully re-sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wang

    Full Text Available Pseudogenes (Ψs, including processed and non-processed Ψs, are ubiquitous genetic elements derived from originally functional genes in all studied genomes within the three kingdoms of life. However, systematic surveys of non-processed Ψs utilizing genomic information from multiple samples within a species are still rare. Here a systematic comparative analysis was conducted of Ψs within 80 fully re-sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, and 7546 genes, representing ∼28% of the genomic annotated open reading frames (ORFs, were found with disruptive mutations in at least one accession. The distribution of these Ψs on chromosomes showed a significantly negative correlation between Ψs/ORFs and their local gene densities, suggesting a higher proportion of Ψs in gene desert regions, e.g. near centromeres. On the other hand, compared with the non-Ψ loci, even the intact coding sequences (CDSs in the Ψ loci were found to have shorter CDS length, fewer exon number and lower GC content. In addition, a significant functional bias against the null hypothesis was detected in the Ψs mainly involved in responses to environmental stimuli and biotic stress as reported, suggesting that they are likely important for adaptive evolution to rapidly changing environments by pseudogenization to accumulate successive mutations.

  12. Genome-wide survey of allele-specific splicing in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffler Konrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate mRNA splicing depends on multiple regulatory signals encoded in the transcribed RNA sequence. Many examples of mutations within human splice regulatory regions that alter splicing qualitatively or quantitatively have been reported and allelic differences in mRNA splicing are likely to be a common and important source of phenotypic diversity at the molecular level, in addition to their contribution to genetic disease susceptibility. However, because the effect of a mutation on the efficiency of mRNA splicing is often difficult to predict, many mutations that cause disease through an effect on splicing are likely to remain undiscovered. Results We have combined a genome-wide scan for sequence polymorphisms likely to affect mRNA splicing with analysis of publicly available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST and exon array data. The genome-wide scan uses published tools and identified 30,977 SNPs located within donor and acceptor splice sites, branch points and exonic splicing enhancer elements. For 1,185 candidate splicing polymorphisms the difference in splicing between alternative alleles was corroborated by publicly available exon array data from 166 lymphoblastoid cell lines. We developed a novel probabilistic method to infer allele-specific splicing from EST data. The method uses SNPs and alternative mRNA isoforms mapped to EST sequences and models both regulated alternative splicing as well as allele-specific splicing. We have also estimated heritability of splicing and report that a greater proportion of genes show evidence of splicing heritability than show heritability of overall gene expression level. Our results provide an extensive resource that can be used to assess the possible effect on splicing of human polymorphisms in putative splice-regulatory sites. Conclusion We report a set of genes showing evidence of allele-specific splicing from an integrated analysis of genomic polymorphisms, EST data and exon array

  13. EU-wide survey of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, Robert [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi, 21020 Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: robert.loos@jrc.it; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Locoro, Giovanni; Rimaviciute, Erika; Contini, Serafino; Bidoglio, Giovanni [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi, 21020 Ispra (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This study provides the first EU-wide reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters. More than 100 individual water samples from over 100 European rivers from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PFOS, PFOA, benzotriazoles, hormones, and endocrine disrupters. Around 40 laboratories participated in this sampling exercise. The most frequently and at the highest concentration levels detected compounds were benzotriazole, caffeine, carbamazepine, tolyltriazole, and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE{sub 1}C). Only about 10% of the river water samples analysed could be classified as 'very clean' in terms of chemical pollution. The rivers responsible for the major aqueous emissions of PFOS and PFOA from the European Continent could be identified. For the target compounds chosen, we are proposing 'indicative warning levels' in surface waters, which are (for most compounds) close to the 90th percentile of all water samples analysed. - More than 100 river water samples from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected polar organic contaminants.

  14. Genome-wide survey and characterization of the WRKY gene family in Populus trichocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongsheng; Dong, Qing; Shao, Yuanhua; Jiang, Haiyang; Zhu, Suwen; Cheng, Beijiu; Xiang, Yan

    2012-07-01

    WRKY transcription factors participate in diverse physiological and developmental processes in plants. They have highly conserved WRKYGQK amino acid sequences in their N-termini, followed by the novel zinc-finger-like motifs, Cys₂His₂ or Cys₂HisCys. To date, numerous WRKY genes have been identified and characterized in a number of herbaceous species. Survey and characterization of WRKY genes in a ligneous species would facilitate a better understanding of the evolutionary processes and functions of this gene family. In this study, 104 poplar WRKY genes (PtWRKY) were identified in the latest poplar genome sequence. According to their structural features, the predicted members were divided into the previously defined groups I-III, as described in rice. In addition, chromosomal localization of the genes demonstrated that there might be WRKY gene hot spots in 2.3 Mb regions on chromosome 14. Furthermore, approximately 83% (86 out of 104) WRKY genes participated in gene duplication events, including 69% (29 out of 42) gene pairs which exhibited segmental duplication. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, the expression patterns of subgroup III genes were investigated under different stresses [cold, drought, salinity and salicylic acid (SA)]. The data revealed that these genes presented different expression levels in response to various stress conditions. Expression analysis exhibited PtWRKY76 gene induced markedly in 0.1 mM SA or 25% PEG-6000 treatment. The results presented here provide a fundamental clue for cloning specific function genes in further studies and applications. This study identified 104 poplar WRKY genes and demonstrated WRKY gene hot spots on chromosome 14. Furthermore, semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed variable stress responses in subgroup III.

  15. Genome-wide survey of artificial mutations induced by ethyl methanesulfonate and gamma rays in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Nunome, Tsukasa; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide mutations induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and gamma irradiation in the tomato Micro-Tom genome were identified by a whole-genome shotgun sequencing analysis to estimate the spectrum and distribution of whole-genome DNA mutations and the frequency of deleterious mutations. A total of ~370 Gb of paired-end reads for four EMS-induced mutants and three gamma-ray-irradiated lines as well as a wild-type line were obtained by next-generation sequencing technology. Using bioinformatics analyses, we identified 5920 induced single nucleotide variations and insertion/deletion (indel) mutations. The predominant mutations in the EMS mutants were C/G to T/A transitions, while in the gamma-ray mutants, C/G to T/A transitions, A/T to T/A transversions, A/T to G/C transitions and deletion mutations were equally common. Biases in the base composition flanking mutations differed between the mutagenesis types. Regarding the effects of the mutations on gene function, >90% of the mutations were located in intergenic regions, and only 0.2% were deleterious. In addition, we detected 1,140,687 spontaneous single nucleotide polymorphisms and indel polymorphisms in wild-type Micro-Tom lines. We also found copy number variation, deletions and insertions of chromosomal segments in both the mutant and wild-type lines. The results provide helpful information not only for mutation research, but also for mutant screening methodology with reverse-genetic approaches. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Mission and Synergies with LISA and LIGO-Virgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Spergel, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA space mission in study for launch in 2024. It has a 2.4 m telescope, wide-field IR instrument operating in the 0.7 - 2.0 micron range and an exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument operating in the 400 - 1000 nm range. The observatory will perform galaxy surveys over thousands of square degrees to J=27 AB for dark energy weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements and will monitor a few square degrees for dark energy SN Ia studies. It will perform microlensing observations of the galactic bulge for an exoplanet census and direct imaging observations of nearby exoplanets with a pathfinder coronagraph. The mission will have a robust and wellfunded guest observer program for 25% of the observing time. WFIRST will be a powerful tool for time domain astronomy and for coordinated observations with gravitational wave experiments. Gravitational wave events produced by mergers of nearby binary neutron stars (LIGO-Virgo) or extragalactic supermassive black hole binaries (LISA) will produce electromagnetic radiation that WFIRST can observe.

  17. A prospective survey of the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes in Europe and the Mediterranean basin; the Euro Heart Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes (Euro Heart Survey ACS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hasdai (David); S. Behar (Solomon); L.C. Wallentin (Lars); N. Danchin (Nicolas); A.K. Gitt (Anselm); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); A. Battler (Alexander); H. Boersma (Eric)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To better delineate the characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in representative countries across Europe and the Mediterranean basin, and to examine adherence to current guidelines. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective

  18. A search for a distant companion to the sun with the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    I have used multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to perform a search for a distant companion to the Sun via its parallactic motion. I have not found an object of this kind down to W2 = 14.5. This limit corresponds to analogs of Saturn and Jupiter at 28,000 and 82,000 AU, respectively, according to models of the Jovian planets by Fortney and coworkers. Models of brown dwarfs by Burrows and coworkers predict fainter fluxes at a given mass for the age of the solar system, producing a closer distance limit of 26,000 AU for a Jupiter-mass brown dwarf. These constraints exclude most combinations of mass and separation at which a solar companion has been suggested to exist by various studies over the years.

  19. Wide-field infrared survey explorer observations of young stellar objects in the Lynds 1509 dark cloud in Auriga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wilson M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Padgett, Deborah L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Terebey, Susan; Angione, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Rebull, Luisa M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Leisawitz, David, E-mail: wliu@ipac.caltech.edu [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 605, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  20. ALMACAL I: First Dual-band Number Counts from a Deep and Wide ALMA Submillimeter Survey, Free from Cosmic Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, I.; Zwaan, M. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Biggs, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    We have exploited ALMA calibration observations to carry out a novel, wide, and deep submillimeter (submm) survey, almacal. These calibration data comprise a large number of observations of calibrator fields in a variety of frequency bands and array configurations. By gathering together data acquired during multiple visits to many ALMA calibrators, it is possible to reach noise levels which allow the detection of faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a significant area. In this paper, we outline our survey strategy and report the first results. We have analyzed data for 69 calibrators, reaching depths of ˜25 μJy beam-1 at sub-arcsec resolution. Adopting a conservative approach based on ≥5σ detections, we have found 8 and 11 DSFGs in ALMA bands 6 and 7, respectively, with flux densities S 1.2 mm ≥ 0.2 mJy. The faintest galaxies would have been missed by even the deepest Herschel surveys. Our cumulative number counts have been determined independently at 870 μm and 1.2 mm from a sparse sampling of the astronomical sky, and are thus relatively free of cosmic variance. The counts are lower than reported previously by a factor of at least 2×. Future analyses will yield large, secure samples of DSFGs with redshifts determined via the detection of submm spectral lines. Uniquely, our strategy then allows for morphological studies of very faint DSFGs—representative of more normal star-forming galaxies than conventional submm galaxies—in fields where self-calibration is feasible, yielding milliarcsecond spatial resolution.

  1. Genome-Wide Profiling of Histone Modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac and Gene Expression in Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus Inoculated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Ayyappan

    Full Text Available Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2 and acetylation (H4K12ac in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. ChIP-Seq analysis revealed 1,235 and 556 histone methylation and acetylation responsive genes from common bean leaves treated with the rust pathogen at 0, 12 and 84 hour-after-inoculation (hai, while RNA-Seq analysis identified 145 and 1,763 genes differentially expressed between mock-inoculated and inoculated plants. The combined ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses identified some key defense responsive genes (calmodulin, cytochrome p450, chitinase, DNA Pol II, and LRR and transcription factors (WRKY, bZIP, MYB, HSFB3, GRAS, NAC, and NMRA in bean-rust interaction. Differential methylation and acetylation affected a large proportion of stress-responsive genes including resistant (R proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and genes involved in ion flux and cell death. The genes identified were functionally classified using Gene Ontology (GO and EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOGs. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis identified a putative pathway with ten key genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions. This first report of an integrated analysis of histone modifications and gene expression involved in the bean-rust interaction as reported here provides a comprehensive resource for other epigenomic regulation studies in non-model species under stress.

  2. Genome-Wide Profiling of Histone Modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac) and Gene Expression in Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) Inoculated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, Vasudevan; Kalavacharla, Venu; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Bhide, Ketaki P; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Smolinski, Tomasz G; Manoharan, Muthusamy; Thurston, Yaqoob; Todd, Antonette; Kingham, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2) and acetylation (H4K12ac) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed 1,235 and 556 histone methylation and acetylation responsive genes from common bean leaves treated with the rust pathogen at 0, 12 and 84 hour-after-inoculation (hai), while RNA-Seq analysis identified 145 and 1,763 genes differentially expressed between mock-inoculated and inoculated plants. The combined ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses identified some key defense responsive genes (calmodulin, cytochrome p450, chitinase, DNA Pol II, and LRR) and transcription factors (WRKY, bZIP, MYB, HSFB3, GRAS, NAC, and NMRA) in bean-rust interaction. Differential methylation and acetylation affected a large proportion of stress-responsive genes including resistant (R) proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and genes involved in ion flux and cell death. The genes identified were functionally classified using Gene Ontology (GO) and EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOGs). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified a putative pathway with ten key genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions. This first report of an integrated analysis of histone modifications and gene expression involved in the bean-rust interaction as reported here provides a comprehensive resource for other epigenomic regulation studies in non-model species under stress.

  3. "Spike" in acute asthma exacerbations during enterovirus D68 epidemic in Japan: A nation-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korematsu, Seigo; Nagashima, Kengo; Sato, Yasunori; Nagao, Mizuho; Hasegawa, Shunji; Nakamura, Haruna; Sugiura, Shiro; Miura, Katsushi; Okada, Kenji; Fujisawa, Takao

    2018-01-01

    In September 2015, Japan experienced an unusual increase in acute asthma hospitalizations of children that coincided with an enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) epidemic. The objective of this study is to investigate whether EV-D68 had a causal relationship with the spike in asthma hospitalizations. A nation-wide retrospective survey of asthma hospitalizations of children was performed for the period from January 2010 through October 2015. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology asked its affiliated hospitals to report monthly numbers of hospitalizations, ICU admissions and mechanical ventilations due to acute asthma exacerbation. The data were retrieved from medical databases using predefined search criteria: diagnosis of asthma or asthmatic bronchitis, admission, and age asthma exacerbation. A total of 157 hospitals reported 87,189 asthma hospitalizations, including 477 ICU admissions and 1193 mechanical ventilations, during the survey period of 5 years and 10 months. The numbers of these events increased drastically in September 2015. The Granger causality test verified the association between EV-D68 and asthma hospitalizations/mechanical ventilations. The most-affected age group was 3-6 years old. The spike in pediatric asthma hospitalizations in Japan in September 2015 was found to be associated with the EV-D68 epidemic. Respiratory pathogens can cause "epidemics" of asthma exacerbation. Coordinated surveillance of infectious diseases and asthma may be beneficial for prevention and better control of both illnesses. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pregnancy and melanoma: a European-wide survey to assess current management and a critical literature overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribero, S; Longo, C; Dika, E; Fortes, C; Pasquali, S; Nagore, E; Glass, D; Robert, C; Eggermont, A M; Testori, A; Quaglino, P; Nathan, P; Argenziano, G; Puig, S; Bataille, V

    2017-01-01

    Management of melanoma during pregnancy can be extremely challenging. The reported incidence of melanoma in pregnancy ranges from 2.8 to 5.0 per 100 000 pregnancies. There are no guidelines for the management of melanoma during pregnancy. The survey was designed to investigate the opinions of melanoma physicians on decision making in relation to pregnancy and melanoma. A clinical scenario-based survey on management of pregnancy in melanoma was distributed all over Europe via the membership of the EORTC and other European melanoma societies. A total of 290 questionnaires were returned with a larger participation from southern Europe. A large heterogeneity was found for the answers given in the different clinical scenarios with 50% of the answers showing discordance, especially regarding sentinel lymph node biopsy during pregnancy. Discordant answers were also found for the counselling of women about a potential delay in getting pregnant after a high-risk melanoma (35% for a 2 year wait minimum vs. 57% no waiting needed), while for thin melanomas, as expected, there was more concordance with 70% of the physicians recommending no delay. Fifteen per cent of physicians recommended an abortion in stage II melanoma during the third month of pregnancy. Twenty per cent of the responders advised against hormonal replacement therapy in melanoma patients. The management of melanoma during pregnancy varies widely in Europe. At present, there is a lack of consensus in Europe, which may lead to very important decisions in women with melanoma, and guidelines are needed. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Genome-wide profiling identifies a subset of methamphetamine (METH)-induced genes associated with METH-induced increased H4K5Ac binding in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; McCoy, Michael T; Ladenheim, Bruce; Saint-Preux, Fabienne; Lehrmann, Elin; De, Supriyo; Becker, Kevin G; Brannock, Christie

    2013-08-12

    METH is an illicit drug of abuse that influences gene expression in the rat striatum. Histone modifications regulate gene transcription. We therefore used microarray analysis and genome-scale approaches to examine potential relationships between the effects of METH on gene expression and on DNA binding of histone H4 acetylated at lysine 4 (H4K5Ac) in the rat dorsal striatum of METH-naïve and METH-pretreated rats. Acute and chronic METH administration caused differential changes in striatal gene expression. METH also increased H4K5Ac binding around the transcriptional start sites (TSSs) of genes in the rat striatum. In order to relate gene expression to histone acetylation, we binned genes of similar expression into groups of 100 genes and proceeded to relate gene expression to H4K5Ac binding. We found a positive correlation between gene expression and H4K5Ac binding in the striatum of control rats. Similar correlations were observed in METH-treated rats. Genes that showed acute METH-induced increased expression in saline-pretreated rats also showed METH-induced increased H4K5Ac binding. The acute METH injection caused similar increases in H4K5Ac binding in METH-pretreated rats, without affecting gene expression to the same degree. Finally, genes that showed METH-induced decreased expression exhibited either decreases or no changes in H4K5Ac binding. Acute METH injections caused increased gene expression of genes that showed increased H4K5Ac binding near their transcription start sites.

  6. Wide-Field Survey around Local Group Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Leo II: Spatial Distribution of Stellar Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Yutaka; Doi, Mamoru; Furusawa, Hisanori; Hamabe, Masaru; Imi, Katsumi; Kimura, Masahiko; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Okamura, Sadanori; Ouchi, Masami; Sekiguchi, Maki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Masafumi; Yasuda, Naoki

    2007-08-01

    We carried out a wide-field V, I imaging survey of the Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy Leo II using the Subaru Prime Focus Camera on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The survey covered an area of 26.67×26.67 arcmin2, far beyond the tidal radius of Leo II (8.63'), down to the limiting magnitude of V~=26, which is roughly 1 mag deeper than the turnoff point of the main-sequence stars of Leo II. Radial number density profiles of bright and faint red giant branch (RGB) stars were found to change their slopes at around the tidal radius, and extend beyond the tidal radius with shallower slopes. A smoothed surface brightness map of Leo II suggests the existence of a small substructure (4×2.5 arcmin2, 270×170 pc 2 in physical size) of globular cluster luminosity beyond the tidal radius. We investigated the properties of the stellar population by means of a color-magnitude diagram. The horizontal branch (HB) morphology index shows a radial gradient in which red HB stars are more concentrated than blue HB stars, which is common to many Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The color distribution of RGB stars around the mean RGB sequence shows a larger dispersion at the center than in the outskirts, indicating a mixture of stellar populations at the center and a more homogeneous population in the outskirts. Based on the age estimation using subgiant branch stars, we found that although the major star formation took place ~8 Gyr ago, a considerable stellar population younger than 8 Gyr is found at the center; such a younger population is insignificant in the outskirts. The following star formation history is suggested for Leo II. Star-forming activity occurred more than ~8 Gyr ago throughout the galaxy at a modest star formation rate. The star-forming region gradually shrank from the outside toward the center, and star-forming activity finally dropped to ~0 by ~4 Gyr ago, except for the center, where a small population younger than 4 Gyr is present. Based on data collected

  7. Facilitators of high-quality teaching in medical school: findings from a nation-wide survey among clinical teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiekirka-Schwake, S; Anders, S; von Steinbüchel, N; Becker, J C; Raupach, T

    2017-09-29

    Clinical teachers in medical schools are faced with the challenging task of delivering high-quality patient care, producing high-impact research and contributing to undergraduate medical education all at the same time. Little is known on the gap between an 'ideal' environment supporting clinical teachers to provide high quality teaching for their students and the reality of clinical teaching during worktime in the clinical environment. Most quantitative research published so far was done in a wide range of medical educators and did not consider individual academic qualifications. In this study, we wanted to survey clinical teachers in particular and assess the potential impact of individual academic qualification on their perceptions. Based on qualitative data of focus group discussions, we developed a questionnaire which was piloted among 189 clinical teachers. The final web-based questionnaire was completed by clinical teachers at nine German medical schools. A total of 833 clinical teachers (569 junior physicians, 264 assistant professors) participated in the online survey. According to participants, the most important indicator of high quality teaching was "sustained student learning outcome" followed by "stimulation of interest in the subject matter". Lack of time was the main factor impeding effective teaching (78%). Among the factors facilitating high-quality teaching, protected preparation time during working hours (48%) and more recognition of high-quality teaching within medical schools (21%) were perceived as most helpful. Three out of four teachers (76%) were interested in faculty development programmes directed at teaching skills, but 60% stated they had no time to engage in such activities. With regard to evaluation, teachers preferred individual feedback (75%) over global ratings (21%). Differences between assistant professors and junior physicians were found in that the latter group perceived their teaching conditions as more difficult. Lack of time

  8. Current treatment modalities of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee joint: results of a nation-wide German survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerosch, J; Hoffstetter, I; Reer, R

    1996-06-01

    In a nation-wide survey 350 knee surgeons were asked for their current diagnostic and treatment modalities in patients with osteochondritis dissecans (OD) of the knee joint: 255 questionnaires were analyzed. With respect to the different imaging techniques, standard xray studies were performed by all surgeons. Other techniques were used in the following decreasing order of preference: xray tomography, MRI, CT-scan, ultrasound, bone scan, and arthrography. The indication for surgery was primarily influenced by the standard xray, and secondarily by xray tomography, then by MRI, and CT-scan. Regarding cartilage-inducing treatment methods, Pridie drilling (antegrade) was by far predominant over abrasion arthroplasties and Beck drilling (retrograde). Cartilage or perichondrium transplantation was performed rarely. For fixation of a loose fragment most of the surgeons preferred "Ethipins" followed by screws and K wires. Only one-third of the surgeons used MRI as one of the first diagnostic tools, but a higher percentage of surgeons recommended MRI in special cases. Especially in young patients MRI was used as often as plain xray, whereas the use of MRI in older patients was remarkably reduced. Concerning treatment modalities, the majority of surgeons treated young patients with protection from weight bearing. For cartilage stabilization, "Ethipins" were preferred, whereas screws were rarely recommended. Approximately 25% of the physicians would not treat asymptomatic patients at all. Even patients with typical symptoms were not treated by less than 15% of the surgeons. In general, adults with OD still embedded in the cartilage bed are treated more aggressively. In cases with a loose body the cartilage-inducing procedures are preferred. Perichondrium or cartilage transplantations are only rarely performed.

  9. A genome-wide survey for host response of silkworm, Bombyx mori during pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulin Huang

    Full Text Available Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori. Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one day in the hot and humid season. Bb pathogen of the silkworm can be used for investigating the host responses after the infection. Gene expression profiling during four time-points of silkworm whole larvae after Bb infection was performed to gain insight into the mechanism of Bb-associated host whole body effect. Genome-wide survey of the host genes demonstrated many genes and pathways modulated after the infection. GO analysis of the induced genes indicated that their functions could be divided into 14 categories. KEGG pathway analysis identified that six types of basal metabolic pathway were regulated, including genetic information processing and transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. Similar to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt, Bb can also induce a silkworm poisoning-related response. In this process, genes encoding midgut peritrophic membrane proteins, aminopeptidase N receptors and sodium/calcium exchange protein showed modulation. For the first time, we found that Bb induced a lot of genes involved in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathway upregulated. Bb also triggered the host immune responses, including cellular immune response and serine protease cascade melanization response. Real time PCR analysis showed that Bb can induce the silkworm systemic immune response, mainly by the Toll pathway. Anti-microorganism peptides (AMPs, including of Attacin, Lebocin, Enbocin, Gloverin

  10. Detector Control and Data Acquisition for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) with a Custom ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian S.; Loose, Markus; Alkire, Greg; Joshi, Atul; Kelly, Daniel; Siskind, Eric; Rossetti, Dino; Mah, Jonathan; Cheng, Edward; Miko, Laddawan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will have the largest near-IR focal plane ever flown by NASA, a total of 18 4K x 4K devices. The project has adopted a system-level approach to detector control and data acquisition where 1) control and processing intelligence is pushed into components closer to the detector to maximize signal integrity, 2) functions are performed at the highest allowable temperatures, and 3) the electronics are designed to ensure that the intrinsic detector noise is the limiting factor for system performance. For WFIRST, the detector arrays operate at 90 to 100 K, the detector control and data acquisition functions are performed by a custom ASIC at 150 to 180 K, and the main data processing electronics are at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft, notionally approx.300 K. The new ASIC is the main interface between the cryogenic detectors and the warm instrument electronics. Its single-chip design provides basic clocking for most types of hybrid detectors with CMOS ROICs. It includes a flexible but simple-to-program sequencer, with the option of microprocessor control for more elaborate readout schemes that may be data-dependent. All analog biases, digital clocks, and analog-to-digital conversion functions are incorporated and are connected to the nearby detectors with a short cable that can provide thermal isolation. The interface to the warm electronics is simple and robust through multiple LVDS channels. It also includes features that support parallel operation of multiple ASICs to control detectors that may have more capability or requirements than can be supported by a single chip.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Population-Wide Wait Times for Patients Seeking Medical vs. Cosmetic Dermatologic Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta; Goldberg, Hanna R; Barense, Morgan D; Bell, Chaim M

    2016-01-01

    Though previous work has examined some aspects of the dermatology workforce shortage and access to dermatologic care, little research has addressed the effect of rising interest in cosmetic procedures on access to medical dermatologic care. Our objective was to determine the wait times for Urgent and Non-Urgent medical dermatologic care and Cosmetic dermatology services at a population level and to examine whether wait times for medical care are affected by offering cosmetic services. A population-wide survey of dermatology practices using simulated calls asking for the earliest appointment for a Non-Urgent, Urgent and Cosmetic service. Response rates were greater than 89% for all types of care. Wait times across all types of care were significantly different from each other (all P Cosmetic care was associated with the shortest wait times (3.0 weeks; Interquartile Range (IQR) = 0.4-3.4), followed by Urgent care (9.0 weeks; IQR = 2.1-12.9), then Non-Urgent Care (12.7 weeks; IQR = 4.4-16.4). Wait times for practices offering only Urgent care were not different from practices offering both Urgent and Cosmetic care (10.3 vs. 7.0 weeks). Longer wait times and greater variation for Urgent and Non-Urgent dermatologic care and shorter wait times and less variation for Cosmetic care. Wait times were significantly longer in regions with lower dermatologist density. Provision of Cosmetic services did not increase wait times for Urgent care. These findings suggest an overall dermatology workforce shortage and a need for a more streamlined referral system for dermatologic care.

  12. A genome-wide survey for host response of silkworm, Bombyx mori during pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lulin; Cheng, Tingcai; Xu, Pingzhen; Cheng, Daojun; Fang, Ting; Xia, Qingyou

    2009-12-01

    Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one day in the hot and humid season. Bb pathogen of the silkworm can be used for investigating the host responses after the infection. Gene expression profiling during four time-points of silkworm whole larvae after Bb infection was performed to gain insight into the mechanism of Bb-associated host whole body effect. Genome-wide survey of the host genes demonstrated many genes and pathways modulated after the infection. GO analysis of the induced genes indicated that their functions could be divided into 14 categories. KEGG pathway analysis identified that six types of basal metabolic pathway were regulated, including genetic information processing and transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. Similar to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Bb can also induce a silkworm poisoning-related response. In this process, genes encoding midgut peritrophic membrane proteins, aminopeptidase N receptors and sodium/calcium exchange protein showed modulation. For the first time, we found that Bb induced a lot of genes involved in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathway upregulated. Bb also triggered the host immune responses, including cellular immune response and serine protease cascade melanization response. Real time PCR analysis showed that Bb can induce the silkworm systemic immune response, mainly by the Toll pathway. Anti-microorganism peptides (AMPs), including of Attacin, Lebocin, Enbocin, Gloverin and Moricin

  13. Modeling and Correcting the Time-Dependent ACS PSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Albert, Justin; Taylor, James E.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Leauthaud, Alexie

    2006-01-01

    The ability to accurately measure the shapes of faint objects in images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) depends upon detailed knowledge of the Point Spread Function (PSF). We show that thermal fluctuations cause the PSF of the ACS Wide Field Camera (WFC) to vary over time. We describe a modified version of the TinyTim PSF modeling software to create artificial grids of stars across the ACS field of view at a range of telescope focus values. These models closely resemble the stars in real ACS images. Using 10 bright stars in a real image, we have been able to measure HST s apparent focus at the time of the exposure. TinyTim can then be used to model the PSF at any position on the ACS field of view. This obviates the need for images of dense stellar fields at different focus values, or interpolation between the few observed stars. We show that residual differences between our TinyTim models and real data are likely due to the effects of Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) degradation. Furthermore, we discuss stochastic noise that is added to the shape of point sources when distortion is removed, and we present MultiDrizzle parameters that are optimal for weak lensing science. Specifically, we find that reducing the MultiDrizzle output pixel scale and choosing a Gaussian kernel significantly stabilizes the resulting PSF after image combination, while still eliminating cosmic rays/bad pixels, and correcting the large geometric distortion in the ACS. We discuss future plans, which include more detailed study of the effects of CTE degradation on object shapes and releasing our TinyTim models to the astronomical community.

  14. A Survey of Former Business Students (General Business, Management, Marketing, Real Estate). Summary Findings of Respondents District-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    In fall 2002 staff of the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) Office of Institutional Research collaborated with occupational deans, academic deans, and faculty to develop and administer a survey of former business students. The survey was designed to determine how well courses had met the needs of former business students in the areas of…

  15. California Condors AC2 and AC3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AC8 4 Female of the Agua Blanca. Pair, taken into captivity on 6 June. 1986, released at Hopper Ranch on. 28 March 2000, shot by pig hunter on. Tejon Ranch in February 2003. SB#. 12. 4. AC9 - First chick ever seen hatched by the newly formed Condor Research. Center in 1980, captured for captive breeding on 19 April ...

  16. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  17. Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro; Tanigaki, Minoru; Takamiya, Koichi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Ryo; Uchihori, Yukio; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of car-borne surveys using the Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) and KURAMA-II survey systems has been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since June 2011 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and to evaluate the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established, which enabled rapid analysis of large amounts of data obtained using about 100 KURAMA-II units. The initial data used for evaluating the migration status of radioactive cesium were obtained in the first survey, followed by other car-borne surveys conducted over more extensive and wider measurement ranges. By comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey (until December 2012), the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was found to be more pronounced than those expected on the basis of the physical decay of radioactive cesium and of the air dose rates measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters in the areas surrounding the roadways. In addition, it was found that the extent of decrease in air dose rates depended on land use, wherein it decreased faster for land used as building sites than for forested areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The organisation and needs of young sections belonging to UEG National Societies: Results of a Europe-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Castro, Valeria; Dolak, Werner; Ilie, Mădălina; Holleran, Grainne; Salaga, Maciej; van Herwaarden, Yasmijn; Burisch, Johan

    2017-08-01

    One of the aims of the Young Talent Group (YTG) is to make United European Gastroenterology (UEG) more attractive for young fellows interested in gastroenterology, and to involve them actively in UEG activities, by collaborating with young GI sections (YGIS) across Europe. Therefore, the YTG launched a survey to collect up-to-date information on YGISs belonging to UEG National Societies. The Friends of YTG were chosen as the target population and received a web-based questionnaire concerning their personal information, the structure of YGIS in their respective country, the YGIS' support mechanisms for young trainees, and ideas on how to improve them. Overall, 24 of 29 Friends answered the survey (83%). Among the Societies surveyed, only half have a young section. Typically, YGIS are supported, but not influenced, by National Societies through several initiatives. Results of the survey suggest that a lack of funding, of harmonised education, and of active roles available within National Societies, were the concerns most prevalent among young fellows. Our survey shows that the development of YGIS is being hindered by organisational, financial, and political issues. The YTG believes that a close collaboration between National Societies, UEG, and the YTG is necessary in order to offer young fellows the most productive and professionally satisfying future possible.

  19. Here Be Dragons: Characterization of ACS/WFC Scattered Light Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, B.; Coe, D.; Gonzaga, S.; Anderson, J.; Grogin, N.

    2016-11-01

    We present a study characterizing scattered light anomalies that occur near the edges of Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) images. We inspected all 8,573 full-frame ACS/WFC raw images with exposure times longer than 350 seconds obtained in the F606W and F814W filters from 2002 to October 2013. We visually identified two particular scattered light artifacts known as "dragon's breath" and edge glow. Using the 2MASS point source catalog and Hubble Guide Star Catalog (GSC II), we identified the stars that caused these artifacts. The stars are all located in narrow bands ( 3" across) just outside the ACS/WFC field of view (2" - 16" away). We provide a map of these risky areas around the ACS/WFC detectors - users should avoid positioning bright stars in these regions when designing ACS/WFC imaging observations. We also provide interactive webpages which display all the image artifacts we identified, allowing users to see examples of the severity of artifacts they might expect for a given stellar magnitude at a given position relative to the ACS/WFC field of view. On average, 10th (18th) magnitude stars produce artifacts about 1,000 (100) pixels long. But the severity of these artifacts can vary strongly with small positional shifts (∼ 1"). The results are similar for both filters (F606W and F814W) when expressed in total fluence, or flux multiplied by exposure time.

  20. A State-Wide Survey of South Australian Secondary Schools to Determine the Current Emphasis on Ergonomics and Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Janet; Penman, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pattern of teaching of healthy computing skills to high school students in South Australia. A survey approach was used to collect data, specifically to determine the emphasis placed by schools on ergonomics that relate to computer use. Participating schools were recruited through the Department for Education and Child…

  1. German wide cross sectional survey on health impacts of electromagnetic fields in the view of general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Heyer, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The proportion of general practitioners (GPs) in Germany who assume health impacts of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is assessed. Moreover, factors associated with this risk perception are examined. METHODS: A 7% random sample was drawn from online lists of all the GPs working in Germany...... there are persons whose health complaints are caused by EMF when legal limit values are met". A late responder analysis for the survey with the short questionnaire led to a still lower estimate of 29% for GPs believing in health-relevant effects of EMF. CONCLUSION: About a third of German GPs associate EMF...... with health complaints and thus deviate considerably from current scientific knowledge. To avoid a strong selection bias in the surveys of the perception of EMF risks, use of short questionnaires and late responder analysis are recommended....

  2. Marketing research activities in hospitals. Satisfaction surveys of inpatients and outpatients are the most widely used application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubeau, P R; Jantzen, R

    1998-01-01

    Virtually unheard of in health care 30 years ago, marketing research by hospitals is expanding at a notable rate, particularly among larger institutions located in highly competitive urban markets. Research applications are particularly pronounced at for-profit institutions, those heavily involved in managed care programs, and hospitals that are part of an integrated delivery system. However, the majority of hospital administrators surveyed indicated they do not invest in marketing research to track the effectiveness of their own institution's advertising.

  3. Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster genome: abundance, distribution, and potential for marker development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiafeng; Qi, Haigang; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are a ubiquitous component of the eukaryote genome and constitute one of the most popular sources of molecular markers for genetic studies. However, no data are currently available regarding microsatellites across the entire genome in oysters, despite their importance to the aquaculture industry. We present the first genome-wide investigation of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas by analysis of the complete genome, resequencing, and expression data. The Pacific oyster genome is rich in microsatellites. A total of 604 653 repeats were identified, in average of one locus per 815 base pairs (bp). A total of 12 836 genes had coding repeats, and 7 332 were expressed normally, including genes with a wide range of molecular functions. Compared with 20 different species of animals, microsatellites in the oyster genome typically exhibited 1) an intermediate overall frequency; 2) relatively uniform contents of (A)n and (C)n repeats and abundant long (C)n repeats (≥24 bp); 3) large average length of (AG)n repeats; and 4) scarcity of trinucleotide repeats. The microsatellite-flanking regions exhibited a high degree of polymorphism with a heterozygosity rate of around 2.0%, but there was no correlation between heterozygosity and microsatellite abundance. A total of 19 462 polymorphic microsatellites were discovered, and dinucleotide repeats were the most active, with over 26% of loci found to harbor allelic variations. In all, 7 451 loci with high potential for marker development were identified. Better knowledge of the microsatellites in the oyster genome will provide information for the future design of a wide range of molecular markers and contribute to further advancements in the field of oyster genetics, particularly for molecular-based selection and breeding.

  4. Development of Tiled Imaging CZT Detectors for Sensitive Wide-Field Hard X-Ray Surveys to EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Baker, R.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the proposed EXIST mission, a "medium-class" space observatory to survey black holes and the Early Universe proposed to the 2010 NAS/NRC Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, we have developed the first "large" area 256 sq cm close-tiled (0.6 mm gaps) hard X-ray (20-600 keV) imaging detector employing pixelated (2.5 mm) CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, each 2 x 2 x 0.5 cubic cm. We summarize the design, development and operation of this detector array (8 x 8 CZTs) and its performance as the imager for a coded aperture telescope on a high altitude (40 km) balloon flight in October. 2009, as the ProtoEX1STl payload. We then outline our current development of a second-generation imager, ProtcEXIST2. with 0.6 mm pixels on a 32 x 32 array on each CZT, and how it will lead to the ultimate imaging system needed for EXIST. Other applications of this technology will also be mentioned.

  5. Are Canadians more willing to provide chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)?-a nation-wide public survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskes, Lindsay; Morrison, Laurie J; Beaton, Dorcas; Parsons, Janet; Dainty, Katie N

    2016-07-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves the likelihood of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet it is performed in only 30% of cases. The 2010 guidelines promote chest-compression-only bystander CPR-a change intended to increase willingness to provide CPR. 1) To determine whether the Canadian general public is more willing to perform chest-compression-only CPR compared to traditional CPR; 2) to characterize public knowledge of OHCA; and 3) to identify barriers and facilitators to bystander CPR. A 32-item survey assessing resuscitation knowledge, and willingness to provide CPR were disseminated in five Canadian regions. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize response distribution. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess shifts in intention to provide CPR. A total of 428 completed surveys were analysed. When presented with a scenario of being a bystander in an OHCA, a greater proportion of respondents were willing to provide chest-compression-only CPR compared to traditional CPR for all victims (61.5% v. 39.7%, pCPR, but this was mediated by victim characteristics, skill confidence, and recognition of a cardiac arrest.

  6. Development of tiled imaging CZT detectors for sensitive wide-field hard X-ray surveys to EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Baker, R.

    2011-10-01

    Motivated by the proposed EXIST mission, a "medium-class" space observatory to survey black holes and the Early Universe proposed to the 2010 NAS/NRC Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, we have developed the first "large" area 256 cm 2 close-tiled (0.6 mm gaps) hard X-ray (20-600 keV) imaging detector employing pixelated (2.5 mm) CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, each 2×2×0.5 cm 3. We summarize the design, development and operation of this detector array (8×8 CZTs) and its performance as the imager for a coded aperture telescope on a high altitude (40 km) balloon flight in October, 2009, as the ProtoEXIST1 payload. We then outline our current development of a second-generation imager, ProtoEXIST2, with 0.6 mm pixels on a 32×32 array on each CZT, and how it will lead to the ultimate imaging system needed for EXIST. Other applications of this technology will also be mentioned.

  7. Diffusion of an e-learning programme among Danish General Practitioners: a nation-wide prospective survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Steenstrup, Annette Plesner; Nielsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    -wide disseminated dementia guideline. METHODS: A prospective study among all 3632 Danish GPs. The GPs were followed from the launching of the e-learning programme in November 2006 and 6 months forward. Main outcome measures: Use of the e-learning programme. A logistic regression model (GEE) was used to identify...... of Danish College of General Practice (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.5; 3.1), whereas age, experience and working place did not seem to be influential. CONCLUSION: Only few Danish GPs used the e-learning programme in the first 6 months after the launching. Those using it were more often males and members of Danish...

  8. A Wide Angle Survey of Young Stellar Associations for Hot Jupiters and Pre-Main Sequence Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Macri, Lucas M.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Depoy, Darren L.; Garcia Lambas, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a significant advancement in the detection, classification and understanding of exoplanets and binary star systems. The vast majority of these systems consist of objects on the main sequence or the giant branch, leading to a dearth of knowledge of properties at early times (migration models. The deficiency in the number of well characterized systems is driven by the inherent and aperiodic variability found in pre-main sequence objects which can mask and mimic eclipse signals. Nevertheless a dramatic increase in the total number of systems at early times is required to alleviate the conflict between theory and observation. I have recently completed a photometric survey of 3 nearby (migration timescale.

  9. The MOSDEF Survey: The Prevalence and Properties of Galaxy-wide AGN-driven Outflows at z ˜ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Gene C. K.; Coil, Alison L.; Azadi, Mojegan; Aird, James; Shapley, Alice; Kriek, Mariska; Mobasher, Bahram; Reddy, Naveen; Siana, Brian; Freeman, William R.; Price, Sedona H.; Sanders, Ryan L.; Shivaei, Irene

    2017-11-01

    Using observations from the first 2 yr of the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey, we study 13 active galactic nucleus (AGN) driven outflows detected from a sample of 67 X-ray, IR, and/or optically selected AGNs at z˜ 2. The AGNs have bolometric luminosities of ˜ {10}44{--}{10}46 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, including both quasars and moderate-luminosity AGNs. We detect blueshifted, ionized gas outflows in the Hβ, [O III], Hα, and/or [N II] emission lines of 19% of the AGNs, while only 1.8% of the MOSDEF galaxies have similarly detected outflows. The outflow velocities span ˜300 to 1000 km s-1. Eight of the 13 outflows are spatially extended on similar scales to the host galaxies, with spatial extents of 2.5-11.0 kpc. Outflows are detected uniformly across the star-forming main sequence, showing little trend with the host galaxy star formation rate. Line ratio diagnostics indicate that the outflowing gas is photoionized by the AGNs. We do not find evidence for positive AGN feedback, in either our small MOSDEF sample or a much larger Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample, using the BPT diagram. Given that a galaxy with an AGN is 10 times more likely to have a detected outflow, the outflowing gas is photoionized by the AGNs, and estimates of the mass and energy outflow rates indicate that stellar feedback is insufficient to drive at least some of these outflows; they are very likely to be AGN driven. The outflows have mass-loading factors of the order of unity, suggesting that they help regulate star formation in their host galaxies, though they may be insufficient to fully quench it.

  10. [Prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal sepsis in Hungary in 2012. Preliminary data of a nation-wide survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziller, István; Szabó, Miklós; Valek, Andrea; Rigó, Barbara; Ács, Nándor

    2014-07-20

    At present, there is no obligatory guideline for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease in Hungary. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the spontaneously developed preventive strategy of the domestic obstetric divisions and departments in Hungary. Standardized questionnaire was sent out to each of the 71 obstetric divisions and departments in Hungary. Overall, 20 (27.4%) of the chairpersons replied, and thus, 39.9% of the total number of live births in Hungary were included in the study. Despite missing public health guidelines, each of the divisions and departments developed their own strategy to prevent neonatal group B streptococcal disease. In 95% of cases, bacterial culture of the lower vagina was the method of identifying pregnant women at risk. In 5% of the cases intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis was based on risk assessment only. Of the departments using culture-based prophylaxis, 58% departments sampled women after completion of 36th gestational weeks. Antibiotic of choice was penicillin or ampicillin in 100% of cases. Of the study participants, 80% reported on multiple administration of colonized pregnant women after onset of labor or rupture of the membranes. The authors concluded that the rate of participation in the study was low. However, prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection is a priority of obstetric care in Hungary. Lack of a nation-wide public health policy did not prevent obstetric institutions in this country to develop their own prevention strategy. In the majority of cases and institutions, the policy is consistent with the widely accepted international standards.

  11. The challenge of comprehensively mapping children's health in a nation-wide health survey: design of the German KiGGS-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Bärbel-Maria; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Hölling, Heike; Schlaud, Martin; Dölle, Rüdiger; Ellert, Ute; Kahl, Heidrun; Knopf, Hiltraud; Lange, Michael; Mensink, Gert Bm; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Schenk, Liane; Schlack, Robert; Stolzenberg, Heribert; Thamm, Michael; Thierfelder, Wulf; Wolf, Ute

    2008-06-04

    From May 2003 to May 2006, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Aim of this first nationwide interview and examination survey was to collect comprehensive data on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. Participants were enrolled in two steps: first, 167 study locations (sample points) were chosen; second, subjects were randomly selected from the official registers of local residents. The survey involved questionnaires filled in by parents and parallel questionnaires for children aged 11 years and older, physical examinations and tests, and a computer assisted personal interview performed by study physicians. A wide range of blood and urine testing was carried out at central laboratories. A total of 17 641 children and adolescents were surveyed - 8985 boys and 8656 girls. The proportion of sample neutral drop-outs was 5.3%. The response rate was 66.6%. The response rate showed little variation between age groups and sexes, but marked variation between resident aliens and Germans, between inhabitants of cities with a population of 100 000 or more and sample points with fewer inhabitants, as well as between the old West German states and the former East German states. By analysing the short non-responder questionnaires it was proven that the collected data give comprehensive and nationally representative evidence on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years.

  12. The challenge of comprehensively mapping children's health in a nation-wide health survey: Design of the German KiGGS-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Bärbel-Maria; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Hölling, Heike; Schlaud, Martin; Dölle, Rüdiger; Ellert, Ute; Kahl, Heidrun; Knopf, Hiltraud; Lange, Michael; Mensink, Gert BM; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Schenk, Liane; Schlack, Robert; Stolzenberg, Heribert; Thamm, Michael; Thierfelder, Wulf; Wolf, Ute

    2008-01-01

    Background From May 2003 to May 2006, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Aim of this first nationwide interview and examination survey was to collect comprehensive data on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. Methods/Design Participants were enrolled in two steps: first, 167 study locations (sample points) were chosen; second, subjects were randomly selected from the official registers of local residents. The survey involved questionnaires filled in by parents and parallel questionnaires for children aged 11 years and older, physical examinations and tests, and a computer assisted personal interview performed by study physicians. A wide range of blood and urine testing was carried out at central laboratories. A total of 17 641 children and adolescents were surveyed – 8985 boys and 8656 girls. The proportion of sample neutral drop-outs was 5.3%. The response rate was 66.6%. Discussion The response rate showed little variation between age groups and sexes, but marked variation between resident aliens and Germans, between inhabitants of cities with a population of 100 000 or more and sample points with fewer inhabitants, as well as between the old West German states and the former East German states. By analysing the short non-responder questionnaires it was proven that the collected data give comprehensive and nationally representative evidence on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. PMID:18533019

  13. The challenge of comprehensively mapping children's health in a nation-wide health survey: Design of the German KiGGS-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlack Robert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From May 2003 to May 2006, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS. Aim of this first nationwide interview and examination survey was to collect comprehensive data on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. Methods/Design Participants were enrolled in two steps: first, 167 study locations (sample points were chosen; second, subjects were randomly selected from the official registers of local residents. The survey involved questionnaires filled in by parents and parallel questionnaires for children aged 11 years and older, physical examinations and tests, and a computer assisted personal interview performed by study physicians. A wide range of blood and urine testing was carried out at central laboratories. A total of 17 641 children and adolescents were surveyed – 8985 boys and 8656 girls. The proportion of sample neutral drop-outs was 5.3%. The response rate was 66.6%. Discussion The response rate showed little variation between age groups and sexes, but marked variation between resident aliens and Germans, between inhabitants of cities with a population of 100 000 or more and sample points with fewer inhabitants, as well as between the old West German states and the former East German states. By analysing the short non-responder questionnaires it was proven that the collected data give comprehensive and nationally representative evidence on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years.

  14. Do Health Reforms Impact Cost Consciousness of Health Care Professionals? Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Vukovic, Mira; Chen, Chia-Ching; Antunovic, Mirjana; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Velickovic-Radovanovic, Radmila; Djendji, Mladenovic Siladji; Jankovic, Nikola; Rankovic, Ana; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Antunovic, Marko; Milovanovic, Olivera; Markovic, Veroljub; Dasari, Babu N S; Yamada, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Serbia, as the largest market of the Western Balkans, has entered socioeconomic transition with substantial delay compared to most of Eastern Europe. Its health system reform efforts were bold during the past 15 years, but their results were inconsistent in various areas. The two waves of global recession that hit Balkan economies ultimately reflected to the financial situation of healthcare. Serious difficulties in providing accessible medical care to the citizens became a reality. A large part of the unbearable expenses actually belongs to the overt prescription of pharmaceuticals and various laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures requested by physicians. Therefore, a broad national survey was conducted at all levels of the healthcare system hierarchy to distinguish the ability of cost containment strategies to reshape clinician's mindsets and decision-making in practice. Assessment of healthcare professionals' judgment on economic consequences of prescribed medical interventions and evaluation of responsiveness of healthcare professionals to policy measures targeted at increasing cost-consciousness. Cross-sectional study. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted through a hierarchy of medical facilities across diverse geographical regions before and after policy action, from January 2010 to April 2013. In the middle of the observed period, the National Health Insurance Fund (RFZO) adopted severe cost-containment measures. Independently, pharmacoeconomic guidelines targeted at prescribers were disseminated. Administration in large hospitals and community pharmacies was forced to restrict access to high budget-impact medical care. Economic Awareness of Healthcare Professionals Questionnaire-29 (EAHPQ-29), developed in Serbian language, was used in face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire documented clinician's attitudes on: Clinical-Decision-Making-between-Alternative-Interventions (CDMAI), Quality-of-Health-Care (QHC), and Cost

  15. Rhinos in the Parks: An Island-Wide Survey of the Last Wild Population of the Sumatran Rhinoceros.

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    Wulan Pusparini

    Full Text Available In the 200 years since the Sumatran rhinoceros was first scientifically described (Fisher 1814, the range of the species has contracted from a broad region in Southeast Asia to three areas on the island of Sumatra and one in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Assessing population and spatial distribution of this very rare species is challenging because of their elusiveness and very low population number. Using an occupancy model with spatial dependency, we assessed the fraction of the total landscape occupied by Sumatran rhinos over a 30,345-km2 survey area and the effects of covariates in the areas where they are known to occur. In the Leuser Landscape (surveyed in 2007, the model averaging result of conditional occupancy estimate was ψ(SE[ψ] = 0.151(0.109 or 2,371.47 km2, and the model averaging result of replicated level detection probability p(SE[p] = 0.252(0.267; in Way Kambas National Park--2008: ψ(SE[ψ] = 0.468(0.165 or 634.18 km2, and p(SE[p] = 0.138(0.571; and in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park--2010: ψ(SE[ψ] = 0.322(0.049 or 819.67 km2, and p(SE[p] = 0.365(0.42. In the Leuser Landscape, rhino occurrence was positively associated with primary dry land forest and rivers, and negatively associated with the presence of a road. In Way Kambas, occurrence was negatively associated with the presence of a road. In Bukit Barisan Selatan, occurrence was negatively associated with presence of primary dryland forest and rivers. Using the probabilities of site occupancy, we developed spatially explicit maps that can be used to outline intensive protection zones for in-situ conservation efforts, and provide a detailed assessment of conserving Sumatran rhinos in the wild. We summarize our core recommendation in four points: consolidate small population, strong protection, determine the percentage of breeding females, and recognize the cost of doing nothing. To reduce the probability of poaching, here we present only the randomized location of site level

  16. Fast, wide-field and distortion-free telescope with curved detectors for surveys at ultralow surface brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, Eduard; Valls-Gabaud, David; Lemaître, Gérard; Hugot, Emmanuel; Jahn, Wilfred; Lombardo, Simona; Wang, Xin; Vola, Pascal; Ferrari, Marc

    2017-11-01

    We present the design of an all-reflective, bifolded Schmidt telescope aimed at surveys of extended astronomical objects with extremely low surface brightness. The design leads to a high image quality without any diffracting spider, a large aperture and field of view (FoV), and a small central obstruction that barely alters the point spread function (PSF). As an example, we design a high-quality, 36 cm diameter, fast (f/2.5) telescope working in the visible with a large FoV (1.6°×2.6°). The telescope can operate with a curved detector (or with a flat detector with a field flattener) and a set of filters. The entrance mirror is anamorphic and replaces the classical Schmidt entrance corrector plate. We show that this anamorphic primary mirror can be manufactured through stress polishing, avoiding high spatial frequency errors, and testing with a simple interferometer scheme. This prototype is intended to serve as a fast-track scientific and technological pathfinder for the future space-based MESSIER mission.

  17. Short runs of atrial arrhythmia and stroke risk: a European-wide online survey among stroke physicians and cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, R T; Rankin, A J; Abdul-Rahim, A H; Lip, G Y; Rankin, A C; Lees, K R

    2016-06-01

    A recording of = 30 seconds is required to diagnose paroxysmal atrial fibrillation when using ambulatory ECG monitoring. It is unclear if shorter runs are relevant with regards to stroke risk. Methods An online survey of cardiologists and stroke physicians was carried out to assess current management of patients with short runs of atrial arrhythmia within Europe. Results Respondents included 311 clinicians from 32 countries. To diagnose atrial fibrillation, 80% accepted a single 12-lead ECG and 36% accepted a single run of > 30 seconds on ambulatory monitoring. Stroke physicians were twice as likely to accept < 30 seconds of arrhythmia as being diagnostic of atrial fibrillation (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.19-4.98). They were also more likely to advocate anticoagulation for hypothetical patients with lower risk; OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.0-3.5) for a patient with CHA2DS2-VASc = 2. Conclusion Short runs of atrial fibrillation create a dilemma for physicians across Europe. Stroke physicians and cardiologists differ in their diagnosis and management of these patients.

  18. A genome-wide BAC-end sequence survey provides first insights into sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genome composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zengzhi; Du, Bing; Huo, Jinxi; He, Shaozhen; Liu, Qingchang; Zhai, Hong

    2016-11-21

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is an important food crop widely grown in the world. However, little is known about the genome of this species because it is a highly heterozygous hexaploid. Gaining a more in-depth knowledge of sweetpotato genome is therefore necessary and imperative. In this study, the first bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of sweetpotato was constructed. Clones from the BAC library were end-sequenced and analyzed to provide genome-wide information about this species. The BAC library contained 240,384 clones with an average insert size of 101 kb and had a 7.93-10.82 × coverage of the genome, and the probability of isolating any single-copy DNA sequence from the library was more than 99%. Both ends of 8310 BAC clones randomly selected from the library were sequenced to generate 11,542 high-quality BAC-end sequences (BESs), with an accumulative length of 7,595,261 bp and an average length of 658 bp. Analysis of the BESs revealed that 12.17% of the sweetpotato genome were known repetitive DNA, including 7.37% long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, 1.15% Non-LTR retrotransposons and 1.42% Class II DNA transposons etc., 18.31% of the genome were identified as sweetpotato-unique repetitive DNA and 10.00% of the genome were predicted to be coding regions. In total, 3,846 simple sequences repeats (SSRs) were identified, with a density of one SSR per 1.93 kb, from which 288 SSRs primers were designed and tested for length polymorphism using 20 sweetpotato accessions, 173 (60.07%) of them produced polymorphic bands. Sweetpotato BESs had significant hits to the genome sequences of I. trifida and more matches to the whole-genome sequences of Solanum lycopersicum than those of Vitis vinifera, Theobroma cacao and Arabidopsis thaliana. The first BAC library for sweetpotato has been successfully constructed. The high quality BESs provide first insights into sweetpotato genome composition, and have significant hits to the genome

  19. Genome-Wide Survey Reveals Transcriptional Differences Underlying the Contrasting Trichome Phenotypes of Two Sister Desert Poplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes, which are widely used as an important diagnostic characteristic in plant species delimitation, play important roles in plant defense and adaptation to adverse environments. In this study, we used two sister poplar species, Populus pruinosa and Populus euphratica—which have, respectively, dense and sparse trichomes—to examine the genetic differences associated with these contrasting phenotypes. The results showed that 42 and 45 genes could be identified as candidate genes related to trichomes in P. pruinosa and P. euphratica, respectively; most of these genes possessed high degrees of diversification in their coding sequences, but they were similar in intron/exon structure in the two species. We also found that most of the candidate trichome genes were expressed at higher levels in P. pruinosa, which has dense trichomes, than in P. euphratica, where there are few trichomes. Based on analyses of transcriptional profiles, a total of 195 genes, including many transcription factors, were found to show distinct differences in expression. The results of gene function annotation suggested that the genes identified as having contrasting levels of expression level are mainly associated with trichome elongation, ATPase activity, and hormone transduction. Changes in the expression of these and other related genes with high sequence diversification may have contributed to the contrast in the pattern of trichome phenotypes between the two species.

  20. Sexual and reproductive health risk behaviours among South African university students: results from a representative campus-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Susie; Levasseur, Michael; Mantell, Joanne E; Beksinska, Mags; Mabude, Zonke; Ngoloyi, Claudia; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Exner, Theresa; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Pillay, Lavanya; Smit, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    Among South African university students, HIV prevalence is lower than in age-peers, but at 3.8% it is not negligible. We examined prevalence of factors potentially associated with HIV risk, focusing on partnership characteristics and consistent condom use. We hypothesised that contraceptive-related factors, for example, desire to prevent pregnancy and not using hormonal contraceptives, would be positively associated with consistent condom use. Data were drawn from a representative interviewer-administered survey of 2nd to 4th year students conducted during registration at a university campus in KwaZulu-Natal. Of 576 students, 218 (83 women, 135 men) reported vaginal intercourse in the past 2 months. Of these, 7% of women and 43% of men reported past-year concurrent partnerships, and 24% knew/ suspected partner non-monogamy. Although reported condom use at last intercourse was 90%, 2-month consistent use was 53% (women) and 73% (men). Reported hormonal contraception use was low (women: 36.8%; men: 16.7%), and 68% used condoms for dual protection. In gender-stratified multivariable analyses, consistent condom use was higher for men who reported their partner did not use (vs. used) hormonal contraception (aOR = 5.84; 95%CI = 2.71, 12.57; p women. Sexual partnership characteristics potentially place sexually active university students at high HIV risk and should be investigated further. Among men, but not women, contraceptive concerns were associated with consistent condom use. Promoting condoms for dual protection may resonate with students and should be continued.

  1. Transcriptome-wide survey of mouse CNS-derived cells reveals monoallelic expression within novel gene families.

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    Sierra M Li

    Full Text Available Monoallelic expression is an integral component of regulation of a number of essential genes and gene families. To probe for allele-specific expression in cells of CNS origin, we used next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq to analyze four clonal neural stem cell (NSC lines derived from Mus musculus C57BL/6 (B6×Mus musculus molossinus (JF1 adult female mice. We established a JF1 cSNP library, then ascertained transcriptome-wide expression from B6 vs. JF1 alleles in the NSC lines. Validating the assay, we found that 262 of 268 X-linked genes evaluable in at least one cell line showed monoallelic expression (at least 85% expression of the predominant allele, p-value<0.05. For autosomal genes 170 of 7,198 genes (2.4% of the total showed monoallelic expression in at least 2 evaluable cell lines. The group included eight known imprinted genes with the expected pattern of allele-specific expression. Among the other autosomal genes with monoallelic expression were five members of the glutathione transferase gene superfamily, which processes xenobiotic compounds as well as carcinogens and cancer therapeutic agents. Monoallelic expression within this superfamily thus may play a functional role in the response to diverse and potentially lethal exogenous factors, as is the case for the immunoglobulin and olfactory receptor superfamilies. Other genes and gene families showing monoallelic expression include the annexin gene family and the Thy1 gene, both linked to inflammation and cancer, as well as genes linked to alcohol dependence (Gabrg1 and epilepsy (Kcnma1. The annotated set of genes will provide a resource for investigation of mechanisms underlying certain cases of these and other major disorders.

  2. Diffusion of an e-learning programme among Danish General Practitioners: A nation-wide prospective survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Steenstrup, Annette Plesner; Nielsen, Bente; Rubak, Jens; Bro, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Background We were unable to identify studies that have considered the diffusion of an e-learning programme among a large population of general practitioners. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of an e-learning programme introduced to General Practitioners as part of a nation-wide disseminated dementia guideline. Methods A prospective study among all 3632 Danish GPs. The GPs were followed from the launching of the e-learning programme in November 2006 and 6 months forward. Main outcome measures: Use of the e-learning programme. A logistic regression model (GEE) was used to identify predictors for use of the e-learning programme. Results In the study period, a total of 192 different GPs (5.3%) were identified as users, and 17% (32) had at least one re-logon. Among responders at first login most have learnt about the e-learning programme from written material (41%) or from the internet (44%). A total of 94% of the users described their ability of conducting a diagnostic evaluation as good or excellent. Most of the respondents used the e-learning programme due to general interest (90%). Predictors for using the e-learning programme were Males (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1; 2.0) and members of Danish College of General Practice (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.5; 3.1), whereas age, experience and working place did not seem to be influential. Conclusion Only few Danish GPs used the e-learning programme in the first 6 months after the launching. Those using it were more often males and members of Danish College of General Practice. Based on this study we conclude, that an active implementation is needed, also when considering electronic formats of CME like e-learning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00392483. PMID:18439279

  3. Genome-wide survey and comparative analysis of LTR retrotransposons and their captured genes in rice and sorghum.

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    Shu-Ye Jiang

    Full Text Available Long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the major class I mobile elements in plants. They play crucial roles in gene expansion, diversification and evolution. However, their captured genes are yet to be genome-widely identified and characterized in most of plants although many genomes have been completely sequenced. In this study, we have identified 7,043 and 23,915 full-length LTR retrotransposons in the rice and sorghum genomes, respectively. High percentages of rice full-length LTR retrotransposons were distributed near centromeric region in each of the chromosomes. In contrast, sorghum full-length LTR retrotransposons were not enriched in centromere regions. This dissimilarity could be due to the discrepant retrotransposition during and after divergence from their common ancestor thus might be contributing to species divergence. A total of 672 and 1,343 genes have been captured by these elements in rice and sorghum, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA showed that no over-represented GO term was identified in LTR captured rice genes. For LTR captured sorghum genes, GO terms with functions in DNA/RNA metabolism and chromatin organization were over-represented. Only 36% of LTR captured rice genes were expressed and expression divergence was estimated as 11.9%. Higher percentage of LTR captured rice genes have evolved into pseudogenes under neutral selection. On the contrary, higher percentage of LTR captured sorghum genes were under purifying selection and 72.4% of them were expressed. Thus, higher percentage of LTR captured sorghum genes was functional. Small RNA analysis suggested that some of LTR captured genes in rice and sorghum might have been involved in negative regulation. On the other hand, positive selection has been observed in both rice and sorghum LTR captured genes and some of them were still expressed and functional. The data suggest that some of these LTR captured genes might have

  4. Genome-Wide Survey and Characterization of Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Family in Brassica napus and Its Parental Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yufei; Chen, Baojun; Wang, Rui; Win, Aung Naing; Li, Jiana; Chai, Yourong

    2018-02-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oilseed crop worldwide, and fatty acid (FA) compositions determine the nutritional and economic value of its seed oil. Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) play a pivotal role in regulating FA compositions, but to date, no comprehensive genome-wide analysis of FAD gene family in rapeseed and its parent species has been reported. In this study, using homology searches, 84, 45, and 44 FAD genes were identified in rapeseed, Brassica rapa, and Brassica oleracea genomes, respectively. These FAD genes were unevenly located in 17 chromosomes and 2 scaffolds of rapeseed, 9 chromosomes and 1 scaffold of B. rapa, and all the chromosomes of B. oleracea. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the soluble and membrane-bound FADs in the three Brassica species were divided into four and six subfamilies, respectively. Generally, the soluble FADs contained two conserved histidine boxes, while three highly conserved histidine boxes were harbored in membrane-bound FADs. Exon-intron structure, intron phase, and motif composition and position were highly conserved in each FAD subfamily. Putative subcellular locations of FAD proteins in three Brassica species were consistent with those of corresponding known FADs. In total, 25 of simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were found in FAD genes of the three Brassica species. Transcripts of selected FAD genes in the three species were examined in various organs/tissues or stress treatments from NCBI expressed sequence tag (EST) database. This study provides a critical molecular basis for quality improvement of rapeseed oil and facilitates our understanding of key roles of FAD genes in plant growth and development and stress response.

  5. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rommel

    Full Text Available Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041, the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI. Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2 of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0. In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16 and age 18-29 (OR 1.54, as well as agricultural (OR 5.40, technical (OR 3.41, skilled service (OR 4.24 or manual (OR 5.12, and unskilled service (OR 3.13 or manual (OR 4.97 occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78, working in awkward postures (OR 1.46, environmental stress (OR 1.48, and working under pressure (OR 1.41. Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47 and obesity (OR 1.73 present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries

  6. Mental health care utilisation among internally displaced persons in Ukraine: results from a nation-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B; Makhashvili, N; Javakhishvili, J; Karachevskyy, A; Kharchenko, N; Shpiker, M; Richardson, E

    2017-07-27

    Aims There are an estimated 1.5 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Ukraine because of the armed conflict in the east of the country. The aim of this paper is to examine utilisation patterns of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) care among IDPs in Ukraine. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Data were collected from 2203 adult IDPs throughout Ukraine between March and May 2016. Data on mental health care utilisation were collected, along with outcomes including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were used. PTSD prevalence was 32%, depression prevalence was 22%, and anxiety prevalence was 17%. Among those that likely required care (screened positive with one of the three disorders, and also self-reporting a problem) there was a large treatment gap, with 74% of respondents who likely required MHPSS care over the past 12 months not receiving it. For the 26% (N = 180) that had sought care, the most common sources of services/support were pharmacies, family or district doctor/paramedic (feldsher), neurologist at a polyclinic, internist/neurologist at a general hospital, psychologists visiting communities, and non-governmental organisations/volunteer mental health/psychosocial centres. Of the 180 respondents who did seek care, 163 could recall whether they had to pay for their care. Of these 163 respondents, 72 (44%) recalled paying for the care they received despite government care officially being free in Ukraine. The average costs they paid for care was US$107 over the previous 12 months. All 180 respondents reported having to pay for medicines and the average costs for medicines was US$109 over the previous 12 months. Among the 74% had not sought care despite likely needing it; the principal reasons for not seeking care were: thought that they would get better by using their own medications, could not afford to pay for health services or medications, no awareness

  7. PSYM-WIDE: A Survey for Large-separation Planetary-mass Companions to Late Spectral Type Members of Young Moving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Wolf, Christian; Magnier, Eugene A.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a direct imaging survey for very large separation (>100 au), low-mass companions around 95 nearby young K5-L5 stars and brown dwarfs. They are high-likelihood candidates or confirmed members of the young (≲150 Myr) β Pictoris and AB Doradus moving groups (ABDMG) and the TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations. Images in i\\prime and z\\prime filters were obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South to search for companions down to an apparent magnitude of z\\prime ˜ 22-24 at separations ≳20″ from the targets and in the remainder of the wide 5.‧5 × 5.‧5 GMOS field of view. This allowed us to probe the most distant region where planetary-mass companions could be gravitationally bound to the targets. This region was left largely unstudied by past high-contrast imaging surveys, which probed much closer-in separations. This survey led to the discovery of a planetary-mass (9-13 {M}{Jup}) companion at 2000 au from the M3V star GU Psc, a highly probable member of ABDMG. No other substellar companions were identified. These results allowed us to constrain the frequency of distant planetary-mass companions (5-13 {M}{Jup}) to {0.84}-0.66+6.73% (95% confidence) at semimajor axes between 500 and 5000 au around young K5-L5 stars and brown dwarfs. This is consistent with other studies suggesting that gravitationally bound planetary-mass companions at wide separations from low-mass stars are relatively rare.

  8. AC Electrokinetic Phenomena Generated by Microelectrode Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert; Oh, Jonghyun; Capurro, Jorge; Noh, Hongseok (Moses)

    2008-01-01

    The field of AC electrokinetics is rapidly growing due to its ability to perform dynamic fluid and particle manipulation on the micro- and nano-scale, which is essential for Lab-on-a-Chip applications. AC electrokinetic phenomena use electric fields to generate forces that act on fluids or suspended particles (including those made of dielectric or biological material) and cause them to move in astonishing ways1, 2. Within a single channel, AC electrokinetics can accomplish many essential on-chip operations such as active micro-mixing, particle separation, particle positioning and micro-pattering. A single device may accomplish several of those operations by simply adjusting operating parameters such as frequency or amplitude of the applied voltage. Suitable electric fields can be readily created by micro-electrodes integrated into microchannels. It is clear from the tremendous growth in this field that AC electrokinetics will likely have a profound effect on healthcare diagnostics3-5, environmental monitoring6 and homeland security7. In general, there are three AC Electrokinetic phenomena (AC electroosmosis, dielectrophoresis and AC electrothermal effect) each with unique dependencies on the operating parameters. A change in these operating parameters can cause one phenomena to become dominant over another, thus changing the particle or fluid behavior. It is difficult to predict the behavior of particles and fluids due to the complicated physics that underlie AC electrokinetics. It is the goal of this publication to explain the physics and elucidate particle and fluid behavior. Our analysis also covers how to fabricate the electrode structures that generate them, and how to interpret a wide number of experimental observations using several popular device designs. This video article will help scientists and engineers understand these phenomena and may encourage them to start using AC Electrokinetics in their research. PMID:19066515

  9. The ESO-Spitzer Imaging extragalactic Survey (ESIS). II. VIMOS I, z wide field imaging of ELAIS-S1 and selection of distant massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Rubele, S.; Franceschini, A.; Held, E. V.; Rizzi, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Cimatti, A.; Dias, J. E.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Maiolino, R.; Matute, I.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Sacchi, N.; Zamorani, G.

    2008-09-01

    Context: The ESO-Spitzer Imaging extragalactic Survey (ESIS) is the optical follow up of the Spitzer Wide-area Infra-Red Extragalactic survey (SWIRE) in the ELAIS-S1 region of the sky. Aims: In the era of observational cosmology, the main efforts are focused on the study of galaxy evolution and its environmental dependence. Wide area, multiwavelength, extragalactic surveys are needed in order to probe sufficiently large volumes, minimize cosmic variance and find significant numbers of rare objects. Methods: We present VIMOS I and z band imaging belonging to the ESIS survey. A total of ~4 deg2 was targeted in I and ~1 deg2 in z. Accurate data processing includes removal of fringing, and mosaicking of the complex observing pattern. Completeness levels and photometric uncertainties are estimated through simulations. The multi-wavelength data available in the area are exploited to identify high-redshift galaxies, using the IR-peak technique. Results: More than 300 000 galaxies have been detected in the I band and ~50 000 in the z band. Object coordinates are defined within an uncertainty of ~0.2 arcsec rms, with respect to GSC 2.2. We reach a 90% average completeness at 23.1 and 22.5 mag (Vega) in the I and z bands, respectively. On the basis of IRAC colors, we identify galaxies having the 1.6 μm stellar peak shifted to z = 1-3. The new I, z band data provide reliable constraints to help avoid low-redshift interlopers and reinforce this selection. Roughly 1000 galaxies between z = 2-3 are identified over the ESIS ~4 deg^2, at the SWIRE 5.8 μm depth (25.8 μJy at 3σ). These are the best galaxy candidates to dominate the massive tail (M > 1011 M_⊙) of the z > 2 mass function. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, ESO No. 168.A-0322(A). ESIS web page:http://www.astro.unipd.it/esis Appendix A, Tables 4 and 5 are only available at http://www.aanda.org The full I and z band catalogs (see Table [see full textsee full textsee full

  10. AC electrothermal technique in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Alinaghi; Navi, Maryam; Dalton, Colin

    2017-02-01

    Electrokinetic techniques have a wide range of applications in droplet, particle, and fluid manipulation systems. In general, they can be categorized into different subgroups including electroosmosis, electrothermal, electrophoresis, dielectrophoresis, etc. The AC electrothermal (ACET) technique has been shown to be very effective in applications which involve high conductivity fluids, such as blood, which are typically used in biomedical applications. In the past few years, the ACET effect has received considerable attention. Unlike AC electroosmosis (ACEO), the ACET effect shows plateaus in force in a wide frequency range. In other words, with electrothermal force, velocity is more steady and predictable at different frequencies, compared to ACEO and dielectrophoresis (DEP). Although electrothermal microflows form as a result of Joule heating in the fluid, due to high conduction of heat to the ambience, the temperature rise in the fluid is not so high as to threaten the nature of the biofluids. The average temperature rise resulting from the ACET effect is below 5 °K. In order to generate high strength AC electric fields, microfabricated electrode arrays are commonly used in microchannels. For pumping applications, it is essential to create asymmetry in the electric field, typically by having asymmetrical electrode pairs. There is no defined border between many electrokinetic techniques, and as such the point where electrothermal processes interferes with other electrokinetic techniques is not clear in the literature. In addition, there have been comprehensive reviews on micropumps, electrokinetics, and their subcategories, but the literature lacks a detailed up-to-date review on electrothermal microdevices. In this paper, a brief review is made specifically on electric fields in ACET devices, in order to provide an insight for the reader about the importance of this aspect of ACET devices and the improvements made to date.

  11. Proportional-Integral-Resonant AC Current Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOJIC, D.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an improved stationary-frame AC current controller based on the proportional-integral-resonant control action (PIR is proposed. Namely, the novel two-parameter PIR controller is applied in the stationary-frame AC current control, accompanied by the corresponding parameter-tuning procedure. In this way, the proportional-resonant (PR controller, common in the stationary-frame AC current control, is extended by the integral (I action in order to enable the AC current DC component tracking, and, also, to enable the DC disturbance compensation, caused by the voltage source inverter (VSI nonidealities and by nonlinear loads. The proposed controller parameter-tuning procedure is based on the three-phase back-EMF-type load, which corresponds to a wide range of AC power converter applications, such as AC motor drives, uninterruptible power supplies, and active filters. While the PIR controllers commonly have three parameters, the novel controller has two. Also, the provided parameter-tuning procedure needs only one parameter to be tuned in relation to the load and power converter model parameters, since the second controller parameter is directly derived from the required controller bandwidth value. The dynamic performance of the proposed controller is verified by means of simulation and experimental runs.

  12. Addressing Thermal Model Run Time Concerns of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Guerrero, Sergio; Hawk, John; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Jackson, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) utilizes an existing 2.4 m diameter Hubble sized telescope donated from elsewhere in the federal government for near-infrared sky surveys and Exoplanet searches to answer crucial questions about the universe and dark energy. The WFIRST design continues to increase in maturity, detail, and complexity with each design cycle leading to a Mission Concept Review and entrance to the Mission Formulation Phase. Each cycle has required a Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis to ensure the design can meet the stringent pointing and stability requirements. As such, the models have also grown in size and complexity leading to increased model run time. This paper addresses efforts to reduce the run time while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for STOP analyses. A technique was developed to identify slews between observing orientations that were sufficiently different to warrant recalculation of the environmental fluxes to reduce the total number of radiation calculation points. The inclusion of a cryocooler fluid loop in the model also forced smaller time-steps than desired, which greatly increases the overall run time. The analysis of this fluid model required mitigation to drive the run time down by solving portions of the model at different time scales. Lastly, investigations were made into the impact of the removal of small radiation couplings on run time and accuracy. Use of these techniques allowed the models to produce meaningful results within reasonable run times to meet project schedule deadlines.

  13. AcEST: DK950971 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GN=... 37 0.66 tr|B1ACS4|B1ACS4_BALBO DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Balaenoptera borealis ... 37 0.66 tr|B1ACS3|B1ACS3...todon GN=DM... 37 1.1 tr|B1ACT4|B1ACT4_LISBO DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Lissodelphis borealis ... 37 1.1 tr|B1ACS2|B...SSSEEEIQSKNTEMESRRLTVDAY 160 >tr|B1ACS4|B1ACS4_BALBO DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Balaenoptera borealis GN=DMP1 PE=4 S

  14. AC electric motors control advanced design techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Fouad

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of AC motor control lies in the multivariable and nonlinear nature of AC machine dynamics. Recent advancements in control theory now make it possible to deal with long-standing problems in AC motors control. This text expertly draws on these developments to apply a wide range of model-based control designmethods to a variety of AC motors. Contributions from over thirty top researchers explain how modern control design methods can be used to achieve tight speed regulation, optimal energetic efficiency, and operation reliability and safety, by considering online state var

  15. Tevatron AC dipole system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; /Texas U.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is an oscillating dipole magnet which can induce large amplitude oscillations without the emittance growth and decoherence. These properties make it a good tool to measure optics of a hadron synchrotron. The vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is powered by an inexpensive high power audio amplifier since its operating frequency is approximately 20 kHz. The magnet is incorporated into a parallel resonant system to maximize the current. The use of a vertical pinger magnet which has been installed in the Tevatron made the cost relatively inexpensive. Recently, the initial system was upgraded with a more powerful amplifier and oscillation amplitudes up to 2-3{sigma} were achieved with the 980 GeV proton beam. This paper discusses details of the Tevatron AC dipole system and also shows its test results.

  16. Can evidence from genome-wide association studies and positive natural selection surveys be used to evaluate the thrifty gene hypothesis in East Asians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Han Koh

    Full Text Available Body fat deposition and distribution differ between East Asians and Europeans, and for the same level of obesity, East Asians are at higher risks of Type 2 diabetes (T2D and other metabolic disorders. This observation has prompted the reclassifications of body mass index thresholds for the definitions of "overweight" and "obese" in East Asians. However, the question remains over what evolutionary mechanisms have driven the differences in adiposity morphology between two population groups that shared a common ancestor less than 80,000 years ago. The Thrifty Gene hypothesis has been suggested as a possible explanation, where genetic factors that allowed for efficient food-energy conversion and storage are evolutionarily favoured by conferring increased chances of survival and fertility. Here, we leveraged on the existing findings from genome-wide association studies and large-scale surveys of positive natural selection to evaluate whether there is currently any evidence to support the Thrifty Gene hypothesis. We first assess whether the existing genetic associations with obesity and T2D are located in genomic regions that are reported to be under positive selection, and if so, whether the risk alleles sit on the extended haplotype forms. In addition, we interrogate whether these risk alleles are the derived forms that differ from the ancestral alleles, and whether there is significant evidence of population differentiation at these SNPs between East Asian and European populations. Our systematic survey did not yield conclusive evidence to support the Thrifty Gene hypothesis as a possible explanation for the differences observed between East Asians and Europeans.

  17. Can evidence from genome-wide association studies and positive natural selection surveys be used to evaluate the thrifty gene hypothesis in East Asians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Xuan-Han; Liu, Xuanyao; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Body fat deposition and distribution differ between East Asians and Europeans, and for the same level of obesity, East Asians are at higher risks of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other metabolic disorders. This observation has prompted the reclassifications of body mass index thresholds for the definitions of "overweight" and "obese" in East Asians. However, the question remains over what evolutionary mechanisms have driven the differences in adiposity morphology between two population groups that shared a common ancestor less than 80,000 years ago. The Thrifty Gene hypothesis has been suggested as a possible explanation, where genetic factors that allowed for efficient food-energy conversion and storage are evolutionarily favoured by conferring increased chances of survival and fertility. Here, we leveraged on the existing findings from genome-wide association studies and large-scale surveys of positive natural selection to evaluate whether there is currently any evidence to support the Thrifty Gene hypothesis. We first assess whether the existing genetic associations with obesity and T2D are located in genomic regions that are reported to be under positive selection, and if so, whether the risk alleles sit on the extended haplotype forms. In addition, we interrogate whether these risk alleles are the derived forms that differ from the ancestral alleles, and whether there is significant evidence of population differentiation at these SNPs between East Asian and European populations. Our systematic survey did not yield conclusive evidence to support the Thrifty Gene hypothesis as a possible explanation for the differences observed between East Asians and Europeans.

  18. High heterogeneity of HIV-related sexual risk among transgender people in Ontario, Canada: a province-wide respondent-driven sampling survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Greta R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of HIV-related risk in trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned people have most often involved urban convenience samples of those on the male-to-female (MTF spectrum. Studies have detected high prevalences of HIV-related risk behaviours, self-reported HIV, and HIV seropositivity. Methods The Trans PULSE Project conducted a multi-mode survey using respondent-driven sampling to recruit 433 trans people in Ontario, Canada. Weighted estimates were calculated for HIV-related risk behaviours, HIV testing and self-reported HIV, including subgroup estimates for gender spectrum and ethno-racial groups. Results Trans people in Ontario report a wide range of sexual behaviours with a full range of partner types. High proportions – 25% of female-to-male (FTM and 51% of MTF individuals – had not had a sex partner within the past year. Of MTFs, 19% had a past-year high-risk sexual experience, versus 7% of FTMs. The largest behavioural contributors to HIV risk were sexual behaviours some may assume trans people do not engage in: unprotected receptive genital sex for FTMs and insertive genital sex for MTFs. Overall, 46% had never been tested for HIV; lifetime testing was highest in Aboriginal trans people and lowest among non-Aboriginal racialized people. Approximately 15% of both FTM and MTF participants had engaged in sex work or exchange sex and about 2% currently work in the sex trade. Self-report of HIV prevalence was 10 times the estimated baseline prevalence for Ontario. However, given wide confidence intervals and the high proportion of trans people who had never been tested for HIV, estimating the actual prevalence was not possible. Conclusions Results suggest potentially higher than baseline levels of HIV; however low testing rates were observed and self-reported prevalences likely underestimate seroprevalence. Explicit inclusion of trans people in epidemiological surveillance statistics would provide much

  19. Perceptions of traditional information sources and use of the world wide web to seek health information: findings from the health information national trends survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Stephen A

    2007-01-01

    As medical information becomes increasingly available and individuals take a more active role in managing their personal health, it is essential for scholars to better understand the general public's information-seeking behavior. The study reported here explores the use of the World Wide Web to seek health information in a contemporary information-media environment. Drawing from uses and gratifications theory and the comprehensive model of health information seeking, perceptions of traditional information sources (e.g., mass media, one's health care provider, etc.) are posited to predict use of the Web to seek health information and perceptions of information acquired from searches. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS; N = 3982) were analyzed to test study hypotheses. Trust in information-oriented media, entertainment-oriented media, and one's health care provider all predicted Web use behavior and perceptions. The implications of the findings for research on information seeking and the role of the Web in patient empowerment are discussed.

  20. AC/RF Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ciovati, G.

    2014-07-17

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  1. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  2. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  3. An Optically Faint Quasar Survey at z ˜ 5 in the CFHTLS Wide Field: Estimates of the Black Hole Masses and Eddington Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, H.; Nagao, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Kawakatu, N.; Kajisawa, M.; Akiyama, M.; Miyaji, T.; Morokuma, T.

    2017-09-01

    We present the result of our spectroscopic follow-up observation for faint quasar candidates at z ˜ 5 in part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey wide field. We select nine photometric candidates and identify three z ˜ 5 faint quasars, one z ˜ 4 faint quasar, and a late-type star. Since two faint quasar spectra show the C IV emission line without suffering from a heavy atmospheric absorption, we estimate their black hole masses ({M}{BH}) and Eddington ratios (L/{L}{Edd}). The inferred {log}{M}{BH} are 9.04 ± 0.14 and 8.53 ± 0.20, respectively. In addition, the inferred {log}(L/{L}{Edd}) are -1.00 ± 0.15 and -0.42 ± 0.22, respectively. If we adopt that L/{L}{Edd}={constant} {or}\\propto {(1+z)}2, the seed black hole masses ({M}{seed}) of our z ˜ 5 faint quasars are expected to be > {10}5 {M}⊙ in most cases. We also compare the observational results with a mass accretion model, where angular momentum is lost due to supernova explosions. Accordingly, {M}{BH} of the z ˜ 5 faint quasars in our sample can be explained even if {M}{seed} is ˜ {10}3 {M}⊙ . Since z ˜ 6 luminous qusars and our z ˜ 5 faint quasars are not on the same evolutionary track, z ˜ 6 luminous quasars and our z ˜ 5 quasars are not the same populations but different populations, due to the difference of a period of the mass supply from host galaxies. Furthermore, we confirm that one can explain {M}{BH} of z ˜ 6 luminous quasars and our z ˜ 5 faint quasars even if their seed black holes are formed at z ˜ 7.

  4. Part-time employment of gynecologists and obstetricians: a sub-group analysis of a Germany-wide survey of residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Sarah; Lermann, Johannes; Eismann, Sabine; Neimann, Johannes; Knabl, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Combining family and career is increasingly taken for granted in many fields. However, the medical profession in Germany has inadequately developed structures. Little is known regarding the satisfaction of physicians working part-time (PT). This Germany-wide on-line survey collected information on the working situation of PT employees (PTE) in gynecology. An anonymous questionnaire with 95 items, nine of which concerned PT work, was sent to 2770 residents and physicians undergoing further specialist training. Of the 481 participants, 104 (96 % female, 4 % male) stated they worked PT, which is greater than the national average. 94 % of all women and 60 % of all men would work PT for better compatibility between work and family life. The PTE regularly work night shifts (NS) (96 %) and weekends (98 %). The number of monthly NS (median 5-9) was not different between the full-time (FT) employees and the PTE who work >75 %. Only when the working hours are reduced by 25 % or more, there are fewer NS (median 1-4) PTE that have a desire for fewer NS. The classic PT model is seldom realized; over 70 % of PTE work whole days, while other working models do not play a major role in Germany. On-call models were subjectively declared to have the best family friendly work-life balance. The results obtained indicated that structures must be developed that to address the problem of childcare and the long working hours to ensure comprehensive medical care from specialists.

  5. Development of YBCO HTS cable with low AC loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, M. [Energy Transmission Research Department Ecology and Energy Laboratory, Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., 6, Yawata-Kaigandori, Ichihara, Chiba 290-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: m-yagi@ch.furukawa.co.jp; Mukoyama, S. [Energy Transmission Research Department Ecology and Energy Laboratory, Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., 6, Yawata-Kaigandori, Ichihara, Chiba 290-8555 (Japan); Amemiya, N. [Yokohama National University, 79-5, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Nagaya, S.; Kashima, N. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1, Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables using YBCO tapes are expected to be more economical because AC losses will be much smaller than conventional cables. To reduce AC loss, 10 mm wide YBCO tapes were divided into five strips using a YAG laser. Using narrower strips and optimizing the space between the strips were effective in reducing AC loss. A 1 m conductor was fabricated, and AC loss was 0.048 W/m at 1 kA and 50 Hz. Based on the successful AC loss reduction in the 1 m conductor, we will fabricate a 10 m HTS cable with a three-layer HTS conductor, electrical insulation, and a one-layer HTS shield and cupper protection layer for overcurrent. In addition, we have developed a prototype of the HTS cable joint that can withstand an overcurrent condition of 31.5 kA for 2 s.

  6. Characterisation of AC1: a naturally decaffeinated coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Benjamim Benatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the biochemical characteristics of the beans of a naturally decaffeinated Arabica coffee (AC1 discovered in 2004 with those of the widely grown Brazilian Arabica cultivar "Mundo Novo" (MN. Although we observed differences during fruit development, the contents of amino acids, organic acids, chlorogenic acids, soluble sugars and trigonelline were similar in the ripe fruits of AC1 and MN. AC1 beans accumulated theobromine, and caffeine was almost entirely absent. Tests on the supply of [2-14C] adenine and enzymatic analysis of theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase in the endosperm of AC1 confirmed that, as in the leaves, caffeine synthesis is blocked during the methylation of theobromine to caffeine. The quality of the final coffee beverage obtained from AC1 was similar to that of MN.

  7. GRID-CONNECTECD DOUBLE-STAGE AC-AC POWER CONVERTER FOR CSP RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Sorrentino, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the renewable energy sources have known a state of their advanced diffusion considering their advantages compared to the traditional energy sources like fossil fuels. For this reason the combined heat and power (CHP) plant fueled by renewable sources are widely used. The purpose of this Ph.D. thesis is the design of a new Grid-connected Double-Stage AC-DC/DC-AC Power Converter (DSACPC) for a Concentrating Solar plant for Combined generation of Heat and Power (CS-CHP), th...

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometric survey of planetary nebulae in M31 (Veyette+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyette, M. J.; Williams, B. F.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Balick, B.; Caldwell, N.; Fouesneau, M.; Girardi, L.; Gordon, K. D.; Kalirai, J.; Rosenfield, P.; Seth, A. C.

    2017-04-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-cycle imaging survey covering roughly one-third of M31's star-forming disk out to 20 kpc (Dalcanton et al. 2012ApJS..200...18D). Observations were made with the HST using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), with six filters spanning the UV (WFC3/UVIS F275W and F336W), the optical (ACS/WFC F475W and F814W), and the NIR (WFC3/IR F110W and F160W). (3 data files).

  9. Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in nematodes, with a focus on the plant-parasitic species Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Microsatellites are the most popular source of molecular markers for studying population genetic variation in eukaryotes. However, few data are currently available about their genomic distribution and abundance across the phylum Nematoda. The recent completion of the genomes of several nematode species, including Meloidogyne incognita, a major agricultural pest worldwide, now opens the way for a comparative survey and analysis of microsatellites in these organisms. Results Using MsatFinder, the total numbers of 1-6 bp perfect microsatellites detected in the complete genomes of five nematode species (Brugia malayi, Caenorhabditis elegans, M. hapla, M. incognita, Pristionchus pacificus) ranged from 2,842 to 61,547, and covered from 0.09 to 1.20% of the nematode genomes. Under our search criteria, the most common repeat motifs for each length class varied according to the different nematode species considered, with no obvious relation to the AT-richness of their genomes. Overall, (AT)n, (AG)n and (CT)n were the three most frequent dinucleotide microsatellite motifs found in the five genomes considered. Except for two motifs in P. pacificus, all the most frequent trinucleotide motifs were AT-rich, with (AAT)n and (ATT)n being the only common to the five nematode species. A particular attention was paid to the microsatellite content of the plant-parasitic species M. incognita. In this species, a repertoire of 4,880 microsatellite loci was identified, from which 2,183 appeared suitable to design markers for population genetic studies. Interestingly, 1,094 microsatellites were identified in 801 predicted protein-coding regions, 99% of them being trinucleotides. When compared against the InterPro domain database, 497 of these CDS were successfully annotated, and further assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Conclusions Contrasted patterns of microsatellite abundance and diversity were characterized in five nematode genomes, even in the case of two closely related

  10. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  11. An NPV and AC Analysis of a Stochastic Inventory System with Joint Manufacturing and Remanufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile the net present value (NPV) approach is widely accepted as the right framework for studying production and inventory control systems, average cost (AC) models are more widely used. For the well known EOQ model it can be veri_ed that (under certain conditions) the AC approach gives

  12. Parallel ac-ac converters using master-slave control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik

    The objective of this study is to develop a parallel ac-ac converter that can be implemented as a means of connecting ac generators in parallel. The most important goal of the parallel converter in this study is to obtain equal current sharing performance among the paralleled generators such that an economically optimal solution for production cost of electricity can be accomplished. At the same time, voltage regulation and stability of the parallel system upon changes of different sizes and load types are to be maintained. Use of the available parallel converter method and voltage inversion technique leads to the formulation of a new solution technique for parallel operation of ac generators. The proposed parallel ac-ac converter involves Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation inverter combined with a control scheme called the Stationary Master-Slave control that uses voltage feedback loop and designates one generator unit as the master. The study involves numerous computer simulations to verify the feasibility of the parallel ac-ac converters. In doing so, as many as five models are considered including Current Control Current Source model, PI model, PI-PWM model, PI-PWM model with MOSFETs, and PI-PWM model with real MOSFET model. The results of the simulations show that the parallel ac-ac converter not only successfully provides the current sharing property among the paralleled units but also maintains system stability during changes in load demand. Further research work is suggested to address extensions to parallel ac-dc and dc-ac systems, hardware setup of at least two turbogenerators to test and verify the proposed approach, dynamic analysis to ensure system stability, and implementations of other types of Master-Slave control schemes to improve redundancy.

  13. Single-Phase Direct Boost AC-AC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URSARU, O.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces and studies a boost AC-AC converter circuit that can be used to supply power to the 220V receivers in the 110V grids or to increase and adjust voltage at the end of long lines. High frequency AC-AC converters have better specifications than alternative voltage phase control drives with thyristors or TRIACs. When frequency exceeds 20kHz, noise is eliminated, filters are smaller and efficiency is higher. The current waveform is much better, the output voltage can be higher than the input voltage and voltage control is more accurate.

  14. 2000 Hawaii State-wide and 2000-2002 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu Marine Alien and/or Invasive Algae Species Surveys (NODC Accession 0001007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Baseline surveys were conducted at numerous sites around each island, including those identified as "hotspots" by the Department of Aquatic Resources, around the...

  15. Drug and Therapeutics (D & T) committees in Dutch hospitals : a nation-wide survey of structure, activities, and drug selection procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijn, R; Brouwers, JRBJ; Knaap, RJ; De Jong-Van den Berg, LTW

    Aims To determine structure, activities and drug selection processes used by Dutch hospital drug and therapeutics (D & T) committees. Methods A pretested structured survey questionnaire based on the Australian process and impact indicators, previous research, and consultation of professionals was

  16. Marine alien and/or invasive algae species surveys, Hawaii state-wide in 2000 and Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii during 2000-2002 (NODC Accession 0001007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Baseline surveys were conducted at numerous sites around each island, including those identified as "hotspots" by the Department of Aquatic Resources, around the...

  17. AC Electrokinetics: Applications for Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, MP

    2000-01-01

    The phenomena of dielectrophoresis and electrorotation, collectively referred to as AC electrokinetics, have been used for many years to study, manipulate and separate particles on the nanotechnology, that is the precise manipulation of particles on the nanometre scale. In this paper we present the principles of AC electrokinetics for particle manipulation, review the current state of AC Electrokinetic techniques for the manipulation of particles on the nanometre scale, and consid...

  18. Context based computational analysis and characterization of ARS consensus sequences (ACS of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide experimental studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal that autonomous replicating sequence (ARS requires an essential consensus sequence (ACS for replication activity. Computational studies identified thousands of ACS like patterns in the genome. However, only a few hundreds of these sites act as replicating sites and the rest are considered as dormant or evolving sites. In a bid to understand the sequence makeup of replication sites, a content and context-based analysis was performed on a set of replicating ACS sequences that binds to origin-recognition complex (ORC denoted as ORC-ACS and non-replicating ACS sequences (nrACS, that are not bound by ORC. In this study, DNA properties such as base composition, correlation, sequence dependent thermodynamic and DNA structural profiles, and their positions have been considered for characterizing ORC-ACS and nrACS. Analysis reveals that ORC-ACS depict marked differences in nucleotide composition and context features in its vicinity compared to nrACS. Interestingly, an A-rich motif was also discovered in ORC-ACS sequences within its nucleosome-free region. Profound changes in the conformational features, such as DNA helical twist, inclination angle and stacking energy between ORC-ACS and nrACS were observed. Distribution of ACS motifs in the non-coding segments points to the locations of ORC-ACS which are found far away from the adjacent gene start position compared to nrACS thereby enabling an accessible environment for ORC-proteins. Our attempt is novel in considering the contextual view of ACS and its flanking region along with nucleosome positioning in the S. cerevisiae genome and may be useful for any computational prediction scheme.

  19. Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Analysis of the HIFI 1.2 THz Wide Spectral Survey Toward Orion KL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Bell, T. A.; Blake, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Emprechtinger, M.; Gupta, H.; Lord, S.; Pearson, J.; Plume, R.; Schilke, P.; van der Tak, F.; Wang, S.; Yu, S.

    We present a full spectral survey of the Kleiman-Low nebula within the Orion Molecular Cloud (Orion KL), one of the most chemically rich regions in the galaxy, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. These observations, shown in the figure below, span a frequency range of

  20. Electricity-AC versus DC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Electricity - AC versus DC. D P Sen Gupta. General Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 46-53. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0046-0053. Author Affiliations.

  1. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS GENERAL CATALOG: STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS FOR APPROXIMATELY HALF A MILLION GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A. [Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Comerford, Julia M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Davis, Marc [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lotz, Jennifer M.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Barden, Marco [Institute of Astro- and Particle Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Conselice, Christopher J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Capak, Peter L.; Scoville, Nick; Sheth, Kartik; Shopbell, Patrick [Spitzer Science Centre, 314-6 California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, CA (United States); Noeske, Kai G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Willmer, Christopher N. A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2012-05-01

    We present the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog (ACS-GC), a photometric and morphological database using publicly available data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. The goal of the ACS-GC database is to provide a large statistical sample of galaxies with reliable structural and distance measurements to probe the evolution of galaxies over a wide range of look-back times. The ACS-GC includes approximately 470,000 astronomical sources (stars + galaxies) derived from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. GALAPAGOS was used to construct photometric (SEXTRACTOR) and morphological (GALFIT) catalogs. The analysis assumes a single Sersic model for each object to derive quantitative structural parameters. We include publicly available redshifts from the DEEP2, COMBO-17, TKRS, PEARS, ACES, CFHTLS, and zCOSMOS surveys to supply redshifts (spectroscopic and photometric) for a considerable fraction ({approx}74%) of the imaging sample. The ACS-GC includes color postage stamps, GALFIT residual images, and photometry, structural parameters, and redshifts combined into a single catalog.

  2. Introduction to AC machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, Thomas A

    2018-01-01

    AC electrical machine design is a key skill set for developing competitive electric motors and generators for applications in industry, aerospace, and defense. This book presents a thorough treatment of AC machine design, starting from basic electromagnetic principles and continuing through the various design aspects of an induction machine. Introduction to AC Machine Design includes one chapter each on the design of permanent magnet machines, synchronous machines, and thermal design. It also offers a basic treatment of the use of finite elements to compute the magnetic field within a machine without interfering with the initial comprehension of the core subject matter. Based on the author's notes, as well as after years of classroom instruction, Introduction to AC Machine Design: * Brings to light more advanced principles of machine design--not just the basic principles of AC and DC machine behavior * Introduces electrical machine design to neophytes while also being a resource for experienced designers * ...

  3. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors and impact on conductor stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Rupich, M. W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Xie, Y. Y. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. While ac loss reduction was achieved with YBCO filaments created through laser scribing and inkjet deposition, the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders. To better determine the practicality of these methods from a stability point of view, a numerical analysis was carried out to determine the influence of bridging and splicing on stability of a YBCO coated conductor for both liquid nitrogen-cooled and conduction cooled geometries.

  4. Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

  5. Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

  6. How funding agencies can support research use in healthcare: an online province-wide survey to determine knowledge translation training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bev J; Schellenberg, Megan; Schell, Kara; Scarrow, Gayle

    2014-06-06

    Health research funding agencies are increasingly promoting evidence use in health practice and policy. Building on work suggesting how agencies can support such knowledge translation (KT), this paper discusses an online survey to assess KT training needs of researchers and research users as part of a Canadian provincial capacity-building effort. The survey comprised 24 multiple choice and open-ended questions including demographics, interest in learning KT skills, likelihood of participating in training, and barriers and facilitators to doing KT at work. More than 1,200 people completed the survey. The high number of responses is attributed to an engagement strategy involving partner organizations (health authorities, research institutes, universities) in survey development and distribution. SPSS was used to analyze quantitative results according to respondents' primary role, geographic region, and work setting. Qualitative results were analyzed in NVivo. Over 85 percent of respondents are interested in learning more about the top KT skills identified. Research producers have higher interest in disseminating research results; research users are more interested in the application of research results. About one-half of respondents require beginner-level training in KT skills; one-quarter need advanced training. Time and cost constraints are the biggest barriers to participating in KT training. More than one-half of respondents have no financial support for travel and almost one-half lack support for registration fees. Time is the biggest challenge to integrating KT into work. Online surveys are useful for determining knowledge translation training needs of researchers, research users and ultimately organizations. In this case, findings suggest the importance of considering all aspects of KT in training opportunities, while taking into account different stakeholder interests. Funders can play a role in developing new training opportunities as part of a broad effort

  7. Incidence of severe tracheobronchitis and pneumonia in laryngectomized patients: a retrospective clinical study and a European-wide survey among head and neck surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Cindy; van Harten, Michel C; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Retèl, Valesca P

    2014-12-01

    Laryngectomized patients, lacking conditioning of the breathing air in the upper respiratory tract, have reported considerable pulmonary complaints. It is assumed that these patients also run a higher risk of developing severe respiratory infections. Unfortunately, there is little scientific information available about the occurrence of respiratory infections and related health costs in these patients with and without the use of an HME. Therefore, the occurrence of respiratory infections in laryngectomized patients was investigated in the Netherlands Cancer Institute and by means of a survey among head and neck oncology surgeons throughout Europe. The number of tracheobronchitis and/or pneumonia events was retrospectively scored between 1973 and 2013 in medical records of 89 laryngectomized patients treated in our institute. To assess expert experiences and opinions regarding these pulmonary problems, a study-specific survey was developed. The survey was sent by email to head and neck surgeons from ten different countries. In the medical record study, an average of 0.129 respiratory infections per patient/year was found in non-HME users and 0.092 in HME users. In the survey (response rate HN surgeons 20 %; countries 90 %) 0.285 episodes per patient/year in non-HME users was statistically higher than the 0.066 episodes per patient/year in HME users. The average mortality in the HME user group per entire career of each physician was estimated at 0.0045, and for the non-HME user group this was 0.0152. There is a tendency that the number of tracheobronchitis and pneumonia episodes in non-HME users is higher than in HME users.

  8. HIV testing service awareness and service uptake among female heads of household in rural Mozambique: results from a province-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Heather N; Blevins, Meridith; Koethe, John R; Hinton, Nicole; Vaz, Lara M E; Vergara, Alfredo E; Mukolo, Abraham; Ndatimana, Elisée; Moon, Troy D; Vermund, Sten H; Wester, C William

    2015-02-12

    HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) utilization remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries, particularly in remote rural settings. We sought to identify factors associated with service awareness and service uptake of VCT among female heads of household in rural Zambézia Province of north-central Mozambique which is characterized by high HIV prevalence (12.6%), poverty, and suboptimal health service access and utilization. Our population-based survey of female heads of household was administered to a representative two-stage cluster sample using a sampling frame created for use on all national surveys and based on census results. The data served as a baseline measure for the Ogumaniha project initiated in 2009. Survey domains included poverty, health, education, income, HIV stigma, health service access, and empowerment. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to describe service awareness and service uptake of VCT. Of 3708 women surveyed, 2546 (69%) were unaware of available VCT services. Among 1162 women who were aware of VCT, 673 (58%) reported no prior testing. In the VCT aware group, VCT awareness was associated with higher education (aOR = 2.88; 95% CI = 1.61, 5.16), higher income (aOR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.86), higher numeracy (aOR = 1.05, CI 1.03, 1.08), more children HIV-associated stigma score was the factor most strongly associated with being less likely to test. (aOR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.23, 0.71; paware of services were unlikely to have been tested. Expanded VCT and social marketing of VCT are needed in rural Mozambique with special attention to issues of community-level stigma reduction.

  9. Using Mobile Devices in Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development—Comparing Theory and Practice in a Nation Wide Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Schaal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile electronic devices (MED with integrated GPS receivers are increasingly popular in environmental education (EE and education for sustainable development (ESD. This paper aims at identifying the possible applications of these devices, as well as identifying obstacles to such utilities. Therefore, a two-part study was conducted: An expert Delphi study and a nationwide online survey in Germany and Austria. In this paper, the results of the online survey are reported and compared to the findings of the Delphi study. The questionnaire of the online survey was based on a theoretical framework comprising different dimensions for the use of MED. Overall, 120 projects were included in the study. The most common target groups were school classes and the devices most frequently used were GPS receivers. The projects addressed the criteria of ESD, such as elaboration of local/global perspectives of sustainability and competencies of EE like pro-environmental behavior or attitudes. All projects were classified according to their educational design in a 2 × 2-scheme. The most common activities were predefined routes within a narrow instructional setting. Divergences between expert views and practical realization are identified and discussed.

  10. Modulation schemes with enhanced switch thermal distribution for single-phase AC-DC-AC reduced-switch converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    though various topologies have been proposed. The motivation of this paper is to study two promising single-phase ac-dc-ac converters using reduced number of switches, and subsequently proposes new modulation schemes for them. The proposed schemes help the converters to achieve a better thermal spread...... among their switches, while keeping their dc-link voltages low. Single points of failure are thus minimized, allowing the converters to have longer lifetimes. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the intended performances and hence verifying the idea.......ulation schemes can significantly change the performance of a power converter in steady state, and they have been extensively studied, but mostly directed to three-phase topologies, where triplen offsets are added. Single-phase systems, including ac-dc-ac systems, are less widely pursued, even...

  11. ACS CCD Stability Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman

    2012-10-01

    A moderately crowded stellar field in the cluster 47 Tuc {6 arcmin West of the cluster core} is observed every four months with the WFC. The first visit exercises the full suite of broad and narrow band imaging filters and sub-array modes; following visits observe with only the six most popular Cycle 18 filters in full-frame mode. The positions and magnitudes of objects will be used to monitor local and large scale variations in the plate scale and the sensitivity of the detectors and to derive an independent measure of the detector CTE. One exposure in each sub-array mode with the WFC will allow us to verify that photometry obtained in full-frame and in sub-array modes are repeatable to better than 1%. This test is important for the ACS Photometric Cross-Calibration program, which uses sub-array exposures. This program may receive additional orbits to investigate ORIENT-dependent geometric distortion, which motivates the ORIENT and BETWEEN requirement on the first visit.

  12. Broadband Interferometer for Measuring Transmitted Wavefronts of Optical Bandpass Filters for HST (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucarut, R. A.; Leviton, D. B.

    1998-01-01

    The transmitted wavefronts of optical filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) are characterized using the Wildly and Openly Modified Broadband Achromatic Twyman Green (WOMBAT) Interferometer developed in the NASA/GSFC Optics Branch's Diffraction Grating Evaluation Facility (DGEF). Because only four of thirty-three of ACS's optical bandpass filters transmit the 633 nm light of most commercial interferometers, a broadband interferometer is required to verify specified transmitted wavefront of ACS filters. WOMBAT's design is a hybrid of the BAT interferometer developed by JPL used for HST Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2) filters and a WYKO 400 phase shifting interferometer. It includes a broadband light source, monochromator, off-axis, parabolic collimating and camera mirrors, an aluminum-coated fused silica beam splitter, flat retroreflecting mirrors for the test and reference arms, and a LTV-sensitive CCD camera. An outboarded, piezo-electric phase shifter holds the flat mirror in the interferometer's reference arm. The interferometer is calibrated through interaction between the WYKO system's software and WONMAT hardware for the test wavelength of light entering the beam splitter. Phase-shifted interferograms of the filter mounted in the test arm are analyzed using WYKO's Vision' software. Filters as large as 90 mm in diameter have been measured over a wavelength range from 200 to 1100 nm with a sensitivity of lambda/200 rms at lambda = 633 nm. Results of transmitted wavefront measurements are shown for ACS fixed band pass and spatially-variable bandpass filters for a variety of wavelengths.

  13. The Normal and Inverted Meyer-Neldel Rule in the ac Conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    ABDEL-WAHAB, Fouad

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a new approach has been proposed for the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model where the ac relaxation time is thought to obey the Meyer-Neldel (MN) rule. This approach gives quantitative agreement with some reliable published experimental data. We report on an experiment involving the characterization of the ac conductivity of Se-Te thin films over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures, carried out in order to confirm applicability of the MN rule to the ac conducti...

  14. Population-wide weight loss and regain in relation to diabetes burden and cardiovascular mortality in Cuba 1980-2010: repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Manuel; Bilal, Usama; Orduñez, Pedro; Benet, Mikhail; Morejón, Alain; Caballero, Benjamín; Kennelly, Joan F; Cooper, Richard S

    2013-04-09

    To evaluate the associations between population-wide loss and gain in weight with diabetes prevalence, incidence, and mortality, as well as cardiovascular and cancer mortality trends, in Cuba over a 30 year interval. Repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends. Cuba and the province of Cienfuegos, from 1980 to 2010. Measurements in Cienfuegos included a representative sample of 1657, 1351, 1667, and 1492 adults in 1991, 1995, 2001, and 2010, respectively. National surveys included a representative sample of 14 304, 22 851, and 8031 participants in 1995, 2001, and 2010, respectively. Changes in smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, and body weight were tracked from 1980 to 2010 using national and regional surveys. Data for diabetes prevalence and incidence were obtained from national population based registries. Mortality trends were modelled using national vital statistics. Rapid declines in diabetes and heart disease accompanied an average population-wide loss of 5.5 kg in weight, driven by an economic crisis in the mid-1990s. A rebound in population weight followed in 1995 (33.5% prevalence of overweight and obesity) and exceeded pre-crisis levels by 2010 (52.9% prevalence). The population-wide increase in weight was immediately followed by a 116% increase in diabetes prevalence and 140% increase in diabetes incidence. Six years into the weight rebound phase, diabetes mortality increased by 49% (from 9.3 deaths per 10 000 people in 2002 to 13.9 deaths per 10 000 people in 2010). A deceleration in the rate of decline in mortality from coronary heart disease was also observed. In relation to the Cuban experience in 1980-2010, there is an association at the population level between weight reduction and death from diabetes and cardiovascular disease; the opposite effect on the diabetes and cardiovascular burden was seen on population-wide weight gain.

  15. Using AC Motors in Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Marzi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been proven that fuzzy controllers are capable of controlling non-linear systems where it is cumbersome to develop conventional controllers based on mathematical modeling. This paper describes designing fuzzy controllers for an AC motor run mechanism. It also compares performance of two controllers designed based on Mamdani and Takagi-Sugeno with the conventional control scheme in a short track length, following a high disturbance. Fine and rapid control of AC motors have been a challenge and the main obstacle in gaining popularity in use of AC motors in robots actuators. This chapter reviews how use of intelligent control scheme can help to solve this problem.

  16. Panitumumab Use in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer and Patterns of KRAS Testing: Results from a Europe-Wide Physician Survey and Medical Records Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Trojan

    Full Text Available From 2008-2013, the European indication for panitumumab required that patients' tumor KRAS exon 2 mutation status was known prior to starting treatment. To evaluate physician awareness of panitumumab prescribing information and how physicians prescribe panitumumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC, two European multi-country, cross-sectional, observational studies were initiated in 2012: a physician survey and a medical records review. The first two out of three planned rounds for each study are reported.The primary objective in the physician survey was to estimate the prevalence of KRAS testing, and in the medical records review, it was to evaluate the effect of test results on patterns of panitumumab use. The medical records review study also included a pathologists' survey.In the physician survey, nearly all oncologists (299/301 were aware of the correct panitumumab indication and the need to test patients' tumor KRAS status before treatment with panitumumab. Nearly all oncologists (283/301 had in the past 6 months of clinical practice administered panitumumab correctly to mCRC patients with wild-type KRAS status. In the medical records review, 97.5% of participating oncologists (77/79 conducted a KRAS test for all of their patients prior to prescribing panitumumab. Four patients (1.3% did not have tumor KRAS mutation status tested prior to starting panitumumab treatment. Approximately one-quarter of patients (85/306 were treated with panitumumab and concurrent oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy; of these, 83/85 had confirmed wild-type KRAS status prior to starting panitumumab treatment. All 56 referred laboratories that participated used a Conformité Européenne-marked or otherwise validated KRAS detection method, and nearly all (55/56 participated in a quality assurance scheme.There was a high level of knowledge amongst oncologists around panitumumab prescribing information and the need to test and confirm patients

  17. Panitumumab Use in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer and Patterns of KRAS Testing: Results from a Europe-Wide Physician Survey and Medical Records Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Jörg; Mineur, Laurent; Tomášek, Jiří; Rouleau, Etienne; Fabian, Pavel; de Maglio, Giovanna; García-Alfonso, Pilar; Aprile, Giuseppe; Taylor, Aliki; Kafatos, George; Downey, Gerald; Terwey, Jan-Henrik; van Krieken, J Han

    2015-01-01

    From 2008-2013, the European indication for panitumumab required that patients' tumor KRAS exon 2 mutation status was known prior to starting treatment. To evaluate physician awareness of panitumumab prescribing information and how physicians prescribe panitumumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), two European multi-country, cross-sectional, observational studies were initiated in 2012: a physician survey and a medical records review. The first two out of three planned rounds for each study are reported. The primary objective in the physician survey was to estimate the prevalence of KRAS testing, and in the medical records review, it was to evaluate the effect of test results on patterns of panitumumab use. The medical records review study also included a pathologists' survey. In the physician survey, nearly all oncologists (299/301) were aware of the correct panitumumab indication and the need to test patients' tumor KRAS status before treatment with panitumumab. Nearly all oncologists (283/301) had in the past 6 months of clinical practice administered panitumumab correctly to mCRC patients with wild-type KRAS status. In the medical records review, 97.5% of participating oncologists (77/79) conducted a KRAS test for all of their patients prior to prescribing panitumumab. Four patients (1.3%) did not have tumor KRAS mutation status tested prior to starting panitumumab treatment. Approximately one-quarter of patients (85/306) were treated with panitumumab and concurrent oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy; of these, 83/85 had confirmed wild-type KRAS status prior to starting panitumumab treatment. All 56 referred laboratories that participated used a Conformité Européenne-marked or otherwise validated KRAS detection method, and nearly all (55/56) participated in a quality assurance scheme. There was a high level of knowledge amongst oncologists around panitumumab prescribing information and the need to test and confirm patients' tumors as

  18. Panitumumab use in metastatic colorectal cancer and patterns of RAS testing: results from a Europe-wide physician survey and medical records review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han van Krieken, J; Kafatos, George; Bennett, James; Mineur, Laurent; Tomášek, Jiří; Rouleau, Etienne; Fabian, Pavel; De Maglio, Giovanna; García-Alfonso, Pilar; Aprile, Giuseppe; Parkar, Parijan; Downey, Gerald; Demonty, Gaston; Trojan, Jörg

    2017-11-28

    In Europe, treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with panitumumab requires prior confirmation of RAS wild-type mutation status. Two studies - a physician survey and a medical records review (MRR) - were conducted to evaluate the use of panitumumab and awareness among prescribing oncologists of the associated RAS testing requirements in clinical practice. Both studies enrolled participants from nine European countries and were carried out in three consecutive rounds. Rounds 1 and 2 (2012-2013) examined KRAS (exon 2) testing only; the results have been published in full previously. Round 3 (2014-2015) examined full RAS testing (exons 2, 3, 4 of KRAS and NRAS) and was initiated following a change in prescribing guidelines, from requiring KRAS alone to requiring full RAS testing. For the physician survey, telephone interviews were conducted with oncologists who had prescribed panitumumab to patients with mCRC in the previous 6 months. For the MRR, oncologists were asked to provide anonymised clinical information, extracted from their patients' records. In Round 3, 152 oncologists and 131 patients' records were included in the physician survey and MRR, respectively. In Round 3 of the physician survey, 95.4% (n = 145) of participants correctly identified that panitumumab should only be prescribed in RAS wild-type mCRC compared with 99.0% (n = 298) of 301 participants in Rounds 1 and 2, responding to the same question about KRAS testing. In Round 3 of the MRR, 100% (n = 131) of patients included in the study had confirmed KRAS or RAS wild-type status prior to initiation of panitumumab compared with 97.7% (n = 299) of 306 patients in Rounds 1 and 2 (KRAS only). Of those patients in Round 3, 83.2% (n = 109) had been tested for RAS status and 16.8% (n = 22) had been tested for KRAS status only. Physicians' adherence to prescribing guidelines has remained high over time in Europe, despite the change in indication for panitumumab treatment, from KRAS to

  19. The Need for Social Ethics in Interdisciplinary Environmental Science Graduate Programs: Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Troy E; Engebretson, Jesse; O'Rourke, Michael; Piso, Zach; Whyte, Kyle; Valles, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Professionals in environmental fields engage with complex problems that involve stakeholders with different values, different forms of knowledge, and contentious decisions. There is increasing recognition of the need to train graduate students in interdisciplinary environmental science programs (IESPs) in these issues, which we refer to as "social ethics." A literature review revealed topics and skills that should be included in such training, as well as potential challenges and barriers. From this review, we developed an online survey, which we administered to faculty from 81 United States colleges and universities offering IESPs (480 surveys were completed). Respondents overwhelmingly agreed that IESPs should address values in applying science to policy and management decisions. They also agreed that programs should engage students with issues related to norms of scientific practice. Agreement was slightly less strong that IESPs should train students in skills related to managing value conflicts among different stakeholders. The primary challenges to incorporating social ethics into the curriculum were related to the lack of materials and expertise for delivery, though challenges such as ethics being marginalized in relation to environmental science content were also prominent. Challenges related to students' interest in ethics were considered less problematic. Respondents believed that social ethics are most effectively delivered when incorporated into existing courses, and they preferred case studies or problem-based learning for delivery. Student competence is generally not assessed, and respondents recognized a need for both curricular materials and assessment tools.

  20. Factors associated with dog rabies vaccination in Bhol, Philippines: results of a cross-sectional cluster survey conducted following the island-wide rabies elimination campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davlin, S; Lapiz, S M; Miranda, M E; Murray, K

    2013-11-01

    The Philippines has a long history of rabies control efforts in their dog populations; however, long-term success of such programmes and the goal of rabies elimination have not yet been realized. The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Program was developed as an innovative approach to canine rabies control in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess canine rabies vaccination coverage in the owned-dog population in Bohol and to describe factors associated with rabies vaccination 2 years after implementation of the programme. We utilized a cross-sectional cluster survey based on the World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage survey technique. We sampled 460 households and collected data on 539 dogs residing within these households. Seventy-seven per cent of surveyed households reported owning at least one dog. The human-to-dog ratio was approximately 4 : 1, and the mean number of dogs owned per household was 1.6. Based on this ratio, we calculated an owned-dog population of almost 300 000. Overall, 71% of dogs were reported as having been vaccinated for rabies at some time in their lives; however, only 64% of dogs were reported as having been recently vaccinated. Dogs in our study were young (median age = 24 months). The odds of vaccination increased with increasing age. Dogs aged 12-23 months had 4.6 times the odds of vaccination compared to dogs aged 3-11 months (95% CI 1.8-12.0; P = 0.002). Confinement of the dog both day and night was also associated with increased odds of vaccination (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 0.9-4.9; P = 0.07), and this result approached statistical significance. While the programme is on track to meet its goal of 80% vaccination coverage, educational efforts should focus on the need to confine dogs and vaccinate young dogs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. The whereabouts of flower visitors: contrasting land-use preferences revealed by a country-wide survey based on citizen science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Deguines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past decade, accumulating evidence of pollinator decline has raised concerns regarding the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and the sustainability of crop production. Although land-use changes have been advanced as the major causes, the affinities of most wild pollinators with the main land-use types remain unknown. Filling this gap in our knowledge is a prerequisite to improving conservation and management programmes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimated the affinity of flower visitors with urban, agricultural and natural land-uses using data from a country-wide scale monitoring scheme based on citizen science (Spipoll. We tested whether the affinities differed among insect orders and according to insect frequency (frequent or infrequent. Our results indicate that the affinities with the three land-use types differed among insect orders. Apart from Hymenopterans, which appeared tolerant to the different land-uses, all flower visitors presented a negative affinity with urban areas and a positive affinity with agricultural and natural areas. Additionally, infrequent taxa displayed a lower affinity with urban areas and a higher affinity with natural areas than did frequent taxa. Within frequent taxa, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera included specialists of the three land-use types whereas Diptera and Lepidoptera contained specialists of all but urban areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach allowed the first standardised evaluation of the affinity of flower visitors with the main land-use types across a broad taxonomical range and a wide geographic scope. Our results suggest that the most detrimental land-use change for flower visitor communities is urbanisation. Moreover, our findings highlight the fact that agricultural areas have the potential to host highly diverse pollinator communities. We suggest that policy makers should, therefore, focus on the implementation of pollinator-friendly practices in agricultural

  2. Prevalence of self-reported tuberculosis, knowledge about tuberculosis transmission and its determinants among adults in India: results from a nation-wide cross-sectional household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about symptoms and transmission of tuberculosis determines health seeking behavior and helps in prevention of tuberculosis transmission in the community. Such data is useful for policy makers to formulate information, education and communication strategies for tuberculosis control. Methods A secondary data analysis of India demographic and health survey, 2005/6 was carried out. Questions about self-reported tuberculosis, transmission and curability of tuberculosis were analysed. Correct knowledge (without misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission was used as a dependant variable and the explanatory variables tested were: demographic data, education, wealth quintiles, frequency of exposure to media and the curability of tuberculosis. Determinants of correct knowledge without misconceptions were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses using national weighting factor to adjust for complex sampling design. Results A total of 109,070 households (response rate of 93.5% and 198,718 participants (response rate of 91.6% completed the survey. The samples of men and women interviewed were 74,360 and 124,358 respectively. Prevalence rate of self-reported tuberculosis was 445 per 100,000 usual household residents and 4.60 per 1,000 participants. The number of respondents who had “heard of an illness called tuberculosis” was 177,423 (89.3%. Of these 47,487 (26.8% participants did not know and 55.5% knew about the correct mode of tuberculosis transmission i.e. “Through the air when coughing or sneezing”. The common misconceptions about transmission were “Through food” (32.4%, “Sharing utensils” (18.2%, and “Touching a person with tuberculosis” (12.3%. Only 52,617 (29.7% participants had correct knowledge without misconceptions. Being male (aOR 1.17, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.21, being a Hindu (aOR 1.20, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.26 or Muslim (aOR 1.26, 95% CIs 1.18, 1.34, listening to radio (aOR 1.08, 95% CIs 1.04, 1

  3. Nursing staff and euthanasia in the Netherlands. A nation-wide survey on attitudes and involvement in decision making and the performance of euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Anneke L; Albers, Gwenda; Bilsen, Johan; de Veer, Anke J E; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2016-05-01

    To give insight into Dutch nursing staff's attitudes and involvement regarding euthanasia. The sample was recruited from a nation-wide existent research panel of registered nurses and certified nursing assistants. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. 587 respondents (response of 65%) completed the questionnaire. The majority (83%) state that physicians have to discuss the decision about euthanasia with the nurses involved. Besides, 69% state that a physician should discuss a euthanasia request with nurses who have regular contact with a patient. Nursing staff who have religious or other beliefs that they consider important for their attitude towards end-of-life decisions, and staff working in a hospital or home care, are most likely to have this opinion. Being present during the euthanasia is quite unusual: only a small group (7%) report that this has ever been the case in their entire working life. Seven% (incorrectly) think they are allowed to administer the lethal drugs. The majority want to be involved in decision-making processes about euthanasia. Not all are aware that they are not legally allowed to administer the lethal drugs. Nursing staff should be informed of relevant existing legislation and professional guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-wide survey and expression profiling of heat shock proteins and heat shock factors revealed overlapped and stress specific response under abiotic stresses in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenhuo; Hu, Guocheng; Han, Bin

    2009-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperons, which function in protein folding and assembly, protein intracellular localization and secretion, and degradation of misfolded and truncated proteins. Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are the transcriptional activators of Hsps. It has been reported that Hsps and Hsfs are widely involved in response to various abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, salinity and cold. To elucidate the function and regulation of rice Hsp and Hsf genes, we examined a global expression profiling with heat stressed rice seedling, and then compared our results with the previous rice data under cold, drought and salt stresses. The comparison revealed that, while most Hsfs and Hsps had highly similar and overlapped response and regulation patterns under different stresses, some of those genes showed significantly specific response to distinct stress. We also found that heat-responsive gene profiling differed largely from those under cold/drought/salt stresses, and that drought treatment was more effective to up-regulate Hsf expression in rice than in Arabidopsis. Overall, our data suggests that Hsps and Hsfs might be important elements in cross-talk of different stress signal transduction networks. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-wide survey of B-box proteins in potato (Solanum tuberosum-Identification, characterization and expression patterns during diurnal cycle, etiolation and de-etiolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Talar

    Full Text Available Plant B-box domain proteins (BBX mediate many light-influenced developmental processes including seedling photomorphogenesis, seed germination, shade avoidance and photoperiodic regulation of flowering. Despite the wide range of potential functions, the current knowledge regarding BBX proteins in major crop plants is scarce. In this study, we identify and characterize the StBBX gene family in potato, which is composed of 30 members, with regard to structural properties and expression profiles under diurnal cycle, etiolation and de-etiolations. Based on domain organization and phylogenetic relationships, StBBX genes have been classified into five groups. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that expression of most of them oscillates following a 24-h rhythm; however, large differences in expression profiles were observed between the genes regarding amplitude and position of the maximal and minimal expression levels in the day/night cycle. On the basis of the time-of-day/time-of-night, we distinguished three expression groups specifically expressed during the light and two during the dark phase. In addition, we showed that the expression of several StBBX genes is under the control of the circadian clock and that some others are specifically associated with the etiolation and de-etiolation conditions. Thus, we concluded that StBBX proteins are likely key players involved in the complex diurnal and circadian networks regulating plant development as a function of light conditions and day duration.

  6. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Coleman, Richard R.

    2016-04-08

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occupies reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d = 0.006 – 0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographical barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST = 0.066 – 0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7 Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4 Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7 – 0.9 Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypthosis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition.

  7. Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), with a focus on the applications of a novel microsatellite marker system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Li, Yu-Zhi; Du, Lian-Ming; Yang, Bo; Shen, Fu-Jun; Zhang, He-Min; Zhang, Zhi-He; Zhang, Xiu-Yue; Yue, Bi-Song

    2015-02-07

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a critically endangered species endemic to China. Microsatellites have been preferred as the most popular molecular markers and proven effective in estimating population size, paternity test, genetic diversity for the critically endangered species. The availability of the giant panda complete genome sequences provided the opportunity to carry out genome-wide scans for all types of microsatellites markers, which now opens the way for the analysis and development of microsatellites in giant panda. By screening the whole genome sequence of giant panda in silico mining, we identified microsatellites in the genome of giant panda and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. Based on our search criteria, a repertoire of 855,058 SSRs was detected, with mono-nucleotides being the most abundant. SSRs were found in all genomic regions and were more abundant in non-coding regions than coding regions. A total of 160 primer pairs were designed to screen for polymorphic microsatellites using the selected tetranucleotide microsatellite sequences. The 51 novel polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite loci were discovered based on genotyping blood DNA from 22 captive giant pandas in this study. Finally, a total of 15 markers, which showed good polymorphism, stability, and repetition in faecal samples, were used to establish the novel microsatellite marker system for giant panda. Meanwhile, a genotyping database for Chengdu captive giant pandas (n = 57) were set up using this standardized system. What's more, a universal individual identification method was established and the genetic diversity were analysed in this study as the applications of this marker system. The microsatellite abundance and diversity were characterized in giant panda genomes. A total of 154,677 tetranucleotide microsatellites were identified and 15 of them were discovered as the polymorphic and stable loci. The individual

  8. Internet and The World Wide Web

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Internet and The World Wide Web. Neelima Shrikhande. General Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 64-74. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0064-0074 ...

  9. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-05-15

    Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, 'environmental equity' indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International 'best practice benchmarks' will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. This research is highly original due to the very 'upstream' approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative

  10. VVCF AC-AC Converters Using Single Bridge Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neba, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Itoh, Ryozo; Ishizaka, Kouichi

    Single-phase and three-phase voltage source converters with variable voltage and constant frequency ac-ac conversion are presented. These converters are a single bridge circuit of two legs for single-phase conversion and of three legs for three-phase, respectively. Both the power source and the load are connected to bridge legs. The normal PWM methods with the sinusoidal modulating and the triangular carrier waves are used for the converters. The experimental results confirm that the PWM converters can generate the sinusoidal input/output currents.

  11. Extreme charge-trapping by pixels in Hubble's ACS/WFC detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryon, Jenna E.; Grogin, Norman A.; ACS Team

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the properties of sink pixels in the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) detector. These pixels likely contain extra charge traps and therefore appear anomalously low in images with relatively high backgrounds. We identify sink pixels in the average short (0.5-second) dark image from each monthly anneal cycle, which, since January 2015, have been post-flashed to a background of about 60 e-. Sink pixels can affect the pixels immediately above and below them in the same column, resulting in high downstream pixels and low trails of upstream pixels. We determine typical trail lengths for sink pixels of different depths at various background levels. We create a reference image, one for each anneal cycle since January 2015, that will be used by CALACS to flag sink pixels and the adjacent affected pixels in science images.

  12. Hopping models and ac universality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA) is the h......Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA......) is the harmonic (fracton) dimension of the diffusion cluster. The temperature scaling of the dimensionless frequency entering into the DCA is discussed. Finally, some open problems regarding ac universality are listed....

  13. Nuclear structure of $^{231}$Ac

    CERN Document Server

    Boutami, R; Mach, H; Kurcewicz, W; Fraile, L M; Gulda, K; Aas, A J; García-Raffi, L M; Løvhøiden, G; Martínez, T; Rubio, B; Taín, J L; Tengblad, O

    2008-01-01

    The low-energy structure of 231Ac has been investigated by means of gamma ray spectroscopy following the beta-decay of 231Ra. Multipolarities of 28 transitions have been established by measuring conversion electrons with a mini-orange electron spectrometer. The decay scheme of 231Ra --> 231Ac has been constructed for the first time. The Advanced Time Delayed beta-gamma-gamma(t) method has been used to measure the half-lives of five levels. The moderately fast B(E1) transition rates derived suggest that the octupole effects, albeit weak, are still present in this exotic nucleus.

  14. AcEST: BP920378 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Actin OS=Histriculus cavicola PE=3 SV=2 55 1e-07 sp|P26182|ACT_ACHBI Actin OS=Ac...V=1 55 1e-07 sp|P17128|ACT_KLULA Actin OS=Kluyveromyces lactis GN=ACT PE=3 SV=2 55 1e-07 sp|O00937|ACT_HISCA

  15. AcEST: BP918420 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D 180 >sp|A8AC98|APGM_IGNH4 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase OS=Ignicoccus hosp...italis (strain KIN4/I / DSM 18386 / JCM 14125) GN=apgM PE=3 SV=1 Length = 416 Score

  16. AcEST: BP921278 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ac... 30 2.9 sp|Q01042|IE68_SHV21 Immediate-early protein OS=Saimiriine herpe... 30 2.9 sp|Q8CFW7|C2D2A_MOUS...PSPAPSLEES---HRPGSQTSSHPSSSVSSSPSQMDHHSE 418 >sp|Q01042|IE68_SHV21 Immediate-earl

  17. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  18. Burkina Faso - Roads Baseline Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — NOTE !!!This survey data was not used for any independent evaluation reports!!! Impaq worked with the data collection firms NSCE-MCG-AC3E [the Group] to conduct...

  19. Sub-Kelvin ac magnetic susceptometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M A; Silevitch, D M; Woo, N; Rosenbaum, T F

    2013-01-01

    Designing an apparatus for experiments that operate deep into the milliKelvin regime requires a careful selection of materials and construction techniques, and often entails balancing mutually contradictory requirements. In the case of magnetic susceptibility measurements, this involves choosing materials that realize both high thermal conductivity for good heat sinking and low electrical conductivity for minimal eddy-current heating. A coil mounting system with a completely nonmetallic construction, achieved through the use of a sapphire skeleton and a machined carbon-fiber body, resolves this dilemma. This system permits the use of large ac magnetic field amplitudes at kHz frequencies and above, opening the door to studies of the nonlinear dynamics of a wide variety of magnetic systems that were previously inaccessible.

  20. Substituted Phthalimide AC94377 Is a Selective Agonist of the Gibberellin Receptor GID11[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Masato; Shimotakahara, Hiroaki; Yoon, Jung-Min; Park, Seung-Hyun; Miyaji, Tomoko; Nakano, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Nakajima, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is a major plant hormone that regulates plant growth and development and is widely used as a plant growth regulator in agricultural production. There is an increasing demand for function-limited GA mimics due to the limitations on the agronomical application of GA to crops, including GA’s high cost of producing and its leading to the crops’ lodging. AC94377, a substituted phthalimide, is a chemical that mimics the growth-regulating activity of GAs in various plants, despite its structural difference. Although AC94377 is widely studied in many weeds and crops, its mode of action as a GA mimic is largely unknown. In this study, we confirmed that AC94377 displays GA-like activities in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and demonstrated that AC94377 binds to the Arabidopsis GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) receptor (AtGID1), forms the AtGID1-AC94377-DELLA complex, and induces the degradation of DELLA protein. Our results also indicated that AC94377 is selective for a specific subtype among three AtGID1s and that the selectivity of AC94377 is attributable to a single residue at the entrance to the hydrophobic pocket of GID1. We conclude that AC94377 is a GID1 agonist with selectivity for a specific subtype of GID1, which could be further developed and used as a function-limited regulator of plant growth in both basic study and agriculture. PMID:27899534

  1. STIMULATION OF RENIN SECRETION BY CATECHOLAMINES IS DEPENDENT ON ADENYLYL CYCLASES AC5 AND AC6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehni, Fadi; Tang, Tong; Madsen, Kirsten; Plattner, Michael; Schreiber, Andrea; Friis, Ulla G.; Hammond, H. Kirk; Han, Pyung Lim; Schweda, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system stimulates renin release from juxtaglomerular cells via the ß-adrenoreceptor - cAMP pathway. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that the calcium-inhibited adenylyl cyclases AC5 and AC6 possess key roles in the control of renin exocytosis. In order to investigate the relative contribution of AC5 and AC6 to the regulation of renin release in vivo we performed experiments using AC5 and AC6 knockout mice. Male AC5−/− mice exhibited normal plasma renin concentrations (PRC), renal renin synthesis (mRNA and renin content), urinary volume and systolic blood pressure. In male AC6−/− mice, PRC (AC6−/−: 732 ± 119, AC6 +/+: 436 ± 78 ng angI/h*ml, p renin synthesis were stimulated associated with an increased excretion of dilute urine (1.55-fold, p renin release from isolated perfused kidneys were attenuated to a higher extent in AC6−/− (−51 to −98% vs. AC6+/+) than in AC5−/− (−31 to 46% vs. AC5+/+). In conclusion, both AC5 and AC6 are involved in the stimulation of renin secretion in vivo, and AC6 is the dominant isoforms in this process. PMID:21282557

  2. AcEST: DK955839 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 70 OS=Cucumis sativus ... 320 3e-86 tr|Q8GSN4|Q8GSN4_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous... MVLIKMREIAEAYLGSNIKNAVVTVPAYFNDSQRQATKDAGVIAGLNVMR 174 >tr|Q8GSN3|Q8GSN3_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous heat sho...3|Q8GSN3_CUCMA Non-cell-autonomous heat shock cognate pr... 324 3e-87 tr|Q67BD0|Q67BD0_TOBAC Heat shock prot...iva subs... 324 2e-87 tr|B8AC06|B8AC06_ORYSI Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Oryza... 324 2e-87 tr|Q8GSN

  3. Distributed AC power flow method for AC and AC-DC hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proposed DPFM can be used for AC low voltage (LV) autonomous microgrid systems with added advantages of remedying the dependency on voltage level and R/X ratio in the formulation itself. DPFM is applied on a 10 bus, low voltage, microgrid system giving a better voltage profile.. Keywords: Microgrid (MG) ...

  4. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explores recent trends in the unemployment of recent veterans as estimated from two nationally representative surveys, the Current Population Survey "CPS" and the American Community Survey "ACS...

  5. AcEST: DK954361 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in 5-4 OS=Homo sap... 33 1.1 sp|Q9DBY1|SYVN1_MOUSE E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase synoviolin OS=... 33 1.4 sp|Q...86TM6|SYVN1_HUMAN E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase synoviolin OS=... 33 1.4 sp|O55188|DMP1_MOUSE Dentin matrix ac

  6. Aperture measurements with AC dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Fuster Martinez, Nuria; Dilly, Joschua Werner; Nevay, Laurence James; Bruce, Roderik; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Redaelli, Stefano; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    During the MDs performed on the 15th of September and 29th of November 2017, we measured the LHC global aperture at injection with a new AC dipole method as well as using the Transverse Damper (ADT) blow-up method used during the 2017 LHC commissioning for benchmarking. In this note, the MD procedure is presented as well as the analysis of the comparison between the two methods. The possible benefits of the new method are discussed.

  7. Sky Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A. A.; Drake, A.J.; Graham, M. J.; C. Donalek

    2012-01-01

    Sky surveys represent a fundamental data basis for astronomy. We use them to map in a systematic way the universe and its constituents, and to discover new types of objects or phenomena. We review the subject, with an emphasis on the wide-field imaging surveys, placing them in a broader scientific and historical context. Surveys are the largest data generators in astronomy, propelled by the advances in information and computation technology, and have transformed the ways in which astronomy is...

  8. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  9. Performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Department of Applied Chemistry, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    The effect of negative to positive electrode materials' weight ratio on the electrochemical performance of both activated carbon (AC)/AC and AC/graphite capacitors has been investigated, especially in the terms of capacity and cycle-ability. The limited capacity charge mode has been proposed to improve the cycle performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite. (author)

  10. AcEST: DK949342 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18 (72%), Positives = 16/18 (88%) Frame = +1 Query: 31 ACYNCGESGHLARDCPSE 84 AC+NCGESGH A DCP++ Sbjct: 741 A...270 Score = 37.0 bits (84), Expect = 0.030 Identities = 12/16 (75%), Positives = 15/16 (93%) Frame...= 36.6 bits (83), Expect = 0.040 Identities = 12/16 (75%), Positives = 14/16 (87%) Frame = +1 Query: 34 CYNC... (79), Expect = 0.12 Identities = 10/16 (62%), Positives = 15/16 (93%) Frame = +1 Query: 34 CYNCGESGHLARDCPS...6 (62%), Positives = 15/16 (93%) Frame = +1 Query: 34 CYNCGESGHLARDCPS 81 CY CG++GH++RDCP+ Sbjct: 170 CYKCGD

  11. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HnRNP) K genome-wide binding survey reveals its role in regulating 3'-end RNA processing and transcription termination at the early growth response 1 (EGR1) gene through XRN2 exonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Michal; Bomsztyk, Karol; Goryca, Krzysztof; Chojnowski, Krzysztof; Ostrowski, Jerzy

    2013-08-23

    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK) is a nucleic acid-binding protein that acts as a docking platform integrating signal transduction pathways to nucleic acid-related processes. Given that hnRNPK could be involved in other steps that compose gene expression the definition of its genome-wide occupancy is important to better understand its role in transcription and co-transcriptional processes. Here, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to analyze the genome-wide hnRNPK-DNA interaction in colon cancer cell line HCT116. 9.1/3.6 and 7.0/3.4 million tags were sequenced/mapped, then 1809 and 642 hnRNPK binding sites were detected in quiescent and 30-min serum-stimulated cells, respectively. The inspection of sequencing tracks revealed inducible hnRNPK recruitment along a number of immediate early gene loci, including EGR1 and ZFP36, with the highest densities present at the transcription termination sites. Strikingly, hnRNPK knockdown with siRNA resulted in increased pre-RNA levels transcribed downstream of the EGR1 polyadenylation (A) site suggesting altered 3'-end pre-RNA degradation. Further ChIP survey of hnRNPK knockdown uncovered decreased recruitment of the 5'-3' exonuclease XRN2 along EGR1 and downstream of the poly(A) signal without altering RNA polymerase II density at these sites. Immunoprecipitation of hnRNPK and XRN2 from intact and RNase A-treated nuclear extracts followed by shotgun mass spectrometry revealed the presence of hnRNPK and XRN2 in the same complexes along with other spliceosome-related proteins. Our data suggest that hnRNPK may play a role in recruitment of XRN2 to gene loci thus regulating coupling 3'-end pre-mRNA processing to transcription termination.

  12. Limits of the seismogenic zone in the epicentral region of the 26 December 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake: Results from seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection surveys and thermal modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Ladage, S; Dessa, J -X; Graindorge, David; Franke, D; André, C; Permana, Haryadi; Yudistira, T; Chauhan, Ajay; 10.1029/2009JB006569

    2010-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (Mw = 9.1) initiated around 30 km depth and ruptured 1300 km of the Indo-Australian Sunda plate boundary. During the Sumatra OBS (ocean bottom seismometer) survey, a wide angle seismic profile was acquired across the epicentral region. A seismic velocity model was obtained from combined travel time tomography and forward modeling. Together with reflection seismic data from the SeaCause II cruise, the deep structure of the source region of the great earthquake is revealed. Four to five kilometers of sediments overlie the oceanic crust at the trench, and the subducting slab can be imaged down to a depth of 35 km. We find a crystalline backstop 120 km from the trench axis, below the fore arc basin. A high velocity zone at the lower landward limit of the raycovered domain, at 22 km depth, marks a shallow continental Moho, 170 km from the trench. The deep structure obtained from the seismic data was used to construct a thermal model of the fore arc in order to predict the li...

  13. Alcohol problems and all-cause mortality in men and women: predictive capacity of a clinical screening tool in a 21-year follow-up of a large, UK-wide, general population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, G David; Hunt, Kate; Emslie, Carol; Lewars, Heather; Gale, Catharine R

    2009-04-01

    While the relation between alcohol consumption and mortality has been well explored, little is known about the link between alcohol problems and mortality in general population-based studies, particularly among women. This was the objective of the present study In this prospective cohort study, 5333 non-abstaining individuals (2539 women) from the UK-wide Health and Lifestyle Survey (aged 42.9 years at study induction) completed the CAGE questionnaire of alcohol problems and participated in a medical examination in 1984/1985; they were then followed up for mortality experience until 2005. Alcohol problems at baseline were less common in women (2.4%) than in men (7.8%). A total of 21 years of follow-up gave rise to 1201 deaths. Elevated rates of mortality were evident in persons reporting symptoms of alcohol problems in comparison to those who did not. In gender-stratified analyses, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with mortality risk in women (age-adjusted hazards ratio: 2.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-4.12) than in men (1.49; 1.12-1.99), although this effect modification was not statistically significant (P value for interaction=0.125). Controlling for a range of covariates--including socioeconomic position, co-morbidity (somatic and psychiatric), and alcohol intake--had essentially no impact on these associations. The CAGE questionnaire may have some utility in routine health assessments in the general population.

  14. Three New Cool Brown Dwarfs Discovered with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and an Improved Spectrum of the Y0 Dwarf WISE J041022.71+150248.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Gould, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    As part of a larger search of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data for cool brown dwarfs with effective temperatures less than 1000 K, we present the discovery of three new cool brown dwarfs with spectral types later than T7. Using low-resolution, near-infrared spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Hubble Space Telescope, we derive spectral types of T9.5 for WISE J094305.98+360723.5, T8 for WISE J200050.19+362950.1, and Y0: for WISE J220905.73+271143.9. The identification of WISE J220905.73+271143.9 as a Y dwarf brings the total number of spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to 17. In addition, we present an improved spectrum (i.e., higher signal-to-noise ratio) of the Y0 dwarf WISE J041022.71+150248.4 that confirms the Cushing et al. classification of Y0. Spectrophotometric distance estimates place all three new brown dwarfs at distances less than 12 pc, with WISE J200050.19+362950.1 lying at a distance of only 3.9-8.0 pc. Finally, we note that brown dwarfs like WISE J200050.19+362950.1 that lie in or near the Galactic plane offer an exciting opportunity to directly measure the mass of a brown dwarf via astrometric microlensing.

  15. Three new cool brown dwarfs discovered with the wide-field infrared survey explorer (WISE) and an improved spectrum of the Y0 dwarf wise J041022.71+150248.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Gould, Andrew, E-mail: michael.cushing@utoledo.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    As part of a larger search of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data for cool brown dwarfs with effective temperatures less than 1000 K, we present the discovery of three new cool brown dwarfs with spectral types later than T7. Using low-resolution, near-infrared spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Hubble Space Telescope, we derive spectral types of T9.5 for WISE J094305.98+360723.5, T8 for WISE J200050.19+362950.1, and Y0: for WISE J220905.73+271143.9. The identification of WISE J220905.73+271143.9 as a Y dwarf brings the total number of spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to 17. In addition, we present an improved spectrum (i.e., higher signal-to-noise ratio) of the Y0 dwarf WISE J041022.71+150248.4 that confirms the Cushing et al. classification of Y0. Spectrophotometric distance estimates place all three new brown dwarfs at distances less than 12 pc, with WISE J200050.19+362950.1 lying at a distance of only 3.9-8.0 pc. Finally, we note that brown dwarfs like WISE J200050.19+362950.1 that lie in or near the Galactic plane offer an exciting opportunity to directly measure the mass of a brown dwarf via astrometric microlensing.

  16. Universality of ac conduction in disordered solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The striking similarity of ac conduction in quite different disordered solids is discussed in terms of experimental results, modeling, and computer simulations. After giving an overview of experiment, a macroscopic and a microscopic model are reviewed. For both models the normalized ac conductivity...... as a function of a suitably scaled frequency becomes independent of details of the disorder in the extreme disorder limit, i.e., when the local randomly varying mobilities cover many orders of magnitude. The two universal ac conductivities are similar, but not identical; both are examples of unusual non......-power-law universalities. It is argued that ac universality reflects an underlying percolation determining dc as well as ac conductivity in the extreme disorder limit. Three analytical approximations to the universal ac conductivities are presented and compared to computer simulations. Finally, model predictions...

  17. Fifteen Years of the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys: Calibration Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Advanced CameraSurveys Instrument Team

    2017-06-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) has been a workhorse HST imager for over fifteen years, subsequent to its Servicing Mission 3B installation in 2002. The once defunct ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) has now been operating almost twice as long (>8yrs) since its Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) repair than it had originally operated prior to its 2007 failure. Despite the accumulating radiation damage to the WFC CCDs during their long stay in low Earth orbit, ACS continues to be heavily exploited by the HST community as both a prime and a parallel detector.The past year has seen several advancements in ACS data acquisition and calibration capabilities: the mostwidespread changes since shortly after SM4. We review these recent developments that enable the continued high performance of this instrument, including both the WFC and the Solar Blind Channel (SBC). Highlightsinclude: 1) implementaton of new WFC subarray modes to allow for more consistent high-fidelity calibration; 2) a thorough modernization of the original pixel-based correction of WFC charge-transfer efficiency decline; 3)"save the pixels" initiatives resulting in much less WFC bad-pixel flagging via hot-pixel stability analyses and readout-dark modeling; and 4) a new initiative to provide improved PSF estimates via empirical fitting to the full ACS archive of nearly 200,000 images.

  18. Demographics for US Census Tracts - 2012 (American Community Survey 2008-2012 Derived Summary Tables)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays data derived from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey (ACS). Values derived from the ACS and used for this map service include: Total...

  19. Demographics for US Census Tracts - 2010 (American Community Survey 2006-2010 Derived Summary Tables)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays data derived from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey (ACS). Values derived from the ACS and used for this map service include: Total...

  20. Variable speed ac motor - A continuous pole printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morash, R. T.; Barber, R. J.; Roesel, J. F., Jr.

    A description is given of a simply constructed, brushless, commutatorless ac motor that offers significant improvements over conventional induction or synchronous motors. The design makes it possible for the speed to be precisely and readily varied and for the motor to operate with ac currents of any reasonable frequency over a wide range of voltages. In essence, it is a synchronous motor that can operate at speeds well above and below 'normal speed' synchronous conditions. When operated as a constant speed machine, its efficiency is such that it holds promise for reducing electrical energy consumption in the U.S. by 3 to 4 percent. Underlying the design is a magnetizable layer on the surface of the rotor that can be continuously remagnetized while the machine is in operation. A 25-hp motor developed for use with high inertia loads is discussed.

  1. imulation Results of Single Stage AC- AC Converter for Induction Heating

    OpenAIRE

    S. ARUMUGAM; S.Rama Reddy

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents simulation of single stage Induction heating system with series Load Resonance. Low frequency AC is converted in to High Frequency Ac using newly developed ZVS-PWM high frequency inverter. This High Frequency is used for Induction Heating .Single stage AC-AC converter system is modeled and simulated using Matlab Simulink. The simulation results of ZVS-PWM high frequency system are presented. The effectiveness of this UFAC-to-HFAC direct power frequency converter using IGBT...

  2. Influence of SDBD plasma aerodynamic actuation on flow control by AC power supply and AC-DC power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu; Gao, Chao; Hao, Jiangnan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the excitation effect of single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator (SDBD) is compared by using AC power supply and AC-DC power supply. AC-DC power supply is based on the AC power supply, just adding DC component. The flow measurement is carried out by PIV technique. Results show that the excitation effect of AC power supply and AC-DC power supply increases by the increase of voltage, the range of speed field excited by AC power is greater than that of AC-DC power supply. For x direction maximum speed, excited by AC power supply is close to AC-DC, and for y direction maximum speed, AC power supply is greater than AC-DC power supply. So the excitation effect of AC power supply is better than that of AC-DC power supply for SDBD.

  3. Phase-sensitive detection of both inductive and non-inductive ac voltages in ferromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Mathias; Shaw, Justin M.; Nembach, Hans T.; Schoen, Martin A.; Boone, Carl T.; Silva, Thomas J.

    2014-03-01

    Spin pumping causes significant damping in ultrathin ferromagnetic/normal metal (NM) multilayers via spin-current generation of both dc and ac character in the NM system. While the nonlinear dc component has been investigated in detail by utilization of the inverse spin Hall effect (iSHE) in NMs, much less is known about the linear ac component that is presumably much larger in the small-excitation limit. We measured generated ac voltages in a wide variety of Permalloy/NM multilayers via vector-network-analyzer ferromagnetic resonance. We employ a custom, impedance-matched, broadband microwave coupler that features a ferromagnetic thin film reference resonator to accurately compare ac voltage amplitudes and phases between varieties of multilayers. By use of the fact that inductive and ac iSHE signals are phase-shifted by π/2, we find that inductive signals are major contributors in all investigated samples. It is only by comparison of the phase and amplitude of the recorded ac voltages between multiple samples that we can extract the non-inductive contributions due to spin-currents. Voltages due to the ac iSHE in Permalloy(10nm)/platinum(5nm) bilayers are weaker than inductive signals, in agreement with calculations based upon recent theoretical predictions. M.W. acknowledges financial support by the German Academic Exchange service (DAAD).

  4. AC-tabsmodeller for superledende kabelledere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Holm (fratrådt), Jesper; Understrup (fratrådt), Henriette

    1996-01-01

    I denne rapport opstilles tre modeller for beregning af AC-tab (vekselstrømstab) i superledende kabelledere. Beregning af tabenes størrelse er væsentlig i forbindelse med vurdering af superlederteknologiens anvendelighed til AC-applikationer. Viden om tabenes natur giver desuden et vigtigt...

  5. Bioinformatics and Astrophysics Cluster (BinAc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jens; Lutz, Volker; Bartusch, Felix; Dilling, Werner; Gorska, Anna; Schäfer, Christoph; Walter, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    BinAC provides central high performance computing capacities for bioinformaticians and astrophysicists from the state of Baden-Württemberg. The bwForCluster BinAC is part of the implementation concept for scientific computing for the universities in Baden-Württemberg. Community specific support is offered through the bwHPC-C5 project.

  6. IOT Overview: Wide-Field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, F. J.

    The Wide Field Imager (WFI) instrument at La Silla has been the workhorse of wide-field imaging instruments at ESO for several years. In this contribution I will summarize the issues relating to its productivity for the community both in terms of the quality and quantity of data that has come out of it. Although only surveys of limited scope have been completed using WFI, it is ESO's stepping-stone to the new generation of survey telescopes.

  7. Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. George; Mahabal, Ashish; Drake, Andrew; Graham, Matthew; Donalek, Ciro

    Sky surveys represent a fundamental data basis for astronomy. We usethem to map in a systematic way the universe and its constituents andto discover new types of objects or phenomena. We review the subject,with an emphasis on the wide-field, imaging surveys, placing them ina broader scientific and historical context. Surveys are now the largestdata generators in astronomy, propelled by the advances in informationand computation technology, and have transformed the ways in whichastronomy is done. This trend is bound to continue, especially with thenew generation of synoptic sky surveys that cover wide areas of the skyrepeatedly and open a new time domain of discovery. We describe thevariety and the general properties of surveys, illustrated by a number ofexamples, the ways in which they may be quantified and compared, andoffer some figures of merit that can be used to compare their scientificdiscovery potential. Surveys enable a very wide range of science, and that isperhaps their key unifying characteristic. As new domains of the observableparameter space open up thanks to the advances in technology, surveys areoften the initial step in their exploration. Some science can be done withthe survey data alone (or a combination of data from different surveys),and some require a targeted follow-up of potentially interesting sourcesselected from surveys. Surveys can be used to generate large, statisticalsamples of objects that can be studied as populations or as tracers of largerstructures to which they belong. They can be also used to discover orgenerate samples of rare or unusual objects and may lead to discoveriesof some previously unknown types. We discuss a general framework ofparameter spaces that can be used for an assessment and comparison ofdifferent surveys and the strategies for their scientific exploration. As we aremoving into the Petascale regime and beyond, an effective processing andscientific exploitation of such large data sets and data streams pose

  8. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove...

  9. Exenatide: AC 2993, AC002993, AC2993A, exendin 4, LY2148568.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Exenatide [AC002993, AC2993A, AC 2993, LY2148568, exendin 4], a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist, is a synthetic exendin 4 compound under development with Amylin Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Both exendin 4 and its analogue, exendin 3, are 39-amino acid peptides isolated from Heloderma horridum lizard venom that have different amino acids at positions 2 and 3, respectively. Exendins are able to stimulate insulin secretion in response to rising blood glucose levels, and modulate gastric emptying to slow the entry of ingested sugars into the bloodstream. Amylin Pharmaceuticals acquired exclusive patent rights for the two exendin compounds (exendin 3 and exendin 4) from the originator, Dr John Eng (Bronx, NY, US). On 20 September 2002, Amylin and Eli Lilly signed a collaborative agreement for the development and commercialisation of exenatide for type 2 diabetes. Under the terms of the agreement, Eli Lilly has paid Amylin a licensing fee of 80 million US dollars and bought Amylin's stock worth 30 million US dollars at 18.69 US dollars a share. After the initial payment, Eli Lilly will pay Amylin up to 85 US dollars million upon reaching certain milestones and also make an additional payment of up to 130 million US dollars upon global commercialisation of exenatide. Both companies will share the US development and commercialisation costs, while Eli Lilly will pick up up to 80% of development costs and all commercialisation costs outside the US. Amylin and Eli Lilly will equally share profit from sales in the US, while Eli Lilly will get 80% of the profit outside the US and Amylin will get the rest. This agreement has also enabled Amylin to train its sales force to co-promote Lilly's human growth hormone Humatrope. Alkermes will receive research and development funding and milestone payments, and also a combination of royalty payments and manufacturing fees based on product sales. Alkermes undertakes the responsibility for the development

  10. Ontogenetic Survey of Histone Modifications in an Annelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenys Gibson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications are widely recognized for their fundamental importance in regulating gene expression in embryonic development in a wide range of eukaryotes, but they have received relatively little attention in the development of marine invertebrates. We surveyed histone modifications throughout the development of a marine annelid, Polydora cornuta, to determine if modifications could be detected immunohistochemically and if there were characteristic changes in modifications throughout ontogeny (surveyed at representative stages from oocyte to adult. We found a common time of onset for three histone modifications in early cleavage (H3K14ac, H3K9me, and H3K4me2, some differences in the distribution of modifications among germ layers, differences in epifluorescence intensity in specific cell lineages suggesting that hyperacetylation (H3K14ac and hypermethylation (H3K9me occur during differentiation, and an overall decrease in the distribution of modifications from larvae to adults. Although preliminary, these results suggest that histone modifications are involved in activating early development and differentiation in a marine invertebrate.

  11. The FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Richard J.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; McKenzie, Eric; Brodwin, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cardona, Gustavo; Dey, Arjun; Dickinson, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Mohr, Joseph J.; Raines, S. Nicholas; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Using the Florida Multi-object Imaging Near-IR Grism Observational Spectrometer (FLAMINGOS), we have conducted the FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey (FLAMEX), a deep imaging survey covering 7.1 deg2 within the 18.6 deg2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS) regions. FLAMEX is the first deep, wide-area, near-infrared survey to image in both the J and Ks filters, and is larger than any previous NIR survey of comparable depth. The intent of FLAMEX is to facilitate the study of galaxy and galaxy cluster evolution at 11 galaxy clusters detected using the joint FLAMEX, NDWFS, and Spitzer IRAC Shallow Survey data sets.

  12. Cooperative Frequency Control for Autonomous AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Distributed secondary control strategies have been recently studied for frequency regulation in droop-based AC Microgrids. Unlike centralized secondary control, the distributed one might fail to provide frequency synchronization and proportional active power sharing simultaneously, due to having...... not require measuring the system frequency as compared to the other presented methods. An ac Microgrid with four sources is used to verify the performance of the proposed control methodology....

  13. AC-DC Power Processor, Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    output vol taqv S ice the out put rectifiers drop is a 1 arqe percentaote of the output voltate value. F i ure 24 Ows5 the out put impedance of the AC-I)C...65- TABLE XII- AC-DC POWER PROCESSOR TEMPERATURE PROFILE AT 83"F AMBIENT (COMPONENT AND UNIT TEMPERATURES AT END OF 72 HOUR TESI ) T.C. NO. LOCATION

  14. Text files of the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) navigation collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005 (Geographic, WGS 84, HYPACK ASCII Text Files)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In freshwater bodies of New Hampshire, the most problematic aquatic invasive plant species is Myriophyllum heterophyllum or variable leaf water-milfoil. Once...

  15. Distribution and Abundance of the Interior Population of the Least Tern (Sternula Antillarum), 2005; A Review of the First Complete Range-Wide Survey in the Context of Historic and Ongoing Monitoring Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Arkan - sas; David Oliver of the Corps’ Vicksburg District and Hubert Hervey for the “Lower” Red River in Arkansas and Louisiana downstream of Index...same year (see the methods section for how survey data were treated for this report’s presentation of historic data). Historic data from the Arkan - sas...at minimum, the full 308 river miles of the Arkansas River in Arkan - sas is covered by annual surveys. Long-term data from Corps monitoring programs

  16. Basic AC loss properties of IBAD/CVD-YBCO tapes for pancake-type coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, K. [Research Institute of Superconductor Science and Systems, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)], E-mail: funaki@sc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Sueyoshi, T.; Iwakuma, M. [Research Institute of Superconductor Science and Systems, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1 Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    We are experimentally studying basic AC loss properties of IBAD/CVD-YBCO coated conductors with a copper layer for stabilizing, especially the temperature dependence of perpendicular field loss in alternating electromagnetic environments. We prepared two types of short specimens with and without a copper layer and measured AC losses by a saddle-shaped pickup coil in an alternating magnetic field perpendicular to the wide surfaces at liquid helium temperature. In the ranges of the amplitude up to 4 T and the frequency up to 0.2 Hz, the AC losses both of the two specimens are hardly dependent upon the frequency. The results show that hysteresis loss is a major component of the AC loss in the specimens and the effects of the copper layer can be negligible. We also measured AC losses for the specimens with the copper layer at liquid nitrogen temperature to estimate the dependence on measurement temperature. The results suggested that the AC loss vs. the amplitude of applied field can be scaled by a critical current at a zero magnetic field.

  17. Microtubule alignment and manipulation using AC electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppalapati, Maruti; Huang, Ying-Ming; Jackson, Thomas N; Hancock, William O

    2008-09-01

    The kinesin-microtubule system plays an important role in intracellular transport and is a model system for integrating biomotor-driven transport into microengineered devices. AC electrokinetics provides a novel tool for manipulating and organizing microtubules in solution, enabling new experimental geometries for investigating and controlling the interactions of microtubules and microtubule motors in vitro. By fabricating microelectrodes on glass substrates and generating AC electric fields across solutions of microtubules in low-ionic-strength buffers, bundles of microtubules are collected and aligned and the electrical properties of microtubules in solution are measured. The AC electric fields result in electro-osmotic flow, electrothermal flow, and dielectrophoresis of microtubules, which can be controlled by varying the solution conductivity, AC frequency, and electrode geometry. By mapping the solution conductivity and AC frequency over which positive dielectrophoresis occurs, the apparent conductivity of taxol-stabilized bovine-brain microtubules in PIPES buffer is measured to be 250 mS m(-1). By maximizing dielectrophoretic forces and minimizing electro-osmotic and electrothermal flow, microtubules are assembled into opposed asters. These experiments demonstrate that AC electrokinetics provides a powerful new tool for kinesin-driven transport applications and for investigating the role of microtubule motors in development and maintenance of the mitotic spindle.

  18. An engineering formula to describe the AC loss of BSCCO/Ag tape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabbers, J.J.; ten Haken, Bernard; Chevtchenko, O.A.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2001-01-01

    An engineering function to describe the AC loss of BSCCO/Ag tape conductors is developed. For a wide range of transport currents and magnetic fields (with different orientation) the loss is described with an uncertainty of 10%. The equation is based on the analytical expressions available, BSCCO/Ag

  19. Legacy extragalactic UV survey (LEGUS) with the Hubble space telescope. I. Survey description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzetti, D.; Andrews, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts–Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S. N.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T. M.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Adamo, A. [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Smith, L. J. [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thilker, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Clayton, G. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Silva, R. da [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California—Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Mink, S. E. de [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dobbs, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Elmegreen, D. M., E-mail: calzetti@astro.umass.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ∼kiloparsec-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging from the near-ultraviolet to the I band with the Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3), plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the WFC3 are F275W(λ2704 Å), F336W(λ3355 Å), F438W(λ4325 Å), F555W(λ5308 Å), and F814W(λ8024 Å); the parallel observations with the ACS use the filters F435W(λ4328 Å), F606W(λ5921 Å), and F814W(λ8057 Å). The multiband images are yielding accurate recent (≲50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The extensive inventories of massive stars and clustered systems will be used to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of star formation within galaxies. This will, in turn, inform theories of galaxy evolution and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas–star formation relation and the nature of star formation at high redshift. This paper describes the survey, its goals and observational strategy, and the initial scientific results. Because LEGUS will provide a reference survey and a foundation for future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope and with ALMA, a large number of data products are planned for delivery to the community.

  20. imulation Results of Single Stage AC- AC Converter for Induction Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ARUMUGAM

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation of single stage Induction heating system with series Load Resonance. Low frequency AC is converted in to High Frequency Ac using newly developed ZVS-PWM high frequency inverter. This High Frequency is used for Induction Heating .Single stage AC-AC converter system is modeled and simulated using Matlab Simulink. The simulation results of ZVS-PWM high frequency system are presented. The effectiveness of this UFAC-to-HFAC direct power frequency converter using IGBTs for consumer high-frequency IH appliances is evaluated and proved on the basis of simulation results.

  1. Microwave-induced crystallization of AC/TiO{sub 2} for improving the performance of rhodamine B dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Fei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Wu, Zhansheng, E-mail: wuzhans@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Chen, Qiuyu; Yan, Yujun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Cravotto, Giancarlo; Wu, Zhilin [Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Turin, Torino 10125 (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mixed phase titania coated with AC was obtained by microwave irradiation method. • The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were spherical and well distributed on the surface of AC. • The light absorption edges of AC/TiO{sub 2} showed red-shift compared to the pure TiO{sub 2}. • Higher surface and TiO{sub 2} content of AC/TiO{sub 2} could improve photocatalytic efficiency. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) deposition on activated carbon (AC) is widely used for pollutant photodegradation. In this study, a simple and efficient method for preparing AC/TiO{sub 2} composites under microwave irradiation was developed for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under UV light. Results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are anatase and rutile, with a spherical shape and a particle size of 20–50 nm and are well distributed on the AC surface. The UV–vis spectrum of TiO{sub 2} coated on AC showed an evident red-shift and exhibited stronger optical absorption capacity than pure TiO{sub 2}. The AC/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared at a microwave power of 700 W for 15 min exhibited 98% efficiency in removing RhB dye under UV irradiation for 30 min. The high photocatalytic activity of AC/TiO{sub 2}-700 W could be mainly attributed to the high sorption capacity of the mesoporous carbon material and high TiO{sub 2} content, which could produce higher quantity of ·OH. This study provides a rapid synthesis technique to prepare AC/TiO{sub 2} and a novel method to improve photocatalytic efficiency via synergistic effect for other catalytic systems.

  2. Temperature profile and other data from surface measurements casts from the R/V ATLANTIC in a world-wide survey from 17 March 1900 to 08 March 1998 (NODC Accession 0000241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected from the R/V ATLANTIC in a world-wide distribution from March 17, 1900 to March 8, 1996. Data were collected by...

  3. Transformer Model in Wide Frequency Bandwidth for Power Electronics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gonzalez-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the smart grids leads to new challenges on the power electronics equipment and power transformers. The use of power electronic transformer presents several advantages, but new problems related with the application of high frequency voltage and current components come across. Thus, an accurate knowledge of the transformer behavior in a wide frequency range is mandatory. A novel modeling procedure to relate the transformer physical behavior and its frequency response by means of electrical parameters is presented. Its usability is demonstrated by an example where a power transformer is used as filter and voltage reducer in an AC-DC-AC converter.

  4. 78 FR 39345 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... No. 812-14066] ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... (``Act''). Summary of Application: ACS Wireless, Inc. (``ACS Wireless'') seeks an order under section 3(b..., reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities. ACS Wireless is primarily engaged in providing wireless...

  5. Effects of AC Electric Field on Small Laminar Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    baseline case, leading to the formation of toroidal vortices. Increased residence time and heat recirculation inside the vortex resulted in appreciable formation of PAHs and soot near the nozzle exit. Decreased residence time along the jet axis through flow acceleration by the vortex led to a reduction in the soot volume fraction in the downstream sooting zone. Electromagnetic force generated by AC was proposed as a viable mechanism for the formation of the toroidal vortex. By varying applied AC in a wide range of frequency and voltage, several insta- bility modes were observed, including flicking flames, partial pinch-off of flames, and spinning flames. High speed imaging together with Mie scattering techniques were combined to reveal the flame dynamics as well as the flow structure inside the flames. Original steady toroidal vortices triggered by AC were noted to exhibit axisymmetric axial instability in the flicking and partial pinch-off modes and non-axisymmetric azimuthal instability in the spinning mode. Electrical measurements were also conducted simultaneously to identify the voltage, current, and electrical power responses. Integrated power was noted to be sensitive to indicate subtle variation of flames properties and to the occurrence of axial instability. Under low frequency AC forcing with electrical conditions not generating toroidal vortices, responses of flames were further investigated. Several nonlinear flame responses, including frequency doubling and tripling phenomena, were identified. Spectral analysis revealed that such nonlinear responses were attributed to the combined effects of triggering buoyancy-induced oscillation of the flame as well as the Lorenz force generated by applying AC. Phase delay behaviors between the applied voltage and the heat release rate (or flame size) were also studied to explore the potential of applying AC in controlling flame instability. It was found that the phase delay had large variations for AC frequency smaller than

  6. The FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Elston, Richard J.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; McKenzie, Eric; Brodwin, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cardona, Gustavo; Dey, Arjun; Dickinson, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Mohr, Joseph J.; Raines, S. Nicholas; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Using the Florida Multi-object Imaging Near-IR grism Observational Spectrometer (FLAMINGOS), we have conducted the FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey (FLAMEX), a deep imaging survey covering 7.1 square degrees within the 18.6 sq. deg NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS) regions. FLAMEX is the first deep, wide-area near-infrared survey to image in both the J and Ks filters, and is larger than any previous NIR surveys of comparable depth. The intent of FLAMEX is to facilitate the study of galaxy and...

  7. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scope | Glossary | References | Site Map | Credits Hospital eTool Administration Central Supply Clinical Services Dietary Emergency Engineering Healthcare Wide Hazards Heliport Housekeeping ICU Laboratory Laundry ...

  8. Anesthesiologists' familiarity with the ASA and ACS guidelines on Advance Directives in the perioperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurok, Michael; Green, Douglas S T; Chisholm, Mary F; Fins, Joseph J; Liguori, Gregory A

    2014-05-01

    To assess anesthesiologists' familiarity with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and American College of Surgeons (ACS) guidelines on Advance Directives in the perioperative setting. Single-center, 4-question anonymous survey. Urban academic medical center. Up to 34 subjects responded to each question. Familiarity with the ASA and ACS guidelines on Advance Directives in the perioperative setting ranged from 45% to 100%. There was inadequate familiarity with components of the ASA and ACS guidelines on advance directives in the perioperative setting. Larger studies are required to assess anesthesiologists' familiarity with national society guidelines that directly affect patient care. Future work should investigate best practices for guideline implementation, and consequences of poor adherence to national guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  10. Mapa acústico parcial de Benetusser

    OpenAIRE

    MORILLA CASTELLANOS, EMILIO

    2012-01-01

    Se establece el mapa de ruido del municipio de Benetússer para evaluar y conocer su exposición al ruido ambiental y así poder dar cumplimiento a la Directiva Europea sobre Gestión y Evaluación de Ruido Ambiental (2002/49/CE) y a la Ley nacional 37/2003 del Ruido. Los mapas estratégicos de ruido nos aportan la información fundamental para diagnosticar la situación acústica y para la gestión del ruido ambiental. Morilla Castellanos, E. (2012). Mapa acústico parcial de Benetusser. http://h...

  11. Nuclear structure of {sup 231}Ac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutami, R. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113 bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Borge, M.J.G. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113 bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: borge@iem.cfmac.csic.es; Mach, H. [Department of Radiation Sciences, ISV, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Kurcewicz, W. [Department of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pl-00 681 Warsaw (Poland); Fraile, L.M. [Departamento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); ISOLDE, PH Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gulda, K. [Department of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pl-00 681 Warsaw (Poland); Aas, A.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Garcia-Raffi, L.M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC - Universidad de Valencia, Apdo. 22805, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Lovhoiden, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Martinez, T.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC - Universidad de Valencia, Apdo. 22805, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113 bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); ISOLDE, PH Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    The low-energy structure of {sup 231}Ac has been investigated by means of {gamma} ray spectroscopy following the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 231}Ra. Multipolarities of 28 transitions have been established by measuring conversion electrons with a MINI-ORANGE electron spectrometer. The decay scheme of {sup 231}Ra {yields}{sup 231}Ac has been constructed for the first time. The Advanced Time Delayed {beta}{gamma}{gamma}(t) method has been used to measure the half-lives of five levels. The moderately fast B(E1) transition rates derived suggest that the octupole effects, albeit weak, are still present in this exotic nucleus.

  12. Immediate effects of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on depressive symptoms among mothers with infants: a prefectural-wide cross-sectional study from the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Aya; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Fujimori, Kenya

    2015-01-01

    Background Mothers of young children are at high-risk for developing adverse mental health effects following a nuclear accident. Using the Japanese pregnancy registration system, the prefecture of Fukushima launched a population-based survey of women who were pregnant at the time of the Fukushima nuclear accident in order to assess their and their newborns? health. In this paper, we focus on the results of a screen for depressive symptoms among new mothers and its association with geographica...

  13. Multi-phase AC/AC step-down converter for distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeloiza, Eddy C.; Burgos, Rolando P.

    2017-10-25

    A step-down AC/AC converter for use in an electric distribution system includes at least one chopper circuit for each one of a plurality of phases of the AC power, each chopper circuit including a four-quadrant switch coupled in series between primary and secondary sides of the chopper circuit and a current-bidirectional two-quadrant switch coupled between the secondary side of the chopper circuit and a common node. Each current-bidirectional two-quadrant switch is oriented in the same direction, with respect to the secondary side of the corresponding chopper circuit and the common node. The converter further includes a control circuit configured to pulse-width-modulate control inputs of the switches, to convert a first multiphase AC voltage at the primary sides of the chopper circuits to a second multiphase AC voltage at the secondary sides of the chopper circuits, the second multiphase AC voltage being lower in voltage than the first multiphase AC voltage.

  14. IEEE 802.11ac sebagai Standar Pertama untuk Gigabit Wireless LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afdhal Afdhal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available WLAN is a technology that currently has been used widely. This technology is considered as a data transferring media technology within the LAN/MAN. To ensure that WLAN technology can be used widely in the whole world, the IEEE has set a standard known as 802.11 to be an international standard for the WLAN technology. This standard was appeared in 1997, and has been revised and improved for several times. This improvement is done to anticipate the rapidly grown WLAN market as well as to keep this technology remains effective, efficient, and reliable at any time. At the beginning of 2014, the IEEE has set 802.11ac-2013 as a new standard for WLANs that operate below 6 GHz to achieve a data rate for up to 7 Gbps. The purpose of this article is to describe comprehensively the IEEE 802.11ac standard as a result of recent changes to the regulatory for WLAN technology which is known as the first standard issued by the IEEE for the gigabit WLANs. This article discusses the goals and objectives to be achieved by 802.11ac standard as well as the parts that have been enhanced significantly both in its PHY and MAC layers. This article will also contrast the differences between the 802.11ac standard and previous WLAN standards. Finally it will also explain the level of compatibility and interoperability of 802.11ac standards with some of previous WLAN standard.Keywords: IEEE, 802.11, 802.11ac, Gigabit WLAN

  15. SOLAR TO AC POWER SOURCE FOR REMOTE AREAS USING SEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHMET AKBABA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic generators (PVG are increasingly used to provide electricity in remote areas. However, in many applications the DC generated electricity by a PVG need to be converted to AC. Traditionally DC to AC inverters have been widely used for this purpose. In this paper, a different system is proposed in which a self excited induction generator (SEIG driven by a permanent magnet DC motor (DCM and powered from a PVG through a maximum power point tracker (MPPT are used. A step-up chopper is utilized as an MPPT unit. The proposed system is modelled in time domain, and a detailed transient and steady-state analysis are presented. The main reason behind analyzing the system in the time domain is because of the fact that for unknown speeds, the methods developed for steady-state analysis of SEIGs can not be applied. The presented work shows that the full available power of the PVG can be harnessed by selecting suitable values for the duty cycle and the frequency of the step up chopper and the excitation capacitor of the SEIG. It is also shown that with such a combination power utilization efficiency of more than 83% can be achieved.

  16. Electroporation of cells using EM induction of ac fields by a magnetic stimulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C; Robinson, M P [Department of Electronics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Evans, J A [Academic Unit of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Smye, S W [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, St. James' s University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); O' Toole, P [Department of Biology, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-21

    This paper describes a method of effectively electroporating mammalian cell membranes with pulsed alternating-current (ac) electric fields at field strengths of 30-160 kV m{sup -1}. Although many in vivo electroporation protocols entail applying square wave or monotonically decreasing pulses via needles or electrode plates, relatively few have explored the use of pulsed ac fields. Following our previous study, which established the effectiveness of ac fields for electroporating cell membranes, a primary/secondary coil system was constructed to produce sufficiently strong electric fields by electromagnetic induction. The primary coil was formed from the applicator of an established transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) system, while the secondary coil was a purpose-built device of a design which could eventually be implanted into tissue. The effects of field strength, pulse interval and cumulative exposure time were investigated using microscopy and flow cytometry. Results from experiments on concentrated cell suspensions showed an optimized electroporation efficiency of around 50%, demonstrating that electroporation can be practicably achieved by inducing such pulsed ac fields. This finding confirms the possibility of a wide range of in vivo applications based on magnetically coupled ac electroporation.

  17. Exothermic reaction in zeolite hemostatic dressings: QuikClot ACS and ACS+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Françoise; Tomori, Toshiki; Carr, Walter; McKeague, Anne; Teranishi, Kohsuke; Prusaczyk, Keith; McCarron, Richard

    2008-10-01

    Zeolites have hemostatic properties used to stop bleeding in severe hemorrhage. Manufactured QuikClot is an approved zeolite-based hemostatic agent for battlefield use. The exothermic reaction associated with QuikClot as loose granules or as granules packaged in a mesh bag has potential burn effects; this led to the development of a formulation of "cooler" non-exothermic QuikClot. The goal of this study was to compare the elevation of temperature of these formulations upon contact with blood. Following full transection of the femoral vasculature, anesthetized Yorkshire pigs (n = 15) (28.8 +/- 1.5 kg) were hemorrhaged for 2 min and treated with 100 g of bagged QuikClot (Advanced Clotting Sponge (ACS) (n = 4)) or a modified non-exothermic formulation (ACS+ (n = 11)). Vital signs and temperature at the dressing/tissue interface were continuously recorded for 3 h. Additional procedures were used to examine effects of different ratios of blood to zeolite on temperature elevation. Total post-treatment blood loss was comparable for ACS+_E and ACS_E groups (overall average: 18.6 +/- 10.5% EBV). Temperature recorded at the dressing/tissue interface was significantly lower with ACS+ vs. ACS (40.3 +/- 1.8 vs. 61.4 +/- 10.7 degrees C, respectively, p < 0.01) and was 3.2 +/- 2.6 degrees C higher than rectal temperature (38.0 +/- 0.7 degrees C, p < 0.01). Survival at endpoint (7/11 vs. 4/4) and average survival time (134 +/- 64 vs. 180 min) were greater for both ACS+ and ACS in comparison to Standard Dressing. The wound temperature with ACS was reduced with greater blood to product ratios and this pattern was paralleled with in vitro measurements. The lower heat release with ACS+ compared to ACS was confirmed in an animal model and ACS+ had similar efficacy in arresting bleeding when compared to Standard Dressing.

  18. Meso Mechanical Analysis of AC Mixture Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.; Huurman, M.; Vaccari, E.; Poot, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research into performance modeling of Asphalt Concrete (AC) mixtures using meso mechanics approaches is being undertaken at Delft University of Technology (TUD). The approach has already been successfully employed for evaluating the long term performance of porous asphalt concrete. The work

  19. Control of Power Converters in AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocabert, Joan; Luna, Alvaro; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The enabling of ac microgrids in distribution networks allows delivering distributed power and providing grid support services during regular operation of the grid, as well as powering isolated islands in case of faults and contingencies, thus increasing the performance and reliability of the ele...

  20. http://spilplus.journals.ac.za/

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deficiency, but to boorishness or ill-will. While grammatical error may reveal a speaker to be a less than proficient language- http://spilplus.journals.ac.za/ .... problems of meanlng, language use and the various linguistic aspects of interaction... contrastive analysis without a pragmalinguistic dimension is inadequate.".

  1. Operating experience with factory-made air-insulated 1AC/2AC switchgear systems; Erste Betriebserfahrungen mit fabrikgefertigten, luftisolierten 1AC-/2AC-Schaltanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Loenard, D. [Bombardier Transportation GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Today, factory-made air-insulated switchgear systems of the type TracFeed {sup registered} are available for all supply versions of 16.7 Hz and 50 Hz a.c. railways. These are supported by auxiliary equipment to ensure reliable railway operation through specific protective functions and a simplified line test. (orig.)

  2. Meso Mechanical Analysis of AC Mixture Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.; Huurman, M.; Vaccari, E.; Poot, M.

    Ongoing research into performance modeling of Asphalt Concrete (AC) mixtures using meso mechanics approaches is being undertaken at Delft University of Technology (TUD). The approach has already been successfully employed for evaluating the long term performance of porous asphalt concrete. The work

  3. Total synthesis of chaetoquadrins A-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, U Bin; Furkert, Daniel P; Brimble, Margaret A

    2013-02-01

    The first total synthesis of the monoamine oxidase inhibitors chaetoquadrins A-C has been accomplished. Key steps in the synthesis include an aromatic Claisen rearrangement, asymmetric boron aldol reaction and acid-mediated spiroketalization. Comparison of spectral data for the synthetic spiroketals confirmed the proposed structure for these natural products.

  4. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  5. Organic magnetoresistance under resonant ac drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, R. C.; Raikh, M. E.

    2013-09-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment, we develop a theory of organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) in the presence of a resonant ac drive. To this end, we perform a thorough analysis of the dynamics of ac-driven electron-hole polaron pair in magnetic field, which is a sum of external and random hyperfine fields. Resonant ac drive affects the OMAR by modifying the singlet content of the eigenmodes. This, in turn, leads to the change of recombination rate, and ultimately, to the change of the spin-blocking that controls the current. Our analysis demonstrates that, upon increasing the drive amplitude, the blocking eigenmodes of the triplet type acquire a singlet admixture and become unblocking. Most surprisingly, the opposite process goes in parallel: new blocking modes emerge from nonblocking precursors as the drive increases. These emergent blocking modes are similar to subradiant modes in the Dicke effect. A nontrivial evolution of eigenmodes translates into a nontrivial behavior of OMAR with the amplitude of the ac drive: it is initially linear, then passes through a maximum, drops, and finally saturates.

  6. Modulation Schemes With Enhanced Switch Thermal Distribution for Single-Phase AC–DC–AC Reduced-Switch Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    various topologies have since been proposed. The intention of this paper is, thus, to study two promising single-phase ac-dc-ac converters using reduced number of switches, and subsequently proposes modulation schemes for them. The proposed schemes help the converters to achieve better thermal spread...... among their switches, while keeping their dc-link voltages low. Single points of failure are thus minimized, allowing the converters to have longer lifetimes. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the intended performances, hence verifying the analyses presented in this paper.......Modulation schemes can significantly change the performance of a converter in the steady state. They have, thus, been extensively studied, but directed more at three-phase topologies, where triplen offsets are added. Single-phase systems, including ac-dc-ac, are less widely pursued, even though...

  7. On the evolution of ac machines for spindle drive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratta, A.; Vagati, A.; Villata, F. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Polytecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy))

    1992-10-01

    In the field of ac spindle drives, the induction motor is widely adopted. Synchronous solutions (reluctance, interior permanent magnets) are often suggested to overcome some drawbacks of the induction motor. This paper compares the different options by considering the machine torque-density and the inverter power size needed for a given constant-power speed range. It is shown that an axially laminated reluctance motor gives more torque density than the induction motor but nearly requires the same inverter size. By adding a proper quantity of permanent magnets, the inverter size can be greatly reduced. A comprehensive discussion is made on this subject, aiming to point out a design solution that is 'optimal' for the whole drive.

  8. Digital model for harmonic interactions in AC/DC/AC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarini, A.P.; Rangel, R.D.; Pilotto, L.A.S.; Pinto, R.J.; Passos Junior, R. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The main purpose of this paper is to present a model for calculation of HVdc converter harmonics taking into account the influence of the harmonic interactions between the ac systems in dc link transmissions. The ideas and methodologies used in the model development take into account the dc current ripple and ac voltage distortion in the ac systems. The theory of switching functions is applied to contemplate for the frequency conversions between the ac and dc sides, in an iterative process. It is possible then to obtain, even in balanced situations, non-characteristic harmonics that are produced by frequencies originated in the other terminal, which can be significant in a strongly coupled system, such as back-to-back configuration. (author) 9 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Non-compliance with ACS-COT recommended criteria for full trauma team activation is associated with undertriage deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tignanelli, Christopher J; Vander Kolk, Wayne E; Mikhail, Judy N; Delano, Matthew J; Hemmila, Mark R

    2017-11-21

    The appropriate triage of acutely injured patients within a trauma system is associated with improved rates of mortality and optimal resource utilization. The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT) put forward six minimum criteria (ACS-6) for full trauma team activation (TTA). We hypothesized that ACS-COT verified trauma center compliance with these criteria is associated with low under-triage rates and improved overall mortality. Data from a state-wide collaborative quality initiative was utilized. We used data collected from 2014 through 2016 at 29 ACS verified level 1 and 2 trauma centers. Inclusion criteria were: adult patients (≥16 years) and ISS ≥5. Quantitative data existed to analyze four of the ACS-6 criteria (ED SBP≤90 mmHg, respiratory compromise/intubation, central GSW, and GCS15) and did not receive a full TTA. 51,792 patients were included in the study. Compliance with ACS-6 minimum criteria for full TTA varied from 51% to 82%. Presence of any ACS-6 criteria was associated with a high intervention rate and significant risk of mortality (OR 16.7, 95% CI 15.2-18.3, p<0.001). Of the 1004 deaths that were not a full activation, 433 (43%) were classified as under-triaged, and 301 (30%) had at least one ACS-6 criteria present. Under-triaged patients with any ACS-6 criteria were more likely to die than those who were not under-triaged (30% vs 21%, p=0.001). GCS<9 and need for emergent intubation were the ACS-6 criteria most frequently associated with under-triage mortality. Compliance with ACS-COT minimum criteria for full TTA remains sub-optimal and undertriage is associated with increased mortality. This data suggests that the most efficient quality improvement measure around triage should be ensuring compliance with the ACS-6 criteria. This study suggests that practice pattern modification to more strictly adhere to the minimum ACS-COT criteria for full TTA will save lives. Diagnostic Tests or Criteria, Level III.

  10. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration. (au)

  11. Implementation of Low Frequency Ac to High Frequency Ac with Single Stage Zvs-Pwm Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    S. Arumugam S. Ramareddy M. Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel soft-switching pulse width modulation (PWM) utility frequency AC to high frequency (HF) AC power conversion circuit incorporating boost-active clamp single stage inverter topology. This power converter is more suitable and acceptable for cost effective HF consumer induction heating applications. Its operating principle is presented. The operating performances of this high frequency inverter using the latest insulated gate bipolar transistors are illustrated, which ...

  12. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion...... will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration....

  13. Immediate effects of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on depressive symptoms among mothers with infants: a prefectural-wide cross-sectional study from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Aya; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fujimori, Kenya

    2015-03-26

    Mothers of young children are at high-risk for developing adverse mental health effects following a nuclear accident. Using the Japanese pregnancy registration system, the prefecture of Fukushima launched a population-based survey of women who were pregnant at the time of the Fukushima nuclear accident in order to assess their and their newborns' health. In this paper, we focus on the results of a screen for depressive symptoms among new mothers and its association with geographical region and interruption of obstetrical care after the Fukushima nuclear accident, which occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. The survey targeted women who lived in Fukushima prefecture and who had registered their pregnancies between August 1, 2010 and July 31, 2011. Among the 16,001 women targeted, 9,321 returned the questionnaires (response proportion = 58.3%) and data from 8,196 women with singleton live births were analyzed. The main outcome measure was a standard two-item depression screen. Regional radiation levels were determined from the prefecture's periodical reports, and interruption in obstetrical care after the Fukushima nuclear accident was determined from mothers' individual responses to the questionnaire. Among the 8,196 women, 2,262 (28%) screened positive for depressive symptoms. After adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, both mothers in Soso, the region in which the nuclear power plant is located, and mothers that had changed obstetrical care facilities were significantly more likely to screen positive for depression. In contrast, mothers in Iwaki and Aizu, regions with relatively low radiation levels, were significantly less likely to screen positive for depression. Our findings suggest that improving mental health support for mothers with infants should be a high priority in the acute phase of nuclear disaster response. We further recommend that in the strategic provisioning of parental support, close attention should

  14. UARS PEM Level 2 VMAG AC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Vector Magnetometer (VMAG) AC daily product contains the Vector Magnetic Field AC component. PEM was flown on the UARS...

  15. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - American Community Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes select data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) on the percent of adults who bike or walk to work. This data is used...

  16. Pittsburgh American Community Survey Data 2015 - Household Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on relationship to householder were derived from answers to Question 2 in the 2015 American Community Survey (ACS), which was asked of all people in...

  17. Application of diffusion-based surveys in the district-wide assessment of benzene and select volatile organic compounds in urban environments--a case study from Renfrewshire, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, B; Hursthouse, A; Smith, F

    2001-12-01

    Benzene (with toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene isomers) concentrations were measured at nine locations in Renfrewshire district between February 1996 and July 1998. Samples were collected by both active and diffusion-based sampling and the compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study highlighted the ability of diffusion sampling to provide an effective district-wide assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban environmental assessment. Vehicle movement was confirmed as the dominant influence on benzene and associated VOCs in the atmosphere, with strong variations in monthly average concentrations across the study area. For benzene, peak monthly averages were observed on the order of 5-6 ppb v/v, with minimum values of mixing on average atmospheric concentrations.

  18. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  19. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yi; Liu,Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C.; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-01-01

    AC electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in non-traditional healthcare settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics based dia...

  20. CEC/ICMC'99. Superconduction. AC loss; Koryu sonshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amamiya, Naoyuki [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1999-09-25

    Ten presentations of studies on AC loss of superconductive materials are outlined, which include theoretical expression for AC loss analysis in superconducting cable, frequency dependency of AC loss, effect of aspect ratio and sectional structure by magnetising loss measurement, and effect of base metal resistivity and twist pitch by numerical analysis. Presentations on AC superconduction for commercial frequency were almost all ones concerning to oxide superconductors. (NEDO)

  1. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  2. A simple technique for a.c. conductivity measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    A.c. conductivity; complex impedance spectroscopy; bulk resistance; grain boundaries. 1. Introduction. A.c. conductivity is one of the studies done on solids in order to characterize the bulk resistance of the crystalline sample. Measurement of a.c. .... If Zs is purely resistive, there will be change in the amplitude. But if Zs is ...

  3. Importance of Attenuation Correction (AC) for Small Animal PET Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ali, Henrik H.; Bodholdt, Rasmus Poul; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær

    2012-01-01

    was performed. Methods: Ten NMRI nude mice with subcutaneous implantation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were scanned consecutively in small animal PET and CT scanners (MicroPETTM Focus 120 and ImTek’s MicroCATTM II). CT-based AC, PET-based AC and uniform AC methods were compared. Results: The activity...

  4. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or other...

  5. Methods for Addressing Missing Data with Applications from ACS Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandriet, Alexandra; Holme, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ACS Examinations Institute (ACS-EI) national norming process, student performance data sets are collected from professors at colleges and universities from around the United States. Because the data sets are collected on a volunteer basis, the ACS-EI often receives data sets with only students' total scores and without the students'…

  6. Evaluation of ac conductivity of rubber ferrite composites from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They were then incorporated into a butyl rubber matrix according to a specific recipe. The a.c. electrical conductivity (a.c.) calculations were carried out by using the data available from dielectric measurements and by employing a simple relationship. The a.c. conductivity values were found to be of the order of 10–3 S/m.

  7. Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the bHLH-PAS genes in the amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae reveal both conserved and diverged expression patterns between cephalochordates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Lung; Lu, Tsai-Ming; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2014-01-01

    The bHLH-PAS transcription factors are found in both protostomes and deuterostomes. They are involved in many developmental and physiological processes, including regional differentiation of the central nervous system, tube-formation, hypoxia signaling, aromatic hydrocarbon sensing, and circadian rhythm regulation. To understand the evolution of these genes in chordates, we analyzed the bHLH-PAS genes of the basal chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). From the amphioxus draft genome database, we identified ten bHLH-PAS genes, nine of which could be assigned to known orthologous families. The tenth bHLH-PAS gene could not be assigned confidently to any known bHLH family; however, phylogenetic analysis clustered this gene with arthropod Met family genes and two spiralian bHLH-PAS-containing sequences, suggesting that they may share the same ancestry. We examined temporal and spatial expression patterns of these bHLH-PAS genes in developing amphioxus embryos. We found that BfArnt, BfNcoa, BfSim, and BfHifα were expressed in the central nervous system in patterns similar to those of their vertebrate homologs, suggesting that their functions may be conserved. By contrast, the amphioxus BfAhr and BfNpas4 had expression patterns distinct from those in vertebrates. These results imply that there were changes in gene regulation after the divergence of cephalochordates and vertebrates. We have identified ten bHLH-PAS genes from the amphioxus genome and determined the embryonic expression profiles for these genes. In addition to the nine currently recognized bHLH-PAS families, our survey suggests that the BfbHLHPAS-orphan gene along with arthropod Met genes and the newly identified spiralian bHLH-PAS-containing sequences represent an ancient group of genes that were lost in the vertebrate lineage. In a comparison with the expression patterns of the vertebrate bHLH-PAS paralogs, which are the result of whole-genome duplication, we found that although several members

  8. Genome-wide identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in one bud and two tender leaves of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) by small RNA sequencing, microarray-based hybridization and genome survey scaffold sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Zhang, Xiao; Hou, Yan; Shangguan, Mingzhu; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Li, Yeyun; Wei, Chaoling

    2017-11-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important for plant growth and responses to environmental stresses via post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Tea, which is primarily produced from one bud and two tender leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis), is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide owing to its abundance of secondary metabolites. A large number of miRNAs have been identified in various plants, including non-model species. However, due to the lack of reference genome sequences and/or information of tea plant genome survey scaffold sequences, discovery of miRNAs has been limited in C. sinensis. Using small RNA sequencing, combined with our recently obtained genome survey data, we have identified and analyzed 175 conserved and 83 novel miRNAs mainly in one bud and two tender leaves of the tea plant. Among these, 93 conserved and 18 novel miRNAs were validated using miRNA microarray hybridization. In addition, the expression pattern of 11 conserved and 8 novel miRNAs were validated by stem-loop-qRT-PCR. A total of 716 potential target genes of identified miRNAs were predicted. Further, Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that most of the target genes were primarily involved in stress response and enzymes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The predicted targets of 4 conserved miRNAs were further validated by 5'RLM-RACE. A negative correlation between expression profiles of 3 out of 4 conserved miRNAs (csn-miR160a-5p, csn-miR164a, csn-miR828 and csn-miR858a) and their targets (ARF17, NAC100, WER and MYB12 transcription factor) were observed. In summary, the present study is one of few such studies on miRNA detection and identification in the tea plant. The predicted target genes of majority of miRNAs encoded enzymes, transcription factors, and functional proteins. The miRNA-target transcription factor gene interactions may provide important clues about the regulatory

  9. Evaluation of 225Ac decay data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaolong, Huang; Baosong, Wang

    2007-06-01

    Evaluation of the complete decay scheme and data for (225)Ac including new measurements are presented in this report; literature data available up to March 2006 are included. The half-life is determined to be 10.0+/-0.1 days. All known measured gamma-ray relative intensities have been examined; the gamma-ray emission probability of the reference gamma-ray line of 150.04 keV is recommended to be 0.693+/-0.012%. The calculated internal conversion coefficients and their uncertainties have been used to obtain the complete decay intensity balance. The other decay characteristics are calculated using the ENSDF analysis program. Finally, the new decay scheme for (225)Ac is presented.

  10. Jihadism, Narrow and Wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The term “jihadism” is popular, but difficult. It has narrow senses, which are generally valuable, and wide senses, which may be misleading. This article looks at the derivation and use of “jihadism” and of related terms, at definitions provided by a number of leading scholars, and at media usage...

  11. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  12. Psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the home-care setting: A nation-wide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayakawa, Makoto; Ogawa, Asao; Konno, Michiko; Kurata, Akiko; Hamano, Jun; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Aoyama, Maho; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-12-01

    The psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill cancer patients are highly problematic and have been associated with greater burden among caregivers. Until now, the extent of these problems in the home care setting was unclear. This retrospective study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan (J-HOPE3). The bereaved family members rated the symptoms of delirium and suicidal ideation of patients with cancer, and the sleeplessness and depressed mood of family caregivers utilizing home care services in the one month before the patients' deaths. Regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with caregivers' sleeplessness or depressed mood. Of the 532 subjects analyzed, between 17% and 65% of patients experienced various symptoms of delirium, and 27% suicidal ideation. Among family caregivers, 60% experienced sleeplessness and 35% experienced depressed mood at least once during the week. Caregivers' psychological symptoms were associated with their own poor health status, being the spouse of the patient, and the patients' psychological or psychiatric symptoms. To manage patients' symptoms, 11% of caregivers had consulted psychiatrists or psychologists while another 11% wanted to do so. Psychological problems assessed were common among patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the one month of home care prior to the patient's death. An effective complementary care system, run by home-visit physicians, nurses, and experts in mental disorders, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The LHC AC Dipole system: an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    The LHC AC Dipole is an instrument to study properties of the LHC lattice by inducing large transverse displacements in the beam. These displacements are generated by exciting the beam with an oscillating magnetic field at a frequency close to the tune. This paper presents the system requirements and the technical solution chosen to meet them, based of high-power audio amplifiers and a resonant parallel RLC circuit.

  14. CTE Corrections for WFPC2 and ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2003-07-01

    The error budget for optical broadband photometry is dominated by three factors: CTE corrections, long-short anomaly corrections, and photometric zero points. Questions about the dependencies of the CTE have largely been resolved, and my CTE corrections have been included in the WFPC2 handbook and tutorial. What remains to be done is the determination of the "final" CTE correction at the end of the WFPC2 mission, which will increase the accuracy of photometry obtained in the final few cycles. The long-short anomaly is still the subject of much debate, as it remains unclear whethere or not this effect is real and, if so, what its size and nature is. Photometric zero points have likewise varied by over 0.05 magnitudes in the literature, and will likely remain unresolved until the long-short anomaly is addressed {given that most calibration exposures are short while most science exposures are long}. It is also becoming apparent that similar issues will affect the accuracy of ACS photometry, and consequently that an ACS CTE study analogous to my WFPC2 work would significantly improve the calibration of ACS. I therefore propose to use archival WFPC2 images of omega Cen and ACS images of 47 Tuc to continue my HST calibration work. I also propose to begin work on "next-generation" CTE corrections, in which corrections are applied to the images based on accurate charge-trapping models rather than to the reduced photometry. This technique will allow for more accurate CTE corrections in certain cases {such as a star above a bright star or on a variable background}, improved PSF-fitting photometry of faint stars, and image restoration for accurate analysis of extended objects.

  15. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S.; Maclean, E.; Tomás, R.

    2013-07-01

    In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning). The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  16. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  17. Genome-wide miRNA response to anacardic acid in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Schultz

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Anacardic acid (AnAc is a dietary phenolic lipid that inhibits both MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα positive and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC cell proliferation with IC50s of 13.5 and 35 μM, respectively. To identify potential mediators of AnAc action in breast cancer, we profiled the genome-wide microRNA transcriptome (microRNAome in these two cell lines altered by the AnAc 24:1n5 congener. Whole genome expression profiling (RNA-seq and subsequent network analysis in MetaCore Gene Ontology (GO algorithm was used to characterize the biological pathways altered by AnAc. In MCF-7 cells, 69 AnAc-responsive miRNAs were identified, e.g., increased let-7a and reduced miR-584. Fewer, i.e., 37 AnAc-responsive miRNAs were identified in MDA-MB-231 cells, e.g., decreased miR-23b and increased miR-1257. Only two miRNAs were increased by AnAc in both cell lines: miR-612 and miR-20b; however, opposite miRNA arm preference was noted: miR-20b-3p and miR-20b-5p were upregulated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively. miR-20b-5p target EFNB2 transcript levels were reduced by AnAc in MDA-MB-231 cells. AnAc reduced miR-378g that targets VIM (vimentin and VIM mRNA transcript expression was increased in AnAc-treated MCF-7 cells, suggesting a reciprocal relationship. The top three enriched GO terms for AnAc-treated MCF-7 cells were B cell receptor signaling pathway and ribosomal large subunit biogenesis and S-adenosylmethionine metabolic process for AnAc-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. The pathways modulated by these AnAc-regulated miRNAs suggest that key nodal molecules, e.g., Cyclin D1, MYC, c-FOS, PPARγ, and SIN3, are targets of AnAc activity.

  18. Wide Field Imager for Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Nandra, Kirpal; Rau, Arne; Plattner, Markus; WFI proto-Consortium

    2015-09-01

    The Wide Field Imager focal plane instrument on ATHENA will combine unprecedented survey power through its large field of view of 40 arcmin with a high count-rate capability (> 1 Crab). The energy resolution of the silicon sensor is state-of-the-art in the energy band of interest from 0.1 keV to 15 keV. At energy of 6 keV for example, the full width at half maximum of the line shall be not worse than 150 eV until the end of the mission. The performance is accomplished by a set of DEPFET active pixel sensor matrices with a pixel size well suited to the angular resolution of 5 arc sec (on-axis) of the mirror system.Each DEPFET pixel is a combined detector-amplifier structure with a MOSFET integrated onto a fully depleted 450 micron thick silicon bulk. Two different types of DEPFET sensors are planned for the WFI instrument: A set of large-area sensors to cover the physical size of 14 cm x 14 cm in the focal plane and a single gateable DEPFET sensor matrix optimized for the high count rate capability of the instrument. An overview will be given about the presently developed instrument concept and design, the status of the technology development, and the expected performance. An outline of the project organization, the model philosophy as well as the schedule will complete the presentation about the Wide Field Imager for Athena.

  19. Topologically protected ac transport in zigzag silicene nanosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, En-Jia; Sun, Yun-Lei; Yang, Guo-Feng; Chen, Guo-Qing

    2017-04-01

    The linear ac transport properties are investigated theoretically in zigzag silicene nanoribbon and nanojunction systems. Based on the tight-binding approach and ac response theory, we compute the dc conductance and ac emittance. The topologically protected edge states and eliminated ac emittance are presented around the Dirac point. Emittances as functions of the strength of spin-orbital interaction (SOI) and geometric size of the silicene systems are studied. The results show that the eliminated ac response behavior is induced by the strong SOI and is topologically protected against the size variation.

  20. Spectrophotometric and theoretical studies of the protonation of Allura Red AC and Ponceau 4R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevziuk, Kateryna; Chebotarev, Alexander; Snigur, Denys; Bazel, Yaroslav; Fizer, Maksym; Sidey, Vasyl

    2017-09-01

    The acid-base properties of Allura Red AC and Ponceau 4R azo dyes were investigated by spectrophotometric, potentiometric and tristimulus colourimetry methods. Ionization constants of the functional groups were also found in aqueous solutions of the dyes. It was discovered that the wavelength of the maximum light absorption of Allura Red AC and Ponceau 4R solutions does not change significantly over a wide pH range. As a result, spectrophotometric methods yield little information for assessing the acid-base properties of the dyes. It was shown with a help of the tristimulus colourimetry method that it is possible to determine the ionization constants of the functional groups of the dyes even when there is significant overlap of the absorption bands of the acid-base forms. The basic spectrophotometric characteristics of the main forms of Allura Red AC and Ponceau 4R in water and organic solvents were calculated. The molar absorbance coefficients of azo forms were shown to increase as the dielectric permittivity of the solvent increases. It was determined that in aqueous solution the dyes exist in the azo form over a wide range of acidity - pH 2-12 for Allura Red AC (λmax = 505 nm; ελ = 3.1·104 dm3 mol-1 cm-1) and 1-13 for Ponceau 4R (λmax = 510 nm; ελ = 1.7·10-4 dm3 mol-1 cm-1). The most probable protonation/deprotonation schemes were theoretically determined for Allura Red AC and Ponceau 4R using DFT calculations.

  1. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C; Sin, Mandy L Y; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-12-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration, and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in nontraditional health care settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics-based diagnostic systems. In this review, AC electrokinetic phenomena in conductive physiological fluids are described followed by a review of the basic microfluidic operations and the recent biomedical applications of AC electrokinetics. The future prospects of AC electrokinetics for clinical diagnostics are presented. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  2. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS Mechanisms and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir V. Tavakoli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Perception, cognition and consciousness can be modulated as a function of oscillating neural activity, while ongoing neuronal dynamics are influenced by synaptic activity and membrane potential. Consequently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS may be used for neurological intervention. The advantageous features of tACS include the biphasic and sinusoidal tACS currents, the ability to entrain large neuronal populations, and subtle control over somatic effects. Through neuromodulation of phasic, neural activity, tACS is a powerful tool to investigate the neural correlates of cognition. The rapid development in this area requires clarity about best practices. Here we briefly introduce tACS and review the most compelling findings in the literature to provide a starting point for using tACS. We suggest that tACS protocols be based on functional brain mechanisms and appropriate control experiments, including active sham and condition blinding.

  3. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoya Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crystal (Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem.

  4. Measuring Residential Segregation With the ACS: How the Margin of Error Affects the Dissimilarity Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierala, Jeffrey; Denton, Nancy

    2017-02-01

    The American Community Survey (ACS) provides valuable, timely population estimates but with increased levels of sampling error. Although the margin of error is included with aggregate estimates, it has not been incorporated into segregation indexes. With the increasing levels of diversity in small and large places throughout the United States comes a need to track accurately and study changes in racial and ethnic segregation between censuses. The 2005-2009 ACS is used to calculate three dissimilarity indexes (D) for all core-based statistical areas (CBSAs) in the United States. We introduce a simulation method for computing segregation indexes and examine them with particular regard to the size of the CBSAs. Additionally, a subset of CBSAs is used to explore how ACS indexes differ from those computed using the 2000 and 2010 censuses. Findings suggest that the precision and accuracy of D from the ACS is influenced by a number of factors, including the number of tracts and minority population size. For smaller areas, point estimates systematically overstate actual levels of segregation, and large confidence intervals lead to limited statistical power.

  5. AC signal characterization for optimization of a CMOS single-electron pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Roy; Perron, Justin K.; Stewart, M. D., Jr.; Zimmerman, Neil M.

    2018-02-01

    Pumping single electrons at a set rate is being widely pursued as an electrical current standard. Semiconductor charge pumps have been pursued in a variety of modes, including single gate ratchet, a variety of 2-gate ratchet pumps, and 2-gate turnstiles. Whether pumping with one or two AC signals, lower error rates can result from better knowledge of the properties of the AC signal at the device. In this work, we operated a CMOS single-electron pump with a 2-gate ratchet style measurement and used the results to characterize and optimize our two AC signals. Fitting this data at various frequencies revealed both a difference in signal path length and attenuation between our two AC lines. Using this data, we corrected for the difference in signal path length and attenuation by applying an offset in both the phase and the amplitude at the signal generator. Operating the device as a turnstile while using the optimized parameters determined from the 2-gate ratchet measurement led to much flatter, more robust charge pumping plateaus. This method was useful in tuning our device up for optimal charge pumping, and may prove useful to the semiconductor quantum dot community to determine signal attenuation and path differences at the device.

  6. Comportamento Acústico de Fachadas: Isolamento Acústico versus Permeabilidade ao Ar

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Diogo Miguel do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    Nos dias de hoje, o conforto acústico dos edifícios revela-se como um factor muito importante no contexto da comodidade global dos seus habitantes. Para tanto, contribui de forma relevante o isolamento sonoro que as fachadas dos edifícios possam assegurar. Sendo as fachadas constituídas por uma parte opaca e uma outra translúcida, é esta última a que mais condiciona o isolamento acústico que o elemento fachada proporciona, o qual é influenciado tanto pela janela propriamente dita, como pelas ...

  7. The Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Mark; Carter Chambers, Kenneth; Flewelling, Heather; Smartt, Stephen J.; Smith, Ken; Wright, Darryl

    2015-08-01

    The Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Science Consortium finished the 3Pi survey of the whole sky north of -30 degrees between 2010-2014 in grizy (PS1 specific filters) and the PS1 telescope has been running a wide-field survey for near earth objects, funded by NASA through the NEO Observation Program. This survey takes data in a w-band (wide-band filter spanning g,r,i) in dark time, and combinations of r, i, z and y during bright time. We are now processing these data through the Pan-STARRS IPP difference imaging pipeline and recovering stationary transients. Effectively the 3Pi survey for transients that started during the PS1 Science Consortium is being continued under the new NEO optimized operations mode. The observing procedure in this case is to take a quad of exposures, typically 30-45 seconds separated by 10-20 minutes each, typically revealing high confidence transients (greater than 5-sigma) to depths of i~ 20.7, y~18.3 (AB mags). This cadence may be repeated on subsequent nights in a return pointing.Continuing the public release of the first 880 transients from the PS1 3Pi survey during the search period September 2013 - January 2014, beginning February 2015, the transient events using the data from the the Pan-STARRS NEO Science Consortium are now regularly added. These are mostly supernova candidates, but the list also contains some variable stars, AGN, and nuclear transients. The light curves are too sparsely sampled to be of standalone use, but they may be of use to the community in combining with existing data (e.g. Fraser et al. 2013, ApJ, 779, L8), constraining explosion and rise times (e.g. Nicholl et al. 2013, Nature, 502, 346) as well as many being new discoveries.For additional details visit http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/

  8. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  9. Flexible AC transmission systems modelling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Pal, Bikash

    2012-01-01

    The extended and revised second edition of this successful monograph presents advanced modeling, analysis and control techniques of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). The book covers comprehensively a range of power-system control problems: from steady-state voltage and power flow control, to voltage and reactive power control, to voltage stability control, to small signal stability control using FACTS controllers. In the six years since the first edition of the book has been published research on the FACTS has continued to flourish while renewable energy has developed into a mature and

  10. Composite Based EHV AC Overhead Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard

    Overhead lines at transmission level are the backbone of any national power grid today. New overhead line projects however are at the same time subject to ever greater public resistance due to the lines environmental impact. As full undergrounding of transmission lines at extra high voltage (EHV...... and analysed with regard to the possibilities, limitations and risks widespread application of composite materials on EHV AC overhead transmission lines may present. To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental...

  11. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  12. Modeling and reliability analysis of three phase z-source AC-AC converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Hanuman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the small signal modeling using the state space averaging technique and reliability analysis of a three-phase z-source ac-ac converter. By controlling the shoot-through duty ratio, it can operate in buck-boost mode and maintain desired output voltage during voltage sag and surge condition. It has faster dynamic response and higher efficiency as compared to the traditional voltage regulator. Small signal analysis derives different control transfer functions and this leads to design a suitable controller for a closed loop system during supply voltage variation. The closed loop system of the converter with a PID controller eliminates the transients in output voltage and provides steady state regulated output. The proposed model designed in the RT-LAB and executed in a field programming gate array (FPGA-based real-time digital simulator at a fixedtime step of 10 μs and a constant switching frequency of 10 kHz. The simulator was developed using very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL, making it versatile and moveable. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL simulation results are presented to justify the MATLAB simulation results during supply voltage variation of the three phase z-source ac-ac converter. The reliability analysis has been applied to the converter to find out the failure rate of its different components.

  13. single-phase dc phase dc-ac boost converter ac boost converter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This paper describes a new power conversion circuit dc-dc boost converter. It boost converter. It boost converter. It comprises an H comprises an H. Change of load .... A full-wave rectified signal is used to produce an AC reference voltage v* o. The outer voltage loop generates the reference current command i* f. A common.

  14. HST/ACS DIRECT AGES OF THE DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES NGC 147 AND NGC 185

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geha, M. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Weisz, D. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Grocholski, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dolphin, A. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Marel, R. P. van der [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Guhathakurta, P., E-mail: marla.geha@yale.edu [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We present the deepest optical photometry for any dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observations of the Local Group dE galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. Our F606W and F814W color–magnitude diagrams are the first to reach below the oldest main sequence turnoff in a dE galaxy, allowing us to determine full star formation histories in these systems. The ACS fields are located roughly ∼1.5 effective radii from the galaxy center to avoid photometric crowding. While both ACS fields show unambiguous evidence for old and intermediate age stars, the mean age of NGC 147 is ∼4–5 Gyr younger as compared to NGC 185. In NGC 147, only 40% of stars were in place 12.5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 5), with the bulk of the remaining stellar population forming between 5 to 7 Gyr. In contrast, 70% of stars were formed in NGC 185 prior to 12.5 Gyr ago with the majority of the remaining population forming between 8 to 10 Gyr ago. Star formation has ceased in both ACS fields for at least 3 Gyr. Previous observations in the central regions of NGC 185 show evidence for star formation as recent as 100 Myr ago, and a strong metallicity gradient with radius. This implies a lack of radial mixing between the center of NGC 185 and our ACS field. The lack of radial gradients in NGC 147 suggests that our inferred SFHs are more representative of its global history. We interpret the inferred differences in star formation histories to imply an earlier infall time into the M31 environment for NGC 185 as compared to NGC 147.

  15. Calibration free method for measurement of the AC magnetization loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souc, Jan [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 842 39 Bratislava (Slovakia); Goemoery, Fedor [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 842 39 Bratislava (Slovakia); Vojenciak, Michal [Department of Power Electrical Systems, University of Zilina, Vel' ky diel, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2005-05-01

    A calibration free measurement method for determination of the magnetization loss of superconducting samples exposed to the external AC magnetic field is presented. The idea is based on the measurement of the part of the power which is supplied by the AC source to the AC magnet generating the magnetic field, in which the sample is located. It uses a coil wound in parallel to the AC field magnet as the measurement coil. To achieve the necessary sensitivity, two identical systems are used, each consisting of an AC magnet and a measurement coil, one of them containing the sample and the other left empty. No measurement and/or calculation of the calibration constant is required. To confirm the suitability of this method, the loss of a Cu sample with known dissipation was measured. The applicability to the AC magnetization loss measurements of superconducting tapes is presented.

  16. Athena Wide Field Imager key science drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Arne; Nandra, Kirpal; Aird, James; Comastri, Andrea; Dauser, Thomas; Merloni, Andrea; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Fabian, Andy C.; Georgakakis, Antonis; Güdel, Manuel; RóŻańska, Agata; Sanders, Jeremy S.; Sasaki, Manami; Vaughan, Simon; Wilms, Jörn; Meidinger, Norbert

    2016-07-01

    The Wide Field Imager (WFI) is one of two instruments for the Advanced Telescope for High-ENergy Astrophysics (Athena). In this paper we summarise three of the many key science objectives for the WFI { the formation and growth of supermassive black holes, non-gravitational heating in clusters of galaxies, and spin measurements of stellar mass black holes { and describe their translation into the science requirements and ultimately instrument requirements. The WFI will be designed to provide excellent point source sensitivity and grasp for performing wide area surveys, surface brightness sensitivity, survey power, and absolute temperature and density calibration for in-depth studies of the outskirts of nearby clusters of galaxies and very good high-count rate capability, throughput, and low pile-up, paired with very good spectral resolution, for detailed explorations of bright Galactic compact objects.

  17. Building a world-wide open source community around a software framework: progress, dos, and don'ts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Jorge; Antognini, Jonathan; Avarias, Jorge; Caproni, Alessandro; Fuessling, Matthias; Gimenez, Guillermo; Verma, Khushbu; Mora, Matias; Schwarz, Joseph; Staig, Tomás.

    2016-08-01

    As we all know too well, building up a collaborative community around a software infrastructure is not easy. Besides recruiting enthusiasts to work as part of it, mostly for free, to succeed you also need to overcome a number of technical, sociological, and, to our surprise, some political hurdles. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) was developed at ESO and partner institutions over the course of more than 10 years. While it was mainly intended for the ALMA Observatory, it was early on thought as a generic distributed control framework. ACS has been periodically released to the public through an LGPL license, which encouraged around a dozen non-ALMA institutions to make use of ACS for both industrial and educational applications. In recent years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array and the LLAMA Observatory have also decided to adopt the framework for their own control systems. The aim of the "ACS Community" is to support independent initiatives in making use of the ACS framework and to further contribute to its development. The Community provides access to a growing network of volunteers eager to develop ACS in areas that are not necessarily in ALMA's interests, and/or were not within the original system scope. Current examples are: support for additional OS platforms, extension of supported hardware interfaces, a public code repository and a build farm. The ACS Community makes use of existing collaborations with Chilean and Brazilian universities, reaching out to promising engineers in the making. At the same time, projects actively using ACS have committed valuable resources to assist the Community's work. Well established training programs like the ACS Workshops are also being continued through the Community's work. This paper aims to give a detailed account of the ongoing (second) journey towards establishing a world-wide open source collaboration around ACS. The ACS Community is growing into a horizontal partnership across a decentralized and diversified group of

  18. Non-vanishing ponderomotive AC electrophoretic effect for particle trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Weihau [Yale University; Park, Jae Hyun nmn [ORNL; Krstic, Predrag S [ORNL; Reed, Mark A [Yale University

    2011-01-01

    We present here a study on overlooked aspects of alternating current (AC) electrokinetics AC electrophoretic (ACEP) phenomena. The dynamics of a particle with both polarizability and net charges in a non-uniform AC electric trapping field is investigated. It is found that either electrophoretic (EP) or dielectrophoretic (DEP) effects can dominate the trapping dynamics, depending on experimental conditions. A dimensionless parameter gamma is developed to predict the relative strength of EP and DEP effects in a quadrupole AC field. An ACEP trap is feasible for charged particles in salt-free or low salt concentration solutions. In contrast to DEP traps, an ACEP trap favors the downscaling of the particle size.

  19. Mile wide, inch deep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Compared to their counterparts in other nations, American grade school students learn a lot less about a lot more. According to a new report entitled A Splintered Vision: An Investigation of U.S. Science and Mathematics Education, a student in the United States is expected to absorb information about a wide array of topics in a school year, yet he or she is seldom given the opportunity to explore any one topic in depth. The report was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and is part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), a five-year project to compare teaching and student achievement in 45 countries.Before they reach high school, American students will have covered more topics than 75% of the students in other countries; yet in many cases, they will have been taught some of the same topics several years in a row. Researchers also criticized conventional U.S. education standards for being unfocused and aimed at the lowest common denominator. They noted that most American textbooks make minimal demands on students and they represent “a limited notion” of what should be discussed in “basic” texts.

  20. The diabetogenic VPS13C/C2CD4A/C2CD4B rs7172432 variant impairs glucose-stimulated insulin response in 5,722 non-diabetic Danish individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, N; Overvad, M; Sparsø, T

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide association study in the Japanese population reported two genome-wide significant loci associated with type 2 diabetes of which the VPS13C/C2CD4A/C2CD4B locus was replicated in Europeans. We looked for potential associations between the diabetogenic VPS13C/C2CD4A/C2CD4B rs7172432...

  1. A Series-LC-Filtered Active Damper for AC Power Electronics Based Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an active damper with a series LC-filter for suppressing resonances in an ac power electronics based power system. The added filter capacitor helps to lower the voltage stress of the converter to be used for implementing the damper. Unlike active filters for the compensation...... of low-order harmonics, the proposed active damper deals with the resonances caused by the interactions among grid-connected converters and reactive elements of the system, which are higher-order and vary in a wide frequency range. To confirm the validity of the damper, a three-phase experimental system...... is built, where the damper is integrated into a grid-connected converter. The results obtained from the experiments demonstrate the stability enhancement of ac power electronics based power systems by the active damper....

  2. Range-wide surveys for prairie butterfly species of concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report on a project to determine the status and current range of the Dakota skipper (Hesperia dacotae) and Poweshiek skipperling (Oarisma poweshiek) within...

  3. The Wide Band-Gap Semiconductors: A Brief Survey | Ottaviani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les semi-conducteurs à grande bande d'énergie interdite sont des matériaux très prometteurs dans les domaines de l'électronique de puissance, de la détection de radiations haute énergie et de l'optoélectronique. Leurs propriétés physiques permettent d'obtenir de meilleures performances que le silicium pour certaines ...

  4. Navy-wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2005: Tabulated Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whittam, Kimberly P

    2007-01-01

    .... The NPS focused on work-life topics, such as job satisfaction, leadership satisfaction, morale, career intentions, career development, advancement and promotion, detailing, TEMPO, gender integration...

  5. Comprehensive analysis of human cells motion under an irrotational AC electric field in an electro-microfluidic chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Vaillier

    Full Text Available AC electrokinetics is a versatile tool for contact-less manipulation or characterization of cells and has been widely used for separation based on genotype translation to electrical phenotypes. Cells responses to an AC electric field result in a complex combination of electrokinetic phenomena, mainly dielectrophoresis and electrohydrodynamic forces. Human cells behaviors to AC electrokinetics remain unclear over a large frequency spectrum as illustrated by the self-rotation effect observed recently. We here report and analyze human cells behaviors in different conditions of medium conductivity, electric field frequency and magnitude. We also observe the self-rotation of human cells, in the absence of a rotational electric field. Based on an analytical competitive model of electrokinetic forces, we propose an explanation of the cell self-rotation. These experimental results, coupled with our model, lead to the exploitation of the cell behaviors to measure the intrinsic dielectric properties of JURKAT, HEK and PC3 human cell lines.

  6. AC Dielectrophoresis Using Elliptic Electrode Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Rezaul Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents negative AC dielectrophoretic investigations using elliptic electrode geometry. Simulations of the electric field gradient variation using various ratios of the semimajor and the semiminor axis were carried out to determine the optimum elliptic geometry for the dielectrophoretic electrokinetics of specimen in an assay with laminar (low Reynolds number fluid flow. Experimental setup of the elliptic electrode assembly using PCB fabrication and electrokinetic accumulation of specimen in a dielectrophoretic cage is also being reported. Using an actuating signal between 1 kHz and 1 MHz, successful trapping of 45 μm polystyrene beads suspended in distilled water was demonstrated due to negative dielectrophoresis near 100 kHz using the novel elliptic electrode.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1- carboxylate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... Genome wide screening identified 12 ACS genes in Arabidopsis, six in rice, 10 in grapevine and 11 in poplar, while evolutionary ... complete genome sequencing of Arabidopsis (Initiative. 2000), rice (Matsumoto et al., 2005; ...... genes from citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) fruit. Plant Mol. Biol. 41(5): 587-600.

  8. Component Analysis of Long-Lag, Wide-Pulse Gamma-Ray Burst ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principal Component Analysis of Long-Lag, Wide-Pulse Gamma-Ray. Burst Data. Zhao-Yang Peng. ∗. & Wen-Shuai Liu. Department of Physics, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China. ∗ e-mail: pzy@ynao.ac.cn. Abstract. We have carried out a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the temporal and spectral ...

  9. Three-Level AC-DC-AC Z-Source Converter Using Reduced Passive Component Count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao, Feng; Tan, Pee-Chin

    2009-01-01

    of semiconductor commutations, and hence, no increase in switching losses. The proposed converter therefore offers a low-cost alternative to applications that need to ride through frequent input voltage sags. For confirming the converter performance, experimental testing using a constructed laboratory prototype......This paper presents a three-level ac-dc-ac Z-source converter with output voltage buck-boost capability. The converter is implemented by connecting a low-cost front-end diode rectifier to a neutral-point-clamped inverter through a single X-shaped LC impedance network. The inverter is controlled...... to switch with a three-level output voltage, where the middle neutral potential is uniquely tapped from the star-point of a wye-connected capacitive filter placed before the front-end diode rectifier for input current filtering. Through careful control, the resulting converter can produce the correct volt...

  10. Three-Level AC-DC-AC Z-Source Converter Using Reduced Passive Component Count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao, Feng

    2007-01-01

    a low cost alternative to sensitive applications that need to ride-through frequent input voltage sags. For confirming the converter performance, experimental testing using a constructed laboratory prototype is performed with its captured results presented in a later section of the paper.......This paper presents a three-level ac-dc-ac Z-source converter with output voltage buck-boost capability. The converter is implemented by connecting a low cost front-end diode rectifier to a neutral-point-clamped inverter through a single X-shaped LC impedance network. The inverter is controlled...... to switch with a three-level output voltage, where the middle neutral potential is uniquely tapped from the star-point of a wye-connected capacitive filter placed before the front-end diode rectifier for input current filtering. Through careful control, the resulting converter can accurately produce...

  11. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  12. A Simple Load Power Estimator For Quasi-Direct AC-AC Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GAICEANU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simple load power estimator for the three-phase quasi-direct acac converter system is reported. Since the ac-ac converter control by means of pulsewidth modulation (PWM is based on the power balance concept, its load power should be known. Two control boards, based on the dSMC (digital Smart Motion Controller 30 MIPS 32-bit fixed-point digital signal processor (DSP, were involved in the ac-ac system driving. By using the power balance control, the DC link voltage variation at the load changes can be reduced. In this way a small DC link capacitor is required to handle the dc voltage error control. The feed-forward (Sul and Lipo, 1990 current component provides fast correction of the reference control to load power variation. In order to obtain the feed-forward current component, the load power must to be known. In this paper the load power is estimated from the dc link, indirectly, through a dc load current estimator. In this way the author overcomes the use of the serial communication between control boards (Gaiceanu, 2004 in order to deliver the load power information from the inverter side. The load current estimator is based on the DC link voltage and on the load current of the supply converter. This method presents certain advantages instead of using measured method, which requires a low pass filter: no time delay, the feed-forward current component has no ripple, no additional hardware, and more fast control response. Through simulation and experimental results the performances of the proposed load current estimator scheme are demonstrated.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of H4K5 acetylation associated with fear memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C Sehwan; Rehrauer, Hubert; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2013-08-08

    Histone acetylation has been implicated in learning and memory in the brain, however, its function at the level of the genome and at individual genetic loci remains poorly investigated. This study examines a key acetylation mark, histone H4 lysine 5 acetylation (H4K5ac), genome-wide and its role in activity-dependent gene transcription in the adult mouse hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning. Using ChIP-Seq, we identified 23,235 genes in which H4K5ac correlates with absolute gene expression in the hippocampus. However, in the absence of transcription factor binding sites 150 bp upstream of the transcription start site, genes were associated with higher H4K5ac and expression levels. We further establish H4K5ac as a ubiquitous modification across the genome. Approximately one-third of all genes have above average H4K5ac, of which ~15% are specific to memory formation and ~65% are co-acetylated for H4K12. Although H4K5ac is prevalent across the genome, enrichment of H4K5ac at specific regions in the promoter and coding region are associated with different levels of gene expression. Additionally, unbiased peak calling for genes differentially acetylated for H4K5ac identified 114 unique genes specific to fear memory, over half of which have not previously been associated with memory processes. Our data provide novel insights into potential mechanisms of gene priming and bookmarking by histone acetylation following hippocampal memory activation. Specifically, we propose that hyperacetylation of H4K5 may prime genes for rapid expression following activity. More broadly, this study strengthens the importance of histone posttranslational modifications for the differential regulation of transcriptional programs in cognitive processes.

  14. Effect of temperature on the AC impedance of protein and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The depression parameter reveals the electrical equivalent circuit for the biopolymers. The AC electrical conductivity in the biopolymers follows the universal power law. From this, it is observed that the AC conductivity is frequency dependent and the biopolymer papain obeys large polaron tunnelling model, gum acacia and ...

  15. Trajectory Control of Self-Propelled Micromotors Using AC Electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Yoshitaka; Honegger, Thibault; Berton, Kevin; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Peyrade, David

    2015-11-11

    3D control of the motion of self-powered micromotors is demonstrated using AC electrokinetics by applying an AC electric field on indium tin oxide transparent electrodes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Operation of AC Adapters Visualized Using Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regester, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    A bridge rectifier is a diamond-shaped configuration of diodes that serves to convert alternating current(AC) into direct current (DC). In our world of AC outlets and DC electronics, they are ubiquitous. Of course, most bridge rectifiers are built with regular diodes, not the light-emitting variety, because LEDs have a number of disadvantages. For…

  17. Flexible AC transmission systems: the state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edris, Abdel-Aty [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Electric Systems Division

    1994-12-31

    Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) is a concept promoting the use of power electronic controllers to enhance the controllability and usable capacity of AC transmission. This paper presents the state of the art of FACTS and the status of the current projects for the application of the FACTS controllers in transmission systems. (author) 8 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Estimation of the Thurstonian model for the 2-AC protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Lee, Hye-Seong; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2012-01-01

    . This relationship makes it possible to extract estimates and standard errors of δ and τ from general statistical software, and furthermore, it makes it possible to combine standard regression modelling with the Thurstonian model for the 2-AC protocol. A model for replicated 2-AC data is proposed using cumulative...

  19. Low frequency ac conduction and dielectric relaxation in poly (N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ac conductivity and dielectric constant of poly(N-methyl pyrrole) thin films have been investigated in the temperature range 77–350 K and in the frequency range 102–106 Hz. The well defined loss peaks have been observed in the temperature region where measured ac conductivity approaches dc conductivity.

  20. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, M.S.

    2005-11-22

    With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters

  1. Control of grid interactive AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, distributed energy resources (DER) technology has undergone a fast development. Increased penetration of DER units and wide spread use of renewable energy sources challenge the entire architecture of traditional power system. Microgrid, characterizing higher flexibility and ...

  2. The use of low frequency AC for offshore wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, T.; Stroem, M.; Gustavsson, Bo [Balfour Beatty Rail AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Low frequency AC, that means AC with a frequency well below the usual frequencies 50 or 60 Hz, has today its main use in single phase AC electrified railways in a number of European countries (16 2/3 Hz), USA (25 Hz) and Costa Rica (20 Hz). Offshore wind power is well suited to 'join the club' as low frequency AC has a number of advantages for that use: Low frequency AC better fits the low revolution frequency of wind power rotors. This can either be used for reduction of pole number for direct generation machines or for a reduction of the gear ratio for conventional machines, resulting in simpler, lighter and more reliable gearboxes. Low frequency AC gives rise to lower charging current/reactive power production, which restricts the maximum cable length for 50 - 60 Hz heavily due to the high specific capacitance of power cables. For low frequency AC, cables longer than 100 km are possible, which is necessary for many future offshore wind power sites. Low frequency AC enables for the use of (air insulated) transmission lines at loads well above their characteristic power, often up to their thermal maximum load. This means that weak 50 or 60 Hz lines between the shore and consumers or stronger parts of a national grid can transfer more power when operated with low frequency AC. On all aspects of low frequency AC, profound knowledge has been accumulated the last century in the railway sector and can be made available for wind power.

  3. The All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.; Coil, A.L.; Conselice, C.; Cooper, M.; Croton,; Eisenhardt, P.; Ellis, R.; Faber, S.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke, B.; Goss, W.M.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Lick Observ. /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-07-21

    In this the first of a series of ''Letters'', we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z {approx} 1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS{sup 30} X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX{sup 31} ultraviolet (1200-2500 A), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey{sup 32} optical (3600-9000 {angstrom}), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 {angstrom}), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS{sup 33} optical (4400-8500 {angstrom}), Palomar/WIRC{sup 34} near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC{sup 35} mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA{sup 36} radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope{sup 37}. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

  4. The All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey(AEGIS) Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.P.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.C.; Coil,A.L.; Conselice, C.J.; Cooper, M.C.; Croton, D.J.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Ellis, R.S.; Faber, S.M.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke,B.F.; Goss, W.M.; Gwyn, S.; Harker, J.; Hopkins, A.M.; Huang, J.-S.; Ivison, R.J.; Kassin, S.A.; Kirby, E.N.; Koekemoer, A.M.; Koo, D.C.; Laird, E.S.; Le Floc' h, E.; Lin, L.; Lotz, J.M.; Marshall, P.J.; Martin,D.C.; Metevier, A.J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Nandra, K.; Noeske, K.G.; Papovich, C.; Phillips, A.C.; Rich,R. M.; Rieke, G.H.; Rigopoulou, D.; Salim, S.; Schiminovich, D.; Simard, L.; Smail, I.; Small,T.A.; Weiner,B.J.; Willmer, C.N.A.; Willner, S.P.; Wilson, G.; Wright, E.L.; Yan, R.

    2006-10-13

    In this the first of a series of Letters, we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z{approx}1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX ultraviolet (1200-2500 Angstroms), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey optical (3600-9000 Angstroms), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 Angstroms), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS optical (4400-8500 Angstroms), Palomar/WIRC near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

  5. 40 CFR 86.162-00 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures § 86.162-00 Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2. The alternative air conditioning test procedures AC1 and AC2 are approved by the Administrator... requirements of paragraph (a) of this section and meet the requirements of § 86.163-00. Air conditioning tests...

  6. Scaling of velocity and scalar structure functions in ac electrokinetic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Guiren

    2017-02-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) turbulence or electrohydrodynamic (EHD) turbulence has been recently achieved in different fluids under both ac [G. Wang et al., Lab Chip 14, 1452 (2014), 10.1039/C3LC51403J; Phys. Rev. E 93, 013106 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.013106] and dc electric fields [A. Varshney et al., Soft Matter 12, 1759 (2016), 10.1039/C5SM02316E]. Here, through dimensional analysis, scaling laws of both velocity and electric conductivity structure functions in the forced cascade region of ac EK turbulence can be predicated (similar to Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling law in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection), in either macroscale or microscale flows. In the forced cascade region, EK force, which relies on the direct cascade of conductivity structures, injects energy directly into a wide spectral region to sustain the flow disturbance. The scaling exponents of the second-order velocity and conductivity structures are 2/5 and 4/5, respectively. In addition to the scaling regions, two characteristic small length scales are derived for both weak and strong electric body forces, respectively. This theoretical investigation can significantly enhance our understanding of EK or EHD turbulence while forced by an ac electric field. It can further broaden our understanding of the forced cascade region of forced turbulence and make the manipulation of the turbulent cascade process more flexible and controllable.

  7. Harmonic Mitigation using 36-Pulse AC-DC Converter for Direct Torque Controlled Induction Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abdollahi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and analysis of a transformer based 36-pulse ac-dc converters which supplies direct torque controlled induction motor drives (DTCIMD's in order to have better power quality conditions at the point of common coupling. The converters output voltage is accomplished via two paralleled eighteen-pulse ac-dc converters each of them consisting of nine-phase diode bridge rectifier. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. The 36-pulse structure improves power quality criteria at ac mains and makes them consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements for varying loads. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6-pulse and 36-pulse converters (Polygon, Fork, and Hexagon from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD is less than 4% for the 36-pulse topologies at variable loads. The Delta/Hexagon connected platform could simplify the resulted configuration for the converters and reducing the costs.

  8. Neurinoma central do nervo acústico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pinto Pupo

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta o caso de uma paciente com 45 anos, com hipertensão arterial, queixando-se de tonturas e surdez progressiva à esquerda que, ao exame neurológico, apresentava síndrome protuberancial, com hemi-anestesia táctil e dolorosa à direita respeitando a face, hemiparesia direita, ataxia de tipo sensitivo nos membros da direita, paralisia facial de tipo periférico, hipoacusia, paresia de motor ocular externo à esquerda, síndrome vertiginosa e nistagmo horizontal ao olhar para a direita. À necrópsia foi encontrado um tumor na hemicalota protuberancial esquerda e foco malácico adjacente, secundário a distúrbio circulatório. O tumor, intimamente dependente das raízes intraprotuberanciais do nervo acústico, se apresentava com as características histológicas dos neurinomas. Além dessas particularidades, a lesão do feixe central da calota e conseqüente degeneração "hipertrófica" da oliva bulbar constituem outro aspecto de grande interêsse dêste caso.

  9. Optimal Adaptive Droop Control for Effective Load Sharing in AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Shafiee, Qobad; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    scheme. However, sharing powers among the sources based on the units’ rated capacities is not an optimal solution in terms of economy and efficiency. In this paper, a new adaptive droop-based control strategy is proposed for AC MGs to optimally share MG load between corresponding units. The mentioned......During the past few years, microgrids (MGs) have been becoming more attractive as effective means to integrate different distributed energy resources (DERs). To coordinate active and reactive power sharing among DERs, conventional droop control method is widely used as a decentralized control...

  10. Measurement of AC loss of superconductors by vaporizing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Isono, Takaaki; Matsui, Kunihiro; Fujisaki, Reishi; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1995-07-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the development of superconducting pulse conductors for next period nuclear fusion reactors has been carried out. For these conductors, the rated current of 46 kA and the rated magnetic field of 13T are demanded. When the pulse excitation of superconductors is carried out, AC loss arises, and the temperature of the superconductors rises, and when it exceeds a certain value, the superconducting state cannot be maintained. Therefore, the AC loss of pulse conductors must be limited to a low value. It is difficult to evaluate the AC loss of superconductors by calculation, therefore, it is evaluated by actual measurement. There are magnetizing method and vaporizing method for measuring the AC loss. This time, the equipment for measuring the AC loss of 40 kA class superconductors by vaporizing method which measures the helium gas quantity vaporizing at the time of AC loss occurrence was designed and manufactured for the first time. The method of measuring the AC loss, the structure of the measuring equipment, the helium gas recovering part and the measuring part, the countermeasures for preventing helium gas leakage, the resistance heater for calibration, and the results of measurement are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Investigation of AC losses in horizontally parallel HTS tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Boyang; Li, Jing; Geng, Jianzhao; Fu, Lin; Zhang, Xiuchang; Zhang, Heng; Li, Chao; Grilli, Francesco; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an AC loss study of horizontally parallel HTS tapes. We proposed to use three parallel HTS tapes as an example. The AC losses of the middle and end tape of three parallel tapes have been measured using the electrical method and compared to those of an individual tape. The effect of the interaction between tapes on AC losses has been analysed, and compared with finite-element method (FEM) simulations using the 2D H -formulation implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics. By using FEM simulations, the cases of increasing number of parallel tapes have been considered, and the normalised ratio between the total average AC losses per tape and the AC losses of an individual single tape has been calculated for different gap distances. We proposed a new parameter, Ns , a turning point for number of tapes, to divide Stage 1 and Stage 2 for the AC loss study of horizontally parallel tapes. For Stage 1, N Ns , the total average losses per tape decrease with the increasing number of tapes. The analysis demonstrates that horizontally parallel HTS tapes could be potentially used in superconducting devices like HTS transformers, which could retain or even reduce the total average AC losses per tape with large number of parallel tapes.

  12. Electron transport through ac driven graphene p-n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Kang, Yan-Zhuo; Ding, Kai-He

    2018-02-01

    We study the electronic transport through ac driven graphene p-n junctions under a perpendicular magnetic field. It is found that subject to the transversely or longitudinally polarized ac field, in the p-n region, the conductance versus the on-site energy of the right electrode exhibits a characteristic structure with a zero value plateau and the followed oscillation peaks, whose widths are greatly suppressed by the ac field. In the n-n region, the conductance plateaus at G = (n + 1 / 2) (4e2 / h) (n is an integer) shrink for the transversely polarized ac field, whereas accompanied with the addition of the new quantized plateaus at G = n (4e2 / h) for the longitudinally polarized ac field. The combined influence of the ac field with the disorder can trigger a change in the mixing of the hole and electron states at the p-n interface, which leads to a destruction of the plateaus structure in the conductance versus the disorder strength with the emergence of new ones. The influence of the elliptically and circularly polarized ac field on the conductance is also shown.

  13. GWAMA: software for genome-wide association meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mägi Reedik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent success of genome-wide association studies in identifying novel loci contributing effects to complex human traits, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity, much of the genetic component of variation in these phenotypes remains unexplained. One way to improving power to detect further novel loci is through meta-analysis of studies from the same population, increasing the sample size over any individual study. Although statistical software analysis packages incorporate routines for meta-analysis, they are ill equipped to meet the challenges of the scale and complexity of data generated in genome-wide association studies. Results We have developed flexible, open-source software for the meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. The software incorporates a variety of error trapping facilities, and provides a range of meta-analysis summary statistics. The software is distributed with scripts that allow simple formatting of files containing the results of each association study and generate graphical summaries of genome-wide meta-analysis results. Conclusions The GWAMA (Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis software has been developed to perform meta-analysis of summary statistics generated from genome-wide association studies of dichotomous phenotypes or quantitative traits. Software with source files, documentation and example data files are freely available online at http://www.well.ox.ac.uk/GWAMA.

  14. Regulation of Dynamical Systems to Optimal Solutions of Semidefinite Programs: Algorithms and Applications to AC Optimal Power Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2015-07-01

    This paper considers a collection of networked nonlinear dynamical systems, and addresses the synthesis of feedback controllers that seek optimal operating points corresponding to the solution of pertinent network-wide optimization problems. Particular emphasis is placed on the solution of semidefinite programs (SDPs). The design of the feedback controller is grounded on a dual e-subgradient approach, with the dual iterates utilized to dynamically update the dynamical-system reference signals. Global convergence is guaranteed for diminishing stepsize rules, even when the reference inputs are updated at a faster rate than the dynamical-system settling time. The application of the proposed framework to the control of power-electronic inverters in AC distribution systems is discussed. The objective is to bridge the time-scale separation between real-time inverter control and network-wide optimization. Optimization objectives assume the form of SDP relaxations of prototypical AC optimal power flow problems.

  15. Surgical skills curricula in American College of Surgeons Accredited Education Institutes: An international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Iman; Fitzgibbons, Shimae; Watanabe, Yusuke; Lachapelle, Alexander; Paige, John

    2017-04-01

    A clear understanding of simulation-based curricula in use at American College of Surgeons Accredited Education Institutes (ACS-AEIs) is lacking. A 25-question online survey was sent to ACS-AEIs. The response rate approached 60%. The most frequent specialties to use the ACS-AEIs are general surgery and obstetrics/gynecology (94%). Residents are the main target population for programming/training (96%). Elements of the ACS/Association of Program Directors in Surgery Surgical Skills Curriculum are used by 77% of responding ACS-AEIs. Only 49% of ACS-AEIs implement the entire curriculum and 96% have independently developed their own surgical skills curricula. "Home-grown" simulators have been designed at 71% of ACS-AEIs. Feasibility (80%), evidence of effectiveness (67%), and cost (60%) were reasons for curriculum adoption. All programs use operative assessment tools for resident performance, and 53% use Messick's unitary framework of validity. Most programs (88%) have financial support from their academic institute. Majority of ACS-AEIs had trainees evaluate their faculty instructors (90%), and the main form of such faculty evaluation was postcourse surveys (97%). This study provides specific information regarding simulation-based curricula at ACS-AEIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Advanced DC/AC inverters applications in renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2013-01-01

    DC/AC inversion technology is of vital importance for industrial applications, including electrical vehicles and renewable energy systems, which require a large number of inverters. In recent years, inversion technology has developed rapidly, with new topologies improving the power factor and increasing power efficiency. Proposing many novel approaches, Advanced DC/AC Inverters: Applications in Renewable Energy describes advanced DC/AC inverters that can be used for renewable energy systems. The book introduces more than 100 topologies of advanced inverters originally developed by the authors,

  17. An AC/AC Direct Power Conversion Topology Having Multiple Power Grid Connections with Adjustable Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    these fraction power will be a necessary feature on a deregulated energy market. This paper presents a new topology of a power converter based on the Direct Power Conversion concept, which is able to connect to multiple grids and provide complete decoupling between without circulating power between the grids......Normally, a power converter has one supply port to connect to the power grid and one or multiple output ports to connect to AC loads that require variable voltage and variable frequency. As the trend on the energy market is towards deregulation, new converter topologies are needed to allow...

  18. Wide field imaging problems in radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, T. J.; Golap, K.; Bhatnagar, S.

    2005-03-01

    The new generation of synthesis radio telescopes now being proposed, designed, and constructed face substantial problems in making images over wide fields of view. Such observations are required either to achieve the full sensitivity limit in crowded fields or for surveys. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA Consortium, Tech. Rep., 2004), now being developed by an international consortium of 15 countries, will require advances well beyond the current state of the art. We review the theory of synthesis radio telescopes for large fields of view. We describe a new algorithm, W projection, for correcting the non-coplanar baselines aberration. This algorithm has improved performance over those previously used (typically an order of magnitude in speed). Despite the advent of W projection, the computing hardware required for SKA wide field imaging is estimated to cost up to $500M (2015 dollars). This is about half the target cost of the SKA. Reconfigurable computing is one way in which the costs can be decreased dramatically.

  19. The Wide Field Imager for Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, A.; Nandra, K.; Meidinger, N.; Plattner, M.

    2017-10-01

    The Wide Field Imager (WFI) is one of the two scientific instruments of Athena, ESA's next large X-ray Observatory with launch in 2028. The instrument will provide two defining capabilities to the mission sensitive wide-field imaging spectroscopy and excellent high-count rate performance. It will do so with the use of two separate detectors systems, the Large Detector Array (LDA) optimized for its field of view (40'×40') with a 100 fold survey speed increase compared to existing X-ray missions, and the Fast Detector (FD) tweaked for high throughput and low pile-up for point sources as bright as the Crab. In my talk I will present the key performance parameters of the instrument and their links to the scientific goals of Athena and summarize the status of the ongoing development activities.

  20. The Wide Field Imager Instrument for Athena

    OpenAIRE

    Meidinger, Norbert; Eder, Josef; Eraerds, Tanja; Nandra, Kirpal; Pietschner, Daniel; Plattner, Markus; Rau, Arne; Strecker, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The WFI (Wide Field Imager) instrument is planned to be one of two complementary focal plane cameras on ESA's next X-ray observatory Athena. It combines unprecedented survey power through its large field of view of 40 amin x 40 amin together with excellent count rate capability (larger than 1 Crab). The energy resolution of the silicon sensor is state-of-the-art in the energy band of interest from 0.2 keV to 15 keV, e.g. the full width at half maximum of a line at 7 keV will be better than 17...

  1. Effects of the 20-kilodalton helper protein on Cry1Ac production and spore formation in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z; Liu, Z; Yu, Z

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis produces large amounts of various pesticidal proteins during the stationary phase. In order to achieve a high yield and form crystals, some pesticidal proteins require the presence of other proteins. Helper protein P20 is required for efficient production of both the Cyt1A and Cry11A crystal proteins in B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Although full-length Cry1 protoxins are usually independent in terms of expression and crystallization in B. thuringiensis, in this study P20 significantly enhanced production of Cry1Ac protoxin (133 kDa) in an acrystalliferous and plasmid-negative strain. In the presence of P20, the yield of Cry1Ac protoxin increased 2.5-fold, and on average the resulting crystals were 1.85 microm long and 0.85 microm wide, three times the size of the crystals formed in the control lacking P20. Correspondingly, the recombinant strain that coexpressed P20 and Cry1Ac exhibited higher toxicity against Heliothis armigera larvae than the control. Furthermore, serious degradation of Cry1Ac in vivo was observed, which has seldom been reported previously. Actually, most protein was completely degraded during synthesis, and after synthesis about one-third of the expressed protoxins were degraded further before crystallization. In this process, P20 protected only nascent Cry1Ac from degradation, indicating that it acted as a molecular chaperon. In addition, spores were smaller and rounder and had a thinner exosporium layer when they were produced in the presence of P20. In summary, Cry1Ac was severely degraded during synthesis; this degradation was effectively relieved by P20, which resulted in enhanced production. Our results indicated that P20 is an effective tool for optimizing protein production in vivo.

  2. ACLY and ACC1 Regulate Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis by Modulating ETV4 via α-ketoglutarate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M Keenan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to propagate a solid tumor, cancer cells must adapt to and survive under various tumor microenvironment (TME stresses, such as hypoxia or lactic acidosis. To systematically identify genes that modulate cancer cell survival under stresses, we performed genome-wide shRNA screens under hypoxia or lactic acidosis. We discovered that genetic depletion of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA or ACC1 or ATP citrate lyase (ACLY protected cancer cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Additionally, the loss of ACLY or ACC1 reduced levels and activities of the oncogenic transcription factor ETV4. Silencing ETV4 also protected cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis and led to remarkably similar transcriptional responses as with silenced ACLY or ACC1, including an anti-apoptotic program. Metabolomic analysis found that while α-ketoglutarate levels decrease under hypoxia in control cells, α-ketoglutarate is paradoxically increased under hypoxia when ACC1 or ACLY are depleted. Supplementation with α-ketoglutarate rescued the hypoxia-induced apoptosis and recapitulated the decreased expression and activity of ETV4, likely via an epigenetic mechanism. Therefore, ACC1 and ACLY regulate the levels of ETV4 under hypoxia via increased α-ketoglutarate. These results reveal that the ACC1/ACLY-α-ketoglutarate-ETV4 axis is a novel means by which metabolic states regulate transcriptional output for life vs. death decisions under hypoxia. Since many lipogenic inhibitors are under investigation as cancer therapeutics, our findings suggest that the use of these inhibitors will need to be carefully considered with respect to oncogenic drivers, tumor hypoxia, progression and dormancy. More broadly, our screen provides a framework for studying additional tumor cell stress-adaption mechanisms in the future.

  3. Ac45 silencing mediated by AAV-sh-Ac45-RNAi prevents both bone loss and inflammation caused by periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng; Chen, Wei; Hao, Liang; Zhu, Guochun; Lu, Yun; Li, Sheng; Wang, Lin; Li, Yi-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Periodontitis induced by oral pathogens leads to severe periodontal tissue damage and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption caused by inflammation. On the basis of the importance of Ac45 in osteoclast formation and function, we performed this study to evaluate the therapeutic potential of periodontitis by local adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Ac45 gene knockdown. We used AAV-mediated short hairpin RNAi knockdown of Ac45 gene expression (AAV-sh-Ac45) to inhibit bone erosion and gingival inflammation simultaneously in a well-established periodontitis mouse model induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis W50. Histological studies were performed to evaluate the bone protection of AAV-sh-Ac45. Immunochemistry, ELISA and qRT-PCR were performed to reveal the role of Ac45 knockdown on inflammation, immune response and expression of cytokine. We found that Ac45 knockdown impaired osteoclast-mediated extracellular acidification and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, local administration of AAV-sh-Ac45 protected mice from bone erosion by >85% and attenuated inflammation and decreased infiltration of T cells, dendritic cells and macrophages in the periodontal lesion. Notably, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was also reduced. Local AAV-sh-Ac45 gene therapy efficiently protects against periodontal tissue damage and bone erosion through both inhibition of osteoclast function and attenuating inflammation, and may represent a powerful new treatment strategy for periodontitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. ISTTOK upgrade towards AC and remote operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Carvalho, B.; Sousa, J.; Valcárcel, D.; Neto, A.; Fortunato, J.; Carvalho, I.; Varandas, C. A. F.

    2006-12-01

    ISTTOK has performed one of the earliest experiments of AC tokamak operation showing that long discharges could be produced merely with inductive current drive. However, due to the design of the machine, the data acquisition system and the power supplies, a limit of 250 ms (six times the nominal forward shot duration) is currently imposed. In this paper the relevant constrains to attain current operation up to the limit of the stable toroidal magnetic field (3s) are discussed and the work being carried out to achieve this goal is presented. The conditions that shall be accomplished are: (i) removing the power deposited on the limiters; (ii) density control through gas puffing and monitoring the recycling from the walls; (iii) assessment of the free magnetic flux available on the iron core (Wmax=0.2 Vs); (iv) reformulation of the data acquisition system towards an event driven philosophy maintaining the actual distributed architecture but allowing a real-time control; (v) active control of the equilibrium magnetic fields implementing a digital plasma position estimator and actuator through new power supplies for the poloidal magnetic fields. As a new high level software was needed to implement all this features, the ISTTOK data acquisition system and control has been totally redesigned in JAVA/SQL database technology and time stamps events were adopted to catalogue the data. This software has been design keeping in mind the needs for remote participation and operation of the machine. Therefore, a cooperative environment has been implemented where several persons can be connected together to the platform, programming their own devices and exchanging knowledge or opinions through an embedded chat.

  5. Spectroscopic Study of the HST/ACS PEARS Emission-line Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lifang; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Pirzkal, Norbert; Zheng, Zhenya; Meurer, Gerhardt; Straughn, Amber; Grogin, Norman; Floyd, David

    2011-02-01

    We present spectroscopy of 76 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in Chandra Deep Field South taken with the LDSS3 spectrograph on the Magellan Telescope. These galaxies are selected because they have emission lines with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism data in the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) grism Survey. The ACS grism spectra cover the wavelength range 6000-9700 Å and most PEARS grism redshifts are based on a single emission line + photometric redshifts from broadband colors; the Magellan spectra cover a wavelength range from 4000 Å to 9000 Å and provide a check on redshifts derived from PEARS data. We find an accuracy of σ z = 0.006 for the ACS grism redshifts with only one catastrophic outlier. We probe for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in our sample via several different methods. In total, we find 7 AGNs and AGN candidates out of 76 galaxies. Two AGNs are identified from the X-ray full-band luminosity, L X-ray,FB > 1043 erg s-1, the line widths, and the power-law continuum spectra. Two unobscured faint AGN candidates are identified from the X-ray full-band luminosity L X-ray,FB ~ 1041 erg s-1, the hardness ratio and the column density, and the emission-line and X-ray derived SFRs. Two candidates are classified based on the line ratio of [N II]λ6584/Hα versus [O III]λ5007/Hβ(BPT diagram), which are between the empirical and theoretical demarcation curves, i.e., the transition region from star-forming galaxies to AGNs. One AGN candidate is identified from the high-ionization emission line He IIÅ4686.

  6. A Panchromatic Catalog of Early-type Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift in the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Kaviraj, S.; O'Connell, R. W.; Hathi, N. P.; Windhorst, R. A.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Crockett, R. M.; Yan, H.; Kimble, R. A.; Silk, J.; McCarthy, P. J.; Koekemoer, A.; Balick, B.; Bond, H. E.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.; Paresce, F.; Saha, A.; Trauger, J. T.; Walker, A. R.; Whitmore, B. C.; Young, E. T.

    2012-03-01

    In the first of a series of forthcoming publications, we present a panchromatic catalog of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) from observations in the Early Release Science (ERS) program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field. Our ETGs span a large redshift range, 0.35 lsim z lsim 1.5, with each redshift spectroscopically confirmed by previous published surveys of the ERS field. We combine our measured WFC3 ERS and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) GOODS-S photometry to gain continuous sensitivity from the rest-frame far-UV to near-IR emission for each ETG. The superior spatial resolution of the HST over this panchromatic baseline allows us to classify the ETGs by their small-scale internal structures, as well as their local environment. By fitting stellar population spectral templates to the broadband photometry of the ETGs, we determine that the average masses of the ETGs are comparable to the characteristic stellar mass of massive galaxies, 1011 publications which address the diversity of stellar populations likely to be present in these ETGs, and the potential mechanisms by which recent star formation episodes are activated, are discussed.

  7. Simulation of the Relaxation Potential Profile of an ac-dc-ac Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry N. Allahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relaxation period of the accelerated ac-dc-ac test for coatings is associated with the transient electrochemistry that occurs when the immersed coated system is allowed to return to a stable open-circuit condition after being subjected to a cathodic potential. A mathematical model of the transient electrochemistry that occurs during this relaxation period is presented for coated aluminum. Expressions for the corrosion potential and corrosion current as functions of the local pH at the metal-coating interface were developed using reported experimental results. These expressions enabled the simulation of the transient electrochemistry under the constraint of balanced anodic and cathodic current densities. Regression of the transient relaxation potential profiles to exponential decay functions provided time-constant characterization of the profiles. Simulated results are presented that demonstrate the influences of the coating's porosity and thickness, the applied dc potential and the metal-coating interface condition on the time-constants associated with the relaxation profile. Interpretation of experimentally reported relaxation potential profiles supported the analysis of the simulated results.

  8. EHV AC undergrounding electrical power performance and planning

    CERN Document Server

    Benato, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Analytical methods of cable performance in EHV AC electrical power are discussed in this comprehensive reference. Descriptions of energization, power quality, cable safety constraints and more, guide readers in cable planning and power network operations.

  9. Scaling and universality of ac conduction in disordered solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, Jeppe

    2000-01-01

    Recent scaling results for the ac conductivity of ionic glasses by Roling et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2160 (1997)] and Sidebottom [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3653 (1999)] are discussed. We prove that Sidebottom's version of scaling is completely general. A new approximation to the universal ac conduct...... conductivity arising in the extreme disorder limit of the symmetric hopping model, the "diffusion cluster approximation," is presented and compared to computer simulations and experiments.......Recent scaling results for the ac conductivity of ionic glasses by Roling et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2160 (1997)] and Sidebottom [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3653 (1999)] are discussed. We prove that Sidebottom's version of scaling is completely general. A new approximation to the universal ac...

  10. Non-vanishing ponderomotive AC electrophoretic effect for particle trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Weihua; Reed, Mark A [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Park, Jae Hyun; Krstic, Predrag S, E-mail: mark.reed@yale.edu [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2011-06-17

    We present here a study on overlooked aspects of alternating current (AC) electrokinetics-AC electrophoretic (ACEP) phenomena. The dynamics of a particle with both polarizability and net charges in a non-uniform AC electric trapping field is investigated. It is found that either electrophoretic (EP) or dielectrophoretic (DEP) effects can dominate the trapping dynamics, depending on experimental conditions. A dimensionless parameter {gamma} is developed to predict the relative strength of EP and DEP effects in a quadrupole AC field. An ACEP trap is feasible for charged particles in 'salt-free' or low salt concentration solutions. In contrast to DEP traps, an ACEP trap favors the downscaling of the particle size.

  11. National Fuel Cell Bus Program : Accelerated Testing Report, AC Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 throu...

  12. Detection of Genetic Modification 'ac2' in Potato Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kralik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic modification 'ac2' is based on the insertion and expression of ac2 gene, originally found in seeds of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus, into the genome of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum. The purpose of the present study is to develop a PCR method for the detection of the mentioned genetically modified potatoes in various foodstuffs. The method was used to test twenty different potato-based products; none of them was positive for the genetic modification 'ac2'. The European Union legislation requires labelling of products made of or containing more than 0.9 % of genetically modified organisms. The genetic modification 'ac2' is not allowed on the European Union market. For that reason it is suitable to have detection methods, not only for the approved genetic modifications, but also for the 'unknown' ones, which could still occur in foodstuffs.

  13. Initial tests of an AC dipole for the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, R.; /Texas U.; Jansson, A.; /Fermilab; Kopp, S.; /Texas U.; Syphers, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to diagnose transverse motions of a beam. It can achieve large-amplitude oscillations without two inevitable problems of conventional kicker/pinger magnets: decoherence and emittance growth. While not the first synchrotron to operate with an AC dipole, the Tevatron can now make use of its recently upgraded BPM system, providing unprecedented resolution for use with an AC dipole, to measure both linear and nonlinear properties of the accelerator. Plans are to provide AC dipole systems for both transverse degrees of freedom. Preliminary tests have been done using an audio power amplifier with an existing vertical pinger magnet, producing oscillation amplitudes up to 2{sigma} at 150 GeV. In this paper, we will present the configuration of this system. We also show the analysis of a first few data sets, including the direct measurement of beta functions at BPM locations.

  14. Time-reversal symmetry breaking by ac field: Effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For a sufficiently strong ac field the dc conductance fluctuations are much stronger for the periodic pumping than in the case of the noise ac field of the same intensity. The reduction factor in a static magnetic field takes the universal value of 2 only for the white-noise pumping. In general may deviate from 2 thus ...

  15. AC magnetic dipole localization by a magnetoelectric sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; McLaughlin, K. L.; Gao, J.; Gray, D.; Shen, L.; Wang, Y.; Li, M.; Berry, D.; Li, J.; Viehland, D.

    2012-06-01

    We report progress towards achievement of a triple-axis magnetoelectric (ME) sensor technology that is capable of localizing an AC magnetic dipole at quasi-static frequencies. Estimation of the location of the AC dipole was realized with the help of a grid search (GS) algorithm. The results show good convergence and accuracy of object location along three orthogonal directions. Through simulation analysis, the major localization errors were found to arise from sensor calibration.

  16. Mixed mobile ion effect on ac conductivity of boroarsenate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we report the study of mixed mobile ion effect (MMIE) in boroarsenate glasses. DSC and a.c. electrical conductivity studies have been carried out for MgO–(25−)Li2O–50B2O3–25As2O3 glasses. It is observed that strength of MMIE in a.c. conductivity is less pronounced with increase in temperature and ...

  17. Autonomous Operation of Hybrid Microgrid With AC and DC Subgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang Loh, Poh; Li, Ding; Kang Chai, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates on power-sharing issues of an autonomous hybrid microgrid. Unlike existing microgrids which are purely ac, the hybrid microgrid studied here comprises dc and ac subgrids interconnected by power electronic interfaces. The main challenge here is to manage power flows among all...... converters. Suitable control and normalization schemes are now developed for controlling them with the overall hybrid microgrid performance already verified in simulation and experiment....

  18. Optimal football strategies: AC Milan versus FC Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Papahristodoulou, Christos

    2012-01-01

    In a recent UEFA Champions League game between AC Milan and FC Barcelona, played in Italy (final score 2-3), the collected match statistics, classified into four offensive and two defensive strategies, were in favour of FC Barcelona (by 13 versus 8 points). The aim of this paper is to examine to what extent the optimal game strategies derived from some deterministic, possibilistic, stochastic and fuzzy LP models would improve the payoff of AC Milan at the cost of FC Barcelona.

  19. Stretched exponential relaxation and ac universality in disordered dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milovanov, Alexander V.; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the connection between the properties of dielectric relaxation and alternating-current (ac) conduction in disordered dielectrics. The discussion is divided between the classical linear-response theory and a self-consistent dynamical modeling. The key issues are stretc....... Mathematically, our study refers to the expanding area of fractional calculus and we propose a systematic derivation of the fractional relaxation and fractional diffusion equations from the property of ac universality....

  20. AC loss characteristics of HTS tapes and their operating electromagnetic conditions; Koon chodendo tepu senzai no koryu sonshitsu tokusei to unten denji joken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, N. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan)

    2000-05-25

    AC losses in multifilamentary HTS tapes can be classified into hysteresis loss, coupling loss, and eddy current loss from the viewpoint of their generation mechanism. Operating electromagnetic conditions significantly influence their AC loss characteristics. From the viewpoint of the major magnetic field component generating them, they can be classified into magnetization loss, transport loss, and total loss. Dividing a superconductor into fine filaments, twisting the filament bundle and increasing transverse resistivity effectively reduce magnetization loss and total loss when the external magnetic field is relatively large, while they do not effectively reduce transport loss. General analytical expressions for the total loss in HTS tapes carrying AC current in an AC magnetic field have not been derived. Numerical electromagnetic field analysis based on the finite element method is a powerful tool to study total loss theoretically. In the magnetic field parallel to the tape's wide face, twisting can reduce the AC loss in Bi2223 tapes with pure silver matrix, while increasing transverse resistivity is required essentially for the AC loss reduction in a perpendicular magnetic field. Recently, twisted multifilamentary Bi2223 tapes with pure silver matrix were fabricated, and the reduction of magnetization loss was proved experimentally in a parallel magnetic field. Furthermore, transverse resistivity was increased successfully by the introduction of a resistive barrier between filaments. (author)

  1. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f ~ 20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  2. Experimental verification of Faradaic charging in ac electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wee Yang; Lam, Yee Cheong; Rodríguez, Isabel

    2009-04-23

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of Faradaic charging in ac electrokinetics. Faradaic reactions were suggested as a key effect responsible for the reversal of pumping direction in ac micropumps. However, this hypothesis has yet to be proven convincingly and directly. Here we present an ion detection strategy to determine the production of ions through Faradaic hydrolytic reactions originating from direct application of voltage to electrolytic solutions during ac electrokinetics. Experiments were performed with symmetrical planar electrodes aligned along a microfluidic channel. Fluorescein, a pH-dependent dye, was employed as the pH indicator for the detection of ion production. Images were captured for analysis at various voltage levels. From analyzing the fluorescence intensity and its distribution, it can be concluded that the production of ions from hydrolytic reactions takes place and increases with the ac voltage. The coefficient of deviation indicates a significant enhancement at ac voltage above 11 V(pp). Lastly, we demonstrate a strategy using dc-biased ac electrokinetics to achieve controllability in direction and magnitude of the net fluid flow in pumping application.

  3. Role of the AcsF protein in Chloroflexus aurantiacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang; Wen, Jianzhong; Li, Xianglu; Blankenship, Robert E

    2009-06-01

    The green phototrophic bacteria contain a unique complement of chlorophyll pigments, which self-assemble efficiently into antenna structures known as chlorosomes with little involvement of protein. The few proteins found in chlorosomes have previously been thought to have a primarily structural function. The biosynthetic pathway of the chlorosome pigments, bacteriochlorophylls c, d, and e, is not well understood. In this report, we used spectroscopic, proteomic, and gene expression approaches to investigate the chlorosome proteins of the green filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Surprisingly, Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (oxidative) cyclase, AcsF, was identified under anaerobic growth conditions. The AcsF protein was found in the isolated chlorosome fractions, and the proteomics analysis suggested that significant portions of the AcsF proteins are not accessible to protease digestion. Additionally, quantitative real-time PCR studies showed that the transcript level of the acsF gene is not lower in anaerobic growth than in semiaerobic growth. Since the proposed enzymatic activity of AcsF requires molecular oxygen, our studies suggest that the roles of AcsF in C. aurantiacus need to be investigated further.

  4. AC electrophoretic deposition of organic-inorganic composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T; Chávez-Valdez, A; Roether, J A; Schubert, D W; Boccaccini, A R

    2013-02-15

    Alternating current electrophoretic deposition (AC-EPD) of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticle composites on stainless steel electrodes was investigated in basic aqueous solution. AC square wave with duty cycle of 80% was applied at a frequency of 1 kHz. FTIR-ATR spectra showed that both AC and direct current (DC) EPD successfully deposited PAA-TiO(2) composites. The deposition rate using AC-EPD was lower than that obtained in direct current DC-EPD. However, the microstructure and surface morphology of the deposited composite coatings were different depending on the type of electric field applied. AC-EPD applied for not more than 5 min led to smooth films without bubble formation, while DC-EPD for 1 min or more showed deposits with microstructural defects possibly as result of water electrolysis. AC-EPD was thus for the first time demonstrated to be a suitable technique to deposit organic-inorganic composite coatings from aqueous suspensions, showing that applying a square wave and frequency of 1 kHz leads to uniform PAA-TiO(2) composite coatings on conductive materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Deep Grism Spectroscopy of High Redshift Galaxies with the HST GRAPES and PEARS Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, S.; Pirzkal, N.; GRAPES Team; PEARS Team

    2011-01-01

    We have obtained the deepest slitless spectroscopic samples ever using the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys, in two related projects, the "Grism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science" (GRAPES) and "Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically" (PEARS). In combination, these two programs obtained deep public spectroscopy of about 100 square arcminutes in the GOODS north and south fields. We are using these data to study galaxy evolution over a wide range of cosmic history. We are able to spectroscopically confirm Lyman break galaxies from redshift 4 to 6.5, down to AB magnitudes fainter than i=27.5. We use these samples to study a range of galaxy properties, including spatial clustering, Lyman alpha emitter fraction, and spatial extent of Lyman alpha emission.

  6. Modelling and Control Design of a Dual Buck-Boost AC/DC Converter Used in the DC Nano-Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Houqing

    2016-01-01

    Due to widely used DC characterized loads and more distributed power generation sources, the DC Nano-grid becomes more and more popular and seen as an alternative to the AC-grid in future. For the safety considerations, the DC Nano-grid should provide reliable grounding for the residential loads...

  7. Adult Exposure to Bt Toxin Cry1Ac Reduces Life Span and Reproduction of Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Wan, Peng; Cong, Shengbo; Wang, Jintao; Huang, Minsong; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Li, Xianchun; Wu, Kongming

    2016-05-01

    Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used widely in sprays and transgenic plants to control insect pests. Although much research has elucidated the effects of Bt toxins on larvae, relatively little is known about their effects on adults. Here, we evaluated the effects of exposing adults to Bt toxin Cry1Ac on the life span and reproduction of two strains of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)). In larval diet bioassays, the concentration of Cry1Ac killing 50% of larvae (LC 50 ) was 640 times higher for the laboratory-selected resistant strain (AZP-R) than the susceptible strain (APHIS-S). In experiments with adults, the highest concentrations of Cry1Ac tested (160 and 640 µg Cry1Ac per ml of 5% honey water) reduced life span for both strains. Treatments with 10, 40, and 160 µg Cry1Ac per ml reduced the duration of the oviposition period as well as the number of eggs laid by both strains, but did not affect the percentage of pairs producing eggs, the duration of the preoviposition period, or the percentage of eggs hatching for either strain. Adult life span did not differ between strains at low to moderate concentrations of Cry1Ac, but it was significantly greater for the resistant strain than the susceptible strain at the two highest concentrations of Cry1Ac tested. The reduced susceptibility to high concentrations of Cry1Ac in adults of the AZP-R strain relative to the APHIS-S strain provides the first evidence of expression of resistance to a Bt toxin in adult Lepidoptera. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Safe-commutation principle for direct single-phase AC-AC converters for use in audio power amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an alternative safe commutation principle for a single phase bidirectional bridge, for use in the new generation of direct single-stage AC-AC audio power amplifiers. As compared with the bridge commutation with load current or source voltage sensing, in this approach it is not required to do any measurements, thus making it more reliable. Initial testing made on the prototype prove the feasibility of the approach. (au)

  9. Safe-commutation principle for direct single-phase AC-AC converters for use in audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative safe commutation principle for a single phase bidirectional bridge, for use in the new generation of direct single-stage AC-AC audio power amplifiers. As compared with the bridge commutation with load current or source voltage sensing, in this approach...... it is not required to do any measurements, thus making it more reliable. Initial testing made on the prototype prove the feasibility of the approach....

  10. Experimental investigations of an AC pulse heating method for vehicular high power lithium-ion batteries at subzero temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangong; Sun, Zechang; Wei, Xuezhe; Dai, Haifeng; Gu, Weijun

    2017-11-01

    Effect of the AC (alternating current) pulse heating method on battery SoH (state of health) for large laminated power lithium-ion batteries at low temperature is investigated experimentally. Firstly, excitation current frequencies, amplitudes, and voltage limitations on cell temperature evolution are studied. High current amplitudes facilitate the heat accumulation and temperature rise. Low frequency region serves as a good innovation to heat the battery because of the large impedance. Wide voltage limitations also enjoy better temperature evolution owing to the less current modulation, but the temperature difference originated from various voltage limitations attenuates due to the decrement of impedance resulting from the temperature rise. Experiments with the thermocouple-embedded cell manifest good temperature homogeneity between the battery surface and interior during the AC heating process. Secondly, the cell capacity, Direct Current resistance and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy are all calibrated to assess the battery SoH after the hundreds of AC pulse heating cycles. Also, all cells are disassembled to investigate the battery internal morphology with the employment of Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy-Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy techniques. The results indicate that the AC heating method does not aggravate the cell degradation even in the low frequency range (0.5 Hz) under the normal voltage protection limitation.

  11. Parâmetros biológicos da lagarta falsa-medideira em cultivares de algodoeiro com as proteínas Cry1Ac e Cry1F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Lima Viana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de cultivares transgênicas de algodoeiro que expressam as proteínas Cry1Ac e Cry1F, nos parâmetros biológicos da lagarta falsa-medideira (Chrysodeixis includens. Lagartas neonatas foram alimentadas durante toda a fase larval com folhas de cultivares transgênicas e de suas isolinhas convencionais. Na cultivar Nuopal (Bollgard I (Cry1Ac, 62% das lagartas sobreviveram e se transformaram em pupas normais. A cultivar FM 975 (WideStrike (Cry1Ac e Cry1F é letal para lagartas de primeiro instar, com 100% de mortalidade.

  12. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure your ... how you incorporate it into your life. The survey will take 5 to 7 minutes to complete. ...

  13. AC susceptibility as a characterization tool for coated conductor tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gömöry, F.; Vojenčiak, M.; Solovyov, M.; Frolek, L.; Šouc, J.; Seiler, E.; Bauer, M.; Falter, M.

    2017-11-01

    The measurement and analysis of magnetic AC susceptibility is a useful tool in the study of superconductor (SC) materials. Exposure of a sample to a magnetic field changing in time generates loops of electrical currents that are detectable in a contactless way with the help of a suitable pick-up system. In this paper the applicability of this technique in the characterization and quality control of coated conductor (CC) tapes is evaluated. First we recollect the essential results of the analytical theory derived for thin SC strips and their extrapolation to strips with finite thickness. From the analytical expressions one can see how the properties of CC tape that are important for application in electric power devices, namely its critical current and AC loss, can be deduced from AC susceptibility data in straightforward way. The main focus of our study is to investigate the influence that various cases of non-uniformities in SC layer exhibit on the magnetic properties examined in an AC regime. Numerical computations were used to explore the consequences of lateral variation in the critical current density. Predictions derived for some model cases were compared with experimental findings. A dedicated experiment was also carried out to demonstrate that a transverse scratch that would be detrimental for DC transport could sneak unobserved through the AC magnetic experiment on a long sample. Our study shows that the analysis of both parts of the complex magnetic susceptibility in place of a mere AC loss determination in a common AC magnetization experiment is worth the additional effort.

  14. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  15. Wide spectrum microwave pulse measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Various techniques are postulated as diagnostics for wide band microwave pulses. The diagnostics include determinations of both the instantaneous amplitude and the frequency content of one-shot pulses. 6 refs., 11 figs. (WRF)

  16. A Study of PSF Models for ACS/WFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, S. L.; Anderson, J.

    2017-10-01

    This study compares PSFs generated with Tiny Tim against an empirically-derived, effective PSF (Anderson & King, 2006) for the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel imaging. We manipulate the Tiny Tim PSF FITS files into a format that can be utilized by the effective PSF FORTRAN photometry code. Then we perform PSF photometry on globular cluster NGC 6397 and analyze the photometry and astrometry results. We measure a value of 0.227 ± 0.032 for a quality-of-fit metric of the Tiny Tim PSF and a corresponding 0.117 ± 0.021 for the effective PSFs, an improvement of a factor of approximately two. We find that the effective PSF models outperform the Tiny Tim PSFs in every measurement of stellar sources in this field.

  17. Temas de Física para Ingeniería: Acústica

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    Acústica, fluidos y termodinámica: "Acústica". Ondas sonoras, propagación. Sonidos puros, sonidos complejos y ruidos. Velocidad de propagación del sonido. Intensidad del sonido y potencia acústica. Impedancia acústica y transmisión del sonido. Medición del campo acústico: niveles. Audición. Interferencia de ondas sonoras y pulsaciones. Tubos sonoros. Efecto Doppler.

  18. Ac loss in Ag/Bi-2223 tape cooled by GM cryocooler; Dendo reikyaku Ag/Bi-2223 tepu no koryu sonshitsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakasugi, K.; Murakami, T.; Natsume, K.; Naito, F.; Murase, S.; Shimamoto, S. [Tohoku Univ., Miyagi (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    1999-11-10

    It expects the application to electric power field the superconductivity is shown at the liquid nitrogen temperature the Bi system high temperature oxidation thing superconductor. Though it has made the research on the ac loss of the Bi system high temperature oxidation thing superconductor, it is at commercial frequency and liquid nitrogen temperature in the many. In this experiment, ac loss at wide 7K-77K temperatures and various 0.1Hz-500Hz frequencies was measured using conduction cooling GM refrigerating machine. (NEDO)

  19. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  20. Unified Synthesis of Right Halves of Halichondrins A-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Kenzo; Ye, Ning; Iso, Kentaro; Naini, Santhosh Reddy; Yamashita, Shuji; Ai, Yanran; Kishi, Yoshito

    2017-09-01

    The right halves of halichondrins A-C were synthesized by coupling the common C20-C37 building block 9 with the C1-C19 building blocks 10a-c, respectively. Catalytic, asymmetric Ni/Cr-mediated coupling was used for three C-C bond formations. For all cases, the stereochemistry was controlled with the Cr catalyst prepared from the chiral sulfonamide identified via the toolbox approach. For (3 + 4)-, (6 + 7)-, and (9 + 10)-couplings, the stereoselectivity of 28:1, >40:1, and ∼20:1 was achieved by the Cr catalysts prepared from (S)-H, (S)-I, and (R)-L, respectively. Unlike the first and second couplings, the third coupling used the structurally complex nucleophile. It was demonstrated that the coupling efficiency was excellent even with the electrophile/nucleophile molar ratio = 1.0/1.1. In addition, the third coupling was achieved with the substrate bearing a free hydroxyl group. The products obtained in the Ni/Cr-mediated couplings were converted to the right halves of halichondrins A-C in excellent overall yields. The right halves of halichondrins A-C (1a-c) were synthesized in 28, 24, and 24 steps from commercial d-galactal in 13.4%, 21.1%, and 16.7% overall yield, respectively.

  1. AC losses in circular arrangements of parallel superconducting tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Däumling, Manfred

    1998-01-01

    The DC and AC properties of superconducting tapes connected in parellel and arranged in a single closed layer on two tubes (correspondig to power cable models with infinite pitch) with different diameters are compared. We find that the DC properties, i.e. the critical currents of the two arrangem......The DC and AC properties of superconducting tapes connected in parellel and arranged in a single closed layer on two tubes (correspondig to power cable models with infinite pitch) with different diameters are compared. We find that the DC properties, i.e. the critical currents of the two...... arrangements, scale with the number of tapes and hence appear to be independent of the diameter.However, the AC loss per tape (for a given current per tape) appears to decrease with increasing diameter of the circular arrangement. Compared to a model for the AC loss in a continuous superconducting layer...... (Monoblock model) the measured values are about half an order of magnitude higher than expected for the small diameter arrangement. When compared to the AC loss calculated for N individual superconducting tapes using a well known model ( Norris elliptical) the difference is slightly smaller....

  2. AC loss of Bi-2212 superconducting ring for limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.N.; Wang, J.X.; Li, J.H.; Zong, X.H.; Sun, J

    2003-04-15

    A wattmeter technique is used to measure alternating field loss in Bi-2212 superconducting ring as an element of inductive fault current limiter. Experiment is performed at 77 K. Measurement results show that AC loss P vs. amplitude of sweeping field P follows a power law, P{proportional_to}H{sup n}. When sweeping field is lower than H{sub p} we observe the cubic dependence as predicted by the Bean-London critical state model. With increasing field the exponent initially increases, reaches the maximum of 4 as predicted by the Kim-Anderson critical state model. When the field is higher than H{sub p} the exponent decrease to 1. But AC loss per cycle decreases with the increase of frequency of field when the field is high. This can be explained by heating effect of AC loss. Furthermore, we calculate the AC loss of a full-scale inductive superconductor fault current limiter based on our measurement result. We found that the AC loss of this device is acceptable.

  3. Design and synthesis of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDevitt, Michael R.; Ma, Dangshe; Simon, Jim; Frank, R. Keith; Scheinberg, David A. E-mail: d-scheinberg@ski.mskcc.org

    2002-12-01

    The alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides {sup 213}Bi, {sup 211}At, {sup 224}Ra are under investigation for the treatment of leukemias, gliomas, and ankylosing spondylitis, respectively. {sup 213}Bi and {sup 211}At were attached to monoclonal antibodies and used as targeted immunotherapeutic agents while unconjugated {sup 224}Ra chloride selectively seeks bone. {sup 225}Ac possesses favorable physical properties for radioimmunotherapy (10 d half-life and 4 net alpha particles), but has a history of unfavorable radiolabeling chemistry and poor metal-chelate stability. We selected functionalized derivatives of DOTA as the most promising to pursue from out of a group of potential {sup 225}Ac chelate compounds. A two-step synthetic process employing either MeO-DOTA-NCS or 2B-DOTA-NCS as the chelating moiety was developed to attach {sup 225}Ac to monoclonal antibodies. This method was tested using several different IgG systems. The chelation reaction yield in the first step was 93{+-}8% radiochemically pure (n=26). The second step yielded {sup 225}Ac-DOTA-IgG constructs that were 95{+-}5% radiochemically pure (n=27) and the mean percent immunoreactivity ranged from 25% to 81%, depending on the antibody used. This process has yielded several potential novel targeted {sup 225}Ac-labeled immunotherapeutic agents that may now be evaluated in appropriate model systems and ultimately in humans.

  4. Apple MdACS6 Regulates Ethylene Biosynthesis During Fruit Development Involving Ethylene-Responsive Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Tan, Dongmei; Liu, Zhi; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Zhang, Lichao; Li, Xinyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Aide

    2015-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis in plants involves different 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) genes. The regulation of each ACS gene during fruit development is unclear. Here, we characterized another apple (Malus×domestica) ACS gene, MdACS6. The transcript of MdACS6 was observed not only in fruits but also in other tissues. During fruit development, MdACS6 was initiated at a much earlier stage, whereas MdACS3a and MdACS1 began to be expressed at 35 d before harvest and immediateley after harvest, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activity of MdACS6 was significantly lower than that of MdACS3a and MdACS1, accounting for the low ethylene biosynthesis in young fruits. Overexpression of MdACS6 (MdACS6-OE) by transient assay in apple showed enhanced ethylene production, and MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits but not in control fruits. In MdACS6 apple fruits silenced by the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system (MdACS6-AN), neither ethylene production nor MdACS3a transcript was detectable. In order to explore the mechanism through which MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits, we investigated the expression of apple ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes. The results showed that the expression of MdERF2 was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits and inhibited in MdACS6-AN fruits. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that MdERF2 protein could bind to the promoter of MdACS3a. Moreover, down-regulation of MdERF2 in apple flesh callus led to a decrease of MdACS3a expression, demonstrating the regulation of MdERF2 on MdACS3a. The mechanism through which MdACS6 regulates the action of MdACS3a was discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellingen, Kerim; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Vandenbussche, Filip; Prinsen, Els; Remans, Tony; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Anthropogenic activities cause metal pollution worldwide. Plants can absorb and accumulate these metals through their root system, inducing stress as a result of excess metal concentrations inside the plant. Ethylene is a regulator of multiple plant processes, and is affected by many biotic and abiotic stresses. Increased ethylene levels have been observed after exposure to excess metals but it remains unclear how the increased ethylene levels are achieved at the molecular level. In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on the production of ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and on the expression of the ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) multigene families were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Increased ethylene release after Cd exposure was directly measurable in a system using rockwool-cultivated plants; enhanced levels of the ethylene precursor ACC together with higher mRNA levels of ethylene responsive genes: ACO2, ETR2 and ERF1 also indicated increased ethylene production in hydroponic culture. Regarding underlying mechanisms, it was found that the transcript levels of ACO2 and ACO4, the most abundantly expressed members of the ACO multigene family, were increased upon Cd exposure. ACC synthesis is the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and transcript levels of both ACS2 and ACS6 showed the highest increase and became the most abundant isoforms after Cd exposure, suggesting their importance in the Cd-induced increase of ethylene production. Cadmium induced the biosynthesis of ACC and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants mainly via the increased expression of ACS2 and ACS6. This was confirmed in the acs2-1acs6-1 double knockout mutants, which showed a decreased ethylene production, positively affecting leaf biomass and resulting in a delayed induction of ethylene responsive gene expressions without significant differences in Cd contents between wild-type and mutant plants.

  6. Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic activities cause metal pollution worldwide. Plants can absorb and accumulate these metals through their root system, inducing stress as a result of excess metal concentrations inside the plant. Ethylene is a regulator of multiple plant processes, and is affected by many biotic and abiotic stresses. Increased ethylene levels have been observed after exposure to excess metals but it remains unclear how the increased ethylene levels are achieved at the molecular level. In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on the production of ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and on the expression of the ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) multigene families were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Increased ethylene release after Cd exposure was directly measurable in a system using rockwool-cultivated plants; enhanced levels of the ethylene precursor ACC together with higher mRNA levels of ethylene responsive genes: ACO2, ETR2 and ERF1 also indicated increased ethylene production in hydroponic culture. Regarding underlying mechanisms, it was found that the transcript levels of ACO2 and ACO4, the most abundantly expressed members of the ACO multigene family, were increased upon Cd exposure. ACC synthesis is the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and transcript levels of both ACS2 and ACS6 showed the highest increase and became the most abundant isoforms after Cd exposure, suggesting their importance in the Cd-induced increase of ethylene production. Conclusions Cadmium induced the biosynthesis of ACC and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants mainly via the increased expression of ACS2 and ACS6. This was confirmed in the acs2-1acs6-1 double knockout mutants, which showed a decreased ethylene production, positively affecting leaf biomass and resulting in a delayed induction of ethylene responsive gene expressions without significant differences in Cd contents between wild-type and

  7. Statistical Literacy and Sample Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlevey, Lynn; Sullivan, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Sample surveys are widely used in the social sciences and business. The news media almost daily quote from them, yet they are widely misused. Using students with prior managerial experience embarking on an MBA course, we show that common sample survey results are misunderstood even by those managers who have previously done a statistics course. In…

  8. World Wide Web voted most wonderful wonder by web-wide world

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The results are in, and the winner is...the World Wide Web! An online survey conducted by the CNN news group ranks the World Wide Web-invented at CERN--as the most wonderful of the seven modern wonders of the world. (See Bulletin No. 49/2006.) There is currently no speculation about whether they would have had the same results had they distributed the survey by post. The World Wide Web won with a whopping 50 per cent of the votes (3,665 votes). The runner up was CERN again, with 16 per cent of voters (1130 votes) casting the ballot in favour of the CERN particle accelerator. Stepping into place behind CERN and CERN is 'None of the Above' with 8 per cent of the votes (611 votes), followed by the development of Dubai (7%), the bionic arm (7%), China's Three Gorges Damn (5%), The Channel Tunnel (4%), and France's Millau viaduct (3%). Thanks to everyone from CERN who voted. You can view the results on http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2006/modern.wonders/

  9. Isolation of MA-ACS Gene Family and Expression Study of MA-ACS1 Gene in Musa acuminata Cultivar Pisang Ambon Lumut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISTYA UTAMI KARMAWAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Musa acuminata cultivar pisang ambon lumut is a native climacteric fruit from Indonesia. Climacteric fruit ripening process is triggered by the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. The rate limiting enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis is ACC synthase (ACS which is encoded by ACS gene family. The objective of this study is to identify MA-ACS gene family in M. acuminata cultivar pisang ambon lumut and to study the MA-ACS1 gene expression. The result showed that there were nine M. acuminata ACS gene family members called MA-ACS1–9. Two of them (MA-ACS1 and MA-ACS2 were assessed using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR for gene expression study and it was only MA-ACS1 correlated with fruit ripening. The MA-ACS1 gene fragment has been successfully isolated and characterized and it has three introns, four exons, and one stop codon. It also shows highest homology with MACS1 gene from M. acuminata cultivar Hsian Jien Chiao (GenBank accession number AF056164. Expression analysis of MA-ACS1 using quantitative PCR (qPCR showed that MA-ACS1 gene expression increased significantly in the third day, reached maximum at the fifth day, and then decreased in the seventh day after harvesting. The qPCR expression analysis result correlated with the result of physical analysis during fruit ripening.

  10. Epigenome-Wide Association Study of Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baselmans, Bart M L; van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G; Lin, Bochao D; Zilhão, Nuno R; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike

    2015-12-01

    Wellbeing (WB) is a major topic of research across several scientific disciplines, partly driven by its strong association with psychological and mental health. Twin-family studies have found that both genotype and environment play an important role in explaining the variance in WB. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, regulate gene expression, and may mediate genetic and environmental effects on WB. Here, for the first time, we apply an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) approach to identify differentially methylated sites associated with individual differences in WB. Subjects were part of the longitudinal survey studies of the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and participated in the NTR biobank project between 2002 and 2011. WB was assessed by a short inventory that measures satisfaction with life (SAT). DNA methylation was measured in whole blood by the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (HM450k array) and the association between WB and DNA methylation level was tested at 411,169 autosomal sites. Two sites (cg10845147, p = 1.51 * 10(-8) and cg01940273, p = 2.34 * 10(-8)) reached genome-wide significance following Bonferonni correction. Four more sites (cg03329539, p = 2.76* 10(-7); cg09716613, p = 3.23 * 10(-7); cg04387347, p = 3.95 * 10(-7); and cg02290168, p = 5.23 * 10(-7)) were considered to be genome-wide significant when applying the widely used criterion of a FDR q value system categories among higher-ranking methylation sites. Overall, these results provide a first insight into the epigenetic mechanisms associated with WB and lay the foundations for future work aiming to unravel the biological mechanisms underlying a complex trait like WB.

  11. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2000: Summary of Survey Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olmsted, Murrey

    2003-01-01

    .... Completed questionnaires were accepted through December 31, 2000. The NPS focuses on such topics as Sailor demographics, gender integration, training/education needs, leadership satisfaction, financial status, detailing, assignment, PERSTEMPO (i.e...

  12. Simulation of push-pull inverter using wide bandgap devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-badri, Mustafa; Matin, Mohammed A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of wide bandgap devices (SiC-MOSFET) in the design of a push-pull inverter which provides inexpensive low power dc-ac inverters. The parameters used were 1200V SiC MOSFET(C2M0040120D) made by power company ROHM. This modeling was created using parameters that were provided from a device datasheet. The spice model is provided by this company to study the effect of adding this component on push-pull inverter ordinary circuit and compared results between SiC MOSFET and silicon MOSFET (IRFP260M). The results focused on Vout and Vmos stability as well as on output power and MOSFET power loss because it is a very crucial aspect on DC-AC inverter design. These results are done using the National Instrument simulation program (Multisim 14). It was found that power loss is better in the 12 and 15 vdc inverter. The Vout in the SIC MOSFET circuit shows more stability in the high current low resistance load in comparison to the Silicon MOSFET circuit and this will improve the overall performance of the circuit.

  13. Wide-Field Plate Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, M. K.; Stavrev, K. Y.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Semkov, E. H.; Mutatov, A. S.

    The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) and the possibilities for its application as a research tool in observational astronomy are presented. Currently the WFPDB comprises the descriptive data for 400 000 archival wide field photographic plates obtained with 77 instruments, from a total of 1 850 000 photographs stored in 269 astronomical archives all over the world since the end of last century. The WFPDB is already accessible for the astronomical community, now only in batch mode through user requests sent by e-mail. We are working on on-line interactive access to the data via INTERNET from Sofia and parallel from the Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg. (Initial information can be found on World Wide Web homepage URL http://www.wfpa.acad.bg.) The WFPDB may be useful in studies of a variety of astronomical objects and phenomena, andespecially for long-term investigations of variable objects and for multi-wavelength research. We have analysed the data in the WFPDB in order to derive the overall characteristics of the totality of wide-field observations, such as the sky coverage, the distributions by observation time and date, by spectral band, and by object type. We have also examined the totality of wide-field observations from point of view of their quality, availability and digitisation. The usefulness of the WFPDB is demonstrated by the results of identification and investigation of the photometrical behaviour of optical analogues of gamma-ray bursts.

  14. Neural network based PWM AC chopper fed induction motor drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Jamuna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new Simulink model for a neural network controlled PWM AC chopper fed single phase induction motor is proposed. Closed loop speed control is achieved using a neural network controller. To maintain a constant fluid flow with a variation in pressure head, drives like fan and pump are operated with closed loop speed control. The need to improve the quality and reliability of the drive circuit has increased because of the growing demand for improving the performance of motor drives. With the increased availability of MOSFET's and IGBT's, PWM converters can be used efficiently in low and medium power applications. From the simulation studies, it is seen that the PWM AC chopper has a better harmonic spectrum and lesser copper loss than the Phase controlled AC chopper. It is observed that the drive system with the proposed model produces better dynamic performance, reduced overshoot and fast transient response. .

  15. Superconducting shielded core reactor with reduced AC losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yung S.; Hull, John R.

    2006-04-04

    A superconducting shielded core reactor (SSCR) operates as a passive device for limiting excessive AC current in a circuit operating at a high power level under a fault condition such as shorting. The SSCR includes a ferromagnetic core which may be either closed or open (with an air gap) and extends into and through a superconducting tube or superconducting rings arranged in a stacked array. First and second series connected copper coils each disposed about a portion of the iron core are connected to the circuit to be protected and are respectively wound inside and outside of the superconducting tube or rings. A large impedance is inserted into the circuit by the core when the shielding capability of the superconducting arrangement is exceeded by the applied magnetic field generated by the two coils under a fault condition to limit the AC current in the circuit. The proposed SSCR also affords reduced AC loss compared to conventional SSCRs under continuous normal operation.

  16. On the Application of TLS Techniques to AC Electrical Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cirrincione

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of a new neuron, the TLS EXIN neuron, to AC induction motor drives. In particular, it addresses two important subjects of AC induction motor drives: the on-line estimation of the electrical parameters of the machine and the speed estimation in sensorless drives. On this basis, this work summarizes the parameter estimation and sensorless techniques already developed by the authors over these last few years, all based on the TLS EXIN. With regard to sensorless, two techniques are proposed: one based on the MRAS and the other based on the full-order Luenberger observer. The work show some of the most significant results obtained by the authors in these fields and stresses the important potentiality of this new neural technique in AC induction machine drives.

  17. Particle manipulation using 3D ac electro-osmotic micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilber, W.; Weiss, B.; Mikolasek, M.; Holly, R.; Hingerl, K.; Jakoby, B.

    2008-06-01

    We present a novel mechanism of particle manipulation in alternating-current (ac)- driven electro-osmotic micropumps, utilizing the tunable ratio of viscous drag, inertial and dielectrophoretic forces. The latter are induced by three-dimensional (3D) stepped electrode arrays in the channel, which are driven by ac voltages enabling so-called 3D-ac-electro-osmotic pumping, as has been proposed recently. Due to size- and density-dependent differences in polarizability, targeted particles in the fluid stream can be slowed down or even pinned above the electrode structures solely by adjusting the operation parameters of the pump. Hence the presented device, fabricated in SU-8/glass technology, enables simultaneous pumping and manipulation of particles in suspension.

  18. The ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, S.

    1981-01-01

    A functional prototype of an electric vehicle ac propulsion system was built consisting of a 18.65 kW rated ac induction traction motor, pulse width modulated (PWM) transistorized inverter, two speed mechanically shifted automatic transmission, and an overall drive/vehicle controller. Design developmental steps, and test results of individual components and the complex system on an instrumented test frame are described. Computer models were developed for the inverter, motor and a representative vehicle. A preliminary reliability model and failure modes effects analysis are given.

  19. ENOSTOPENJSKI DC-AC PRETVORNIK ZA SOLARNE SISTEME

    OpenAIRE

    Konjedic, Tine

    2009-01-01

    V diplomskem delu so predstavljene posamezne komponente fotonapetostnih sistemov, podpore proizvodnji električne energije iz obnovljivih virov in osnove DC-DC ter DC-AC pretvornikov. Opisano je načrtovanje in preizkušanje enostopenjskega DC-AC pretvornika, ki se lahko uporablja kot omrežni razsmernik v sistemu sončne elektrarne. Za proženje stikal je uporabljena pulzno-širinska modulacija, ki je izvedena z uporabo digitalnega signalnega procesorja. Z namenom uvrstitve pretvornika v fotonapeto...

  20. Development of an AC Module System: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suparna Kadam; Miles Russell

    2012-06-15

    The GreenRay Inc. program focused on simplifying solar electricity and making it affordable and accessible to the mainstream population. This was accomplished by integrating a solar module, micro-inverter, mounting and monitoring into a reliable, 'plug and play' AC system for residential rooftops, offering the following advantages: (1) Reduced Cost: Reduction in installation labor with fewer components, faster mounting, faster wiring. (2) Maximized Energy Production: Each AC Module operates at its maximum, reducing overall losses from shading, mismatch, or module downtime. (3) Increased Safety. Electrical and fire safety experts agree that AC Modules have significant benefits, with no energized wiring or live connections during installation, maintenance or emergency conditions. (4) Simplified PV for a Broader Group of Installers. Dramatic simplification of design and installation of a solar power system, enabling faster and more efficient delivery of the product into the market through well-established, mainstream channels. This makes solar more accessible to the public. (5) Broadened the Rooftop Market: AC Modules enable solar for many homes that have shading, split roofs, or obstructions. In addition, due to the smaller building block size of 200W vs. 1000W, homeowners with budget limitations can start small and add to their systems over time. Through this DOE program GreenRay developed the all-in-one AC Module system with an integrated PV Module and microinverter, custom residential mounting and performance monitoring. Development efforts took the product from its initial concept, through prototypes, to a commercial product sold and deployed in the residential market. This pilot deployment has demonstrated the technical effectiveness of the AC Module system in meeting the needs and solving the problems of the residential market. While more expensive than the traditional central inverter systems at the pilot scale, the economics of AC Modules become

  1. Droop-free Distributed Control for AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasirian, Vahidreza; Shafiee, Qobad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    A cooperative distributed secondary/primary control paradigm for AC microgrids is proposed. This solution replaces the centralized secondary control and the primary-level droop mechanism of each inverter with three separate regulators: voltage, reactive power, and active power regulators. A sparse...... guidelines are provided. Steady-state performance analysis shows that the proposed controller can accurately handle the global voltage regulation and proportional load sharing. An AC microgrid prototype is set up, where the controller performance, plug-and-play capability, and resiliency to the failure...

  2. Productos «Celotex» para acondicionamientos Acústicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1958-02-01

    Full Text Available Not availableBajo la denominación general «Celotex», que es un nombre registrado, la Casa Americana The Celotex Corporation, cuyo domicilio social es 120 South, La Salle Street, Chicago J. lllinois, fabrica diversos materiales para fines de acondicionamiento acústico elaborados, según los tipos de que se trate, con fibra de caña de azúcar, lanas minerales, acero, amianto, etc., perforados o no y de acuerdo con el efecto estético y acústico que se desee obtener.

  3. El acondicionamiento acústico de una sala de conciertos

    OpenAIRE

    MONTANER SOLBES, SALVADOR

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo que se presenta a continuación se centra en el acondicionamiento acústico de una sala previamente existente, en un edificio de Valencia cuyo fin va a ser albergar un auditorio para música de cámara o grupos musicales de cuerda de tamaño reducido. La sala a diseñar se encuentra en un edificio con unas dimensiones limitadas y situado entre plantas. Se parte de las condiciones visuales y acústicas, para modificar y perfeccionar la geometría de la sala, y después se pasa al revestimie...

  4. Power converters and AC electrical drives with linear neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cirrincione, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    The first book of its kind, Power Converters and AC Electrical Drives with Linear Neural Networks systematically explores the application of neural networks in the field of power electronics, with particular emphasis on the sensorless control of AC drives. It presents the classical theory based on space-vectors in identification, discusses control of electrical drives and power converters, and examines improvements that can be attained when using linear neural networks. The book integrates power electronics and electrical drives with artificial neural networks (ANN). Organized into four parts,

  5. AC and Phase Sensing of Nanowires for Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Crescentini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires are label-free sensors that allow real-time measurements. They are economical and pave the road for point-of-care applications but require complex readout and skilled personnel. We propose a new model and technique for sensing nanowire sensors using alternating currents (AC to capture both magnitude and phase information from the sensor. This approach combines the advantages of complex impedance spectroscopy with the noise reduction performances of lock-in techniques. Experimental results show how modifications of the sensors with different surface chemistries lead to the same direct-current (DC response but can be discerned using the AC approach.

  6. Teacher Reviews of Widely Used Physics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Holt Physics (Serway & Faughn), Physics Principles and Problems (Zitzewitz), Conceptual Physics (Hewitt), and Physics: Principles with Applications (Giancoli) were the most widely used textbooks for regular high school physics courses during the 2008-09 academic year. Holt Physics and Zitzewitz were each used by about one-third of the teachers responding to our Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Hewitt's text was used by approximately one-fourth of the teachers who responded, and 6% of the respondents reported using Giancoli. We also asked the respondents to tell us how well the text worked for the course. The good news is that well over 80% of the teachers find that all four of these texts work quite well or somewhat well for teaching regular physics.

  7. State and evaluation of accommodation capacities in the Vršac Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourist offer within a certain area can be measured, among other things, with the condition of accommodation capacities. Even though they are located in the nature reserve of the rare natural beauty, accommodation capacities of the Vršac mountains are mostly empty and abandoned, and the spatial disposition is not proportional to the tourists' needs and quality of resources. The topic of this research were the accomodation capacities along the marked tourist paths within the area of The Vršac Mountains. The aim of this paper was the research on the current state of the material base of the mountain tourism and to obtain data on the impact of material base on tourism. During the research, the following methods were used: field research, with the field data gathering techniques: interview, survey, personal experience. The conclusion was reached that the current accommodation capacities are unequally distributed, and, as the importance of accomodation capacities in tourism is specially highlighted, it is clear that the future of mountain tourism depends primarily on the forthcoming steps of the decision makers in the hospitality industry. Since it is complicated to get the building permit in the protected area, the best solution is to rearrange and to reopen the existing accommodation facilities.

  8. Field resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis protein Cry1Ac expressed in Bollgard(®) hybrid cotton in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), populations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Komarlingam S; Ravi, Kadanur C; Suresh, Pennadam J; Sumerford, Douglas; Head, Graham P

    2016-04-01

    Bollgard(®) cotton, expressing Cry1Ac insecticidal protein, was approved for commercial planting in India in 2002, and by 2009 constituted 87% of the Indian crop, reducing losses from lepidopteran pests, including pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella. Inadequate control of PBW in fields of single-gene Bollgard cotton was reported in 2009; surveys revealed heavy infestations of PBW in Bollgard, restricted to Gujarat state, but not elsewhere in India. Bioassays of PBW strains from Bollgard bolls showed that, while susceptible PBW could not complete development to third and later instar at 10.0 µg Cry1Ac mL(-1) , 66.1% of larvae from Gujarat Bollgard strains could. A field-resistant strain, further selected in the laboratory, had susceptibility to Cry1Ac reduced by >2000-fold. Resistance to Cry1Ac did not confer cross-resistance to the Cry2Ab2 protein. In 2010, Bollgard fields in Gujarat continued to be infested with PBW, and many Bollgard fields in the adjoining states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh showed high-level infestation by PBW. Inadequate planting of refuges for PBW is the likely explanation for the field resistance to Bt cotton observed in Gujarat. These findings underscore the higher vulnerability of single-gene Bt products relative to dual-gene products expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2, and the increased risk of resistance evolution with low refuge compliance. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Genetic profiling using genome-wide significant coronary artery disease risk variants does not improve the prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, the Bogalusa Heart Study and the Health 2000 Survey--a meta-analysis of three independent studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi A Hernesniemi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have identified a large number of variants (SNPs associating with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Recently, the CARDIoGRAM consortium published a GWAS based on the largest study population so far. They successfully replicated twelve already known associations and discovered thirteen new SNPs associating with CAD. We examined whether the genetic profiling of these variants improves prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis--i.e., carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and carotid artery elasticity (CAE--beyond classical risk factors. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We genotyped 24 variants found in a population of European ancestry and measured CIMT and CAE in 2001 and 2007 from 2,081, and 2,015 subjects (aged 30-45 years in 2007 respectively, participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS. The Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS; n = 1179 was used as a replication cohort (mean age of 37.5. For additional replication, a sub-sample of 5 SNPs was genotyped for 1,291 individuals aged 46-76 years participating in the Health 2000 population survey. We tested the impact of genetic risk score (GRS(24SNP/CAD calculated as a weighted (by allelic odds ratios for CAD sum of CAD risk alleles from the studied 24 variants on CIMT, CAE, the incidence of carotid atherosclerosis and the progression of CIMT and CAE during a 6-year follow-up. RESULTS: CIMT or CAE did not significantly associate with GRS(24SNP/CAD before or after adjusting for classical CAD risk factors (p>0.05 for all in YFS or in the BHS. CIMT and CAE associated with only one SNP each in the YFS. The findings were not replicated in the replication cohorts. In the meta-analysis CIMT or CAE did not associate with any of the SNPs. CONCLUSION: Genetic profiling, by using known CAD risk variants, should not improve risk stratification for subclinical atherosclerosis beyond conventional risk factors among healthy young adults.

  10. Medication-wide association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.B. Ryan (Patrick); D. Madigan (David); P.E. Stang (Paul); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); G. Hripcsak (G.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractUndiscovered side effects of drugs can have a profound effect on the health of the nation, and electronic health-care databases offer opportunities to speed up the discovery of these side effects. We applied a "medication-wide association study" approach that combined multivariate

  11. The Ooty Wide Field Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 38; Issue 1. The Ooty Wide Field Array. C. R. Subrahmanya P. K. Manoharan Jayaram N. Chengalur. Review Article Volume 38 Issue 1 March 2017 Article ID ... Keywords. Cosmology: large scale structure of Universe; intergalactic medium; diffuse radiation.

  12. Cloning of the Aegiceras corniculatum class I chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and the response of AcCHI I mRNA expression to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yeok, Foong Swee

    2015-10-01

    Chitinases in terrestrial plants have been reported these are involved in heavy metal tolerance/detoxification. This is the first attempt to reveal chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and its function on metal detoxification in mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum. RT-PCR and RACE techniques were used to clone AcCHI I, while real-time quantitative PCR was employed to assess AcCHI I mRNA expressions in response to Cadmium (Cd). The deduced AcCHI I protein consists of 316 amino acids, including a signal peptide region, a chitin-binding domain (CBD) and a catalytic domain. Protein homology modeling was performed to identify potential features in AcCHI I. The CBD structure of AcCHI I might be critical for metal tolerance/homeostasis of the plant. Clear tissue-specific differences in AcCHI I expression were detected, with higher transcript levels detected in leaves. Results demonstrated that a short duration of Cd exposure (e.g., 3 days) promoted AcCHI I expression in roots. Upregulated expression was also detected in leaves under 10 mg/kg Cd concentration stress. The present study demonstrates that AcCHI I may play an important role in Cd tolerance/homeostasis in the plant. Further studies of the AcCHI I protein, gene overexpression, the promoter and upstream regulation will be necessary for clarifying the functions of AcCHI I.

  13. Heat treatment of the EN AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Silumins are widely used in automotive, aviation and shipbuilding industries; as having specific gravity nearly three times lower than specific gravity of cast iron the silumins can be characterized by high mechanical properties. Additionally, they feature good casting properties, good machinability and good thermal conductivity. i.e. properties as required for machinery components operating in high temperatures and at considerable loads. Mechanical properties of the silumins can be upgraded, implementing suitably selected heat treatment. In the paper is presented an effect of modification and heat treatment processes on mechanical properties of the EN AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe alloy. Investigated alloy has undergone typical processes of modification and refining, and next heat treatment. Temperature range of the heat treatment operations was determined on base of curves from the ATD method. Obtained results concern registered melting and solidification curves from the ATD method and strength tests. On base of the performed tests one has determined range of the heat treatment parameters which would assure obtainment of the best possible mechanical properties of the EN AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe alloy.

  14. Bias-voltage-controlled ac and dc magnetotransport phenomena in hybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, N.V., E-mail: volk@iph.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Tarasov, A.S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Smolyakov, D.A. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Varnakov, S.N. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Aerospace University, Krasnoyarsk 660014 (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikov, S.G. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    We report some ac and dc magnetotransport phenomena in silicon-based hybrid structures. The giant impedance change under an applied magnetic field has been experimentally found in the metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) diode with the Schottky barrier based on the Fe/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si and Fe/SiO{sub 2}/n-Si structures. The maximum effect is found to observe at temperatures of 10–30 K in the frequency range 10 Hz–1 MHz. Below 1 kHz the magnetoresistance can be controlled in a wide range by applying a bias to the device. A photoinduced dc magnetoresistance of over 10{sup 4}% has been found in the Fe/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si back-to-back Schottky diode. The observed magnetic-field-dependent effects are caused by the interface states localized in the insula-tor/semiconductor interface. - Highlights: • We report ac and dc magnetotransport phenomena in silicon-based hybrid structures. • The giant magnetoimpedance was experimentally found in the Fe/SiO{sub 2}/n-Si structure. • The dc bias voltage influence of the magnetoimpedance was revealed. • A photoinduced dc magnetoresistance was found in the Fe/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si structure. • The observed magnetic-field-dependent effects are caused by the interface states.

  15. Lamin A/C mutants disturb sumo1 localization and sumoylation in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Boudreau

    Full Text Available A-type lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins in which mutations have been implicated in multiple disease phenotypes commonly known as laminopathies. A few studies have implicated sumoylation in the regulation of A-type lamins. Sumoylation is a post-translational protein modification that regulates a wide range of cellular processes through the attachment of small ubiquitin-related modifier (sumo to various substrates. Here we showed that laminopathy mutants result in the mislocalization of sumo1 both in vitro (C2C12 cells overexpressing mutant lamins A and C and in vivo (primary myoblasts and myopathic muscle tissue from the Lmna(H222P/H222P mouse model. In C2C12 cells, we showed that the trapping of sumo1 in p.Asp192Gly, p.Gln353Lys, and p.Arg386Lys aggregates of lamin A/C correlated with an increased steady-state level of sumoylation. However, lamin A and C did not appear to be modified by sumo1. Our results suggest that mutant lamin A/C alters the dynamics of sumo1 and thus misregulation of sumoylation may be contributing to disease progression in laminopathies.

  16. Compherensive Design of a 100 kW/400 V High Performance AC-DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Esfandiari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive design for a 100kW/400V, three-phase pulse-width modulated (PWM AC-DC converter is presented that serves as the front-end power supply for wide-range varying active load. This power supply includes two series stages; a six-switch AC-DC boost converter and a DC-DC buck converter to regulate 400VDC at load side. The design of all inductors and capacitors is fulfilled using mathematical expressions. In addition, small signal modelling and controller design are presented in order to raise the design efficiency of the proposed converter. Also, due to the high power application, improved soft-switching techniques are applied. Furthermore, systematic approach to design an input EMI filter for DC-DC converter is explained. The simulation results performed by PSCAD software show that high performance of the proposed power supply is obtained in terms of stability, high power factor, high efficiency and low total harmonic distortion (THD.

  17. AC conductivity of selectively located carbon nanotubes in poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/polylactide blend nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredo, E; Grimau, M; Bello, A; Wu, D F; Zhang, Y S; Lin, D P

    2010-05-10

    DC and AC electrical conductivity of bionanocomposites based on the immiscible polymer blend poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/polylactide (PCL/PLA, w/w 70/30), loaded with multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT), were studied in a wide frequency range, 10(-3) < or = f < or = 10(7) Hz from 143 to 313 K. The nanofiller concentration ranged from 0 to 4 wt % and it was shown to be selectively located in the PCL phase. The PCL crystallinity degree was not affected by the presence of CNT. The variation of the DC conductivity allowed the determination of the percolation threshold, p(c) = 0.98 wt %, and the critical exponent t = 2.2 of the scaling law. The linear dependence of log (sigma(DC)) versus p(-1/3) showed the existence of tunneling conduction among CNT not yet in physical contact. The temperature independent results indicated a conventional tunnel effect. The AC conductivity of the nanocomposites followed the predictions of the universal dynamic response and the s exponents were determined at low concentrations. Master curves are presented showing the length and temperature-time superpositions.

  18. Modified AC Wheatstone Bridge Network for Accurate Measurement of Pressure Using Strain Gauge Type Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata CHATTOPADHYAY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve high quality of products at lesser cost, accurate measurement of different process variables is of vital importance in any industry. There are different well-established techniques of measurement and control instrumentations of these variables. In the resistive transducer like strain gauge, the small resistance generally changes linearly with a process variable like pressure but their measurement by usual AC Wheatstone bridge circuit may suffer from errors due to the effect of stray capacitance between bridge nodal points and ground and stray inductance on the strain gauge grid respectively. Though the conventional Wagner-Earth technique may be used to reduced the error but not suitable for continuous measurement. In the present paper, a modified operational amplifier based AC Wheatstone bridge measurement technique has been proposed in which the effect of stray capacitance and inductance is minimized. This bridge performance has been studied experimentally with the strain gauge type pressure transducer. The linear characteristics over a wide range of pressure with good repeatability, linearity and variable sensitivity have been described.

  19. Converting DC trains to AC operation using converters; Umstellung von DC-Bahnen auf AC-Betrieb mit Umrichtern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, Thorsten [Atkins Sverige AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Behmann, Uwe

    2012-01-15

    Nowadays, powerful DC trains run in interconnected overhead line contact systems. Converting them to AC operation in the conventional way, i.e. using phase-changing substations or even transformers, means new disadvantages to both the trains and the 3AC operators. Among these disad-vantages are power peaks that occur when catching up on speed losses after idling runs in phase separation sections. Static converters now again permit an interconnection of the line systems which allows a conversion to be re-assessed. (orig.)

  20. Large amplitude Fourier transformed ac voltammetry at a rotating disc electrode: a versatile technique for covering Levich and flow rate insensitive regimes in a single experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Kiran; Kennedy, Gareth F; Zhang, Jie; Bond, Alan M

    2012-04-14

    The theory for large amplitude Fourier transformed ac voltammetry at a rotating disc electrode is described. Resolution of time domain data into dc and ac harmonic components reveals that the mass transport for the dc component is controlled by convective-diffusion, while the background free higher order harmonic components are flow rate insensitive and mainly governed by linear diffusion. Thus, remarkable versatility is available; Levich behaviour of the dc component limiting current provides diffusion coefficient values and access to higher harmonics allows fast electrode kinetics to be probed. Two series of experiments (dc and ac voltammetry) have been required to extract these parameters; here large amplitude ac voltammetry with RDE methodology is used to demonstrate that kinetics and diffusion coefficient information can be extracted from a single experiment. To demonstrate the power of this approach, theoretical and experimental comparisons of data obtained for the reversible [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+/2+) and quasi-reversible [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) electron transfer processes are presented over a wide range of electrode rotation rates and with different concentrations and electrode materials. Excellent agreement of experimental and simulated data is achieved, which allows parameters such as electron transfer rate, diffusion coefficient, uncompensated resistance and others to be determined using a strategically applied approach that takes into account the different levels of sensitivity of each parameter to the dc or the ac harmonic.

  1. Perceptions of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels among a sample of bar patrons with BrAC values of 0.08% or higher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) is a commonly used measure of alcohol intoxication. Because of the potential negative consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, it is important to examine how accurately intoxicated individuals can estimate their BrAC values, especially individuals over the legal BrAC driving threshold (i.e., 0.08%). To better understand perceptions of BrAC values among intoxicated individuals, this field study examined actual BrAC values and BrAC range estimates (0.08% and above, 0.02-0.07%, less than 0.02%) among a sample of bar patrons (N = 454) with BrAC levels at 0.08% or higher. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between actual BrAC values and perceived BrAC levels. We also examined whether the following demographic and drinking variables were associated with underestimating BrAC in this sample: gender, age, race, college student status, plans to get home, and hazardous drinking. Results indicated that the majority (60.4%) of participants underestimated their BrAC (i.e., less than 0.08%) and lower BrAC values correlated with underestimating BrAC ranges (p < .001, 95% CI[0.2, 0.6]). Further, females (p = .001, 95% CI[1.3, 3.3]) and participants under 21 (p = .039, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.6) were significantly more likely to estimate their BrAC to be less than 0.08%, which is concerning given that young (less than 21) intoxicated females are a group at high risk for sexual assault on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Obtaining continuous BrAC/BAC estimates in the field: A hybrid system integrating transdermal alcohol biosensor, Intellidrink smartphone app, and BrAC Estimator software tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Hawkins, Ashley L; Dai, Zheng; Wichmann, Raphael; Wang, Chunming; Rosen, I Gary

    2017-12-02

    Biosensors have been developed to measure transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC), but converting TAC into interpretable indices of blood/breath alcohol concentration (BAC/BrAC) is difficult because of variations that occur in TAC across individuals, drinking episodes, and devices. We have developed mathematical models and the BrAC Estimator software for calibrating and inverting TAC into quantifiable BrAC estimates (eBrAC). The calibration protocol to determine the individualized parameters for a specific individual wearing a specific device requires a drinking session in which BrAC and TAC measurements are obtained simultaneously. This calibration protocol was originally conducted in the laboratory with breath analyzers used to produce the BrAC data. Here we develop and test an alternative calibration protocol using drinking diary data collected in the field with the smartphone app Intellidrink to produce the BrAC calibration data. We compared BrAC Estimator software results for 11 drinking episodes collected by an expert user when using Intellidrink versus breath analyzer measurements as BrAC calibration data. Inversion phase results indicated the Intellidrink calibration protocol produced similar eBrAC curves and captured peak eBrAC to within 0.0003%, time of peak eBrAC to within 18min, and area under the eBrAC curve to within 0.025% alcohol-hours as the breath analyzer calibration protocol. This study provides evidence that drinking diary data can be used in place of breath analyzer data in the BrAC Estimator software calibration procedure, which can reduce participant and researcher burden and expand the potential software user pool beyond researchers studying participants who can drink in the laboratory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Two very long chain fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetase genes, acs-20 and acs-22, have roles in the cuticle surface barrier in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Kage-Nakadai

    Full Text Available In multicellular organisms, the surface barrier is essential for maintaining the internal environment. In mammals, the barrier is the stratum corneum. Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 is a key factor involved in forming the stratum corneum barrier. Mice lacking Fatp4 display early neonatal lethality with features such as tight, thick, and shiny skin, and a defective skin barrier. These symptoms are strikingly similar to those of a human skin disease called restrictive dermopathy. FATP4 is a member of the FATP family that possesses acyl-CoA synthetase activity for very long chain fatty acids. How Fatp4 contributes to skin barrier function, however, remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we characterized two Caenorhabditis elegans genes, acs-20 and acs-22, that are homologous to mammalian FATPs. Animals with mutant acs-20 exhibited defects in the cuticle barrier, which normally prevents the penetration of small molecules. acs-20 mutant animals also exhibited abnormalities in the cuticle structure, but not in epidermal cell fate or cell integrity. The acs-22 mutants rarely showed a barrier defect, whereas acs-20;acs-22 double mutants had severely disrupted barrier function. Moreover, the barrier defects of acs-20 and acs-20;acs-22 mutants were rescued by acs-20, acs-22, or human Fatp4 transgenes. We further demonstrated that the incorporation of exogenous very long chain fatty acids into sphingomyelin was reduced in acs-20 and acs-22 mutants. These findings indicate that C. elegans Fatp4 homologue(s have a crucial role in the surface barrier function and this model might be useful for studying the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying human skin barrier and relevant diseases.

  4. Genes associated with MUC5AC expression in small airway epithelium of human smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guoqing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucus hypersecretion contributes to the morbidity and mortality of smoking-related lung diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, which starts in the small airways. Despite progress in animal studies, the genes and their expression pattern involved in mucus production and secretion in human airway epithelium are not well understood. We hypothesized that comparison of the transcriptomes of the small airway epithelium of individuals that express high vs low levels of MUC5AC, the major macromolecular component of airway mucus, could be used as a probe to identify the genes related to human small airway mucus production/secretion. Methods Flexible bronchoscopy and brushing were used to obtain small airway epithelium (10th to 12th order bronchi from healthy nonsmokers (n=60 and healthy smokers (n=72. Affymetrix HG-U133 plus 2.0 microarrays were used to assess gene expression. Massive parallel sequencing (RNA-Seq was used to verify gene expression of small airway epithelium from 5 nonsmokers and 6 smokers. Results MUC5AC expression varied 31-fold among the healthy nonsmokers. Genome-wide comparison between healthy nonsmokers (n = 60 grouped as “high MUC5AC expressors” vs “low MUC5AC expressors” identified 528 genes significantly up-regulated and 15 genes significantly down-regulated in the high vs low expressors. This strategy identified both mucus production and secretion related genes under control of a network composed of multiple transcription factors. Based on the literature, genes in the up-regulated list were used to identify a 73 “MUC5AC-associated core gene” list with 9 categories: mucus component; mucus-producing cell differentiation-related transcription factor; mucus-producing cell differentiation-related pathway or mediator; post-translational modification of mucin; vesicle transport; endoplasmic reticulum stress-related; secretory granule-associated; mucus secretion

  5. Ammonia treated Mo/AC catalysts for CO hydrogenation with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A series of ammonia treated Mo/Activated Carbon (AC) catalysts were synthesized by wet impregnation method by nominal incorporation of 5, 10 and 15 wt% of molybdenum. The calcined catalysts (500◦C, 4 h, N₂ flow) were subjected to a stepwise ammonia treatment at temperatures from 25 up to 700◦C. This work ...

  6. Efficient method for AC transmission network expansion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, M. [Electrical Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran); Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Rashidinejad, M. [Electrical Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran); Carreno, E.M. [Centro de Engenharia, Universidade Estadual do Oeste de Parana, UNIOESTE, Foz do Iguacu - PR (Brazil); Romero, R. [Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    A combinatorial mathematical model in tandem with a metaheuristic technique for solving transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) using an AC model associated with reactive power planning (RPP) is presented in this paper. AC-TNEP is handled through a prior DC model while additional lines as well as VAr-plants are used as reinforcements to cope with real network requirements. The solution of the reinforcement stage can be obtained by assuming all reactive demands are supplied locally to achieve a solution for AC-TNEP and by neglecting the local reactive sources, a reactive power planning (RPP) will be managed to find the minimum required reactive power sources. Binary GA as well as a real genetic algorithm (RGA) are employed as metaheuristic optimization techniques for solving this combinatorial TNEP as well as the RPP problem. High quality results related with lower investment costs through case studies on test systems show the usefulness of the proposal when working directly with the AC model in transmission network expansion planning, instead of relaxed models. (author)

  7. Time-reversal symmetry breaking by ac field: Effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in a quantum dot have been theoretically studied. The non-equilibrium noise has been suggested [7] as a cause of both the low temperature dephasing saturation [8] and the anomalously large ensemble averaged persistent current [9]. Here we study the effect of high-frequency ac field on the mesoscopic fluctuations of.

  8. Effect of temperature on the AC impedance of protein and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    guar, a galactomannan obtained from the Indian cluster bean. ∗. Author for correspondence (dppadiyan@msuniv.ac.in). Cyamposis tetragonolobus is a water soluble polysaccharide. It is an excellent stiffener and the absence of toxicity allows its use in the textile, pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic and food industries ...

  9. Rethinking Rectification: AC-DC Power Supply in Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jens; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    Rectification of AC mains voltage is almost exclusively implemented with passive diode bridge rectifiers for power applications below 100 W. The diode bridge rectifier is reliable, cost effective and easy to use. But it is also lossy, nonlinear and passive. Thus reducing the power conversion...

  10. Electrostatic suppression of the Leidenfrost state using AC electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Onur; Shahriari, Arjang; Bahadur, Vaibhav

    2017-10-01

    The formation of a vapor layer at the solid-liquid interface at high temperatures (Leidenfrost phenomenon) degrades heat transfer substantially. Application of an electric field in this vapor layer can fundamentally eliminate the Leidenfrost state by electrostatically attracting liquid towards the surface. This study analyzes the influence of AC electric fields on electrostatic suppression of the Leidenfrost state; previous studies have only utilized DC electric fields. In particular, the influence of the frequency of the AC waveform on Leidenfrost state suppression is analyzed using high speed visualization of liquid-vapor instabilities and heat transfer measurements of evaporating droplets. It is seen that the extent of suppression is reduced with increasing AC frequency. At sufficiently high frequencies, the influence of an applied voltage is completely negated, and electrostatic suppression of the Leidenfrost state can be completely eliminated. A first-order electromechanical model is used to explain the frequency-dependent reduction in the electrostatic attraction force on the Leidenfrost droplet. Overall, this work highlights the importance of AC frequency as a tool to control the extent of suppression and the boiling heat transfer rate.

  11. THERMOELECTRIC SEMICONDUCTOR ENERGY CONVERTER TO RECTIFY THE AC VOLTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses existing means for rectifying alternating electrical signal with inherent advantages and disadvantages. The proposed design of the AC voltage, made on the basis of the thermoelectric Converter using renewable solar energy. Made a rough calculation of this device. 

  12. 78 FR 42567 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application June 25, 2013. Correction In notice document 2013-15658 beginning on page 39345 in the issue of Monday, July 1, 2013, make the following correction: On page 39345...

  13. Active Power Regulation based on Droop for AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Coelho, Ernane A. A.; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two different control strategies are proposed to address the active power regulation issue in AC microgrids. The principle of power regulation in the droop controller is firstly introduced. Frequency scheduling and droop gain scheduling on top of droop control is proposed to succes...

  14. Evaluation of ac conductivity behaviour of graphite filled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composites of epoxy resin having different amounts of graphite particles have been prepared by solution casting method. Temperature dependence of dielectric constant, tan and a.c. conductivity was measured in the frequency range, 1–20 kHz, temperature range, 40–180°C for 0.99, 1.96 and 2.91 wt% graphite filled ...

  15. Calculation of AC losses in large HTS stacks and coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zermeno, Victor; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack of tapes, where the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting and su...

  16. The Shortest Competition Judgment Ever : AC-Treuhand II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Hans; Busscher, Rick Johannes; Herz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Competition law judgments are notorious for their length. An extreme example is the 5134 paragraph judgment in Cement. In most cases the appeal judgment is significantly shorter, as with the 391 paragraphs in the appeal in Cement. AC-Treuhand is no exception to that rule, but it takes it to the

  17. AC losses of the 5 m BSCCO cables with shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, K.; Ma, Y. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Hwang, S. D.; Song, H. J.

    2010-11-01

    In order to research the AC loss characteristics of a multi-layered conductor and a shield in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable, we prepared two short cable samples, which are the same as the 22.9 kV/50 MVA HTS-cable installed at Gochang test yard of Korea Electric Power Corporation, and attached voltage-leads to both the conductor and the shield. To investigate the effect of transport period on their AC losses, we also applied current with the same magnitude and opposite direction to the conductor and the shield from a few cycles to several minutes. The tests show that the AC loss measured from the lead attached to the shield (shield-lead) is constant regardless of transport period. But the measured loss from the lead attached to the conductor (conductor-lead) is greatly dependent on transport period. It seems to be caused by difficulty in heat transfer to the surrounding coolant due to thick insulator around the conductor. As transport period becomes longer, the conductor's temperature rises and thus the AC loss measured from the conductor-lead increases. In addition, the measured loss from the conductor-lead is 1.5 times larger than that from the shield-lead, particularly for the transport period of a few cycles.

  18. Investigations on gradient ac conductivity characteristics of bamboo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 29; Issue 2. Investigations on gradient a.c. conductivity characteristics of ... presence of moisture in bamboo, which liberated on heating. Sharp peak is observed in case of sample 4, which is inner most strip. Maximum sharp peak is observed at lowest 4 kHz frequency.

  19. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  20. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.