WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveyor mgs mission

  1. The Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Link Experiment (MGS/KaBLE-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4-GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-m-diameter parabolic antenna on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) research and development (R&D) 34-meter a ntenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. This Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE-II) allows the performances of the Ka-band and X-band signals to be compared under nearly identical conditions. The two signals have been regularly tracked during the past 2 years. This article presents carrier-signal-level data (P_c/N_o) for both X-band and Ka-band acquired over a wide range of station elevation angles, weather conditions, and solar elongation angles. The cruise phase of the mission covered the period from launch (November 7, 1996) to Mars orbit capture (September 12, 1997). Since September 12, 1997, MGS has been in orbit around Mars. The measurements confirm that Ka-band could increase data capacity by at least a factor of three (5 dB) as compared with X-band. During May 1998, the solar corona experiment, in which the effects of solar plasma on the X-band and Ka-band links were studied, was conducted. In addition, frequency and difference frequency (f_x - f_(Ka)/3.8), ranging, and telemetry data results are presented. MGS/KaBLE-II measured signal strengths (for 54 percent of the experiments conducted) that were in reasonable agreement with predicted values based on preflight knowledge, and frequency residuals that agreed between bands and whose statistics were consistent with expected noise sources. For passes in which measured signal strengths disagreed with predicted values, the problems were traced to known deficiencies, for example, equipment operating under certain conditions, such as a cold Ka-band solid-state power amplifier (SSPA

  2. Correcting Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) High Altitude (40 - 65 km) Temperature Retrievals for Instrumental Correlated Noise and Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) nadir-soundings have been used to derive atmospheric temperatures up to roughly 40 km [Conrath et al., JGR 105 2000, Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001], and MGS-TES limb soundings have been used to extend the atmospheric temperature data set to > 60 km in altitude [Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001]. The ~40 - ~65 km altitude range probed by the MGS-TES limb sounding is particularly important for capturing key dynamical features such as the warm winter polar mesosphere [e.g., Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001; McCleese et al., Nature Geoscience 1, 2008], and the response of thermal tides to dust opacity [e.g. Wilson and Hamilton, J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1996]. Thus accurate and precise temperature profiles at these altitudes are particularly important for constraining global circulation models. They are also critical for interpreting observations of mesospheric condensate aerosols [e.g., Määttänen et al., Icarus 209, 2010; McConnochie et al., Icarus 210, 2010)]. We have indentified correlated noise components in the MGS-TES limb sounding radiances that propagate into very large uncertainties in the retrieved temperatures. We have also identified a slowly varying radiance bias in the limb sounding radiances. Note that the nadir-sounding-based MGS-TES atmospheric temperatures currently available from the Planetary Data System are not affected by either of these issues. These two issues affect the existing MGS-TES limb sounding temperature data set are as follows: Considering, for example, the 1.5 Pascal pressure level (which typically falls between 50 and 60 km altitude), correlated-noise induced standard errors for individual limb-sounding temperature retrievals were 3 - 5 K in Mars Year 24, rising to 5 - 15 K in Mars Year 25 and 10 - 15 K in Mars Year 26 and 27. The radiance bias, although consistent on ~10-sol time scales, is highly variable over the course of the MGS-TES mission. It results in temperatures (at the 1

  3. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission: A Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Tananbaum, Harvey D.; Bandler, Simon R.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Burrows, David N.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hopkins, Randall C.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kraft, Ralph P.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Natarajan, Priyamvada; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Petre, Robert; Prieskorn, Zachary R.; Ptak, Andrew F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Schnell, Andrew R.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Townsley, Leisa K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory continues to provide an unparalleled means for exploring the high-energy universe. With its half-arcsecond angular resolution, Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, neutron stars, black holes, and solar system objects. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address ever more demanding science questions-such as the formation and growth of black hole seeds at very high redshifts; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, we initiated a concept study for such a mission, dubbed X-ray Surveyor. The X-ray Surveyor strawman payload is comprised of a high-resolution mirror assembly and an instrument set, which may include an X-ray microcalorimeter, a high-definition imager, and a dispersive grating spectrometer and its readout. The mirror assembly will consist of highly nested, thin, grazing-incidence mirrors, for which a number of technical approaches are currently under development-including adjustable X-ray optics, differential deposition, and new polishing techniques applied to a variety of substrates. This study benefits from previous studies of large missions carried out over the past two decades and, in most areas, points to mission requirements no more stringent than those of Chandra.

  4. ASTRO-F : Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, T.

    The ASTRO-F (also known as Infrared Imaging Surveyor: IRIS) is the second infrared satellite mission of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan to be launched early 2004 with the M-V rocket and is planned as a second generation infrared sky survey mission. It has a 67-cm aperture telescope and is cooled by 170-liter liquid helium and Stirling-cycle coolers. Two scientific instruments share the focal plane. The infrared camera (IRC) covers 2 to 26 μm range with large two-dimensional arrays in the imaging and low-resolution spectroscopic modes and will perform deep sky surveys of selected areas of the sky with a wide field of view (10' × 10') at unprecedented sensitivity. The far-infrared Surveyor (FIS), consisting of an imaging scanner and a Fourier transform spectrometer, covers 50 to 200 μm range and makes a whole sky survey in four far-infrared bands, which is higher by more than 10 in sensitivity (20 110 mJy), better by several in the spatial resolution (30'' 50''), and longer in the spectral coverage (200 μm) than IRAS. A brief description and the current status of the ASTRO-F mission are presented.

  5. Analyzing Magnetic Field and Electrical Current Profiles of the Day Side and Terminator of Mars Using Data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, A. L.; Ponce, N.; Fillingim, M. O.

    2014-12-01

    Mars does not have a global magnetic field, so the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) can impact the upper atmosphere and induce currents in the Martian ionosphere. During aerobraking maneuvers, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) made over 1000 passes through the Martian ionosphere. During the aerobraking phase, MGS measured the local magnetic field in the ionosphere. From measuring changes in the magnetic field, we can calculate the ionospheric currents. By only using measurements where the radial component of the magnetic field is zero and making some assumptions about the gradients in the magnetic field, we are allowed to classify data that meets those conditions as "good" data and calculate horizontal currents in the ionosphere. We focus on data taken over regions of Mars that had negligible crustal magnetic fields to simplify our analysis. The data being analyzed is observed at a maximum altitude of 250 kilometers with a solar zenith angle (SZA) range of 0 degrees to 50 degrees for the day side and 50 to 130 degrees for the terminator. For the day side of Mars, it was found that 24.06% of the data observed was usable data under the initial parameters that were set for "good" data. For the terminator, it was found that 32.08% of the data was usable. The currents that are computed using these "good" magnetic field profiles can give us insights into how the changing solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can effect the upper atmosphere of mars. For example, induced currents can lead to Joule heating of the atmosphere potentially modifying the neutral dynamics.

  6. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission Study: Paper I, the Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. We note key areas for technological innovation and improvements necessary to make a Far-Infrared Surveyor mission a reality.

  7. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission study: paper I, the genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; Ennico, K.; Melnick, G. J.; Milam, S.; Narayanan, D.; Pontoppidan, K.; Pope, A.; Roellig, T.; Sandstrom, K.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vieira, J.; Wright, E.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Alato, S.; Carey, S.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Menten, K.; Scott, D.; Sakon, I.; Vavrek, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. We note key areas for technological innovation and improvements necessary to make a Far-Infrared Surveyor mission a reality.

  8. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission Study: Paper I, the Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Meixner, M; Carter, R; DiPirro, M; Flores, A; Leisawitz, D; Armus, L; Battersby, C; Bergin, E; Bradford, C M; Ennico, K; Melnick, G J; Milam, S; Narayanan, D; Pontoppidan, K; Pope, A; Roellig, T; Sandstrom, K; Su, K Y L; Vieira, J; Wright, E; Zmuidzinas, J; Alato, S; Carey, S; Gerin, M; Helmich, F; Menten, K; Scott, D; Sakon, I; Vavrek, R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. We note key areas for technological innovation and improvements necessary to make a Far-Infrared Surveyor mission a reality.

  9. Summer season variability of the north residual cap of Mars as observed by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W.M.; Titus, T.N.

    2008-01-01

    Previous observations have noted the change in albedo in a number of North Pole bright outliers and in the distribution of bright ice deposits between Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets. Changes over the summer season as well as between regions at the same season (Ls) in different years have been observed. We used the bolometric albedo and brightness temperature channels of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the MGS spacecraft to monitor north polar residual ice cap variations between Mars years and within the summer season for three northern Martian summers between July 1999 and April 2003. Large-scale brightness variations are observed in four general areas: (1) the patchy outlying frost deposits from 90 to 270??E, 75 to 80??N; (2) the large "tail" below the Chasma Boreale and its associated plateau from 315 to 45??E, 80 to 85??N, that we call the "Boreale Tongue" and in Hyperboreae Undae; (3) the troughed terrain in the region from 0 to 120??E longitude (the lower right on a polar stereographic projection) we have called "Shackleton's Grooves" and (4) the unit mapped as residual ice in Olympia Planitia. We also note two areas which seem to persist as cool and bright throughout the summer and between Mars years. One is at the "source" of Chasma Boreale (???15??E, 85??N) dubbed "McMurdo", and the "Cool and Bright Anomaly (CABA)" noted by Kieffer and Titus 2001. TES Mapping of Mars' north seasonal cap. Icarus 154, 162-180] at ???330??E, 87??N called here "Vostok". Overall defrosting occurs early in the summer as the temperatures rise and then after the peak temperatures are reached (Ls???110) higher elevations and outlier bright deposits cold trap and re-accumulate new frost. Persistent bright areas are associated with either higher elevations or higher background albedos suggesting complex feedback mechanisms including cold-trapping of frost due to albedo and elevation effects, as well as influence of mesoscale atmospheric dynamics

  10. Summer season variability of the north residual cap of Mars as observed by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Titus, T. N.

    2008-02-01

    Previous observations have noted the change in albedo in a number of North Pole bright outliers and in the distribution of bright ice deposits between Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets. Changes over the summer season as well as between regions at the same season ( Ls) in different years have been observed. We used the bolometric albedo and brightness temperature channels of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the MGS spacecraft to monitor north polar residual ice cap variations between Mars years and within the summer season for three northern Martian summers between July 1999 and April 2003. Large-scale brightness variations are observed in four general areas: (1) the patchy outlying frost deposits from 90 to 270°E, 75 to 80°N; (2) the large "tail" below the Chasma Boreale and its associated plateau from 315 to 45°E, 80 to 85°N, that we call the "Boreale Tongue" and in Hyperboreae Undae; (3) the troughed terrain in the region from 0 to 120°E longitude (the lower right on a polar stereographic projection) we have called "Shackleton's Grooves" and (4) the unit mapped as residual ice in Olympia Planitia. We also note two areas which seem to persist as cool and bright throughout the summer and between Mars years. One is at the "source" of Chasma Boreale (˜15°E, 85°N) dubbed "McMurdo", and the "Cool and Bright Anomaly (CABA)" noted by Kieffer and Titus 2001. TES Mapping of Mars' north seasonal cap. Icarus 154, 162-180] at ˜330°E, 87°N called here "Vostok". Overall defrosting occurs early in the summer as the temperatures rise and then after the peak temperatures are reached ( Ls˜110) higher elevations and outlier bright deposits cold trap and re-accumulate new frost. Persistent bright areas are associated with either higher elevations or higher background albedos suggesting complex feedback mechanisms including cold-trapping of frost due to albedo and elevation effects, as well as influence of mesoscale atmospheric dynamics.

  11. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission study: paper I, the genesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; Ennico, K.; Melnick, G. J.; Milam, S.; Narayanan, D.; Pontoppidan, K.; Pope, A.; Roellig, T.; Sandstrom, K.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vieira, J.; Wright, E.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Alato, S.; Carey, S.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Menten, K.; Scott, D.; Sakon, I.; Vavrek, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some prelimin

  12. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission study: paper I, the genesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; Ennico, K.; Melnick, G. J.; Milam, S.; Narayanan, D.; Pontoppidan, K.; Pope, A.; Roellig, T.; Sandstrom, K.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vieira, J.; Wright, E.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Alato, S.; Carey, S.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Menten, K.; Scott, D.; Sakon, I.; Vavrek, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some

  13. The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept study: forging the path to NASA astrophysics 2020 decadal survey prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Özel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  14. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study: Forging the Path to NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Ozel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  15. Status and path forward for the large ultraviolet/optical/infrared surveyor (LUVOIR) mission concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, Julie A.; Roberge, Aki; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Mandell, Avi M.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Rioux, Norman M.; Perez, Mario R.; Smith, Erin C.

    2016-07-01

    In preparation of the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has commenced a process for the astronomical community to study several large mission concepts leveraging the lessons learned from past Decadal Surveys. This will enable the Decadal Survey committee to make more informed recommendations to NASA on its astrophysics science and mission priorities with respect to cost and risk. Four astrophysics large mission concepts were identified. Each of them had a Science and Technology Definition Teem (STDT) chartered to produce scientifically compelling, feasible, and executable design reference mission (DRM) concepts to present to the 2020 Decadal Survey. In addition, The Aerospace Corporation will perform an independent cost and technical evaluation (CATE) of each of these mission concept studies in advance of the 2020 Decadal Survey, by interacting with the STDTs to provide detailed technical details on certain areas for which "deep dives" are appropriate. This paper presents the status and path forward for one of the four large mission concepts, namely, the Large UltraViolet, Optical, InfraRed surveyor (LUVOIR).

  16. Long-Term Cryogenic Propellant Storage for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Shuvo; Francis, John; Li, Xiaoyi; DeLee, Hudson; Purves, Lloyd; Willis, Dewey; Nixon, Conor; Mcguinness, Dan; Riall, Sara; Devine, Matt; hide

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) can dramatically enhance NASAs ability to explore the solar system because of their superior specific impulse (Isp) capability. Although these cryogenic propellants can be challenging to manage and store, they allow significant mass advantages over traditional hypergolic propulsion systems and are therefore technically enabling for many planetary science missions. New cryogenic storage techniques such as subcooling and the use of advanced insulation and low thermal conductivity support structures will allow for the long term storage and use of cryogenic propellants for solar system exploration and hence allow NASA to deliver more payloads to targets of interest, launch on smaller and less expensive launch vehicles, or both. Employing cryogenic propellants will allow NASA to perform missions to planetary destinations that would not be possible with the use of traditional hypergolic propellants. These new cryogenic storage technologies were implemented in a design study for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission, with LH2 and LOX as propellants, and the resulting spacecraft design was able to achieve a 43 launch mass reduction over a TOPS mission, that utilized a conventional hypergolic propulsion system with mono-methyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants. This paper describes the cryogenic propellant storage design for the TOPS mission and demonstrates how these cryogenic propellants are stored passively for a decade-long Titan mission.

  17. Development of x-ray microcalorimeter imaging spectrometers for the X-ray Surveyor mission concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Simon R.; Adams, Joseph S.; Chervenak, James A.; Datesman, Aaron M.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele; Miniussi, Antoine R.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Smith, Stephen J.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wakeham, Nicholas A.; Wassell, Edward J.; Yoon, Wonsik; Becker, Dan; Bennett, Douglas; Doriese, William B.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gard, Johnathan D.; Hilton, Gene C.; Mates, Benjamin; Morgan, Kelsey M.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Swetz, Daniel; Ullom, Joel N.; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Irwin, Kent D.; Lee, Sang-Jun; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Four astrophysics missions are currently being studied by NASA as candidate large missions to be chosen in the 2020 astrophysics decadal survey.1 One of these missions is the "X-Ray Surveyor" (XRS), and possible configurations of this mission are currently under study by a science and technology definition team (STDT). One of the key instruments under study is an X-ray microcalorimeter, and the requirements for such an instrument are currently under discussion. In this paper we review some different detector options that exist for this instrument, and discuss what array formats might be possible. We have developed one design option that utilizes either transition-edge sensor (TES) or magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) in pixel array-sizes approaching 100 kilo-pixels. To reduce the number of sensors read out to a plausible scale, we have assumed detector geometries in which a thermal sensor such a TES or MCC can read out a sub-array of 20-25 individual 1" pixels. In this paper we describe the development status of these detectors, and also discuss the different options that exist for reading out the very large number of pixels.

  18. Simultaneous Mars Express / MGS observations of plasma near Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, D.; Luhmann, J.; Halekas, J.; Frahm, R.; Winningham, D.; Barabash, S.

    2006-12-01

    Since late 2003, Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) have been making complementary in situ measurements (in terms of both instrument and orbit) of the Martian plasma environment. Study of MGS and MEX data in tandem provides an opportunity to mitigate the shortcomings of each dataset and increase our overall understanding of the Martian solar wind interaction and atmospheric escape. Close passes of spacecraft (conjunctions) are one particularly powerful means of increasing the utility of measurements, as evidenced by the Cluster mission at Earth. At Mars, conjunctions might be used to obtain more complete simultaneous and/or co-located plasma measurements, which can be used to study a variety of phenomena, including measurements of auroral-like particle acceleration near crustal fields and the three-dimensional motion and shape of plasma boundaries. We will present an analysis of approximately forty conjunctions (instances with instantaneous spacecraft separation smaller than 400 km) of MEX and MGS identified between January 2004 and February 2006. The closest pass was ~40~km, near the South Pole. Conjunctions occur both at mid-latitudes (when the surface-projected orbit tracks of the two spacecraft nearly overlap), and at the poles. We will present comparisons of MEX Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) data with MGS Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) data for these events. Our case studies include intercomparison of MEX and MGS electron data, the addition of MGS magnetic field and MEX ion data, and the inclusion of solar wind proxy information to establish context. In addition to these close conjunctions, we will present the preliminary results of a search for times when MEX and MGS pass through the same region of space separated by a delay (for time evolution of plasma populations in certain regions), and times when they occupy the same flux tube (for spatial evolution of particle distributions). Continued study of

  19. The Strategy for the Second Phase of Aerobraking Mars Global Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. D.; Esposito, P. B.; Alwar, V.; Demcak, S. W.; Graat, E. J.; Burkhart, P. D.; Portock, B. M.

    2000-01-01

    On February 19, 1999, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was able to propulsively establish its mapping orbit. This event followed the completion of the second phase of aerobraking for the MGS spacecraft on February 4, 1999. For the first time, a spacecraft at Mars had successfully employed aerobraking methods in order to reach its desired pre-launch mapping orbit. This was accomplished despite a damaged spacecraft solar array. The MGS spacecraft was launched on November 7, 1996, and after a ten month interplanetary transit was inserted into a highly elliptical capture orbit at Mars on September 12, 1997. Unlike other interplanetary missions, the MGS spacecraft was launched with a planned mission delta-V ((Delta)V) deficit of nearly 1250 m/s. To overcome this AV deficit, aerobraking techniques were employed. However, damage discovered to one of the spacecraft's two solar arrays after launch forced major revisions to the original aerobraking planning of the MGS mission. In order to avoid a complete structural failure of the array, peak dynamic pressure levels for the spacecraft were established at a major spacecraft health review in November 1997. These peak dynamic pressure levels were roughly one-third of the original mission design values. Incorporating the new dynamic pressure limitations into mission replanning efforts resulted in an 'extended' orbit insertion phase for the mission. This 'extended' orbit insertion phase was characterized by two distinct periods of aerobraking separated by an aerobraking hiatus that would last for several months in an intermediate orbit called the "Science Phasing Orbit" (SPO). This paper describes and focuses on the strategy for the second phase of aerobraking for the MGS mission called "Aerobraking Phase 2." This description will include the baseline aerobraking flight profile, the trajectory control methodology, as well as the key trajectory metrics that were monitored in order to successfully "guide' the spacecraft to

  20. Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinger, Scott A.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Cohen, David; Green, Joseph J.; Lou, John; Ohara, Catherine; Redding, David; Shi, Fang

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval software uses the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm, an image-based sensing method that can turn any focal plane science instrument into a wavefront sensor, avoiding the need to use external metrology equipment. Knowledge of the wavefront enables intelligent control of active optical systems.

  1. Ray-tracing critical-angle transmission gratings for the X-ray Surveyor and Explorer-size missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Hans M.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Marshall, Herman L.; Nowak, Michael A.; Schulz, Norbert S.

    2016-07-01

    We study a critical angle transmission (CAT) grating spectrograph that delivers a spectral resolution significantly above any X-ray spectrograph ever own. This new technology will allow us to resolve kinematic components in absorption and emission lines of galactic and extragalactic matter down to unprecedented dispersion levels. We perform ray-trace simulations to characterize the performance of the spectrograph in the context of an X-ray Surveyor or Arcus like layout (two mission concepts currently under study). Our newly developed ray-trace code is a tool suite to simulate the performance of X-ray observatories. The simulator code is written in Python, because the use of a high-level scripting language allows modifications of the simulated instrument design in very few lines of code. This is especially important in the early phase of mission development, when the performances of different configurations are contrasted. To reduce the run-time and allow for simulations of a few million photons in a few minutes on a desktop computer, the simulator code uses tabulated input (from theoretical models or laboratory measurements of samples) for grating efficiencies and mirror reflectivities. We find that the grating facet alignment tolerances to maintain at least 90% of resolving power that the spectrometer has with perfect alignment are (i) translation parallel to the optical axis below 0.5 mm, (ii) rotation around the optical axis or the groove direction below a few arcminutes, and (iii) constancy of the grating period to 1:105. Translations along and rotations around the remaining axes can be significantly larger than this without impacting the performance.

  2. Soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer for X-ray Surveyor and smaller missions with high resolving power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander; Schattenburg, Mark; Kolodziejczak, jeffery; Gaskin, Jessica; O'Dell, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    A number of high priority subjects in astrophysics are addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, e.g. the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the WHIM and the “missing baryon” problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, and stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, large-area (A > 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology, even for telescopes with angular resolution of 5-10 arcsec. Significantly higher performance could be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray-Surveyor-type mission (A > 4,000 cm2, R > 5,000). CAT gratings combine advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher orders) with those of transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimal mission resource requirements. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth silicon grating bar sidewalls. Silicon is well matched to the soft x-ray band, and 30% absolute diffraction efficiency has been acheived with clear paths for further improvement. CAT gratings with sidewalls made of high-Z elements allow extension of blazing to higher energies and larger dispersion angles, enabling higher resolving power at shorter wavelengths. X-ray data from CAT gratings coated with a thin layer of platinum using atomic layer deposition demonstrate efficient blazing to higher energies and much larger blaze angles than possible with silicon alone. Measurements of the resolving power of a breadboard CAT grating spectrometer consisting of a Wolter-I slumped-glass focusing optic from GSFC and CAT gratings, taken at the MSFC Stray Light Facility, have demonstrated resolving power > 10,000. Thus currently fabricated CAT gratings are compatible

  3. The Gravity Field of Mars From MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have enabled NASA to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit for sixteen consecutive years. These radio systems on these spacecraft enabled radio science in orbit around Mars to improve the knowledge of the static structure of the Martian gravitational field. The continuity of the radio tracking data, which cover more than a solar cycle, also provides useful information to characterize the temporal variability of the gravity field, relevant to the planet's internal dynamics and the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere [1]. MGS operated for more than 7 years, between 1999 and 2006, in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis at approximately 370 km altitude. ODY and MRO have been orbiting Mars in two separate sun-synchronous orbits at different local times and altitudes. ODY began its mapping phase in 2002 with the periapis at approximately 390 km altitude and 4-5pm Local Solar Time (LST), whereas the MRO science mission started in November 2006 with the periapis at approximately 255 km altitude and 3pm LST. The 16 years of radio tracking data provide useful information on the atmospheric density in the Martian upper atmosphere. We used ODY and MRO radio data to recover the long-term periodicity of the major atmospheric constituents -- CO2, O, and He -- at the orbit altitudes of these two spacecraft [2]. The improved atmospheric model provides a better prediction of the annual and semi-annual variability of the dominant species. Therefore, the inclusion of the recovered model leads to improved orbit determination and an improved gravity field model of Mars with MGS, ODY, and MRO radio tracking data.

  4. Comparative study of the Martian suprathermal electron depletions based on Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckiewicz, M.; Garnier, P.; André, N.; Mitchell, D. L.; Andersson, L.; Penou, E.; Beth, A.; Fedorov, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Mazelle, C.; Brain, D. A.; Espley, J. R.; McFadden, J.; Halekas, J. S.; Larson, D. E.; Lillis, R. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Soobiah, Y.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Nightside suprathermal electron depletions have been observed at Mars by three spacecraft to date: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. This spatial and temporal diversity of measurements allows us to propose here a comprehensive view of the Martian electron depletions through the first multispacecraft study of the phenomenon. We have analyzed data recorded by the three spacecraft from 1999 to 2015 in order to better understand the distribution of the electron depletions and their creation mechanisms. Three simple criteria adapted to each mission have been implemented to identify more than 134,500 electron depletions observed between 125 and 900 km altitude. The geographical distribution maps of the electron depletions detected by the three spacecraft confirm the strong link existing between electron depletions and crustal magnetic field at altitudes greater than 170 km. At these altitudes, the distribution of electron depletions is strongly different in the two hemispheres, with a far greater chance to observe an electron depletion in the Southern Hemisphere, where the strongest crustal magnetic sources are located. However, the unique MAVEN observations reveal that below a transition region near 160-170 km altitude the distribution of electron depletions is the same in both hemispheres, with no particular dependence on crustal magnetic fields. This result supports the suggestion made by previous studies that these low-altitudes events are produced through electron absorption by atmospheric CO2.

  5. Development Status of Adjustable X-ray Optics with 0.5 Arcsec Imaging for the X-ray Surveyor Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul B.; Allured, Ryan; ben-Ami, Sagi; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wallace, Margeaux L.; Jackson, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The X-ray Surveyor mission concept is designed as a successor to the Chandra X-ray Observatory. As currently envisioned, it will have as much as 30-50 times the collecting area of Chandra with the same 0.5 arcsec imaging resolution. This combination of telescope area and imaging resolution, along with a detector suite for imaging and dispersive and non-dispersive imaging spectroscopy, will enable a wide range of astrophysical observations. These observations will include studies of the growth of large scale structure, early black holes and the growth of SMBHs, and high resolution spectroscopy with arcsec resolution, among many others. We describe the development of adjustable grazing incidence X-ray optics, a potential technology for the high resolution, thin, lightweight mirrors. We discuss recent advancements including the demonstration of deterministic figure correction via the use of the adjusters, the successful demonstration of integrating control electronics directly on the actuator cells to enable row-column addressing, and discuss the feasibility of on-orbit piezoelectric performance and figure monitoring via integrated semiconductor strain gauges. We also present the telescope point design and progress in determining the telescope thermal sensitivities and achieving alignment and mounting requirements.

  6. HUBBLE WATCHES THE RED PLANET AS MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR BEGINS AEROBRAKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    his NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture of Mars was taken on Sept. 12, one day after the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft and only five hours before the beginning of autumn in the Martian northern hemisphere. (Mars is tilted on its axis like Earth, so it has similar seasonal changes, including an autumnal equinox when the Sun crosses Mars' equator from the northern to the southern hemisphere). This Hubble picture was taken in support of the MGS mission. Hubble is monitoring the Martian weather conditions during the early phases of MGS aerobraking; in particular, the detection of large dust storms are important inputs into the atmospheric models used by the MGS mission to plan aerobraking operations. Though a dusty haze fills the giant Hellas impact basin south of the dark fin-shaped feature Syrtis Major, the dust appears to be localized within Hellas. Unless the region covered expands significantly, the dust will not be of concern for MGS aerobraking. Other early signs of seasonal transitions on Mars are apparent in the Hubble picture. The northern polar ice cap is blanketed under a polar hood of clouds that typically start forming in late northern summer. As fall progresses, sunlight will dwindle in the north polar region and the seasonal polar cap of frozen carbon dioxide will start condensing onto the surface under these clouds. Hubble observations will continue until October 13, as MGS carefully uses the drag of the Martian atmosphere to circularize its orbit about the Red Planet. After mid-October, Mars will be too close to the Sun, in angular separation, for Hubble to safely view. The image is a composite of three separately filtered colored images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Resolution is 35 miles (57 kilometers) per pixel (picture element). The Pathfinder landing site near Ares Valles is about 2200 miles (3600 kilometers) west of the center of this image, so was not visible during this observation. Mars was 158

  7. Energetic particles detected by the Electron Reflectometer instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor, 1999-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delory, Gregory T.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Brain, David

    2012-01-01

    We report the observation of galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles by the Electron Reflectometer instrument aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from May of 1999 to the mission conclusion in November 2006. Originally designed to detect low-energy electrons, the Electron...... Reflectometer also measured particles with energies >30 MeV that penetrated the aluminum housing of the instrument and were detected directly by microchannel plates in the instrument interior. Using a combination of theoretical and experimental results, we show how the Electron Reflectometer microchannel plates...... recorded high energy galactic cosmic rays with similar to 45% efficiency. Comparisons of this data to galactic cosmic ray proton fluxes obtained from the Advanced Composition Explorer yield agreement to within 10% and reveal the expected solar cycle modulation as well as shorter timescale variations. Solar...

  8. Accelerated Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond K.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Green, Joseph J.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.; Shi, Fang

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm is an image-based wavefront-sensing method that can turn any science instrument focal plane into a wavefront sensor. MGS characterizes optical systems by estimating the wavefront errors in the exit pupil using only intensity images of a star or other point source of light. This innovative implementation of MGS significantly accelerates the MGS phase retrieval algorithm by using stream-processing hardware on conventional graphics cards. Stream processing is a relatively new, yet powerful, paradigm to allow parallel processing of certain applications that apply single instructions to multiple data (SIMD). These stream processors are designed specifically to support large-scale parallel computing on a single graphics chip. Computationally intensive algorithms, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), are particularly well suited for this computing environment. This high-speed version of MGS exploits commercially available hardware to accomplish the same objective in a fraction of the original time. The exploit involves performing matrix calculations in nVidia graphic cards. The graphical processor unit (GPU) is hardware that is specialized for computationally intensive, highly parallel computation. From the software perspective, a parallel programming model is used, called CUDA, to transparently scale multicore parallelism in hardware. This technology gives computationally intensive applications access to the processing power of the nVidia GPUs through a C/C++ programming interface. The AAMGS (Accelerated Adaptive MGS) software takes advantage of these advanced technologies, to accelerate the optical phase error characterization. With a single PC that contains four nVidia GTX-280 graphic cards, the new implementation can process four images simultaneously to produce a JWST (James Webb Space Telescope) wavefront measurement 60 times faster than the previous code.

  9. Operational Data Reduction Procedure for Determining Density and Vertical Structure of the Martian Upper Atmosphere from Mars Global Surveyor Accelerometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancro, George J.; Tolson, Robert H.; Keating, Gerald M.

    1998-01-01

    The success of aerobraking by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was partly due to the analysis of MGS accelerometer data. Accelerometer data was used to determine the effect of the atmosphere on each orbit, to characterize the nature of the atmosphere, and to predict the atmosphere for future orbits. To interpret the accelerometer data, a data reduction procedure was developed to produce density estimations utilizing inputs from the spacecraft, the Navigation Team, and pre-mission aerothermodynamic studies. This data reduction procedure was based on the calculation of aerodynamic forces from the accelerometer data by considering acceleration due to gravity gradient, solar pressure, angular motion of the MGS, instrument bias, thruster activity, and a vibration component due to the motion of the damaged solar array. Methods were developed to calculate all of the acceleration components including a 4 degree of freedom dynamics model used to gain a greater understanding of the damaged solar array. The total error inherent to the data reduction procedure was calculated as a function of altitude and density considering contributions from ephemeris errors, errors in force coefficient, and instrument errors due to bias and digitization. Comparing the results from this procedure to the data of other MGS Teams has demonstrated that this procedure can quickly and accurately describe the density and vertical structure of the Martian upper atmosphere.

  10. Seasonal and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO radio science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-07-01

    We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k2 of 0.1697 ± 0.0027 (3-σ). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C30 and, for the first time, C50. Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C30 for ∼1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics (l = 60-80) than previous solutions.

  11. Quantitative studies of volcanic processes on Mars using data from the Mars Global Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Louise Jane

    Volcanic processes on Mars were investigated using topographic profiles derived with the help of IDL software from data collected by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the Mars Global Surveyor Mission (MGS) in 1997-2001 and images obtained by the MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and by the earlier Viking mission. Thickness and slope values for lava flows at both Elysium Mons and Alba Patera made it possible to compute flow emplacement times and effusion rates using the flow growth model proposed by C. R. J. Kilburn and R. M. C Lopes in 1990. Geological mapping of the Elysium volcanic region showed that Elysium Mons was emplaced as a result of a single shift in vent position on top of an older volcanic edifice, here termed the Ancient Volcanic Edifice (AVE). This implies that there have been substantial variations in both position and time for the magma supply. Calculations suggest that the flows at Alba Patera were emplaced more quickly than those at Elysium Mons, possibly owing to differences in fissure width and lava composition. There is evidence for both aa and pahoehoe on the summit areas of Elysium Mons and Alba Patera. The presence of aa is consistent with the view that long lava flows on Mars are emplaced quickly. Pahoehoe flows imply slow emplacement, and their inferred presence on Mars provides support for the theory that long terrestrial lavas are often emplaced as sheets of inflated pahoehoe. MOC image analysis indicated that late-stage explosive activity has occurred at several Martian volcanoes where it was previously undetected, contrary to the prevalent view that Martian volcanism evolves from explosive to effusive activity. To resolve the many ambiguities inherent in morphological data and imagery the need remains for ground truthing by experienced observers and detailed geochemical analyses in situ or by means of a sample return mission

  12. Mars Global Surveyor measurements of solar storms and their effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, D. A.; Delory, G. T.; Lillis, R. J.; Ulusen, D.; Mitchell, D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Falkenberg, T. V.

    2010-12-01

    Space weather events in the form of solar photons and energetic charged particles provide brief but relatively intense periods of energy input to the Martian plasma environment and atmosphere, with implications for a number of science and exploration-related issues. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft orbited Mars for more than 9 years, and was capable of indirectly detecting space weather events and their effects. Shocks associated with passing coronal mass ejections are evident in MGS magnetometer data, and in proxies for upstream solar wind pressure at 1.5 AU derived from magnetometer measurements. Fluxes of solar energetic particles with energies greater than ˜30 MeV are sometimes evident in the background count rates of the MGS electron instrument. Measurements of the background count rates at altitudes of ˜400 km over a seven year period provide an unprecedented long-baseline data set of the energetic particle environment at Mars over a significant fraction of a solar cycle. We will present results of analyses pertaining to three main uses of MGS observations of solar storms. First, by combining MGS measurements of solar storms with terrestrial and solar measurements, we have analyzed the propagation of individual solar storm events from the Sun throughout the inner heliosphere. Next, we have used MGS particle and field measurements to study the effect of solar storms on the Martian plasma environment - including increased fluxes of 10-20 keV electrons close to the planet and influences on auroral activity. Finally, we have studied the influence of solar storms on the Martian upper atmosphere - including suprathermal electrons produced in the atmosphere via impact ionization and a correlation of solar storm periods with ionospheric electron density profiles.

  13. Constraints on the Within Season and Between Year Variability of the North Residual Cap from MGS-TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Titus, T. N.; Mahoney, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    There is a long history of telescopic and spacecraft observations of the polar regions of Mars. The finely laminated ice deposits and surrounding layered terrains are commonly thought to contain a record of past climate conditions and change. Understanding the basic nature of the deposits and their mineral and ice constituents is a continued focus of current and future orbited missions. Unresolved issues in Martian polar science include a) the unusual nature of the CO2 ice deposits ("Swiss Cheese", "slab ice" etc.) b) the relationship of the ice deposits to underlying layered units (which differs from the north to the south), c) understanding the seasonal variations and their connections to the finely laminated units observed in high-resolution images and d) the relationship of dark materials in the wind-swept lanes and reentrant valleys to the surrounding dark dune and surface materials. Our work focuses on understanding these issues in relationship to the north residual ice cap. Recent work using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets have described evolution of the seasonal CO2 frost deposits. In addition, the north polar residual ice cap exhibits albedo variations between Mars years and within the summer season. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data set can augment these observations providing additional constraints such as temperature evolution and spectral properties associated with ice and rocky materials. Exploration of these properties is the subject of our current study.

  14. Martian clouds observed by Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huiqun; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    We have made daily global maps that cover both polar and equatorial regions of Mars for Ls 135°–360° and 0°–111° using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red and blue wide-angle swaths taken from May 1999 to January 2001. We study the seasonal distribution of condensate clouds and dust clouds during roughly 1 Martian year using these daily global maps. We present the development and decay of the tropical cloud belt and the polar hoods, the spatial and temporal distributi...

  15. Discovery Mondays: Surveyors' Tools

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Surveyors of all ages, have your rulers and compasses at the ready! This sixth edition of Discovery Monday is your chance to learn about the surveyor's tools - the state of the art in measuring instruments - and see for yourself how they work. With their usual daunting precision, the members of CERN's Surveying Group have prepared some demonstrations and exercises for you to try. Find out the techniques for ensuring accelerator alignment and learn about high-tech metrology systems such as deviation indicators, tracking lasers and total stations. The surveyors will show you how they precisely measure magnet positioning, with accuracy of a few thousandths of a millimetre. You can try your hand at precision measurement using different types of sensor and a modern-day version of the Romans' bubble level, accurate to within a thousandth of a millimetre. You will learn that photogrammetry techniques can transform even a simple digital camera into a remarkable measuring instrument. Finally, you will have a chance t...

  16. Beyond Chandra (towards the X-ray Surveyor mission): possible solutions for the implementation of very high angular resolution X-ray telescopes in the new millennium based on fused silica segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Civitani, M. M.; Ghigo, M.; Parodi, G.; Pelliciari, C.; Salmaso, B.; Spiga, D.; Vecchi, G.

    2016-07-01

    An important challenge for the X-ray astronomy of the new millennium is represented by the implementation of an Xray telescope able to maintain the exquisite angular resolution of Chandra (with a sub-arcsec HEW, on-axis) but, at the same time, being characterized by a much larger throughput and grasp. A mission with similar characteristics is represented by the X-ray Surveyor Mission. The project has been recently proposed in USA and is being currently studied by NASA. It will host an X-ray telescope with an effective area of more than 2 square meters at 1 keV (i.e. 30 times greater than Chandra) and a 15-arcminutes field-of-view, with 1-arcsecond or better half-power diameter (versus the 4 arcmin diameter of Chandra). While the scientific reasons for implementing a similar mission are clear, being related to compelling problems like e.g. the formation and subsequent growth of black hole seeds at very high redshift or the identification of the first galaxy groups and proto-clusters, the realization of a grazing-angle optics system able to fulfil these specs remain highly challenging. Different technologies are being envisaged, like e.g. the use of adjustable segmented mirrors (with use of piezoelectric or magneto-restrictive film actuators on the back surface) or the direct polishing of a variety of thin substrates or the use of innovative correction methods like e.g. differential deposition, ionfiguring or the correction of the profile via controlled stress films. In this paper we present a possible approach based on the direct polishing (with final ion figuring correction of the profile) of thin SiO2 segmented substrates (typically 2 mm thick), discussing different aspects of the technology under implementation and presenting some preliminary results.

  17. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Wright, Shelley A; Tonry, John; Tully, R Brent; Szapudi, István; Takamiya, Marianne; Hunter, Lisa; Riddle, Reed; Chen, Shaojie; Chun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of ~4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z < 0.1 universe. RTS will comprise an upgraded version of the Robo-AO laser AO system and will respond quickly to target-of-opportunity events, minimizing the time between discovery and characterization. RTS will acquire simultaneous-multicolor images with a...

  18. The rapid transient surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, C.; Lu, J. R.; Wright, S. A.; Tonry, J.; Tully, R. B.; Szapudi, I.; Takamiya, M.; Hunter, L.; Riddle, R.; Chen, S.; Chun, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of 4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z efficiency prism integral field unit spectrograph: R = 70-140 over a total bandpass of 840-1830nm with an 8.7" by 6.0" field of view (0.15" spaxels). The AO correction boosts the infrared point-source sensitivity of the spectrograph against the sky background by a factor of seven for faint targets, giving the UH 2.2-m the H-band sensitivity of a 5.7-m telescope without AO.

  19. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  20. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  1. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and automated detection and characterization of astrophysical transients during a sustained observing campaign will yield the necessary statistics to precisely map dark matter in the local universe.

  2. Neutron Star Science with the X-ray Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Feryal

    2015-10-01

    Probing the interiors and magnetic fields of neutron stars and characterizing their populations in the Galaxy is an important science goal for the next generation X-ray telescopes. I will discuss how the capabilities of the X-ray Surveyor Mission are crucial for making significant advances in these fields and how we can address the open questions with a dataset that will become available with such a mission.

  3. Mutation detection using Surveyor nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peter; Shandilya, Harini; D'Alessio, James M; O'Connor, Kevin; Durocher, Jeffrey; Gerard, Gary F

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a simple and flexible mutation detection technology for the discovery and mapping of both known and unknown mutations. This technology is based on a new mismatch-specific DNA endonuclease from celery, Surveyor nuclease, which is a member of the CEL nuclease family of plant DNA endonucleases. Surveyor nuclease cleaves with high specificity at the 3' side of any mismatch site in both DNA strands, including all base substitutions and insertion/deletions up to at least 12 nucleotides. Surveyor nuclease technology involves four steps: (i) PCR to amplify target DNA from both mutant and wild-type reference DNA; (ii) hybridization to form heteroduplexes between mutant and wild-type reference DNA; (iii) treatment of annealed DNA with Surveyor nuclease to cleave heteroduplexes; and (iv) analysis of digested DNA products using the detection/separation platform of choice. The technology is highly sensitive, detecting rare mutants present at as low as 1 in 32 copies. Unlabeled Surveyor nuclease digestion products can be analyzed using conventional gel electrophoresis or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while end labeled digestion products are suitable for analysis by automated gel or capillary electrophoresis. The entire protocol can be performed in less than a day and is suitable for automated and high-throughput procedures.

  4. Determination of Net Martian Polar Dust Flux from MGS-TES Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Using atmospheric dust abundance and atmospheric temperature observation data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), the net flux of dust into and out of the Martian polar regions will be examined. Mars polar regions possess layered terrain , believed to be comprised of a mixture of ice and dust, with the different layers possibly representing different past climate regimes. These changes in climate may reflect changes in the deposition of dust and volatiles through impacts, volcanism, changes in resources of ice and dust, and response to Milankovitch type cycles (changes in eccentricity of orbit, obliquity and precession of axis). Understanding how rapidly such layers can be generated is an important element to understanding Mars climate history. This study uses the observed vertical temperature data and dust content measurements from TES to analyze the sign (gain or loss) of dust at high latitudes.

  5. CHISL: The Combined High-resolution and Imaging Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Hoadley, Keri

    2016-01-01

    NASA is currently carrying out science and technical studies to identify its next astronomy flagship mission, slated to begin development in the 2020s. It has become clear that a Large Ultraviolet/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission (primary diameter 12 m, 1000 Ang - 2 micron spectroscopic bandpass) can carry out the largest number of NASA's exoplanet and astrophysics science goals over the coming decades. There are technical challenges for several aspects of the LUVOIR Surveyor concept, including component level technology readiness maturation and science instrument concepts for a broadly capable ultraviolet spectrograph. We present the scientific motivation for, and a preliminary design of, a multiplexed ultraviolet spectrograph to support both the exoplanet and astrophysics goals of the LUVOIR Surveyor mission concept, the Combined High-resolution and Imaging Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor (CHISL). CHISL includes a high-resolution (R 120,000; 1000 - 1700 Ang) point-source spectroscopy channel and a ...

  6. Beyond Chandra - the X-ray Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 16 years, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has provided an unparalleled means for exploring the universe with its half-arcsecond angular resolution. Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, planets, and solar system objects addressing almost all areas of current interest in astronomy and astrophysics. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address even more demanding science questions, such as the formation and subsequent growth of black hole seeds at very high redshift; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, together with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, has initiated a concept study for such a mission named the X-ray Surveyor. This study starts with a baseline payloa...

  7. Proton Cyclotron Waves Upstream from Mars: Observations from Mars Global Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Romanelli, Norberto; Gomez, Daniel; Mazelle, Christian; Delva, Magda

    2013-01-01

    We present a study on the properties of electromagnetic plasma waves in the region upstream of the Martian bow shock, detected by the magnetometer and electron reflectometer (MAG / ER) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft during the period known as Science Phasing Orbits (SPO). The frequency of these waves, measured in the MGS reference frame (SC), is close to the local proton cyclotron frequency. Minimum variance analysis (MVA) shows that these 'proton cyclotron frequency' waves (PCWs) are characterized - in the SC frame - by a left-hand, elliptical polarization and propagate almost parallel to the background magnetic field. They also have a small degree of compressibility and an amplitude that decreases with the increase of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle and radial distance from the planet. The latter result supports the idea that the source of these waves is Mars. In addition, we find that these waves are not associated with the foreshock . Empirical evidence and theoretica...

  8. Challenges to Building Surveyors From The Perspectives Of Non Surveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnin Zarina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on the importance of Building Surveyors in Malaysia is still low as the role and skills of this profession are not fully understood. Although studies indicated that Building Surveyors are still in demand, even without the Building Surveyor Act, many graduates are experiencing inadequate employment opportunities in the current economic situation. Little is known on the views from other stakeholders about BS. This research aims to examine the awareness and opinions on BS in Malaysia amongst construction stakeholders. Questionnaire surveys were collected from 120 respondents from construction, maintenance and insurance companies and interviews were conducted to selected built environment respondents. It was found that awareness and knowledge on BS are still low as they lack information on the profession and professional recognitions. Some views indicated on a major identity crisis for having fragmented and disparate range of modules. The cause may have resulted in problems on public recognition, poor understanding of the surveyor’s skills, and fewer job opportunities. Several suggested the profession to have a clear, coherent and relevant identity, with strong professional structures in order for the profession to survive and gain recognition from the government. Graduates are also recommended to acquire other skills and training in order for them to be significant to the construction industry.

  9. Titan Airship Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzhanovich, V.; Yavrouian, A.; Cutts, J.; Colozza, A.; Fairbrother, D.

    2001-01-01

    surface allows relatively simple means for flight control. Mission requirements and possible methods of navigation, control, data acquisition, and communications are discussed. The presentation describes also the state-of-the art and current progress in aerial deployed aerobots.

  10. 46 CFR 153.1101 - Procedures for getting a Surveyor: Approval of Surveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for getting a Surveyor: Approval of Surveyors. 153.1101 Section 153.1101 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Approval of Surveyors...

  11. Low-Cost Approaches to Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, G. F.; Edwards, C. D.; Schober, W. R.; Hooke, A. J.; Tai, W. S.; Pollmeier, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    The past decade has brought about a radical transformation in NASA's planetary exploration program. At the beginning of this decade, NASA was focused on the Cassini mission to Saturn. Following on the heels of the successful Voyager and Galileo missions, Cassini represents the culmination of an evolution towards successively larger, more complex, and more expensive spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft weighs in at over 5 metric tons, and carries an entry probe and a sophisticated suite of sensors supporting 27 different science investigations enabling a comprehensive scientific investigation of Saturn with a single spacecraft. The cost of this spacecraft exceeded $2B, including the cost of the large Titan IV launch vehicle. During Cassini development, NASA realized that it could no longer afford these "flagship" missions, and the agency moved aggressively towards a "faster, better, cheaper" design philosophy of focused science goals and simpler, rapidly-developed spacecraft, allowing much more frequent launches of smaller, lower-cost missions. The Mars Global Surveyor, launched in November 1996, is an example of this new paradigm. Developed in less than 3-years, MGS is only one-fifth the mass of Cassini, and only cost on the order of $220M. The reduced spacecraft mass allows use of the smaller, lower cost Delta launch vehicle. Currently in orbit about Mars, MGS carries a focused suite of six science instruments that are currently returning high-resolution remote sensing of the Martian surface. The future calls for continued even more aggressive mass and cost targets. Examples of these next-generation goals are embodied in the Mars Micromission spacecraft concept, targeted for launch in 2003. With a mass of only 200kg, this lightweight bus can be tailored to carry a variety of payloads to Mars or other inner-planet destinations. The design of the Micromission spacecraft enable them to be launched at extremely low cost as a secondary "piggyback" payload.

  12. Global-scale external magnetic fields at Mars from Mars Global Surveyor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelholz, A.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    The martian magnetic field is unique among those of the terrestrial planets. It is the net result of the interaction of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with crustal remnant magnetization and a planetary ionosphere. Internal fields of crustal origin have been the subject of extensive studies; the focus of our work is identification and characterization of contributions from external magnetic fields using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) vector magnetic field data. We investigate the magnitude, average spatial structure and temporal variability of the external magnetic field at the MGS mapping altitude of 400 km by first subtracting expected contributions from crustal fields using existing global crustal field models. We identify contributions to the residual dayside fields from two sources: the draped IMF and a source that we interpret to be of ionospheric origin. As observed in previous work, nightside external fields are minimal at mapping orbit altitudes. The IMF contribution changes polarity every 13 days due to the geometry of the heliospheric magnetic field and Mars' orbit. This allows us to calculate the amplitude of the IMF at mapping orbit altitudes. The ionospheric contribution results in a quasi-steady dayside signal in the MGS observations because of the limited local time sampling of the MGS mapping orbit. The ionospheric contribution can be isolated by averaging the external fields over timescales longer than several Carrington rotations, to average out the IMF contribution. We present a global average of the ionopsheric field for the duration of the mapping orbit (2000-2006) and analyze daytime and nightime fields separately. We show that some structure in the time-averaged ionospheric field is organized in the Mars body-fixed frame, due for example, to the influence of crustal fields. We also show that the ionospheric fields vary in amplitude and geometry with martian season. Broader local time coverage over a restricted latitude

  13. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2{1/2} in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques.

  14. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4 GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-in diameter parabolic high gain antenna (HGA) on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) R&D 34-meter antenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. The projected 5-dB link advantage of Ka-band relative to X-band was confirmed in previous reports using measurements of MGS signal strength data acquired during the first two years of the link experiment from December 1996 to December 1998. Analysis of X-band and Ka-band frequency data and difference frequency (fx-fka)/3.8 data will be presented here. On board the spacecraft, a low-power sample of the X-band downlink from the transponder is upconverted to 32 GHz, the Ka-band frequency, amplified to I-W using a Solid State Power Amplifier, and radiated from the dual X/Ka HGA. The X-band signal is amplified by one of two 25 W TWTAs. An upconverter first downconverts the 8.42 GHz X-band signal to 8 GHz and then multiplies using a X4 multiplier producing the 32 GHz Ka-band frequency. The frequency source selection is performed by an RF switch which can be commanded to select a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) or USO (Ultra-Stable Oscillator) reference. The Ka-band frequency can be either coherent with the X-band downlink reference or a hybrid combination of the USO and VCO derived frequencies. The data in this study were chosen such that the Ka-band signal is purely coherent with the X-band signal, that is the downconverter is driven by the same frequency source as the X-band downlink). The ground station used to acquire the data is DSS-13, a 34-meter BWG antenna which incorporates a series of mirrors inside beam waveguide tubes which guide the energy to a subterranean pedestal room, providing a stable environment

  15. Analysis of Properties of the North Polar Layered Deposits: THEMIS Data in Context of MGS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Byrne, S.; Richardson, M. I.; Vasavada, A. R.; Titus, T. N.; Bell, J. F.; McConnochie, T. H.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the many questions of Martian exploration is to uncover the history of Mars, through analysis of the polar layered deposits (PLD). Martian polar ice caps hold most of the exposed water on the surface on Mars and yet their history and physical processed involved in their formation are unclear. We will attempt to contribute to our knowledge of the composition and stratigraphy of the polar deposits. In this work we present the latest imaging data acquired by the Mars Odyssey THermal EMission Imaging System (THEMIS) and place it into context of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data. THEMIS provides capabilities for imaging in both thermal IR and visible color wavelengths. These observations are affected by atmospheric scattering and topography. The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instruments on board of the MGS spacecraft can provide context information for THEMIS data. Of particular interest are Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images, which provide high resolution data. We are primarily interested in the seasonal evolution of ice cap temperatures during the first northern summer of THEMIS observations. Morphology, stratigraphy and composition of the layered deposits can be addressed by THEMIS VIS color images, along with MOC high resolution data and MOLA Digital Elevation Models (DEM). This work is intentionally descriptive. Based on the knowledge obtained by the orbiting spacecraft and described here, we will attempt to expose major directions for modeling and further understanding of of the physical processes involved in the formation of the polar layered terrain 2 Available data 2.1 THEMIS IR The THEMIS IR camera has 10 bands from 6 to 15 m. Due to to signal-to-noise restrictions the most useful band for polar observations is band 9 (12.57 m ). Band 10 (14.88 m ) data can be used for atmospheric calibration. An example of seasonal evolution observed by the THEMIS IR subsystem is shown in Figure 1. We have projected all IR

  16. MGS-TES thermal inertia study of the Arsia Mons Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, G.E.; Titus, T.N.

    2008-01-01

    Temperatures of the Arsia Mons caldera floor and two nearby control areas were obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). These observations revealed that the Arsia Mons caldera floor exhibits thermal behavior different from the surrounding Tharsis region when compared with thermal models. Our technique compares modeled and observed data to determine best fit values of thermal inertia, layer depth, and albedo. Best fit modeled values are accurate in the two control regions, but those in the Arsia Mons' caldera are consistently either up to 15 K warmer than afternoon observations, or have albedo values that are more than two standard deviations higher than the observed mean. Models of both homogeneous and layered (such as dust over bedrock) cases were compared, with layered-cases indicating a surface layer at least thick enough to insulate itself from diurnal effects of an underlying substrate material. Because best fit models of the caldera floor poorly match observations, it is likely that the caldera floor experiences some physical process not incorporated into our thermal model. Even on Mars, Arsia Mons is an extreme environment where CO2 condenses upon the caldera floor every night, diurnal temperatures range each day by a factor of nearly 2, and annual average atmospheric pressure is only around one millibar. Here, we explore several possibilities that may explain the poor modeled fits to caldera floor and conclude that temperature dependent thermal conductivity may cause thermal inertia to vary diurnally, and this effect may be exaggerated by presence of water-ice clouds, which occur frequently above Arsia Mons. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. The Infrared Imaging Surveyor (Iris) Project: Astro-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibai, H.

    IRIS (Infrared Imaging Surveyor) is the first Japanese satellite dedicated solely to infrared astronomy. The telescope has 70-cm aperture, and is cooled down to 6 K with super-fluid helium assisted by two-stage Stirling cycle coolers. On the focal plane, the two instruments, the InfraRed Camera (IRC) and the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS), are mounted. IRC is a near- and mid-infrared camera for deep imaging-surveys in the wavelength region from 2 to 25 microns. FIS is a far-infrared instrument for a whole sky survey in the wavelength region from 50 to 200 microns. The diffraction-limited spatial resolution is achieved except in the shortest waveband. The point source sensitivity and the survey coverage are significantly improved compared to previous missions. The primary scientific objective is to investigate birth and evolution of galaxies in the early universe by surveys of young normal galaxies and starburst galaxies. IRIS is thrown by a Japanese M-V rocket into a sun-synchronous orbit, in which the cooled telescope can avoid huge emissions from the Sun and the Earth. The expected holding time of the super-fluid helium is more than one year. After consumption of the helium, the near-infrared observation can be continued by the mechanical coolers

  18. Further Analysis on the Mystery of the Surveyor III Dust Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip; Hintze, Paul; Trigwell, Steven; Lane, John

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo 12 lunar module (LM) landing near the Surveyor 1lI spacecraft at the end of 1969 has remained the primary experimental verification of the predicted physics of plume ejecta effects from a rocket engine interacting with the surface of the moon. This was made possible by the return of the Surveyor 1lI camera housing by the Apollo 12 astronauts, allowing detailed analysis of the composition of dust deposited by the Apollo 12 LM plume. It was soon realized after the initial analysis of the camera housing that the LM plume tended to remove more dust than it had deposited. In the present study, coupons from the camera housing were reexamined by a KSC research team using SEM/EDS and XPS analysis. In addition, plume effects recorded in landing videos from each Apollo mission have been studied for possible clues. Several likely scenarios are proposed to explain the Surveyor III dust observations. These include electrostatic attraction of the dust to the surface of the Surveyor as a result of electrostatic charging of the jet gas exiting the engine nozzle during descent; dust blown by the Apollo 12 LM fly-by while on its descent trajectory; dust ejected from the lunar surface due to gas forced into the soil by the Surveyor 1lI rocket nozzle, based on Darcy's law; and mechanical movement of dust during the Surveyor landing. Even though an absolute answer is not possible based on available data and theory, various computational models are employed to estimate the feasibility of each of these proposed mechanisms. Scenarios are then discussed which combine multiple mechanisms to produce results consistent with observations.

  19. Extending MGS-TES Temperature Retrievals in the Martian Atmosphere up to 90 Km: Retrieval Approach and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; Rezac, L.; Smith, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for performing a temperature retrieval in the Martian atmosphere in the 50-90 km altitude range using spectrally integrated 15 micrometers C02 limb emissions measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), the thermal infrared spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We demonstrate that temperature retrievals from limb observations in the 75-90 km altitude range require accounting for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) populations of the C02(v2) vibrational levels. Using the methodology described in the paper, we have retrieved approximately 1200 individual temperature profiles from MGS TES limb observations in the altitude range between 60 and 90 km. 0ur dataset of retrieved temperature profiles is available for download in supplemental materials of this paper. The temperature retrieval uncertainties are mainly caused by radiance noise, and are estimated to be about 2 K at 60 km and below, 4 K at 70 km, 7 K at 80 km, 10 K at 85 km, and 20 K at 90 km. We compare the retrieved profiles to Mars Climate Database temperature profiles and find good qualitative agreement. Quantitatively, our retrieved profiles are in general warmer and demonstrate strong variability with the following values for bias and standard deviations (in brackets) compared to the Martian Year 24 dataset of the Mars Climate Database: 6 (+/-20) K at 60 km, 7.5 (+/-25) K at 65 km, 9 (+/-27) K at 70 km, 9.5 (+/-27) K at 75 km, 10 (+/-28) K at 80 km, 11 (+/-29) K at 85 km, and 11.5 (+/-31) K at 90 km. Possible reasons for the positive temperature bias are discussed. carbon dioxide molecular vibrations

  20. CHISL: the combined high-resolution and imaging spectrograph for the LUVOIR surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Fleming, Brian; Hoadley, Keri

    2016-07-01

    NASA is currently carrying out science and technical studies to identify its next astronomy flagship mission, slated to begin development in the 2020s. It has become clear that a Large Ultraviolet/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission (dprimary ≍ 12 m, Δλ ≍ 1000 Å - 2 μm spectroscopic bandpass) can carry out the largest number of NASA's exoplanet and astrophysics science goals over the coming decades. The science grasp of a LUVOIR Surveyor is broad, ranging from the direct detection of potential biomarkers on rocky planets to the flow of matter into and out of galaxies and the history of star-formation across cosmic time. There are technical challenges for several aspects of the LUVOIR Surveyor concept, including component level technology readiness maturation and science instrument concepts for a broadly capable ultraviolet spectrograph. We present the scientific motivation for, and a preliminary design of, a multiplexed ultraviolet spectrograph to support both the exoplanet and astrophysics goals of the LUVOIR Surveyor mission concept, the Combined High-resolution and Imaging Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor (CHISL). CHISL includes a highresolution (R ≍ 120,000; 1000 - 1700Å) point-source spectroscopy channel and a medium resolution (R >= 14,000 from 1000 - 2000 Å in a single observation and R 24,000 - 35,000 in multiple grating settings) imaging spectroscopy channel. CHISL addresses topics ranging from characterizing the composition and structure of planet-forming disks to the feedback of matter between galaxies and the intergalactic medium. We present the CHISL concept, a small sample of representative science cases, and the primary technological hurdles. Technical challenges include high-efficiency ultraviolet coatings and high-quantum efficiency, large-format, photon counting detectors. We are actively engaged in laboratory and flight characterization efforts for all of these enabling technologies as components on sounding rocket payloads under

  1. Rocksalt MgS solar blind ultra-violet detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hoi Lai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies using in-situ Auger electron spectroscopy and reflection high energy electron diffraction, and ex-situ high resolution X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction reveal that a MgS thin film grown directly on a GaAs (100 substrate by molecular beam epitaxy adopts its most stable phase, the rocksalt structure, with a lattice constant of 5.20 Å. A Au/MgS/n+-GaAs (100 Schottky-barrier photodiode was fabricated and its room temperature photoresponse was measured to have a sharp fall-off edge at 235 nm with rejection of more than three orders at 400 nm and higher than five orders at 500 nm, promising for various solar-blind UV detection applications.

  2. An examination of Mars' north seasonal polar cap using MGS: Composition and infrared radiation balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gary B.

    2013-08-01

    A detailed analysis of data from one revolution of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is presented. Approximately 80% of this revolution observes the mid-winter northern seasonal polar cap, which covers the surface to night. The surface composition and temperature are determined through analysis of 6-50 μm infrared spectra from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). The infrared radiative balance, which is the entire heat balance in the polar night except for small subsurface and atmospheric advection terms, is calculated for the surface and atmospheric column. The primary constituent, CO2 ice, also dominates the infrared spectral properties by variations in its grain size and by admixtures of dust and water ice, which cause large variations in the 20-50 μm emissivity. This is modified by incomplete areal coverage, and clouds or hazes. This quantitative analysis reveals CO2 grain radii ranging from ˜100 μm in isolated areas, to 1-5 mm in more widespread regions. The water ice content varies from none to about one part per thousand by mass, with a clear increase towards the periphery of the polar cap. The dust content is typically a few parts per thousand by mass, but is as much as an order of magnitude less abundant in "cold spot" regions, where the low emissivity of pure CO2 ice is revealed. This is the first quantitative analysis of thermal spectra of the seasonal polar cap and the first to estimate water ice content. Our models show that the cold spots represent cleaner, dust-free ice rather than finer grained ice than the background. Our guess is that the dust in cold spots is hidden in the center of the CO2 frost particles rather than not present. The fringes of the cap have more dust and water ice, and become patchy, with warmer water snow filling the gaps on the night side, and warmer bare soil on the day side. A low optical depth (night side, and appears with smaller optical depth on the day side. The infrared radiative balance at the surface is typically

  3. An investigation of washability characteristics of lignites from Yenicubuk-Gemerek districts by MGS; Yenicubuk gemerek linyit komurlerinin MGS ile yikanabilirliginin arastirilmasi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, N.; Canbazoglu, M.; Ulusoy, U. [Cumhuriyet Universitesi, Sivas (Turkey). Maden Muhendisligi Bolumu

    1999-07-01

    Washability and ash removal from Gemerek lignite in a multi gravity separator (MGS) were investigated. Experimental studies were carried out on -0.5 mm coal samples containing 37.75% ash in a laboratory C-900 type MGS. Drum speed, shake amplitude, tilt angle, shake frequency, wash water quantity and feed solid ratio were investigated. Optimum operating conditions were determined. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  4. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Marriage, T.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of telescopes designed to search for the signature of inflation in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). By combining the strategy of targeting large scales (>2 deg) with novel front-end polarization modulation and novel detectors at multiple frequencies, CLASS will pioneer a new frontier in ground-based CMB polarization surveys. In this talk, I give an overview of the CLASS instrument, survey, and outlook on setting important new limits on the energy scale of inflation.

  5. The conduction bands of MgO, MgS and HfO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.K. de; Groot, R.A. de

    1998-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations for MgO, MgS and HfO2 are reported. It is shown that the conduction bands of MgO and MgS have predominantly anion character, contrary to the common picture of the conduction band being derived from cation states. In transition metal oxides, unoccupied anion states a

  6. Further Analysis on the Mystery of the Surveyor III Dust Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip; Hintze, Paul; Trigwell, Steven; Lane, John

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo 12 lunar module (LM) landing near the Surveyor III spacecraft at the end of 1969 has remained the primary experimental verification of the predicted physics of plume ejecta effects from a rocket engine interacting with the surface of the moon. This was made possible by the return of the Surveyor III camera housing by the Apollo 12 astronauts, allowing detailed analysis of the composition of dust deposited by the LM plume. It was soon realized after the initial analysis of the camera housing that the LM plume tended to remove more dust than it had deposited. In the present study, coupons from the camera housing have been reexamined. In addition, plume effects recorded in landing videos from each Apollo mission have been studied for possible clues.

  7. Mars Surveyor '98 MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Novel solutions are presented to some of the unique problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing power.

  8. MgS in detached shells around carbon stars. Mining the mass-loss history

    CERN Document Server

    Hony, S

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the dust composition of detached shells around carbon stars, with a focus to understand the origin of the cool magnesium-sulfide (MgS) material around warm carbon stars, which has been detected around several of these objects. We build a radiative transfer model of a carbon star surrounded by an expanding detached shell of dust. The shell contains amorphous carbon grains and MgS grains. We find that a small fraction of MgS dust (2% of the dust mass) can give a significant contribution to the IRAS 25 micron flux. However, the presence of MgS in the detached shell cannot be inferred from the IRAS broadband photometry alone but requires infrared spectroscopy. We apply the model to the detached-shell sources R Scl and U Cam, both exhibiting a cool MgS feature in their ISO/SWS spectra. We use the shell parameters derived for the molecular shell, using the CO submillimetre maps. The models, with MgS grains located in the detached shell, explain the MgS grain temperature, as derived from their ISO spe...

  9. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Tobias; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most compelling inflation models predict a background of primordial gravitational waves (PGW) detectable by their imprint of a curl-like "B-mode" pattern in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a novel array of telescopes to measure the B-mode signature of the PGW. By targeting the largest angular scales (>2°) with a multifrequency array, novel polarization modulation and detectors optimized for both control of systematics and sensitivity, CLASS sets itself apart in the field of CMB polarization surveys and opens an exciting new discovery space for the PGW and inflation. This poster presents an overview of the CLASS project.

  10. The surveyors' quest for perfect alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Photogrammetry of a CMS endcap and part of the hadronic calorimeter.The structure was covered with targets photographed by digital cameras. Perfect alignment.... Although CERN's surveyors do not claim to achieve it, they are constantly striving for it and deploy all necessary means to come as close as they can. In their highly specialised field of large-scale metrology, the solution lies in geodesy and photogrammetry, both of which are based on increasingly sophisticated instruments and systems. In civil engineering, these techniques are used for non-destructive inspection of bridges, dams and other structures, while industrial applications include dimensional verification and deformation measurement in large mechanical assemblies. The same techniques also come into play for the metrology of research tools such as large telescopes and of course, particle accelerators. Particle physics laboratories are especially demanding customers, and CERN has often asked for the impossible. As a result, the alignment metro...

  11. CERN’s surveyors send sparks flying

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    A few weeks ago, we published an article on the three-dimensional laser scanner technique used at CERN to produce 3D images of the LHC tunnels and experiments (see the article here). Photogrammetry is another technique in the CERN surveyors’ arsenal.   The ATLAS wheel during a photogrammetry measurement campaign. The white spots (see red arrows) dotted across the wheel are the retro-reflective "dot" targets. Used in a number of fields including topography, architecture, geology and archaeology, photogrammetry is a stereoscopy technique whereby 2D images taken from different angles can be used to reconstruct a 3D image of an object. Surveyors at CERN have been using this technique for over 15 years as a way of gaining precise information on the shape, size, deformation and position of the LHC detectors and their composite elements. The photogrammetry used at CERN is relatively “light” in terms of the equipment required, w...

  12. Waves in the Martian Atmosphere: Results from MGS Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. M.; Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1999-09-01

    Temperatures retrieved from Mars Global Surveyor radio occultations have been searched for evidence of waves. Emphasis has been on the initial series of occultations between 29(deg) N and 64(deg) S, obtained during the early martian southern summer, L_s=264(deg-308^deg) . The profiles exhibit an undulatory behavior that is suggestive of vertically propagating waves. Wavelengths ~ 10 km are often dominant, but structure on smaller scales is evident. The undulatory structure is most pronounced between latitudes 29(deg) N and 10(deg) S, usually in regions of ``interesting'' topography, e.g., in the Tharsis region and near the edge of Syrtis Major. Several temperature profiles, particularly within 30(deg) of the equator, exhibit lapse rates that locally become superadiabatic near the 0.4--mbar level or at higher altitudes. This implies that the waves are ``breaking'' and depositing horizontal momentum into the atmosphere. Such a deposition may play an important role in modulating the atmospheric winds, and characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of these momentum transfers can provide important clues to understanding how the global circulation is maintained.

  13. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Lorenzo; O'Brien, Paul T.; Götz, Diego

    2016-07-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) is a mission concept under development by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting gamma-ray bursts for investigating the early Universe. The main scientific objectives of THESEUS include: investigating the star formation rate and metallicity evolution of the ISM and IGM up to redshift 9-10, detecting the first generation (pop III) of stars, studying the sources and physics of re-ionization, detecting the faint end of galaxies luminosity function. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRB detection and arcmin localization over a broad FOV (more than 1sr) and an energy band extending from several MeVs down to 0.3 keV with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as on-board prompt (few minutes) follow-up with a 0.6m class IR telescope with both imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Such instrumentation will also allow THESEUS to unveil and study the population of soft and sub-energetic GRBs, and, more in general, to perform monitoring and survey of the X-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity.

  14. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  15. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  16. The surveyors get the measure of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first to start work in the LHC tunnel, the surveyors are precisely marking out the positions of the future accelerator's magnets. A total of 7000 reference points will have to be marked out over two years.

  17. an examination of estate surveyors and valuers' perception of flood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... Key words: Estate Surveyors, Perception, Flood risk, Residential ... financial service sector (banking, insurance, etc.) ... 1Department of Estate Management, College of Science .... institutions (Ayida-Otobo, 2009), Lagos State.

  18. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  19. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, Kathleen; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Dahal, Sumit; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fluxa, Pedro; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Hubmayr, Johannes; Iuliano, Jeffery; Karakla, John; McMahon, Jeff; Miller, Nathan T; Moseley, Samuel H; Palma, Gonzalo; Parker, Lucas; Petroff, Matthew; Pradenas, Bastián; Rostem, Karwan; Sagliocca, Marco; Valle, Deniz; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from inflation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70\\% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad f...

  20. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakla, John; Kogut, Alan J; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H; Novak, Giles; Reintsema, Carl; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravita-tional-wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70\\% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low $\\ell$. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of $r=0.01$ and make a cosmi...

  1. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  2. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Denis, Kevin; Moseley, Samuel H.; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  3. The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS)

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, C N; Maiolino, R; Goldie, D J; Acedo, E de Lera; Wagg, J; Blundell, R; Paine, S; Zeng, L

    2014-01-01

    The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS) is a pathfinder program to demonstrate on-chip spectrometry at millimetre wavelengths. CAMELS will observe at frequencies from 103-114.7 GHz, providing 512 channels with a spectral resolution of R = 3000. In this paper we describe the science goals of CAMELS, the current system level design for the instrument and the work we are doing on the detailed designs of the individual components. In addition, we will discuss our efforts to understand the impact that the design and calibration of the filter bank on astronomical performance. The shape of the filter channels, the degree of overlap and the nature of the noise all effect how well the parameters of a spectral line can be recovered. We have developed a new and rigorous method for analysing performance, based on the concept of Fisher information. This can in be turn coupled to a detailed model of the science case, allowing design trade-offs to be properly investigated.

  4. Lybia Montes: A Safe, Ancient Cratered Terrain, Mars Surveyor Landing Site at the Isidis Basin Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Anderson, R. C.; Harbert, W.

    2000-01-01

    The Isidis basin rim may be key to understanding Mars' past with future lander missions: this area enables the mission objective to explore Mars' climatic and geologic history, including the search for liquid water and evidence of prior or extant life in ancient terrains. While two safe candidate landIng sites for Mars Pathfinder were identified in Isidis Planitia, and one is being pursued for the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander, the region around Isidis Planitia. in contrast to Tharsis for example, has only been lightly studied. The advent of new high resolution data sets provides an opportunity to re-assess the geologic context of this Impact basin and its rim within the Martian geologic sequence as a candidate site for studying Mars' ancient cratered terrain and ancient hydrosphere. This reexamination is warranted by the various hypotheses that Isidis was once filled with ice or water.

  5. Observing Magnetic and Current Profiles of the Night side and Terminator of Mars through the Mars Global Surveyor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, N.; Fillingim, M. O.; Fogle, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mars has no global magnetic field. Changes in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can impact the upper atmosphere and induce currents in the ionosphere of Mars. During aerobraking maneuvers, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) made over 1000 passes through Mars's ionosphere. During these passes, MGS measured the local magnetic field. From these measurements, we can determine the ionospheric currents. We restrict our analysis to passes where the radial component of the magnetic field is nearly zero. This restriction, along with some assumptions about the gradients in the magnetic field, allows us to estimate the horizontal ionospheric currents. Additionally, we focus on the magnetic field data acquired over regions above negligible crustal magnetic fields in order to simplify the analysis. At a maximum altitude of 250 km, the Mars map was segmented to 30 by 30 degrees east longitude and latitude for analysis. We find that on the night side, where the solar zenith angle (SZA) lies between 130 to 180 degrees, only 4% of the data (out of a total of 52 profiles) is usable for computing currents, that is the radial component of the magnetic field is nearly zero. We also find that near the terminator, where the SZA lies between 50 to 130 degrees, an average of 2% of the magnetic field profiles (out of 1905) are usable to compute currents. This implies that currents are rarely horizontal (as required by our assumptions) in these regions. The currents computed from these profiles can give us insights into how the changing solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can affect the upper atmosphere of Mars. For example, induced currents can lead to Joule heating of the atmosphere potentially modifying the neutral dynamics.

  6. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor is a mission which will be proposed for the ESA M5 call. THESEUS will address multiple components in the Early Universe ESA Cosmic Vision theme:4.1 Early Universe,4.2 The Universe taking shape, and4.3 The evolving violent Universe.THESEUS aims at vastly increasing the discovery space of the high energy transient phenomena over the entire cosmic history. This is achieved via a unique payload providing an unprecedented combination of: (i) wide and deep sky monitoring in a broad energy band(0.3 keV-20 MeV; (ii) focusing capabilities in the soft X-ray band granting large grasp and high angular resolution; and (iii) on board near-IR capabilities for immediate transient identification and first redshift estimate.The THESEUS payload consists of: (i) the Soft X--ray Imager (SXI), a set of Lobster Eye (0.3--6 keV) telescopes with CCD detectors covering a total FOV of 1 sr; (ii) the X--Gamma-rays spectrometer (XGS), a non-imaging spectrometer (XGS) based on SDD+CsI, covering the same FOV than the Lobster telescope extending the THESEUS energy band up to 20 MeV; and (iii) a 70cm class InfraRed Telescope (IRT) observing up to 2 microns with imaging and moderate spectral capabilities.The main scientific goals of THESEUS are to:(a) Explore the Early Universe (cosmic dawn and reionization era) by unveiling the Gamma--Ray Burst (GRBs) population in the first billion years}, determining when did the first stars form, and investigating the re-ionization epoch, the interstellar medium (ISM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts.(b) Perform an unprecedented deep survey of the soft X-ray transient Universe in order to fill the present gap in the discovery space of new classes of transient; provide a fundamental step forward in the comprehension of the physics of various classes of Galactic and extra--Galactic transients, and provide real time trigger and accurate locations of transients for follow-up with next

  7. Surveyor television camera, selected materials and electronic components, Appendix C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The locations of various parts of the Surveyor camera are presented. Tables were prepared with emphasis on: (1) exterior parts and surfaces that are directly exposed to space, (2) parts that shield others from space radiation, (3) representative or unique materials, and (4) electronic devices that may contain unique or well-characterized materials.

  8. Caspar Wessel (1745-1818). Surveyor and Mathematician

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Bodil; Johansen, Nils Voje

    1999-01-01

    This is a biography. It focus on Caspar Wessel's work as surveyor under the auspices of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, in particular on some of his theoretical investigations of geodesy that lead him to use complex numbers to represent directions in a plane at least as early...

  9. Future Japanese X-ray TES Calorimeter Satellite: DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S.; Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Miyazaki, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Kuromaru, G.; Suzuki, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Sakai, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Tawara, Y.; Mitsuishi, I.; Babazaki, Y.; Nakamichi, R.; Bandai, A.; Yuasa, T.; Ota, N.

    2016-08-01

    We present the latest update and progress on the future Japanese X-ray satellite mission Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS). DIOS is proposed to JAXA as a small satellite mission, and would be launched with an Epsilon rocket. DIOS would carry on the legacy of ASTRO-H, which carries semiconductor-based microcalorimeters and is scheduled to be launched in 2016, in high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. A 400-pixel array of transition-edge sensors (TESs) would be employed, so DIOS would also provide valuable lessons for the next ESA X-ray mission ATHENA on TES operation and cryogen-free cooling in space. We have been sophisticating the entire design of the satellite to meet the requirement for the Epsilon payload for the next call. The primary goal of the mission is to search for warm-hot intergalactic medium with high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy by detecting redshifted emission lines from OVII and OVIII ions. The results would have significant impacts on our understanding of the nature of "dark baryons," their total amount and spatial distribution, as well as their evolution over cosmological timescales.

  10. Core skills requirement and competencies expected of quantity surveyors: perspectives from quantity surveyors, allied professionals and clients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Oluwasuji Dada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the science for selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill requirements and competencies expected of quantity surveyors. A structured questionnaire was administered among quantity surveyors, architects, engineers, builders and clients in Nigeria. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on usual skills and competencies required of quantity surveyors. A secondary objective of the study was to examine the important skills and competencies and categorized them into core skill, basic skill, core competence, optional competence and special competence. The results of the study indicate the important skills as computer literacy, building engineering, information technology, economics, measurement/quantification and knowledge of civil/heavy engineering works. The results also indicate the important competencies as cost planning and control, estimating, construction procurement system, contract documentation, contract administration and project management. It is emphasized that the findings of the research have considerable implications on the training and practice of quantity surveying in Nigeria.

  11. Core skills requirement and competencies expected of quantity surveyors: perspectives from quantity surveyors, allied professionals and clients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Oluwasuji Dada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDeployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the science for selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill requirements and competencies expected of quantity surveyors. A structured questionnaire was administered among quantity surveyors, architects, engineers, builders and clients in Nigeria. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on usual skills and competencies required of quantity surveyors. A secondary objective of the study was to examine the important skills and competencies and categorized them into core skill, basic skill, core competence, optional competence and special competence. The results of the study indicate the important skills as computer literacy, building engineering, information technology, economics, measurement/quantification and knowledge of civil/heavy engineering works. The results also indicate the important competencies as cost planning and control, estimating, construction procurement system, contract documentation, contract administration and project management. It is emphasized that the findings of the research have considerable implications on the training and practice of quantity surveying in Nigeria.

  12. The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES): New Mars Science to Reduce Human Risk and Prepare for the Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Wright, Henry S.; Killough, B. D.; Edwards, W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining critical measurements for eventual human Mars missions while expanding upon recent Mars scientific discoveries and deriving new scientific knowledge from a unique near surface vantage point is the focus of the Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES) exploration mission. The key element of ARES is an instrumented,rocket-powered, well-tested robotic airplane platform, that will fly between one to two kilometers above the surface while traversing hundreds of kilometers to collect and transmit previously unobtainable high spatial measurements relevant to the NASA Mars Exploration Program and the exploration of Mars by humans.

  13. The MESSIER surveyor: unveiling the ultra-low surface brightness universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Gabaud, David; MESSIER Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The MESSIER surveyor is a small mission designed at exploring the very low surface brightness universe. The satellite will drift-scan the entire sky in 6 filters covering the 200-1000 nm range, reaching unprecedented surface brightness levels of 34 and 37 mag arcsec-2 in the optical and UV, respectively. These levels are required to achieve the two main science goals of the mission: to critically test the ΛCDM paradigm of structure formation through (1) the detection and characterisation of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, which are predicted to be extremely abundant around normal galaxies, but which remain elusive; and (2) tracing the cosmic web, which feeds dark matter and baryons into galactic haloes, and which may contain the reservoir of missing baryons at low redshifts. A large number of science cases, ranging from stellar mass loss episodes to intracluster light through fluctuations in the cosmological UV-optical background radiation are free by-products of the full-sky maps produced.

  14. Testing the principle of equivalence with Planck surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, L A; Mandolesi, N

    2002-01-01

    We consider the effect of the violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) by the massive neutrino component on the Cosmic Microwave Background angular power specrum. We show that in the presence of adiabatic and isocurvature primordial density perturbations the Planck surveyor can place limits on the maximal VEP by the massive neutrino component at the level of 10^ -5, valid in the general relativity, for the case in which the gravity is the single source of VEP. This work has been performed within the framework of the {\\sc Planck}/LFI activities.

  15. CERN's surveyors are pushing back the frontiers of precision

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at a target on the other side of the Alps, 730 kilometres from CERN, or controlling the positions of thousands of devices to a precision of one tenth of a millimetre, these are just some of the painstaking tasks undertaken by the surveyors in the Positioning Metrology and Surveying Group. These masters of measurement are pushing precision to its very limit.Go down into the LEP tunnel, walk about half a mile and then try to imagine how you could possibly take precise aim at something hundreds of kilometres away without any reference to the surface. Absurd, you might think? Not entirely, for that, in a nutshell, is the geodetic challenge of the Gran Sasso project. Indeed it is just one of the challenges faced by the surveyors in CERN's Positioning Metrology and Surveying Group, whose task it will be to aim a neutrino beam at a detector located in an underground cavern 732 kilometres away at INFN's Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. The tools for solving such problems are provided by geodetics, the branch of...

  16. The Mars Surveyor '01 Rover and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert G.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Kim, Won S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander will carry with it both a Robotic Arm and Rover to support various science and technology experiments. The Marie Curie Rover, the twin sister to Sojourner Truth, is expected to explore the surface of Mars in early 2002. Scientific investigations to determine the elemental composition of surface rocks and soil using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be conducted along with several technology experiments including the Mars Experiment on Electrostatic Charging (MEEC) and the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The Rover will follow uplinked operational sequences each day, but will be capable of autonomous reactions to the unpredictable features of the Martian environment. The Mars Surveyor 2001 Robotic Arm will perform rover deployment, and support various positioning, digging, and sample acquiring functions for MECA (Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment) and Mossbauer Spectrometer experiments. The Robotic Arm will also collect its own sensor data for engineering data analysis. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) mounted on the forearm of the Robotic Arm will capture various images with a wide range of focal length adjustment during scientific experiments and rover deployment

  17. Asymmetric penetration of solar wind perturbations down to 400-km altitudes at Mars observed by Mars Global Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, K.; Seki, K.; Hara, T.; Brain, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Since Mars has no intrinsic global magnetic field, the exchange of energy, momentum, and material with the planet takes place through interaction between the solar wind and the Martin upper atmosphere. It is thought that solar wind encountering Mars can penetrate into the point where the solar wind dynamic pressure and the plasma thermal pressure in the Martin ionosphere are almost balanced and the solar wind flow is deflected around the boundary. However, the actual interaction can be complicated, since both plasma processes and the existence of crustal magnetic fields can modify the structure of the boundary. The Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability at the Martian ionopause is one of important candidate process to cause the modification. The dDistribution of ionopause surface waves generated by the K-H instability can should exhibit a clear asymmetry between hemispheres of upward and downward solar wind motional electric fields [e.g., Terada et al., 2002]. It is also suggested that the crustal magnetic fields can locally push the MPB (magnetic pileup boundary) upward [e.g., Brain et al., 2003]. It is also reported that the boundary between the solar wind and Martian ionosphere is located at an altitude of 380 km on average in the dayside [e.g., Mitchell et al., 2001]. However, this boundary location can change significantly depending on solar wind conditions. While it is considered that the solar wind can penetrate to lower altitudes than usual when the solar wind pressure is high, the frequency of the solar wind penetration and its quantitative dependence on the solar wind conditions are not yet well understood. In this study, we focused on penetration of solar wind electromagnetic disturbances, which are a characteristic feature of the shocked solar wind (magnetosheath), down to 400-km altitude at Mars. Using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data, we investigated the observational frequency and characteristics of the penetration events. We used data from the MGS

  18. The Digital Cadastral Databse and the Role of the Private Licensed Surveyors in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the cadastral system and the role of the private licensed surveyors in Denmark as a basis for discussion of its relevance to Ireland......This article presents the cadastral system and the role of the private licensed surveyors in Denmark as a basis for discussion of its relevance to Ireland...

  19. Are Quantity Surveyors Competent to Value for Civil Engineering Works? Evaluating QSs' Competencies and Militating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawumi, Timothy Oluwatosin; Ayegun, Olaleke Amos

    2016-01-01

    The role of the quantity surveyor is one that is often unclear amongst the general public. This study discussed the competencies of the quantity surveyor in measuring and managing civil engineering works and also carrying out the financial management for civil engineering construction projects; also outlined the various competencies and skills…

  20. The link between quality and accreditation of residency programs: the surveyors' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Renato Antunes; Snell, Linda; Tenorio Nunes, Maria do Patrocinio

    2017-01-01

    Accreditation of medical residency programs has become globally important. Currently it is moving from the goal of attaining minimal standards to a model of continuous improvement. In some countries, the accreditation system engages peers (physicians) to survey residency programs. The surveyors are sometimes volunteers, usually engaged in multiple clinical and education activities. Few studies have investigated the benefits of residency program evaluation and accreditation from the perspective of the surveyors. As peers they both conduct and receive accreditation surveys, which puts them in a privileged position in that it provides the surveyor with an opportunity to share experiences and knowledge and apply what is learned in their own context. The objective of this study is to obtain the perceptions of these surveyors about the impact of an accreditation system on residency programs. Surveyors participated in semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis was performed on the interview data, and resulting topics were grouped into five themes: Burden (of documentation and of time needed); Efficiency and efficacy of the accreditation process; Training and experience of surveyors; Being a peer; Professional skills and recognition of surveyors. These categories were organized into two major themes: 'Structure and Process' and 'Human Resources'. The study participants proposed ways to improve efficiency including diminish the burden of documentation to the physicians involved in the process and to increase efforts on training programs and payment for surveyors and program directors. Based on the results we propose a conceptual framework to improve accreditation systems.

  1. NASA's Human Mission to a Near-Earth Asteroid: Landing on a Moving Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Lincoln, William P.; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian approach for comparing the productivity and cost-risk tradeoffs of sending versus not sending one or more robotic surveyor missions prior to a human mission to land on an asteroid. The expected value of sample information based on productivity combined with parametric variations in the prior probability an asteroid might be found suitable for landing were used to assess the optimal number of spacecraft and asteroids to survey. The analysis supports the value of surveyor missions to asteroids and indicates one launch with two spacecraft going simultaneously to two independent asteroids appears optimal.

  2. NASA's Human Mission to a Near-Earth Asteroid: Landing on a Moving Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Lincoln, William P.; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian approach for comparing the productivity and cost-risk tradeoffs of sending versus not sending one or more robotic surveyor missions prior to a human mission to land on an asteroid. The expected value of sample information based on productivity combined with parametric variations in the prior probability an asteroid might be found suitable for landing were used to assess the optimal number of spacecraft and asteroids to survey. The analysis supports the value of surveyor missions to asteroids and indicates one launch with two spacecraft going simultaneously to two independent asteroids appears optimal.

  3. A Map-Making for the Planck Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Natoli, P; Gheller, C; Vittorio, N

    2001-01-01

    We present a parallel implementation of a map-making algorithm for CMB anisotropy experiments which is both fast and efficient. We show for the first time a Maximum Likelihood, minimum variance map obtained by processing the entire data stream expected from the Planck Surveyor, under the assumption of a symmetric beam profile. Here we restrict ourselves to the case of the 30 GHz channel of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument. The extension to Planck higher frequency channels is straightforward. If the satellite pointing periodicity is good enough to average data that belong to the same sky circle, then the code runs very efficiently on workstations. The serial version of our code also runs on very competitive time-scales the map-making pipeline for current and forthcoming balloon borne experiments.

  4. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    CERN Document Server

    Chuss, D T; Amiri, M; Appel, J; Bennett, C L; Colazo, F; Denis, K L; Dünner, R; Essinger-Hileman, T; Eimer, J; Fluxa, P; Gothe, D; Halpern, M; Harrington, K; Hilton, G; Hinshaw, G; Hubmayr, J; Iuliano, J; Marriage, T A; Miller, N; Moseley, S H; Mumby, G; Petroff, M; Reintsema, C; Rostem, K; U-Yen, K; Watts, D; Wagner, E; Wollack, E J; Xu, Z; Zeng, L

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe $\\sim$70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) modulates the polarization at $\\sim$10 Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that span both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously d...

  5. Bridging the Gap Between Surveyors and the Geo-Spatial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H.

    2016-06-01

    For many years FIG, the International Association of Surveyors, has been trying to bridge the gap between surveyors and the geospatial society as a whole, with the geospatial industries in particular. Traditionally the surveying profession contributed to the good of society by creating and maintaining highly precise and accurate geospatial data bases, based on an in-depth knowledge of spatial reference frameworks. Furthermore in many countries surveyors may be entitled to make decisions about land divisions and boundaries. By managing information spatially surveyors today develop into the role of geo-data managers, the longer the more. Job assignments in this context include data entry management, data and process quality management, design of formal and informal systems, information management, consultancy, land management, all that in close cooperation with many different stakeholders. Future tasks will include the integration of geospatial information into e-government and e-commerce systems. The list of professional tasks underpins the capabilities of surveyors to contribute to a high quality geospatial data and information management. In that way modern surveyors support the needs of a geo-spatial society. The paper discusses several approaches to define the role of the surveyor within the modern geospatial society.

  6. Anionic lipid binding to the foreign protein MGS provides a tight coupling between phospholipid synthesis and protein overexpression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariöz, Candan; Ye, Weihua; Bakali, Amin; Ge, Changrong; Liebau, Jobst; Götzke, Hansjörg; Barth, Andreas; Wieslander, Ake; Mäler, Lena

    2013-08-20

    Certain membrane proteins involved in lipid synthesis can induce formation of new intracellular membranes in Escherichia coli, i.e., intracellular vesicles. Among those, the foreign monotopic glycosyltransferase MGS from Acholeplasma laidlawii triggers such massive lipid synthesis when overexpressed. To examine the mechanism behind the increased lipid synthesis, we investigated the lipid binding properties of MGS in vivo together with the correlation between lipid synthesis and MGS overexpression levels. A good correlation between produced lipid quantities and overexpressed MGS protein was observed when standard LB medium was supplemented with four different lipid precursors that have significant roles in the lipid biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, this correlation was highest concerning anionic lipid production and at the same time dependent on the selective binding of anionic lipid molecules by MGS. A selective interaction with anionic lipids was also observed in vitro by (31)P NMR binding studies using bicelles prepared with E. coli lipids. The results clearly demonstrate that the discriminative withdrawal of anionic lipids, especially phosphatidylglycerol, from the membrane through MGS binding triggers an in vivo signal for cells to create a "feed-forward" stimulation of lipid synthesis in E. coli. By this mechanism, cells can produce more membrane surface in order to accommodate excessively produced MGS molecules, which results in an interdependent cycle of lipid and MGS protein synthesis.

  7. A Global Map of Thermal Inertia from Mars Global Surveyor Mapping-Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, M. T.; Kretke, K. A.; Smith, M. D.; Pelkey, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    TES (thermal emission spectrometry) has obtained high spatial resolution surface temperature observations from which thermal inertia has been derived. Seasonal coverage of these data now provides a nearly global view of Mars, including the polar regions, at high resolution. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Screening for Mutations in Kidney-Related Genes Using SURVEYOR Nuclease for Cleavage at Heteroduplex Mismatches

    OpenAIRE

    Voskarides, Konstantinos; DELTAS, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    SURVEYOR is a new mismatch-specific plant DNA endonuclease that is very efficient for mutation scanning in heteroduplex DNA. It is much faster, cheaper, more sensitive, and easier to perform than other “traditional” mutation detection methods such as single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, heteroduplex analysis, and phage resolvases. This is the first comprehensive report on the use of SURVEYOR for screening genes implicated in a sp...

  9. Schmidt Crater: Using Data from the Mars Global Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Fred

    2001-10-01

    In the Physics Department at Sinclair Community College in Dayton, the most popular general-education course is a three-quarter astronomy sequence. The course is designed to incorporate significant elements of conceptual physics, scientific methods, and quantitative reasoning, along with the content of astronomy. In cooperation with faculty from mathematics and sociology, the author developed new lab activities that engage students in making "practical" plans for the colonization of Mars. The activities are intended to be low-cost, to be suitable for either on-campus or distance-learning environments, and to be fun for both students and instructors. The Schmidt Crater region, an Ohio-sized area near the South Pole of Mars, was selected as a potential site for obtaining large quantities of water. Topographic data for the region was extracted from the 36 CD's of laser altimeter data obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor, and ArcView was used to produce detailed maps. Wide and narrow angle photos of the region from the Mars Orbiter Camera were integrated with the topographic maps. Both the maps and the photographs were therefore made accessible to students who can use free software packages, such as ArcExplorer and Scion Image With access to up-to-date data for this region, students complete a series of "authentic learning tasks" that include calculating water needs for a Martian city, identifying likely water sources, planning transportation methods, and selecting a "homestead" for their own personal use.

  10. The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) for AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Kawada, Mitsunobu; Barthel, Peter D; Clements, David; Cohen, Martin; Doi, Yasuo; Figueredo, Elysandra; Fujiwara, Mikio; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Hibi, Yasunori; Hirao, Takanori; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawai, Toshihide; Kawamura, Akiko; Kester, Do; Kii, Tsuneo; Kobayashi, Hisato; Kwon, Suk Minn; Lee, Hyung Mok; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Shuji; Müller, Thomas G; Murakami, Noriko; Nagata, Hirohisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Narita, Masanao; Noda, Manabu; Oh, Sang Hoon; Okada, Yoko; Okuda, Haruyuki; Oliver, Sebastian; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Pak, Soojong; Park, Yong-Sun; Pearson, Chris P; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Saito, Toshinobu; Salama, Alberto; Sato, Shinji; Savage, Richard S; Serjeant, Stephen; Shibai, Hiroshi; Shirahata, Mai; Sohn, Jungjoo; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Hidenori; Thomson, Matthew; Usui, Fumihiko; Verdugo, Eva; Watabe, Toyoki; White, Glenn J; Wang, Lingyu; Yamamura, Issei; Yamamuchi, Chisato; Yasuda, Akiko

    2007-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) is one of two focal plane instruments on the AKARI satellite. FIS has four photometric bands at 65, 90, 140, and 160 um, and uses two kinds of array detectors. The FIS arrays and optics are designed to sweep the sky with high spatial resolution and redundancy. The actual scan width is more than eight arcmin, and the pixel pitch is matches the diffraction limit of the telescope. Derived point spread functions (PSFs) from observations of asteroids are similar to the optical model. Significant excesses, however, are clearly seen around tails of the PSFs, whose contributions are about 30% of the total power. All FIS functions are operating well in orbit, and its performance meets the laboratory characterizations, except for the two longer wavelength bands, which are not performing as well as characterized. Furthermore, the FIS has a spectroscopic capability using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Because the FTS takes advantage of the optics and detectors of the photometer, i...

  11. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  12. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe ˜ 70 % of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at ˜ 10 Hz to suppress the 1/ f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  13. Detector architecture of the cosmology large angular scale surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostem, K.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Costen, N.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K. L.; Eimer, J. R.; Lourie, N.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Marriage, T. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Towner, D. W.; Voellmer, G.; Wollack, E. J.; Zeng, L.

    2012-09-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) provides a powerful tool for testing modern cosmology. In particular, if inflation has occurred, the associated gravitational waves would have imprinted a specific polarized pattern on the CMB. Measurement of this faint polarized signature requires large arrays of polarization-sensitive, background- limited detectors, and an unprecedented control over systematic effects associated with instrument design. To this end, the ground-based Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) employs large-format, feedhorn- coupled, background-limited Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays operating at 40, 90, and 150 GHz bands. The detector architecture has several enabling technologies. An on-chip symmetric planar orthomode transducer (OMT) is employed that allows for highly symmetric beams and low cross-polarization over a wide bandwidth. Furthermore, the quarter-wave backshort of the OMT is integrated using an innovative indium bump bonding process at the chip level that ensures minimum loss, maximum repeatability and performance uniformity across an array. Care has been taken to reduce stray light and on-chip leakage. In this paper, we report on the architecture and performance of the first prototype detectors for the 40 GHz focal plane.

  14. Optimal Management Of Renewable-Based Mgs An Intelligent Approach Through The Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nafar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- This article proposes a probabilistic frame built on Scenario fabrication to considerate the uncertainties in the finest action managing of Micro Grids MGs. The MG contains different recoverable energy resources such as Wind Turbine WT Micro Turbine MT Photovoltaic PV Fuel Cell FC and one battery as the storing device. The advised frame is based on scenario generation and Roulette wheel mechanism to produce different circumstances for handling the uncertainties of altered factors. It habits typical spreading role as a probability scattering function of random factors. The uncertainties which are measured in this paper are grid bid alterations cargo request calculating error and PV and WT yield power productions. It is well-intentioned to asset that solving the MG difficult for 24 hours of a day by considering diverse uncertainties and different constraints needs one powerful optimization method that can converge fast when it doesnt fall in local optimal topic. Simultaneously single Group Search Optimization GSO system is presented to vision the total search space globally. The GSO algorithm is instigated from group active of beasts. Also the GSO procedure one change is similarly planned for this algorithm. The planned context and way is applied o one test grid-connected MG as a typical grid.

  15. Screening for mutations in kidney-related genes using SURVEYOR nuclease for cleavage at heteroduplex mismatches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskarides, Konstantinos; Deltas, Constantinos

    2009-07-01

    SURVEYOR is a new mismatch-specific plant DNA endonuclease that is very efficient for mutation scanning in heteroduplex DNA. It is much faster, cheaper, more sensitive, and easier to perform than other "traditional" mutation detection methods such as single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, heteroduplex analysis, and phage resolvases. This is the first comprehensive report on the use of SURVEYOR for screening genes implicated in a spectrum of inherited renal diseases. Of the 48.2 kb screened, 44 variations were identified, accounting for one variation per 1.1 kb. The re-sequencing of multiple samples did not reveal any variation that had not been identified by SURVEYOR, attesting to its high fidelity. Additionally, we tested this enzyme against 15 known variants, 14 of which it identified, thus showing a sensitivity of 93%. We showed that the genetic heterogeneity of renal diseases can be easily overcome using this enzyme with a high degree of confidence and no bias for any specific variations. We also showed for the first time that SURVEYOR does not demonstrate any preference regarding mismatch cleavage at specific positions. Disadvantages of using SURVEYOR include enhanced exonucleolytic activity for some polymerase chain reaction products and less than 100% sensitivity. We report that SURVEYOR can be used as a mutation detection method with a high degree of confidence, offering an excellent alternative for low-budget laboratories and for the rapid manipulation of multiple genes.

  16. Molecular beam epitaxy-grown wurtzite MgS thin films for solar-blind ultra-violet detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Y. H.; He, Q. L. [Nano Science and Nano Technology Program, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR, People' s Republic of China (China); Department of Physics and William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR, People' s Republic of China (China); Cheung, W. Y.; Lok, S. K.; Wong, K. S.; Sou, I. K. [Department of Physics and William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR, People' s Republic of China (China); Ho, S. K. [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau, People' s Republic of China (China); Tam, K. W. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Macau, Macau, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2013-04-29

    Molecular beam epitaxy grown MgS on GaAs(111)B substrate was resulted in wurtzite phase, as demonstrated by detailed structural characterizations. Phenomenological arguments were used to account for why wurtzite phase is preferred over zincblende phase or its most stable rocksalt phase. Results of photoresponse and reflectance measurements performed on wurtzite MgS photodiodes suggest a direct bandgap at around 5.1 eV. Their response peaks at 245 nm with quantum efficiency of 9.9% and enjoys rejection of more than three orders at 320 nm and close to five orders at longer wavelengths, proving the photodiodes highly competitive in solar-blind ultraviolet detection.

  17. A New View of the Surface of Mars: High-Resolution Rock Abundance from MGS TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, S.; Christensen, P.

    2001-12-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data from the most dust-free seasons on Mars were used to calculate the areal percentage of rocks and finer materials such as dust and sand. Rock is defined as a surface material that has a thermal inertia of 1250 J/m2-s1/2-K (30 cal/cm2-s1/2-K) or greater. A surface with a high rock abundance value could be exposed bedrock, blocky debris, well-cemented materials or a combination. Globally, the TES and IRTM data agree well, with no rocks exposed in the large dusty regions such as Tharsis and Arabia, and exposure of rocks in small (a few km) areas where likely eolian or mass-wasting processes actively remove dust from the ancient rocky surface. Analysis of high-resolution TES rock abundance suggests that there are extremely varied surfaces within relatively small regions, and places an upper limit of ~45 % rocks in the rockiest regions. Thermal inertia and rock abundance are correlate to some degree over much of the planet, but the highest thermal inertia surfaces often do not have the highest rock abundances. A global perspective will be presented here, with detailed look at a few high-resolution ares including Ares Vallis/Pathfinder, Valles Marineris, and the proposed landing sites for the 2003 MER landers.

  18. Simulation of the charge collection and signal response of a HPGe double sided strip detector using MGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateu, I., E-mail: isidre.mateu@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Medina, P., E-mail: patrice.medina@aero.obs-mip.fr [IPHC, IN2P3 – CNRS/Université Louis Pasteur, 23 rue du Loess, PB28, Strasbourg Cedex 2, F67037 (France); Roques, J.P., E-mail: jean-pierre.roques@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Jourdain, E., E-mail: elisabeth.jourdain@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

    2014-01-21

    This paper aims to present Multi geometry Simulation (MGS), a software intended for the characterization of the signal response of solid state detectors. Its main feature is the calculation of the pulse shapes induced at the electrodes of the detector by a photon–semiconductor interaction occurring at a specific position inside the detector volume. The program uses numerical methods to simulate the drift of the charge carriers generated by the interaction, as the movement of these particles induces the useful signal for detection to the electrodes. After the description of the tool fundamentals, an example of application is presented where MGS was used for simulating a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) double sided strip detector conceived for hard X-ray astronomy. Simulated and measured pulse shapes are compared for interactions occurring at different depths in the detector volume. The comparison focuses on the difference in time of arrival between the anode and cathode pulses, as this measure allows, together with the X/Y information retrieved from the strips, a 3D determination of the photon interaction point, which is an important feature of the detector. A good matching between simulations and measurements is obtained, with a discrepancy less than 0.5 mm between the measured and the simulated depth of the interaction, for an 11 mm thick detector. -- Highlights: • Description of MGS, a tool for the synthesis of the signal response of solid state detectors. • Validation of the simulator through comparison with measurements on a DSSD prototype. • Discussion on the advantages, drawbacks and possible evolutions of MGS.

  19. Spectroscopy of the X^1Σ^+, A^1Π and B^1Σ^+ Electronic States of MgS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Nicholas; Tokaryk, Dennis W.; Adam, Allan G.; Linton, Colan

    2016-06-01

    The spectra of some astrophysical sources contain signatures from molecules containing magnesium or sulphur atoms. Therefore, we have extended previous studies of the diatomic molecule MgS, which is a possible candidate for astrophysical detection. Microwave spectra of X^1Σ^+ , the ground electronic state, were reported in 1989 and 1997, and the B^1Σ^+-X^1Σ^+ electronic absorption spectrum in the blue was last studied in 1970. We have investigated the B^1Σ^+-X^1Σ^+ 0-0 spectrum of MgS at high resolution under jet-cooled conditions in a laser-ablation molecular source, and have obtained laser-induced fluorescence spectra from four isotopologues. Dispersed fluorescence from this source identified the low-lying A^1Π state near 4520 wn. We also created MgS in a Broida oven, with the help of a stream of activated nitrogen, and took rotationally resolved dispersed fluorescence spectra of the B^1Σ^+-A^1Π transition with a grating spectrometer by laser excitation of individual rotational levels of the B^1Σ^+ state via the B^1Σ^+-X^1Σ^+ transition. These spectra provide a first observation and analysis of the A^1Π state. S. Takano, S. Yamamoto and S. Saito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 159, 563-566 (1989) K. A. Walker and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Mol. Spectrosc 182, 178-183 (1997) M. Marcano and R. F. Barrow, Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 2936-2938 (1970)

  20. Perancangan Aplikasi Komputer Berbasis Android untuk Survei Kondisi Kapal oleh Owner Surveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stevan Haloho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Survei kondisi kapal adalah survei yang dilakukan oleh seorang Owner Surveyor untuk melaporkan kondisi aktual kapal beserta bagian-bagiannya. Proses survei yang dilakukan saat ini masih dilakukan secara manual dimana seorang Owner Surveyor melakukan survei berdasarkan daftar survei yang diterbitkan oleh perusahaan pemilik kapal. Hasil survei kondisi akan disajikan dalam bentuk laporan yang nantinya akan diserahkan kepada pemilik kapal sebagai bahan pertimbangan untuk dilakukannya “repair” dan “maintenance”. Proses survei yang dilakukan saat ini tentu saja kurang efektif untuk dilakukan, mengingat tidak semua Owner Surveyor memiliki pengetahuan dan pengalaman yang sama serta proses pembuatan laporan hasil survei yang sering memakan waktu lama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang sebuah aplikasi komputer berbasis android yang dapat membantu seorang Owner Surveyor dalam melakukan proses survei kondisi. Dalam aplikasi ini memuat fasilitas daftar survei, review survei, updating survei, dan menu untuk menambahkan Owner Surveyor. Aplikasi ini telah diujicobakan kepada beberapa responden yang memiliki pengalaman survei kapal dan pihak-pihak yang memiliki latar belakang pendidikan di bidang perkapalan. Pengujian ini dilakukan dalam bentuk kuisioner yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui penilaian para responden terhadap aplikasi ini. Dari hasil kuisioner dapat disimpulkan bahwa aplikasi ini sangat diperlukan dalam mendukung kegiatan survei kondisi kapal.

  1. The role of quantity surveyors in public–private partnerships in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffie Cruywagen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantity surveyors play an important role in providing cost and contractual advice in the built environment. This article seeks to investigate the current extent of their involvement in public–private partnerships (PPPs in South Africa. Aim: The study intends to establish factors that influence quantity surveyors’ participation in PPPs. Methodology: A mixed-methods research approach was followed by firstly conducting a survey amongst South African quantity surveyors in order to determine their level of participation in PPPs. For triangulation purposes, a case study was also conducted. Results: The results of the research show that, although quantity surveyors have the corresponding skills and competencies required in a PPP project, their current involvement in PPPs in South Africa is limited and that there is a greater role they can play in future. Conclusion: Quantity surveyors are uniquely positioned to play a bigger role in the implementation of PPPs in South Africa.

  2. 120 Years of Education for Mine Surveyors in South Africa A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grobler, Hennie

    identified as the new centre of gravity of mining activities, where in 1903, it was ... 1The NQF level is stated as an approximate value as these qualifications have ..... in the survey department, …after obtaining his mine surveyors certificate, ...

  3. Identifying and Describing Tutor Archetypes: The Pragmatist, the Architect, and the Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Jeff A.; Quinn, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors identify and anecdotally describe three tutor archetypes: the pragmatist, the architect, and the surveyor. These descriptions, based on observations of remedial mathematics tutors at a land-grant university, shed light on a variety of philosophical beliefs regarding and pedagogical approaches to tutoring. An analysis…

  4. Fossil gastropods from the MGS3 stratigraphic segment in the Salawusu River Valley and their climatic and environmental implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI BaoSheng; YE JianPing; GUO YunHai; CHEN DeNiu; David Dian ZHANG; WEN XiaoHao; QIU ShiFan; OU XianJiao; DU ShuHuan; NIU DongFeng; YANG Yi

    2008-01-01

    Contemporaneous with MIS3, the MGS3 segment of the Milanggouwan stratigraphic section in the Salawusu River Valley, Mu Us Desert, China contains fossil gastropods (terrestrial and freshwater snails) in strata 33LS, 35LS, 37FL and 39LS. Examination of these fossils revealed 11 species belonging to 8 families and 10 genera. They can be classified as: (1) assemblage of Gyraulus and Galba mainly consisting of Gyraulus convexiusculus, Gyraulus sibiricus, Galba pervia and Galba superegra Gredler,etc. (2) assemblage of Vallonia mainly consisting of terrestrial snails, such as Vallonia patens, Pupilla muscorum and Discus paupe, etc. Based on the dating results, and the living habits, living conditions,and geographic distribution of their extant species, we suggest that: the ages of 33LS, 35LS, 37FL, and 39LS are 26000, 29000, 33000 and 38000 a, respectively, corresponding well to the interstadial period in GRIP 4,5, 6 and 10 in terms of chronology and climatic characters; 33LS, 35LS and 39LS represent very warm-humid periods, while 37FL represents a less warm-humid period; the four periods of climatic fluctuations recorded in MGS3 were related to the strong impact of the summer monsoon in East Asia in Mu Us Desert of China during the interstadial of MIS3 on a global climatic background.

  5. Fossil gastropods from the MGS3 stratigraphic segment in the Salawusu River Valley and their climatic and environmental implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Dian

    2008-01-01

    Contemporaneous with MIS3, the MGS3 segment of the Milanggouwan stratigraphic section in the Salawusu River Valley, Mu Us Desert, China contains fossil gastropods (terrestrial and freshwater snails) in strata 33LS, 35LS, 37FL and 39LS. Examination of these fossils revealed 11 species belonging to 8 families and 10 genera. They can be classified as: (1) assemblage of Gyraulus and Galba mainly consisting of Gyraulus convexiusculus, Gyraulus sibiricus, Galba pervia and Galba superegra Gredler, etc. (2) assemblage of Vallonia mainly consisting of terrestrial snails, such as Vallonia patens, Pupilla muscorum and Discus paupe, etc. Based on the dating results, and the living habits, living conditions, and geographic distribution of their extant species, we suggest that: the ages of 33LS, 35LS, 37FL, and 39LS are 26000, 29000, 33000 and 38000 a, respectively, corresponding well to the interstadial period in GRIP 4, 5, 6 and 10 in terms of chronology and climatic characters; 33LS, 35LS and 39LS represent very warm-humid periods, while 37FL represents a less warm-humid period; the four periods of climatic fluctuations recorded in MGS3 were related to the strong impact of the summer monsoon in East Asia in Mu Us Desert of China during the interstadial of MIS3 on a global climatic background.

  6. An Investigation of the Correlation of Water-Ice and Dust Retrievals Via the MGS TES Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Z.; Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, Deborah; Hale, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    Water-ice in the Martian atmosphere was first identified in the Mariner 9 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) spectra. The Viking Imaging Subsystem (VIS) instruments aboard the Viking orbiter also observed water-ice clouds and hazes in the Martian atmosphere. The MGS TES instrument is an infrared inferometer/spectrometer which covers the spectral range 6-50 micron with a selectable sampling resolution of either 5 or 10 per cm. Using the relatively independent and distinct spectral signatures for dust and water-ice, these two retrieved quantities have been retrieved simultaneously. Although the interrelations among the two quantities have been analyzed by Smith et al. and the retrievals are thought to be robust, understanding the impact of each quantity on the other during their retrievals as well as the impact from the surface for retrievals is important for correctly interpreting the science, and therefore requires close examination. An understanding of the correlation or a-correlation between dust and water-ice would aid in understanding the physical processes responsible for the transport of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere. In this presentation, we present an investigation of the correlation between water-ice and dust in the MGS TES data set.

  7. The Large Ultraviolet/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bradley M.; Fischer, Debra; LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team

    2017-01-01

    LUVOIR is one of four potential large mission concepts for which the NASA Astrophysics Division has commissioned studies by Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs) drawn from the astronomical community. LUVOIR will have an 8 to16-m segmented primary mirror and operate at the Sun-Earth L2 point. It will be designed to support a broad range of astrophysics and exoplanet studies. The notional initial complement of instruments will include 1) a high-performance optical/NIR coronagraph with imaging and spectroscopic capability, 2) a UV imager and spectrograph with high spectral resolution and multi-object capability, 3) a high-definition wide-field optical/NIR camera, and 4) a multi-resolution optical/NIR spectrograph. LUVOIR will be designed for extreme stability to support unprecedented spatial resolution and coronagraphy. It is intended to be a long-lifetime facility that is both serviceable and upgradable. This is the first report by the LUVOIR STDT to the community on the top-level architectures we are studying, including preliminary capabilities of a mission with those parameters. The STDT seeks feedback from the astronomical community for key science investigations that can be undertaken with the notional instrument suite and to identify desirable capabilities that will enable additional key science.

  8. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  9. Solar wind rare gas analysis: Trapped solar wind helium and neon in Surveyor 3 material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, F.; Eberhardt, P.; Geiss, J.; Schwarzmueller, J.

    1972-01-01

    The He-4 and Ne-20 contents in sections of the Surveyor 3 support strut samples were determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy and are compared to the results of the Apollo solar wind composition (SWC) experiments. The He-4/Ne-20 ratio in the samples from the sunlit side of the strut was approximately 300; the ratios determined in Apollo 12 lunar fines and SWC foil were below 100. The He-4/He-3 ratios were also determined, and the ratio obtained from Surveyor 3 material is higher than those found with Apollo 11 and 12 SWC experiments. The effects of spallation by cosmic rays or solar protons, stripping by cosmic ray or energetic solar alpha particles, recycling of solar wind He and radiogenic Ne, He from terrestrial atmosphere, mass discrimination near the moon, mass dependence of trapping probability, diffusion, and contamination by lunar dust are considered.

  10. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz detector array of bolometric polarimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Appel, John W; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakla, John; Kogut, Alan J; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D; Miller, Nathan; Moseleyb, Samuel H; Novakh, Giles; Reintsemad, Carl; Rostemab, Karwan; Stevensonb, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  11. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz Detector Array of Bolometric Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Kogut, Alan J..; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  12. Correlates of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Job satisfaction is the sense of well- being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an incumbent worker when his obtained reward consequent upon his performance is congruent with his equitable reward.The aim of this study is to ascertain the levels of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Biographical and job descriptive index questionnaires (JDI were administered to gather the data. The JDI measures job satisfaction on five facets, namely, pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers and the work itself. A total of 100 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. The survey covered quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos and the respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, t-test and one way anova. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents were satisfied with the relationship with co-workers, nature of work and the supervision they receive. Major sources of dissatisfaction are promotion and salaries of the respondents. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving major sources of dissatisfaction among quantity surveyors in consulting firms. The roles of other contextual factors on job satisfaction need to be contemplated for future research.

  13. Correlates of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is the sense of well- being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an incumbent worker when his obtained reward consequent upon his performance is congruent with his equitable reward.The aim of this study is to ascertain the levels of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Biographical and job descriptive index questionnaires (JDI were administered to gather the data. The JDI measures job satisfaction on five facets, namely, pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers and the work itself. A total of 100 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. The survey covered quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos and the respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, t-test and one way anova. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents were satisfied with the relationship with co-workers, nature of work and the supervision they receive. Major sources of dissatisfaction are promotion and salaries of the respondents. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving major sources of dissatisfaction among quantity surveyors in consulting firms. The roles of other contextual factors on job satisfaction need to be contemplated for future research.

  14. Assessment of Cost Management Functions of Quantity Surveyors with Lean Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroof Opeyemi Anifowose

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Construction industry in Nigeria is made up of a wide variety of activities which include the provision of professional and technical services to clients in the built environment. Despite the provision of these services to a large number of clients worldwide, the construction industry is still awash by the chronic problems of low productivity, insufficient quality, time over-runs, and poor safety, which hinder customer delivered value. The Just-In-Time phenomenon is a characteristic of lean production systems which operate with very little “fat” (e.g. excess inventory extra workers, wasted space.This study aimed at assessing the construction management function of the quantity surveyor in line with the principle of lean methodology (Just-In-Time. This was achieved by exploring the cost management function of the quantity surveyor, to investigate the current practice of cost management by quantity surveying firms. Data for the study were sourced primarily with the use of questionnaire and the subsequent data analysis, which employed the use of descriptive analysis of presenting the data as obtained on tables during the field survey and attempts a rudimentary establishment of patterns using percentages. The study concluded amongst others, that: all activities involved in the cost management function of the quantity surveyor are important, and value adding, corresponding to conversion activities in line with the Just-In-time/lean methodology

  15. Perancangan Aplikasi Komputer Berbasis Android untuk Panduan Pengawasan Pembangunan Kapal Baru oleh Owner Surveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Adrian Lasuardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru yang ada saat ini masih dilakukan secara manual dimana seorang owner surveyor melakukan pengawasan mengacu pada form pengawasan. Kegiatan pengawasan yang ada saat ini kurang efektif untuk dilakukan pada proses pembangunan kapal baru, hal ini dikarenakan tidak semua owner surveyor memiliki pengetahuan dan pengalaman yang sama. Tujuan dari tugas akhir ini adalah melakukan observasi sistem pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru yang ada saat ini, merancang aplikasi komputer berbasis android untuk panduan pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru, dan melakukan uji validitas aplikasi tersebut dalam meningkatkan efektivitas pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru. Perancangan aplikasi dilakukan dengan pembuatan mock up aplikasi, desain interface, perancangan database, dan pengkodingan aplikasi tersebut. Aplikasi ini memiliki fitur daftar proses pengawasan, review hasil pengawasan, progress pembangunan kapal, dan menu untuk menambahkan owner surveyor. Uji coba aplikasi ini dilakukan kepada beberapa responden yang memiliki pengalaman pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru dan pihak-pihak yang memiliki latar belakang pendidikan di bidang perkapalan. Dari hasil pengujian menggunakan kuisoner tersebut diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa aplikasi ini perlu diaplikasikan dalam mendukung proses pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru.

  16. Analysis of Surveyor 3 television cable after residence on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, F. C.; Park, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 12 astronauts brought the Surveyor III television camera back from the moon in November 1969. Chemical analyses of a portion of television cable revealed changes in the glass fabric sleeve and in the wire insulation as a result of exposure to the lunar environment. Loss of volatile constituents from the glass fabric and a discoloration of the glass occurred. The Teflon layer on the wire showed a slight discoloration and possibly a slight change in its infrared spectrum. Both the polyimide layer and the Teflon layer of the wire insulation showed changes in tensile strength and elongation.

  17. Solar wind modulation of the Martian ionosphere observed by Mars Global Surveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-S. Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron density profiles in the Martian ionosphere observed by the radio occultation experiment on board Mars Global Surveyor have been analyzed to determine if the densities are influenced by the solar wind. Evidence is presented that the altitude of the maximum ionospheric electron density shows a positive correlation to the energetic proton flux in the solar wind. The solar wind modulation of the Martian ionosphere can be attributed to heating of the neutral atmosphere by the solar wind energetic proton precipitation. The modulation is observed to be most prominent at high solar zenith angles. It is argued that this is consistent with the proposed modulation mechanism.

  18. The Long, Bumpy Road to a Mars Aeronomy Mission (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Bougher, S. W.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    needed to determine where and how fast the life-capable atmosphere disappeared. Or was it thought that other orbiting missions like MEx or MGS that sampled the ionosphere were inadequate to the task? In a way the delay in executing a Mars aeronomy mission has a positive side; i.e. instruments are better developed than in earlier proposals and we have the benefit of MEx and MGS better defining the science objectives for an aeronomy mission. The bumps and potholes that planners of missions to Mars encountered makes an interesting story

  19. Surveyor Manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyt, Henrik; Hessellund, Regner Bæk

    providing the qualification of ‘building maintenance technician’. Being addressed to people seeking jobs, but also to professionals already working in domains connected to the administration and maintenance of building stock, such as local administration, public and private companies owning buildings, SMEs...

  20. Method of Display Entity Information of VR-forces on MGS Platform%基于MGS平台的VR-Forces实体信息显示方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓光; 赵志军; 蔡郁知

    2015-01-01

    在同一模拟系统中同时使用MGS与VR-Forces平台,存在实体信息格式转换问题.为实现在MGS平台中显示VR-Forces中实体信息,分析了VR-Forces平台中实体信息的组织方式,基于XML技术构建了VR-Forces平台与MGS平台间的实体ID编码映射关系,实现了VR-Forces平台中实体经纬度、首向角、敌我关系等属性信息的获取方法,解决了基于MGS开发的模拟仿真训练程序与基于VR-Forces开发的模拟训练程序共存的问题,为后续具有类似功能需求的模拟系统开发提供了技术支持.%To use MGS and VR-Forces in the same simulation system, there is an entity information transform problem. To display VR-Forces entity information on MGS, the entity in heritance structure of VR-Forces is analyzed, building a Mapping Table of entity ID between VR-Forces and MGS platforms on XML technology. To achieve the methods to get latitude,heading,the enemy relationship from VR-Forces, the coexistence problem of MGS and VR-Forces are solved. The technical support for the development of simulation system with the similar function is provided.

  1. Surveyor nuclease detection of mutations and polymorphisms of mtDNA in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, Jacek; Asman, Marek; Jamroz, Ewa; Kajor, Maciej; Kotrys-Puchalska, Elżbieta; Goss, Małgorzata; Krzak, Maria; Witecka, Joanna; Gmiński, Jan; Sieroń, Aleksander L

    2010-11-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies are complex disorders with wide range of clinical manifestations. Particularly time-consuming is the identification of mutations in mitochondrial DNA. A group of 20 children with clinical manifestations of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies was selected for molecular studies. The aims were (a) to identify mutations in mtDNA isolated from muscle and (b) to verify detected mutations in DNA isolated from blood, in order to assess the utility of a Surveyor nuclease assay kit for patient screening. The most common changes found were polymorphisms, including a few missense mutations altering the amino acid sequence of mitochondrial proteins. In two boys with MELAS (i.e., mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes), a mutation A→G3243 was detected in the tRNALeu gene of mtDNA isolated from muscle and blood. In one boy, the carrier status of his mother was confirmed, based on molecular analysis of DNA isolated from blood. A method using Surveyor nuclease allows systematic screening for small mutations in mtDNA, using as its source blood of the patients and asymptomatic carriers. The method still requires confirmation studying a larger group. In some patients, the use of this method should precede and might limit indications for traumatic muscle and skin biopsy.

  2. SLS launched missions concept studies for LUVOIR mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2015-09-01

    NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. The multi-center ATLAST Team is working to meet these needs. The MSFC Team is examining potential concepts that leverage the advantages of the SLS (Space Launch System). A key challenge is how to affordably get a large telescope into space. The JWST design was severely constrained by the mass and volume capacities of its launch vehicle. This problem is solved by using an SLS Block II-B rocket with its 10-m diameter x 30-m tall fairing and estimated 45 mt payload to SE-L2. Previously, two development study cycles produced a detailed concept called ATLAST-8. Using ATLAST-8 as a point of departure, this paper reports on a new ATLAST-12 concept. ATLAST-12 is a 12-m class segmented aperture LUVOIR with an 8-m class center segment. Thus, ATLAST-8 is now a de-scope option.

  3. DIOS: the dark baryon exploring mission

    CERN Document Server

    Ohashi, T; Ezoe, Y; Yamada, S; Yamaguchi, S; Miyazaki, N; Tawara, Y; Mitsuda, K; Yamasaki, N Y; Takei, Y; Sakai, K; Nagayoshi, K; Yamamoto, R; Chiba, A; Hayashi, T

    2015-01-01

    DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor) is a small satellite aiming for a launch around 2020 with JAXA's Epsilon rocket. Its main aim is a search for warm-hot intergalactic medium with high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of redshifted emission lines from OVII and OVIII ions. The superior energy resolution of TES microcalorimeters combined with a very wide field of view (30--50 arcmin diameter) will enable us to look into gas dynamics of cosmic plasmas in a wide range of spatial scales from Earth's magnetosphere to unvirialized regions of clusters of galaxies. Mechanical and thermal design of the spacecraft and development of the TES calorimeter system are described. We also consider revising the payload design to optimize the scientific capability allowed by the boundary conditions of the small mission.

  4. Knowledge and Attitudes of Nursing Home Staff and Surveyors about the Revised Federal Guidance for Incontinence Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBeau, Catherine E.; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Palmer, Mary H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed nursing home staff and state nursing home surveyors regarding their knowledge and attitudes about urinary incontinence, its management, and the revised federal Tag F315 guidance for urinary incontinence. Design and Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey of a convenience sample of nursing home staff and state nursing home…

  5. Comparison of T7E1 and surveyor mismatch cleavage assays to detect mutations triggered by engineered nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillot, Léna; Thélie, Aurore; Pollet, Nicolas

    2015-01-07

    Genome editing using engineered nucleases is used for targeted mutagenesis. But because genome editing does not target all loci with similar efficiencies, the mutation hit-rate at a given locus needs to be evaluated. The analysis of mutants obtained using engineered nucleases requires specific methods for mutation detection, and the enzyme mismatch cleavage method is used commonly for this purpose. This method uses enzymes that cleave heteroduplex DNA at mismatches and extrahelical loops formed by single or multiple nucleotides. Bacteriophage resolvases and single-stranded nucleases are used commonly in the assay but have not been compared side-by-side on mutations obtained by engineered nucleases. We present the first comparison of the sensitivity of T7E1 and Surveyor EMC assays on deletions and point mutations obtained by zinc finger nuclease targeting in frog embryos. We report the mutation detection limits and efficiencies of T7E1 and Surveyor. In addition, we find that T7E1 outperforms the Surveyor nuclease in terms of sensitivity with deletion substrates, whereas Surveyor is better for detecting single nucleotide changes. We conclude that T7E1 is the preferred enzyme to scan mutations triggered by engineered nucleases.

  6. Potential large missions enabled by NASA's space launch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David A.; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-07-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  7. PENERAPAN MEDIA MONOPOLY GAMES SMART (MGS UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA PADA MATERI EKOSISTEM DI KELAS VII MTS AL-WAHDAH SUMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dalam proses pembelajaran siswa dituntut untuk aktif melaluiaktivitas-aktivitas yang membangun kerja kelompok dan dalam waktu singkatmembuat mereka berfikir tentang materi pelajaran. Keterlibatan siswa secara aktif dalam pembelajaran biologi sangat diperlukan, sehingga apa yang dipelajari akan lebih tertanam dalam pikiran siswa. PenerapanMonopoly Games Smartpada pembelajaranBiologi merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk meningkatkan motivasi dan kreatifitas siswa serta dapat mengurangi kejenuhan belajar siswa, sehingga mendapatkanhasilbelajar siswa yang memuaskan. Adapun yang menjadi tujuan penelitian ini adalah:(1 Untuk mengkaji penerapan media MGS (Monopoly Games Smart pada materi Ekosistem di MTs Al-Wahdah Sumber. (2 Untuk mengkaji hasil belajar siswa pada pembelajaran biologi materi Ekosistem dengan menggunakan media MGS (Monopoly Games Smart di MTs Al-Wahdah Sumber. (3 Untuk mengkaji respon siswa terhadap penggunaan media MGS (Monopoly Games Smart dalam pembelajaran biologi khususnya pada materi Ekosistem di Mts Al-Wahdah Sumber. Penelitian ini dilakukan di MTs Al-Wahdah dengan teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah instrumen tes (pre-test dan post-test untuk mengukur hasil belajar siswa, observasi untuk mengetahui aktivitas siswa dan angketuntuk mengetahui respon siswa terhadap media pembelajaran. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa (1 berdasarkan hasil analisis observasi, aktivitas siswa meningkat setelah diterapkan media Monopoly Games Smart. (2 Hasil belajar siswa kelas eksperimen menggunakan media pembelajaran Monopoly Games Smart nilai rata-rata pretest sebesar 39, posttest 78 dan n-gain 0,62.. Terbukti dari hasil perhitungan uji T menggunakan SPSS 16 diperoleh nilai Sig. 0,000 < (0,05 yang berarti terdapat peningkatan hasil belajar biologi siswa. (3 berdasarkan hasil analisis angket mengenai respon siswa terhadap penerapan media hampir dari siswa (82% dengan kriteria sangat kuat, menyukai penerapan strategi pembelajaran Monopoly

  8. Thanks to CERN's team of surveyors, the Organization's stand at the Night of Science attracted a large number of visitors : the technology and tools used by the surveyors, such as the Terrameter shown here, attracted many visitors to the CERN stand

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Thanks to CERN's team of surveyors, the Organization's stand at the Night of Science attracted a large number of visitors : the technology and tools used by the surveyors, such as the Terrameter shown here, attracted many visitors to the CERN stand

  9. Long-Term Cryogenic Propellant Storage for the TOPS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Shuvo; Francis, John; Li, Xiaoyi; Purves, Lloyd; DeLee, Hudson; Riall, Sara; McGuinness, Dan; Willis, Dewey; Nixon, Conor; Devine Matt; hide

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) can dramatically enhance NASAs ability to explore the solar system because of their superior specific impulse (Isp) capability. Although these cryogenic propellants can be challenging to manage and store, they allow significant mass advantages over traditional hypergolic propulsion systems and are therefore technically enabling for many planetary science missions. New cryogenic storage techniques such as subcooling and the use of advanced insulation and low thermal conductivity support structures will allow for the long term storage and use of cryogenic propellants for solar system exploration and hence allow NASA to deliver more payloads to targets of interest, launch on smaller and less expensive launch vehicles, or both. Employing cryogenic propellants will allow NASA to perform missions to planetary destinations that would not be possible with the use of traditional hypergolic propellants. These new cryogenic storage technologies were implemented in a design study for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission, with LH2 and LOX as propellants, and the resulting spacecraft design was able to achieve a 43 launch mass reduction over a TOPS mission, that utilized a conventional hypergolic propulsion system with mono-methyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants. This paper describes the cryogenic propellant storage design for the TOPS mission and demonstrates how these cryogenic propellants are stored passively for a decade-long Titan mission.

  10. Holocene millennium-scale climatic variations as recorded by Rb and Sr concentrations for the MGS1 stratigraphical segment of Milanggouwan section in the Salawusu River Valley of Southeast Mu Us Desert%萨拉乌苏河流域MGS1 Rb和Sr记录的全新世千年尺度气候变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛东风; 李保生; 魏建国; 温小浩; 舒培仙; 司月君

    2016-01-01

    萨拉乌苏河流域米浪沟湾剖面全新世地层MGS1层段记录了11个由风成砂与河流相或湖沼相构成的沉积旋回。对该层段63个样品的Rb、Sr数据进行了分析,结果显示由沙丘砂至上覆河湖相Rb和Sr含量由低增高,而Rb/Sr比值的分布则显示出与Rb和Sr含量变化相反的趋势,三者与平均粒径Mz(f)的相关系数都在0.43以上。研究表明MGS1至少经历了11次冷干和11次暖湿的气候波动。米浪沟湾剖面MGS1记录的千年尺度气候波动既是对东亚季风环流演变历史的体现,同时也是对全球气候与环境变化的响应。%The MGS1 stratigraphical segment of Milanggouwan section is located in the Salawusu River Valley of southeast Mu Us Desert. The segment documents 11 sedimentary cycles consisting of aeolian facies and fluvial facies or lacustrine-swamp facies. Totally 63 samples were analyzed for rubidium (Rb) and strontium (Sr) concentrations. The results show that Rb and Sr concentrations increase as the sediments vary from aeolian facies to lacustrine-swamp facies, however, variation of the Rb/Sr ratios shows reversed trends in contrast to that of Rb and Sr concentrations. The line correlation coefficients of Rb and Sr concentrations and Rb/Sr ratios with mean grain size are all above 0.43. All these indicate that the MGS1 stratigraphic segment at least records 11 cold-dry and 11 warm-humid millennium-scale climatic oscillations, which represent the evolution history of East Asian monsoon circulation and show good correspondence to global climatic and environment variations.

  11. The Role of County Surveyors and County Drainage Boards in Addressing Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Mike; Mullendore, Nathan; de Jalon, Silvestre Garcia; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2016-06-01

    Water quality problems stemming from the Midwestern U.S. agricultural landscape have been widely recognized and documented. The Midwestern state of Indiana contains tens of thousands of miles of regulated drains that represent biotic communities that comprise the headwaters of the state's many rivers and creeks. Traditional management, however, reduces these waterways to their most basic function as conveyances, ignoring their role in the ecosystem as hosts for biotic and abiotic processes that actively regulate the fate and transport of nutrients and farm chemicals. Novel techniques and practices such as the two-stage ditch, denitrifying bioreactor, and constructed wetlands represent promising alternatives to traditional management approaches, yet many of these tools remain underutilized. To date, conservation efforts and research have focused on increasing the voluntary adoption of practices among agricultural producers. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the roles of the drainage professionals responsible for the management of waterways and regulated drains. To address this gap, we draw on survey responses from 39 county surveyors and 85 drainage board members operating in Indiana. By examining the backgrounds, attitudes, and actions of these individuals, we consider their role in advocating and implementing novel conservation practices.

  12. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 40 GHz Optical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph R.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Marriage, Tobias; Wollack, Edward J.; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) instrument will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 40, 90, and 150 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope system. The telescope is a diffraction limited catadioptric design consisting of a front-end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), two ambient temperature mirrors, two cryogenic dielectric lenses, thermal blocking filters, and an array of 36 smooth-wall scalar feedhorn antennas. The feed horns guide the signal to antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. Polarization diplexing and bandpass definition are handled on the same microchip as the TES. The feed horn beams are truncated with 10 dB edge taper by a 4 K Lyot-stop to limit detector loading from stray light and control the edge illumination of the front-end VPM. The field-of-view is 19 deg x 14 deg with a resolution for each beam on the sky of 1.5 deg. FWHM.

  13. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 40 GHz optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Eimer, Joseph R; Chuss, David T; Marriage, Tobias A; Wollack, Edward J; Zeng, Lingzhen; 10.1117/12.925464

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) instrument will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 40, 90, and 150 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope system. The telescope is a diffraction limited catadioptric design consisting of a front-end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), two ambient temperature mirrors, two cryogenic dielectric lenses, thermal blocking filters, and an array of 36 smooth-wall scalar feedhorn antennas. The feed horns guide the signal to antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. Polarization diplexing and bandpass definition are handled on the same microchip as the TES. The feed horn beams are truncated with 10 dB edge taper by a 4 K Lyot-stop to limit detector loading from stray light and control the edge illumination of the front-end VPM. The field-of-view is 19deg x 14deg with a resolution for each beam on the sky of 1.5deg FWHM.

  14. The cosmology large angular scale surveyor (CLASS): 40 GHz optical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph R.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Marriage, Tobias; Wollack, Edward J.; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2012-09-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) instrument will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 40, 90, and 150 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope system. The telescope is a diffraction limited catadioptric design consisting of a front-end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), two ambient temperature mirrors, two cryogenic dielectric lenses, thermal blocking filters, and an array of 36 smooth-wall scalar feedhorn antennas. The feed horns guide the signal to antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. Polarization diplexing and bandpass definition are handled on the same microchip as the TES. The feed horn beams are truncated with 10 dB edge taper by a 4 K Lyot-stop to limit detector loading from stray light and control the edge illumination of the front-end VPM. The field-of-view is 19° x 14° with a resolution for each beam on the sky of 1.5° FWHM.

  15. Mars Mission Optimization Based on Collocation of Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamitoff, G. E.; James, G. H.; Barker, D. C.; Dershowitz, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a powerful approach for analyzing Martian data and for optimizing mission site selection based on resource collocation. This approach is implemented in a program called PROMT (Planetary Resource Optimization and Mapping Tool), which provides a wide range of analysis and display functions that can be applied to raw data or imagery. Thresholds, contours, custom algorithms, and graphical editing are some of the various methods that can be used to process data. Output maps can be created to identify surface regions on Mars that meet any specific criteria. The use of this tool for analyzing data, generating maps, and collocating features is demonstrated using data from the Mars Global Surveyor and the Odyssey spacecraft. The overall mission design objective is to maximize a combination of scientific return and self-sufficiency based on utilization of local materials. Landing site optimization involves maximizing accessibility to collocated science and resource features within a given mission radius. Mission types are categorized according to duration, energy resources, and in-situ resource utilization. Optimization results are shown for a number of mission scenarios.

  16. Compact, Passively Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser for the MESSENGER Mission to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Li, Steven X.; Lindauer, Steven J.; Afzal, Robert S.; Yu, Antony

    2004-01-01

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been developed for the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument which is an instrument on the MESSENGER mission to the planet Mercury. The laser achieves 5.4 percent efficiency with a near diffraction limited beam. It has passed all space flight environmental tests at system, instrument, and satellite integration. The laser design draws on a heritage of previous laser altimetry missions, specifically ISESAT and Mars Global Surveyor; but incorporates thermal management features unique to the requirements of an orbit of the planet Mercury.

  17. Mirko Danijel Bogdanić (1760-1802, Astronomer, Mathematician, Surveyor and Croatian Educator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Kren

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides valuable information about the life and work of Mirko Danijel Bogdanić (Bogdanić Imre Dániel (Virovitica, 1762 – Buda, 1802 who was an astronomer, mathematician, surveyor and the author of a book on world history in Croatian. This article observes his life and work from the historical perspective of the time of Emperor Joseph II in Austria. From 1782 to 1785, Bogdanić studied mathematics, physics and astronomy in Buda and Pešt. He often worked with famous Croatian scientists such as Ivan Paskvić (János Pasquich, Franjo Bruna (Ferenc Bruna, Josip Mitterpacher (József Mitterpacher and others. Particular attention is paid to the period between approximately 1791 and 1796, which he spent in Vienna. At first, he focused on publishing the first volume of his history of the world in Croatian (Dogodjaji svieta (World events, 1792 in which he paid particular attention to astronomy and Croatian astronomical terminology. From 1793 to 1795, he studied astronomy at the University of Vienna. The following period was the most important in his life. He was second, then first assistant at the Buda Observatory (1796–1802 and also (1798–1802 appointed Imperial Assistant Astronomer to the cartographer János Lipszky, charged with conducting precise astronomical observations to determine the geographical coordinates for the geographical map of Hungary (Mappa Generalis Regni Hungariae. His observations, especially of latitudes, were considered excellent. He spent many long, hard hours working in the field under adverse weather conditions, leading to extreme exhaustion, which resulted in serious illness and his premature death.

  18. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): In search of the energy scale of inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph R.

    The hypothesis that the early universe underwent a period of accelerating expansion, called inflation, has become an essential mechanism for explaining the flatness and homogeneity of the universe and explaining the fluctuations found in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Inflation predicts the existence of primordial gravitational waves that would have produced a unique polarization pattern on the CMB. Measurement of the amplitude of these gravitational waves can be used to infer the energy scale of the potential driving the expansion. Detection of this signal would be a dramatic confirmation of the inflation paradigm and significantly tighten constraints on inflationary models. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a new ground-based instrument designed to search for the inflationary B-mode signal from the Atacama Desert in northern Chile (elevation ~ 5200 m). The CLASS instrument will observe over 60% of the sky to target the large scale polarization signal (> 10 deg), and consist of four separate telescopes: one observing at 40 GHz, two observing at 90 GHz and one observing at 150 GHz. The detectors for each band will be background limited antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers. A variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) will be placed as the first optical element in each of the telescopes. The front-end polarization modulator will mitigate many systematic effects and provide a powerful means of distinguishing the instrument response from the input signal. This dissertation contains an overview of the CLASS instrument. Specific emphasis is placed on the connection between the science goals and the instrument architecture. A description of the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope is given, and the application of the VPM technology to the CLASS instrument is described. We end with an overview of the detectors.

  19. Mars Mission Surface Operation Simulation Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Bugga, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to 1) Assess viability of using lithium-ion technology for future NASA applications, with emphasis upon Mars landers and rovers which will operate on the planetary surface; 2) Support the JPL 2003 Mars Exploration Rover program to assist in the delivery and testing of a 8 AHr Lithium-Ion battery (Lithion/Yardney) which will power the rover; 3) Demonstrate applicability of using lithium-ion technologyfor future Mars applications: Mars 09 Science Laboratory (Smart Lander) and Future Mars Surface Operations (General). Mission simulation testing was carried out for cells and batteries on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander and the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover.

  20. Exoplanet Exploration Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG) Report to Paul Hertz Regarding Large Mission Concepts to Study for the 2020 Decadal Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudi, B Scott; Apai, Daniel; Bendek, Eduardo; Boss, Alan; Breckinridge, James B; Ciardi, David R; Cowan, Nicolas B; Danchi, William C; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Fortney, Jonathan J; Greene, Thomas P; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Kasting, James F; Leisawitz, David T; Leger, Alain; Lille, Charles F; Lisman, Douglas P; Lo, Amy S; Malbet, Fabian; Mandell, Avi M; Meadows, Victoria S; Mennesson, Bertrand; Nemati, Bijan; Plavchan, Peter P; Rinehart, Stephen A; Roberge, Aki; Serabyn, Eugene; Shaklan, Stuart B; Shao, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Stark, Christopher C; Swain, Mark; Taylor, Stuart F; Turnbull, Margaret C; Turner, Neal J; Turyshev, Slava G; Unwin, Stephen C; Walkowicz, Lucianne M; ExoPAG, on behalf of the

    2016-01-01

    This is a joint summary of the reports from the three Astrophysics Program Analysis Groups (PAGs) in response to the "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" charge given by the Astrophysics Division Director Paul Hertz. This joint executive summary contains points of consensus across all three PAGs. Additional findings specific to the individual PAGs are reported separately in the individual reports. The PAGs concur that all four large mission concepts identified in the white paper as candidates for maturation prior to the 2020 Decadal Survey should be studied in detail. These include the Far-IR Surveyor, the Habitable-Exoplanet Imaging Mission, the UV/Optical/IR Surveyor, and the X-ray Surveyor. This finding is predicated upon assumptions outlined in the white paper and subsequent charge, namely that 1) major development of future large flagship missions under consideration are to follow the implementation phases of JWST and WFIRST; 2) NASA will partner with the European Space Agency on its L3 Gravitational W...

  1. Missions and Moral Judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Amy Turner

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  2. Improvement of job satisfaction and organisational commitment through work group identification: an examination of the quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yee Betty Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Though extant literatures in other sectors indicatethat job satisfaction and organizational commitment are important fordetermining individual and organisational outcomes, limited related researchhas been conducted amongst quantity surveyors in Hong Kong. Given cooperativeworking arrangement in the quantity surveying profession, work groupidentification is regarded as an important antecedent for determining jobsatisfaction and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to examinewhether work group identification improves job satisfaction and organisationalcommitment. A questionnaire survey is conducted to collect data from quantitysurveyors working in private sector. A total of 71 valid responses are obtainedfrom 509 contacted quantity surveyors in Hong Kong. Bivariate correlation andmultiple regression analyses are performed to find the significance ofrelationships among the variables. Data analysis results support mosthypotheses. Work group identification is found to have significant positiveeffect on job satisfaction, affective and normative commitment. The finding isa bold step for quantity surveying companies to improve their quantity surveyors’job satisfaction and commitment level. The role of other contextual and organisationalfactors on job satisfaction and organisational commitment needs to becomplemented for future research.

  3. A simple, high sensitivity mutation screening using Ampligase mediated T7 endonuclease I and Surveyor nuclease with microfluidic capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mo Chao; Cheong, Wai Chye; Lim, Li Shi; Li, Mo-Huang

    2012-03-01

    Mutation and polymorphism detection is of increasing importance for a variety of medical applications, including identification of cancer biomarkers and genotyping for inherited genetic disorders. Among various mutation-screening technologies, enzyme mismatch cleavage (EMC) represents a great potential as an ideal scanning method for its simplicity and high efficiency, where the heteroduplex DNAs are recognized and cleaved into DNA fragments by mismatch-recognizing nucleases. Thereby, the enzymatic cleavage activities of the resolving nucleases play a critical role for the EMC sensitivity. In this study, we utilized the unique features of microfluidic capillary electrophoresis and de novo gene synthesis to explore the enzymatic properties of T7 endonuclease I and Surveyor nuclease for EMC. Homoduplex and HE DNAs with specific mismatches at desired positions were synthesized using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) gene synthesis. The effects of nonspecific cleavage, preference of mismatches, exonuclease activity, incubation time, and DNA loading capability were systematically examined. In addition, the utilization of a thermostable DNA ligase for real-time ligase mediation was investigated. Analysis of the experimental results has led to new insights into the enzymatic cleavage activities of T7 endonuclease I and Surveyor nuclease, and aided in optimizing EMC conditions, which enhance the sensitivity and efficiency in screening of unknown DNA variations.

  4. NASA Astrophysics Prioritizes Technology Development Funding for Strategic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Pham, Bruce; Ganel, Opher

    2017-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins (COR) and Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Program Offices (POs) reside at NASA GSFC and implement priorities for the NASA HQ Astrophysics Division (APD). One major aspect of the POs’ activities is managing our Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to mature technologies for future strategic missions. The Programs follow APD guidance on which missions are strategic, currently informed by the NRC’s 2010 Decadal Survey report, as well as APD’s Implementation Plan and the Astrophysics Roadmap.In preparation for the upcoming 2020 Decadal Survey, the APD has established Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs) to study four large-mission concepts: the Origins Space Telescope, Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission, Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor, and X-ray Surveyor. The STDTs will develop the science case and design reference mission, assess technology development needs, and estimate the cost of their concept. A fifth team, the L3 Study Team (L3ST), was charged to study potential US contributions to ESA’s planned L3 gravitational-wave observatory.The POs use a rigorous and transparent process to solicit technology gaps from the scientific and technical communities, and prioritize those entries based on strategic alignment, expected impact, cross-cutting applicability, and urgency. Starting in 2016, the technology-gap assessments of the four STDTs and the L3ST are included in our process. Until a study team submits its final report, community-proposed changes to gaps submitted or adopted by a study team are forwarded to that study team for consideration.We discuss our technology development process, with strategic prioritization informing calls for SAT proposals and informing investment decisions. We also present results of this year’s technology gap prioritization and showcase our current portfolio of technology development projects. To date, 77 COR and 80 PCOS SAT proposals have been received, of which 18 COR and 22 PCOS projects

  5. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  6. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  7. ESA's billion star surveyor - Flight operations experience from Gaia's first 1.5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, D.; Rudolph, A.; Whitehead, G.; Loureiro, T.; Serpell, E.; di Marco, F.; Marie, J.; Ecale, E.

    2016-10-01

    This paper details the initial in-flight mission operations experience from ESA's ultra-precise Gaia spacecraft. Tasked with mapping the positions and movements of 1 billion stars to unprecedented precision (to the 10 s of micro-arc-second level, comparable to the width of a coin on the Moon as viewed from Earth). ESA's Science cornerstone mission is expected to also discover and chart 100,000's of new objects including near Earth Asteroids, exoplanets, brown dwarfs and Quasars. After a flawless launch 19 Dec 2013, Gaia was brought the circa 1.5 million kms into L2 via a sequence of technically demanding orbit transfer manoeuvres using onboard thrusters in thrust vectoring mode. Starting in parallel to this, and lasting 6 months, the full spacecraft was commissioned and brought gradually up to the highest operational mode. A number of problems were detected and tackled during commissioning and early routine phase operations. An apparent dimming of the on-board laser and imaged stars, was tracked down to water ice building up inside the telescope enclosure. Also apparent was more straylight than expected. Elsewhere, a micro-propulsion thruster developed unexpected performance levels and a back-up chemical thruster suffered a failed latch valve. These issues, like several others, were dealt with and solved in a series of review meetings, in-orbit special operations and newly developed procedures and on-board software changes. After commissioning Gaia was working so well that it was producing approximately 45% more science data than originally foreseen, primarily since it was able to see stars fainter than required. The mission operations concept was quickly adapted to partially automate ground operations and increase ground station time to allow the full scientific potential of Gaia to be realised.

  8. DHPLC/SURVEYOR nuclease: a sensitive, rapid and affordable method to analyze BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilato, Brunella; De Summa, Simona; Danza, Katia; Papadimitriou, Stavros; Zaccagna, Paolo; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2012-09-01

    Hereditary breast cancer accounts for about 10% of all breast cancers and BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been identified as validated susceptibility genes for this pathology. Testing for BRCA gene mutations is usually based on a pre-screening approach, such as the partial denaturation DHPLC method, and capillary direct sequencing. However, this approach is time consuming due to the large size of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Recently, a new low cost and time saving DHPLC protocol has been developed to analyze gene mutations by using SURVEYOR(®) Nuclease digestion and DHPLC analysis. A subset of 90 patients, enrolled in the Genetic Counseling Program of the National Cancer Centre of Bari (Italy), was performed to validate this approach. Previous retrospective analysis showed that 9/90 patients (10%) were mutated in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and these data were confirmed by the present approach. DNA samples underwent touchdown PCR and, subsequently, SURVEYOR(®) nuclease digestion. BRCA1 and BRCA2 amplicons were divided into groups depending on amplicon size to allow multiamplicon digestion. The product of this reaction were analyzed on Transgenomic WAVE Nucleic Acid High Sensitivity Fragment Analysis System. The operator who performed the DHPLC surveyor approach did not know the sequencing results at that time. The SURVEYOR(®) Nuclease DHPLC approach was able to detect all alterations with a sensitivity of 95%. Furthermore, in order to save time and reagents, a multiamplicon setting preparation was validated.

  9. The third mission

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO

    2016-01-01

    The editorial of this first issue of volume 17, corresponding to 2016, is devoted to the university-business-society relationships that is usually known as Third Mission of the University or the knowledge transfer mission.

  10. Mission of Librarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşit Sarıgül

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the book titled “Mission of Librarian” authored by Jose Ortega y Gasset and translated into Turkish by M. Turker Acaroğlu. The book, which is published by  İstanbul Branch of Turkish Librarians’ Association, explains mission, professional mission and mission of librarian in the future. The book also includes an interview with M. Turker Acaroğlu.

  11. Failure Engineering Study and Accelerated Stress Test Results for the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft's Power Shunt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbel, Mark; Larson, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    An Engineering-of-Failure approach to designing and executing an accelerated product qualification test was performed to support a risk assessment of a "work-around" necessitated by an on-orbit failure of another piece of hardware on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The proposed work-around involved exceeding the previous qualification experience both in terms of extreme cold exposure level and in terms of demonstrated low cycle fatigue life for the power shunt assemblies. An analysis was performed to identify potential failure sites, modes and associated failure mechanisms consistent with the new use conditions. A test was then designed and executed which accelerated the failure mechanisms identified by analysis. Verification of the resulting failure mechanism concluded the effort.

  12. Evaluation of Cast Re-Orientation on a Dental Surveyor Using Three Tripod Techniques: A Survey and In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Mohammed E; Busaily, Idris A; Nahari, Rana J; Hakami, Ruaa O; Maashi, Sami M; Ramireddy, Naveen R

    2017-01-18

    To survey different educational levels (i.e., students, interns, technicians, and prosthodontic faculty) with regard to their opinions, attitudes, and adoption of three selected tripod techniques. The study will also investigate the accuracy of these techniques to reposition casts on the dental surveyor in anterio-posterior (AP) and lateral directions at both technique and educational levels. Tripod points, scored lines, and cemented post tripod techniques were used in this study. Three Kennedy class II modification I stone casts, duplicated from a standard cast, were assigned to each of the tripod techniques. The tilt angles of all casts were set on the dental surveyor to 10° (control angle) in AP and lateral directions using a digital angle gauge with an accuracy of 0.2°. The casts were tripoded accordingly. A total of 243 participants were involved in this study. Participants were first asked to remount the three casts on three different dental surveyors using the tripod technique noted on each cast. Questionnaires were then given to each participant in an individual interview setting; this assured a 100% response rate. The angle differences were calculated. All data were coded and entered into an Excel Spreadsheet file. Statistical analyses were performed using a paired Chi-square, Wilcoxon Matched-pairs, ANOVA, and Tukey post hoc tests at 5% level of significance. No significant difference was found between the educational levels relative to the responses to technique demands, sensitivity, and time required for reorientation (p = 0.08202, 0.8108, 0.6874, respectively); however, the majority of respondents reported low technique demands, low sensitivity, and time saving for technique C in comparison to techniques A and B. Significant differences were noted among the educational levels in response to preference and adoption questions (p = 0.0035 and 0.0015, respectively). The highest percentage of faculty chose technique A for inclusion into the academic

  13. Threads of Mission Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  14. Mission operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  15. MetNet Precursor - Network Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Arri-Matti

    2010-05-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The first MetNet vehicle, MetNet Precursor, slated for launch in 2011. The MetNet development work started already in 2001. The actual practical Precursor Mission development work started in January 2009 with participation from various space research institutes and agencies. The scientific rationale and goals as well as key mission solutions will be discussed. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Time-resolved in situ Martian meteorological measurements acquired by the Viking, Mars Pathfinder and Phoenix landers and remote sensing observations by the Mariner 9, Viking, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey and the Mars Express orbiters have provided the basis for our current understanding of the behavior of weather and climate on Mars. However, the available amount of data is still scarce and a wealth of additional in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes to address microscale and mesoscale atmospheric phenomena. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns and climatological cycles requires simultaneous in situ atmospheric observations. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe

  16. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  17. JPL Mission Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years ongoing bibliographies of various JPL missions (AIRS, ASTER, Cassini, GRACE, Earth Science, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity)) have been compiled by the JPL Library. Mission specific bibliographies are compiled by the Library and sent to mission scientists and managers in the form of regular (usually quarterly) updates. Charts showing publications by years are periodically provided to the ASTER, Cassini, and GRACE missions for supporting Senior Review/ongoing funding requests, and upon other occasions as a measure of the impact of the missions. Basically the Web of Science, Compendex, sometimes Inspec, GeoRef and Aerospace databases are searched for the mission name in the title, abstract, and assigned keywords. All get coded for journal publications that are refereed publications.

  18. The STEREO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The STEREO mission uses twin heliospheric orbiters to track solar disturbances from their initiation to 1 AU. This book documents the mission, its objectives, the spacecraft that execute it and the instruments that provide the measurements, both remote sensing and in situ. This mission promises to unlock many of the mysteries of how the Sun produces what has become to be known as space weather.

  19. Simultaneous mutation detection of three homoeologous genes in wheat by High Resolution Melting analysis and Mutation Surveyor®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Kate

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes is a powerful tool for reverse genetics, combining traditional chemical mutagenesis with high-throughput PCR-based mutation detection to discover induced mutations that alter protein function. The most popular mutation detection method for TILLING is a mismatch cleavage assay using the endonuclease CelI. For this method, locus-specific PCR is essential. Most wheat genes are present as three similar sequences with high homology in exons and low homology in introns. Locus-specific primers can usually be designed in introns. However, it is sometimes difficult to design locus-specific PCR primers in a conserved region with high homology among the three homoeologous genes, or in a gene lacking introns, or if information on introns is not available. Here we describe a mutation detection method which combines High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis of mixed PCR amplicons containing three homoeologous gene fragments and sequence analysis using Mutation Surveyor® software, aimed at simultaneous detection of mutations in three homoeologous genes. Results We demonstrate that High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis can be used in mutation scans in mixed PCR amplicons containing three homoeologous gene fragments. Combining HRM scanning with sequence analysis using Mutation Surveyor® is sensitive enough to detect a single nucleotide mutation in the heterozygous state in a mixed PCR amplicon containing three homoeoloci. The method was tested and validated in an EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate-treated wheat TILLING population, screening mutations in the carboxyl terminal domain of the Starch Synthase II (SSII gene. Selected identified mutations of interest can be further analysed by cloning to confirm the mutation and determine the genomic origin of the mutation. Conclusion Polyploidy is common in plants. Conserved regions of a gene often represent functional domains and have high sequence

  20. Introduction to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments, Mission Overviews, and Expected Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. H.; Tamppari, L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Boynton, W.; Carswell, A.; Catling, D.; Clark, B.; Duck, T.; DeJong, E.; Fisher, D.; Goetz, W.; Gunnlaugsson, P.; Hecht, M.; Hipkin, V.; Hoffman, J.; Hviid, S.; Keller, H.; Kounaves, S.; Lange, C. F.; Lemmon, M.; Madsen, M.; Malin, M.; Markiewicz, W.; Marshall, J.; McKay, C.; Mellon, M.; Michelangeli, D.; Ming, D.; Morris, R.; Renno, N.; Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Stoker, C.; Taylor, P.; Whiteway, J.; Young, S.; Zent, A.

    2008-10-01

    Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission, capitalizes on the large NASA investments in the Mars Polar Lander and the Mars Surveyor 2001 missions. On 4 August 2007, Phoenix was launched to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a Delta 2 launch vehicle. The heritage derived from the canceled 2001 lander with a science payload inherited from MPL and 2001 instruments gives significant advantages. To manage, build, and test the spacecraft and its instruments, a partnership has been forged between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of Arizona (home institution of principal investigator P. H. Smith), and Lockheed Martin in Denver; instrument and scientific contributions from Canada and Europe have augmented the mission. The science mission focuses on providing the ground truth for the 2002 Odyssey discovery of massive ice deposits hidden under surface soils in the circumpolar regions. The science objectives, the instrument suite, and the measurements needed to meet the objectives are briefly described here with reference made to more complete instrument papers included in this special section. The choice of a landing site in the vicinity of 68°N and 233°E balances scientific value and landing safety. Phoenix will land on 25 May 2008 during a complex entry, descent, and landing sequence using pulsed thrusters as the final braking strategy. After a safe landing, twin fan-like solar panels are unfurled and provide the energy needed for the mission. Throughout the 90-sol primary mission, activities are planned on a tactical basis by the science team; their requests are passed to an uplink team of sequencing engineers for translation to spacecraft commands. Commands are transmitted each Martian morning through the Deep Space Network by way of a Mars orbiter to the spacecraft. Data are returned at the end of the Martian day by the same path. Satisfying the mission's goals requires digging and providing samples of interesting layers to three on-deck instruments. By

  1. Marine bird specimen, marine bird sighting, and other data from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 24 July 1979 to 19 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8300058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine bird specimen, marine bird sighting, and other data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 24 July 1979 to 19 November 1982. Data were collected by...

  2. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1976-09-27 to 1976-10-22 (NCEI Accession 7601473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the National Ocean...

  3. Delayed XBT data from the Southern Surveyor, collected by Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), and submitted to the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP), date range from 02/07/2009 - 03/14/2009 (NODC Accession 0059379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected in the Pacific Ocean aboard the Southern Surveyor from 07 February to 14 March 2009. Data were submitted by the CommonWealth Scientific...

  4. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 14 November 1986 to 23 November 1986 (NODC Accession 8600384)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the National...

  5. Marine animal sighting and census data from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 11 May 1982 to 19 March 1983 (NODC Accession 8400150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine animal sighting and census data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 11 May 1982 to 19 March 1983. Data were collected by the Envirosphere Co. as...

  6. Marine toxic substance and other data from bottle casts from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 13 August 1980 to 21 February 1981 (NODC Accession 8100531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substance and other data were collected from bottle casts from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 13 August 1980 to 21 February 1981. Data were collected by...

  7. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts from the SURVEYOR and other platforms as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 23 February 1981 to 30 April 1983 (NODC Accession 8300167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from the SURVEYOR and other platforms from 23 February 1981 to 30 April...

  8. Zooplankton and other data from net casts in Prince William Sound from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1975-10-03 to 1975-10-10 (NCEI Accession 7601873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and other data were collected from net casts in Prince William Sound from the SURVEYOR from 03 October 1975 to 10 October 1975. Data were collected by...

  9. Zooplankton and other data from net casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 30 September 1975 to 24 October 1975 (NODC Accession 7601809)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and other data were collected from net casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR from 30 September 1975 to 24 October 1975. Data were collected by...

  10. Zooplankton and other data from net casts from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1977-06-28 to 1977-07-04 (NCEI Accession 7900066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and other data were collected from net casts from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 28 June 1977 to 04 July 1977. Data were collected by the University of Alaska,...

  11. Zooplankton and other data from net casts from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1976-03-17 to 1976-04-26 (NCEI Accession 7601628)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and other data were collected from net casts from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 17 March 1976 to 26 April 1976. Data were collected by the University of Alaska...

  12. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts from SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 16 August 1977 to 15 September 1977 (NODC Accession 7800013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine Environmental...

  13. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 15 April 1976 to 26 April 1976 (NODC Accession 7601823)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the University of...

  14. Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in dataset CTD taken from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR (VLHJ) in the Coastal S Pacific, Equatorial Pacific and other locations from 2003 to 2006 (NODC Accession 0043461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, chemical, and other data were collected using CTD casts from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Iceland Sea and North / South Pacific Ocean. Data...

  15. Temperature and salinity profiles from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 21 September 1975 to 22 September 1975 (NODC Accession 7601224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profiles were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the Pacific...

  16. Physical and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 05 June 1975 to 12 June 1975 (NODC Accession 7601225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine...

  17. Marine animal sighting and census data from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 17 May 1975 to 13 October 1977 (NODC Accession 8000349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine animal sighting and census data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 17 May 1975 to 13 October 1977. Data were collected by the U.S. National...

  18. Marine bird sighting and other data from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 01 September 1976 to 02 September 1976 (NODC Accession 7800704)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine bird sighting and other data were collected from the SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP). Data were...

  19. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 15 August 1980 to 05 September 1980 (NODC Accession 8200116)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 15 August 1980 to 05 September 1980. Data...

  20. Oceanographic profile data collected aboard Atlantic Surveyor as part of project OPR-D302-KR-12 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-07-05 to 2012-09-05 (NCEI Accession 0130622)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130622 includes physical and profile data collected aboard the Atlantic Surveyor during project OPR-D302-KR-12 in the North Atlantic Ocean from...

  1. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 22 July 1975 to 28 August 1979 (NODC Accession 8100349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 22 July 1975 to 28 August 1979. Data were collected by the University of...

  2. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 10 February 1977 to 19 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7900320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected from the SURVEYOR and other platforms from 10 February 1977 to 19 November 1977. Data were collected by the...

  3. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the SURVEYOR and other platforms as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 20 March 1977 to 02 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7900319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected from the SURVEYOR and other platforms from 20 March 1977 to 02 November 1977. Data were collected by the Alaska...

  4. Marine bird sighting and other data from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 16 August 1980 to 05 September 1980 (NODC Accession 8100473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine bird sighting and other data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 16 August 1980 to 05 September 1980. Data were collected by the University of...

  5. Interference of Co-Amplified Nuclear Mitochondrial DNA Sequences on the Determination of Human mtDNA Heteroplasmy by Using the SURVEYOR Nuclease and the WAVE HS System

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiu-Chuan Yen; Shiue-Li Li; Wei-Chien Hsu; Petrus Tang

    2014-01-01

    High-sensitivity and high-throughput mutation detection techniques are useful for screening the homoplasmy or heteroplasmy status of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but might be susceptible to interference from nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences (NUMTs) co-amplified during polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, we first evaluated the platform of SURVEYOR Nuclease digestion of heteroduplexed DNA followed by the detection of cleaved DNA by using the WAVE HS System (SN/WAVE-HS) for detectin...

  6. The Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  7. Mission Medical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  8. The SPICA mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.; Simon, R.; Schaaf, R.; Stutzki, J,

    2016-01-01

    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 yea

  9. KEEL for Mission Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-06

    cognitive technology for application in automotive , industrial automation, medical, military, governmental, enterprise software and electronic gaming...evaluate risks or develop and test new tactics and strategies. This paper separates Mission Planning Software into two domains: 1. Rendering of the...simplest form, Mission Planning is the process of evaluating information in the form of risks (threats) and rewards (opportunities) to most appropriately

  10. Bering Mission Navigation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2003-01-01

    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks...

  11. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  12. Feedhorn-coupled Bolometer Detectors at 40 GHz Implemented on the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.; Ali, A.; Appel, J. W.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Marriage, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wollack, E.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed, produced, and tested 40 GHz feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) detectors using microstrip circuits on monocrystalline silicon dielectric substrates. Symmetric planar orthomode transducers (OMTs) couple two independent orthogonal linear polarization modes from feedhorns onto planar transmission lines over a broad (60 %) bandwidth. The 33-43 GHz band is defined by a combination of on-chip planar filtering and effective integrated shielding of stray light (blue leaks). The integrated stray light control is achieved over a frequency range of > 10:1. The monocrystalline silicon substrate provides a highly uniform dielectric constant that results in reliable circuit uniformity and performance. In addition, the monocrystalline silicon enables high efficiency due to its extremely low loss. The efficiency of the devices, including all integrated filtering, has been measured to be ~90 % for each polarization. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) cosmic microwave background B-mode experiment is employing a 36-element focal plane of these detectors, along with similar detectors at higher frequencies, to map a large fraction of the sky.

  13. Recce mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  14. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cañizares, P.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferrone, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hernández, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H.-B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission, a precursor mission aimed at demonstrating key technologies for future space-based gravitational wave detectors, like LISA. Since much of the flight hardware has already been constructed and tested, we will show that performance measurements and analysis of these flight components lead to an expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder which is a significant improvement over the mission requirements, and which actually reaches the LISA requirements over the entire LISA Pathfinder measurement band.

  15. Uganda Mission PRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...

  16. STS-83 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The crew patch for NASA's STS-83 mission depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia launching into space for the first Microgravity Sciences Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission. MSL-1 investigated materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in the microgravity environment of space, experiments that were conducted in the Spacelab Module in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay. The center circle symbolizes a free liquid under microgravity conditions representing various fluid and materials science experiments. Symbolic of the combustion experiments is the surrounding starburst of a blue flame burning in space. The 3-lobed shape of the outermost starburst ring traces the dot pattern of a transmission Laue photograph typical of biotechnology experiments. The numerical designation for the mission is shown at bottom center. As a forerunner to missions involving International Space Station (ISS), STS-83 represented the hope that scientific results and knowledge gained during the flight will be applied to solving problems on Earth for the benefit and advancement of humankind.

  17. The Prisma Hyperspectra Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, R.; Ananasso, C.; Guarini, R.; Lopinto, E.; Candela, L.; Pisani, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    PRISMA (PRecursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) hyperspectral mission currently scheduled for the lunch in 2018. PRISMA is a single satellite placed on a sun- synchronous Low Earth Orbit (620 km altitude) with an expected operational lifetime of 5 years. The hyperspectral payload consists of a high spectral resolution (VNIR-SWIR) imaging spectrometer, optically integrated with a medium resolution Panchromatic camera. PRISMA will acquire data on areas of 30 km Swath width and with a Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) of 30 m (hyperspectral) and of 5 m Panchromatic (PAN). The PRISMA Ground Segment will be geographically distributed between Fucino station and ASI Matera Space Geodesy Centre and will include the Mission Control Centre, the Satellite Control Centre and the Instrument Data Handling System. The science community supports the overall lifecycle of the mission, being involved in algorithms definition, calibration and validation activities, research and applications development.

  18. Athena Mission Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Rau, Arne

    2015-09-01

    The optimization of the Athena mission, the ESA's large X-ray observatory for 2028, is a key challenge. Critical elements for achieving the scientific performances are obviously the two instruments and the optics. However, additional aspects related to the overall mission performances are crucial as well, including the particle background environment (separate presentation), the calibration, the response time to Target of Opportunity requests, the functionality of the science ground segment, and the available high-quality data analysis tools. In addition, the full performance of the satellite will be modeled by an end-to-end simulator. In this presentation we will give an overview of the various systems and also present the Mock Observing Plan that is used to optimize the mission. The work presented in this contribution is based on a collective effort of the Athena science community and is coordinated by the Athena Mission Performance Working Group.

  19. Doing mission inclusively

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... language, rituals, rules, values, and other religious and cultural settings. ... This article posits that Christians, while being in the world, are not of this world. ..... is at the heart of all Christian missions, a core competence of.

  20. Autonomous Mission Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human spaceflight missions will occur with crews and spacecraft at large distances, with long communication delays, to the Earth. The one-way light-time delay...

  1. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  2. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  3. Bering Mission Navigation Method

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks, "Bering" sports several new technological enhancements and advanced instruments under development at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The autonomous on-board orbit determination method is part...

  4. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  5. Characterization of overwintering sites of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in natural landscapes using human surveyors and detector canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available Halyomorpha halys is an invasive species from Asia causing major economic losses in agricultural production in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Unlike other crop pests, H. halys is also well-known for nuisance problems in urban, suburban, and rural areas, as massive numbers of adults often invade human-made structures to overwinter inside protected environments. Research efforts have focused on populations in human-made structures while overwintering ecology of H. halys in natural landscapes is virtually unknown. We explored forested landscapes in the mid-Atlantic region to locate and characterize natural overwintering structures used by H. halys. We also evaluated the use of detector canines to locate overwintering H. halys to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of surveys. From these studies, we indentified shared characteristics of overwintering sites used by H. halys in natural landscapes. Overwintering H. halys were recovered from dry crevices in dead, standing trees with thick bark, particularly oak (Quercus spp. and locust (Robinia spp.; these characteristics were shared by 11.8% of all dead trees in surveyed landscapes. For trees with favorable characteristics, we sampled ∼20% of the total above-ground tree area and recovered 5.9 adults per tree from the trees with H. halys present. Two detector canines were successfully trained to recognize and detect the odor of adult H. halys yielding >84% accuracy in laboratory and semi-field trials. Detector canines also found overwintering H. halys under field conditions. In particular, overwintering H. halys were recovered only from dead trees that yielded positive indications from the canines and shared key tree characteristics established by human surveyors. The identified characteristics of natural overwintering sites of H. halys will serve as baseline information to establish crop economic risk levels posed by overwintering populations, and accordingly develop sustainable

  6. Surveyor Nuclease: a new strategy for a rapid identification of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA mutations in patients with respiratory chain defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwarth, Sylvie; Procaccio, Vincent; Paquis-Flucklinger, Veronique

    2005-06-01

    Molecular analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a critical step in diagnosis and genetic counseling of respiratory chain defects. No fast method is currently available for the identification of unknown mtDNA point mutations. We have developed a new strategy based on complete mtDNA PCR amplification followed by digestion with a mismatch-specific DNA endonuclease, Surveyor Nuclease. This enzyme, a member of the CEL nuclease family of plant DNA endonucleases, cleaves double-strand DNA at any mismatch site including base substitutions and small insertions/deletions. After digestion, cleavage products are separated and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The size of the digestion products indicates the location of the mutation, which is then confirmed and characterized by sequencing. Although this method allows the analysis of 2 kb mtDNA amplicons and the detection of multiple mutations within the same fragment, it does not lead to the identification of homoplasmic base substitutions. Homoplasmic pathogenic mutations have been described. Nevertheless, most homoplasmic base substitutions are neutral polymorphisms while deleterious mutations are typically heteroplasmic. Here, we report that this method can be used to detect mtDNA mutations such as m.3243A>G tRNA(Leu) and m.14709T>C tRNA(Glu) even when they are present at levels as low as 3% in DNA samples derived from patients with respiratory chain defects. Then, we tested five patients suffering from a mitochondrial respiratory chain defect and we identified a variant (m.16189T>C) in two of them, which was previously associated with susceptibility to diabetes and cardiomyopathy. In conclusion, this method can be effectively used to rapidly and completely screen the entire human mitochondrial genome for heteroplasmic mutations and in this context represents an important advance for the diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases.

  7. Robotic Mission Simulation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes a software tool to predict robotic mission performance and support supervision of robotic missions even when environments and...

  8. KuaFu Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Lidong; TU Chuanyi; Schwenn Rainer; Donovan Eric; Marsch Eckart; WANG Jingsong; ZHANG Yongwei; XIAO Zuo

    2006-01-01

    The KuaFu mission-Space Storms, Aurora and Space Weather Explorer-is an "L1+Polar" triple satellite project composed of three spacecraft: KuaFu-A will be located at L1 and have instruments to observe solar EUV and FUV emissions, and white-light Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), and to measure radio waves, the local plasma and magnetic field,and high-energy particles. KuaFuB1 and KuaFu- B2 will bein polar orbits chosen to facilitate continuous 24 hours a day observation of the north polar Aurora Oval. The KuaFu mission is designed to observe the complete chain of disturbances from the solar atmosphere to geospace, including solar flares, CMEs, interplanetary clouds, shock waves, and their geo-effects, such as magnetospheric sub-storms and magnetic storms, and auroral activities. The mission may start at the next solar maximum (launch in about 2012), and with an initial mission lifetime of two to three years. KuaFu data will be used for the scientific study of space weather phenomena, and will be used for space weather monitoring and forecast purposes. The overall mission design, instrument complement, and incorporation of recent technologies will target new fundamental science, advance our understanding of the physical processes underlying space weather, and raise the standard of end-to-end monitoring of the Sun-Earth system.

  9. The PROBA-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 is the next ESA mission in the PROBA line of small technology demonstration satellites. The main goal of PROBA-3 is in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. The mission will consist of two spacecraft together forming a giant (150 m long) coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). The bigger spacecraft will host the telescope, and the smaller spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. ASPIICS heralds the next generation of solar coronagraphs that will use formation flying to observe the inner corona in eclipse-like conditions for extended periods of time. The occulter spacecraft will also host the secondary payload, DARA (Davos Absolute RAdiometer), that will measure the total solar irradiance. PROBA-3 is planned to be launched in 2019. The scientific objectives of PROBA-3 will be discussed in the context of other future solar and heliospheric space missions.

  10. The Hinode Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    The Solar-B satellite was launched in 2006 by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), and was renamed Hinode ('sunrise' in Japanese). Hinode carries three instruments: the X-ray telescope (XRT), the EUV imaging spectrometer (EIS), and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). These instruments were developed by ISAS/JAXA in cooperation with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan as domestic partner, and NASA and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK) as international partners. ESA and the Norwegian Space Center have been providing a downlink station. The Hinode (Solar-B) Mission gives a comprehensive description of the Hinode mission and its instruments onboard. This book is most useful for researchers, professionals, and graduate students working in the field of solar physics, astronomy, and space instrumentation. This is the only book that carefully describes the details of the Hinode mission; it is richly illustrated with full-color ima...

  11. Athena Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, D.

    2016-07-01

    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  12. The Evolution of the Surveyor Fan and Channel System, Gulf of Alaska based on Core-Log-Seismic Integration at IODP Site U1417

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, S.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Walton, M. A. L.; Swartz, J. M.; Worthington, L. L.; Reece, R.; Somchat, K.; Wagner, P. F.; Jaeger, J. M.; Mix, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The transition to quasi-periodic ~100-kyr glacial cycles during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT, ~1.2 Ma) saw an acceleration of sediment delivery from the St. Elias orogen. Eroded sediment from the St. Elias Mountains is transferred to the deep sea via glacially carved shelf troughs and eventually to the Aleutian Trench via the Surveyor Channel and Fan system. By analyzing the submarine sediments in this Fan, we can evaluate the source-to-sink relationship between the erosion of an orogen and deep-sea deposition and inform our understanding of the impact of climate on local tectonics. Our work seeks to update depositional models of the unique sedimentary sequences, architecture, and origins of the glacially-fed Surveyor Fan using well-log-seismic correlation and new data from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341. Exp. 341 results question proposed ages of major fan stratigraphic packages, necessitating this update. We created an integrated velocity model using discrete core-based p-wave velocities acquired at site U1417 from 100-152m, down-hole sonic log velocities from 152m-476m, and then projected the trend of the sonic log velocity from 476m to the base of the borehole. Previous work has interpreted the Sequence I/II boundary (~300 mbsf at U1417) to correspond with the start of the Surveyor Fan and the onset of tidewater glaciation in the late Miocene and the Sequence II/III boundary (~160 mbsf at U1417) to coincide with the intensification of glaciation and subsequent increase in sediment flux at the MPT. Our updated velocity model places these major sequence boundaries at the correct depths in borehole site U1417. We can use the revised velocity model to correlate lithologic, biostratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and logging data from the borehole/cores to seismic data, allowing for construction of a temporal model for the evolution of the Surveyor fan. We can then examine the relationship between glacial-interglacial cycle duration and

  13. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R. [AeroAstro, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  14. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  15. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  16. STS-65 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Designed by the mission crew members, the STS-65 insignia features the International Microgravity Lab (IML)-2 mission and its Spacelab module which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. IML-2 is reflected in the emblem by two gold stars shooting toward the heavens behind the IML lettering. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted orbiting the logo and reaching off into space, with Spacelab on an international quest for a better understanding of the effects of space flight on materials processing and life sciences.

  17. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome of the univer......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...

  18. Magellan: mission summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, R S; Pettengill, G H

    1991-04-12

    The Magellan radar mapping mission is in the process of producing a global, high-resolution image and altimetry data set of Venus. Despite initial communications problems, few data gaps have occurred. Analysis of Magellan data is in the initial stages. The radar system data are of high quality, and the planned performance is being achieved in terms of spatial resolution and geometric and radiometric accuracy. Image performance exceeds expectations, and the image quality and mosaickability are extremely good. Future plans for the mission include obtaining gravity data, filling gaps in the initial map, and conducting special studies with the radar.

  19. The Behavior of Warm Molecules in Planet-forming Disks and CHESS: a Pathfinder UV Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Keri; France, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of gas over the lifetime of protoplanetary disks provides us with important clues about how planet formation mechanisms drive the diversity of exoplanetary systems observed to date. In the first part of my talk, I will discuss how we use emission line observations of molecular hydrogen (H2) in the far-ultraviolet (far-UV) with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the warm molecular regions (a disks. We compare the observations with analytic disk models that produce synthetic H2 profiles, and we statistically determine the disk representations that best replicate the data. I will discuss the results of our comparisons and how the modeled radial distributions of H2 in the disk help provide important constraints on the effective density of gas left in the inner disk of protoplanetary disks at various disk evolutionary stages. Finally, I will talk about follow-up studies that look to connect the warm, UV-pumped molecular populations of the inner disk to thermally-excited molecules observed in similar regions of the disk in the near- to mid-IR.In the second part of my talk, I will discuss the observational requirements in the UV and IR band passes to gain further insights into the behavior of the warm, gaseous protoplanetary disk, focusing specifically on a spectrograph concept for the next-generation LUVOIR Surveyor. I will discuss a testbed instrument, the Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS), built as a demonstration of one component of the LUVOIR spectrograph and new technological improvements to UV optical components for the next generation of near- to far-UV astrophysical observatories. CHESS is a far-UV sounding rocket experiment designed to probe the warm and cool atoms and molecules near sites of recent star formation in the local interstellar medium. I will talk about the science goals, design, research and development (R&D) components, and calibration of the CHESS

  20. GPS for land surveyors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Sickle, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The GPS SignalGlobal Positioning System (GPS) Signal StructureTwo ObservablesPseudorangingCarrier Phase RangingBiases and SolutionsThe Error BudgetDifferencingThe FrameworkTechnological ForerunnersVery Long Baseline InterferometryTransitNavstar GPSGPS Segment OrganizationGPS ConstellationThe Control SegmentReceivers and MethodsCommon Features of GPS ReceiversChoosing a GPS ReceiverSome GPS Surveying MethodsCoordinatesA Few Pertinent Ideas About Geodetic Datums for GPSState Plane CoordinatesHeightsGPS Surveying TechniquesStatic GPS SurveyingReal-Time Kinematic (RTK) and Differential GPS (DGPS)T

  1. Mission Operations Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  2. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by Euro

  3. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  4. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  5. The Lobster Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  6. Mission from Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  7. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissanc

  8. Robust UAV mission planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  9. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Evers (Lanah); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); A.I. Barros (Ana); H. Monsuur (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUnmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a re

  10. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissanc

  11. EOS Aura Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  12. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by

  13. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  14. Mission from Mars:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  15. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta;

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  16. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  17. Japanese infrared survey mission IRIS (ASTRO-F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroshi

    1998-08-01

    The IR Imaging Survey (IRIS) is the second IR astronomy mission of the Institute of Space and Astronomical Science (ISAS). The IRIS is a 70 cm cooled telescope dedicated for IR sky survey. This project has been approved as ISAS's 21st science mission 'ASTRO-F', and prototype model development has been ongoing since 1997. The IRIS will be launched with ISAS's launch vehicle M-V, into a sun-synchronous polar orbit with an altitude of 750 km. The IRIS telescope has a 70 cm aperture and is cooled to 6K using Stirling-cycle coolers and liquid helium. The primary and secondary mirrors are light-weight mirrors make of silicon carbide. Two focal- plane instruments are installed. One is the far-IR surveyor (FIS) which will survey the entire sky in the wavelength range from 50 to 200 micron with angular resolutions of 30- 50 arcsec. The other focal-plane instrument is the IR camera (IRC). It employs large-format detector arrays and will take deep images of selected sky regions in the near and mid IR range. The field of view of the IRC is 10 arcmin and the spatial resolution is approximately 2 arcsec. The IRIS has much higher sensitivity than that of the IRAS survey. The detection limits are 1-100 micro Jy in the near-MID IR and 10-100 mJy in the far IR. With the IRIS survey, great progress is expected in the research on evolution of galaxies, formation of stars and planets, dark matter and brown dwarfs. The IRIS is now scheduled to be launched in early 2003.

  18. The OCO-3 MIssion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldering, A.; Kaki, S.; Crisp, D.; Gunson, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    For the OCO-3 mission, NASA has approved a proposal to install the OCO-2 flight spare instrument on the International Space Station (ISS). The OCO-3 mission on ISS will have a key role in delivering sustained, global, scientifically-based, spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 to monitor natural sources and sinks as part of NASA's proposed OCO-2/OCO-3/ASCENDS mission sequence and NASA's Climate Architecture. The OCO-3 mission will contribute to understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle through enabling flux estimates at smaller spatial scales and through fluorescence measurements that will reduce the uncertainty in terrestrial carbon flux measurements and drive bottom-up land surface models through constraining GPP. The combined nominal missions of both OCO-2 and OCO-3 will likely span a complete El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, a key indicator of ocean variability. In addition, OCO-3 may allow investigation of the high-frequency and wavenumber structures suggested by eddying ocean circulation and ecosystem dynamics models. Finally, significant growth of urban agglomerations is underway and projected to continue in the coming decades. With the city mode sampling of the OCO-3 instrument on ISS we can evaluate different sampling strategies aimed at studying anthropogenic sources and demonstrate elements of a Greenhouse Gas Information system, as well as providing a gap-filler for tracking trends in the fastest-changing anthropogenic signals during the coming decade. In this presentation, we will describe our science objectives, the overall approach of utilization of the ISS for OCO-3, and the unique features of XCO2 measurements from ISS.

  19. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  20. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  1. Geographic Information Systems and Martian Data: Compatibility and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Planning future landed Mars missions depends on accurate, informed data. This research has created and used spatially referenced instrument data from NASA missions such as the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter and the Mars Orbital Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter. Creating spatially referenced data enables its use in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. It has then been possible to integrate this spatially referenced data with global base maps and build and populate location based databases that are easy to access.

  2. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  3. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  4. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  5. The Sentinel-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruti, B.; Mavrocordatos, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Sentinel-3 Operational Mission is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative, which was established to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. The first launch is expected in 2013. Currently half way through the development phase of the project, this paper presents the consolidated Sentinel-3 design and expected performances related to the different mission objectives (ocean colour, altimetry, surface temperature, land). The operational concept and key system performances are also addressed, as well as the satellite and instruments design. Finally, the schedule for the remaining development is presented.

  6. The Euclid mission design

    CERN Document Server

    Racca, Giuseppe D; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean Christophe; Alvarez, Jose Lorenzo; Criado, Gonzalo Saavedra; Venancio, Luis Gaspar; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Boenke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jerome; Berthe, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha

    2016-01-01

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the sc...

  7. The THEMIS Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, J. L

    2009-01-01

    The THEMIS mission aims to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms by employing five identical micro-satellites which line up along the Earth's magnetotail to track the motion of particles, plasma, and waves from one point to another and for the first time, resolve space-time ambiguities in key regions of the magnetosphere on a global scale. The primary goal of THEMIS is to elucidate which magnetotail process is responsible for substorm onset at the region where substorm auroras map: (i) local disruption of the plasma sheet current (current disruption) or (ii) the interaction of the current sheet with the rapid influx of plasma emanating from reconnection. The probes also traverse the radiation belts and the dayside magnetosphere, allowing THEMIS to address additional baseline objectives. This volume describes the mission, the instrumentation, and the data derived from them.

  8. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  9. Deep Blue Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese Navy dispatches ships to the Gulf of Aden on a second escort mission, marking its growing strength in the face of more diverse challenges Elarly in the morning of April 23, crew- imembers from the Chinese Navy’s second escort fleet in the Gulf of Aden Igathered on deck and saluted to the east, paying their respects to the motherland in celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Chinese Navy. This fleet,

  10. Space VLBI Mission: VSOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiro; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Edwards, P. G.

    2001-03-01

    We succeeded in performing space VLBI observations using the VLBI satellite HALCA (VSOP satellite), launched in February, 1997 aboard the first M-V rocket developed by ISAS. The mission is led by ISAS and NAO, with the collaborations from CRL, NASA, NRAO, and other institutes and observatories in Europe, Australia, Canada, South-Africa, and China, We succeeded to make a lot of observations and to get the new features from the active galaxies, the cosmic jets, and other astronomical objects.

  11. A Somalia mission experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-06-28

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  12. A Mars 1984 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  13. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    Technology applications 12 5 VMs allow one host to belong to multiple VLANs 14 6 Asset recommendation system mockup 15 7 Perturbative mapping may...extended list of critical assets based on communications patterns and software dependencies. Once vulnerabilities have been assessed, AMMO produces a...status of not just network machines, but also software tools, network connections, server room conditions, and many other mission parameters. From this

  14. Titan Saturn System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, Kim R.

    2009-01-01

    Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Roadmap. NASA's 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program Themes. Recent revolutionary Cassini-Huygens discoveries have dramatically escalated interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer solar system. This study demonstrates that an exciting Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) that explores two worlds of intense astrobiological interest can be initiated now as a single NASA/ESA collaboration.

  15. The Gaia mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia Collaboration; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-11-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page. http://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia

  16. The Juno Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the origin of Jupiter will be presented.

  17. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  18. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  19. Multi-Mission SDR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless transceivers used for NASA space missions have traditionally been highly custom and mission specific. Programs such as the GRC Space Transceiver Radio...

  20. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  1. Exomars Mission Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J.; Juillet, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    ExoMars is the first step of the European Space Agency's Aurora Exploration Programme. Comprising two missions, the first one launched in 2016 and the second one to be launched in 2020, ExoMars is a program developed in a broad ESA and Roscosmos co-operation, with significant contribution from NASA that addresses the scientific question of whether life ever existed on Mars and demonstrate key technologies for entry, descent, landing, drilling and roving on the Martian surface . Thales Alenia Space is the overall prime contractor of the Exomars program leading a large industrial team The Spacecraft Composite (SCC), consisting of a Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and an EDL (Entry Descend and Landing) Demonstrator Module (EDM) named Schiaparelli, has been launched on 14 March 2016 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome by a Proton Launcher. The two modules will separate on 16 October 2016 after a 7 months cruise. The TGO will search for evidence of methane and other atmospheric gases that could be signatures of active biological or geological processes on Mars and will provide communications relay for the 2020 surface assets. The Schiaparelli module will prove the technologies required to safely land a payload on the surface of Mars, with a package of sensors aimed to support the reconstruction of the flown trajectory and the assessment of the performance of the EDL subsystems. For the second Exomars mission a space vehicle composed of a Carrier Module (CM) and a Descent Module (DM), whose Landing Platform (LP) will house a Rover, will begin a 7 months long trip to Mars in August 2020. In 2021 the Descent Module will be separated from the Carrier to carry out the entry into the planet's atmosphere and subsequently make the Landing Platform and the Rover land gently on the surface of Mars. While the LP will continue to measure the environmental parameters of the landing site, the Rover will begin exploration of the surface, which is expected to last 218 Martian days (approx. 230 Earth

  2. Solar sail mission design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leipold, M.

    2000-02-01

    The main subject of this work is the design and detailed orbit transfer analysis of space flight missions with solar sails utilizing solar pressure for primary propulsion. Such a sailcraft requires ultra-light weight, gossamer-like deployable structures and materials in order to effectively utilize the transfer of momentum of solar photons. Different design concepts as well as technological elements for solar sails are considered, and an innovative design of a deployable sail structure including new methods for sail folding and unfolding is presented. The main focus of this report is on trajectory analysis, simulation and optimization of planetocentric as well as heliocentric low-thrust orbit transfers with solar sails. In a parametric analysis, geocentric escape spiral trajectories are simulated and corresponding flight times are determined. In interplanetary space, solar sail missions to all planets in our solar system as well as selected minor bodies are included in the analysis. Comparisons to mission concepts utilizing chemical propulsion as well as ion propulsion are included in order to assess whether solar sailing could possibly enhance or even enable this mission. The emphasis in the interplanetary mission analysis is on novel concepts: a unique method to realize a sun-synchronous Mercury orbiter, fast missions to the outer planets and the outer heliosphere applying a ''solar photonic assist'', rendezvous and sample return missions to asteroids and comets, as well as innovative concepts to reach unique vantage points for solar observation (''Solar Polar Orbiter'' and ''Solar Probe''). Finally, a propellant-less sailcraft attitude control concept using an external torque due to solar pressure is analyzed. Examples for sail navigation and control in circular Earth orbit applying a PD-control algorithm are shown, illustrating the maneuverability of a sailcraft. (orig.) [German] Gegenstand dieser

  3. 75 FR 6178 - Mission Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ...), thermal coal, and palm oil exports for bio fuel, dominate energy exports. Sound fiscal and monetary.... Mission Statement Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission May 23-25, 2010. Mission... to Jakarta, Indonesia May 23-25, 2010 to discuss market development policies and promote U.S. exports...

  4. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1996-09-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission is a Discovery class mission that will place a small lander and rover on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997. The Pathfinder flight system is a single small lander, packaged within an aeroshell and back cover with a back-pack-style cruise stage. The vehicle will be launched, fly independently to Mars, and enter the atmosphere directly on approach behind the aeroshell. The vehicle is slowed by a parachute and 3 small solid rockets before landing on inflated airbags. Petals of a small tetrahedron shaped lander open up, to right the vehicle. The lander is solar powered with batteries and will operate on the surface for up to a year, downlinking data on a high-gain antenna. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, with 3 imagers and an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The rover (includes a series of technology experiments), the instruments (including a stereo multispectral surface imager on a pop up mast and an atmospheric structure instrument-surface meteorology package) and the telemetry system will allow investigations of: the surface morphology and geology at meter scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products and early environments and conditions on Mars.

  5. Enabling the human mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, John

    The duplication of earth conditions aboard a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat requires 60 lb/day/person of food, potable and hygiene water, and oxygen. A 1000-day mission to Mars would therefore require 30 tons of such supplies per crew member in the absence of a closed-cycle, or regenerative, life-support system. An account is given of the development status of regenerative life-support systems, as well as of the requisite radiation protection and EVA systems, the health-maintenance and medical care facilities, zero-gravity deconditioning measures, and planetary surface conditions protection.

  6. The CHEOPS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeg, Christopher; benz, willy; fortier, andrea; Ehrenreich, David; beck, Thomas; cessa, Virginie; Alibert, Yann; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry. It is expected to be launch-ready at the end of 2017.CHEOPS will be the first space observatory dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. It will have access to more than 70% of the sky. This will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based radial velocity surveys and for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The measurement of the radius of a planet from its transit combined with the determination of its mass through radial velocity techniques gives the bulk density of the planet, which provides direct insights into the structure and/or composition of the body. In order to meet the scientific objectives, a number of requirements have been derived that drive the design of CHEOPS. For the detection of Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting G5 dwarf stars with V-band magnitudes in the range 6 ≤ V ≤ 9 mag, a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time must be reached. This time corresponds to the transit duration of a planet with a revolution period of 50 days. In the case of Neptune-size planets orbiting K-type dwarf with magnitudes as faint as V=12 mag, a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time must be reached. To achieve this performance, the CHEOPS mission payload consists of only one instrument, a space telescope of 30 cm clear aperture, which has a single CCD focal plane detector. CHEOPS will be inserted in a low Earth orbit and the total duration of the CHEOPS mission is 3.5 years (goal: 5 years).The presentation will describe the current payload and mission design of CHEOPS, give the development status, and show the expected performances.

  7. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.

    2010-01-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  8. The ARTEMIS mission

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    The ARTEMIS mission was initiated by skillfully moving the two outermost Earth-orbiting THEMIS spacecraft into lunar orbit to conduct unprecedented dual spacecraft observations of the lunar environment. ARTEMIS stands for Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun. Indeed, this volume discusses initial findings related to the Moon’s magnetic and plasma environments and the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior. This work is aimed at researchers and graduate students in both heliophysics and planetary physics. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol. 165/1-4, 2011.

  9. NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdridge, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    On 12 February 2001, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker became the first spacecraft to land on a small body, 433 Eros. Prior to that historic event, NEAR was the first-ever orbital mission about an asteroid. The mission presented general challenges associated with other planetary space missions as well as challenges unique to an inaugural mission around a small body. The NEAR team performed this operations feat with processes and tools developed during the 4-year-long cruise to Eros. Adding to the success of this historic mission was the cooperation among the NEAR science, navigation, guidance and control, mission design, and software teams. With clearly defined team roles, overlaps in responsibilities were minimized, as were the associated costs. This article discusses the processes and systems developed at APL that enabled the success of NEAR mission operations.

  10. The SPICA mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.

    2016-05-01

    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 years. The spacecraft will house a 2.5 m telescope actively cooled to 8 K, providing unprecedented sensitivity at mid-far infrared wavelengths. The low background environment and wavelength coverage provided by SPICA will make it possible to conduct detailed spectroscopic surveys of sources in both the local and distant Universe, deep into the most obscured regions. Using these data the evolution of galaxies over a broad and continuous range of cosmic time can be studied, spanning the era of peak star forming activity. SPICA will also provide unique access to, among others, the deep-lying water-ice spectral features and HD lines within planet forming discs. SPICA will conduct an extensive survey of both planet forming discs and evolved planetary systems, with the aim of providing the missing link between planet formation models and the large number of extrasolar planetary systems now being discovered.

  11. Calvin and mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus (Kobus P. Labuschagne

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It has often been stated or implied that John Calvin and the Reformers in general were indifferent to or even against mission. The aim of this study is to point out that this understanding is not a true version of the facts. A thorough examination of the theology and actions of John Calvin, evaluated against the background of his times and world, reveals that he was firmly committed to spreading the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Lord. Also the theological insights of Calvin and the Reformers not only provided the crucial theological basis to support the future massive missionary expansion of Protestant churches, but necessitate for all times Church mission as a sure consequence of their theology. Calvin’s theology can indeed be described as an ‘essentially missionary theology’. In the heart of Calvin’s theological thinking clearly features the doctrine of justifi cation – because medieval man’s concern for salvation needed to be answered.

  12. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  13. EU Universities’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Arcimaviciene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years, a highly productive space of metaphor analysis has been established in the discourse studies of media, politics, business, and education. In the theoretical framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis, the restored metaphorical patterns are especially valued for their implied ideological value as realized both conceptually and linguistically. By using the analytical framework of Critical Metaphor Analysis and procedurally employing Pragglejaz Group’s Metaphor Identification Procedure, this study aims at analyzing the implied value of the evoked metaphors in the mission statements of the first 20 European Universities, according to the Webometrics ranking. In this article, it is proposed that Universities’ mission statements are based on the positive evaluation of the COMMERCE metaphor, which does not fully correlate with the ideological framework of sustainability education but is rather oriented toward consumerism in both education and society. Despite this overall trend, there are some traceable features of the conceptualization reflecting the sustainability approach to higher education, as related to freedom of speech, tolerance, and environmental concerns. Nonetheless, these are suppressed by the metaphoric usages evoking traditional dogmas of the conservative ideology grounded in the concepts of the transactional approach to relationship, competitiveness for superiority, the importance of self-interest and strength, and quantifiable quality.

  14. The Gaia mission

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We...

  15. OMV mission simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Keith E.

    1989-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will be remotely piloted during rendezvous, docking, or proximity operations with target spacecraft from a ground control console (GCC). The real-time mission simulator and graphics being used to design a console pilot-machine interface are discussed. A real-time orbital dynamics simulator drives the visual displays. The dynamics simulator includes a J2 oblate earth gravity model and a generalized 1962 rotating atmospheric and drag model. The simulator also provides a variable-length communication delay to represent use of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and NASA Communications (NASCOM). Input parameter files determine the graphics display. This feature allows rapid prototyping since displays can be easily modified from pilot recommendations. A series of pilot reviews are being held to determine an effective pilot-machine interface. Pilots fly missions with nominal to 3-sigma dispersions in translational or rotational axes. Console dimensions, switch type and layout, hand controllers, and graphic interfaces are evaluated by the pilots and the GCC simulator is modified for subsequent runs. Initial results indicate a pilot preference for analog versus digital displays and for two 3-degree-of-freedom hand controllers.

  16. STS-78 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 patch links past with present to tell the story of its mission and science through a design imbued with the strength and vitality of the 2-dimensional art of North America's northwest coast Indians. Central to the design is the space Shuttle whose bold lines and curves evoke the Indian image for the eagle, a native American symbol of power and prestige as well as the national symbol of the United States. The wings of the Shuttle suggest the wings of the eagle whose feathers, indicative of peace and friendship in Indian tradition, are captured by the U forms, a characteristic feature of Northwest coast Indian art. The nose of the Shuttle is the strong downward curve of the eagle's beak, and the Shuttle's forward windows, the eagle's eyes, represented through the tapered S forms again typical of this Indian art form. The basic black and red atoms orbiting the mission number recall the original NASA emblem while beneath, utilizing Indian ovoid forms, the major mission scientific experiment package LMS (Life and Materials Sciences) housed in the Shuttle's cargo bay is depicted in a manner reminiscent of totem-pole art. This image of a bird poised for flight, so common to Indian art, is counterpointed by an equally familiar Tsimshian Indian symbol, a pulsating sun with long hyperbolic rays, the symbol of life. Within each of these rays are now encased crystals, the products of this mission's 3 major, high-temperature materials processing furnaces. And as the sky in Indian lore is a lovely open country, home of the Sun Chief and accessible to travelers through a hole in the western horizon, so too, space is a vast and beckoning landscape for explorers launched beyond the horizon. Beneath the Tsimshian sun, the colors of the earth limb are appropriately enclosed by a red border representing life to the Northwest coast Indians. The Indian colors of red, navy blue, white, and black pervade the STS-78 path. To the right of the Shuttle-eagle, the constellation

  17. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT): Mission, Vision, and Business Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The Goal of the GMAT project is to develop new space trajectory optimization and mission design technology by working inclusively with ordinary people, universities businesses and other government organizations; and to share that technology in an open and unhindered way. GMAT's a free and open source software system; free for anyone to use in development of new mission concepts or to improve current missions, freely available in source code form for enhancement or future technology development.

  18. Phobos Sample Return mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  19. SOHO Mission Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Footage shows the SOHO Mission Pre-Launch Science Briefing. The moderator of the conference is Fred Brown, NASA/GSFC Public Affairs, introduces the panel members. Included are Professor Roger Bonnet, Director ESA Science Program, Dr. Wesley Huntress, Jr., NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Dr. Vicente Domingo, ESA SOHO Project Scientist. Also present are several members from the SOHO Team: Dr. Richard Harrison, Art Poland, and Phillip Scherrer. The discussions include understanding the phenomena of the sun, eruption of gas clouds into the atmosphere, the polishing of the mirrors for the SOHO satellite, artificial intelligence in the telescopes, and the launch and operating costs. The panel members are also seen answering questions from various NASA Centers and Paris.

  20. The Planck mission

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, François R

    2014-01-01

    These lecture from the 100th Les Houches summer school on "Post-planck cosmology" of July 2013 discuss some aspects of the Planck mission, whose prime objective was a very accurate measurement of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We announced our findings a few months ago, on March 21$^{st}$, 2013. I describe some of the relevant steps we took to obtain these results, sketching the measurement process, how we processed the data to obtain full sky maps at 9 different frequencies, and how we extracted the CMB temperature anisotropies map and angular power spectrum. I conclude by describing some of the main cosmological implications of the statistical characteristics of the CMB we found. Of course, this is a very much shortened and somewhat biased view of the \\Planck\\ 2013 results, written with the hope that it may lead some of the students to consult the original papers.

  1. The INTEGRAL mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Di Cocco, G.

    2003-01-01

    The ESA observatory INTEGRAL (International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) is dedicated to the fine spectroscopy (2.5 keV FWHM @ 1 MeV) and fine imaging (angular resolution: 12 arcmin FWHM) of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy range 15 keV to 10 MeV with concurrent source monitoring......-angular resolution imaging (15 keV-10 MeV). Two monitors, JEM-X (Lund et al. 2003) in the (3-35) keV X-ray band, and OMC (Mas-Hesse et al. 2003) in optical Johnson V-band complement the payload. The ground segment includes the Mission Operations Centre at ESOC, ESA and NASA ground stations, the Science Operations...

  2. The Messenger Mission to Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, D. L

    2007-01-01

    NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.

  3. Descope of the ALIA mission

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xuefei; Xu, Shengnian; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Bai, Shan; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chen, Gerui; Chen, Xian; Ding, Yanwei; Dong, Peng; Gao, Wei; Heinzel, Gerhard; Li, Ming; Li, Shuo; Liu, Fukun; Luo, Ziren; Shao, Mingxue; Spurzem, Rainer; Sun, Baosan; Tang, Wenlin; Wang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Yu, Pin; Yuan, Yefei; Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhou, Zebing

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports on a feasibility study commissioned by the Chinese Academy of Sciences of China to explore various possible mission options to detect gravitational waves in space alternative to that of the eLISA/LISA mission concept. Based on the relative merits assigned to science and technological viability, a few representative mission options descoped from the ALIA mission are considered. A semi-analytic Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to understand the cosmic black hole merger histories starting from intermediate mass black holes at high redshift as well as the possible scientific merits of the mission options considered in probing the light seed black holes and their coevolution with galaxies in early Universe. The study indicates that, by choosing the armlength of the interferometer to be three million kilometers and shifting the sensitivity floor to around one-hundredth Hz, together with a very moderate improvement on the position noise budget, there are certain mission options capable ...

  4. STS-40 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The STS-40 patch makes a contemporary statement focusing on human beings living and working in space. Against a background of the universe, seven silver stars, interspersed about the orbital path of Columbia, represent the seven crew members. The orbiter's flight path forms a double-helix, designed to represent the DNA molecule common to all living creatures. In the words of a crew spokesman, ...(the helix) affirms the ceaseless expansion of human life and American involvement in space while simultaneously emphasizing the medical and biological studies to which this flight is dedicated. Above Columbia, the phrase Spacelab Life Sciences 1 defines both the Shuttle mission and its payload. Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man, silhouetted against the blue darkness of the heavens, is in the upper center portion of the patch. With one foot on Earth and arms extended to touch Shuttle's orbit, the crew feels, he serves as a powerful embodiment of the extension of human inquiry from the boundaries of Earth to the limitless laboratory of space. Sturdily poised amid the stars, he serves to link scentists on Earth to the scientists in space asserting the harmony of efforts which produce meaningful scientific spaceflight missions. A brilliant red and yellow Earth limb (center) links Earth to space as it radiates from a native American symbol for the sun. At the frontier of space, the traditional symbol for the sun vividly links America's past to America's future, the crew states. Beneath the orbiting Shuttle, darkness of night rests peacefully over the United States. Drawn by artist Sean Collins, the STS 40 Space Shuttle patch was designed by the crewmembers for the flight.

  5. Hayabusa2 Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Tsuda, Yuichi; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Tanaka, Satoshi; Saiki, Takanao; Nakazawa, Satoru

    2017-07-01

    The Hayabusa2 mission journeys to C-type near-Earth asteroid (162173) Ryugu (1999 JU3) to observe and explore the 900 m-sized object, as well as return samples collected from the surface layer. The Haybusa2 spacecraft developed by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) was successfully launched on December 3, 2014 by an H-IIA launch vehicle and performed an Earth swing-by on December 3, 2015 to set it on a course toward its target Ryugu. Hayabusa2 aims at increasing our knowledge of the early history and transfer processes of the solar system through deciphering memories recorded on Ryugu, especially about the origin of water and organic materials transferred to the Earth's region. Hayabusa2 carries four remote-sensing instruments, a telescopic optical camera with seven colors (ONC-T), a laser altimeter (LIDAR), a near-infrared spectrometer covering the 3-μm absorption band (NIRS3), and a thermal infrared imager (TIR). It also has three small rovers of MINERVA-II and a small lander MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout) developed by German Aerospace Center (DLR) in cooperation with French space agency CNES. MASCOT has a wide angle imager (MasCam), a 6-band thermal radiator (MARA), a 3-axis magnetometer (MasMag), and a hyperspectral infrared microscope (MicrOmega). Further, Hayabusa2 has a sampling device (SMP), and impact experiment devices which consist of a small carry-on impactor (SCI) and a deployable camera (DCAM3). The interdisciplinary research using the data from these onboard and lander's instruments and the analyses of returned samples are the key to success of the mission.

  6. Swarming UAVs mission design strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Chi

    2007-04-01

    This paper uses a behavioral hierarchy approach to reduce the mission solution space and make the mission design easier. A UAV behavioral hierarchy is suggested, which is derived from three levels of behaviors: basic, individual and group. The individual UAV behavior is a combination of basic, lower level swarming behaviors with priorities. Mission design can be simplified by picking the right combination of individual swarming behaviors, which will emerge the needed group behaviors. Genetic Algorithm is used in both lower-level basic behavior design and mission design.

  7. Simulation of Mission Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury

    2016-01-01

    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  8. ERIC: Mission, Structure, and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Jane B.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the mission, structure, and resource base of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Highlights include problems in meeting the information needs of a wide variety of educational practitioners as part of the mission; structure, based on organizational decentralization; and resources that are limited by…

  9. Mission Assurance: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    JFQ), Summer 1995. [9] Alberts , C.J. & Dorofee, A.J., “Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP): Assessing Risk in Complex Environments... CAMUS : Automatically Mapping Cyber Assets to Missions and Users,” Proc. of the 2010 Military Communications Conference (MILCOM 2009), 2009. [23

  10. Second generation Mars landed missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, J.; Rivellini, T.; Sabahi, D.; Thurman, S.; Eisen, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the candidate missions being considered for the next generation projects, discusses the new approaches being developed to implement safe and accurate entry, descent and landing to the Martian surface, and describes the rover technology that enables the long distance and duration surface mission.

  11. Mission Dolores and Jim Corbin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Written by history students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, this issue includes two articles relevant to East Texas history. "Mission Dolores and Jim Corbin," (Moss Heaton and others) is a summary of material presented by Professor James Corbin about the early Spanish presence in East Texas. The first attempt at setting up a mission was in 1690…

  12. ESA CHEOPS mission: development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, N.; Asquier, J.; Corral Van Damme, C.; Isaak, K.; Ratti, F.; Safa, F.; Southworth, R.; Broeg, C.; Benz, W.

    2016-07-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Science Programme Committee (SPC) selected CHEOPS (Characterizing Exoplanets Satellite) in October 2012 as the first S-class mission (S1) within the Agency's Scientific Programme, targeting launch readiness by the end of 2017. The CHEOPS mission is devoted to the first-step characterization of known exoplanets orbiting bright stars, to be achieved through the precise measurement of exo-planet radii using the technique of transit photometry. It is implemented as a partnership between ESA and a consortium of Member States led by Switzerland. CHEOPS is considered as a pilot case for implementing "small science missions" in ESA with the following requirements: science driven missions selected through an open Call for missions (bottom-up process); spacecraft development schedule much shorter than for M and L missions, in the range of 4 years; and cost-capped missions to ESA with possibly higher Member States involvement than for M or L missions. The paper describes the CHEOPS development status, focusing on the performed hardware manufacturing and test activities.

  13. Disruptive Propulsive Technologies for European Space Missions

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Advanced space technologies have been reviewed and analysed in view of heavy interplanetary missions of interest for Europe and European industry capabilities. Among the missions of interest: o Heavy robotic missions to outer planets, o Asteroid deflection missions, o Interplanetary manned mission (at longer term). These missions involve high speed increments, generally beyond the capability of chemical propulsion (except if gravitational swing-by can be used). For missions bey...

  14. UNAIDS: mission and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The UN has responded to the ongoing AIDS crisis by creating a new Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). UNAIDS is the AIDS program of six UN agencies (UNICEF; the Development Programme; the Population Fund; the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; the World Health Organization, and the World Bank). The mission of UNAIDS is to lead a multisectoral effort to prevent HIV transmission, provide care and support, alleviate the impact of the epidemic, and reduce vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Thus, UNAIDS will operate in the areas of policy development and research, technical support, and advocacy. UNAIDS has had an executive director since January 1995, and a formal review of its strategic plan was scheduled for November 1995. At the country level, country representatives of the various agencies that make up UNAIDS will meet regularly to plan, program, and evaluate their HIV/AIDS activities. UNAIDS staff will be available to aid the country efforts. While UNAIDS will assume most of the global-level activities of its six cosponsor agencies, each agency will integrate HIV/AIDS considerations into their ongoing efforts.

  15. COSMOS 2044 Mission: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Ballard, R. W.; Connol, J. P.; Vasques, M. F.

    1992-01-01

    The COSMOS 2044 spaceflight was the ninth Soviet-International joint mission dedicated to space biomedicine and the seventh in which the United States has participated. The unmanned Vostok vehicle carried 10 rats and two rhesus monkeys on its 14-day voyage. This spaceflight yielded an unprecedented bounty of data on physiological responses to the microgravity environment. The tissues studied and the numbers and types of studies performed by members of the international science community constituted a new record. Many of the results obtained by the approximately 80 American scientists who participated are reported in the series of COSMOS 2044 papers in this issue. Descriptions of the spaceflight and animal procedures are detailed elsewhere. The broad goals of the space biomedical program are threefold. The first is to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the biological responses to the microgravity environment, be they adaptive or pathological. The second goal is to clarify the physiological-biochemical mechanisms mediating the responses to microgravity. The third goal of this program is to use the space environment as a tool to better understand adaptive and disease processes in terrestrial organisms.

  16. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  17. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth- Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time.

  18. Multi-mission Satellite Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  19. The Rationale for a New High-resolution Imaging Radar Mission to Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, R. R.; Sharpton, V. L.; Gens, R.; Ghent, R. R.; Gilmore, M. S.; Grimm, R. E.; Johnson, C. L.; McGovern, P. J.; Meyer, F.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Plaut, J. J.; Sandwell, D. T.; Simons, M.; Solomon, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    atmosphere in the ejecta emplacement process; (8) constraining the processes responsible for the abrupt decrease in emissivity at high altitudes; (9) selecting landing sites for future missions; and (10) identifying past landers/probes to place them in geologic context. Our state of knowledge about Venus is currently analogous to our knowledge of Mars in the post-Viking era, and a high-resolution imaging radar mission to Venus could revolutionize our understanding of Venus in the way that the Mars Global Surveyor mission did for Mars.

  20. Local inversion of magnetic anomalies: Implication for Mars' crustal evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Quesnel, Yoann; Langlais, Benoit; Sotin, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Martian magnetic anomalies have been revealed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission in the south hemisphere of Mars. The present study models anomalies located in the ancient Terra Sirenum area between latitudes 26°S and 40°S and longitudes 185°E and 210°E using forward and inverse approaches. While the high-altitude measurements reveal the presence of two main magnetic anomalies, three are detected by low-altitude data. They are modeled as uncorrelated dipolar sou...

  1. Erosionsrinnen auf dem Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Reiß, Dennis Emil

    2010-01-01

    The work presented here analyses gullies on Mars using high resolution images (Mars Orbiter Camera – MOC) of the Mars Global Surveyor Mission (MGS). Gullies on Earth are formed by debris flows, a mass movement in which water is involved. It is assumed that gully features on Mars are young and therefore they could indicate the presence of liquid water in the recent past. The main focus of this work lies in a morphological analysis, a global mapping of their distribution and a determination of ...

  2. Sentinel-3 Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, U.; Berruti, B.; Donlon, C.; Frerick, J.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Stroede, J.; Rebhan, H.

    2009-04-01

    The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will provide global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring. Sentinel-3 will be particularly devoted to the provision of observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. It will continue the successful observations of similar predecessor instruments onboard Envisat from 2012 onwards. The Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) is based on the Envisat MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS) instrument. It fulfils ocean-colour and land-cover objectives with a larger swath and additional spectral bands. The Sea and Land Surface Temperature radiometer (SLSTR) is based on Envisat's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). SLSTR has a double-scanning mechanism, yielding a wider swath and a complete overlap with OLCI. This enables the generation of a synergy product with a total of 30 spectral bands, fully co-registered for new and innovative ocean and land products. The topography mission has the primary objective of providing accurate, closely spaced altimetry measurements from a high-inclination orbit with a long repeat cycle. It will complement the Jason ocean altimeter series monitoring mid-scale circulation and sea levels. The altimeter will be operated in two different modes, a classical low resolution mode and a synthetic aperture mode similar to CryoSat for increased along-track resolution and improved performance. Accompanying the altimeter will be a Precise Orbit Determination system and microwave radiometer (MWR) for removing the errors related to the altimeter signals being delayed by water vapour in the atmosphere. The altimeter will track over a variety of surfaces: Open ocean, coastal zones, sea ice and inland waters. The conceptual designs of the major instruments and their basic performance parameters will be introduced together with the expected accuracies of the main

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2008011 to 2010-10-31 (NODC Accession 0115181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115181 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Great...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean and others from 2012-04-11 to 2012-07-25 (NODC Accession 0115295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115295 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean, South...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Great Australian Bight and others from 2011-04-06 to 2011-11-26 (NODC Accession 0115708)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115708 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Great Australian...

  6. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR and other platforms as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 22 July 1976 to 02 October 1976 (NODC Accession 7800045)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR and other...

  7. Phytoplankton and other data from net and bottle casts in the North Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1976-03-15 to 1976-04-26 (NODC Accession 7700779)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton and other data were collected from net and bottle casts in the North Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 15 March 1976 to 26 April 1976. Data...

  8. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1975-10-28 to 1975-11-17 (NODC Accession 7601830)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR. Data were...

  9. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts in the Bering Sea from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 18 March 1977 to 04 April 1977 (NODC Accession 7800309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts in the Bering Sea from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by...

  10. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 22 July 1977 to 05 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7700854)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the...

  11. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts in the Bering Sea from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 17 April 1977 to 01 May 1977 (NODC Accession 7800310)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts in the Bering Sea from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-24 (NODC Accession 0108082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108082 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  13. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the Gulf of Alaska from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR and other platforms as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1978-04-06 to 1978-09-12 (NODC Accession 8000004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected in the Gulf of Alaska from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR and other platforms from 06 April 1978 to 12 September 1978. Data...

  14. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the Beaufort Sea and other locations from the SURVEYOR and other platforms as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 25 January 1977 to 17 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7900339)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected in the Beaufort Sea from the SURVEYOR and other platforms from 25 January 1977 to 17 November 1977. Data were...

  15. The Ulysses mission: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, R.G. [Space Science Dept. of ESA, Estec, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    1996-11-01

    On 30 September 1995, Ulysses completed its initial, highly successful, survey of the polar regions of the heliosphere in both southern and northern hemispheres, thereby fulfilling its prime mission. The results obtained to date are leading to a revision of many earlier ideas concerning the solar wind and the heliosphere. Now embarking on the second phase of the mission, Ulysses will continue along its out-of-ecliptic flight path for another complete orbit of the Sun. In contrast to the high-latitude phase of the prime mission, which occurred near solar minimum, the next polar passes (in 2000 and 2001) will take place when the Sun is at its most active.

  16. The Advanced Compton Telescope Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Boggs, S E; Ryan, J; Aprile, E; Gehrels, N; Kippen, M; Leising, M; Oberlack, U; Wunderer, C; Zych, A; Bloser, P; Harris, M; Hoover, A; Klimenk, A; Kocevski, D; McConnell, M; Milne, P; Novikova, E I; Phlips, B; Polsen, M; Sturner, S; Tournear, D; Weidenspointner, G; Wulf, E; Zoglauer, A; Baring, M; Beacom, J; Bildsten, L; Dermer, C; Hartmann, D; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Starrfield, S; Boggs, Steven E.; Kurfess, James; Ryan, James; Aprile, Elena; Gehrels, Neil; Kippen, Marc; Leising, Mark; Oberlack, Uwe; Wunderer, Cornelia; Zych, Allen; Bloser, Peter; Harris, Michael; Hoover, Andrew; Klimenk, Alexei; Kocevski, Dan; Connell, Mark Mc; Milne, Peter; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard; Polsen, Mark; Sturner, Steven; Tournear, Derek; Weidenspointner, Georg; Wulf, Eric; Zoglauer, Andreas; Baring, Matthew; Beacom, John; Bildsten, Lars; Dermer, Charles; Hartmann, Dieter; Hernanz, Margarita; Smith, David; Starrfield, Sumner

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT), the next major step in gamma-ray astronomy, will probe the fires where chemical elements are formed by enabling high-resolution spectroscopy of nuclear emission from supernova explosions. During the past two years, our collaboration has been undertaking a NASA mission concept study for ACT. This study was designed to (1) transform the key scientific objectives into specific instrument requirements, (2) to identify the most promising technologies to meet those requirements, and (3) to design a viable mission concept for this instrument. We present the results of this study, including scientific goals and expected performance, mission design, and technology recommendations.

  17. Surface Brightness Correction for Compact Extended Sources Observed by the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) in the Slow-Scan Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Ueta, Toshiya; Takita, Satoshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Shirahata, Mai; Fullard, Andrew; Yamamura, Issei; Matsuura, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    We present a general surface brightness correction method for compact extended sources imaged in the slow-scan pointed observation mode of the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) aboard the AKARI Infrared Astronomical Satellite. Our method recovers correct surface brightness distribution maps by re-scaling archived raw FIS maps using the surface-brightness-dependent inverse FIS response function. The flux of a target source is then automatically corrected for as the simple sum of surface brightnesses within the adopted contour encircling the perimeter of the target (i.e., contour photometry). This correction method is contrasted to the previous aperture photometry method for point sources, which directly corrects for the target flux with a flux-dependent scaling law. The new surface brightness correction scheme is applicable to objects of any shape from unresolved point sources to resolved extended objects, as long as the target is not deemed diffuse, i.e., the total extent of the target source does not exceed too mu...

  18. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  19. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) Mathematical Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a space trajectory optimization and mission analysis system developed by NASA and private industry in the spirit of the NASA Mission. GMAT contains new technology and is a testbed for future technology development.

  20. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steven P. (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    This is a software tutorial and presentation demonstrating the application of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to the critical design phase of NASA missions. The demonstration discusses GMAT basics, then presents a detailed example of GMAT application to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. Other examples include OSIRIS-Rex. This talk is a combination of existing presentations; a GMAT basics and overview, and technical presentations from the TESS and OSIRIS-REx projects on their application of GMAT to critical mission design. The GMAT basics slides are taken from the open source training material. The OSIRIS-REx slides are from a previous conference presentation. The TESS slides are a streamlined version of the CDR package provided by the project with SBU and ITAR data removed by the TESS project.

  1. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Can you ... spp. So, what can we do to prevent antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings? Patients, healthcare providers, healthcare facility ...

  2. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  3. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  4. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  5. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  6. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  7. Social Tagging of Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Abramyan, Lucy; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Fox, Jason M.; Pyrzak, Guy; Vaughn, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Mars missions will generate a large amount of data in various forms, such as daily plans, images, and scientific information. Often, there is a semantic linkage between images that cannot be captured automatically. Software is needed that will provide a method for creating arbitrary tags for this mission data so that items with a similar tag can be related to each other. The tags should be visible and searchable for all users. A new routine was written to offer a new and more flexible search option over previous applications. This software allows users of the MSLICE program to apply any number of arbitrary tags to a piece of mission data through a MSLICE search interface. The application of tags creates relationships between data that did not previously exist. These tags can be easily removed and changed, and contain enough flexibility to be specifically configured for any mission. This gives users the ability to quickly recall or draw attention to particular pieces of mission data, for example: Give a semantic and meaningful description to mission data; for example, tag all images with a rock in them with the tag "rock." Rapidly recall specific and useful pieces of data; for example, tag a plan as"driving template." Call specific data to a user s attention; for example, tag a plan as "for:User." This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.

  8. A review of Spacelab mission management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Spacelab development program is a joint undertaking of the NASA and ESA. The paper addresses the initial concept of Spacelab payload mission management, the lessons learned, and modifications made as a result of the actual implementation of Spacelab Mission 1. The discussion covers mission management responsibilities, program control, science management, payload definition and interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. After 3.5 years the outlined overall mission manager approach has proven to be most successful. The approach does allow the mission manager to maintain the lowest overall mission cost.

  9. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  10. Mars Surveyor Program '01 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment wet chemistry lab: a sensor array for chemical analysis of the Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Lukow, Stefan R.; Comeau, Brian P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Grannan-Feldman, Sabrina M.; Manatt, Ken; West, Steven J.; Wen, Xiaowen; Frant, Martin; Gillette, Tim

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) instrument was designed, built, and flight qualified for the now canceled MSP (Mars Surveyor Program) '01 Lander. The MECA package consisted of a microscope, electrometer, material patch plates, and a wet chemistry laboratory (WCL). The primary goal of MECA was to analyze the Martian soil (regolith) for possible hazards to future astronauts and to provide a better understanding of Martian regolith geochemistry. The purpose of the WCL was to analyze for a range of soluble ionic chemical species and electrochemical parameters. The heart of the WCL was a sensor array of electrochemically based ion-selective electrodes (ISE). After 20 months storage at -23 degrees C and subsequent extended freeze/thawing cycles, WCL sensors were evaluated to determine both their physical durability and analytical responses. A fractional factorial calibration of the sensors was used to obtain slope, intercept, and all necessary selectivity coefficients simultaneously for selected ISEs. This calibration was used to model five cation and three anion sensors. These data were subsequently used to determine concentrations of several ions in two soil leachate simulants (based on terrestrial seawater and hypothesized Mars brine) and four actual soil samples. The WCL results were compared to simulant and soil samples using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The results showed that flight qualification and prolonged low-temperature storage conditions had minimal effects on the sensors. In addition, the analytical optimization method provided quantitative and qualitative data that could be used to accurately identify the chemical composition of the simulants and soils. The WCL has the ability to provide data that can be used to "read" the chemical, geological, and climatic history of Mars, as well as the potential habitability of its regolith.

  11. Surface brightness correction for compact extended sources observed by the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor in the slow-scan mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Toshiya; Tomasino, Rachael L.; Takita, Satoshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Shirahata, Mai; Fullard, Andrew; Yamamura, Issei; Matsuura, Shuji

    2017-02-01

    We present a general surface brightness correction method for compact extended sources imaged in the slow-scan pointed observation mode of the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) aboard the AKARI infrared astronomical satellite. Our method recovers correct surface brightness distribution maps by rescaling archived raw FIS maps using the surface-brightness-dependent inverse FIS response function. The flux of a target source is then automatically corrected for as the simple sum of surface brightnesses within the adopted contour encircling the perimeter of the target (i.e., contour photometry). This correction method is contrasted with the previous aperture photometry method for point sources, which directly corrects for the target flux with a flux-dependent scaling law. The new surface brightness correction scheme is applicable to objects of any shape from unresolved point sources to resolved extended objects, as long as the target is not deemed diffuse, i.e., the total extent of the target source does not exceed too much more than a single FIS scan width of 10'. The new correction method takes advantage of the well-defined shape (i.e., the scale invariance) of the point spread function, which enables us to adopt a power-law FIS response function. We analyze the point source photometric calibrator data using the FIS AKARI Slow-scan Tool and constrain the parameters of the adopted power-law FIS response function. We conclude that the photometric accuracy of the new correction method is better than 10% error based on comparisons with the expected fluxes of the photometric calibrators, and that resulting fluxes without the present correction method can lead to up to 230% overestimates or down to 50% underestimates.

  12. The Europa Jupiter System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Clark, K.; Erd, C.; Pappalardo, R.; Greeley, R. R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.; van Houten, T.

    2009-05-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) will be an international mission that will achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission has been selected by NASA as the next Flagship mission to the out solar system. JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM will fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision for exploration of the outer solar system. The Decadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission target. EJSM would uniquely address several of the central themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM will investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geological and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the

  13. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Experiment onboard the European Mars Express (MEX) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, G.; HRSC Team

    2003-04-01

    A major goal of the European Mars Express mission is to image the Martian surface at high spatial resolution, in stereo and in color. This task will be met by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), a multiple-line pushbroom scanner. 9 CCD lines are mounted in parallel and simultaneously acquire images at high spatial resolution, in triple-stereo, in four colors and at five viewing angles. During the nominal mission, the HRSC will cover at least 50% of the Martian surface at 10-15 m/pixel, 70% at better than 30 m/pixel and 100% at better than 100 m/pixel resolution. The instrument is equipped with an additional super-resolution channel reaching a spatial resolution of up to 2 m/pixel. This channel is boresighted with the HRSC stereo scanner and will obtain nested-in images or image strips. Up to a few % of the Martian surface can be covered by the super-resolution channel during the mission. This channel will be of particular importance for highest-resolution coverage of landing sites such as planned for the Mars Express Beagle 2 site and the two Mars Surveyor 2003 rover sites. Scientifically, the HRSC experiment concentrates on the geological and climatological evolution of Mars with special emphasis on the role of water throughout the Martian history. An international team of 40 Co-Investigators from 28 scientific institutions and 10 countries will run the experiment and analyze the data over the two-year nominal mission with a possible extension over an additional two years. The data will be processed in such a way that they will be usable by the scientific community at large six months after receipt. The experiment hardware and software development is finished and the instrument is being assembled and tested at the ESA-MEX spacecraft. The launch of the mission is scheduled from Baikonur in late May 2003. First data from the cruise phase to Mars will be received in the June-July period of 2003.

  14. No Mission, No Money: No Money, No Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durel, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Museum leaders around the country are in the midst of examining and changing their business models in response to new economic realities. Museum educators have an opportunity to play a leading role in this endeavor. To do so educators must understand the relationship between money and mission. For too long there has been a belief that the…

  15. The ASTRO-H Mission

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 忠幸; Takahashi, Tadayuki; 満田, 和久; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Kelley, Richard; ASTRO-H team

    2010-01-01

    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) The planned launch date is 2014. ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe by performing high-resolution, highthroughput spectroscopy with moderate spatial resolution over the 0.3 - 600 keV energy range. ASTRO-H is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, f...

  16. The NeXT Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, T.; Kelley, R; Mitsuda, K.; Kunieda, H.; Petre, R.; White, N; Dotani, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hayashida, K.; Ishida, M.; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; K. Koyama

    2008-01-01

    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will a...

  17. The WAXS/WFXT Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Chincarini, G L

    1999-01-01

    I present the science goals and give a brief summary of the Wide Angle X-ray survey with a Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WAXS/WFXT) mission proposal (Phase A) which will be submitted to the Italian Space Agency (ASI) following the call for proposal under the Small Satellite program. The text points out the uniqueness of the mission for the study of the evolution of clusters of galaxies and of the Large-Scale Structure at large redshifts and for the study of the Milky Way. I present, furthermore, the successful result of the metrology of the first wide field X-ray optics ever made.

  18. SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization Andrew Nicholas, Ted Finne, Ivan Galysh, Anthony Mai, Jim Yen Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...mission overview, ground truth characterization and unique SSA observation opportunities of the mission. 1. MISSION CONCEPT The Naval Research...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization 5a. CONTRACT

  19. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...

  20. Gravitational-wave Mission Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver; Stebbins, Robin T.

    2014-01-01

    In November 2013, ESA selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has indicated an interest in participating. We have studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA. The European community proposed a strawman mission concept, called eLISA, having two measurement arms, derived from the well studied LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) concept. The US community is promoting a mission concept known as SGO Mid (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory Mid-sized), a three arm LISA-like concept. If NASA were to partner with ESA, the eLISA concept could be transformed to SGO Mid by the addition of a third arm, augmenting science, reducing risk and reducing non-recurring engineering costs. The characteristics of the mission concepts and the relative science performance of eLISA, SGO Mid and LISA are described. Note that all results are based on models, methods and assumptions used in NASA studies

  1. New Horizons Mission to Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the trajectory that will take the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. Included are photographs of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the assembled vehicle as it is being moved to the launch pad and the launch. Also shown are diagrams of the assembled parts with identifying part names.

  2. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  3. LISA Pathfinder: mission and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Boatella, C.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Ciani, G.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Fertin, D.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jeannin, O.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Perreca, A.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Rais, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Zweifel, P.

    2011-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The technologies required for LISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical LISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the LISA constellation by shrinking the 5 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the LISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in 2013 on-board a dedicated small launch vehicle (VEGA). After a series of apogee raising manoeuvres using an expendable propulsion module, LISA Pathfinder will enter a transfer orbit towards the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). After separation from the propulsion module, the LPF spacecraft will be stabilized using the micro-Newton thrusters, entering a 500 000 km by 800 000 km Lissajous orbit around L1. Science results will be available approximately 2 months after launch.

  4. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate

    2014-05-01

    A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander

  5. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  6. The SLICE, CHESS, and SISTINE Ultraviolet Spectrographs: Rocket-Borne Instrumentation Supporting Future Astrophysics Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Hoadley, Keri; Fleming, Brian T.; Kane, Robert; Nell, Nicholas; Beasley, Matthew; Green, James C.

    2016-03-01

    NASA’s suborbital program provides an opportunity to conduct unique science experiments above Earth’s atmosphere and is a pipeline for the technology and personnel essential to future space astrophysics, heliophysics, and atmospheric science missions. In this paper, we describe three astronomy payloads developed (or in development) by the Ultraviolet Rocket Group at the University of Colorado. These far-ultraviolet (UV) (100-160nm) spectrographic instruments are used to study a range of scientific topics, from gas in the interstellar medium (accessing diagnostics of material spanning five orders of magnitude in temperature in a single observation) to the energetic radiation environment of nearby exoplanetary systems. The three instruments, Suborbital Local Interstellar Cloud Experiment (SLICE), Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS), and Suborbital Imaging Spectrograph for Transition region Irradiance from Nearby Exoplanet host stars (SISTINE) form a progression of instrument designs and component-level technology maturation. SLICE is a pathfinder instrument for the development of new data handling, storage, and telemetry techniques. CHESS and SISTINE are testbeds for technology and instrument design enabling high-resolution (R>105) point source spectroscopy and high throughput imaging spectroscopy, respectively, in support of future Explorer, Probe, and Flagship-class missions. The CHESS and SISTINE payloads support the development and flight testing of large-format photon-counting detectors and advanced optical coatings: NASA’s top two technology priorities for enabling a future flagship observatory (e.g. the LUVOIR Surveyor concept) that offers factors of ˜50-100 gain in UV spectroscopy capability over the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the design, component level laboratory characterization, and flight results for these instruments.

  7. IntroductionThe Cluster mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fehringer

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission, ESA’s first cornerstone project, together with the SOHO mission, dating back to the first proposals in 1982, was finally launched in the summer of 2000. On 16 July and 9 August, respectively, two Russian Soyuz rockets blasted off from the Russian cosmodrome in Baikonour to deliver two Cluster spacecraft, each into their proper orbit. By the end of August 2000, the four Cluster satellites had reached their final tetrahedral constellation. The commissioning of 44 instruments, both individually and as an ensemble of complementary tools, was completed five months later to ensure the optimal use of their combined observational potential. On 1 February 2001, the mission was declared operational. The main goal of the Cluster mission is to study the small-scale plasma structures in three dimensions in key plasma regions, such as the solar wind, bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail and the auroral zones. With its unique capabilities of three-dimensional spatial resolution, Cluster plays a major role in the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP, where Cluster and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO are the European contributions. Cluster’s payload consists of state-of-the-art plasma instrumentation to measure electric and magnetic fields from the quasi-static up to high frequencies, and electron and ion distribution functions from energies of nearly 0 eV to a few MeV. The science operations are coordinated by the Joint Science Operations Centre (JSOC, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK, and implemented by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC, in Darmstadt, Germany. A network of eight national data centres has been set up for raw data processing, for the production of physical parameters, and their distribution to end users all over the world. The latest information on the Cluster mission can be found at http://sci.esa.int/cluster/.

  8. MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.

    2008-08-01

    MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission is currently in phase B and the launch is planned for 2011.

  9. Multiple Space Debris Collecting Mission -- Optimal Mission Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Cerf, Max

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of planning successive Space Debris Collecting missions so that they can be achieved at minimal cost by a generic vehicle. The problem mixes combinatorial optimization to select and order the debris among a list of candidates, and continuous optimization to fix the rendezvous dates and to define the minimum fuel orbital maneuvers. The solution method proposed consists in three stages. Firstly the orbital transfer problem is simplified by considering a generic transfer strategy suited either to a high thrust or a low thrust vehicle. A response surface modelling is built by solving the reduced problem for all pairs of debris and for discretized dates, and storing the results in cost matrices. Secondly a simulated annealing algorithm is applied to find the optimal mission planning. The cost function is assessed by interpolation on the response surface based on the cost matrices. This allows the convergence of the simulated algorithm in a limited computation time, yielding an opti...

  10. Identification of M.bovis from M.tuberculosis by DHPLC and SURVEYOR Nuclease%异源双链分析法用于结核和牛分枝杆菌的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 赵德华; 秦殊; 石瑞如; 张国龙

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is very difficult to differentiate M.bovis from M.tuberculosis from the aspect of molecular microbiology because of more than 99% similarity of their genome sequence.This work is to differentiate these two mycobacteria by DHPLC and SURVEYOR Nuclease methods according to pncA gene C169G mutation and oxyR gene G285A difference of M.bovis,for exploring the application of these two new methods of gene mutation detection based on heteroduplex analysis.Methods PncA gene and oxyR gene of M.tb and M.boris were analyzed by DHPLC and SURVEYOR Nuclease methods.Results It was very easy to judge whether a sample was M.tb or M.bovis from DHPLC profile or SURVEYOR electrophoresis bands.Conclusion DHPLC and SURVEYOR Nuclease methods are sensible,simple,rapid and may become new methods to help to differentiate M.boris from M.tb.%目的 牛分枝杆菌存在pncA基因C169G和oxyR基因G285A突变,而结核分枝杆菌则无此突变,本研究利用DHPLC和SURVEYOR酶法测定这两个位点是否有突变,探讨异源双链分析法在结核分枝杆菌、牛分枝杆菌鉴别中的临床应用价值.方法 SURVEYOR酶法和DHPLC法分析结核分枝杆菌与牛分枝杆菌的pncA及oxyR基因.结果 DHPLC图谱和SURVEYOR酶法电泳图谱在牛分枝杆菌和结核分枝杆菌显著不同,很容易将二者区分开来.结论 DHPLC法和SURVEYOR酶法灵敏,简便,快速,在结核与牛分枝杆菌的鉴别中优于传统的培养鉴别方法.

  11. Mission Operations Control Room Activities during STS-2 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) activities during STS-2 mission. Overall view of the MOCR in the Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center. At far right is Eugene F. Kranz, Deputy Director of Flight Operations. At the flight director console in front of Kranz's FOD console are Flight Directors M.P. Frank, Neil B. Hutchinson and Donald R. Puddy as well as others (39506); Wide-angle view of flight controllers in the MOCR. Clifford E. Charlesworth, JSC Deputy Director, huddles with several flight directors for STS-2 at the flight director console. Kranz, is at far right of frame (39507); Dr. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., JSC Director, center, celebrates successful flight and landing of STS-2 with a cigar in the MOCR. He is flanked by Dr. Maxime A Faget, left, Director of Engineering and Development, and Thomas L. Moser, of the Structures and Mechanics Division (39508); Flight Director Donald R. Puddy, near right, holds replica of the STS-2 insignia. Insignias on the opposite wall

  12. Trajectory Design Considerations for Exploration Mission 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Timothy F.; Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Batcha, Amelia L.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will be the first mission to send an uncrewed Orion vehicle to cislunar space in 2018, targeted to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO). Analysis of EM-1 DRO mission opportunities in 2018 help characterize mission parameters that are of interest to other subsystems (e.g., power, thermal, communications, flight operations, etc). Subsystems request mission design trades which include: landing lighting, addition of an Orion main engine checkout burn, and use of auxiliary thruster only cases. This paper examines the evolving trade studies that incorporate subsystem feedback and demonstrate the feasibility of these constrained mission trajectory designs and contingencies.

  13. Emirates Mars Mission (EMM) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Omran; Amiri, Sarah; AlMheiri, Suhail; Alrais, Adnan; Wali, Mohammad; AlShamsi, Zakareyya; AlQasim, Ibrahim; AlHarmoodi, Khuloud; AlTeneiji, Nour; Almatroushi, Hessa; AlShamsi, Maryam; AlAwadhi, Mohsen; McGrath, Michael; Withnell, Pete; Ferrington, Nicolas; Reed, Heather; Landin, Brett; Ryan, Sean; Pramann, Brian

    2017-04-01

    United Arab Emirates (UAE) has entered the space exploration race with the announcement of Emirates Mars Mission (EMM), the first Arab Islamic mission to another planet, in 2014. Through this mission, UAE is to send an unmanned probe, called Hope probe, to be launched in summer 2020 and reach Mars by 2021 to coincide with UAE's 50th anniversary. Through a sequence of subsequent maneuvers, the spacecraft will enter a large science orbit that has a periapsis altitude of 20,000 km, an apoapsis altitude of 43,000 km, and an inclination of 25 degrees. The mission is designed to (1) characterize the state of the Martian lower atmosphere on global scales and its geographic, diurnal and seasonal variability, (2) correlate rates of thermal and photochemical atmospheric escape with conditions in the collisional Martian atmosphere, and (3) characterize the spatial structure and variability of key constituents in the Martian exosphere. These objectives will be met by four investigations with diurnal variability on sub-seasonal timescales which are (1) determining the three-dimensional thermal state of the lower atmosphere, (2) determining the geographic and diurnal distribution of key constituents in the lower atmosphere, (3) determining the abundance and spatial variability of key neutral species in the thermosphere, and (4) determining the three-dimensional structure and variability of key species in the exosphere. EMM will collect these information about the Mars atmospheric circulation and connections through a combination of three distinct instruments that image Mars in the visible, thermal infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths and they are the Emirates eXploration Imager (EXI), the Emirates Mars InfraRed Spectrometer (EMIRS), and the EMM Mars Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EMUS). EMM has passed its Mission Concept Review (MCR), System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), and Preliminary Design Review (PDR) phases. The mission is led by Emiratis from Mohammed

  14. Interference of Co-amplified nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences on the determination of human mtDNA heteroplasmy by Using the SURVEYOR nuclease and the WAVE HS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Li, Shiue-Li; Hsu, Wei-Chien; Tang, Petrus

    2014-01-01

    High-sensitivity and high-throughput mutation detection techniques are useful for screening the homoplasmy or heteroplasmy status of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but might be susceptible to interference from nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences (NUMTs) co-amplified during polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, we first evaluated the platform of SURVEYOR Nuclease digestion of heteroduplexed DNA followed by the detection of cleaved DNA by using the WAVE HS System (SN/WAVE-HS) for detecting human mtDNA variants and found that its performance was slightly better than that of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). The potential interference from co-amplified NUMTs on screening mtDNA heteroplasmy when using these 2 highly sensitive techniques was further examined by using 2 published primer sets containing a total of 65 primer pairs, which were originally designed to be used with one of the 2 techniques. We confirmed that 24 primer pairs could amplify NUMTs by conducting bioinformatic analysis and PCR with the DNA from 143B-ρ0 cells. Using mtDNA extracted from the mitochondria of human 143B cells and a cybrid line with the nuclear background of 143B-ρ0 cells, we demonstrated that NUMTs could affect the patterns of chromatograms for cell DNA during SN-WAVE/HS analysis of mtDNA, leading to incorrect judgment of mtDNA homoplasmy or heteroplasmy status. However, we observed such interference only in 2 of 24 primer pairs selected, and did not observe such effects during DHPLC analysis. These results indicate that NUMTs can affect the screening of low-level mtDNA variants, but it might not be predicted by bioinformatic analysis or the amplification of DNA from 143B-ρ0 cells. Therefore, using purified mtDNA from cultured cells with proven purity to evaluate the effects of NUMTs from a primer pair on mtDNA detection by using PCR-based high-sensitivity methods prior to the use of a primer pair in real studies would be a more practical strategy.

  15. Interference of Co-amplified nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences on the determination of human mtDNA heteroplasmy by Using the SURVEYOR nuclease and the WAVE HS system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Chuan Yen

    Full Text Available High-sensitivity and high-throughput mutation detection techniques are useful for screening the homoplasmy or heteroplasmy status of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, but might be susceptible to interference from nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences (NUMTs co-amplified during polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In this study, we first evaluated the platform of SURVEYOR Nuclease digestion of heteroduplexed DNA followed by the detection of cleaved DNA by using the WAVE HS System (SN/WAVE-HS for detecting human mtDNA variants and found that its performance was slightly better than that of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC. The potential interference from co-amplified NUMTs on screening mtDNA heteroplasmy when using these 2 highly sensitive techniques was further examined by using 2 published primer sets containing a total of 65 primer pairs, which were originally designed to be used with one of the 2 techniques. We confirmed that 24 primer pairs could amplify NUMTs by conducting bioinformatic analysis and PCR with the DNA from 143B-ρ0 cells. Using mtDNA extracted from the mitochondria of human 143B cells and a cybrid line with the nuclear background of 143B-ρ0 cells, we demonstrated that NUMTs could affect the patterns of chromatograms for cell DNA during SN-WAVE/HS analysis of mtDNA, leading to incorrect judgment of mtDNA homoplasmy or heteroplasmy status. However, we observed such interference only in 2 of 24 primer pairs selected, and did not observe such effects during DHPLC analysis. These results indicate that NUMTs can affect the screening of low-level mtDNA variants, but it might not be predicted by bioinformatic analysis or the amplification of DNA from 143B-ρ0 cells. Therefore, using purified mtDNA from cultured cells with proven purity to evaluate the effects of NUMTs from a primer pair on mtDNA detection by using PCR-based high-sensitivity methods prior to the use of a primer pair in real studies would be a more practical

  16. Mission Success for Combustion Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes how mission success for combustion experiments has been obtained in previous spaceflight experiments and how it will be obtained for future International Space Station (ISS) experiments. The fluids and combustion facility is a payload planned for the ISS. It is composed of two racks: the fluids Integrated rack and the Combustion INtegrated Rack (CIR). Requirements for the CIR were obtained from a set of combustion basis experiments that served as surrogates for later experiments. The process for experiments that fly on the ISS includes proposal selection, requirements and success criteria definition, science and engineering reviews, mission operations, and postflight operations. By following this process, the microgravity combustion science program has attained success in 41 out of 42 experiments.

  17. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  18. The Solar Spectroscopy Explorer Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Bookbinder, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Spectroscopy Explorer (SSE) concept is conceived as a scalable mission, with two to four instruments and a strong focus on coronal spectroscopy. In its core configuration it is a small strategic mission ($250-500M) built around a microcalorimeter (an imaging X-ray spectrometer) and a high spatial resolution (0.2 arcsec) EUV imager. SSE puts a strong focus on the plasma spectroscopy, balanced with high resolution imaging - providing for break-through imaging science as well as providing the necessary context for the spectroscopy suite. Even in its smallest configuration SSE provides observatory class science, with significant science contributions ranging from basic plasma and radiative processes to the onset of space weather events. The basic configuration can carry an expanded instrument suite with the addition of a hard X-ray imaging spectrometer and/or a high spectral resolution EUV instrument - significantly expanding the science capabilities. In this configuration, it will fall at the small end...

  19. The GAMMA-400 Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Cumani, P; Bonvicini, V; Topchiev, N P; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, S; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Leonov, A A; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Menshenin, A L; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Popov, A V; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Suchkov, S I; Tavani, M; Taraskin, A A; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    GAMMA-400 is a new space mission which will be installed on board the Russian space platform Navigator. It is scheduled to be launched at the beginning of the next decade. GAMMA-400 is designed to study simultaneously gamma rays (up to 3 TeV) and cosmic rays (electrons and positrons from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, nuclei up to 10$^{15}$-10$^{16}$ eV). Being a dual-purpose mission, GAMMA-400 will be able to address some of the most impelling science topics, such as search for signatures of dark matter, cosmic-rays origin and propagation, and the nature of transients. GAMMA-400 will try to solve the unanswered questions on these topics by high-precision measurements of the Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources, Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission and the spectra of cosmic-ray electrons + positrons and nuclei, thanks to excellent energy and angular resolutions.

  20. Mission design for LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Landgraf, M; Kemble, S

    2004-01-01

    Here we describe the mission design for SMART-2/LISA Pathfinder. The best trade-off between the requirements of a low-disturbance environment and communications distance is found to be a free-insertion Lissajous orbit around the first co-linear Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth system L1, 1.5x 10^6 km from Earth. In order to transfer SMART-2/LISA Pathfinder from a low Earth orbit, where it will be placed by a small launcher, the spacecraft carries out a number of apogee-raise manoeuvres, which ultimatively place it to a parabolic escape trajectory towards L1. The challenges of the design of a small mission are met, fulfilling the very demanding technology demonstration requirements without creating excessive requirements on the launch system or the ground segment.

  1. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  2. ESA's SMART-1 Mission: Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, G.; Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Project Team

    SMART-1 is the first of Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology as part of ESA science programme ``Cosmic Vision''. Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been launched on 27 sept. 2003, as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. SMART-1 orbit pericenter is now outside the inner radiation belt. The current status of SMART-1 will be given at the symposium. After a 15 month cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit.

  3. Skylab mission report, third visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the operational and engineering aspects of the third Skylab visit, including information on the performance of the command and service module and the experiment hardware, the crew's evaluation of the visit, and other visit-related areas of interest such as biomedical observations. The specific areas discussed are contained in the following: (1) solar physics and astrophysics investigations; (2) Comet Kohoutek experiments; (3) medical experiments; (4) earth observations, including data for the multispectral photographic facility, the earth terrain camera, and the microwave radiometer/scattermometer and altimeter; (5) engineering and technology experiments; (6) food and medical operational equipment; (7) hardware and experiment anomalies; and (8) mission support, mission objectives, flight planning, and launch phase summary. Conclusions discussed as a result of the third visit to Skylab involve the advancement of the sciences, practical applications, the durability of man and systems in space, and spaceflight effectiveness and economy.

  4. New ESA Earth Explorer Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herland, E.

    2006-12-01

    The European Space Agency has recently selected a set of six mission candidates for its next Earth Explorer Core mission. This mission will be launched in the beginning of the next decade, and will contribute significantly to Earth science in addition to the already approved six missions in the programme. The scientific priorities for the call for proposals were the global water cycle, the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry and the human element in the Earth system. The presentation will outline the scientific objectives of each of the six mission proposals, and in particular address the potential contribution to the water and energy cycle research and CEOP. The six mission proposals are: BIOMASS global measurements of forest biomass. The measurement is accomplished by a space-borne P-band synthetic aperture polarimetric radar. The technique is mainly based on the measurement of the cross- polar backscattering coefficient, from which forest biomass is directly retrieved. Also uses multipolarization measurements and interferometry. The studies for this mission will include comparative studies to measure terrestrial biomass using P- or L-band and consideration of alternative implementations using L-band. TRAQ TRopospheric composition and Air Quality: Monitoring of air quality and long-range transport of air pollutants. A new synergistic sensor concept for process studies, particularly with respect to aerosol-cloud interactions. Focus on the rate of air quality change on regional and global scales, the strength and distribution of sources and sinks of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols influencing air quality, and the role of tropospheric composition in global change. Carries imaging spectrometers in the range from ultraviolet to short-wave infrared. PREMIER PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation: Aims at understanding processes that link trace gases, radiation, chemistry and climate in the atmosphere

  5. LISA Pathfinder: mission and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonucci, F; Cavalleri, A; Congedo, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Armano, M [European Space Astronomy Centre, European Space Agency, Villanueva de la Canada, 28692 Madrid (Spain); Audley, H; Bogenstahl, J; Danzmann, K [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik und Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Auger, G; Binetruy, P [APC UMR7164, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Benedetti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e Tecnologie Industriali, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Boatella, C [CNES, DCT/AQ/EC, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse, Cedex 9 (France); Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Cristofolini, I [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Strutturale, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Caleno, M; Cesa, M [European Space Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Chmeissani, M [IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ciani, G [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States); Conchillo, A [ICE-CSIC/IEEC, Facultat de Ciencies, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Cruise, M, E-mail: Paul.McNamara@esa.int [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-07

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The technologies required for LISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical LISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the LISA constellation by shrinking the 5 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the LISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in 2013 on-board a dedicated small launch vehicle (VEGA). After a series of apogee raising manoeuvres using an expendable propulsion module, LISA Pathfinder will enter a transfer orbit towards the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). After separation from the propulsion module, the LPF spacecraft will be stabilized using the micro-Newton thrusters, entering a 500 000 km by 800 000 km Lissajous orbit around L1. Science results will be available approximately 2 months after launch.

  6. DARWIN mission proposal to ESA

    CERN Document Server

    Leger, Alain

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of extra-solar planets is one of the greatest achievements of modern astronomy. There are now more than 200 such objects known, and the recent detection of planets with masses approximately 5 times that of Earth demonstrates that extra-solar planets of low mass exist. In addition to providing a wealth of scientific information on the formation and structure of planetary systems, these discoveries capture the interest of both scientists and the wider public with the profound prospect of the search for life in the Universe. We propose an L-type mission, called Darwin, whose primary goal is the study of terrestrial extrasolar planets and the search for life on them. By its very nature, Darwin advances the first Grand Theme of ESA Cosmic Vision. Accomplishing the mission objectives will require collaborative science across disciplines ranging from planet formation and atmospheres to chemistry and biology, and these disciplines will reap profound rewards from their contributions to the Darwin mission...

  7. The Van Allen Probes mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles provides broad and detailed information about NASA’s Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) twin-spacecraft Earth-orbiting mission. The mission has the objective of achieving predictive understanding of the dynamic, intense, energetic, dangerous, and presently unpredictable belts of energetic particles that are magnetically trapped in Earth’s space environment above the atmosphere. It documents the science of the radiation belts and the societal benefits of achieving predictive understanding. Detailed information is provided about the Van Allen Probes mission design, the spacecraft, the science investigations, and the onboard instrumentation that must all work together to make unprecedented measurements within a most unforgiving environment, the core of Earth’s most intense radiation regions.
 This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in space science, solar-terrestrial interactions and studies of the up...

  8. Tandem-X Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, M.

    2015-04-01

    TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) is an innovative formation flying radar mission that opens a new era in spaceborne radar remote sensing. Its primary objective is the acquisition of a global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with unprecedented accuracy (12 m horizontal resolution and 2 m relative height accuracy). This goal is achieved by extending the TerraSAR-X synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mission by a second TerraSAR-X like satellite, TanDEM-X (TDX). Both satellites fly in close orbit formation of a few hundred meters distance, and the resulting large single-pass SAR interferometer features flexible baseline selection enabling the acquisition of highly accurate cross-track interferograms not impacted by temporal decorrelation and atmospheric disturbances. Beyond the global DEM, several secondary mission objectives based on along-track interferometry as well as new bistatic and multistatic SAR techniques have been defined. Since 2010 both satellites have been operated in close formation to map all land surfaces at least twice and difficult terrain even up to four times. While data acquisition for the DEM generation will be concluded by the end of 2014 it is expected to complete the processing of the global DEM in the second half of 2016.

  9. The ASTRO-H Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kelley, Richard; Aharonian, Felix; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steve; Anabuki, Naohisa; Angelini, Lorella; Arnaud, Keith; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Bamba, Aya; Bando, Nobutaka; Bautz, Mark; Blandford, Roger; Boyce, Kevin; Brown, Greg; Chernyakova, Maria; Coppi, Paolo; Costantini, Elisa; Cottam, Jean; Crow, John; de Plaa, Jelle; de Vries, Cor; Herder, Jan-Willem den; DiPirro, Michael; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ebisawa, Ken; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gandhi, Poshak; Gendreau, Keith; Gilmore, Kirk; Haba, Yoshito; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hughes, John; Hwang, Una; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Manabu; Ishimura, Kosei; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Naoki; Ito, Masayuki; Iwata, Naoko; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Timothy; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Katagiri, Hideaki; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Shigeo; Khangaluyan, Dmitry; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Kotani, Taro; Koyama, Katsuji; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, Francois; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox; Madejski, Grzegorz; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Makishima, Kazuo; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; Miller, Jon; Mineshige, Shin; Minesugi, Kenji; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Koji; Mori, Hideyuki; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Toshio; Mushotzky, Richard; Nakagawa, Yujin; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Namba, Yoshiharu; Nomachi, Masaharu; Dell, Steve O'; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Mina; Ogi, Keiji; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Okajima, Takashi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stéphane; Parmer, Arvind; Petre, Robert; Pohl, Martin; Porter, Scott; Ramsey, Brian; Reynolds, Christopher; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Sambruna, Rita; Sato, Goro; Sato, Yoichi; Serlemitsos, Peter; Shida, Maki; Shimada, Takanobu; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Shirron, Peter; Smith, Randall; Sneiderman, Gary; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Lukasz; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Takayuki; Tamura, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Miyako; Tsuboi, Yoko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Uchiyama, Hideki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Uno, Shinichiro; Urry, Meg; Watanabe, Shin; White, Nicholas; Yamada, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamasaki, Noriko; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Yoshida, Atsumasa

    2010-01-01

    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe by performing high-resolution, high-throughput spectroscopy with moderate angular resolution. ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. ASTRO-H allows a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (5-80 keV) provided by multilayer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3-12 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope (0.4-12 keV) and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector (40-600 keV) . The micro-calorimeter system is developed by an international collaboration led by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral reso...

  10. The ASTRO-H Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotani, Tadayasu; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2012-07-01

    ASTRO-H, the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission, planed for launch in 2014. ASTRO-H is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector based on a narrow-FOV semiconductor Compton Camera. With these instruments, ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with high spectral resolution of super massive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei; trace the growth history of the largest structures in the Universe; provide insights into the behavior of material in extreme gravitational fields; trace particle acceleration structures in clusters of galaxies and SNRs; and investigate the detailed physics of jets. In this presentation, we will describe the mission, scientific goal and the recent progress of the project.

  11. UAV Mission Planning: From Robust to Agile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are important assets for information gathering in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Depending on the uncertainty in the planning parameters, the complexity of the mission and its constraints and requirements, different planning methods might

  12. Low Energy Mission Planning Toolbox Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Energy Mission Planning Toolbox is designed to significantly reduce the resources and time spent on designing missions in multi-body gravitational...

  13. DIOS: the dark baryon exploring mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Yamada, S.; Kuromaru, G.; Suzuki, S.; Tawara, Y.; Mitsuishi, I.; Babazaki, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Yamamoto, R.; Hayashi, T.; Ota, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Sakai, K.

    2016-07-01

    DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor) is a small satellite aiming for a launch around 2022 with JAXA's Epsilon rocket. Its main aim is a search for warm-hot intergalactic medium with high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of redshifted emission lines from OVII and OVIII ions. The superior energy resolution of TES microcalorimeters combined with a wide field of view (30' diameter) will enable us to look into gas dynamics of cosmic plasmas in a wide range of spatial scales from Earth's magnetosphere to unvirialized regions of clusters of galaxies. Mechanical and thermal design of the spacecraft and development of the TES calorimeter system are described. Employing an enlarged X-ray telescope with a focal length of 1.2 m and fast repointing capability, DIOS can observe absorption features from X-ray afterglows of distant gamma-ray bursts.

  14. [Issues of biomedical support of explorations missions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A N; Sinyak, Yu E; Petrov, V M

    2013-01-01

    Sine qua non for piloted exploration missions is a system of biomedical support. The future system will be considerably different from the analogous systems applied in current orbital missions. The reason is the challenging conditions in expeditions to remote space. In a mission to Mars, specifically, these are high levels of radiation, hypomagnetic environment, alternation of micro- and hypogravity, very long mission duration and autonomy. The paper scrutinizes the major issues of medical support to future explorers of space.

  15. Exploration Missions to Host Small Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtain, Jonathan; Pelfrey, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The next-generation heavy launch vehicle, the Space Launch System (SLS), will provide the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the exploration mission trajectory. We will describe the payload mission concept of operations, the payload capacity for the SLS, and the payload requirements. Exploration Mission 1, currently planned for launch in December 2017, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS.

  16. The Trojans' Odyssey space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, P.; Vernazza, P.; Groussin, O.; Poncy, J.; Martinot, V.; Hinglais, E.; Bell, J.; Cruikshank, D.; Helbert, J.; Marzari, F.; Morbidelli, A.; Rosenblatt, P.

    2011-10-01

    In our present understanding of the Solar System, small bodies (asteroids, Jupiter Trojans, comets and TNOs) are the most direct remnants of the original building blocks that formed the planets. Jupiter Trojan and Hilda asteroids are small primitive bodies located beyond the "snow line", around respectively the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter at 5.2 AU (Trojans) and in the 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter near 3.9 AU (Hildas). They are at the crux of several outstanding and still conflicting issues regarding the formation and evolution of the Solar System. They hold the potential to unlock the answers to fundamental questions about planetary migration, the late heavy bombardment, the formation of the Jovian system, the origin and evolution of trans-neptunian objects, and the delivery of water and organics to the inner planets. The proposed Trojans' Odyssey mission is envisioned as a reconnaissance, multiple flyby mission aimed at visiting several objects, typically five Trojans and one Hilda. It will attempt exploring both large and small objects and sampling those with any known differences in photometric properties. The orbital strategy consists in a direct trajectory to one of the Trojan swarms. By carefully choosing the aphelion of the orbit (typically 5.3 AU), the trajectory will offer a long arc in the swarm thus maximizing the number of flybys. Initial gravity assists from Venus and Earth will help reducing the cruise to 7 years as well as the ?V needed for injection thus offering enough capacity to navigate among Trojans. This solution further opens the unique possibility to flyby a Hilda asteroid when leaving the Trojan swarm. During the cruise phase, a Main Belt Asteroid could be targeted if requiring a modest ?V. The specific science objectives of the mission will be best achieved with a payload that will perform high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral imaging, thermal-infrared imaging/ radiometry, near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy

  17. The Europa Clipper mission concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Lopes, Rosaly

    Jupiter's moon Europa may be a habitable world. Galileo spacecraft data suggest that an ocean most likely exists beneath Europa’s icy surface and that the “ingredients” necessary for life (liquid water, chemistry, and energy) could be present within this ocean today. Because of the potential for revolutionizing our understanding of life in the solar system, future exploration of Europa has been deemed an extremely high priority for planetary science. A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon’s surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite’s ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from these science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces

  18. Mechanical design of the Mars Pathfinder mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Howard Jay; Buck, Carl W.; Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Umland, Jeffrey W.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission and the Sojourner rover is reported on, with emphasis on the various mission steps and the performance of the technologies involved. The mechanical design of mission hardware was critical to the success of the entry sequence and the landing operations. The various mechanisms employed are considered.

  19. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  20. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  1. CHEOPS: A transit photometry mission for ESA's small mission programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground based radial velocity (RV searches continue to discover exoplanets below Neptune mass down to Earth mass. Furthermore, ground based transit searches now reach milli-mag photometric precision and can discover Neptune size planets around bright stars. These searches will find exoplanets around bright stars anywhere on the sky, their discoveries representing prime science targets for further study due to the proximity and brightness of their host stars. A mission for transit follow-up measurements of these prime targets is currently lacking. The first ESA S-class mission CHEOPS (CHaracterizing ExoPlanet Satellite will fill this gap. It will perform ultra-high precision photometric monitoring of selected bright target stars almost anywhere on the sky with sufficient precision to detect Earth sized transits. It will be able to detect transits of RV-planets by photometric monitoring if the geometric configuration results in a transit. For Hot Neptunes discovered from the ground, CHEOPS will be able to improve the transit light curve so that the radius can be determined precisely. Because of the host stars' brightness, high precision RV measurements will be possible for all targets. All planets observed in transit by CHEOPS will be validated and their masses will be known. This will provide valuable data for constraining the mass-radius relation of exoplanets, especially in the Neptune-mass regime. During the planned 3.5 year mission, about 500 targets will be observed. There will be 20% of open time available for the community to develop new science programmes.

  2. Mission Design of the Dutch-Chinese FAST Micro-Satellite Mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, D.C.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.; Laan, E.; Moon, S.; Zheng, G.T.

    2009-01-01

    The paper treats the mission design for the Dutch-Chinese FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) mission. The space segment of the 2.5 year mission consists out of two formation flying micro-satellites. During the mission, new technologies will be demonstrated and, usi

  3. Mission Design of the Dutch-Chinese FAST Micro-Satellite Mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, D.C.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.; Laan, E.; Moon, S.; Zheng, G.T.

    2009-01-01

    The paper treats the mission design for the Dutch-Chinese FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) mission. The space segment of the 2.5 year mission consists out of two formation flying micro-satellites. During the mission, new technologies will be demonstrated and, usi

  4. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  5. Human Mars Missions: Cost Driven Architecture Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates various methods of reducing the cost in space transportation systems for human Mars missions. The reference mission for this task is a mission currently under study at NASA. called the Mars Design Reference Mission, characterized by In-Situ propellant production at Mars. This study mainly consists of comparative evaluations to the reference mission with a view to selecting strategies that would reduce the cost of the Mars program as a whole. One of the objectives is to understand the implications of certain Mars architectures, mission modes, vehicle configurations, and potentials for vehicle reusability. The evaluations start with year 2011-2014 conjunction missions which were characterized by their abort-to-the-surface mission abort philosophy. Variations within this mission architecture, as well as outside the set to other architectures (not predicated on an abort to surface philosophy) were evaluated. Specific emphasis has been placed on identifying and assessing overall mission risk. Impacts that Mars mission vehicles might place upon the Space Station, if it were to be used as an assembly or operations base, were also discussed. Because of the short duration of this study only on a few propulsion elements were addressed (nuclear thermal, cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen, cryogenic oxygen-methane, and aerocapture). Primary ground rules and assumptions were taken from NASA material used in Marshall Space Flight Center's own assessment done in 1997.

  6. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  7. Kepler planet-detection mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borucki...[], William J.; Koch, David; Buchhave, Lars C. Astrup

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission was designed to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The habitable zone is the region where planetary temperatures are suitable for water to exist on a planet’s surface. During the first 6 weeks of observations, Kepler...... is one of the lowest-density planets (~0.17 gram per cubic centimeter) yet detected. Kepler-5b, -6b, and -8b confirm the existence of planets with densities lower than those predicted for gas giant planets....

  8. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  9. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 1: Integrated payload and mission planning process evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, T. P.; Davin, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The integrated payload and mission planning process for STS payloads was defined, and discrete tasks which evaluate performance and support initial implementation of this process were conducted. The scope of activity was limited to NASA and NASA-related payload missions only. The integrated payload and mission planning process was defined in detail, including all related interfaces and scheduling requirements. Related to the payload mission planning process, a methodology for assessing early Spacelab mission manager assignment schedules was defined.

  10. The Cassini-Huygens mission

    CERN Document Server

    The joint NASA-ESA Cassini-Huygens mission promises to return four (and possibly more) years of unparalleled scientific data from the solar system’s most exotic planet, the ringed, gas giant, Saturn. Larger than Galileo with a much greater communication bandwidth, Cassini can accomplish in a single flyby what Galileo returned in a series of passes. Cassini explores the Saturn environment in three dimensions, using gravity assists to climb out of the equatorial plane to look down on the rings from above, to image the aurora and to study polar magnetospheric processes such as field-aligned currents. Since the radiation belt particle fluxes are much more benign than those at Jupiter, Cassini can more safely explore the inner regions of the magnetosphere. The spacecraft approaches the planet closer than Galileo could, and explores the inner moons and the rings much more thoroughly than was possible at Jupiter. This book is the second volume, in a three volume set, that describes the Cassini/Huygens mission. Thi...

  11. Global Precipitation Mission Visualization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) software provides graphic visualization tools that enable easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. It was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground-based, S- and C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite's precipitation radar instrument. This design is also applicable to other groundbased and space-based radars, and allows both ground- and space-based radar data to be compared for validation purposes. The tool creates an operational system that routinely performs several steps. It ingests satellite radar data (precipitation radar data from TRMM) and groundbased meteorological radar data from a number of sources. Principally, the ground radar data comes from national networks of weather radars (see figure). The data ingested by the visualization tool must conform to the data formats used in GPM Validation Network Geometry-matched data product generation. The software also performs match-ups of the radar volume data for the ground- and space-based data, as well as statistical and graphical analysis (including two-dimensional graphical displays) on the match-up data. The visualization tool software is written in IDL, and can be operated either in the IDL development environment or as a stand-alone executable function.

  12. Ravens satellite mission concept study

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Eric F

    2011-01-01

    The concept for Ravens satellite mission was proposed in response to a CSA AO for potential Canadian mission contributions to the International Living With a Star (ILWS) program. Ravens was conceived of to fill an important gap in the ILWS program: global imaging. Ravens will build on the heritage of world-class global imaging carried out in Canada. It would do much more than provide global observations to complete the system level capabilities of ILWS. Ravens would be comprised of two satellites on elliptical polar orbits, relatively phased on those orbits to provide the first-ever continuous (ie., 24 hours per day 7 days per week) global imaging of the northern hemisphere auroral and polar cap regions. This would provide the first-ever unbroken sequences of global images of the auroral response during long duration geomagnetic processes like storms and steady magnetospheric convection events. Ravens could track the spatio-temporal evolution of the global electron and proton auroral distribution, and would o...

  13. The NeXT Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, T; Mitsuda, K; Kunieda, H; Petre, R; White, N; Dotani, T; Fujimoto, R; Fukazawa, Y; Hayashida, K; Ishida, M; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M; Makishima, K; Koyama, K; Madejski, G M; Mori, K; Mushotzky, R; Nakazawa, K; Ogasaka, Y; Ohashi, T; Ozaki, M; Tajima, H; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Tsunemi, H; Tsuru, T G; Ueda, Y; Yamasaki, N; Watanabe, S

    2008-01-01

    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector. With these instruments, NeXT covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The micro-calorimeter system will be developed by international collaboration lead by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution of Delta E ~ 7 eV by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued.

  14. DUAL Gamma-Ray Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Boggs, S; von Ballmoos, P; Takahashi, T; Gehrels, N; Tueller, J; Baring, M; Beacom, J; Diehl, R; Greiner, J; Grove, E; Hartmann, D; Hernanz, M; Jean, P; Johnson, N; Kanbach, G; Kippen, M; Knödlseder, J; Leising, M; Madejski, G; McConnell, M; Milne, P; Motohide, K; Nakazawa, K; Oberlack, U; Phlips, B; Ryan, J; Skinner, G; Starrfield, S; Tajima, H; Wulf, E; Zoglauer, A; Zych, A

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy presents an extraordinary scientific potential for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. In order to take full advantage of this potential, the next generation of instrumentation for this domain will have to achieve an improvement in sensitivity over present technologies of at least an order of magnitude. The DUAL mission concept takes up this challenge in two complementary ways: a very long observation of the entire sky, combined with a large collection area for simultaneous observations of Type Ia SNe. While the Wide-Field Compton Telescope (WCT) accumulates data from the full gamma-ray sky (0.1-10 MeV) over the entire mission lifetime, the Laue-Lens Telescope (LLT) focuses on 56Co emission from SNe Ia (0.8-0.9 MeV), collecting gamma-rays from its large area crystal lens onto the WCT. Two separated spacecraft flying in formation will maintain the DUAL payloads at the lens' focal distance.

  15. Mission and ethics in Galatians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus Kok

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is investigated how the concepts identity, ethics and ethos interrelate, and how the ethics of the Pauline communities in Galatians functioned against the background of the missionary context of the early church. The author argued that the missionary dimension originated in the context of the missio Dei, and that God called Paul as a missionary to be taken up in the latter. The missionary process did not end with Paul, but was designed to be carried further by believers who should be, by their very nature, missionary. In the process, the author investigated how the transformation of identity (the understanding of self, God and others leads to the creation of ethical values and how it is particularised in different socioreligious and cultural contexts in the development of the early church. The author argued that there is an implicit missionary dimension in the ethics of Paul in Galatians. In the process, it is argued that those who want to speak of ethics should make something of mission, and those who speak of mission in Galatians, should speak about the role of identity, ethics and ethos in the letter.

  16. The Sentinel-2 Mission Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Ferran

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. This system will deliver a new generation of optical data products designed to directly feed downstream services acting in several domains such as land management, agricultural industry, forestry, food security, or disaster control management following floods, volcanic eruptions, landslides, etc. The Sentinel-2 mission designed to generate products with accurate radiometric and geometric performances (including multi-temporal imagery co-registration). To maximize the products suitability and readiness to downstream usage for the majority of applications, the Sentinel-2 PDGS will systematically generate and archive Level-1C products, which will provide Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance images, orthorectified using a global DEM and UTM projection. A Level-1B product will also be available for expert users and will provide the radiometrically corrected pixels in sensor geometry with the geometric model appended. Finally, a complementary atmospheric correction and enhanced cloud screening algorithm is being prototyped in parallel with the goal of providing some initial capabilities to the users, by means of a specific software toolbox operated on their platforms, to translate the Level-1C TOA reflectance image into Bottom of Atmosphere (BOA) reflectance.

  17. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Experiment On The European Mars Express Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, G.; Hoffmann, H.; HRSC Science Experiment Team

    Imaging Mars is one of the main goals of the European Mars Express mission and will be performed by the German High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). The HRSC ex- periment is a pushbroom scanning instrument with 9 CCD line detectors mounted in parallel on the focal plane. Its unique feature is the ability to obtain nearly simul- taneously imaging data of a specific site at high resolution, with along-track triple stereo, with four colours, and at five different phase angles, thus avoiding any time- dependent variations of the observation conditions. An additional Super-Resolution Channel (HRSC-SRC), a framing device, will yield nested-in images in the meter- range thus serving as the sharpening eye for detailed photogeologic studies. The spa- tial resolution from the nominal periapsis altitude of 250 km will be 10 m/pixel and 2.3 m/pixel for the HRSC-SRC. The manufacture of the flight hardware has been ac- complished. Before delivery of the flight model to ESA in January 2002, tests of the instrument were performed demonstrating its imaging capabilities and performances. During the nominal operational lifetime of the mission of 1 Martian year, it will be possible to cover at least 50% of the Martian surface at a spatial resolution of better than 15 m/pixel. More than 70% of the Martian surface can be observed at a spatial resolution of better than 30 m/pixel, while more than 1% of the surface will be im- aged at about 2.5 m/pixel. HRSC on Mars Express will be able to close the existing gap between medium to low-resolution coverage on the one hand and the very high resolution images of Mars Global Surveyor as well as the in-situ observations and measurements by landers on the other hand. The HRSC on Mars Express will make a major contribution to the study of Martian geosciences with special emphasis on the evolution of the Martian surface in general, the evolution of volcanism, and the role of water throughout the Martian history. The instrument will obtain images

  18. CMBPol Mission Concept Study: A Mission to Map our Origins

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Daniel; Dodelson, Scott; Dunkley, Joanna; Fraisse, Aurélien A; Jackson, Mark G; Kogut, Al; Krauss, Lawrence M; Smith, Kendrick M; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2008-01-01

    Quantum mechanical metric fluctuations during an early inflationary phase of the universe leave a characteristic imprint in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The amplitude of this signal depends on the energy scale at which inflation occurred. Detailed observations by a dedicated satellite mission (CMBPol) therefore provide information about energy scales as high as $10^{15}$ GeV, twelve orders of magnitude greater than the highest energies accessible to particle accelerators, and probe the earliest moments in the history of the universe. This summary provides an overview of a set of studies exploring the scientific payoff of CMBPol in diverse areas of modern cosmology, such as the physics of inflation, gravitational lensing and cosmic reionization, as well as foreground science and removal .

  19. Mission objectives and scientific rationale for the magnetometer mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, R. A.

    1991-12-01

    Based on a review of the characteristics of the geomagnetic field, objectives for the magnetic portion of the ARISTOTELES mission are: (1) To derive a description of the main magnetic field and its secular variation. (2) To investigate the correlation between the geomagnetic field and variations in the length of day. (3) To study properties of the fluid core. (4) To study the conductivity of the mantle. (5) To model the state and evolution of the crust and upper lithosphere. (6) To measure and characterize field aligned currents and ionospheric currents and to understand their generation mechanisms and their role in energy coupling in the interplanetary-magnetospheric-ionospheric systems. Procedures for these investigations are outlined.

  20. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  1. Chandrayaan-1: India's first planetary science mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath Goswami, Jitendra

    A new initiative of the Indian Space Research Organization to have dedicated Space Science Missions led to two major missions that are currently in progress: Astrosat and Chandrayaan-1, the latter being the first planetary science mission of the country. The spadework for this mission started about ten years back and culminated in late 2003 with the official endorsement for the mission. This remote sensing mission, to be launched in early next year, is expected to further our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon based on a chemical, mineralogical and topographic study of the lunar surface at spatial and spectral resolutions much better than those for previous and other currently planned lunar missions. The Chandrayaan-1 mission is also international in character and will have an array of Indian instruments as well as several instruments from abroad some of which will have very strong Indian collaboration. This talk will provide a brief overview of our present understanding of the Moon, the science objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission and how we hope to achieve these from the data to be obtained by the various instruments on board the mission. A possible road map for Indian planetary exploration programme in the context of the International scenario will be presented at the end.

  2. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  3. Bone Metabolism on ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption (1, 2), and either unchanged or decreased rates of bone formation. Resistive exercise had been proposed as a countermeasure, and data from bed rest supported this concept (3). An interim resistive exercise device (iRED) was flown for early ISS crews. Unfortunately, the iRED provided no greater bone protection than on missions where only aerobic and muscular endurance exercises were available (4, 5). In 2008, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), a more robust device with much greater resistance capability, (6, 7) was launched to the ISS. Astronauts who had access to ARED, coupled with adequate energy intake and vitamin D status, returned from ISS missions with bone mineral densities virtually unchanged from preflight (7). Bone biochemical markers showed that while the resistive exercise and adequate energy consumption did not mitigate the increased bone resorption, bone formation was increased (7, 8). The typical drop in circulating parathyroid hormone did not occur in ARED crewmembers. In 2014, an updated look at the densitometry data was published. This study confirmed the initial findings with a much larger set of data. In 42 astronauts (33 male, 9 female), the bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women (9), and those with access to the ARED did not have the typical decrease in bone mineral density that was observed in early ISS crewmembers with access to the iRED (Figure 1) (7). Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in men and women. These data are encouraging, and represent the first in-flight evidence in the history of human space flight that diet and exercise can maintain bone mineral density on long-duration missions. However, the maintenance of bone mineral density through bone remodeling, that is, increases in both resorption and formation, may yield a bone with strength characteristics different from those

  4. Space Mission : Y3K

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    ESA and the APME are hosting a contest for 10 - 15 year olds in nine European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The contest is based on an interactive CD ROM, called Space Mission: Y3K, which explores space technology and shows some concrete uses of that technology in enhancing the quality of life on Earth. The CD ROM invites kids to join animated character Space Ranger Pete on an action-packed, colourful journey through space. Space Ranger Pete begins on Earth: the user navigates around a 'locker room' to learn about synthetic materials used in rocket boosters, heat shields, space suits and helmets, and how these materials have now become indispensable to everyday life. From Earth he flies into space and the user follows him from the control room in the spacecraft to a planet, satellites and finally to the International Space Station. Along the way, the user jots down clues that he or she discovers in this exploration, designing an imaginary space community and putting together a submission for the contest. The lucky winners will spend a weekend training as "junior astronauts" at the European Space Centre in Belgium (20-22 April 2001). They will be put through their astronaut paces, learning the art of space walking, running their own space mission, piloting a space capsule and re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The competition features in various youth media channels across Europe. In the UK, popular BBC Saturday morning TV show, Live & Kicking, will be launching the competition and will invite viewers to submit their space community designs to win a weekend at ESC. In Germany, high circulation children's magazine Geolino will feature the competition in the January issue and on their internet site. And youth magazine ZoZitDat will feature the competition in the Netherlands throughout February. Space Mission: Y3K is part of an on-going partnership between the ESA's Technology Transfer

  5. TerraSAR-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werninghaus, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the

  6. Multi-spacecraft Observations of the Martian Plasma Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, David; Luhmann, J.; Halekas, J.; Frahm, R.; Winningham, J.; Barabash, S.

    2006-09-01

    Two spacecraft with complementary instrumentation and orbits are currently making in situ measurements of the Martian plasma environment. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) measures electrons and magnetic field from a 400 km circular mapping orbit with fixed local time. Mars Express (MEX) measures ions, electrons, and neutral particles from a precessing elliptical orbit. Each spacecraft's dataset has obvious strengths and shortcomings. Exploration of these two datasets in tandem provides an opportunity to increase our overall understanding of the Martian solar wind interaction and atmospheric escape. Close passes of spacecraft (conjunctions) are one particularly powerful means of increasing the utility of measurements, as evidenced by the Cluster mission. At Mars, conjunctions might be used to obtain more complete simultaneous and/or co-located plasma measurements, which can be used to study a variety of phenomena ranging from the motion and 3D shape of plasma boundaries to particle acceleration near crustal magnetic fields. We have identified 40 conjunctions (instances with spacecraft separation pass was 40 km. Conjunctions occur at mid-latitudes (when the surface-projected orbit tracks of the two spacecraft nearly overlap), and at the poles. We will present comparisons of MGS Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) and MEX Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) data for these events, including intercomparison of MGS and MEX electron data, the addition of MGS magnetic field and MES ion data, and the inclusion of solar wind proxy information to establish context. Finally, we will present the results of a search for other useful configurations of MGS and MEX, including times when they are on the same flux tube, times when they pass through the same region of space separated by a delay, and times when they are on opposite sides of plasma boundaries.

  7. I satelliti della missione EROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano De Corso

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available EROS mission satellitesThe EROS (Earth Remote Observation Satellite constellation is property of ImageSat International N.V. an international company and a commercial provider of high-resolution, satellite earth-imagery collected by its Earth Remote Observation Satellite. EROS A is equipped with a camera whose focal plane of CCD (Charge Coupled Device detectors produces a standard image resolution of 1.9 meters. EROS B slightly larger and similar in appearance to EROS A, the new satellite has superior capabilities, including a larger camera of CCD/ TDI type (Charge Coupled Device/Time Delay Integration, with standard panchromatic resolution of 0.70 m at an altitude of about 500 km, a larger on-board recorder, improved pointing accuracy and a faster data communication link.

  8. Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alland, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes my work with the Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS) team during the summer of 2011. It gives some background on the motivation for this project and describes the expected benefit to the Cassini program. It then introduces the two tasks that I worked on - an automatic system auditing tool and a series of corrections to the Cassini Sequence Generator (SEQ_GEN) - and the specific objectives these tasks were to accomplish. Next, it details the approach I took to meet these objectives and the results of this approach, followed by a discussion of how the outcome of the project compares with my initial expectations. The paper concludes with a summary of my experience working on this project, lists what the next steps are, and acknowledges the help of my Cassini colleagues.

  9. The SSETI-express Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten; Melville, N.

    provides a description of the organisation behind the project and the mission of the satellite. Further it provides a technical overview of both the space segment and the ground segment together with key lessons learnt from the process of building a student satellite with widely distributed teams.......In January 2004 a group of students met at the European Space Technology and Research Centre (ESTEC) in Holland to discuss the feasibility of building a micro-satellite, dubbed SSETI-Express, from parts derived from other student satellite projects and launch it within one and a half year....... The project is an initiative under the ESA Education Department and the Student Space Exploration and Technology Initiative (SSETI)[3], an European student organisation. The satellite is currently scheduled for launch on the 30th of June 2005 atop a "Cosmos" launch vehicle from Plesetsk in Russia. This paper...

  10. Solar sail Engineering Development Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    Since photons have momentum, a useful force can be obtained by reflecting sunlight off of a large, low mass surface (most likely a very thin metal-coated plastic film) and robbing the light of some of its momentum. A solar sail Engineering Development Mission (EDM) is currently being planned by the World Space Foundation for the purpose of demonstrating and evaluating solar sailing technology and to gain experience in the design and operation of a spacecraft propelled by sunlight. The present plan is for the EDM spacecraft to be launched (sail stowed) in a spin-stabilized configuration into an initial elliptical orbit with an apogee of 36,000 km and a perigee of a few hundred kilometers. The spacecraft will then use its own chemical propulsion system to raise the perigee to at least 1,200 km. The deployed sail will have an area of 880 sq m and generate a solar force of about 0.007 N.

  11. Job Orders (Ordres de mission)

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2005-01-01

    Please note that individual job orders and continuous job orders (valid for one calendar year, i.e. from 1st January to 31st December) must henceforth be completed via EDH and approved by the Department Leader concerned (or the person appointed by him via EDHAdmin). Once approved, the form must be printed and kept for the duration of the mission by the driver to whom the job order is issued. You will find the icon for this document on the EDH Desktop, as well as on-line help on how to use it. In emergencies, paper copies of individual job orders (SCEM 54.50.20.168.5) may be issued outside normal working hours by the Fire Brigade (Meyrin Site, Building 65). Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905 Relations with the Host States Service, Tel. 72848

  12. Aquarius/SAC-D mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amit; Caruso, Daniel; Lagerloef, Gary; Torrusio, Sandra; Durham, David; Falcon, Carlos

    2008-10-01

    Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is a key parameter in the global water cycle but it is not yet monitored from space. Conventional in situ SSS sampling is too sparse to give the global view of salinity variability that a remote sensing satellite can provide. The Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will make pioneering space-based measurements of global SSS with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize salinity variations (spatial and temporal), investigate the linkage between ocean circulation, the Earth's water cycle, and climate variability. It is being jointly developed by NASA and the Space Agency of Argentina, the Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE). The Project is currently in implementation phase with the flight Aquarius Instrument undergoing environmental testing at NASA-JPL/Caltech in California, USA and the SAC-D instruments and spacecraft development undergoing at CONAE/INVAP facilities in Argentina. Aquarius/SAC-D launch is scheduled for May 2010.

  13. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Gail

    2014-05-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core satellite, scheduled for launch at the end of February 2014, is well designed estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s highly successful rain-sensing package [3]. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM Core Observatory was developed and tested at NASA

  14. Site Selection for Mars Surveyor Landing Sites: Some Key Factors for 2001 and Relation to Long-Term Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W.

    1999-01-01

    The Site Selection Process: Site selection as a process can be subdivided into several main elements and these can be represented as the corners of a tetrahedron. Successful site selection outcome requires the interactions between these elements or corners, and should also take into account several other external factors or considerations. In principle, elements should be defined in approximately the following order: (1) major scientific and programmatic goals and objectives: What are the major questions that are being asked, goals that should be achieved, and objectives that must be accomplished. Do programmatic goals (e.g., sample return) differ from mission goals (e.g., precursor to sample return)? It is most helpful if these questions can be placed in the context of site characterization and hypothesis testing (e.g., Was Mars warm and wet in the Noachian? Land at a Noachian-aged site that shows evidence of surface water and characterize it specifically to address this question). Goals and objectives, then, help define important engineering factors such as type of payload, landing regions of interest (highlands, lowlands, smooth, rough, etc.), mobility, mission duration, etc. Goals and objectives then lead to: (2) spacecraft design and engineering landing site constraints: the spacecraft is designed to optimize the areas that will meet the goals and objectives, but this in turn introduces constraints that must be met in the selection of a landing site. Scientific and programmatic goals and objectives also help to define (3), the specific lander scientific payload requirements and capabilities. For example, what observations and experiments are required to address the major questions? How do we characterize the site in reference to the specific questions? Is mobility required and if so, how much? Which experiments are on the spacecraft, which on the rover? The results of these deliberations should lead to a surface exploration strategy, in which the goals and

  15. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  16. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  17. NASA's Missions for Exoplanet Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Exoplanets are detected and characterized using a range of observational techniques - including direct imaging, astrometry, transits, microlensing, and radial velocities. Each technique illuminates a different aspect of exoplanet properties and statistics. This diversity of approach has contributed to the rapid growth of the field into a major research area in only two decades. In parallel with exoplanet observations, major efforts are now underway to interpret the physical and atmospheric properties of exoplanets for which spectroscopy is now possible. In addition, comparative planetology probes questions of interest to both exoplanets and solar system studies. In this talk I describe NASA's activities in exoplanet research, and discuss plans for near-future missions that have reflected-light spectroscopy as a key goal. The WFIRST-AFTA concept currently under active study includes a major microlensing survey, and now includes a visible light coronagraph for exoplanet spectroscopy and debris disk imaging. Two NASA-selected community-led teams are studying probe-scale (spectroscopy. These concepts complement existing NASA missions that do exoplanet science (such as transit spectroscopy and debris disk imaging with HST and Spitzer) or are under development (survey of nearby transiting exoplanets with TESS, and followup of the most important targets with transit spectroscopy on JWST), and build on the work of ground-based instruments such as LBTI and observing with HIRES on Keck. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2014. California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  18. A Mission to Earth's Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P.

    2016-12-01

    The last few decades have witnessed extraordinary progress on Earth's deep interior, particularly for Earth's core. Notable examples include seismic detection of fine structure and heterogeneity from the CMB to the depths of the inner core; improved constraints on the thermal regime and critical physical properties; direct experimental access to core pressures and temperatures; partial resolution of geomagnetic history into the deep past, new cosmochemical constraints on core formation, plus a first-order solution of the dynamo problem. Nevertheless, many fundamental questions about Earth's core remain unanswered, representing significant impediments to further understanding, not just of the Earth system, but also the interiors of other planets. A partial list of unsolved problems includes the composition of the core especially its light element inventory, the nature of heterogeneity in the core and its dynamical significance, quantifying heat and mass exchanges between core and mantle, the record of core evolution exemplified by inner core nucleation and the magnetic superchron cycle, and the role of core formation in governing Earth history. A more concerted and better-focused interdisciplinary effort is needed to resolve these long-standing problems, one that is comparable in its scale and structure to a planetary exploration mission. Such a Mission to Earth's Center would foster technological developments aimed specifically at these questions, such as seismic arrays designed for imaging the core, experimental capability for determining the phase diagram of the core, resolution of geomagnetic history into the deep past, plus next-generation dynamical models for the mantle, the core, and their interaction.

  19. THE JEM-EUSO MISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bertaina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The JEM-EUSO mission explores the origin of the extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs above 50EeV and explores the limits of the fundamental physics, through the observations of their arrival directions and energies. It is designed to open a new particle astronomy channel. This superwide-field (60 degrees telescope with a diameter of about 2.5m looks down from space onto the night sky to detect near UV photons (330 ÷ 400nm, both fluorescent and Cherenkov photons emitted from the giant air showers produced by EECRs. The arrival direction map with more than five hundred events will tell us the origin of the EECRs and allow us to identify the nearest EECR sources with known astronomical objects. It will allow them to be examined in other astronomical channels. This is likely to lead to an  nderstanding of the acceleration mechanisms perhaps producing discoveries in astrophysics and/or fundamental physics. The comparison of the energy spectra among the spatially resolved individual sources will help to clarify the acceleration/emission mechanism, and also finally confirm the Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuz’min process for the validation of Lorentz invariance up to γ ~ 1011. Neutral components (neutrinos and gamma rays can also be detected as well, if their fluxes are high enough. The JEM-EUSO mission is planned to be launched by a H2B rocket about 2017 and transferred to ISS by H2 Transfer Vehicle (HTV. It will be attached to the Exposed Facility external experiment platform of “KIBO”.

  20. Agile: From Software to Mission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Shirley, Mark; Hobart, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    To maximize efficiency and flexibility in Mission Operations System (MOS) design, we are evolving principles from agile and lean methods for software, to the complete mission system. This allows for reduced operational risk at reduced cost, and achieves a more effective design through early integration of operations into mission system engineering and flight system design. The core principles are assessment of capability through demonstration, risk reduction through targeted experiments, early test and deployment, and maturation of processes and tools through use.

  1. The Scots abroad: migration and mission

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Kenneth Ross’s essay begins with an overview of the migration of the Scots round the world in the age of colonialism. He then examines this more closely, exploring the relationship between migration and missions in the diaspora church. Beginning with mission-migrant relations in Malawi, Ross then points to more general, more deeply-rooted tensions arising in the Scottish diaspora, reflected in the conflicting interests of expatriate churches and mission agencies. Publisher PDF

  2. GSFC Safety and Mission Assurance Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's approach to safety and mission assurance. The contents include: 1) NASA GSFC Background; 2) Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate; 3) The Role of SMA-D and the Technical Authority; 4) GSFC Mission assurance Requirements; 5) GSFC Systems Review Office (SRO); 6) GSFC Supply Chain Management Program; and 7) GSFC ISO9001/AS9100 Status Brief.

  3. Component Verification and Certification in NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Penix, John; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Software development for NASA missions is a particularly challenging task. Missions are extremely ambitious scientifically, have very strict time frames, and must be accomplished with a maximum degree of reliability. Verification technologies must therefore be pushed far beyond their current capabilities. Moreover, reuse and adaptation of software architectures and components must be incorporated in software development within and across missions. This paper discusses NASA applications that we are currently investigating from these perspectives.

  4. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  5. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  6. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Juan; Ballard, Christopher G.; Hahn, Yungsun

    2012-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft was launched in October 1997 on a mission to observe Saturn and its moons; it entered orbit around Saturn in July 2004 for a nominal four-year Prime Mission, later augmented by two extensions: the Equinox Mission, from July 2008 through September 2010, and the Solstice Mission, from October 2010 through September 2017. This paper provides an overview of the maneuver activities from August 2011 through June 2012 which include the design of 38 Orbit Trim Maneuvers--OTM-288 through OTM-326-- for attaining 14 natural satellite encounters: seven with Titan, six with Enceladus, and one with Dione.

  7. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sean V.; Arrieta, Juan; Ballard, Christopher G.; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Valerino, Powtawche N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft began its four-year Prime Mission to study Saturn's system in July 2004. Two tour extensions followed: a two-year Equinox Mission beginning in July 2008 and a seven-year Solstice Mission starting in September 2010. This paper highlights Cassini maneuver activities from June 2010 through June 2011, covering the transition from the Equinox to Solstice Mission. This interval included 38 scheduled maneuvers, nine targeted Titan flybys, three targeted Enceladus flybys, and one close Rhea flyby. In addition, beyond the demanding nominal navigation schedule, numerous unforeseen challenges further complicated maneuver operations. These challenges will be discussed in detail.

  8. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  9. Autolanding for Sample Return Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA and commercial missions will increasingly target destinations with challenging topography and limited communication including unmapped asteroids, comets,...

  10. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Giorgio; Kaspi, Victoria; Tennant, Allyn; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful---yet inexpensive---dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsize the important physical and astrophysical questions such a mission would address.

  11. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  12. ESPA for Lunar and Science Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA mission planning in the next decade includes small spacecraft and secondary flight opportunities on Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), specifically...

  13. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Giorgio; Kaspi, Victoria; Tennant, Allyn; hide

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful---yet inexpensive---dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsize the important physical and astrophysical questions such a mission would address.

  14. Composable Mission Framework for Rapid End-to-End Mission Design and Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is the Composable Mission Framework (CMF)?a model-based software framework that shall enable seamless continuity of mission design and...

  15. A university-based distributed satellite mission control network for operating professional space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Christopher; Rasay, Mike

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, Santa Clara University's Robotic Systems Laboratory has operated a unique, distributed, internet-based command and control network for providing professional satellite mission control services for a variety of government and industry space missions. The system has been developed and is operated by students who become critical members of the mission teams throughout the development, test, and on-orbit phases of these missions. The mission control system also supports research in satellite control technology and hands-on student aerospace education. This system serves as a benchmark for its comprehensive nature, its student-centric nature, its ability to support NASA and industry space missions, and its longevity in providing a consistent level of professional services. This paper highlights the unique features of this program, reviews the network's design and the supported spacecraft missions, and describes the critical programmatic features of the program that support the control of professional space missions.

  16. BRRISON Mission Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Terence; Kremic, T.; Adams, D.; Arnold, S.; Cheng, A.

    2013-10-01

    In September 2012, the comet C/2012 S1 “ISON” was discovered by Russian amateur astronomers. A team consisting of personnel from Glenn Research Center (GRC) Space Science Project Office, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (APL), and the Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) was established to identify the science return on a high altitude balloon mission to observe ISON, and develop a plan based on re-using most of the hardware from the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory (STO). The team determined that measuring the comet’s H20/CO2 ratio with an infra-red Camera would be a high-value and unique scientific contribution of a balloon borne payload. The BRRISON scientific payload consists of a heritage 80-cm telescope, a near-ultraviolet visible optical bench and instruments, and an infrared optical bench and instruments. The telescope, which has flown on prior balloon missions, consists of a light-weighted f/1.5 hyperboloid 80 cm diameter primary and a secondary mirror to provide an f/17 beam. The near ultra-violet and visible cameras and associated instruments are being integrated to an optics bench by SwRI. These instruments consist of a fine steering mirror (FSM) and a CMOS high rate camera to provide sub-arcsec pointing, and a CCD camera for low noise science operation, and a dichroic for splitting the f/17 beam between the two cameras. The infrared optics bench and instruments consist of an optics bench, re-imaging optics and cold stop, filter wheel and filters, and an infrared camera that is sensitive over the required wavelengths of 2.5 - 5 microns. The IR optics bench and instruments will be enclosed in an aluminum housing, which will be cooled to reduce the thermal background contribution to the IR signal. The BRRISON gondola is composed of a metal frame that carries and protects the science payload and subsystems and is the structural interface with the balloon flight train. They are composed of a Command & Control system, a Pointing

  17. Mission to Very Early Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutcheon, I D; Weber, P K; Fallon, S J; Smith, J B; Aleon, J; Ryerson, F J; Harrison, T M; Cavosie, A J; Valley, J W

    2007-03-13

    The Hadean Earth is often viewed as an inhospitable and, perhaps, unlikely setting for the rise of primordial life. However, carbonaceous materials supplied by accreting meteorites and sources of chemical energy similar to those fueling life around modern deep-sea volcanic vents would have been present in abundance. More questionable are two other essential ingredients for life - liquid water and clement temperatures. Did the Hadean Earth possess a hydrosphere and temperate climate compatible with the initiation of biologic activity? If so, the popular model of an excessively hot planetary surface characterized by a basaltic crust, devoid of continental material is invalid. Similarly, establishment of an Hadean hydrosphere prior to the cessation of heavy asteroid bombardment may mean that primitive life could have evolved and then been extinguished, only to rise again. The most effective means of determining the environmental conditions on this young planet is through geochemical analysis of samples retrieved from the Early Earth. While rocks older than 4 billion years (4 Ga) have not been found, individual zircon grains, the detritus of rocks long since eroded away, have been identified with ages as old as 4.4 Ga - only {approx}160 million years younger than the Earth itself. If we can use the geochemical information contained in these unique samples to infer the nature of their source rocks and the processes that formed them, we can place constraints on the conditions prevailing at the Earth's surface shortly after formation. This project utilizes a combined analytical and experimental approach to gather the necessary geochemical data to determine the parameters required to relate the zircons to their parent materials. Mission to Early Earth involves dating, isotopic and chemical analyses of mineral and melt inclusions within zircons and of the zircons themselves. The major experimental activity at LLNL focused on the partitioning of trace elements between

  18. Evaluating Mission Drift in Microfinance: Lessons for Programs with Social Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishigsuren, Gaamaa

    2007-01-01

    The article contributes to a better understanding of implications of scaling up on the social mission of microfinance programs. It proposes a methodology to measure the extent, if any, to which a microfinance program with a poverty alleviation mission drifts away from its mission during rapid scaling up and presents findings from a field research…

  19. Evolution of Orion Mission Design for Exploration Mission 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Dawn, Timothy F.; Jedrey, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The evolving mission design and concepts of NASA’s next steps have shaped Orion into the spacecraft that it is today. Since the initial inception of Orion, through the Constellation Program, and now in the Exploration Mission frame-work with the Space Launch System (SLS), each mission design concept and pro-gram goal have left Orion with a set of capabilities that can be utilized in many different mission types. Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2) have now been at the forefront of the mission design focus for the last several years. During that time, different Design Reference Missions (DRMs) were built, analyzed, and modified to solve or mitigate enterprise level design trades to ensure a viable mission from launch to landing. The resulting DRMs for EM-1 and EM-2 were then expanded into multi-year trajectory scans to characterize vehicle performance as affected by variations in Earth-Moon geometry. This provides Orion’s subsystems with stressing reference trajectories to help design their system. Now that Orion has progressed through the Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews (PDR and CDR), there is a general shift in the focus of mission design from aiding the vehicle design to providing mission specific products needed for pre-flight and real time operations. Some of the mission specific products needed include, large quantities of nominal trajectories for multiple monthly launch periods and abort options at any point in the mission for each valid trajectory in the launch window.

  20. 75 FR 5285 - Mission Statement; Franchise Trade Mission to Mexico; March 3-5, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and... International Trade Administration Mission Statement; Franchise Trade Mission to Mexico; March 3-5, 2010 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United...

  1. 75 FR 9578 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ....html ) and other Internet Web sites, press releases to general and trade media, broadcast fax, notices... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description...

  2. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-06

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces.

  3. The Nexus of Military Missions and Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    is being published to formally record the state of the Missions and Means Framework (MMF) circa 2002. However, since that time, the MMF has...continued to evolve and has been presented in updated forms at various conferences. See, for example, the "Military Missions and Means Framework " paper

  4. Coatings for the NuSTAR mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Brejnholt, Nicolai;

    2011-01-01

    The NuSTAR mission will be the first mission to carry a hard X-ray(5-80 keV) focusing telescope to orbit. The optics are based on the use of multilayer coated thin slumped glass. Two different material combinations were used for the flight optics, namely W/Si and Pt/C. In this paper we describe...

  5. The Ballerina experiment on the Romer mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian

    2001-01-01

    The Romer mission has recently been approved as the next mission within the Danish Small Satellite Program. The scientific payload will consist of two separate experiments, the MONS and the Ballerina payloads. The primary objective of Ballerina is to provide accurate, real-time positions relayed...

  6. Space mission Millimetron for terahertz astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Baryshev, A. M.; Pilipenko, S. V.; Myshonkova, N. V.; Bulanov, V. B.; Arkhipov, M. Y.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Likhachev, S. F.; Kardashev, N. S.

    We present an overview of the current status of the space mission Millimetron. Millimetron is a large 10-m cooled space telescope optimized for operation in the submillimeter and far infrared wavelengths. This mission will be able to contribute to the solution of several key problems in

  7. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Small Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Varied mission life and complexity is growing for small spacecraft. Small missions benefit from detailed hazard definition and evaluation as done in the past. Requirements need to flow from the system down to the parts level and aid system level radiation tolerance. RHA is highlighted with increasing COTS usage.

  8. Space mission Millimetron for terahertz astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Baryshev, A. M.; Pilipenko, S. V.; Myshonkova, N. V.; Bulanov, V. B.; Arkhipov, M. Y.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Likhachev, S. F.; Kardashev, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the current status of the space mission Millimetron. Millimetron is a large 10-m cooled space telescope optimized for operation in the submillimeter and far infrared wavelengths. This mission will be able to contribute to the solution of several key problems in astrophysics

  9. Optimal parking orbits for manned Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Michael L.; Nordwall, Jill A.

    This paper summarizes a Mars parking orbit optimization effort. This parking orbit study includes the selection of optimal elliptic Mars parking orbits that meet mission constraints and that include pertinent apsidal misalignment losses. Mars missions examined are for the opportunity years of 2014, 2016, and 2018. For these mission opportunities, it is shown that the optimal parking orbits depend on the year that the mission occurs and are coupled with the outbound, Mars stay, and return phases of the mission. Constraints included in the parking orbit optimization process are periapsis lighting angle (related to a daylight landing requirement), periapsis latitude (related to a landing latitude range requirement) and the vehicle Trans-Earth-Injection stage mass. Also, effects of mission abort requirements on optimal parking orbits are investigated. Off-periapsis maneuvers for Mars orbit capture were found to be cost effective in reducing the mission delta-V for the 2016 abort from Mars capture scenario. The total capture and departure delta-V was `split' between the capture maneuver and the departure maneuver to reduce the 2016 Mars departure delta-V to below the level of the corresponding stage of the 2014 baseline mission. Landing results are provided that show Mars landing site access from the optimal elliptic parking orbits for Mars excursion vehicles with low (0.2) and high (1.3 and 1.6) lift to drag ratio.

  10. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a mission planner of field coverage operations for an autonomous agricultural tractor is presented. Missions for a particular autonomous tractor are defined using an XML (extendible markup language) formatted file that can be uploaded to the tractor through the user interface...

  11. Mellem mission og markedsføring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Søgaard

    2009-01-01

    Kandidatspeciale om forholdet mellem mission og markedsføring i Den Danske Folkekirke i slutningen af 2010'erne. Specialets hypotese er, at mission i Den Danske Folkekirke på mange områder bevæger sig ind i en markedsføringsdiskurs....

  12. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a mission planner of field coverage operations for an autonomous agricultural tractor is presented. Missions for a particular autonomous tractor are defined using an XML (extendible markup language) formatted file that can be uploaded to the tractor through the user interface...

  13. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Mark J.; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  14. Human Mars Mission Contamination Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    A potential challenge for a human Mars mission is that while humans are by most measures the obvious best way to search for life on Mars, we may also be the most problematic in that we could unduly compromise the search for life by contaminating relevant environments and/or possibly adversely and irreversibly affecting indigenous life. Perhaps more problematic is the fundamental epistemic challenge of the "one data point" limitation which could decrease confidence in applying terrestrially based research to extraterrestrial life issues in general. An informal decision tree is presented as one way to begin thinking about contamination issues. There are many sub-questions and distinctions not shown such as biological vs. nonbiological (but biologically relevant) contamination, viable vs. dead organisms, masking indigenous organisms vs. merely making the search more difficult, and independent origin vs. panspermia distinctions. While it may be unlikely that terrestrial microbes could survive on Mars, let alone reproduce and unduly compromise the search for life, the unpredictable potential for microbial life to survive, grow exponentially, evolve and modify (and sometimes destroy) environments, warrants focusing carefully on biologically relevant contamination as we prepare to send humans to the first planet that may have indigenous life-forms.

  15. NICER: Mission Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.

    2016-04-01

    NASA's Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission will explore the structure, dynamics, and energetics of neutron stars through soft X-ray (0.2-12 keV) timing and spectroscopy. An external attached payload on the International Space Station (ISS), NICER is manifested on the Commercial Resupply Services SpaceX-11 flight, with launch scheduled for late 2016. The NICER payload is currently in final integration and environmental testing. Ground calibration has provided robust performance measures of the optical and detector subsystems, demonstrating that the instrument meets or surpasses its effective area, timing resolution, energy resolution, etc., requirements. We briefly describe the NICER hardware, its continuing testing, operations and environment on ISS, and the objectives of NICER's prime mission—including precise radius measurements for a handful of neutron stars to constrain the equation of state of cold, ultra-dense matter. Other contributions at this meeting address specific scientific investigations that are enabled by NICER, for neutron stars in their diverse manifestations as well as for broader X-ray astrophysics through a brief, approved Guest Observer program beginning in 2018.

  16. The Jem-Euso Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    JEM-EUSO is a space science mission to explore extreme energies and physics of the Universe. Its instrument will watch the dark-side of the earth and will detect UV photons emitted from the extensive air shower caused by an Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs above 10^18 eV), or Extremely High Energy Cosmic Ray (EHECR) particle (e.g., above about 10^20 eV). Such a high-rigidity particles as the latter arrives almost in a straight-line from its origin through the magnetic fields of our Milky Way Galaxy and is expected to allow us to trace the source location by its arrival direction. This nature can open the door to the new astronomy with charged particles. In its five years operation including the tilted mode, JEM-EUSO will detect at least 1,000 events with E>7x10^19 eV with the GZK cutoff spectrum. It can determine the energy spectrum and source locations of GZK to super-GZK regions with a statistical accuracy of several percent. JEM-EUSO is planned to be deployed by H2 Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and will be a...

  17. The Method of Mission Oriented Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In a real application, equipment in good condition sometimes have to be repairedbecause the equipment does not satisfy the requirements of the mission; However, it is notnecessary to repair some equipment with failures because the failures do not affect the mission completion. In these cases, maintenance activity guided by present maintenance methodsmay sometimes affect the mission completion in time or bring about extra maintenance. To overcome the shortage of present maintenance methods, we propose an idea and method of missionoriented maintenance (MOM) to deal with the maintenance policy on these kinds of problems. This method can work out different maintenance policies corresponding to differentmissions with full consideration of missions and mission requirements for the equipment.

  18. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  19. Human missions to Mars: issues and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, M.; Kminek, G.

    Recent announcements of the planned future human exploration of Mars by both European and US space agencies have raised a host of questions and challenges that must be addressed in advance of long-duration human missions. While detailed mission planning is a long way off, numerous issues can already be identified in the broad context of planetary protection. In this session, a panel of experts will provide brief overviews of the types of challenges ahead, such as the protection of the martian environment; the integration of human and robotic mission elements and operations; precursor scientific information necessary to plan human missions; development and use of nuclear and other technologies for the protection and support of astronauts during the mission; protection of Earth upon return; and societal and ethical questions about human exploration. The session has been designed to encourage and incorporate audience participation in the discussion about the issues and challenges ahead.

  20. The VSOP-2 Space VLBI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Murata, Yasuhiro; Murphy, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Following the success of the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), a next generation space VLBI mission, VSOP-2, is currently being planned. Higher observing frequencies, cooled receivers, increased bandwidths and larger telescope diameters will result in gains in resolution and interferometer sensitivity by factors of 10 over the VSOP mission. The use of phase-referencing by fast switching between a calibrator source and the target source is now being studied as this technique allows sources 50-150 times weaker to be observed depending on the frequency band. Such a capability would greatly enhance the VSOP-2 mission. Several other enhancements to the VSOP-2 mission are also presently under investigation including the VSOP-2 spacecraft operating at the same time as a US spacecraft to form what has come to be known as the iARISE (international ARISE) mission.

  1. OMV servicing missions from Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Wright, Jerome L.; Deaton, A. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will provide a means of bringing large observatories to the Space Station for servicing and redeployment to their operating altitudes. However, there are many constraints which must be met in mission planning. The missions must be designed so that propellant consumption is within the usable allowance, but contingency operations can still be accomplished. The vehicle was designed specifically to accommodate such missions, with emphasis upon servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. The OMV has been designed for operations from the Shuttle Orbiter and the Space Station. It will readily accommodate basing at the Space Station and executing observatory retrieval and redeployment missions. Mission profiles have been designed which allow retrieval with contingency hold before descent, and which allow contingency return of the observatory if it fails to reactivate properly. This capability will be a major addition to the Space Transportation System and will increase the utility of the Space Station.

  2. Approach to Spacelab Payload mission management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G.; Lester, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleus of the approach to Spacelab Payload mission management is the establishment of a single point of authority for the entire payload on a given mission. This single point mission manager will serve as a 'broker' between the individual experiments and the STS, negotiating agreements by two-part interaction. The payload mission manager, along with a small support team, will represent the users in negotiating use of STS accommodations. He will provide the support needed by each individual experimenter to meet the scientific, technological, and applications objectives of the mission with minimum cost and maximum efficiency. The investigator will assume complete responsibility for his experiment hardware definition and development and will take an active role in the integration and operation of his experiment.

  3. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  4. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Clowdsley, Martha; Qualls, Garry; Blattnig, Steve; Lee, Kerry; Fry, Dan; Stoffle, Nicholas; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Walker, Steven; Zapp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large Solar Particle Event (SPE). Longer duration missions have both SPE and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) risks. SPE exposure can contribute significantly toward cancer induction in combination with GCR. As mission duration increases, mitigation strategies must address the combined risks from SPE and GCR exposure. In this paper, full mission exposure assessments were performed for the proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, previously developed radiation shielding models for a proposed lunar habitat and rover were utilized. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for the proposed timelines. Mission exposure results, assessed in terms of effective dose, are presented for the proposed timelines and recommendations are made for improved astronaut shielding and safer operational practices.

  5. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  6. 12 CFR 940.2 - Mission of the Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mission of the Banks. 940.2 Section 940.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MISSION CORE MISSION ACTIVITIES § 940.2 Mission of the Banks. The mission of the Banks is to provide to their members' and...

  7. Analogue Missions on Earth, a New Approach to Prepare Future Missions on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Martin

    Human exploration of the Moon is a target by 2020 with an initial lunar outpost planned in polar regions. Current architectures maintain a capability for sorties to other latitudes for science activities. In the early stages of design of lunar outpost infrastructure and science activity planning, it has been recognized that analogue missions could play a major role in Moon mission design. Analogue missions, as high fidelity simulations of human and robotic surface operations, can help field scientists and engineers develop and test strategies as well as user requirements, as they provide opportunities to groundtruth measurements, and for the team to share understanding of key science needs and key engineering trades. These types of missions also provide direct training in planning science operations, and in team building and communication. The Canadian Space Agency's Exploration Core Program targets the development of technology infrastructure elements in key areas of science, technology and robotics in preparation for its role in the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. Within this Program, Analogue Missions specifically target the operations requirements and lessons learned that will reduce costs and lower the risk of planetary surface missions. Analogue missions are simulations of planetary surface operations that take place at analogue sites on Earth. A terrestrial analogue site resembles in some key way: eg. geomorphologically or geochemically, a surface environment of another planet. An analogue mission can, therefore, be defined as an integrated set of activities that represent (or simulate) entire mission designs or narrowly focus on specific aspects of planned or potential future planetary exploration missions. Within the CSA's Exploration Core Program, Analogue Missions facilitate the maturation of science instruments and mission concepts by integrating ongoing space instrument and technology development programs with science and analogue elements. As

  8. ACADEMIC MISSION - FROM AUTOCRACY TO BUREAUCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mission is generic expression of reason for the existence of an organization. Organizational mission ensure continuity of existence beyond the objectives and targets of activities. It is the expression of an organization's responsibilities towards the environment in which it belongs. As the organization grows and its activities or environmental conditions change, managers adapt their strategies, but stated mission will remain valid for a period of time or unchanged throughout the life of the organization. All managerial elements of the organization are aligned with stated mission, starting from the organization structure, management behavior or specific business processes. The focus of the mission of an higher education institution on a need or several integrated needs, on customers who manifest this need and on how they can be met, that really means defining of its strategic domanin, as a sphere of influence of the organization in their environment. In this sphere of influence, three components integrate on three levels of the mission: to establish needs; identify the customer type to which an organization adress and key competencies that differentiate it from the rest competitors. To that context identifies four specific forms of academic institutions starting from their mission and strategic area: autocratic academic institutions, meritocrate academic institutions, democratic academic institutions, bureaucrats academic institutions.

  9. The final year of the Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Ferri, Paolo; Lodiot, Sylvain; Pellon-Bailon, Jose-Luis; Hubault, Armelle; Urbanek, Jakub; Kay, Ritchie; Eiblmaier, Matthias; Francisco, Tiago

    2017-07-01

    The International Rosetta Mission was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to rendezvous with comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Rosetta performed comet orbit insertion on the 6th of August 2014, after which it characterised the nucleus and orbited it at altitudes as low as a few kilometres. In November 2014 Rosetta delivered the lander Philae to perform the first soft landing ever on the surface of a comet. After this critical operation, Rosetta began the escort phase of the comet in its journey in the Solar System heading to the perihelion, reached in August 2015. Originally foreseen till the end of 2015, the mission was extended for another nine months to follow the comet on its outbound arc of the orbit. In view of the acquired experience and of the approaching end of mission the spacecraft was flown at much closer distances from the nucleus so that the scientific instruments had the chance to perform unique measurements. Following this phase of very close orbits, on the 30th of September 2016 Rosetta was set on a collision course trajectory with the comet to terminate the mission with a controlled impact. This paper describes the details of the extended mission phase and the issues encountered during these months. It also includes the changes implemented on the spacecraft and in the operations concept to optimise the remaining mission time. The paper also includes the lessons learned from this unique and complex mission phase.

  10. Understanding NEOs: The Role of Characterization Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    2007-10-01

    NEOs are important from multiple perspectives, including science, hazard mitigation, space resources, and as targets for human missions. Much can be learned from ground-based studies, especially with radar, but the unique value of in situ investigation has been shown by missions such as NEAR-Shoemaker and Hayabusa to asteroids Eros and Itokawa, and Deep Impact and Stardust to comets. The next mission targets are likely to be NEAs in the subkilometer size range. Because these smaller objects are much more numerous, they are the objects we most need to understand from a defense perspective, and they are also the most likely targets for early human missions. However, there are unique challenges in sending spacecraft to investigate sub-km asteroids. Reconnaissance flybys are of little use, orbiting requires active control, and landing on such a low-gravity surface is perhaps better described as docking. Yet we need to operate close to the target, and probably to land, to obtain crucial information about interior structure. This paper deals primarily with small landers like the Near Earth Asteroid Trailblazer Mission (NEAT) studied at Ames Research Center. The NEAT objectives are to provide global reconnaissance (shape, mass, density, dynamical state), in situ surface characterization, and long-term precision tracking. Alternative approaches use deep-penetrating radar and electromagnetic sounding to probe interior structure. A third class of missions is ballistic impactors such as the ESA Don Quijote, which test one of the technologies for deflecting small asteroids. If the targets are selected for their accessibility, such missions could be implemented with low-cost launchers such as Pegasus, Falcon, or Minotaur. Such missions will have high science return. But from the perspective of defense, we have not yet developed a consensus strategy for the role of such characterization missions.

  11. Atrial Fibrillation During an Exploration Class Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipset, Mark A.; Lemery, Jay; Polk, J. D.; Hamilton, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A long-duration exploration class mission is fraught with numerous medical contingency plans. Herein, we explore the challenges of symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) occurring during an exploration class mission. The actions and resources required to ameliorate the situation, including the availability of appropriate pharmaceuticals, monitoring devices, treatment modalities, and communication protocols will be investigated. Challenges of Atrial Fibrillation during an Exploration Mission: Numerous etiologies are responsible for the initiation of AF. On Earth, we have the time and medical resources to evaluate and determine the causative situation for most cases of AF and initiate therapy accordingly. During a long-duration exploration class mission resources will be severely restricted. How is one to determine if new onset AF is due to recent myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, fluid overload, thyrotoxicosis, cardiac structural abnormalities, or CO poisoning? Which pharmaceutical therapy should be initiated and what potential side effects can be expected? Should anti-coagulation therapy be initiated? How would one monitor the therapeutic treatment of AF in microgravity? What training would medical officers require, and which communication strategies should be developed to enable the best, safest therapeutic options for treatment of AF during a long-duration exploration class mission? Summary: These questions will be investigated with expert opinion on disease elucidation, efficient pharmacology, therapeutic monitoring, telecommunication strategies, and mission cost parameters with emphasis on atrial fibrillation being just one illustration of the tremendous challenges that face a long-duration exploration mission. The limited crew training time, medical hardware, and drugs manifested to deal with such an event predicate that aggressive primary and secondary prevention strategies be developed to protect a multibillion-dollar asset like the

  12. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sean V.; Arrieta, Juan; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Valerino, Powtawche N.; Wong, Mau C.

    2013-01-01

    The Solstice Mission is the final extension of the Cassini spacecraft s tour of Saturn and its moons. To accommodate an end-of-mission in 2017, the maneuver decision process has been refined. For example, the Cassini Project now prioritizes saving propellant over minimizing maneuver cycles. This paper highlights 30 maneuvers planned from June 2012 through July 2013, targeted to nine Titan flybys and the final Rhea encounter in the mission. Of these maneuvers, 90% were performed to maintain the prescribed trajectory and preserve downstream delta V. Recent operational changes to maneuver executions based on execution-error modeling and analysis are also discussed.

  13. ESA's atmospheric composition and dynamics mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Laur, Henri; Hoersch, Bianca; Ingmann, Paul; Wehr, Tobias; Langen, Joerg; Veihelmann, Ben

    For almost 15 years, ESA is providing atmospheric chemistry and composition information to the user community. In 1995, this commitment started with the GOME instrument on-board ERS-2. This mission was continued and extended with the GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY instruments on-board of ENVISAT launched in 2002. ESA is prepared to continue Envisat through 2013 in the frame of the mission extension. To respond to GMES requirements, ESA develops the Sentinel 5 Precursor mission to be launched in 2014, to continue and improve the European measurement capabilities initiated with GOME and SCIAMACHY, and continued with EUMETSAT's GOME-2 and the Dutch OMI instrument on the NASA Aura platform. In addition the Sentinel 4 and 5 missions are prepared, further improving the monitoring capabilities with geostationary observation capabilities and continuing the Low Earth Orbit Sentinel 5 Precursor well beyond 2025. At the same time, ESA is preparing two atmospheric Earth Explorer Missions. With ADM-Aeolus, a novel lidar system for the retrieval of wind speed vectors from space is being developed and planned to be launched in 2012. EarthCARE will investigate the Clouds-Aerosol-radiation-interaction with a lidar, cloud radar (provided by JAXA), multi-spectral imager and broad band radiometric instruments collocated on one platform. A major goal is the development of synergistic retrievals exploiting information from different sensors in one algorithm. The mission is planned to start in 2014. In parallel the Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 are ongoing. One of the three candidate missions is PREMIER, an infrared limb-imaging spectrometer and millimetre-wave limb-sounder planned to be launched in 2016. In addition the call of ideas for the Earth Explorer 8 has been published and the corresponding Letters of Intend have been received, including a number of proposals for mission in the atmospheric composition and dynamics domain. At the same time, the access to ESA Third

  14. Technology demonstration by the BIRD-mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briess, K.; Barwald, W.; Gill, E.; Kayal, H.; Montenbruck, O.; Montenegro, S.; Halle, W.; Skrbek, W.; Studemund, H.; Terzibaschian, T.; Venus, H. [DLR, Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Weltraumsensor & Planetenerkundung

    2005-01-01

    The (BIRD)-mission is dedicated to the remote sensing of hot spot events like vegetation fires, coal seam fires or active volcanoes from space and to the space demonstration of new technologies. For these objectives a lot of new small satellite technologies and a new generation of cooled infrared array sensors suitable for small satellite missions are developed to fulfil the high scientific requirements of the mission. The paper describes the new developed technologies like onboard navigation system, the high-performance failure tolerant spacecraft computer, the precision reaction wheels, the star sensor, the attitude control system, the onboard classification experiment and the results and flight experience up to now.

  15. Autonomy requirements engineering for space missions

    CERN Document Server

    Vassev, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Advanced space exploration is performed by unmanned missions with integrated autonomy in both flight and ground systems. Risk and feasibility are major factors supporting the use of unmanned craft and the use of automation and robotic technologies where possible. Autonomy in space helps to increase the amount of science data returned from missions, perform new science, and reduce mission costs.Elicitation and expression of autonomy requirements is one of the most significant challenges the autonomous spacecraft engineers need to overcome today. This book discusses the Autonomy Requirements Eng

  16. Integrated Network Architecture for NASA's Orion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.; Sartwell, Thomas; Miller, Ronald A.; Hudiburg, John J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. The series of missions will begin with a new crew exploration vehicle (called Orion) that will initially provide crew exchange and cargo supply support to the International Space Station (ISS) and then become a human conveyance for travel to the Moon. The Orion vehicle will be mounted atop the Ares I launch vehicle for a series of pre-launch tests and then launched and inserted into low Earth orbit (LEO) for crew exchange missions to the ISS. The Orion and Ares I comprise the initial vehicles in the Constellation system of systems that later includes Ares V, Earth departure stage, lunar lander, and other lunar surface systems for the lunar exploration missions. These key systems will enable the lunar surface exploration missions to be initiated in 2018. The complexity of the Constellation system of systems and missions will require a communication and navigation infrastructure to provide low and high rate forward and return communication services, tracking services, and ground network services. The infrastructure must provide robust, reliable, safe, sustainable, and autonomous operations at minimum cost while maximizing the exploration capabilities and science return. The infrastructure will be based on a network of networks architecture that will integrate NASA legacy communication, modified elements, and navigation systems. New networks will be added to extend communication, navigation, and timing services for the Moon missions. Internet protocol (IP) and network management systems within the networks will enable interoperability throughout the Constellation system of systems. An integrated network architecture has developed based on the emerging Constellation requirements for Orion missions. The architecture, as presented in this paper, addresses the early Orion missions to the ISS with communication, navigation, and network services over five

  17. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  18. 2016 Science Mission Directorate Technology Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seablom, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    The role of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is to enable NASA to achieve its science goals in the context of the nation's science agenda. SMD's strategic decisions regarding future missions and scientific pursuits are guided by agency goals, input from the science community including the recommendations set forth in the National Research Council (NRC) decadal surveys and a commitment to preserve a balanced program across the major science disciplines. Toward this end, each of the four SMD science divisions -- Heliophysics, Earth Science, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics -- develops fundamental science questions upon which to base future research and mission programs.

  19. Optical Payload for the STARE Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, L; Riot, V; De Vries, W; Olivier, S S; Pertica, A; Bauman, B J; Phillion, D; Nikolaev, S

    2011-03-13

    Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) is a nano-sat based mission designed to better determine the trajectory of satellites and space debris in orbit around earth. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the mission and its place in the larger context of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). We then describe the details of the central optical payload, touching on the optical design and characterization of the on-board image sensor used in our Cubesat based prototype. Finally, we discuss the on-board star and satellite track detection algorithm central to the success of the mission.

  20. Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, D S; Team, Genesis Science

    2011-11-29

    Science results from the Genesis Mission illustrate the major advantages of sample return missions. (i) Important results not otherwise obtainable except by analysis in terrestrial laboratories: the isotopic compositions of O, N, and noble gases differ in the Sun from other inner solar system objects. The N isotopic composition is the same as that of Jupiter. Genesis has resolved discrepancies in the noble gas data from solar wind implanted in lunar soils. (ii) The most advanced analytical instruments have been applied to Genesis samples, including some developed specifically for the mission. (iii) The N isotope result has been replicated with four different instruments.