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Sample records for surveyor mars odyssey

  1. NASA Set for 2001 Mars Odyssey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国宁

    2001-01-01

    人类对火星的探索处于起步阶段,却体现出了不屈不饶的精神。NASA在1999年的两次发射太空船均以失败告终,今年发射The Mars Odyssey获得成功。文章告诉我们:The Mars Odyssey will complete its 400-million-mile journey in October.让我们在金秋十月等候The Mars Odyssey发回的关于火星的信息吧。

  2. 2031, an edaphological Mars odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón, Vidal

    2016-04-01

    NASA is projecting to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. In the PICO session we will make a 4D experience, a journey in space and time. Wéll connect with a meeting in the future mission "Edaphos one" travelling to Mars in 2031. In that meeting, an international scientific team with one geophysicist, one mineralogist and two agronomist will review the state of the art of the geo-edaphological knowledge of the martian surface, based on the main Mars missions using orbiters (Mariner), landers (Viking) and rovers (Pathfinder, Spirit-Opportunity, Curiosity). A special attention will be devoted to the mineralogy of the iron oxides, as important aquamarkers. Finally, they discuss about the biological, physical and chemical limitations for plants growth on Mars. You can see the trailer of the presentation in this link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRS0tPNpvFU

  3. Seasonal and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO radio science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-07-01

    We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k2 of 0.1697 ± 0.0027 (3-σ). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C30 and, for the first time, C50. Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C30 for ∼1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics (l = 60-80) than previous solutions.

  4. Results From the Mars Odyssey THEMIS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.

    2003-05-01

    The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) onboard Mars Odyssey began studying the surface and atmosphere of Mars in February 2002 using thermal infrared (IR) multi-spectral imaging between 6.5 and 15 μm, and visible/near-IR images from 450 to 850 nm. Regional-scale infrared mapping shows that Mars has both regional and local geologic units delineated by their thermophysical properties. In Meridiani Planum these units imply a complex history involving changes in the nature of volcanic units, the environment of deposition of sedimentary units, and/or the degree of lithification or cementation of initially unconsolidated units. Mars has km-scale exposures of bedrock, and rocky surfaces are commonly observed on slopes and scarps, demonstrating that the production or exposure rate of rock locally exceeds the rate of rock burial or breakdown. In places, thermally distinct ejecta deposits with a wide range of thermophysical properties are observed around craters of varying sizes. This variation in the preservation of the infrared signature of crater ejecta may be associated with crater age. Where large fields of sand dunes occur, the dunes are typically coarser-grained than the interdune surfaces, suggesting that finer-grained material is accumulating where active sand motion may be limited. Surfaces known to be mantled by air-fall dust, such as the Tharsis and Arabia provinces, also appear completely mantled at THEMIS 100-m per pixel resolution. THEMIS multi-spectral infrared observations show significant potential for compositional mapping at 100-m scales, as demonstrated by the identification of olivine-rich basaltic units on the floor of Ganges Chasma. Polar observations have confirmed the presence of CO2 slab ice and the presence of H2O exposed at the surface of the south polar summer cap. The visible imager also has obtained information on the color properties of the surface and of atmospheric aerosols at the highest spatial resolution yet obtained from Mars

  5. Mars Surveyor '98 MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Novel solutions are presented to some of the unique problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing power.

  6. Martian clouds observed by Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huiqun; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    We have made daily global maps that cover both polar and equatorial regions of Mars for Ls 135°–360° and 0°–111° using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red and blue wide-angle swaths taken from May 1999 to January 2001. We study the seasonal distribution of condensate clouds and dust clouds during roughly 1 Martian year using these daily global maps. We present the development and decay of the tropical cloud belt and the polar hoods, the spatial and temporal distributi...

  7. The Gravity Field of Mars From MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have enabled NASA to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit for sixteen consecutive years. These radio systems on these spacecraft enabled radio science in orbit around Mars to improve the knowledge of the static structure of the Martian gravitational field. The continuity of the radio tracking data, which cover more than a solar cycle, also provides useful information to characterize the temporal variability of the gravity field, relevant to the planet's internal dynamics and the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere [1]. MGS operated for more than 7 years, between 1999 and 2006, in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis at approximately 370 km altitude. ODY and MRO have been orbiting Mars in two separate sun-synchronous orbits at different local times and altitudes. ODY began its mapping phase in 2002 with the periapis at approximately 390 km altitude and 4-5pm Local Solar Time (LST), whereas the MRO science mission started in November 2006 with the periapis at approximately 255 km altitude and 3pm LST. The 16 years of radio tracking data provide useful information on the atmospheric density in the Martian upper atmosphere. We used ODY and MRO radio data to recover the long-term periodicity of the major atmospheric constituents -- CO2, O, and He -- at the orbit altitudes of these two spacecraft [2]. The improved atmospheric model provides a better prediction of the annual and semi-annual variability of the dominant species. Therefore, the inclusion of the recovered model leads to improved orbit determination and an improved gravity field model of Mars with MGS, ODY, and MRO radio tracking data.

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate [1,2] we just don t know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering. We defined a number of Regions of Interest ROI) for THEMIS to target as part of the Mars Odyssey Participating Scientist program. We use these THEMIS data in order to understand the morphology and color/thermal properties of the NPLD and related materials over relevant (i.e., m to km) spatial scales. We have assembled color mosaics of our ROIs in order to map the distribution of ices, the different layered units, dark material, and underlying basement. The color information from THEMIS is crucial for distinguishing these different units which are less distinct on Mars Orbiter Camera images. We wish to understand the nature of the marginal scarps and their relationship to the dark material. Our next, more ambitious goal is to derive the thermophysical properties of the different geologic materials using THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer TES) data.

  9. Application of Accelerometer Data to Mars Odyssey Aerobraking and Atmospheric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, R. H.; Keating, G. M.; George, B. E.; Escalera, P. E.; Werner, M. R.; Dwyer, A. M.; Hanna, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Aerobraking was an enabling technology for the Mars Odyssey mission even though it involved risk due primarily to the variability of the Mars upper atmosphere. Consequently, numerous analyses based on various data types were performed during operations to reduce these risk and among these data were measurements from spacecraft accelerometers. This paper reports on the use of accelerometer data for determining atmospheric density during Odyssey aerobraking operations. Acceleration was measured along three orthogonal axes, although only data from the component along the axis nominally into the flow was used during operations. For a one second count time, the RMS noise level varied from 0.07 to 0.5 mm/s2 permitting density recovery to between 0.15 and 1.1 kg per cu km or about 2% of the mean density at periapsis during aerobraking. Accelerometer data were analyzed in near real time to provide estimates of density at periapsis, maximum density, density scale height, latitudinal gradient, longitudinal wave variations and location of the polar vortex. Summaries are given of the aerobraking phase of the mission, the accelerometer data analysis methods and operational procedures, some applications to determining thermospheric properties, and some remaining issues on interpretation of the data. Pre-flight estimates of natural variability based on Mars Global Surveyor accelerometer measurements proved reliable in the mid-latitudes, but overestimated the variability inside the polar vortex.

  10. The Mars Surveyor '01 Rover and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert G.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Kim, Won S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander will carry with it both a Robotic Arm and Rover to support various science and technology experiments. The Marie Curie Rover, the twin sister to Sojourner Truth, is expected to explore the surface of Mars in early 2002. Scientific investigations to determine the elemental composition of surface rocks and soil using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be conducted along with several technology experiments including the Mars Experiment on Electrostatic Charging (MEEC) and the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The Rover will follow uplinked operational sequences each day, but will be capable of autonomous reactions to the unpredictable features of the Martian environment. The Mars Surveyor 2001 Robotic Arm will perform rover deployment, and support various positioning, digging, and sample acquiring functions for MECA (Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment) and Mossbauer Spectrometer experiments. The Robotic Arm will also collect its own sensor data for engineering data analysis. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) mounted on the forearm of the Robotic Arm will capture various images with a wide range of focal length adjustment during scientific experiments and rover deployment

  11. Schmidt Crater: Using Data from the Mars Global Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Fred

    2001-10-01

    In the Physics Department at Sinclair Community College in Dayton, the most popular general-education course is a three-quarter astronomy sequence. The course is designed to incorporate significant elements of conceptual physics, scientific methods, and quantitative reasoning, along with the content of astronomy. In cooperation with faculty from mathematics and sociology, the author developed new lab activities that engage students in making "practical" plans for the colonization of Mars. The activities are intended to be low-cost, to be suitable for either on-campus or distance-learning environments, and to be fun for both students and instructors. The Schmidt Crater region, an Ohio-sized area near the South Pole of Mars, was selected as a potential site for obtaining large quantities of water. Topographic data for the region was extracted from the 36 CD's of laser altimeter data obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor, and ArcView was used to produce detailed maps. Wide and narrow angle photos of the region from the Mars Orbiter Camera were integrated with the topographic maps. Both the maps and the photographs were therefore made accessible to students who can use free software packages, such as ArcExplorer and Scion Image With access to up-to-date data for this region, students complete a series of "authentic learning tasks" that include calculating water needs for a Martian city, identifying likely water sources, planning transportation methods, and selecting a "homestead" for their own personal use.

  12. Mars Global Surveyor measurements of solar storms and their effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, D. A.; Delory, G. T.; Lillis, R. J.; Ulusen, D.; Mitchell, D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Falkenberg, T. V.

    2010-12-01

    Space weather events in the form of solar photons and energetic charged particles provide brief but relatively intense periods of energy input to the Martian plasma environment and atmosphere, with implications for a number of science and exploration-related issues. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft orbited Mars for more than 9 years, and was capable of indirectly detecting space weather events and their effects. Shocks associated with passing coronal mass ejections are evident in MGS magnetometer data, and in proxies for upstream solar wind pressure at 1.5 AU derived from magnetometer measurements. Fluxes of solar energetic particles with energies greater than ˜30 MeV are sometimes evident in the background count rates of the MGS electron instrument. Measurements of the background count rates at altitudes of ˜400 km over a seven year period provide an unprecedented long-baseline data set of the energetic particle environment at Mars over a significant fraction of a solar cycle. We will present results of analyses pertaining to three main uses of MGS observations of solar storms. First, by combining MGS measurements of solar storms with terrestrial and solar measurements, we have analyzed the propagation of individual solar storm events from the Sun throughout the inner heliosphere. Next, we have used MGS particle and field measurements to study the effect of solar storms on the Martian plasma environment - including increased fluxes of 10-20 keV electrons close to the planet and influences on auroral activity. Finally, we have studied the influence of solar storms on the Martian upper atmosphere - including suprathermal electrons produced in the atmosphere via impact ionization and a correlation of solar storm periods with ionospheric electron density profiles.

  13. Proton Cyclotron Waves Upstream from Mars: Observations from Mars Global Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Romanelli, Norberto; Gomez, Daniel; Mazelle, Christian; Delva, Magda

    2013-01-01

    We present a study on the properties of electromagnetic plasma waves in the region upstream of the Martian bow shock, detected by the magnetometer and electron reflectometer (MAG / ER) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft during the period known as Science Phasing Orbits (SPO). The frequency of these waves, measured in the MGS reference frame (SC), is close to the local proton cyclotron frequency. Minimum variance analysis (MVA) shows that these 'proton cyclotron frequency' waves (PCWs) are characterized - in the SC frame - by a left-hand, elliptical polarization and propagate almost parallel to the background magnetic field. They also have a small degree of compressibility and an amplitude that decreases with the increase of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle and radial distance from the planet. The latter result supports the idea that the source of these waves is Mars. In addition, we find that these waves are not associated with the foreshock . Empirical evidence and theoretica...

  14. Quantitative studies of volcanic processes on Mars using data from the Mars Global Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Louise Jane

    Volcanic processes on Mars were investigated using topographic profiles derived with the help of IDL software from data collected by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the Mars Global Surveyor Mission (MGS) in 1997-2001 and images obtained by the MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and by the earlier Viking mission. Thickness and slope values for lava flows at both Elysium Mons and Alba Patera made it possible to compute flow emplacement times and effusion rates using the flow growth model proposed by C. R. J. Kilburn and R. M. C Lopes in 1990. Geological mapping of the Elysium volcanic region showed that Elysium Mons was emplaced as a result of a single shift in vent position on top of an older volcanic edifice, here termed the Ancient Volcanic Edifice (AVE). This implies that there have been substantial variations in both position and time for the magma supply. Calculations suggest that the flows at Alba Patera were emplaced more quickly than those at Elysium Mons, possibly owing to differences in fissure width and lava composition. There is evidence for both aa and pahoehoe on the summit areas of Elysium Mons and Alba Patera. The presence of aa is consistent with the view that long lava flows on Mars are emplaced quickly. Pahoehoe flows imply slow emplacement, and their inferred presence on Mars provides support for the theory that long terrestrial lavas are often emplaced as sheets of inflated pahoehoe. MOC image analysis indicated that late-stage explosive activity has occurred at several Martian volcanoes where it was previously undetected, contrary to the prevalent view that Martian volcanism evolves from explosive to effusive activity. To resolve the many ambiguities inherent in morphological data and imagery the need remains for ground truthing by experienced observers and detailed geochemical analyses in situ or by means of a sample return mission

  15. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4 GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-in diameter parabolic high gain antenna (HGA) on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) R&D 34-meter antenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. The projected 5-dB link advantage of Ka-band relative to X-band was confirmed in previous reports using measurements of MGS signal strength data acquired during the first two years of the link experiment from December 1996 to December 1998. Analysis of X-band and Ka-band frequency data and difference frequency (fx-fka)/3.8 data will be presented here. On board the spacecraft, a low-power sample of the X-band downlink from the transponder is upconverted to 32 GHz, the Ka-band frequency, amplified to I-W using a Solid State Power Amplifier, and radiated from the dual X/Ka HGA. The X-band signal is amplified by one of two 25 W TWTAs. An upconverter first downconverts the 8.42 GHz X-band signal to 8 GHz and then multiplies using a X4 multiplier producing the 32 GHz Ka-band frequency. The frequency source selection is performed by an RF switch which can be commanded to select a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) or USO (Ultra-Stable Oscillator) reference. The Ka-band frequency can be either coherent with the X-band downlink reference or a hybrid combination of the USO and VCO derived frequencies. The data in this study were chosen such that the Ka-band signal is purely coherent with the X-band signal, that is the downconverter is driven by the same frequency source as the X-band downlink). The ground station used to acquire the data is DSS-13, a 34-meter BWG antenna which incorporates a series of mirrors inside beam waveguide tubes which guide the energy to a subterranean pedestal room, providing a stable environment

  16. Global-scale external magnetic fields at Mars from Mars Global Surveyor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelholz, A.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    The martian magnetic field is unique among those of the terrestrial planets. It is the net result of the interaction of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with crustal remnant magnetization and a planetary ionosphere. Internal fields of crustal origin have been the subject of extensive studies; the focus of our work is identification and characterization of contributions from external magnetic fields using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) vector magnetic field data. We investigate the magnitude, average spatial structure and temporal variability of the external magnetic field at the MGS mapping altitude of 400 km by first subtracting expected contributions from crustal fields using existing global crustal field models. We identify contributions to the residual dayside fields from two sources: the draped IMF and a source that we interpret to be of ionospheric origin. As observed in previous work, nightside external fields are minimal at mapping orbit altitudes. The IMF contribution changes polarity every 13 days due to the geometry of the heliospheric magnetic field and Mars' orbit. This allows us to calculate the amplitude of the IMF at mapping orbit altitudes. The ionospheric contribution results in a quasi-steady dayside signal in the MGS observations because of the limited local time sampling of the MGS mapping orbit. The ionospheric contribution can be isolated by averaging the external fields over timescales longer than several Carrington rotations, to average out the IMF contribution. We present a global average of the ionopsheric field for the duration of the mapping orbit (2000-2006) and analyze daytime and nightime fields separately. We show that some structure in the time-averaged ionospheric field is organized in the Mars body-fixed frame, due for example, to the influence of crustal fields. We also show that the ionospheric fields vary in amplitude and geometry with martian season. Broader local time coverage over a restricted latitude

  17. Lybia Montes: A Safe, Ancient Cratered Terrain, Mars Surveyor Landing Site at the Isidis Basin Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Anderson, R. C.; Harbert, W.

    2000-01-01

    The Isidis basin rim may be key to understanding Mars' past with future lander missions: this area enables the mission objective to explore Mars' climatic and geologic history, including the search for liquid water and evidence of prior or extant life in ancient terrains. While two safe candidate landIng sites for Mars Pathfinder were identified in Isidis Planitia, and one is being pursued for the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander, the region around Isidis Planitia. in contrast to Tharsis for example, has only been lightly studied. The advent of new high resolution data sets provides an opportunity to re-assess the geologic context of this Impact basin and its rim within the Martian geologic sequence as a candidate site for studying Mars' ancient cratered terrain and ancient hydrosphere. This reexamination is warranted by the various hypotheses that Isidis was once filled with ice or water.

  18. Simultaneous MSL REMS and Mars Odyssey THEMIS ground temperature measurements in Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Victoria; Vasavada, Ashwin; Christensen, Philip; Ramos, Miguel; de Pablo, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    Ground temperature measurements and thermal models have been used extensively to infer physical properties of the Martian surface such as effective mean particle size [1], rock abundance [2], the presence of lateral or vertical heterogeneity [e.g., 3], degree of induration or cementation [4], etc. Knowledge of these physical properties is valuable for interpreting Mars' geologic history at a variety of spatial scales from local to global, as well as providing important insight into the safety and trafficability of landing sites, both prior to [e.g., 5, 6] and during landed mission operations. The Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS) of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) onboard the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity provides the first in situ observations of ground temperature throughout the diurnal cycle [7]. We have compared GTS-measured temperatures and derived thermal inertias through sol 414 with simultaneously acquired data obtained from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) onboard the Mars Odyssey orbiter [8]. These measurements enable us to: 1) compare orbital and in situ temperature observations, 2) compare thermal inertias derived from single time-of-day measurements to those derived from a full diurnal temperature cycle, and 3) validate interpretations of thermophysical data with visual observations of local terrain. Surface temperatures measured by GTS and THEMIS at locations along Curiosity's traverse show a good correlation and deviations from a perfect fit are expected based on the instruments' spatial resolution differences. Local imaging (e.g., Mastcam clast survey images) show that, not surprisingly, the relatively small GTS field of view can be heavily biased by small-scale, local thermophysical features. THEMIS thermal inertias appear to be somewhat higher than their GTS-derived counterparts overall. However, much of this difference can be attributed to the difference in the spatial resolution of the instruments, particularly at

  19. The Development and Evaluation of an Operational Aerobraking Strategy for the Mars 2001 Odyssey Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Munk, Michelle M.; Powell, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars 2001 Odyssey Orbiter successfully completed the aerobraking phase of its mission on January 11, 2002. This paper discusses the support provided by NASA's Langley Research Center to the navigation team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the planning and operational support of Mars Odyssey Aerobraking. Specifically, the development of a three-degree-of-freedom aerobraking trajectory simulation and its application to pre-flight planning activities as well as operations is described. The importance of running the simulation in a Monte Carlo fashion to capture the effects of mission and atmospheric uncertainties is demonstrated, and the utility of including predictive logic within the simulation that could mimic operational maneuver decision-making is shown. A description is also provided of how the simulation was adapted to support flight operations as both a validation and risk reduction tool and as a means of obtaining a statistical basis for maneuver strategy decisions. This latter application was the first use of Monte Carlo trajectory analysis in an aerobraking mission.

  20. Solar wind modulation of the Martian ionosphere observed by Mars Global Surveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-S. Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron density profiles in the Martian ionosphere observed by the radio occultation experiment on board Mars Global Surveyor have been analyzed to determine if the densities are influenced by the solar wind. Evidence is presented that the altitude of the maximum ionospheric electron density shows a positive correlation to the energetic proton flux in the solar wind. The solar wind modulation of the Martian ionosphere can be attributed to heating of the neutral atmosphere by the solar wind energetic proton precipitation. The modulation is observed to be most prominent at high solar zenith angles. It is argued that this is consistent with the proposed modulation mechanism.

  1. Metabolism of spacecraft cleaning reagents by Mars Odyssey and Phoenix-associated Acinetobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogul, Rakesh; Barding, Gregory; Baki, Ryan; Perkins, Nicole; Lee, Sooji; Lalla, Sid; Campos, Alexa; Sripong, Kimberly; Madrid, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The metabolomic and proteomic properties that promote microbial survival in spacecraft assembly facilities are important aspects to planetary protection and astrobiology. In this presentation, we will provide molecular and biological evidence that the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter metabolize/degrade spacecraft cleaning reagents such as ethanol, 2-propanol, and Kleenol-30. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studies on A. radioresistens 50v1 (Mars Odyssey) show that the metabolome is dependent upon growth conditions and that ^{13}C-labeled ethanol is incorporated into metabolites such as TCA/glyoxylate cycle intermediates, amino acids, monosaccharides, and disaccharides (e.g., trehalose). In fact, plate count assays show that ethanol is a sole carbon source under minimal conditions for several Mars Phoenix and Odyssey-associated Acinetobacter strains, which may explain why the Acinetobacter are among the most abundant genera found in spacecraft assembly facilities. Biochemical analyses support the enzymatic oxidation of ethanol and 2-propanol by a membrane-bound and NAD+/PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, with current kinetic data providing similar apparent K _{M} and maximum growth rate values of ˜5 and 8 mM ethanol, respectively. Preliminary GC-MS analysis also suggests that Kleenol-30 is degraded by A. radioresistens 50v1 when grown in ethanol mixtures. Under minimal conditions, A. radioresistens 50v1 (˜10 ^{8} cfu/mL) also displays a remarkable oxidative extremotolerance (˜2-log reduction in 10 mM hydrogen peroxide), which suggests crucial roles for metabolites associated with oxidative stress (e.g., trehalose) and the observed appreciable catalase specific activities. In conclusion, these results provide key insights into the survival strategies of spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter and emphasize the importance of characterizing the carbon metabolism of forward contaminants.

  2. Energetic particles detected by the Electron Reflectometer instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor, 1999-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delory, Gregory T.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Brain, David

    2012-01-01

    We report the observation of galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles by the Electron Reflectometer instrument aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from May of 1999 to the mission conclusion in November 2006. Originally designed to detect low-energy electrons, the Electron...... Reflectometer also measured particles with energies >30 MeV that penetrated the aluminum housing of the instrument and were detected directly by microchannel plates in the instrument interior. Using a combination of theoretical and experimental results, we show how the Electron Reflectometer microchannel plates...... recorded high energy galactic cosmic rays with similar to 45% efficiency. Comparisons of this data to galactic cosmic ray proton fluxes obtained from the Advanced Composition Explorer yield agreement to within 10% and reveal the expected solar cycle modulation as well as shorter timescale variations. Solar...

  3. HUBBLE WATCHES THE RED PLANET AS MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR BEGINS AEROBRAKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    his NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture of Mars was taken on Sept. 12, one day after the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft and only five hours before the beginning of autumn in the Martian northern hemisphere. (Mars is tilted on its axis like Earth, so it has similar seasonal changes, including an autumnal equinox when the Sun crosses Mars' equator from the northern to the southern hemisphere). This Hubble picture was taken in support of the MGS mission. Hubble is monitoring the Martian weather conditions during the early phases of MGS aerobraking; in particular, the detection of large dust storms are important inputs into the atmospheric models used by the MGS mission to plan aerobraking operations. Though a dusty haze fills the giant Hellas impact basin south of the dark fin-shaped feature Syrtis Major, the dust appears to be localized within Hellas. Unless the region covered expands significantly, the dust will not be of concern for MGS aerobraking. Other early signs of seasonal transitions on Mars are apparent in the Hubble picture. The northern polar ice cap is blanketed under a polar hood of clouds that typically start forming in late northern summer. As fall progresses, sunlight will dwindle in the north polar region and the seasonal polar cap of frozen carbon dioxide will start condensing onto the surface under these clouds. Hubble observations will continue until October 13, as MGS carefully uses the drag of the Martian atmosphere to circularize its orbit about the Red Planet. After mid-October, Mars will be too close to the Sun, in angular separation, for Hubble to safely view. The image is a composite of three separately filtered colored images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Resolution is 35 miles (57 kilometers) per pixel (picture element). The Pathfinder landing site near Ares Valles is about 2200 miles (3600 kilometers) west of the center of this image, so was not visible during this observation. Mars was 158

  4. Observing Magnetic and Current Profiles of the Night side and Terminator of Mars through the Mars Global Surveyor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, N.; Fillingim, M. O.; Fogle, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mars has no global magnetic field. Changes in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can impact the upper atmosphere and induce currents in the ionosphere of Mars. During aerobraking maneuvers, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) made over 1000 passes through Mars's ionosphere. During these passes, MGS measured the local magnetic field. From these measurements, we can determine the ionospheric currents. We restrict our analysis to passes where the radial component of the magnetic field is nearly zero. This restriction, along with some assumptions about the gradients in the magnetic field, allows us to estimate the horizontal ionospheric currents. Additionally, we focus on the magnetic field data acquired over regions above negligible crustal magnetic fields in order to simplify the analysis. At a maximum altitude of 250 km, the Mars map was segmented to 30 by 30 degrees east longitude and latitude for analysis. We find that on the night side, where the solar zenith angle (SZA) lies between 130 to 180 degrees, only 4% of the data (out of a total of 52 profiles) is usable for computing currents, that is the radial component of the magnetic field is nearly zero. We also find that near the terminator, where the SZA lies between 50 to 130 degrees, an average of 2% of the magnetic field profiles (out of 1905) are usable to compute currents. This implies that currents are rarely horizontal (as required by our assumptions) in these regions. The currents computed from these profiles can give us insights into how the changing solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can affect the upper atmosphere of Mars. For example, induced currents can lead to Joule heating of the atmosphere potentially modifying the neutral dynamics.

  5. Geologic Evolution of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate we just don't know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering.

  6. Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov., a round-spore-forming bacillus isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2004-01-01

    A round-spore-forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium was isolated from the surface of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and is a Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming eubacterium. Ultrathin sections of the spores showed the presence of an exosporium, spore coat, cortex and core. 16S rDNA sequence similarities between this strain, Bacillus fusiformis and Bacillus silvestris were approximately 96% and DNA-DNA reassociation values with these two bacilli were 23 and 17%, respectively. Spores of the novel species were resistant to desiccation, H2O2 and UV and gamma radiation. Of all strains tested, the spores of this strain were the most consistently resistant and survived all of the challenges posed, i.e. exposure to conditions of desiccation (100% survival), H2O2 (26% survival), UV radiation (10% survival at 660 J m(-2)) and gamma radiation (0.4% survival). The name proposed for this novel bacterium is Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov.; the type strain is 34hs-1T (=ATCC PTA-4993T=NRRL B-30641T=NBRC 100172T).

  7. The Strategy for the Second Phase of Aerobraking Mars Global Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. D.; Esposito, P. B.; Alwar, V.; Demcak, S. W.; Graat, E. J.; Burkhart, P. D.; Portock, B. M.

    2000-01-01

    On February 19, 1999, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was able to propulsively establish its mapping orbit. This event followed the completion of the second phase of aerobraking for the MGS spacecraft on February 4, 1999. For the first time, a spacecraft at Mars had successfully employed aerobraking methods in order to reach its desired pre-launch mapping orbit. This was accomplished despite a damaged spacecraft solar array. The MGS spacecraft was launched on November 7, 1996, and after a ten month interplanetary transit was inserted into a highly elliptical capture orbit at Mars on September 12, 1997. Unlike other interplanetary missions, the MGS spacecraft was launched with a planned mission delta-V ((Delta)V) deficit of nearly 1250 m/s. To overcome this AV deficit, aerobraking techniques were employed. However, damage discovered to one of the spacecraft's two solar arrays after launch forced major revisions to the original aerobraking planning of the MGS mission. In order to avoid a complete structural failure of the array, peak dynamic pressure levels for the spacecraft were established at a major spacecraft health review in November 1997. These peak dynamic pressure levels were roughly one-third of the original mission design values. Incorporating the new dynamic pressure limitations into mission replanning efforts resulted in an 'extended' orbit insertion phase for the mission. This 'extended' orbit insertion phase was characterized by two distinct periods of aerobraking separated by an aerobraking hiatus that would last for several months in an intermediate orbit called the "Science Phasing Orbit" (SPO). This paper describes and focuses on the strategy for the second phase of aerobraking for the MGS mission called "Aerobraking Phase 2." This description will include the baseline aerobraking flight profile, the trajectory control methodology, as well as the key trajectory metrics that were monitored in order to successfully "guide' the spacecraft to

  8. The Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Link Experiment (MGS/KaBLE-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4-GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-m-diameter parabolic antenna on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) research and development (R&D) 34-meter a ntenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. This Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE-II) allows the performances of the Ka-band and X-band signals to be compared under nearly identical conditions. The two signals have been regularly tracked during the past 2 years. This article presents carrier-signal-level data (P_c/N_o) for both X-band and Ka-band acquired over a wide range of station elevation angles, weather conditions, and solar elongation angles. The cruise phase of the mission covered the period from launch (November 7, 1996) to Mars orbit capture (September 12, 1997). Since September 12, 1997, MGS has been in orbit around Mars. The measurements confirm that Ka-band could increase data capacity by at least a factor of three (5 dB) as compared with X-band. During May 1998, the solar corona experiment, in which the effects of solar plasma on the X-band and Ka-band links were studied, was conducted. In addition, frequency and difference frequency (f_x - f_(Ka)/3.8), ranging, and telemetry data results are presented. MGS/KaBLE-II measured signal strengths (for 54 percent of the experiments conducted) that were in reasonable agreement with predicted values based on preflight knowledge, and frequency residuals that agreed between bands and whose statistics were consistent with expected noise sources. For passes in which measured signal strengths disagreed with predicted values, the problems were traced to known deficiencies, for example, equipment operating under certain conditions, such as a cold Ka-band solid-state power amplifier (SSPA

  9. Comparative study of the Martian suprathermal electron depletions based on Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckiewicz, M.; Garnier, P.; André, N.; Mitchell, D. L.; Andersson, L.; Penou, E.; Beth, A.; Fedorov, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Mazelle, C.; Brain, D. A.; Espley, J. R.; McFadden, J.; Halekas, J. S.; Larson, D. E.; Lillis, R. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Soobiah, Y.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Nightside suprathermal electron depletions have been observed at Mars by three spacecraft to date: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. This spatial and temporal diversity of measurements allows us to propose here a comprehensive view of the Martian electron depletions through the first multispacecraft study of the phenomenon. We have analyzed data recorded by the three spacecraft from 1999 to 2015 in order to better understand the distribution of the electron depletions and their creation mechanisms. Three simple criteria adapted to each mission have been implemented to identify more than 134,500 electron depletions observed between 125 and 900 km altitude. The geographical distribution maps of the electron depletions detected by the three spacecraft confirm the strong link existing between electron depletions and crustal magnetic field at altitudes greater than 170 km. At these altitudes, the distribution of electron depletions is strongly different in the two hemispheres, with a far greater chance to observe an electron depletion in the Southern Hemisphere, where the strongest crustal magnetic sources are located. However, the unique MAVEN observations reveal that below a transition region near 160-170 km altitude the distribution of electron depletions is the same in both hemispheres, with no particular dependence on crustal magnetic fields. This result supports the suggestion made by previous studies that these low-altitudes events are produced through electron absorption by atmospheric CO2.

  10. Near real-time astrometry for spacecraft navigation with the VLBA: A demonstration with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Odyssey

    CERN Document Server

    Max-Moerbeck, W; Romney, J D

    2015-01-01

    We present a demonstration of near real-time spacecraft astrometry with the VLBA. We detect the X-band downlink signal from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Odyssey with the VLBA and transmit the data over the internet for correlation at the VLBA correlator in near real-time. Quasars near Mars in the plane of the sky are used as position references. In the demonstration we were able to obtain initial position measurements within about 15 minutes of the start of the observation. The measured positions differ from the projected ephemerides by a few milliarcseconds, and the repeatability of the measurement is better than 0.3 milliarcseconds as determined from measurements from multiple scans. We demonstrate that robust and repeatable offsets are obtained even when removing half of the antennas. These observations demonstrate the feasibility of astrometry with the VLBA with a low latency and sub-milliarcsecond repeatability.

  11. Global Distribution of Shallow Water on Mars: Neutron Mapping of Summer-Time Surface by HEND/Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Boynton, W.; Hamara, D.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital mapping of induced neutrons and gamma-rays by Odyssey has recently successfully proven the applicability of nuclear methods for studying of the elementary composition of Martian upper-most subsurface. In particular, the suite of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has discovered the presence of large water-ice rich regions southward and northward on Mars. The data of neutron mapping of summer-time surface are presented below from the Russian High Energy Neutron Spectrometer (HEND), which is a part of GRS suite. These maps represent the content of water in the soil for summer season at Southern and Northern hemispheres, when the winter deposit of CO2 is absent on the surface. The seasonal evolution of CO2 coverage on Mars is the subject of the complementary paper.

  12. Asymmetric penetration of solar wind perturbations down to 400-km altitudes at Mars observed by Mars Global Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, K.; Seki, K.; Hara, T.; Brain, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Since Mars has no intrinsic global magnetic field, the exchange of energy, momentum, and material with the planet takes place through interaction between the solar wind and the Martin upper atmosphere. It is thought that solar wind encountering Mars can penetrate into the point where the solar wind dynamic pressure and the plasma thermal pressure in the Martin ionosphere are almost balanced and the solar wind flow is deflected around the boundary. However, the actual interaction can be complicated, since both plasma processes and the existence of crustal magnetic fields can modify the structure of the boundary. The Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability at the Martian ionopause is one of important candidate process to cause the modification. The dDistribution of ionopause surface waves generated by the K-H instability can should exhibit a clear asymmetry between hemispheres of upward and downward solar wind motional electric fields [e.g., Terada et al., 2002]. It is also suggested that the crustal magnetic fields can locally push the MPB (magnetic pileup boundary) upward [e.g., Brain et al., 2003]. It is also reported that the boundary between the solar wind and Martian ionosphere is located at an altitude of 380 km on average in the dayside [e.g., Mitchell et al., 2001]. However, this boundary location can change significantly depending on solar wind conditions. While it is considered that the solar wind can penetrate to lower altitudes than usual when the solar wind pressure is high, the frequency of the solar wind penetration and its quantitative dependence on the solar wind conditions are not yet well understood. In this study, we focused on penetration of solar wind electromagnetic disturbances, which are a characteristic feature of the shocked solar wind (magnetosheath), down to 400-km altitude at Mars. Using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data, we investigated the observational frequency and characteristics of the penetration events. We used data from the MGS

  13. The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES): New Mars Science to Reduce Human Risk and Prepare for the Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Wright, Henry S.; Killough, B. D.; Edwards, W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining critical measurements for eventual human Mars missions while expanding upon recent Mars scientific discoveries and deriving new scientific knowledge from a unique near surface vantage point is the focus of the Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES) exploration mission. The key element of ARES is an instrumented,rocket-powered, well-tested robotic airplane platform, that will fly between one to two kilometers above the surface while traversing hundreds of kilometers to collect and transmit previously unobtainable high spatial measurements relevant to the NASA Mars Exploration Program and the exploration of Mars by humans.

  14. Failure Engineering Study and Accelerated Stress Test Results for the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft's Power Shunt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbel, Mark; Larson, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    An Engineering-of-Failure approach to designing and executing an accelerated product qualification test was performed to support a risk assessment of a "work-around" necessitated by an on-orbit failure of another piece of hardware on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The proposed work-around involved exceeding the previous qualification experience both in terms of extreme cold exposure level and in terms of demonstrated low cycle fatigue life for the power shunt assemblies. An analysis was performed to identify potential failure sites, modes and associated failure mechanisms consistent with the new use conditions. A test was then designed and executed which accelerated the failure mechanisms identified by analysis. Verification of the resulting failure mechanism concluded the effort.

  15. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  16. Analyzing Magnetic Field and Electrical Current Profiles of the Day Side and Terminator of Mars Using Data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, A. L.; Ponce, N.; Fillingim, M. O.

    2014-12-01

    Mars does not have a global magnetic field, so the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) can impact the upper atmosphere and induce currents in the Martian ionosphere. During aerobraking maneuvers, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) made over 1000 passes through the Martian ionosphere. During the aerobraking phase, MGS measured the local magnetic field in the ionosphere. From measuring changes in the magnetic field, we can calculate the ionospheric currents. By only using measurements where the radial component of the magnetic field is zero and making some assumptions about the gradients in the magnetic field, we are allowed to classify data that meets those conditions as "good" data and calculate horizontal currents in the ionosphere. We focus on data taken over regions of Mars that had negligible crustal magnetic fields to simplify our analysis. The data being analyzed is observed at a maximum altitude of 250 kilometers with a solar zenith angle (SZA) range of 0 degrees to 50 degrees for the day side and 50 to 130 degrees for the terminator. For the day side of Mars, it was found that 24.06% of the data observed was usable data under the initial parameters that were set for "good" data. For the terminator, it was found that 32.08% of the data was usable. The currents that are computed using these "good" magnetic field profiles can give us insights into how the changing solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can effect the upper atmosphere of mars. For example, induced currents can lead to Joule heating of the atmosphere potentially modifying the neutral dynamics.

  17. A Global Map of Thermal Inertia from Mars Global Surveyor Mapping-Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, M. T.; Kretke, K. A.; Smith, M. D.; Pelkey, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    TES (thermal emission spectrometry) has obtained high spatial resolution surface temperature observations from which thermal inertia has been derived. Seasonal coverage of these data now provides a nearly global view of Mars, including the polar regions, at high resolution. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Mars Surveyor Program '01 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment wet chemistry lab: a sensor array for chemical analysis of the Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Lukow, Stefan R.; Comeau, Brian P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Grannan-Feldman, Sabrina M.; Manatt, Ken; West, Steven J.; Wen, Xiaowen; Frant, Martin; Gillette, Tim

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) instrument was designed, built, and flight qualified for the now canceled MSP (Mars Surveyor Program) '01 Lander. The MECA package consisted of a microscope, electrometer, material patch plates, and a wet chemistry laboratory (WCL). The primary goal of MECA was to analyze the Martian soil (regolith) for possible hazards to future astronauts and to provide a better understanding of Martian regolith geochemistry. The purpose of the WCL was to analyze for a range of soluble ionic chemical species and electrochemical parameters. The heart of the WCL was a sensor array of electrochemically based ion-selective electrodes (ISE). After 20 months storage at -23 degrees C and subsequent extended freeze/thawing cycles, WCL sensors were evaluated to determine both their physical durability and analytical responses. A fractional factorial calibration of the sensors was used to obtain slope, intercept, and all necessary selectivity coefficients simultaneously for selected ISEs. This calibration was used to model five cation and three anion sensors. These data were subsequently used to determine concentrations of several ions in two soil leachate simulants (based on terrestrial seawater and hypothesized Mars brine) and four actual soil samples. The WCL results were compared to simulant and soil samples using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The results showed that flight qualification and prolonged low-temperature storage conditions had minimal effects on the sensors. In addition, the analytical optimization method provided quantitative and qualitative data that could be used to accurately identify the chemical composition of the simulants and soils. The WCL has the ability to provide data that can be used to "read" the chemical, geological, and climatic history of Mars, as well as the potential habitability of its regolith.

  19. Insights into the extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a gram-negative bacterium isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K B; Derecho, I; Wong, T; Tran, H M; Huynh, T D; La Duc, M T; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2012-09-01

    The microbiology of the spacecraft assembly process is of paramount importance to planetary exploration, as the biological contamination that can result from remote-enabled spacecraft carries the potential to impact both life-detection experiments and extraterrestrial evolution. Accordingly, insights into the mechanisms and range of extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the surface of the preflight Mars Odyssey orbiter, were gained by using a combination of microbiological, enzymatic, and proteomic methods. In summary, A. radioresistens 50v1 displayed a remarkable range of survival against hydrogen peroxide and the sequential exposures of desiccation, vapor and plasma phase hydrogen peroxide, and ultraviolet irradiation. The survival is among the highest reported for non-spore-forming and Gram-negative bacteria and is based upon contributions from the enzyme-based degradation of H(2)O(2) (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy management (ATP synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase), and modulation of the membrane composition. Together, the biochemical and survival features of A. radioresistens 50v1 support a potential persistence on Mars (given an unintended or planned surface landing of the Mars Odyssey orbiter), which in turn may compromise the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions.

  20. Resurfacing history of the northern plains of Mars based on geologic mapping of Mars Global Surveyor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Skinner, J.A.; Hare, T.M.; Joyal, T.; Wenker, A.

    2003-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the northern plains of Mars, based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topography and Viking and Mars Orbiter Camera images, reveals new insights into geologic processes and events in this region during the Hesperian and Amazonian Periods. We propose four successive stages of lowland resurfacing likely related to the activity of near-surface volatiles commencing at the highland-lowland boundary (HLB) and progressing to lower topographic levels as follows (highest elevations indicated): Stage 1, upper boundary plains, Early Hesperian, <-2.0 to -2.9 km; Stage 2, lower boundary plains and outflow channel dissection, Late Hesperian, <-2.7 to -4.0 km; Stage 3, Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) surface, Late Hesperian to Early Amazonian, <-3.1 to -4.1 km; and Stage 4, local chaos zones, Early Amazonian, <-3.8 to -5.0 km. At Acidalia Mensa, Stage 2 and 3 levels may be lower (<-4.4 and -4.8 km, respectively). Contractional ridges form the dominant structure in the plains and developed from near the end of the Early Hesperian to the Early Amazonian. Geomorphic evidence for a northern-plains-filling ocean during Stage 2 is absent because one did not form or its evidence was destroyed by Stage 3 resurfacing. Remnants of possible Amazonian dust mantles occur on top of the VBF. The north polar layered deposits appear to be made up of an up to kilometer-thick lower sequence of sandy layers Early to Middle Amazonian in age overlain by Late Amazonian ice-rich dust layers; both units appear to have outliers, suggesting that they once were more extensive.

  1. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  2. Water in the soil of the Gale crater on Mars: joint analysis of DAN/MSL and HEND/Mars Odyssey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Harshman, K.; Kuzmin, R.; Lisov, D.; litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A.; Starr, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The ground water measurements by the instrument DAN onboard NASA's MSL rover (see Mitrofanov et al., 2013 a and b, Litvak et al., 2013 and Sanin et al., 2013) may be considered as the ground truth for the orbital measurements of subsurface water by the HEND instrument onboard NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter (e.g. see and Boynton et al., 2002 and Mitrofanov et al., 2002). The physical methods of these two investigations are different. DAN is an active neutron instrument, which produces strong pulses of 14.1 MeV neutrons and measures the post-pulse emission of epithermal and thermal neutrons (see Mitrofanov et al., 2012). HEND is mapping the prompt neutron emission from the martian subsurface due to bombardment by galactic cosmic rays. However, both investigations have the same goal: to measure the content of ground water in the shallow subsurface. The Mars Odyssey Mission has been mapping neutrons since February of 2002. Based on orbital data, the driest region on Mars was found to be Solis Planium with an average content of water about 2 wt% within a depth of about 1 meter (e.g. see Mitrofanov et al. 2002, 2004). The area around Gale crater was found to have a much higher content of water in the soil. While the estimated values are model dependent (see Mitrofanov et al 2004 for details), the most likely content of ground water from orbital data around Gale is about 4 - 5 wt%. The first data analysis from DAN, on the other hand, has shown that the best estimation of the average content of ground water in Gale along the traverse of the rover is about 2 wt% (Mitrofanov et al., 2013; Litvak et al., 2013). The rover data suggests a content of ground water a factor of 2 less than that based on the orbital data. Two physical reasons for this discrepancy are considered. The first is based on very different averaging distances for measurements by DAN and by HEND. The DAN value is based on averaging along a 1-km traverse, whereas the HEND value represents an area of about 400 km

  3. Summer season variability of the north residual cap of Mars as observed by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W.M.; Titus, T.N.

    2008-01-01

    Previous observations have noted the change in albedo in a number of North Pole bright outliers and in the distribution of bright ice deposits between Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets. Changes over the summer season as well as between regions at the same season (Ls) in different years have been observed. We used the bolometric albedo and brightness temperature channels of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the MGS spacecraft to monitor north polar residual ice cap variations between Mars years and within the summer season for three northern Martian summers between July 1999 and April 2003. Large-scale brightness variations are observed in four general areas: (1) the patchy outlying frost deposits from 90 to 270??E, 75 to 80??N; (2) the large "tail" below the Chasma Boreale and its associated plateau from 315 to 45??E, 80 to 85??N, that we call the "Boreale Tongue" and in Hyperboreae Undae; (3) the troughed terrain in the region from 0 to 120??E longitude (the lower right on a polar stereographic projection) we have called "Shackleton's Grooves" and (4) the unit mapped as residual ice in Olympia Planitia. We also note two areas which seem to persist as cool and bright throughout the summer and between Mars years. One is at the "source" of Chasma Boreale (???15??E, 85??N) dubbed "McMurdo", and the "Cool and Bright Anomaly (CABA)" noted by Kieffer and Titus 2001. TES Mapping of Mars' north seasonal cap. Icarus 154, 162-180] at ???330??E, 87??N called here "Vostok". Overall defrosting occurs early in the summer as the temperatures rise and then after the peak temperatures are reached (Ls???110) higher elevations and outlier bright deposits cold trap and re-accumulate new frost. Persistent bright areas are associated with either higher elevations or higher background albedos suggesting complex feedback mechanisms including cold-trapping of frost due to albedo and elevation effects, as well as influence of mesoscale atmospheric dynamics

  4. Summer season variability of the north residual cap of Mars as observed by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Titus, T. N.

    2008-02-01

    Previous observations have noted the change in albedo in a number of North Pole bright outliers and in the distribution of bright ice deposits between Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets. Changes over the summer season as well as between regions at the same season ( Ls) in different years have been observed. We used the bolometric albedo and brightness temperature channels of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the MGS spacecraft to monitor north polar residual ice cap variations between Mars years and within the summer season for three northern Martian summers between July 1999 and April 2003. Large-scale brightness variations are observed in four general areas: (1) the patchy outlying frost deposits from 90 to 270°E, 75 to 80°N; (2) the large "tail" below the Chasma Boreale and its associated plateau from 315 to 45°E, 80 to 85°N, that we call the "Boreale Tongue" and in Hyperboreae Undae; (3) the troughed terrain in the region from 0 to 120°E longitude (the lower right on a polar stereographic projection) we have called "Shackleton's Grooves" and (4) the unit mapped as residual ice in Olympia Planitia. We also note two areas which seem to persist as cool and bright throughout the summer and between Mars years. One is at the "source" of Chasma Boreale (˜15°E, 85°N) dubbed "McMurdo", and the "Cool and Bright Anomaly (CABA)" noted by Kieffer and Titus 2001. TES Mapping of Mars' north seasonal cap. Icarus 154, 162-180] at ˜330°E, 87°N called here "Vostok". Overall defrosting occurs early in the summer as the temperatures rise and then after the peak temperatures are reached ( Ls˜110) higher elevations and outlier bright deposits cold trap and re-accumulate new frost. Persistent bright areas are associated with either higher elevations or higher background albedos suggesting complex feedback mechanisms including cold-trapping of frost due to albedo and elevation effects, as well as influence of mesoscale atmospheric dynamics.

  5. Developing Planetary Protection Technology: Microbial Diversity of the Mars Orbiter "Odyssey" and the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility II

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Duc, M. T.; Chen, F.; Baker, A.; Koukol, R. C.; Kern, R. G.; Venkateswaran, K. J.

    2001-12-01

    Sampling the surfaces of both spacecraft and their clean-room assembly facilities is crucial in monitoring the microbial burden associated with these pseudo-sterile, oligotrophic environments. Here, we present the results of a study in which several surface samples, retrieved from both the Mars Odyssey Spacecraft and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility II (SAEF-II), were processed and evaluated by both molecular and traditional culture-based methods for microbial diversity. The findings of this study improve our current understanding of the microbial community structure, diversity, and dispersal in a spacecraft assembly facility, as well as physically associated with co-located spacecraft. Surfaces of 25 cm2 (spacecraft) or 0.4 m2 (SAEF-II) were swabbed or wiped, respectively, and were examined for total heterotrophic aerobes and spore-formers. Samples were further subjected to nucleic acid extraction, and 16S rDNA fragments were PCR amplified with eubacterial biased universal primers and cloned. Approximately 30 isolates grown by traditional culture-based techniques were included for 16S rDNA sequencing. For the most part, the population dynamics remained consistent when compared between the spacecraft and assembly facility libraries. Predominant microbes, as indicated by molecular methods, included members of the genera Variovorax and Aquaspirillum. Members of the Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Enterococcus, Ralstonia, and Bacillus genera were also found to span the various libraries but in less abundance. Traditional culture-based techniques validated the presence of Bacillus and Ralstonia, while illuminating a larger diversity in revealing the presence of Staphylococcus, Comamonas, Microbacterium, and Actinomycetales. The bulk of these findings make sense, since species of Ralstonia, Rhizobium, Variovorax, and Bacillus are known to frequently inhabit rhizospheric environments, like that surrounding the KSC facility, and

  6. Verification of a Monte-Carlo planetary surface radiation environment model using gamma-ray data from Lunar Prospector and 2001 Mars Odyssey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, M.S., E-mail: mss16@star.le.ac.u [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ambrosi, R.M. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-01

    Characterising a planetary radiation environment is important to: (1) assess the habitability of a planetary body for indigenous life; (2) assess the risks associated with manned exploration missions to a planetary body and (3) predict/interpret the results that remote sensing instrumentation may obtain from a planetary body (e.g. interpret the gamma-ray emissions from a planetary surface produced by radioactive decay or via the interaction of galactic cosmic rays to obtain meaningful estimates of the concentration of certain elements on the surface of a planet). The University of Leicester is developing instrumentation for geophysical applications that include gamma-ray spectroscopy, gamma-ray densitometry and radiometric dating. This paper describes the verification of a Monte-Carlo planetary radiation environment model developed using the MCNPX code. The model is designed to model the radiation environments of Mars and the Moon, but is applicable to other planetary bodies, and will be used to predict the performance of the instrumentation being developed at Leicester. This study demonstrates that the modelled gamma-ray data is in good agreement with gamma-ray data obtained by the gamma-ray spectrometers on 2001 Mars Odyssey and Lunar Prospector, and can be used to accurately model geophysical instrumentation for planetary science applications.

  7. Operational Data Reduction Procedure for Determining Density and Vertical Structure of the Martian Upper Atmosphere from Mars Global Surveyor Accelerometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancro, George J.; Tolson, Robert H.; Keating, Gerald M.

    1998-01-01

    The success of aerobraking by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was partly due to the analysis of MGS accelerometer data. Accelerometer data was used to determine the effect of the atmosphere on each orbit, to characterize the nature of the atmosphere, and to predict the atmosphere for future orbits. To interpret the accelerometer data, a data reduction procedure was developed to produce density estimations utilizing inputs from the spacecraft, the Navigation Team, and pre-mission aerothermodynamic studies. This data reduction procedure was based on the calculation of aerodynamic forces from the accelerometer data by considering acceleration due to gravity gradient, solar pressure, angular motion of the MGS, instrument bias, thruster activity, and a vibration component due to the motion of the damaged solar array. Methods were developed to calculate all of the acceleration components including a 4 degree of freedom dynamics model used to gain a greater understanding of the damaged solar array. The total error inherent to the data reduction procedure was calculated as a function of altitude and density considering contributions from ephemeris errors, errors in force coefficient, and instrument errors due to bias and digitization. Comparing the results from this procedure to the data of other MGS Teams has demonstrated that this procedure can quickly and accurately describe the density and vertical structure of the Martian upper atmosphere.

  8. Correcting Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) High Altitude (40 - 65 km) Temperature Retrievals for Instrumental Correlated Noise and Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) nadir-soundings have been used to derive atmospheric temperatures up to roughly 40 km [Conrath et al., JGR 105 2000, Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001], and MGS-TES limb soundings have been used to extend the atmospheric temperature data set to > 60 km in altitude [Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001]. The ~40 - ~65 km altitude range probed by the MGS-TES limb sounding is particularly important for capturing key dynamical features such as the warm winter polar mesosphere [e.g., Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001; McCleese et al., Nature Geoscience 1, 2008], and the response of thermal tides to dust opacity [e.g. Wilson and Hamilton, J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1996]. Thus accurate and precise temperature profiles at these altitudes are particularly important for constraining global circulation models. They are also critical for interpreting observations of mesospheric condensate aerosols [e.g., Määttänen et al., Icarus 209, 2010; McConnochie et al., Icarus 210, 2010)]. We have indentified correlated noise components in the MGS-TES limb sounding radiances that propagate into very large uncertainties in the retrieved temperatures. We have also identified a slowly varying radiance bias in the limb sounding radiances. Note that the nadir-sounding-based MGS-TES atmospheric temperatures currently available from the Planetary Data System are not affected by either of these issues. These two issues affect the existing MGS-TES limb sounding temperature data set are as follows: Considering, for example, the 1.5 Pascal pressure level (which typically falls between 50 and 60 km altitude), correlated-noise induced standard errors for individual limb-sounding temperature retrievals were 3 - 5 K in Mars Year 24, rising to 5 - 15 K in Mars Year 25 and 10 - 15 K in Mars Year 26 and 27. The radiance bias, although consistent on ~10-sol time scales, is highly variable over the course of the MGS-TES mission. It results in temperatures (at the 1

  9. Relay Telecommunications for the Coming Decade of Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C.; DePaula, R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an evolving network of relay-equipped orbiters has advanced our capabilities for Mars exploration. NASA's Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), as well as ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, have provided telecommunications relay services to the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and to the 2007 Phoenix Lander. Based on these successes, a roadmap for continued Mars relay services is in place for the coming decade. MRO and Odyssey will provide key relay support to the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, including capture of critical event telemetry during entry, descent, and landing, as well as support for command and telemetry during surface operations, utilizing new capabilities of the Electra relay payload on MRO and the Electra-Lite payload on MSL to allow significant increase in data return relative to earlier missions. Over the remainder of the decade a number of additional orbiter and lander missions are planned, representing new orbital relay service providers and new landed relay users. In this paper we will outline this Mars relay roadmap, quantifying relay performance over time, illustrating planned support scenarios, and identifying key challenges and technology infusion opportunities.

  10. Relay Telecommunications for the Coming Decade of Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C.; DePaula, R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an evolving network of relay-equipped orbiters has advanced our capabilities for Mars exploration. NASA's Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), as well as ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, have provided telecommunications relay services to the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and to the 2007 Phoenix Lander. Based on these successes, a roadmap for continued Mars relay services is in place for the coming decade. MRO and Odyssey will provide key relay support to the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, including capture of critical event telemetry during entry, descent, and landing, as well as support for command and telemetry during surface operations, utilizing new capabilities of the Electra relay payload on MRO and the Electra-Lite payload on MSL to allow significant increase in data return relative to earlier missions. Over the remainder of the decade a number of additional orbiter and lander missions are planned, representing new orbital relay service providers and new landed relay users. In this paper we will outline this Mars relay roadmap, quantifying relay performance over time, illustrating planned support scenarios, and identifying key challenges and technology infusion opportunities.

  11. Site Selection for Mars Surveyor Landing Sites: Some Key Factors for 2001 and Relation to Long-Term Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W.

    1999-01-01

    The Site Selection Process: Site selection as a process can be subdivided into several main elements and these can be represented as the corners of a tetrahedron. Successful site selection outcome requires the interactions between these elements or corners, and should also take into account several other external factors or considerations. In principle, elements should be defined in approximately the following order: (1) major scientific and programmatic goals and objectives: What are the major questions that are being asked, goals that should be achieved, and objectives that must be accomplished. Do programmatic goals (e.g., sample return) differ from mission goals (e.g., precursor to sample return)? It is most helpful if these questions can be placed in the context of site characterization and hypothesis testing (e.g., Was Mars warm and wet in the Noachian? Land at a Noachian-aged site that shows evidence of surface water and characterize it specifically to address this question). Goals and objectives, then, help define important engineering factors such as type of payload, landing regions of interest (highlands, lowlands, smooth, rough, etc.), mobility, mission duration, etc. Goals and objectives then lead to: (2) spacecraft design and engineering landing site constraints: the spacecraft is designed to optimize the areas that will meet the goals and objectives, but this in turn introduces constraints that must be met in the selection of a landing site. Scientific and programmatic goals and objectives also help to define (3), the specific lander scientific payload requirements and capabilities. For example, what observations and experiments are required to address the major questions? How do we characterize the site in reference to the specific questions? Is mobility required and if so, how much? Which experiments are on the spacecraft, which on the rover? The results of these deliberations should lead to a surface exploration strategy, in which the goals and

  12. Eight-year Climatology of Dust Optical Depth on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Montabone, L; Millour, E; Wilson, R J; Lewis, S R; Cantor, B A; Kass, D; Kleinboehl, A; Lemmon, M; Smith, M D; Wolff, M J

    2014-01-01

    We have produced a multiannual climatology of airborne dust from Martian year 24 to 31 using multiple datasets of retrieved or estimated column optical depths. The datasets are based on observations of the Martian atmosphere from April 1999 to July 2013 made by different orbiting instruments: the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The procedure we have adopted consists of gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. Our gridding method calculates averages and uncertainties on a regularly spaced, but possibly incomplete, spatio-temporal grid, using an iterative procedure weighted in space, time, and retrieval uncertainty. In order to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the resulting gridded maps, we validat...

  13. "The Odyssey" as Archetype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Alice M.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests the relevance of The Odyssey" to the lives of 20th century adolescents in exemplifying two fundamental archetypal themes: initiation and man's search for his own identity and for meaning in life." (Author/RD)

  14. "The Odyssey" as Archetype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Alice M.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests the relevance of The Odyssey" to the lives of 20th century adolescents in exemplifying two fundamental archetypal themes: initiation and man's search for his own identity and for meaning in life." (Author/RD)

  15. Odyssey over Martian Sunrise, 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft passes above a portion of the planet that is rotating into the sunlight in this artist's concept illustration. This red-blue anaglyph artwork can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue (cyan) 3-D glasses. The spacecraft has been orbiting Mars since October 24, 2001. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Mars Odyssey mission for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research, which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Part I. Development of a concept inventory addressing students' beliefs and reasoning difficulties regarding the greenhouse effect, Part II. Distribution of chlorine measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John Michael

    chlorine on Mars measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). The distribution of chlorine is heterogeneous across the surface, with a concentration of high chlorine centered over the Medusa Fossae Formation. The distribution of chlorine correlates positively with hydrogen and negatively with silicon and thermal inertia. Four mechanisms (aeolian, volcanic, aqueous, and hydrothermal) are discussed as possible factors influencing the distribution of chlorine measured within the upper few tens of centimeters of the surface.

  17. Discovery Mondays: Surveyors' Tools

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Surveyors of all ages, have your rulers and compasses at the ready! This sixth edition of Discovery Monday is your chance to learn about the surveyor's tools - the state of the art in measuring instruments - and see for yourself how they work. With their usual daunting precision, the members of CERN's Surveying Group have prepared some demonstrations and exercises for you to try. Find out the techniques for ensuring accelerator alignment and learn about high-tech metrology systems such as deviation indicators, tracking lasers and total stations. The surveyors will show you how they precisely measure magnet positioning, with accuracy of a few thousandths of a millimetre. You can try your hand at precision measurement using different types of sensor and a modern-day version of the Romans' bubble level, accurate to within a thousandth of a millimetre. You will learn that photogrammetry techniques can transform even a simple digital camera into a remarkable measuring instrument. Finally, you will have a chance t...

  18. [An unconscious odyssey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Walter H

    2008-12-01

    A 76-year-old ex-manager of a shipping company with preexisting pneumopathy suffered from massive pulmonary embolism after an operation in Germany and had to be mechanically ventilated. His wife requested a transportation by helicopter to the intensive care unit of a smaller hospital in the Engadin, Grisons, Switzerland, where he was later tracheotomized. Weeks later, the wife insisted on a transfer to another, even smaller hospital in the area. During that stay an emergency pericardiocentesis had to be performed. Thereafter, he was transferred to the intensive care unit of our hospital. The last journey was again by request of his wife against medical advices a flight back to his home in Germany, what he survived only for a few hours and was followed by the suicide of his wife. Why could nobody prevent or stop this insane odyssey?

  19. The Exploration of Mars and the Improvement of Living Conditions in Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Space is the new frontier. The exploration of a new world, Mars, has been giving people on Earth valuable comparative information about climatic and geological processes occurring here on our home planet. With the Viking 1 and 2, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity, etc., spacecrafts, which explored the Red Planet we obtained a great deal information about the extremely arid soil and dry air of Mars in the present, and its watery condition in the distant past. Now there is a decade-long, program of robotic exploration of the martian atmosphere and soil - the 'Mars Surveyor Program', which is a series of small, cheap and fast spacecrafts, carrying very few scientific instruments, to be launched about every two years. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we comment on this new phase of Mars exploration under development, which began in 1996, and its benefits to living conditions in developing countries with desert regions. A peaceful regular research of the arid Mars, will help us to understand much better the dynamics of formation of dry regions here on Earth. We suggest that, if the developing countries participate in that program, they will achieve the scientific understanding to create a practical technology, with which they will acquire ways to future transform their arid areas into a more humid places, and to slow the process of desertification of other regions. This, using their own natural resources and own scientific personnel. That would strongly benefit the living conditions in Western Asian countries, which have many desert regions.

  20. The Trojans' Odyssey space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, P.; Vernazza, P.; Groussin, O.; Poncy, J.; Martinot, V.; Hinglais, E.; Bell, J.; Cruikshank, D.; Helbert, J.; Marzari, F.; Morbidelli, A.; Rosenblatt, P.

    2011-10-01

    In our present understanding of the Solar System, small bodies (asteroids, Jupiter Trojans, comets and TNOs) are the most direct remnants of the original building blocks that formed the planets. Jupiter Trojan and Hilda asteroids are small primitive bodies located beyond the "snow line", around respectively the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter at 5.2 AU (Trojans) and in the 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter near 3.9 AU (Hildas). They are at the crux of several outstanding and still conflicting issues regarding the formation and evolution of the Solar System. They hold the potential to unlock the answers to fundamental questions about planetary migration, the late heavy bombardment, the formation of the Jovian system, the origin and evolution of trans-neptunian objects, and the delivery of water and organics to the inner planets. The proposed Trojans' Odyssey mission is envisioned as a reconnaissance, multiple flyby mission aimed at visiting several objects, typically five Trojans and one Hilda. It will attempt exploring both large and small objects and sampling those with any known differences in photometric properties. The orbital strategy consists in a direct trajectory to one of the Trojan swarms. By carefully choosing the aphelion of the orbit (typically 5.3 AU), the trajectory will offer a long arc in the swarm thus maximizing the number of flybys. Initial gravity assists from Venus and Earth will help reducing the cruise to 7 years as well as the ?V needed for injection thus offering enough capacity to navigate among Trojans. This solution further opens the unique possibility to flyby a Hilda asteroid when leaving the Trojan swarm. During the cruise phase, a Main Belt Asteroid could be targeted if requiring a modest ?V. The specific science objectives of the mission will be best achieved with a payload that will perform high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral imaging, thermal-infrared imaging/ radiometry, near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy

  1. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Wright, Shelley A; Tonry, John; Tully, R Brent; Szapudi, István; Takamiya, Marianne; Hunter, Lisa; Riddle, Reed; Chen, Shaojie; Chun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of ~4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z < 0.1 universe. RTS will comprise an upgraded version of the Robo-AO laser AO system and will respond quickly to target-of-opportunity events, minimizing the time between discovery and characterization. RTS will acquire simultaneous-multicolor images with a...

  2. The rapid transient surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, C.; Lu, J. R.; Wright, S. A.; Tonry, J.; Tully, R. B.; Szapudi, I.; Takamiya, M.; Hunter, L.; Riddle, R.; Chen, S.; Chun, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of 4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z efficiency prism integral field unit spectrograph: R = 70-140 over a total bandpass of 840-1830nm with an 8.7" by 6.0" field of view (0.15" spaxels). The AO correction boosts the infrared point-source sensitivity of the spectrograph against the sky background by a factor of seven for faint targets, giving the UH 2.2-m the H-band sensitivity of a 5.7-m telescope without AO.

  3. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  4. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  5. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and automated detection and characterization of astrophysical transients during a sustained observing campaign will yield the necessary statistics to precisely map dark matter in the local universe.

  6. Mutation detection using Surveyor nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peter; Shandilya, Harini; D'Alessio, James M; O'Connor, Kevin; Durocher, Jeffrey; Gerard, Gary F

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a simple and flexible mutation detection technology for the discovery and mapping of both known and unknown mutations. This technology is based on a new mismatch-specific DNA endonuclease from celery, Surveyor nuclease, which is a member of the CEL nuclease family of plant DNA endonucleases. Surveyor nuclease cleaves with high specificity at the 3' side of any mismatch site in both DNA strands, including all base substitutions and insertion/deletions up to at least 12 nucleotides. Surveyor nuclease technology involves four steps: (i) PCR to amplify target DNA from both mutant and wild-type reference DNA; (ii) hybridization to form heteroduplexes between mutant and wild-type reference DNA; (iii) treatment of annealed DNA with Surveyor nuclease to cleave heteroduplexes; and (iv) analysis of digested DNA products using the detection/separation platform of choice. The technology is highly sensitive, detecting rare mutants present at as low as 1 in 32 copies. Unlabeled Surveyor nuclease digestion products can be analyzed using conventional gel electrophoresis or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while end labeled digestion products are suitable for analysis by automated gel or capillary electrophoresis. The entire protocol can be performed in less than a day and is suitable for automated and high-throughput procedures.

  7. Eight-year climatology of dust optical depth on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montabone, L.; Forget, F.; Millour, E.; Wilson, R. J.; Lewis, S. R.; Cantor, B.; Kass, D.; Kleinböhl, A.; Lemmon, M. T.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    We have produced a multiannual climatology of airborne dust from martian year 24-31 using multiple datasets of retrieved or estimated column optical depths. The datasets are based on observations of the martian atmosphere from April 1999 to July 2013 made by different orbiting instruments: the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The procedure we have adopted consists of gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. Our gridding method calculates averages and uncertainties on a regularly spaced spatio-temporal grid, using an iterative procedure that is weighted in space, time, and retrieval quality. The lack of observations at certain times and locations introduces missing grid points in the maps, which therefore may result in irregularly gridded (i.e. incomplete) fields. In order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the resulting gridded maps, we compare with independent observations of CDOD by PanCam cameras and Mini-TES spectrometers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity", by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard the Phoenix lander, and by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars aboard MRO. We have statistically analyzed the irregularly gridded maps to provide an overview of the dust climatology on Mars over eight years, specifically in relation to its interseasonal and interannual variability, in addition to provide a basis for instrument intercomparison. Finally, we have produced regularly gridded maps of CDOD by spatially interpolating the irregularly gridded maps using a kriging method. These complete maps are used as dust scenarios in the Mars Climate Database (MCD) version 5, and are useful in many modeling

  8. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L

    2005-10-13

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago.

  9. Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    Mars exploration has never been more active, and our understanding of the planet is advancing rapidly. New discoveries reveal gullies carved by recent groundwater flow, thick ice deposits protected by rocks and soil even at the equator, and new evidence for lakes and seas in Mars' past. The Martian surface has some of the oldest planetary crust in the solar system, containing clues to conditions in early planets that cannot be obtained elsewhere.Beginning with a discussion of Mars as a planet in orbit, Mars, Revised Edition covers fundamental facts about this planet, including its mass and siz

  10. Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    Discusses the fundamental facts concerning this mysterious planet, including its mass, size, and atmosphere, as well as the various missions that helped planetary scientists document the geological history of Mars. This volume also describes Mars'' seasons with their surface effects on the planet and how they have changed over time.

  11. Challenges to Building Surveyors From The Perspectives Of Non Surveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnin Zarina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on the importance of Building Surveyors in Malaysia is still low as the role and skills of this profession are not fully understood. Although studies indicated that Building Surveyors are still in demand, even without the Building Surveyor Act, many graduates are experiencing inadequate employment opportunities in the current economic situation. Little is known on the views from other stakeholders about BS. This research aims to examine the awareness and opinions on BS in Malaysia amongst construction stakeholders. Questionnaire surveys were collected from 120 respondents from construction, maintenance and insurance companies and interviews were conducted to selected built environment respondents. It was found that awareness and knowledge on BS are still low as they lack information on the profession and professional recognitions. Some views indicated on a major identity crisis for having fragmented and disparate range of modules. The cause may have resulted in problems on public recognition, poor understanding of the surveyor’s skills, and fewer job opportunities. Several suggested the profession to have a clear, coherent and relevant identity, with strong professional structures in order for the profession to survive and gain recognition from the government. Graduates are also recommended to acquire other skills and training in order for them to be significant to the construction industry.

  12. Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Payment, Simone

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, fun, and approachable book offers everything young readers need to know to begin their study of the Red Planet. They will learn about the fundamental aspects of the Mars, including its size, mass, surface features, interior, orbit, and spin. Further, they will learn about the history of the missions to Mars, including the Viking spacecraft and the Curiosity and MAVEN rovers. Finally, readers will learn about why scientists think there's a chance that Mars is or was suitable for life. With stunning imagery from NASA itself, readers will have a front seat-view of the missi

  13. Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software: Phase One Performance Analysis at Mars, Venus, and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Robert W.; Bowes, Angela; Powell, Richard W.; Prince, Jill L. H.; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer

    2012-01-01

    When entering orbit about a planet or moon with an appreciable atmosphere, instead of using only the propulsion system to insert the spacecraft into its desired orbit, aerodynamic drag can be used after the initial orbit insertion to further decelerate the spacecraft. Several past NASA missions have used this aerobraking technique to reduce the fuel required to deliver a spacecraft into a desired orbit. Aerobraking was first demonstrated at Venus with Magellan in 1993 and then was used to achieve the science orbit of three Mars orbiters: Mars Global Surveyor in 1997, Mars Odyssey in 2001, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in 2006. Although aerobraking itself reduces the propellant required to reach a final low period orbit, it does so at the expense of additional mission time to accommodate the aerobraking operations phase (typically 3-6 months), a large mission operations staff, and significant Deep Space Network (DSN) coverage. By automating ground based tasks and analyses associated with aerobraking and moving these onboard the spacecraft, a flight project could save millions of dollars in operations staffing and DSN costs (Ref. 1).

  14. 46 CFR 153.1101 - Procedures for getting a Surveyor: Approval of Surveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for getting a Surveyor: Approval of Surveyors. 153.1101 Section 153.1101 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Approval of Surveyors...

  15. Relays from Mars demonstrate international interplanetary networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    On 4 August at 14:24 CEST, as Mars Express flew over one of NASA’s Mars exploration rovers, Opportunity, it successfully received data previously collected and stored by the rover. The data, including 15 science images from the rover's nine cameras, were then downlinked to ESA’s European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt (Germany) and immediately relayed to the Mars Exploration Rovers team based at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, USA. NASA orbiters Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor have so far relayed most of the data produced by the rovers since they landed in January. Communication compatibility between Mars Express and the rovers had already been demonstrated in February, although at a low rate that did not convey much data. The 4 August session, at a transmit rate of 42.6 megabits in about six minutes, set a new mark for international networking around another planet. The success of this demonstration is the result of years of groundwork and was made possible because both Mars Express and the Mars rovers use the same communication protocol. This protocol, called Proximity-1, was developed by the international Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, an international partnership for standardising techniques for handling space data. Mars Express was 1400 kilometres above the Martian surface during the 4 August session with Opportunity, with the goal of a reliable transfer of lots of data. Engineers for both agencies plan to repeat this display of international cooperation today, 10 August, with another set of Opportunity images. “We're delighted how well this has been working, and thankful to have Mars Express in orbit,” said Richard Horttor of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, project manager for NASA's role in Mars Express. JPL engineer Gary Noreen of the Mars Network Office said: “the capabilities that our international teamwork is advancing this month could be important in future exploration of Mars

  16. Mars Mission Optimization Based on Collocation of Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamitoff, G. E.; James, G. H.; Barker, D. C.; Dershowitz, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a powerful approach for analyzing Martian data and for optimizing mission site selection based on resource collocation. This approach is implemented in a program called PROMT (Planetary Resource Optimization and Mapping Tool), which provides a wide range of analysis and display functions that can be applied to raw data or imagery. Thresholds, contours, custom algorithms, and graphical editing are some of the various methods that can be used to process data. Output maps can be created to identify surface regions on Mars that meet any specific criteria. The use of this tool for analyzing data, generating maps, and collocating features is demonstrated using data from the Mars Global Surveyor and the Odyssey spacecraft. The overall mission design objective is to maximize a combination of scientific return and self-sufficiency based on utilization of local materials. Landing site optimization involves maximizing accessibility to collocated science and resource features within a given mission radius. Mission types are categorized according to duration, energy resources, and in-situ resource utilization. Optimization results are shown for a number of mission scenarios.

  17. MetNet Precursor - Network Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Arri-Matti

    2010-05-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The first MetNet vehicle, MetNet Precursor, slated for launch in 2011. The MetNet development work started already in 2001. The actual practical Precursor Mission development work started in January 2009 with participation from various space research institutes and agencies. The scientific rationale and goals as well as key mission solutions will be discussed. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Time-resolved in situ Martian meteorological measurements acquired by the Viking, Mars Pathfinder and Phoenix landers and remote sensing observations by the Mariner 9, Viking, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey and the Mars Express orbiters have provided the basis for our current understanding of the behavior of weather and climate on Mars. However, the available amount of data is still scarce and a wealth of additional in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes to address microscale and mesoscale atmospheric phenomena. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns and climatological cycles requires simultaneous in situ atmospheric observations. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe

  18. Old women in the Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Skafte Jensen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Being a heroic epic, the Odyssey is peopled by male protagonists in their prime. Nevertheless, the poem gives attention also to humbler figures, among them old women. They are few, but important. A couple of them belong to the highest stratum of society, the rest are slaves. Especially, they are trophoi, nurses, and the impression given is that such nurses are an indispensable part of any big household. The most impressive of them is Odysseus’ nurse Eurycleia, who has a role to play all the way through the poem. When her story is traced from beginning to end it unfolds as a poem inside the poem, with its own inner coherence. Her character is ambiguous: in some scenes she is the quintessence of care and kindness, in others she is brutal, so much so as to make of her one of the scariest characters in the poem. What has made her so full of hatred? the hard life as a slave. She has accustomed herself to her fate and shows unbroken solidarity with her masters, only to feel all the more offended by the amount of work the feasting suitors have caused. Besides, a traditional fairy tale pattern runs as an undercurrent through the epic, with Penelope and Eurycleia filling in the same tale role so that good and bad is split between them.

  19. Erosionsrinnen auf dem Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Reiß, Dennis Emil

    2010-01-01

    The work presented here analyses gullies on Mars using high resolution images (Mars Orbiter Camera – MOC) of the Mars Global Surveyor Mission (MGS). Gullies on Earth are formed by debris flows, a mass movement in which water is involved. It is assumed that gully features on Mars are young and therefore they could indicate the presence of liquid water in the recent past. The main focus of this work lies in a morphological analysis, a global mapping of their distribution and a determination of ...

  20. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2{1/2} in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques.

  1. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    This odyssey is mine from early junior high school, where my dreams for adventure were shaped by Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes, Percival Christopher Wren's Beau Geste, and best of all the remarkable explorers in Paul de Kruif's Microbe Hunters. My birth site was in Manhattan (my mother was a Vogue model and my father worked in retail), and I traveled to college at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, where my love of history and English literature was shaped along with a sufficient exposure to biology, chemistry, and genetics to meet requirements for entering medical school. By the second year at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, through expert teachers such as Theodore (Ted) Woodward and Sheldon (Shelly) Greisman in medicine and Charles Weissmann in virology and microbiology, I found that understanding why and how people became ill was more my cup of tea than identifying and treating their illnesses. Although I was becoming competent in diagnosis and treatment, I left medical school at the end of my sophomore year to seek a more basic understanding of biology and chemistry. I achieved this by working toward a PhD in biochemistry at Johns Hopkins McCollum-Pratt Institute combined with study of rickettsial toxin at Maryland. This was a very important time in my life, because it convinced me that addressing biologic and medical questions in a disciplined scientific manner was what my life voyage should be. That voyage led me initially, through Woodward's contact, to work a summer in Joe Smadel's unit at Walter Reed (Smadel being one of the deans of American virology) and to meet several times with Carleton Gajdusek and then John Enders at Harvard, who pointed me to Frank Dixon at Scripps in La Jolla, California, for postdoctoral training. Dixon was among the founders of modern immunology and a pathfinder for immunopathology. Training by and association with Dixon and his other postdoctoral fellows, my independent position at Scripps, early

  2. North polar region of Mars: Advances in stratigraphy, structure, and erosional modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Skinner, J.A.; Bourke, M.C.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Kolb, E.J.; Okubo, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    We have remapped the geology of the north polar plateau on Mars, Planum Boreum, and the surrounding plains of Vastitas Borealis using altimetry and image data along with thematic maps resulting from observations made by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. New and revised geographic and geologic terminologies assist with effectively discussing the various features of this region. We identify 7 geologic units making up Planum Boreum and at least 3 for the circumpolar plains, which collectively span the entire Amazonian Period. The Planum Boreum units resolve at least 6 distinct depositional and 5 erosional episodes. The first major stage of activity includes the Early Amazonian (???3 to 1 Ga) deposition (and subsequent erosion) of the thick (locally exceeding 1000 m) and evenly-layered Rupes Tenuis unit (Abrt), which ultimately formed approximately half of the base of Planum Boreum. As previously suggested, this unit may be sourced by materials derived from the nearby Scandia region, and we interpret that it may correlate with the deposits that regionally underlie pedestal craters in the surrounding lowland plains. The second major episode of activity during the Middle to Late Amazonian (??? features. Some present-day dune fields may be hundreds of kilometers removed from possible sources along the margins of Planum Boreum, and dark materials, comprised of sand sheets, extend even farther downwind. These deposits also attest to the lengthy period of erosion following emplacement of the Planum Boreum 1 unit. We find no evidence for extensive glacial flow, topographic relaxation, or basal melting of Planum Boreum materials. However, minor development of normal faults and wrinkle ridges may suggest differential compaction of materials across buried scarps. Timing relations are poorly-defined mostly because resurfacing and other uncertainties prohibit precise determinations of surface impact crater densities

  3. Cerberus Fossae and Elysium Planitia Lavas, Mars: Source Vents, Flow Rates, Edifice Styles and Water Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Cerberus Fossae and Elysium Planitia regions have been suggested as some of the youngest martian surfaces since the Viking mission, although there was doubt whether the origins were predominantly volcanic or fluvial. The Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey Missions have shown that the region is certainly young in terms of the topographic preservation and the youthful crater counts (e.g. in the tens to a few hundred million yrs.). Numerous authors have shown that fluvial and volcanic features share common flow paths and vent systems, and that there is evidence for some interaction between the lava flows and underlying volatiles as well as the use by lavas and water of the same vent system. Given the youthful age and possible water-volcanism interaction environment, we'd like constraints on water and volcanic flux rates and interactions. Here, we model ranges of volcanic flow rates where we can well-constrain them, and consider the modest flow rate results results in context with local eruption styles, and track vent locations, edifice volumes, and flow sources and data.

  4. Mars at Ls 357o

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    31 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurred in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  5. Mars at Ls 324o

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    29 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurred in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  6. Comparison of the mineral composition of the sediment found in two Mars dunefields: Ogygis Undae and Gale crater - three distinct endmembers identified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Heather; Titus, Timothy; Hayward, Rosalyn; Edwards, Christopher; Ahrens, Caitlin

    2017-01-01

    The composition of two dune fields, Ogygis Undae and the NE-SW trending dune field in Gale crater (the "Bagnold Dune Field" and "Western Dune Field"), were analyzed using thermal emission spectra from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The Gale crater dune field was used as a baseline as other orbital compositional analyses have been conducted, and in situ sampling results will soon be available. Results from unmixing thermal emission spectra showed a spatial variation between feldspar mineral abundances and pyroxene mineral abundances in Ogygis Undae. Other datasets, including nighttime thermal inertia values, also showed variation throughout the dune field. One explanation proposed for this variation is a bimodal distribution of two sand populations. This distribution is seen in some terrestrial dune fields. The two dune fields varied in both mineral types present and in uniformity of composition. These differences point to different source lithologies and different distances travelled from source material. Examining these differences further will allow for a greater understanding of aeolian processes on Mars.

  7. Mars' "White Rock" Feature Lacks Evidence of an Aqueous Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, S. W.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, R. N.; Kieffer, H. H.; Malin, M. C.; Bandfield, J. L.; Jakosky, B. M.; Lane, M. D.; Mellon, M. T.; Presley, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor has observed "White Rock" and the data do not indicate the presence of evaporite minerals. We suggest it is a deposit of compacted or weakly cemented aeolian sediment.

  8. Odyssey: Ray tracing and radiative transfer in Kerr spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Yun, Kiyun; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Odyssey is a GPU-based General Relativistic Radiative Transfer (GRRT) code for computing images and/or spectra in Kerr metric describing the spacetime around a rotating black hole. Odyssey is implemented in CUDA C/C++. For flexibility, the namespace structure in C++ is used for different tasks; the two default tasks presented in the source code are the redshift of a Keplerian disk and the image of a Keplerian rotating shell at 340GHz. Odyssey_Edu, an educational software package for visualizing the ray trajectories in the Kerr spacetime that uses Odyssey, is also available.

  9. Magnetic activity at Mars - Mars Surface Magnetic Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Menvielle, M.; Merayo, José M.G.

    2012-01-01

    We use the extensive database of magnetic observations from the Mars Global Surveyor to investigate magnetic disturbances in the Martian space environment statistically, both close to and far from crustal anomalies. We discuss the results in terms of possible ionospheric and magnetospheric currents...... a magnetic experiment at the martian surface, the Mars Surface Magnetic Observatory (MSMO) including the science objectives, science experiment requirements, instrument and basic operations. We find the experiment to be feasible within the constraints of proposed stationary landing platforms....

  10. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  11. Evidence for Noachian flood volcanism in Noachis Terra, Mars, and the possible role of Hellas impact basin tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. D.; Nazarian, A. H.

    2013-05-01

    Spectral and imaging data sets from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey, as well as spectral and topographic data from Mars Global Surveyor, are used to understand the origin of in-place rock units found in the intercrater plains and Hellas circumferential graben floors of Noachis Terra, Mars. The rocky units are interpreted as effusive volcanic plains on the basis of broad areal extent, structural competence, association with topographic lows, distinct mineralogy from regolith, and lack of sedimentary textures or minerals associated with aqueous processes. Some rocky expanses contain at least two compositionally distinct units. The relatively light-toned unit exhibits a higher plagioclase/pyroxene ratio than the lower, dark-toned unit. Both units exhibit ~10% olivine enrichment compared to surrounding regolith. These units are heavily degraded and exhibit crater model ages between ~3.80 and 4.0 Ga, making these some of the oldest preserved volcanic plains accessible by remote sensing. They are found in association with Hellas ring structures, where the westward extent of these rocky units is limited to the outermost ring structure. Fracturing associated with the Hellas impact may have enabled magmas to ascend from the base of the crust in the circum-Hellas region. Identification of these units as volcanic materials extends previous estimates for volume of outgassed volatiles. Though the estimated volcanic volume increase is minor, the local effects could have been significant. The role of multi-ring impact basins in providing a spatial control on Martian highlands volcanism and subsurface mineralization may have been underestimated in the past.

  12. Thermal behavior and ice-table depth within the north polar erg of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Mellon, Michael T.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Davis, Brian J.; Ewer, Kenneth J.; Bowers, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    We fully resolve a long-standing thermal discrepancy concerning the north polar erg of Mars. Several recent studies have shown that the erg’s thermal properties are consistent with normal basaltic sand overlying shallow ground ice or ice-cemented sand. Our findings bolster that conclusion by thoroughly characterizing the thermal behavior of the erg, demonstrating that other likely forms of physical heterogeneity play only a minor role, and obviating the need to invoke exotic materials. Thermal inertia as calculated from orbital temperature observations of the dunes has previously been found to be more consistent with dust-sized materials than with sand. Since theory and laboratory data show that dunes will only form out of sand-sized particles, exotic sand-sized agglomerations of dust have been invoked to explain the low values of thermal inertia. However, the polar dunes exhibit the same darker appearance and color as that of dunes found elsewhere on the planet that have thermal inertia consistent with normal sand-sized basaltic grains, whereas Martian dust deposits are generally lighter and redder. The alternative explanation for the discrepancy as a thermal effect of a shallow ice table is supported by our analysis of observations from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System and by forward modeling of physical heterogeneity. In addition, our results exclude a uniform composition of dark dust-sized materials, and they show that the thermal effects of the dune slopes and bright interdune materials evident in high-resolution images cannot account for the erg’s thermal behavior.

  13. Stratigraphy, mineralogy, and origin of layered deposits inside Terby crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansan, V.; Loizeau, D.; Mangold, N.; Le Mouélic, S.; Carter, J.; Poulet, F.; Dromart, G.; Lucas, A.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gendrin, A.; Gondet, B.; Langevin, Y.; Masson, Ph.; Murchie, S.; Mustard, J. F.; Neukum, G.

    2011-01-01

    The 174 km diameter Terby impact crater (28.0°S-74.1°E) located on the northern rim of the Hellas basin displays anomalous inner morphology, including a flat floor and light-toned layered deposits. An analysis of these deposits was performed using multiple datasets from Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions, with visible images for interpretation, near-infrared data for mineralogical mapping, and topography for geometry. The geometry of layered deposits was consistent with that of sediments that settled mainly in a sub-aqueous environment, during the Noachian period as determined by crater counts. To the north, the thickest sediments displayed sequences for fan deltas, as identified by 100 m to 1 km long clinoforms, as defined by horizontal beds passing to foreset beds dipping by 6-10° toward the center of the Terby crater. The identification of distinct sub-aqueous fan sequences, separated by unconformities and local wedges, showed the accumulation of sediments from prograding/onlapping depositional sequences, due to lake level and sediment supply variations. The mineralogy of several layers with hydrated minerals, including Fe/Mg phyllosilicates, supports this type of sedimentary environment. The volume of fan sediments was estimated as >5000 km 3 (a large amount considering classical martian fan deltas such as Eberswalde (6 km 3)) and requires sustained liquid water activity. Such a large sedimentary deposition in Terby crater is characteristic of the Noachian/Phyllosian period during which the environment favored the formation of phyllosilicates. The latter were detected by spectral data in the layered deposits of Terby crater in three distinct layer sequences. During the Hesperian period, the sediments experienced strong erosion, possibly enhanced by more acidic conditions, forming the current morphology with three mesas and closed depressions. Small fluvial valleys and alluvial fans formed subsequently

  14. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Marriage, T.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of telescopes designed to search for the signature of inflation in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). By combining the strategy of targeting large scales (>2 deg) with novel front-end polarization modulation and novel detectors at multiple frequencies, CLASS will pioneer a new frontier in ground-based CMB polarization surveys. In this talk, I give an overview of the CLASS instrument, survey, and outlook on setting important new limits on the energy scale of inflation.

  15. Successful Mars remote sensors, MO THEMIS and MER Mini-TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Steven; Christensen, Phil

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes results of the calibration of the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) and the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) built by Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS) under contract to Arizona State University (ASU). This paper also serves as an update to an earlier paper (Silverman, et al., 2003) for mission description and instrument designs (Schueler, et al., 2003). A major goal of the Mars Exploration Program is to help determine whether life ever existed on Mars via detailed in situ studies and surface sample return. It is essential to identify landing sites with the highest probability of containing samples indicative of early pre-biotic or biotic environments. Of particular interest are aqueous and/or hydrothermal environments in which life could have existed, or regions of current near-surface water or heat sources. The search requires detailed geologic mapping and accurate interpretations of site composition and history in a global context. THEMIS and Mini-TES were designed to do this and builds upon a wealth of data from previous experiments. Previous experiments include the Mariner 6/7 Mars Infrared Radiometer (MIR) and Infrared Spectrometer, the Mariner 9 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS), the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM), the Phobos Termoscan, and the continuing Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission using the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). TES has collected hyperspectral images (up to 286 spectral bands from 6-50 μm) of the entire martian surface, providing an initial global reconnaissance of mineralogy and thermophysical properties. By covering the key 6.3 to 15.0 μm region in both TES and THEMIS, it is possible to combine TES fine spectral resolution with THEMIS fine spatial resolution to achieve a global mineralogic inventory at the spatial scales necessary for detailed geologic studies within the Odyssey data resources. Mini-TES is a single detector

  16. Mars at Ls 93o: Syrtis Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    15 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  17. Mars at Ls 249o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    5 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurs in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  18. Mars at Ls 53o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    2 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  19. Mars at Ls 79o: Syrtis Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    18 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  20. Mars at Ls 269o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    2 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurs in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  1. Mars at Ls 12o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    7 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  2. Mars at Ls 25o: Syrtis Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    21 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring

  3. Mars at Ls 79o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    4 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  4. Mars at Ls 306o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    4 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurs in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  5. Mars at Ls 357o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    4 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurs in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science SystemsSeason: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  6. Mars at Ls 66o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    6 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  7. Mars at Ls 53o: Syrtis Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    16 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  8. Mars at Ls 341o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    6 December 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 341o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 341o occurs in mid-December 2005. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  9. Mars at Ls 25o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    7 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  10. Mars at Ls 93o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    1 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  11. Mars at Ls 12o: Syrtis Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    21 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  12. Mars at Ls 39o: Syrtis Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    18 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  13. Mars at Ls 39o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    4 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  14. Mars at Ls 324o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    1 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurs in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  15. Mars at Ls 288o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    6 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurs in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  16. Mars at Ls 66o: Syrtis Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    20 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  17. Hygroscopic Salts on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorri, R.; Davila, A. F.; Chittenden, J.; Haberle, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    We present preliminary results on the influence of a salt-rich regolith in the water cycle of Mars. Global climate modeling shows that the relative humidity on the Martian surface often reaches values above the deliquescence point of salts that are common components of the regolith. At the deliquescence point, these salts will absorb atmospheric water vapor and form a saturated, transient liquid solution that is stable under a range of temperatures. If atmospheric temperatures fall below the eutectic point of the solution, the later will freeze in the pore space of the regolith, thereby resulting in a net transport of water from the vapor phase in the atmosphere, to the solid state in the regolith. This simple model partially accounts for some the distribution of water on the Martian surface as revealed by Mars Odyssey, in particular, we find that: even though the Cl and surface water distributions detected by HEND/ODYSSEY are highly correlated, salt deliquescence under the the present atmospheric conditions does not explain the overall distribution of water in the near surface regolith. However deliquescence of salt-rich soils could be an important contributor to the distribution of water in the regolith at high obliquity. In that scenario the water in the near-surface regolith would be the remnant of high obliquity conditions salt deliquescence is still active in different regions on Mars today, and it should be introduced as a parameter in the modern GCMs as a new ground/atmosphere interaction

  18. Mars at Ls 341o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    13 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a banded surface in Argyre Planitia, the second largest impact basin in the martian southern hemisphere. The bands are the erosional expression of layered, perhaps sedimentary, rock. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  19. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Tobias; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most compelling inflation models predict a background of primordial gravitational waves (PGW) detectable by their imprint of a curl-like "B-mode" pattern in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a novel array of telescopes to measure the B-mode signature of the PGW. By targeting the largest angular scales (>2°) with a multifrequency array, novel polarization modulation and detectors optimized for both control of systematics and sensitivity, CLASS sets itself apart in the field of CMB polarization surveys and opens an exciting new discovery space for the PGW and inflation. This poster presents an overview of the CLASS project.

  20. Beyond Chandra - the X-ray Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 16 years, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has provided an unparalleled means for exploring the universe with its half-arcsecond angular resolution. Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, planets, and solar system objects addressing almost all areas of current interest in astronomy and astrophysics. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address even more demanding science questions, such as the formation and subsequent growth of black hole seeds at very high redshift; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, together with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, has initiated a concept study for such a mission named the X-ray Surveyor. This study starts with a baseline payloa...

  1. The surveyors' quest for perfect alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Photogrammetry of a CMS endcap and part of the hadronic calorimeter.The structure was covered with targets photographed by digital cameras. Perfect alignment.... Although CERN's surveyors do not claim to achieve it, they are constantly striving for it and deploy all necessary means to come as close as they can. In their highly specialised field of large-scale metrology, the solution lies in geodesy and photogrammetry, both of which are based on increasingly sophisticated instruments and systems. In civil engineering, these techniques are used for non-destructive inspection of bridges, dams and other structures, while industrial applications include dimensional verification and deformation measurement in large mechanical assemblies. The same techniques also come into play for the metrology of research tools such as large telescopes and of course, particle accelerators. Particle physics laboratories are especially demanding customers, and CERN has often asked for the impossible. As a result, the alignment metro...

  2. CERN’s surveyors send sparks flying

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    A few weeks ago, we published an article on the three-dimensional laser scanner technique used at CERN to produce 3D images of the LHC tunnels and experiments (see the article here). Photogrammetry is another technique in the CERN surveyors’ arsenal.   The ATLAS wheel during a photogrammetry measurement campaign. The white spots (see red arrows) dotted across the wheel are the retro-reflective "dot" targets. Used in a number of fields including topography, architecture, geology and archaeology, photogrammetry is a stereoscopy technique whereby 2D images taken from different angles can be used to reconstruct a 3D image of an object. Surveyors at CERN have been using this technique for over 15 years as a way of gaining precise information on the shape, size, deformation and position of the LHC detectors and their composite elements. The photogrammetry used at CERN is relatively “light” in terms of the equipment required, w...

  3. Mars Express en route for the Red Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    remainder of the time, at Earth to relay the information collected in this way and the data transmitted by Beagle 2. The orbiter’s seven on-board instruments are expected to provide considerable information about the structure and evolution of Mars. A very high resolution stereo camera, the HRSC, will perform comprehensive mapping of the planet at 10 m resolution and will even be capable of photographing some areas to a precision of barely 2 m. The OMEGA spectrometer will draw up the first mineralogical map of the planet to 100 m precision. This mineralogical study will be taken further by the PFS spectrometer - which will also chart the composition of the Martian atmosphere, a prerequisite for investigation of atmospheric dynamics. The MARSIS radar instrument, with its 40 m antenna, will sound the surface to a depth of 2 km, exploring its structure and above all searching for pockets of water. Another instrument, ASPERA, will be tasked with investigating interaction between the upper atmosphere and the interplanetary medium. The focus here will be on determining how and at what rate the solar wind, in the absence of a magnetic field capable of deflecting it, scattered the bulk of the Martian atmosphere into space. Atmospheric investigation will also be performed by the SPICAM spectrometer and the MaRS experiment, with special emphasis on stellar occultation and radio signal propagation phenomena. The orbiter mission should last at least one Martian year (687 days), while Beagle 2 is expected to operate on the planet’s surface for 180 days. Only a start to exploration This first European mission to Mars incorporates some of the objectives of the Euro-Russian Mars 96 mission, which came to grief when the Proton launcher failed. And indeed a Russian partner is cooperating on each of the orbiter’s instruments. Mars Express forms part of an international Mars exploration programme, featuring also the US probes Mars Surveyor and Mars Odyssey, the two Mars Exploration

  4. Theories of bipedal walking: an odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Christopher L

    2003-04-01

    In this paper six theories of bipedal walking, and the evidence in support of the theories, are reviewed. They include: evolution, minimising energy consumption, maturation in children, central pattern generators, linking control and effect, and robots on two legs. Specifically, the six theories posit that: (1) bipedalism is the fundamental evolutionary adaptation that sets hominids--and therefore humans--apart from other primates; (2) locomotion is the translation of the centre of gravity along a pathway requiring the least expenditure of energy; (3) when a young child takes its first few halting steps, his or her biomechanical strategy is to minimise the risk of falling; (4) a dedicated network of interneurons in the spinal cord generates the rhythm and cyclic pattern of electromyographic signals that give rise to bipedal gait; (5) bipedal locomotion is generated through global entrainment of the neural system on the one hand, and the musculoskeletal system plus environment on the other; and (6) powered dynamic gait in a bipedal robot can be realised only through a strategy which is based on stability and real-time feedback control. The published record suggests that each of the theories has some measure of support. However, it is important to note that there are other important theories of locomotion which have not been covered in this review. Despite such omissions, this odyssey has explored the wide spectrum of bipedal walking, from its origins through to the integration of the nervous, muscular and skeletal systems.

  5. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.

  6. Magnetic storms on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from the Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer we examine periods of significantly enhanced magnetic disturbances in the martian space environment. Using almost seven years of observations during the maximum and early declining phase of the previous solar cycle the occurrence pattern...... and typical time profile of such periods is investigated and compared to solar wind measurements at Earth. Typical durations of the events are 20–40h, and there is a tendency for large events to last longer, but a large spread in duration and intensity are found. The large and medium intensity events at Mars...... field disturbance at Mars is solar wind dynamic pressure variations associated with the eccentricity of the martian orbit around the Sun....

  7. Spiders from Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-426, 19 July 2003No, this is not a picture of a giant, martian spider web. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a plethora of polygonal features on the floor of a northern hemisphere impact crater near 65.6oN, 327.7oW. The picture was acquired during spring, after the seasonal carbon dioxide frost cap had largely migrated through the region. At the time the picture was taken, remnants of seasonal frost remained on the crater rim and on the edges of the troughs that bound each of the polygons. Frost often provides a helpful hint as to where polygons and patterned ground occur. The polygons, if they were on Earth, would indicate the presence of freeze-thaw cycles in ground ice. Although uncertain, the same might be true of Mars. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  8. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  9. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  10. Intimations of water on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    This photo essay contains images of Mars that propose evidence of the possible present or past existence of liquid water on Mars. Images were taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera. Images presented include: Polar Wall Pit region, consisting of gully landforms possibly caused by seepage and runoff of liquid water; Noachis Terra region, an area of gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater, where channels and related debris are seen, possibly formed by seepage, runoff, and debris flow; two images of Gorgonum Chaos region, one a series of troughs and layers of gullies and the other of gullies in a specific layer forming an alcove similar to an aquifer; Sirenum Fossae/Gorgonum Chaos mosaic of two images from this region of the southern hemisphere of Mars, showing 20 different channels coming down from a trough and their associated debris fans. Images and their enhancements are from NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science System.

  11. The surveyors get the measure of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first to start work in the LHC tunnel, the surveyors are precisely marking out the positions of the future accelerator's magnets. A total of 7000 reference points will have to be marked out over two years.

  12. an examination of estate surveyors and valuers' perception of flood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... Key words: Estate Surveyors, Perception, Flood risk, Residential ... financial service sector (banking, insurance, etc.) ... 1Department of Estate Management, College of Science .... institutions (Ayida-Otobo, 2009), Lagos State.

  13. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  14. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, Kathleen; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Dahal, Sumit; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fluxa, Pedro; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Hubmayr, Johannes; Iuliano, Jeffery; Karakla, John; McMahon, Jeff; Miller, Nathan T; Moseley, Samuel H; Palma, Gonzalo; Parker, Lucas; Petroff, Matthew; Pradenas, Bastián; Rostem, Karwan; Sagliocca, Marco; Valle, Deniz; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from inflation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70\\% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad f...

  15. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakla, John; Kogut, Alan J; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H; Novak, Giles; Reintsema, Carl; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravita-tional-wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70\\% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low $\\ell$. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of $r=0.01$ and make a cosmi...

  16. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  17. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Denis, Kevin; Moseley, Samuel H.; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  18. The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS)

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, C N; Maiolino, R; Goldie, D J; Acedo, E de Lera; Wagg, J; Blundell, R; Paine, S; Zeng, L

    2014-01-01

    The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS) is a pathfinder program to demonstrate on-chip spectrometry at millimetre wavelengths. CAMELS will observe at frequencies from 103-114.7 GHz, providing 512 channels with a spectral resolution of R = 3000. In this paper we describe the science goals of CAMELS, the current system level design for the instrument and the work we are doing on the detailed designs of the individual components. In addition, we will discuss our efforts to understand the impact that the design and calibration of the filter bank on astronomical performance. The shape of the filter channels, the degree of overlap and the nature of the noise all effect how well the parameters of a spectral line can be recovered. We have developed a new and rigorous method for analysing performance, based on the concept of Fisher information. This can in be turn coupled to a detailed model of the science case, allowing design trade-offs to be properly investigated.

  19. Trojans' Odyssey: Unveiling the early history of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Philippe; Vernazza, Pierre; Poncy, Joel; Martinot, Vincent; Hinglais, Emmanuel; Canalias, Elisabet; Bell, Jim; Cruikshank, Dale; Groussin, Olivier; Helbert, Joern; Marzari, Francesco; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Sierks, Holger

    2012-04-01

    In our present understanding of the Solar System, small bodies (asteroids, Jupiter Trojans, comets and TNOs) are the most direct remnants of the original building blocks that formed the planets. Jupiter Trojan and Hilda asteroids are small primitive bodies located beyond the `snow line', around respectively the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter at ˜5.2 AU (Trojans) and in the 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter near 3.9 AU (Hildas). They are at the crux of several outstanding and still conflicting issues regarding the formation and evolution of the Solar System. They hold the potential to unlock the answers to fundamental questions about planetary migration, the late heavy bombardment, the formation of the Jovian system, the origin and evolution of trans-neptunian objects, and the delivery of water and organics to the inner planets. The proposed Trojans' Odyssey mission is envisioned as a reconnaissance, multiple flyby mission aimed at visiting several objects, typically five Trojans and one Hilda. It will attempt exploring both large and small objects and sampling those with any known differences in photometric properties. The orbital strategy consists in a direct trajectory to one of the Trojan swarms. By carefully choosing the aphelion of the orbit (typically 5.3 AU), the trajectory will offer a long arc in the swarm thus maximizing the number of flybys. Initial gravity assists from Venus and Earth will help reducing the cruise time as well as the ΔV needed for injection thus offering enough capacity to navigate among Trojans. This solution further opens the unique possibility to flyby a Hilda asteroid when leaving the Trojan swarm. During the cruise phase, a Main Belt Asteroid could be targeted if requiring a modest ΔV. The specific science objectives of the mission will be best achieved with a payload that will perform high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral imaging, thermal-infrared imaging/ radiometry, near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy, and

  20. Relationships Between the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF), Fluvial Channels, and the Dichotomy Boundary Southeast of Nicholson Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, B. A.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    2001-01-01

    We use Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) data to investigate the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) and its relationship to fluvial channels southeast of Nicholson Crater. In this area the MFF shows small-scale layering and is draped over Labou Vallis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. The International Mars Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavney, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Eichentopf, K.; Natenzon, M.; Kirsanova, T.; Tarnopolsky, V.

    1996-03-01

    The next five years will witness the beginning of a period of unprecedented activity and interest in the exploration of Mars. Numerous missions are scheduled involving a broad array of spacecraft and instrumentation, and several important experiments will depend on international collaborations. They include Mars Global Surveyor and Pathfinder to be launched in 1996, along with the Russian Mars 96 Mission. Through the Mars Surveyor Program, a lander will descend to the south polar latitudes in 1999 while an orbiter circles the planet and acquires images and infrared data. These missions will produce a welcome deluge of new data, as well as a sharp increase in the demand for data from past Mars missions. One result of this increased activity will be the need for a rapid, efficient system for sharing new data with the scientific community after the proprietary periods have elapsed. With the boom in growth of the Internet, it is now possible to design a system for international access using ordinary laboratory and desktop computers. The advantage of using the World-Wide Web as the basis for such a system is that the infrastructure is already in place, as many users are already accustomed to using Web browsers to locate and transfer information.

  2. One year of results from Odyssey THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P.; Themis Team

    2003-04-01

    The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) began studying the surface and atmosphere of Mars in February, 2002 using thermal infrared multi-spectral imaging between 6.5 and 15 µm, and visible/near-IR images from 450 to 850 nm. The THEMIS investigation's specific objectives are to: (1) determine the mineralogy of localized deposits associated with hydrothermal or sub-aqueous environments, and to identify future landing sites likely to represent these environments; (2) search for thermal anomalies associated with active sub-surface hydrothermal systems; (3) study small-scale geologic processes and landing site characteristics using morphologic and thermophysical properties; (4) investigate polar cap processes at all seasons; and (5) provide a high spatial resolution link to the global hyperspectral mineral mapping from the TES investigation. THEMIS data collected to date have been used to investigate the nature of geologic units and layers, the distribution of rocks and bedrock, the mobile surface sand and dust, 100-m scale compositional variations, polar processes, and visible color and morphology. Regional-scale infrared mapping shows that Mars has both regional and local geologic units delineated by their thermophysical properties. In Meridiani Planum these units imply a complex history involving changes in the nature of volcanic units, the environment of deposition of sedimentary units, and/or the degree of lithification or cementation of initially unconsolidated units. Mars has km-scale exposures of bedrock, and rocky surfaces are commonly observed on slopes and scarps, demonstrating that the production or exposure rate of rock locally exceeds the rate of rock burial or breakdown. Thermally distinct ejecta deposits with a wide range of thermophysical properties are observed around craters of varying sizes. Most crater ejecta, however, are indistinguishable from the surrounding terrain. Where large fields of sand dune occur, the dunes are typically coarser

  3. Creative Inclusion in Community Theatre: A Journey with Odyssey Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Roger

    2009-01-01

    What does "inclusion" mean in practice? This article considers the work of Odyssey Theatre, a group of learning-disabled and non-learning-disabled performers as they put together a production with the support of professional theatre workers. Working processes are examined and the balance of empowerment and professional leadership…

  4. Evidence for collisionless magnetic reconnection at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, J. P.; Brain, D. A.; Halekas, J. S.; Drake, J. F.; Phan, T. D.; Øieroset, M.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuña, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) in combination with Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of reconnection, we present the first direct evidence of collisionless magnetic reconnection at Mars. The evidence indicates that the spacecraft passed through the diffusion region where reconnection is initiated and observed the magnetic field signatures of differential electron and ion motion - the Hall magnetic field - that uniquely indicate the reconnection process. These are the first such in-situ reconnection observations at an astronomical body other than the Earth. Reconnection may be the source of Mars' recently discovered auroral activity and the changing boundaries of the closed regions of crustal magnetic field.

  5. Mars Mission Surface Operation Simulation Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Bugga, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to 1) Assess viability of using lithium-ion technology for future NASA applications, with emphasis upon Mars landers and rovers which will operate on the planetary surface; 2) Support the JPL 2003 Mars Exploration Rover program to assist in the delivery and testing of a 8 AHr Lithium-Ion battery (Lithion/Yardney) which will power the rover; 3) Demonstrate applicability of using lithium-ion technologyfor future Mars applications: Mars 09 Science Laboratory (Smart Lander) and Future Mars Surface Operations (General). Mission simulation testing was carried out for cells and batteries on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander and the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover.

  6. The Mars Plasma Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, C. T

    2007-01-01

    Mars sits very exposed to the solar wind and, because it is a small planet, has but a weak hold on its atmosphere. The solar wind therefore plays an important role in the evolution of the martian atmosphere. Over the last four decades a series of European missions, first from the Soviet Union and more recently from the European Space Agency, together with a single investigation from the U.S., the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, have added immeasurably to our understanding of the interplay between the solar wind and Mars atmosphere. Most recently the measurements of the plasma and fast neutral populations, conducted on the Mars Express spacecraft by the ASPERA-3 instrument have been acquired and analyzed. Their presentation to the public, most notably at the workshop "The Solar Wind Interaction and Atmosphere Evolution of Mars" held in Kiruna in early 2006, was the inspiration for this series of articles. However participation in the Kiruna conference was not a selection criterion for this volume. The papers ...

  7. Magnetic Storms at Mars and Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    In analogy with magnetic storms at the Earth, periods of significantly enhanced global magnetic activity also exist at Mars. The extensive database of magnetic measurements from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), covering almost an entire solar cycle, is used in combination with geomagnetic activity...... indices at Earth to compare the occurrence of magnetic storms at Mars and Earth. Based on superposed epochs analysis the time-development of typical magnetic storms at Mars and Earth is described. In contradiction to storms at Earth, most magnetic storms at Mars are found to be associated...... with heliospheric current sheet crossings, where the IMF changes polarity. While most storms at the Earth occur due to significant southward excursions of the IMF associated with CMEs, at Mars most storms seem to be associated with the density enhancement of the heliospheric current sheet. Density enhancements...

  8. Effects of a CME on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Brain, D.

    We investigate the effects of a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) on Mars. The magnetic field in the magnetic pileup region on Mars is dominated by the dynamic pressure from the solar as increased dynamic pressure compresses the magnetic pileup region causing a larger magnetic pressure, until...... this balances the solar wind pressure. As the dynamic pressure is severely increased during a CME, so is the magnetic pressure. A CME are also typically connected to a Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) event, causing large amounts of radiation. When the shock front of a CME arrives at Mars strong signals are seen...... in both the magnetic field data and in the radiation data. Based on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Magnetometer (MAG) and Electron Reflectometer (ER) data we study the radiation and magnetic field variations on Mars during a CME event. We also compare the effects on Mars to the effects on Earth for the same...

  9. Effects of a CME on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Brain, D.

    We investigate the effects of a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) on Mars. The magnetic field in the magnetic pileup region on Mars is dominated by the dynamic pressure from the solar as increased dynamic pressure compresses the magnetic pileup region causing a larger magnetic pressure, until...... this balances the solar wind pressure. As the dynamic pressure is severely increased during a CME, so is the magnetic pressure. A CME are also typically connected to a Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) event, causing large amounts of radiation. When the shock front of a CME arrives at Mars strong signals are seen...... in both the magnetic field data and in the radiation data. Based on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Magnetometer (MAG) and Electron Reflectometer (ER) data we study the radiation and magnetic field variations on Mars during a CME event. We also compare the effects on Mars to the effects on Earth for the same...

  10. Magnetic Storms at Mars and Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    In analogy with magnetic storms at the Earth, periods of significantly enhanced global magnetic activity also exist at Mars. The extensive database of magnetic measurements from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), covering almost an entire solar cycle, is used in combination with geomagnetic activity...... indices at Earth to compare the occurrence of magnetic storms at Mars and Earth. Based on superposed epochs analysis the time-development of typical magnetic storms at Mars and Earth is described. In contradiction to storms at Earth, most magnetic storms at Mars are found to be associated...... with heliospheric current sheet crossings, where the IMF changes polarity. While most storms at the Earth occur due to significant southward excursions of the IMF associated with CMEs, at Mars most storms seem to be associated with the density enhancement of the heliospheric current sheet. Density enhancements...

  11. Mars at Ls 306o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    11 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurs in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  12. Mars at Ls 79o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    25 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurred in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  13. Mars at Ls 53o: North Polar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    30 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  14. Mars at Ls 324o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    8 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurs in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  15. Mars at Ls 12o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    28 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurred in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  16. Mars at Ls 269o: South Polar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    30 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  17. Mars at Ls 39o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    25 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurred in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  18. Mars at Ls 53o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    9 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  19. Mars at Ls 306o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    25 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurred in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  20. Mars at Ls 269o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    9 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurs in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  1. Mars at Ls 288o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    27 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  2. Mars at Ls 107o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    13 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurs in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  3. Mars at Ls 357o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    10 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurs in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  4. Mars at Ls 25o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    14 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  5. Mars at Ls 93o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    22 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurred in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Location near: 86.1oN, 208.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  6. Mars at Ls 230o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    28 June 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 230o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 230o occurred in mid-June 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  7. Mars at Ls 324o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    22 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurred in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  8. Mars at Ls 12o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    15 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  9. Mars at Ls 39o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  10. Mars at Ls 107o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    26 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurred in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  11. Mars at Ls 249o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    12 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurs in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  12. Mars at Ls 288o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    13 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurs in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  13. Mars at Ls 25o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    28 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurred in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  14. Mars at Ls 79o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  15. Mars at Ls 341o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    27 December 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 341o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 341o occurred in mid-December 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  16. Mars at Ls 66o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    13 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  17. Mars at Ls 357o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    25 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurred in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  18. Mars at Ls 66o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    27 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurred in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  19. Mars at Ls 93o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    8 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  20. Mars at Ls 53o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    23 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  1. Mars at Ls 249o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    26 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurred in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  2. Mars at Ls 269o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    23 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  3. Lithospheric Thickness Variations from Gravity and Topography in Areas of High Crustal Remanent Magnetization on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Large regions of intense crustal re- manent magnetization were fortuitously discovered on Mars by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. Gravity and topography admittance studies are used to examine lithospheric structure in the areas of intense magnetization. Areas with positively magnetized crust appear to have thinner crust and elastic lithosphere than negatively magnetized crust. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Zero Energy Building Pays for Itself: Odyssey Elementary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    Odyssey Elementary is a large public school in an area of Utah with a growing population. Created as a prototype for the Davis School District, Odyssey is a zero energy building whose design has already been copied for two other new schools, both of which are targeting zero energy. It has a unique design with four 'houses' (or classroom wings) featuring generously daylit classrooms. This design contributes to the school's energy efficiency. In an effort to integrate positive messages about fitness into the learning environment, each house has a different take on the theme of 'bodies in motion' in the natural world. In a postoccupancy survey of parents, students, and teachers, more than 87% were satisfied with the building overall.

  5. Surveyor television camera, selected materials and electronic components, Appendix C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The locations of various parts of the Surveyor camera are presented. Tables were prepared with emphasis on: (1) exterior parts and surfaces that are directly exposed to space, (2) parts that shield others from space radiation, (3) representative or unique materials, and (4) electronic devices that may contain unique or well-characterized materials.

  6. Caspar Wessel (1745-1818). Surveyor and Mathematician

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Bodil; Johansen, Nils Voje

    1999-01-01

    This is a biography. It focus on Caspar Wessel's work as surveyor under the auspices of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, in particular on some of his theoretical investigations of geodesy that lead him to use complex numbers to represent directions in a plane at least as early...

  7. Core skills requirement and competencies expected of quantity surveyors: perspectives from quantity surveyors, allied professionals and clients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Oluwasuji Dada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the science for selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill requirements and competencies expected of quantity surveyors. A structured questionnaire was administered among quantity surveyors, architects, engineers, builders and clients in Nigeria. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on usual skills and competencies required of quantity surveyors. A secondary objective of the study was to examine the important skills and competencies and categorized them into core skill, basic skill, core competence, optional competence and special competence. The results of the study indicate the important skills as computer literacy, building engineering, information technology, economics, measurement/quantification and knowledge of civil/heavy engineering works. The results also indicate the important competencies as cost planning and control, estimating, construction procurement system, contract documentation, contract administration and project management. It is emphasized that the findings of the research have considerable implications on the training and practice of quantity surveying in Nigeria.

  8. Core skills requirement and competencies expected of quantity surveyors: perspectives from quantity surveyors, allied professionals and clients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Oluwasuji Dada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDeployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the science for selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill requirements and competencies expected of quantity surveyors. A structured questionnaire was administered among quantity surveyors, architects, engineers, builders and clients in Nigeria. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on usual skills and competencies required of quantity surveyors. A secondary objective of the study was to examine the important skills and competencies and categorized them into core skill, basic skill, core competence, optional competence and special competence. The results of the study indicate the important skills as computer literacy, building engineering, information technology, economics, measurement/quantification and knowledge of civil/heavy engineering works. The results also indicate the important competencies as cost planning and control, estimating, construction procurement system, contract documentation, contract administration and project management. It is emphasized that the findings of the research have considerable implications on the training and practice of quantity surveying in Nigeria.

  9. Tectonic implications of Mars crustal magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J E P; Acuña, M H; Ness, N F; Kletetschka, G; Mitchell, D L; Lin, R P; Reme, H

    2005-10-18

    Mars currently has no global magnetic field of internal origin but must have had one in the past, when the crust acquired intense magnetization, presumably by cooling in the presence of an Earth-like magnetic field (thermoremanent magnetization). A new map of the magnetic field of Mars, compiled by using measurements acquired at an approximately 400-km mapping altitude by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, is presented here. The increased spatial resolution and sensitivity of this map provide new insight into the origin and evolution of the Mars crust. Variations in the crustal magnetic field appear in association with major faults, some previously identified in imagery and topography (Cerberus Rupes and Valles Marineris). Two parallel great faults are identified in Terra Meridiani by offset magnetic field contours. They appear similar to transform faults that occur in oceanic crust on Earth, and support the notion that the Mars crust formed during an early era of plate tectonics.

  10. Coupling Immersive Experiences with the Use of Mission Data to Encourage Students' Interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math: Examples from the Mars Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, S. L.; Valderrama, P.; Viotti, M. A.; Watt, K.; Wurman, G.

    2004-12-01

    existence for over two years and has been used by teachers and students from across the US. The Mars Exploration Student Data Team Program was created and prototyped during the Mars Exploration Rover mission this past January through April. Over 500 students from 25 schools from across the US participated in real-time data analysis using the Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor infrared instruments -Thermal Emission Spectrometer - TES and THEMIS to monitor the rover landing sites. This program utilized a virtual team format and allowed high school students to collaborate with other teams that were, at times, thousands of miles away to implement real-time observations. This program will be carried forward to several of the upcoming missions. Finally, the Athena Student Intern Program is the higher end of involvement for students and teachers. These students and teachers were competitively selected to spend a week during the mission operations of the rovers at JPL. All of these programs have a common thread..ownership of the experience. By empowering the next generation of learners with the knowledge that they can be part of their future through such immersive experiences before they reach college, they will be ready to take on harder challenges that will reach higher towards new frontiers

  11. Vertical Distribution of Shallow Water in the Distinguishable Regions at Low and High Latitudes of Mars: Neutron Data Deconvolution of HEND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretakov, V.; Boynton, W. V.; Hamara, D. K.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) is the part of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer suite onboard NASA Mars Odyssey orbiter [1-4]. During 16 months of mapping stage of Odyssey mission HEND has accumulated the set of maps of neutron emission of Mars at more than seven decades of energies range from the Cadmium threshold of 0.4 eV up to 15 MeV. These maps present very large variations of neutrons at different regions of Mars and they also show quite strong changes along Martian seasons.

  12. Neutron Star Science with the X-ray Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Feryal

    2015-10-01

    Probing the interiors and magnetic fields of neutron stars and characterizing their populations in the Galaxy is an important science goal for the next generation X-ray telescopes. I will discuss how the capabilities of the X-ray Surveyor Mission are crucial for making significant advances in these fields and how we can address the open questions with a dataset that will become available with such a mission.

  13. Clarke and Kubrick’s 2001: a queer odyssey

    OpenAIRE

    Janes, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    This article is a queer reading of 2001: A Space Odyssey. It begins by situating the film in the context of the careers of Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick. Clarke is shown to have been a homosexual or bisexual who explored same-sex desires in a number of his later fictions, whilst Kubrick is discussed as having a fascination with problematising normative masculinity and asserting, by contrast, the superior potency of his artistic vision. The alien monolith is interpreted as a visualisati...

  14. Corny, Lame, and Useful: How Secondary School Faculty Use the Learning Software Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how and why secondary school faculty use the learning software, Odyssey. Faculty were asked about their pedagogical beliefs and instructional practices, the perceived impact of using the software on student outcomes, and how, if at all, Odyssey-using faculty would change the software to increase utility. Data collection…

  15. Corny, Lame, and Useful: How Secondary School Faculty Use the Learning Software Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how and why secondary school faculty use the learning software, Odyssey. Faculty were asked about their pedagogical beliefs and instructional practices, the perceived impact of using the software on student outcomes, and how, if at all, Odyssey-using faculty would change the software to increase utility. Data collection…

  16. The implementation of a modernized Dynamic Digital Map on Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, J.; Condit, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Currently, geology instructors present information to students via PowerPoint, Word, Excel and other programs that are not designed to parse or present geologic data. More tech-savvy, and perhaps better-funded, instructors use Google Earth or ArcGIS to display geologic maps and other visual information. However, Google Earth lacks the ability to present large portions of text, and ArcGIS restricts such functionality to labels and annotations. The original Dynamic Digital Map, which we have renamed Dynamic Digital Map Classic (DDMC), allows instructors to represent both visual and large portions of textual information to students. This summer we generalized the underlying architecture of DDMC, redesigned the user interface, modernized the analytical functionality, renamed the older version and labeled this new creature Dynamic Digital Map Extended (DDME). With the new DDME instructors can showcase maps, images, articles and movies, and create digital field trips. They can set the scale, coordinate system and caption of maps and images, add symbol links to maps and images that can transport the user to any specified destination—either internally (to data contained within the DDME) or externally (to a website address). Instructors and students can also calculate non-linear distances and irregular areas of maps and images, and create digital field trips with any number of stops—complete with notes and driving directions. DDMEs are perhaps best described as a sort of computerized, self-authored, interactive textbook. To display the vast capabilities of DDME, we created a DDME of Gale Crater (DDME-GC), which is the landing site of the most sophisticated NASA Mars Rover—Curiosity. DDME-GC hosts six thematic maps: a detailed geologic map provided by Brad Thompson of the Boston University Center for Remote Sensing (Thompson, et al., 2010), and five maps maintained in ASU's JMARS system, including global mosaics from Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

  17. Surface characteristics and degradational history of debris aprons in the Tempe Terra/Mareotis fossae region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Frank C.; Crown, David A.

    2005-12-01

    We have documented the surface characteristics and degradational history of a population of 65 lobate debris aprons in the Tempe Terra/Mareotis fossae region of Mars. These aprons were compared to other martian debris aprons to evaluate similarities and differences among different populations, which can provide insight into the dominant controls on apron development. Tempe/Mareotis debris aprons, found at the bases of isolated or clustered massifs, escarpments, and crater interior walls, were studied using Viking Orbiter, Mars Global Surveyor, and Mars Odyssey datasets in a GIS database. Six textures related to degradation of apron surfaces are identified in MOC images, and they are divided into two groups: an upper-surface group and a lower-surface group. Degradation occurs within an inferred smooth, upper surface mantle of ice and debris, producing a sequence of pitted, ridge and valley, and knobby textures of the upper-surface group. Where upper-surface materials have been removed, smooth and ridged textures of the lower-surface group are exposed. Degradation to various depths may expose lower-surface materials, which may consist of the main apron mass, remnants of mantling deposits, or both. A combination of geologic processes may have caused the degradation, including ice sublimation, ice melt, and eolian activity. Apron surfaces have lower maximum thermal inertias and mean surface temperatures than adjacent plains surfaces, which may be explained by the trapping of unconsolidated materials in low-lying pits and valleys formed by surface degradation or from the disruption of crusts on degraded portions of apron surfaces. One feature observed only on Tempe/Mareotis debris aprons are broad ridges, which mimic the shape of massif bases for tens of kilometers. We propose these to be constructional features that could have formed during cycles of increased debris production. Apron morphometric parameters including area, volume, slope, thickness, relief, and H

  18. Climate Odyssey: Communicating Coastal Change through Art, Science, and Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, P. Z.; Holtsnider, L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate Odyssey (climateodyssey.org) is a year-long sailing expedition and continuing collaboration aimed at using overlaps in science and visual art to communicate coastal climate change impacts and solutions. We, visual artist Lucy Holtsnider and climate scientist Zion Klos, are using our complimentary skills in art, science and communication to engage audiences both affectively and cognitively regarding the urgency of climate change through story and visualization. In July of 2015, we embarked on the sailing portion of Climate Odyssey, beginning in Lake Michigan, continuing along the Eastern Seaboard, and concluding in May 2016 in the tropics. Along the way we photographed climate change impacts and adaptation strategies, interviewed stakeholders, scientists, and artists. We are now sharing our photographs and documented encounters through a tangible artist's book, interactive digital map, and blog. Each of our images added to the artist's book and digital map are linked to relevant blog entries and other external scientific resources, making the map both an aesthetic piece of art and an engaging tool for sharing the science of climate change impacts and solutions. After completing the sailing component of the project, we are now working to finalize our media and share our pieces with the public via libraries, galleries, and classrooms in coastal communities. At AGU, we will share with our peers the completed version of the artist's book, digital map, and online blog so we can both discuss public engagement strategies and showcase this example of art-science outreach with the broader science communication community.

  19. Mate and Dart: An Instrument Package for Characterizing Solar Energy and Atmospheric Dust on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Baraona, Cosmo

    2000-01-01

    The MATE (Mars Array Technology Experiment) and DART (Dust Accumulation and Removal Test) instruments were developed to fly as part of the Mars ISPP Precursor (MIP) experiment on the (now postponed) Mars-2001 Surveyor Lander. MATE characterizes the solar energy reaching the surface of Mars, and measures the performance and degradation of solar cells under Martian conditions. DART characterizes the dust environment of Mars, measures the effect of settled dust on solar arrays, and investigates methods to mitigate power loss due to dust accumulation.

  20. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  1. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Thomas, Reid C.; Varghese, Phil; Signori, Gina; Schmitz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  2. Testing the principle of equivalence with Planck surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, L A; Mandolesi, N

    2002-01-01

    We consider the effect of the violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) by the massive neutrino component on the Cosmic Microwave Background angular power specrum. We show that in the presence of adiabatic and isocurvature primordial density perturbations the Planck surveyor can place limits on the maximal VEP by the massive neutrino component at the level of 10^ -5, valid in the general relativity, for the case in which the gravity is the single source of VEP. This work has been performed within the framework of the {\\sc Planck}/LFI activities.

  3. CERN's surveyors are pushing back the frontiers of precision

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at a target on the other side of the Alps, 730 kilometres from CERN, or controlling the positions of thousands of devices to a precision of one tenth of a millimetre, these are just some of the painstaking tasks undertaken by the surveyors in the Positioning Metrology and Surveying Group. These masters of measurement are pushing precision to its very limit.Go down into the LEP tunnel, walk about half a mile and then try to imagine how you could possibly take precise aim at something hundreds of kilometres away without any reference to the surface. Absurd, you might think? Not entirely, for that, in a nutshell, is the geodetic challenge of the Gran Sasso project. Indeed it is just one of the challenges faced by the surveyors in CERN's Positioning Metrology and Surveying Group, whose task it will be to aim a neutrino beam at a detector located in an underground cavern 732 kilometres away at INFN's Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. The tools for solving such problems are provided by geodetics, the branch of...

  4. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission: A Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Tananbaum, Harvey D.; Bandler, Simon R.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Burrows, David N.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hopkins, Randall C.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kraft, Ralph P.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Natarajan, Priyamvada; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Petre, Robert; Prieskorn, Zachary R.; Ptak, Andrew F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Schnell, Andrew R.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Townsley, Leisa K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory continues to provide an unparalleled means for exploring the high-energy universe. With its half-arcsecond angular resolution, Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, neutron stars, black holes, and solar system objects. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address ever more demanding science questions-such as the formation and growth of black hole seeds at very high redshifts; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, we initiated a concept study for such a mission, dubbed X-ray Surveyor. The X-ray Surveyor strawman payload is comprised of a high-resolution mirror assembly and an instrument set, which may include an X-ray microcalorimeter, a high-definition imager, and a dispersive grating spectrometer and its readout. The mirror assembly will consist of highly nested, thin, grazing-incidence mirrors, for which a number of technical approaches are currently under development-including adjustable X-ray optics, differential deposition, and new polishing techniques applied to a variety of substrates. This study benefits from previous studies of large missions carried out over the past two decades and, in most areas, points to mission requirements no more stringent than those of Chandra.

  5. The Infrared Imaging Surveyor (Iris) Project: Astro-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibai, H.

    IRIS (Infrared Imaging Surveyor) is the first Japanese satellite dedicated solely to infrared astronomy. The telescope has 70-cm aperture, and is cooled down to 6 K with super-fluid helium assisted by two-stage Stirling cycle coolers. On the focal plane, the two instruments, the InfraRed Camera (IRC) and the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS), are mounted. IRC is a near- and mid-infrared camera for deep imaging-surveys in the wavelength region from 2 to 25 microns. FIS is a far-infrared instrument for a whole sky survey in the wavelength region from 50 to 200 microns. The diffraction-limited spatial resolution is achieved except in the shortest waveband. The point source sensitivity and the survey coverage are significantly improved compared to previous missions. The primary scientific objective is to investigate birth and evolution of galaxies in the early universe by surveys of young normal galaxies and starburst galaxies. IRIS is thrown by a Japanese M-V rocket into a sun-synchronous orbit, in which the cooled telescope can avoid huge emissions from the Sun and the Earth. The expected holding time of the super-fluid helium is more than one year. After consumption of the helium, the near-infrared observation can be continued by the mechanical coolers

  6. ASTRO-F : Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, T.

    The ASTRO-F (also known as Infrared Imaging Surveyor: IRIS) is the second infrared satellite mission of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan to be launched early 2004 with the M-V rocket and is planned as a second generation infrared sky survey mission. It has a 67-cm aperture telescope and is cooled by 170-liter liquid helium and Stirling-cycle coolers. Two scientific instruments share the focal plane. The infrared camera (IRC) covers 2 to 26 μm range with large two-dimensional arrays in the imaging and low-resolution spectroscopic modes and will perform deep sky surveys of selected areas of the sky with a wide field of view (10' × 10') at unprecedented sensitivity. The far-infrared Surveyor (FIS), consisting of an imaging scanner and a Fourier transform spectrometer, covers 50 to 200 μm range and makes a whole sky survey in four far-infrared bands, which is higher by more than 10 in sensitivity (20 110 mJy), better by several in the spatial resolution (30'' 50''), and longer in the spectral coverage (200 μm) than IRAS. A brief description and the current status of the ASTRO-F mission are presented.

  7. Mars at Ls 137o

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    13 November 2006 These images capture what Mars typically looks like in mid-afternoon at Ls 137o. In other words, with the exception of occasional differences in weather and polar frost patterns, this is what the red planet looks like this month (November 2006). Six views are shown, including the two polar regions. These are composites of 24-26 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global mapping images acquired at red and blue wavelengths. The 'hole' over the south pole is an area where no images were obtained, because this polar region is enveloped in wintertime darkness. Presently, it is summer in the northern hemisphere and winter in the southern hemisphere. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Northern summer/southern winter begins at Ls 90o, northern autumn/southern spring start at Ls 180o, and northern winter/southern summer begin at Ls 270o. Ls 137o occurs in the middle of this month (November 2006). The pictures show how Mars appeared to the MOC wide angle cameras at a previous Ls 137o in March 2001. The six views are centered on the Tharsis region (upper left), Acidalia and Mare Eyrthraeum (upper right), Syrtis Major and Hellas (middle left), Elysium and Mare Cimmeria (middle right), the north pole (lower left), and the south pole (lower right).

  8. Mars at Ls 121o

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    1 October 2006 These images capture what Mars typically looks like in mid-afternoon at L s 121o. In other words, with the exception of occasional differences in weather and polar frost patterns, this is what the red planet looks like this month (October 2006). Six views are shown, including the two polar regions. These are composites of 24-26 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global mapping images acquired at red and blue wavelengths. The 'hole' over the south pole is an area where no images were obtained, because this polar region is enveloped in wintertime darkness. Presently, it is summer in the northern hemisphere and winter in the southern hemisphere. Ls, solar longitude, a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Northern summer/southern winter begins at Ls 90o, northern autumn/southern spring start at Ls 180o, and northern winter/southern summer begin at Ls 270o. Ls 121o occurs in the middle of this month (October 2006). The pictures show how Mars appeared to the MOC wide angle cameras at a previous Ls 121o in February 2001. The six views are centered on the Tharsis region (upper left), Acidalia and Mare Eyrthraeum (upper right), Syrtis Major and Hellas (middle left), Elysium and Mare Cimmeria (middle right), the north pole (lower left), and the south pole (lower right).

  9. The Digital Cadastral Databse and the Role of the Private Licensed Surveyors in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the cadastral system and the role of the private licensed surveyors in Denmark as a basis for discussion of its relevance to Ireland......This article presents the cadastral system and the role of the private licensed surveyors in Denmark as a basis for discussion of its relevance to Ireland...

  10. Are Quantity Surveyors Competent to Value for Civil Engineering Works? Evaluating QSs' Competencies and Militating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawumi, Timothy Oluwatosin; Ayegun, Olaleke Amos

    2016-01-01

    The role of the quantity surveyor is one that is often unclear amongst the general public. This study discussed the competencies of the quantity surveyor in measuring and managing civil engineering works and also carrying out the financial management for civil engineering construction projects; also outlined the various competencies and skills…

  11. The link between quality and accreditation of residency programs: the surveyors' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Renato Antunes; Snell, Linda; Tenorio Nunes, Maria do Patrocinio

    2017-01-01

    Accreditation of medical residency programs has become globally important. Currently it is moving from the goal of attaining minimal standards to a model of continuous improvement. In some countries, the accreditation system engages peers (physicians) to survey residency programs. The surveyors are sometimes volunteers, usually engaged in multiple clinical and education activities. Few studies have investigated the benefits of residency program evaluation and accreditation from the perspective of the surveyors. As peers they both conduct and receive accreditation surveys, which puts them in a privileged position in that it provides the surveyor with an opportunity to share experiences and knowledge and apply what is learned in their own context. The objective of this study is to obtain the perceptions of these surveyors about the impact of an accreditation system on residency programs. Surveyors participated in semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis was performed on the interview data, and resulting topics were grouped into five themes: Burden (of documentation and of time needed); Efficiency and efficacy of the accreditation process; Training and experience of surveyors; Being a peer; Professional skills and recognition of surveyors. These categories were organized into two major themes: 'Structure and Process' and 'Human Resources'. The study participants proposed ways to improve efficiency including diminish the burden of documentation to the physicians involved in the process and to increase efforts on training programs and payment for surveyors and program directors. Based on the results we propose a conceptual framework to improve accreditation systems.

  12. Calibration of the Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder for Absolute Irradiance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers are increasingly interested in measuring hotosynthetically active radiation (PAR) because of its importance in determining the structure and function of lotic ecosystems. The Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder is an affordable PAR meter gaining popularity am...

  13. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  14. A Map-Making for the Planck Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Natoli, P; Gheller, C; Vittorio, N

    2001-01-01

    We present a parallel implementation of a map-making algorithm for CMB anisotropy experiments which is both fast and efficient. We show for the first time a Maximum Likelihood, minimum variance map obtained by processing the entire data stream expected from the Planck Surveyor, under the assumption of a symmetric beam profile. Here we restrict ourselves to the case of the 30 GHz channel of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument. The extension to Planck higher frequency channels is straightforward. If the satellite pointing periodicity is good enough to average data that belong to the same sky circle, then the code runs very efficiently on workstations. The serial version of our code also runs on very competitive time-scales the map-making pipeline for current and forthcoming balloon borne experiments.

  15. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    CERN Document Server

    Chuss, D T; Amiri, M; Appel, J; Bennett, C L; Colazo, F; Denis, K L; Dünner, R; Essinger-Hileman, T; Eimer, J; Fluxa, P; Gothe, D; Halpern, M; Harrington, K; Hilton, G; Hinshaw, G; Hubmayr, J; Iuliano, J; Marriage, T A; Miller, N; Moseley, S H; Mumby, G; Petroff, M; Reintsema, C; Rostem, K; U-Yen, K; Watts, D; Wagner, E; Wollack, E J; Xu, Z; Zeng, L

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe $\\sim$70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) modulates the polarization at $\\sim$10 Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that span both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously d...

  16. Bridging the Gap Between Surveyors and the Geo-Spatial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H.

    2016-06-01

    For many years FIG, the International Association of Surveyors, has been trying to bridge the gap between surveyors and the geospatial society as a whole, with the geospatial industries in particular. Traditionally the surveying profession contributed to the good of society by creating and maintaining highly precise and accurate geospatial data bases, based on an in-depth knowledge of spatial reference frameworks. Furthermore in many countries surveyors may be entitled to make decisions about land divisions and boundaries. By managing information spatially surveyors today develop into the role of geo-data managers, the longer the more. Job assignments in this context include data entry management, data and process quality management, design of formal and informal systems, information management, consultancy, land management, all that in close cooperation with many different stakeholders. Future tasks will include the integration of geospatial information into e-government and e-commerce systems. The list of professional tasks underpins the capabilities of surveyors to contribute to a high quality geospatial data and information management. In that way modern surveyors support the needs of a geo-spatial society. The paper discusses several approaches to define the role of the surveyor within the modern geospatial society.

  17. Local inversion of magnetic anomalies: Implication for Mars' crustal evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Quesnel, Yoann; Langlais, Benoit; Sotin, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Martian magnetic anomalies have been revealed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission in the south hemisphere of Mars. The present study models anomalies located in the ancient Terra Sirenum area between latitudes 26°S and 40°S and longitudes 185°E and 210°E using forward and inverse approaches. While the high-altitude measurements reveal the presence of two main magnetic anomalies, three are detected by low-altitude data. They are modeled as uncorrelated dipolar sou...

  18. CHISL: The Combined High-resolution and Imaging Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Hoadley, Keri

    2016-01-01

    NASA is currently carrying out science and technical studies to identify its next astronomy flagship mission, slated to begin development in the 2020s. It has become clear that a Large Ultraviolet/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission (primary diameter 12 m, 1000 Ang - 2 micron spectroscopic bandpass) can carry out the largest number of NASA's exoplanet and astrophysics science goals over the coming decades. There are technical challenges for several aspects of the LUVOIR Surveyor concept, including component level technology readiness maturation and science instrument concepts for a broadly capable ultraviolet spectrograph. We present the scientific motivation for, and a preliminary design of, a multiplexed ultraviolet spectrograph to support both the exoplanet and astrophysics goals of the LUVOIR Surveyor mission concept, the Combined High-resolution and Imaging Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor (CHISL). CHISL includes a high-resolution (R 120,000; 1000 - 1700 Ang) point-source spectroscopy channel and a ...

  19. The Mars Exploration Program: Past, Present and Future (?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Scott

    NASA's Mars Exploration Program was redesigned in 2000, following the twin losses of the Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander in late 1999. The new science based program was grounded in community consensus based priorities and had as its aim understanding Mars as a system. The popular phrase used to describe the goals of the mission sequence was "Follow the Water". A new queue of missions was put in place for the decade 2001 - 2010 and a new community based competitive opportunity, the Mars Scout program, was initiated. The strategic mission implementation has been unchanged since the new program was announced in October 2000. Those projects successfully launched and deployed thus far include Mars Odyssey, the two Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity, Mars Reconnaissance Obiter and the Phoenix Scout Mission. The final project of the decade, the Mars Science Laboratory, is in the last stages of development with launch slated for the Fall of 2009. The President's budget announced in February 2008 for Fiscal 2009, contained little in the way of definitive objectives for Mars program in the decade 2011-2020 and proposed to reduce the Mars budget drastically over the five year budget period. This paper will review the programmatic and scientific progress thus far in meeting the original objectives as outlined in October 2000. A look ahead to the potential missions and goals for the next decade will be provided with particular emphasis on the status of Mars Sample Return mission. Bibliography: G. Scott Hubbard, Firouz M. Naderi, James B. Garvin, Following the water, the new program for Mars exploration, Acta Astronautica 51(1-9):337-350, 2002.

  20. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission Study: Paper I, the Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. We note key areas for technological innovation and improvements necessary to make a Far-Infrared Surveyor mission a reality.

  1. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission study: paper I, the genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; Ennico, K.; Melnick, G. J.; Milam, S.; Narayanan, D.; Pontoppidan, K.; Pope, A.; Roellig, T.; Sandstrom, K.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vieira, J.; Wright, E.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Alato, S.; Carey, S.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Menten, K.; Scott, D.; Sakon, I.; Vavrek, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. We note key areas for technological innovation and improvements necessary to make a Far-Infrared Surveyor mission a reality.

  2. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission Study: Paper I, the Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Meixner, M; Carter, R; DiPirro, M; Flores, A; Leisawitz, D; Armus, L; Battersby, C; Bergin, E; Bradford, C M; Ennico, K; Melnick, G J; Milam, S; Narayanan, D; Pontoppidan, K; Pope, A; Roellig, T; Sandstrom, K; Su, K Y L; Vieira, J; Wright, E; Zmuidzinas, J; Alato, S; Carey, S; Gerin, M; Helmich, F; Menten, K; Scott, D; Sakon, I; Vavrek, R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. We note key areas for technological innovation and improvements necessary to make a Far-Infrared Surveyor mission a reality.

  3. Screening for Mutations in Kidney-Related Genes Using SURVEYOR Nuclease for Cleavage at Heteroduplex Mismatches

    OpenAIRE

    Voskarides, Konstantinos; DELTAS, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    SURVEYOR is a new mismatch-specific plant DNA endonuclease that is very efficient for mutation scanning in heteroduplex DNA. It is much faster, cheaper, more sensitive, and easier to perform than other “traditional” mutation detection methods such as single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, heteroduplex analysis, and phage resolvases. This is the first comprehensive report on the use of SURVEYOR for screening genes implicated in a sp...

  4. The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) for AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Kawada, Mitsunobu; Barthel, Peter D; Clements, David; Cohen, Martin; Doi, Yasuo; Figueredo, Elysandra; Fujiwara, Mikio; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Hibi, Yasunori; Hirao, Takanori; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawai, Toshihide; Kawamura, Akiko; Kester, Do; Kii, Tsuneo; Kobayashi, Hisato; Kwon, Suk Minn; Lee, Hyung Mok; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Shuji; Müller, Thomas G; Murakami, Noriko; Nagata, Hirohisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Narita, Masanao; Noda, Manabu; Oh, Sang Hoon; Okada, Yoko; Okuda, Haruyuki; Oliver, Sebastian; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Pak, Soojong; Park, Yong-Sun; Pearson, Chris P; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Saito, Toshinobu; Salama, Alberto; Sato, Shinji; Savage, Richard S; Serjeant, Stephen; Shibai, Hiroshi; Shirahata, Mai; Sohn, Jungjoo; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Hidenori; Thomson, Matthew; Usui, Fumihiko; Verdugo, Eva; Watabe, Toyoki; White, Glenn J; Wang, Lingyu; Yamamura, Issei; Yamamuchi, Chisato; Yasuda, Akiko

    2007-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) is one of two focal plane instruments on the AKARI satellite. FIS has four photometric bands at 65, 90, 140, and 160 um, and uses two kinds of array detectors. The FIS arrays and optics are designed to sweep the sky with high spatial resolution and redundancy. The actual scan width is more than eight arcmin, and the pixel pitch is matches the diffraction limit of the telescope. Derived point spread functions (PSFs) from observations of asteroids are similar to the optical model. Significant excesses, however, are clearly seen around tails of the PSFs, whose contributions are about 30% of the total power. All FIS functions are operating well in orbit, and its performance meets the laboratory characterizations, except for the two longer wavelength bands, which are not performing as well as characterized. Furthermore, the FIS has a spectroscopic capability using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Because the FTS takes advantage of the optics and detectors of the photometer, i...

  5. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  6. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Lorenzo; O'Brien, Paul T.; Götz, Diego

    2016-07-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) is a mission concept under development by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting gamma-ray bursts for investigating the early Universe. The main scientific objectives of THESEUS include: investigating the star formation rate and metallicity evolution of the ISM and IGM up to redshift 9-10, detecting the first generation (pop III) of stars, studying the sources and physics of re-ionization, detecting the faint end of galaxies luminosity function. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRB detection and arcmin localization over a broad FOV (more than 1sr) and an energy band extending from several MeVs down to 0.3 keV with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as on-board prompt (few minutes) follow-up with a 0.6m class IR telescope with both imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Such instrumentation will also allow THESEUS to unveil and study the population of soft and sub-energetic GRBs, and, more in general, to perform monitoring and survey of the X-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity.

  7. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe ˜ 70 % of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at ˜ 10 Hz to suppress the 1/ f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  8. Detector architecture of the cosmology large angular scale surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostem, K.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Costen, N.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K. L.; Eimer, J. R.; Lourie, N.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Marriage, T. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Towner, D. W.; Voellmer, G.; Wollack, E. J.; Zeng, L.

    2012-09-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) provides a powerful tool for testing modern cosmology. In particular, if inflation has occurred, the associated gravitational waves would have imprinted a specific polarized pattern on the CMB. Measurement of this faint polarized signature requires large arrays of polarization-sensitive, background- limited detectors, and an unprecedented control over systematic effects associated with instrument design. To this end, the ground-based Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) employs large-format, feedhorn- coupled, background-limited Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays operating at 40, 90, and 150 GHz bands. The detector architecture has several enabling technologies. An on-chip symmetric planar orthomode transducer (OMT) is employed that allows for highly symmetric beams and low cross-polarization over a wide bandwidth. Furthermore, the quarter-wave backshort of the OMT is integrated using an innovative indium bump bonding process at the chip level that ensures minimum loss, maximum repeatability and performance uniformity across an array. Care has been taken to reduce stray light and on-chip leakage. In this paper, we report on the architecture and performance of the first prototype detectors for the 40 GHz focal plane.

  9. From Mars to Media: The Phoenix Mars Mission and the Challenges of Real-Time, Multimedia Science Communication and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Bitter, C.

    2008-12-01

    Although the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Odyssey Missions set the standard for science communication and public education about Mars, the Phoenix Mission was presented with robust new communication challenges and opportunities. The new frontier includes Web 2.0, international forums, internal and external blogs, social networking sites, as well as the traditional media and education outlets for communicating science and information. We will explore the highlights and difficulties of managing the 'message from Mars' in our current multimedia saturated world while balancing authentic science discoveries, public expectations, and communication demands. Our goal is to create a more science savvy public and a more communication oriented science community for the future. The key issues are helping the public and our scientists distinguish between information and knowledge and managing the content that connects the two.

  10. Screening for mutations in kidney-related genes using SURVEYOR nuclease for cleavage at heteroduplex mismatches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskarides, Konstantinos; Deltas, Constantinos

    2009-07-01

    SURVEYOR is a new mismatch-specific plant DNA endonuclease that is very efficient for mutation scanning in heteroduplex DNA. It is much faster, cheaper, more sensitive, and easier to perform than other "traditional" mutation detection methods such as single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, heteroduplex analysis, and phage resolvases. This is the first comprehensive report on the use of SURVEYOR for screening genes implicated in a spectrum of inherited renal diseases. Of the 48.2 kb screened, 44 variations were identified, accounting for one variation per 1.1 kb. The re-sequencing of multiple samples did not reveal any variation that had not been identified by SURVEYOR, attesting to its high fidelity. Additionally, we tested this enzyme against 15 known variants, 14 of which it identified, thus showing a sensitivity of 93%. We showed that the genetic heterogeneity of renal diseases can be easily overcome using this enzyme with a high degree of confidence and no bias for any specific variations. We also showed for the first time that SURVEYOR does not demonstrate any preference regarding mismatch cleavage at specific positions. Disadvantages of using SURVEYOR include enhanced exonucleolytic activity for some polymerase chain reaction products and less than 100% sensitivity. We report that SURVEYOR can be used as a mutation detection method with a high degree of confidence, offering an excellent alternative for low-budget laboratories and for the rapid manipulation of multiple genes.

  11. Y2K+1: Technology, Community-College Students, the Millennium, and Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Considers how screening Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey" in a sophomore film class shows modern community-college students that millennial anxiety existed well before late 1999, the time of "Y2K" fears. Presents an assignment that examines "2001: A Space Odyssey" in the context of its time and in 2001. (SG)

  12. Are you ready for Mars? - Main media events surrounding the arrival of ESA's Mars Express at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz launcher operated by Starsem, the European probe -built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet’s structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander, named after the ship on which Charles Darwin explored uncharted areas of the Earth in 1830, will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On Christmas Eve the Mars Express orbiter will be steered on a course taking it into an elliptical orbit, where it will safely circle the planet for a minimum of almost 2 Earth years. The Beagle 2 lander - which will have been released from the mother craft a few days earlier (on 19 December) - instead will stay on a collision course with the planet. It too should also be safe, being designed for atmospheric entry and geared for a final soft landing due to a sophisticated system of parachutes and airbags. On arrival, the Mars Express mission control team will report on the outcome of the spacecraft's delicate orbital insertion manoeuvre. It will take some time for Mars Express to manouvre into position to pick communications from Beagle 2. Hence, initially, other means will be used to check that Beagle 2 has landed: first signals from the Beagle 2 landing are expected to be available throughout Christmas Day, either through pick-up and relay of Beagle 2 radio signals by NASA’s Mars Odyssey, or by direct pick-up by the Jodrell Bank radio telescope in the UK. Mars Express will then pass over Beagle 2 in early January 2004, relaying data and images back to Earth. The first images from the cameras of Beagle 2 and Mars Express are expected to be available between the end of the year and the beginning of January 2004. The key dates

  13. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  14. Connecting Robots and Humans in Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Louis

    2000-07-01

    science and technology investigations, but the 2001 Mars Surveyor lander; and an international cooperative effort for robotic Mars sample return were also lost.

  15. Geologic map of Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynek, Brian M.; Di Achille, Gaetano

    2017-01-31

    Introduction and BackgroundThe Meridiani Planum region of Mars—originally named due to its proximity to the Martian prime meridian—contains a variety of geologic units, including those that are crater‑related, that span the Early Noachian to Late Amazonian Epochs. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data indicate this area contains extensive layered deposits, some of which are rich in the mineral hematite. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Mars Exploration Rover (MER)  Opportunity  landed in Meridiani Planum in early 2004 and, at the time of this writing, is still conducting operations. A variety of water-altered bedrock outcrops have been studied and contain indications of prolonged surface and near-surface fluid/rock interactions. The purpose of this study is to use the more recent orbiter data to place the rover’s findings in a broader context by assessing the geologic and hydrologic histories of the region.

  16. The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) on the Mars Climate Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.; Calvin, W.; Clancy, R. T.; Haberle, R. M.; James, P. B.; Lee, S. W.; Thomas, P. C.; Caplinger, M. A.

    2001-08-01

    The Mars Color Imager, or MARCI, experiment on the Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) consists of two cameras with unique optics and identical focal plane assemblies (FPAs), Data Acquisition System (DAS) electronics, and power supplies. Each camera is characterized by small physical size and mass (~6 × 6 × 12 cm, including baffle; case downlink data rate. Under better downlink conditions the WA will provide kilometer-scale global maps of atmospheric phenomena such as clouds, hazes, dust storms, and the polar hood. Limb observations will provide additional detail on atmospheric structure at 13 scale-height resolution. The Medium Angle (MA) camera is designed to study selected areas of Mars at regional scale. From 400 km altitude its 6° FOV, which covers ~40 km at 40 m/pixel, will permit all locations on the planet except the poles to be accessible for image acquisitions every two mapping cycles (roughly 52 sols). Eight spectral channels between 425 and 1000 nm provide the ability to discriminate both atmospheric and surface features on the basis of composition. The primary science objectives of MARCI are to (1) observe Martian atmospheric processes at synoptic scales and mesoscales, (2) study details of the interaction of the atmosphere with the surface at a variety of scales in both space and time, and (3) examine surface features characteristic of the evolution of the Martian climate over time. MARCI will directly address two of the three high-level goals of the Mars Surveyor Program: Climate and Resources. Life, the third goal, will be addressed indirectly through the environmental factors associated with the other two goals.

  17. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Wet Chemistry Experiment on the Mars 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannan, S. M.; Meloy, T. P.; Hecht, H.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M.; Frant, M.; Kounaves, S. P.; Manatt, K. S.; Pike, W. T.; Schubert, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) is an instrument suite that will fly on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander Spacecraft. MECA is sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program and will evaluate potential hazards that the dust and soil of Mars might present to astronauts and their equipment on a future human mission to Mars. Four elements constitute the integrated MECA payload: a microscopy station, patch plates, an electrometer, and the wet chemistry experiment (WCE). The WCE is the first application of electrochemical sensors to study soil chemistry on another planetary body, in addition to being the first measurement of soil/water solution properties on Mars. The chemical composition and properties of the watersoluble materials present in the Martian soil are of considerable interest to the planetary science community because characteristic salts are formed by the water-based weathering of rocks, the action of volcanic gases, and biological activity. Thus the characterization of water-soluble soil materials on Mars can provide information on the geochemical history of the planet surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Wet Chemistry Experiment on the Mars 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannan, S. M.; Meloy, T. P.; Hecht, H.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M.; Frant, M.; Kounaves, S. P.; Manatt, K. S.; Pike, W. T.; Schubert, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) is an instrument suite that will fly on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander Spacecraft. MECA is sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program and will evaluate potential hazards that the dust and soil of Mars might present to astronauts and their equipment on a future human mission to Mars. Four elements constitute the integrated MECA payload: a microscopy station, patch plates, an electrometer, and the wet chemistry experiment (WCE). The WCE is the first application of electrochemical sensors to study soil chemistry on another planetary body, in addition to being the first measurement of soil/water solution properties on Mars. The chemical composition and properties of the watersoluble materials present in the Martian soil are of considerable interest to the planetary science community because characteristic salts are formed by the water-based weathering of rocks, the action of volcanic gases, and biological activity. Thus the characterization of water-soluble soil materials on Mars can provide information on the geochemical history of the planet surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Mars bevares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hendricks, Elbert

    2009-01-01

    2009 er femåret for Mission Mars. I den anledning opridser de to kronikører, far og søn, hvorfor man bør lade planer om en bemandet tur til Mars forblive i skrivebordsskuffen......2009 er femåret for Mission Mars. I den anledning opridser de to kronikører, far og søn, hvorfor man bør lade planer om en bemandet tur til Mars forblive i skrivebordsskuffen...

  20. CMEs at Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, T. V.; Vennerstrom, S.; Taktakishvili, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; Brain, D. A.; Delory, G. T.; Mitchell, D.

    2010-12-01

    We perform a survey of the longitudinal extent and general nature of fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) identifiable at both Mars and Earth and use the ENLIL Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic model to replicate data for the CMEs at both planets. We have chosen 18 fast CMEs with initial velocities, according to the SOHO/LASCO catalogue, between 1200 and 2700 km/s in the period 2001-2003. CME arrival is identified at Earth by sharp increases in velocity, density and magnetic field strength in data compiled from the ACE,WIND and Geotail spacecraft, while CME arrival at Mars is identified by a large increase in magnetic field strength and by increases in the background countrate of the Electron Reflectometer (ER) instrument on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). The ER backgrounds are used to determine the presence of Solar Energetic Particles related to fast CMEs. We run ENLIL using two different sets of input parameters, both estimated from SOHO/LASCO images, but one set is estimated manually and one set is estimated using an automated method. Specific parameters of interest are arrival time, longitudinal span, and propagation direction of the CMEs. At Earth the velocity, density and magnetic field strength are compared to Omni data, while at Mars the solar wind dynamic pressure is compared to an upstream pressure proxy estimated from magnetic field data from MGS. A qualitative estimate of the usefulness of ENLIL in CME modeling will be given, as well as a comparison of the effectiveness of the two methods used to find input parameters for the model.

  1. Relay Support for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Charles D. Jr,; Bell, David J.; Gladden, Roy E.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Johnston, M. Daniel; Maxwell, Jennifer L.; Mendoza, Ricardo; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Potts, Christopher L.; Schratz, Brian C.; Shihabi, Mazen M.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Varghese, Phillip; Sanders, Stephen S.; Denis, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission landed the Curiosity Rover on the surface of Mars on August 6, 2012, beginning a one-Martian-year primary science mission. An international network of Mars relay orbiters, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and ESA's Mars Express Orbiter (MEX), were positioned to provide critical event coverage of MSL's Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). The EDL communication plan took advantage of unique and complementary capabilities of each orbiter to provide robust information capture during this critical event while also providing low-latency information during the landing. Once on the surface, ODY and MRO have provided effectively all of Curiosity's data return from the Martian surface. The link from Curiosity to MRO incorporates a number of new features enabled by the Electra and Electra-Lite software-defined radios on MRO and Curiosity, respectively. Specifically, the Curiosity-MRO link has for the first time on Mars relay links utilized frequency-agile operations, data rates up to 2.048 Mb/s, suppressed carrier modulation, and a new Adaptive Data Rate algorithm in which the return link data rate is optimally varied throughout the relay pass based on the actual observed link channel characteristics. In addition to the baseline surface relay support by ODY and MRO, the MEX relay service has been verified in several successful surface relay passes, and MEX now stands ready to provide backup relay support should NASA's orbiters become unavailable for some period of time.

  2. Wind-Related Topography in Phoenix's Region of Mars (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This movie shifts from a global zoom indicating the Phoenix landing area on Mars to a topographical map indicating relative elevations in the landing region. The elevations could affect wind patterns at the site. In particular, Phoenix is in a broad, shallow valley. The edge of the valley, about 150 meters (500 feet) above the floor, may provide enough of a slope to the east of Phoenix to explain winds coming from the east during nights at the site. Cooler, denser air could be sinking down the slope and toward the lander. Atmospheric scientists on the Phoenix team are analyzing wind patterns to distiguish effects of nearby topography from larger-scale movement of the atmosphere in the polar region. The elevation information for this topographical mapping comes from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. The blue-coded area is the valley floor. Orange and yellow indicate relatively higher elevations. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. JPL managed the Mars Global Surveyor mission for the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Homer's Odyssey and Humanistic Education: Towards a Theory of the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Clay A., Jr.

    Homer's Odyssey can serve as a good source of working definitions of humanism, humanist, humanities, and their relation to humanistic education, a concept which has been adulterated by some, misplaced by others, and diluted by many. Humanism is defined as an attitude that man is independent of any devine realm and therefore responsible for himself…

  4. Odyssey: A Public GPU-Based Code for General-Relativistic Radiative Transfer in Kerr Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-01-01

    General-relativistic radiative transfer (GRRT) calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of the supermassive black holes at the centres of Sgr A^{*} and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a Graphics Processing Unit(GPU)-based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 nanosecond per photon, per Runge-Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey_Edu, for showing in real time h...

  5. Odyssey: A Public GPU-based Code for General Relativistic Radiative Transfer in Kerr Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Yun, Kiyun; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-04-01

    General relativistic radiative transfer calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra, and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter very long baseline interferometry observations of the supermassive black holes at the centers of Sgr A* and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a graphics processing unit (GPU) based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 ns per photon, per Runge-Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey_Edu, for showing in real time how null geodesics around a Kerr black hole vary as a function of black hole spin and angle of incidence onto the black hole.

  6. YA Books in the Classroom: From Odyssey to Dickens to Salinger to Zindel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidy, Marian

    1988-01-01

    Suggests teaching Paul Zindel's HARRY AND HORTENSE AT HORMONE HIGH in conjunction with Charles Dickens' GREAT EXPECTATIONS to ninth graders and Homer's ODYSSEY, and teaching HARRY AND HORTENSE in conjunction with CATCHER IN THE RYE to seniors. Provides discussion questions for HARRY AND HORTENSE. (MM)

  7. ODYSSEY: A PUBLIC GPU-BASED CODE FOR GENERAL RELATIVISTIC RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN KERR SPACETIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Hung-Yi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No. 1, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yun, Kiyun; Yoon, Suk-Jin [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Younsi, Ziri [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Max-von-Laue-Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    General relativistic radiative transfer calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra, and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter very long baseline interferometry observations of the supermassive black holes at the centers of Sgr A* and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a graphics processing unit (GPU) based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 ns per photon, per Runge–Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey-Edu, for showing in real time how null geodesics around a Kerr black hole vary as a function of black hole spin and angle of incidence onto the black hole.

  8. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  9. Perancangan Aplikasi Komputer Berbasis Android untuk Survei Kondisi Kapal oleh Owner Surveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stevan Haloho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Survei kondisi kapal adalah survei yang dilakukan oleh seorang Owner Surveyor untuk melaporkan kondisi aktual kapal beserta bagian-bagiannya. Proses survei yang dilakukan saat ini masih dilakukan secara manual dimana seorang Owner Surveyor melakukan survei berdasarkan daftar survei yang diterbitkan oleh perusahaan pemilik kapal. Hasil survei kondisi akan disajikan dalam bentuk laporan yang nantinya akan diserahkan kepada pemilik kapal sebagai bahan pertimbangan untuk dilakukannya “repair” dan “maintenance”. Proses survei yang dilakukan saat ini tentu saja kurang efektif untuk dilakukan, mengingat tidak semua Owner Surveyor memiliki pengetahuan dan pengalaman yang sama serta proses pembuatan laporan hasil survei yang sering memakan waktu lama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang sebuah aplikasi komputer berbasis android yang dapat membantu seorang Owner Surveyor dalam melakukan proses survei kondisi. Dalam aplikasi ini memuat fasilitas daftar survei, review survei, updating survei, dan menu untuk menambahkan Owner Surveyor. Aplikasi ini telah diujicobakan kepada beberapa responden yang memiliki pengalaman survei kapal dan pihak-pihak yang memiliki latar belakang pendidikan di bidang perkapalan. Pengujian ini dilakukan dalam bentuk kuisioner yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui penilaian para responden terhadap aplikasi ini. Dari hasil kuisioner dapat disimpulkan bahwa aplikasi ini sangat diperlukan dalam mendukung kegiatan survei kondisi kapal.

  10. Curiosity Overview of a Two-Year Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael A.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2014-11-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, has been exploring the floor of Gale Crater for well over a Mars year and has now entered its extended mission. Major milestones have been met and exceeded, especially having addressed its prime scientific objective through exploring Yellowknife Bay, an ancient fluvial environment in Gale Crater, and determining that it could have supported microbial life. The mission has accomplished many first-time planetary activities, such as measurements new to planetary science (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction), measurements of the high-energy radiation flux at the surface, radiogenic and cosmogenic isotope age dating of rocks, and detection of martian organic carbon. In addition, many measurements have provided a significant refinement to those of previous missions such as atmospheric isotopic measurements relevant to atmospheric loss, methane content of the atmosphere, and the daily and seasonal change in atmospheric temperature and pressure. Curiosity has left its landing ellipse and is progressing toward the base of Mt. Sharp. The rover has had the opportunity to make additional measurements of fluvial sediments, including extensive remote and contact measurements, and analysis of a drilled samples. A summary of two Earth years of major findings of Curiosity, their implications, and more recent results (potentially including comet Siding Spring) will be presented at the meeting.

  11. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor is a mission which will be proposed for the ESA M5 call. THESEUS will address multiple components in the Early Universe ESA Cosmic Vision theme:4.1 Early Universe,4.2 The Universe taking shape, and4.3 The evolving violent Universe.THESEUS aims at vastly increasing the discovery space of the high energy transient phenomena over the entire cosmic history. This is achieved via a unique payload providing an unprecedented combination of: (i) wide and deep sky monitoring in a broad energy band(0.3 keV-20 MeV; (ii) focusing capabilities in the soft X-ray band granting large grasp and high angular resolution; and (iii) on board near-IR capabilities for immediate transient identification and first redshift estimate.The THESEUS payload consists of: (i) the Soft X--ray Imager (SXI), a set of Lobster Eye (0.3--6 keV) telescopes with CCD detectors covering a total FOV of 1 sr; (ii) the X--Gamma-rays spectrometer (XGS), a non-imaging spectrometer (XGS) based on SDD+CsI, covering the same FOV than the Lobster telescope extending the THESEUS energy band up to 20 MeV; and (iii) a 70cm class InfraRed Telescope (IRT) observing up to 2 microns with imaging and moderate spectral capabilities.The main scientific goals of THESEUS are to:(a) Explore the Early Universe (cosmic dawn and reionization era) by unveiling the Gamma--Ray Burst (GRBs) population in the first billion years}, determining when did the first stars form, and investigating the re-ionization epoch, the interstellar medium (ISM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts.(b) Perform an unprecedented deep survey of the soft X-ray transient Universe in order to fill the present gap in the discovery space of new classes of transient; provide a fundamental step forward in the comprehension of the physics of various classes of Galactic and extra--Galactic transients, and provide real time trigger and accurate locations of transients for follow-up with next

  12. The global distribution of near-surface hydrogen on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, W. C. (William C.); Prettyman, T. H. (Thomas H.); Maurice, S. (Sylvestre); Bish, D. L. (David L.); Vaniman, D. T. (David T.); Squyres, Steven W.; Boynton, W. V. (William V.); Elphic, R. C. (Richard C.); Funsten, H. O. (Herbert O.); Lawrence, David J. (David Jeffery),; Tokar, R. L. (Robert L.); Moore, K. R. (Kurt R.)

    2004-01-01

    Prime objectives of the neutron spectrometer (NS) component of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer suite of instruments aboard Mars Odyssey are to identify the major reservoirs of hydrogen on Mars, determine their relative contributions to its total water inventory, and estimate the portion of the current inventory that is near the surface. Although more information is required than is currently available, epithermal neutron currents alone can provide a significant lower bound of hydrogen abundances on Mars. Observations from Viking 1, Viking 2, and Mars Pathfinder positively identified two of these reservoirs. By far the largest near-surface reservoir is comprised of the two residual polar caps, which together are sufficient to cover Mars with a global ocean about 30 m deep. The second is contained in the atmosphere, which if deposited on the surface, would cover Mars with a thin film of water about 10{sup -5} m deep. Although negligible in comparison, the fact that an atmospheric reservoir exists shows that it can provide a conduit that couples transient reservoirs of near-surface water ice. It has long been speculated that Mars has had, and may still retain, a far larger reservoir of water. Topographic features such as rampart craters, collapsed chaotic terrain, massive outflow channels, and valley networks provide strong support for the past existence of large bodies of surface water. Measurements of the areal size and depth of all paleo-water and volcanic features led to an estimate of a total water inventory equivalent to a global ocean that was between 100 and 500 m thick. Measurements of the D/H ratio have allowed predictions that between 5 and 50 m of this inventory was lost to space. Altogether, these estimates lead to between 20 and 465 m of water from the juvenile Martian inventory that is not accounted for. First analyses of Mars Odyssey neutron and gamma-ray data showed that reservoirs of hydrogen do indeed exist poleward of about {+-}50{sup o} latitude. Mars

  13. Further Analysis on the Mystery of the Surveyor III Dust Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip; Hintze, Paul; Trigwell, Steven; Lane, John

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo 12 lunar module (LM) landing near the Surveyor 1lI spacecraft at the end of 1969 has remained the primary experimental verification of the predicted physics of plume ejecta effects from a rocket engine interacting with the surface of the moon. This was made possible by the return of the Surveyor 1lI camera housing by the Apollo 12 astronauts, allowing detailed analysis of the composition of dust deposited by the Apollo 12 LM plume. It was soon realized after the initial analysis of the camera housing that the LM plume tended to remove more dust than it had deposited. In the present study, coupons from the camera housing were reexamined by a KSC research team using SEM/EDS and XPS analysis. In addition, plume effects recorded in landing videos from each Apollo mission have been studied for possible clues. Several likely scenarios are proposed to explain the Surveyor III dust observations. These include electrostatic attraction of the dust to the surface of the Surveyor as a result of electrostatic charging of the jet gas exiting the engine nozzle during descent; dust blown by the Apollo 12 LM fly-by while on its descent trajectory; dust ejected from the lunar surface due to gas forced into the soil by the Surveyor 1lI rocket nozzle, based on Darcy's law; and mechanical movement of dust during the Surveyor landing. Even though an absolute answer is not possible based on available data and theory, various computational models are employed to estimate the feasibility of each of these proposed mechanisms. Scenarios are then discussed which combine multiple mechanisms to produce results consistent with observations.

  14. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  15. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  16. Implementing Strategic Planning Capabilities Within the Mars Relay Operations Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hy, Franklin; Gladden, Roy; Allard, Dan; Wallick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Since the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), Spirit and Opportunity, began their travels across the Martian surface in January of 2004, orbiting spacecraft such as the Mars 2001 Odyssey orbiter have relayed the majority of their collected scientific and operational data to and from Earth. From the beginning of those missions, it was evident that using orbiters to relay data to and from the surface of Mars was a vastly more efficient communications strategy in terms of power consumption and bandwidth compared to direct-to-Earth means. However, the coordination between the various spacecraft, which are largely managed independently and on differing commanding timelines, has always proven to be a challenge. Until recently, the ground operators of all these spacecraft have coordinated the movement of data through this network using a collection of ad hoc human interfaces and various, independent software tools. The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) has been developed to manage the evolving needs of the Mars relay network, and specifically to standardize and integrate the relay planning and coordination data into a centralized infrastructure. This paper explores the journey of developing the MaROS system, from inception to delivery and acceptance by the Mars mission users.

  17. Propulsive Maneuver Design for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raofi, Behzad; Bhat, Ramachandra S.; Helfrich, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander (PHX) successfully landed in the northern planes of Mars in order to continue and complement NASA's "follow the water" theme as its predecessor Mars missions, such as Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Exploration Rovers, have done in recent years. Instruments on the lander, through a robotic arm able to deliver soil samples to the deck, will perform in-situ and remote-sensing investigations to characterize the chemistry of materials at the local surface, subsurface, and atmosphere. Lander instruments will also identify the potential history of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics within any accessible water ice. Precise trajectory control and targeting were necessary in order to achieve the accurate atmospheric entry conditions required for arriving at the desired landing site. The challenge for the trajectory control maneuver design was to meet or exceed these requirements in the presence of spacecraft limitations as well as other mission constraints. This paper describes the strategies used, including the specialized targeting specifically developed for PHX, in order to design and successfully execute the propulsive maneuvers that delivered the spacecraft to its targeted landing site while satisfying the planetary protection requirements in the presence of flight system constraints.

  18. Implementing Strategic Planning Capabilities Within the Mars Relay Operations Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hy, Franklin; Gladden, Roy; Allard, Dan; Wallick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Since the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), Spirit and Opportunity, began their travels across the Martian surface in January of 2004, orbiting spacecraft such as the Mars 2001 Odyssey orbiter have relayed the majority of their collected scientific and operational data to and from Earth. From the beginning of those missions, it was evident that using orbiters to relay data to and from the surface of Mars was a vastly more efficient communications strategy in terms of power consumption and bandwidth compared to direct-to-Earth means. However, the coordination between the various spacecraft, which are largely managed independently and on differing commanding timelines, has always proven to be a challenge. Until recently, the ground operators of all these spacecraft have coordinated the movement of data through this network using a collection of ad hoc human interfaces and various, independent software tools. The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) has been developed to manage the evolving needs of the Mars relay network, and specifically to standardize and integrate the relay planning and coordination data into a centralized infrastructure. This paper explores the journey of developing the MaROS system, from inception to delivery and acceptance by the Mars mission users.

  19. Cancer Risk Map for the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss calculations of the median and 95th percentile cancer risks on the surface of Mars for different solar conditions. The NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model is used to estimate gender and age specific cancer incidence and mortality risks for astronauts exploring Mars. Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code, and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. In the transport of particles through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor, and the directional cosine distribution is implemented to describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance along the slant path at each elevation on Mars. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Astronaut cancer risks are mapped on the global topography of Mars, which was measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Variation of cancer risk on the surface of Mars is due to a 16-km elevation range, and the large difference is obtained between the Tharsis Montes (Ascraeus, Pavonis, and Arsia) and the Hellas impact basin. Cancer incidence risks are found to be about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for all astronauts and breast cancer risk for female astronauts. The number of safe days on Mars to be below radiation limits at the 95th percent confidence level is reported for several Mission design scenarios.

  20. Clay Minerals in Mawrth Vallis Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This map showing the location of some clay minerals in of a portion of the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars covers an area about 10 kilometers (6.2 mile) wide. The map is draped over a topographical model that exaggerates the vertical dimension tenfold. The mineral mapping information comes from an image taken on Sept. 21, 2007, by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). Iron-magnesium phyllosilicate is shown in red. Aluminum phyllosyllicate is shown in blue. Hydrated silica and a ferrous iron phase are shown in yellow/green. The topographical information comes from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Mawrth Vallis is an outflow channel centered near 24.7 degrees north latitude, 339.5 degrees east longitude, in northern highlands of Mars. CRISM is one of six science instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  1. Design, calibration and operation of Mars lander cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Brent Jon

    2002-09-01

    In the 45 years since the dawn of the space age, there have only been two Mars lander camera designs to successfully operate on the Martian surface. Therefore information on Mars imager design and operation issues is limited. In addition, good examples of Mars lander imager calibration work are almost non-existent. This work presents instrument calibration results for a Mars lander camera originally designed to fly as an instrument onboard the 2001 Mars Surveyor lander as a robotic arm camera (RAC). Test procedures and results are described as well as techniques for improving the accuracy of the calibration data. In addition we describe camera algorithms and operations research results for optimizing imager operations on the Martian surface. Finally, the lessons learned from the 2001 RAC are applied to the preliminary design of a new Mars camera for the Artemis Mars Scout mission. The design utilizes a Bayer color mosaic filter, white light LED's and includes an optical system operating at f/13 with a maximum resolution of 0.11 mrad/pixel. It is capable of imaging in several modes including: stereo, microscopic and panoramic at a mass of 0.3 kg. It will provide planetary geologists with an unprecedented view of the Martian surface.

  2. The Reflectivity of Mars at 1064 nm: Derivation from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Data and Application to Climatology and Meteorology

    CERN Document Server

    Heavens, Nicholas G

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) made $\\gg 10^{8}$ measurements of the reflectivity of Mars at 1064 nm ($R_{1064}$) by both active sounding and passive radiometry. Past studies of $R_{1064}$ neglected the effects of atmospheric opacity and viewing geometry on both active and passive measurements and also identified a potential calibration issue with passive radiometry. Therefore, as yet, there exists no acceptable reference $R_{1064}$ to derive a column opacity product from surface returns during active sounding for the purposes of atmospheric studies. Here, such a reference $R_{1064}$ is derived by seeking $R^{M,N}_{1064}$: a Minnaert-corrected normal albedo under clear conditions and assuming minimal phase angle dependence. Over darker surfaces, $R^{M,N}_{1064}$ and the absolute level of atmospheric opacity were estimated from active sounding. Over all surfaces, the opacity derived from active sounding were used to filter out the cloudiest passive radiometry measur...

  3. Mars Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  4. Exploring Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  5. The magnetic field in the pile-up region at Mars, and its variation with the solar wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Olsen, Nils; Purucker, M.

    2003-01-01

    [1] The magnetic measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor satellite are used to study the magnetic field on the Martian dayside, and its variation with the solar wind. Because of the lack of solar wind measurements near Mars, solar wind measurements near Earth during a period centered on a Mars...... the solar wind dynamic pressure and the magnetic pressure in the pile-up region, and also a strong asymmetry with the Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By-component, probably related to solar wind pick-up of planetary ions....

  6. The role of quantity surveyors in public–private partnerships in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffie Cruywagen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantity surveyors play an important role in providing cost and contractual advice in the built environment. This article seeks to investigate the current extent of their involvement in public–private partnerships (PPPs in South Africa. Aim: The study intends to establish factors that influence quantity surveyors’ participation in PPPs. Methodology: A mixed-methods research approach was followed by firstly conducting a survey amongst South African quantity surveyors in order to determine their level of participation in PPPs. For triangulation purposes, a case study was also conducted. Results: The results of the research show that, although quantity surveyors have the corresponding skills and competencies required in a PPP project, their current involvement in PPPs in South Africa is limited and that there is a greater role they can play in future. Conclusion: Quantity surveyors are uniquely positioned to play a bigger role in the implementation of PPPs in South Africa.

  7. 120 Years of Education for Mine Surveyors in South Africa A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grobler, Hennie

    identified as the new centre of gravity of mining activities, where in 1903, it was ... 1The NQF level is stated as an approximate value as these qualifications have ..... in the survey department, …after obtaining his mine surveyors certificate, ...

  8. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission study: paper I, the genesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; Ennico, K.; Melnick, G. J.; Milam, S.; Narayanan, D.; Pontoppidan, K.; Pope, A.; Roellig, T.; Sandstrom, K.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vieira, J.; Wright, E.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Alato, S.; Carey, S.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Menten, K.; Scott, D.; Sakon, I.; Vavrek, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some prelimin

  9. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission study: paper I, the genesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; Ennico, K.; Melnick, G. J.; Milam, S.; Narayanan, D.; Pontoppidan, K.; Pope, A.; Roellig, T.; Sandstrom, K.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vieira, J.; Wright, E.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Alato, S.; Carey, S.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Menten, K.; Scott, D.; Sakon, I.; Vavrek, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some

  10. Identifying and Describing Tutor Archetypes: The Pragmatist, the Architect, and the Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Jeff A.; Quinn, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors identify and anecdotally describe three tutor archetypes: the pragmatist, the architect, and the surveyor. These descriptions, based on observations of remedial mathematics tutors at a land-grant university, shed light on a variety of philosophical beliefs regarding and pedagogical approaches to tutoring. An analysis…

  11. The Biochemical and Genetic Odyssey to the Function of a Nicastrin-Like Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Haffner, Christof; Haass, Christian

    2004-01-01

    gamma-Secretase is a high-molecular-weight protein complex required for the proteolytic processing of various transmembrane proteins including the Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid precursor protein and the signaling receptor Notch. One of the gamma-secretase complex components is the type I transmembrane protein nicastrin. Here we review the odyssey to a cyclopic fish, which at the end allowed the functional analysis of nicalin, a novel member of the nicastrin protein family. This 60-kD...

  12. A homozygous mutation in PEX16 identified by whole-exome sequencing ending a diagnostic odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Bacino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with a unique neurological phenotype with a progressive neurodegenerative. An 18-year diagnostic odyssey for the patient ended when exome sequencing identified a homozygous PEX16 mutation suggesting an atypical peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD. Interestingly, the patient's peroxisomal biochemical abnormalities were subtle, such that plasma very-long-chain fatty acids initially failed to provide a diagnosis. This case suggests that next-generation sequencing may be diagnostic in some atypical peroxisomal biogenesis disorders.

  13. NASA's New Mars Exploration Program: The Trajectory of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, James B.; Figueroa, Orlando; Naderi, Firouz M.

    2001-12-01

    NASA's newly restructured Mars Exploration Program (MEP) is finally on the way to Mars with the successful April 7 launch of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. In addition, the announcement by the Bush Administration that the exploration of Mars will be a priority within NASA's Office of Space Science further cements the first decade of the new millennium as one of the major thrusts to understand the "new" Mars. Over the course of the past year and a half, an integrated team of managers, scientists, and engineers has crafted a revamped MEP to respond to the scientific as well as management and resource challenges associated with deep space exploration of the Red Planet. This article describes the new program from the perspective of its guiding philosophies, major events, and scientific strategy. It is intended to serve as a roadmap to the next 10-15 years of Mars exploration from the NASA viewpoint. [For further details, see the Mars Exploration Program web site (URL): http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov]. The new MEP will certainly evolve in response to discoveries, to successes, and potentially to setbacks as well. However, the design of the restructured strategy is attentive to risks, and a major attempt to instill resiliency in the program has been adopted. Mars beckons, and the next decade of exploration should provide the impetus for a follow-on decade in which multiple sample returns and other major program directions are executed. Ultimately the vision to consider the first human scientific expeditions to the Red Planet will be enabled. By the end of the first decade of this program, we may know where and how to look for the elusive clues associated with a possible martian biological record, if any was every preserved, even if only as "chemical fossils."

  14. GRS evidence and the possibility of paleooceans on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, J.M.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Fairen, A.G.; Ferris, J.C.; Finch, M.; Furfaro, R.; Hare, T.M.; Janes, D.M.; Kargel, J.S.; Karunatillake, S.; Keller, J.; Kerry, K.; Kim, K.J.; Komatsu, G.; Mahaney, W.C.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Marinangeli, L.; Ori, G.G.; Ruiz, J.; Wheelock, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (Mars Odyssey spacecraft) has revealed elemental distributions of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and iron (Fe) on Mars that require fractionation of K (and possibly Th and Fe) consistent with aqueous activity. This includes weathering, evolution of soils, and transport, sorting, and deposition, as well as with the location of first-order geomorphological demarcations identified as possible paleoocean boundaries. The element abundances occur in patterns consistent with weathering in situ and possible presence of relict or exhumed paleosols, deposition of weathered materials (salts and clastic minerals), and weathering/transport under neutral to acidic brines. The abundances are explained by hydrogeology consistent with the possibly overlapping alternatives of paleooceans and/or heterogeneous rock compositions from diverse provenances (e.g., differing igneous compositions). ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. "Is it going to hurt?": the impact of the diagnostic odyssey on children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Nikkola; Tsipis, Judith; Windmueller, Gail; Mandel, Leslie; Estrella, Elicia

    2015-04-01

    The pediatric diagnostic odyssey is a period of uncertainty and emotional turmoil for families, often characterized by multiple minor medical procedures (such as venipuncture) that children may find distressing. Interventions to reduce distress are rarely offered, despite evidence that this is crucial both for avoiding anticipatory anxiety before future procedures and for improving healthcare compliance in adulthood. We interviewed ten mothers of children with neuromuscular disorders, asking about their perceptions of their child's experiences with different medical procedures, the emotional impact of the diagnostic odyssey, implications of obtaining a diagnosis, and interactions with healthcare providers. We coded interviews in ATLAS.ti (version 7.0) based on a priori and emergent themes, and analyzed them based on the principles of interpretive description. We found that predicting and assessing children's reactions to procedures is challenging; parents reported non-invasive procedures such as x-rays were distressing for some children, and that providers did not detect subtle indicators of distress. Parents valued obtaining a diagnosis because it validated their concerns, enabled planning for the child's future healthcare needs, and allowed access to established support networks. This study suggests that healthcare providers can improve the experience of the diagnostic odyssey by validating family concerns and connecting them to support services that are available without a diagnosis.

  16. “UNHAPPILY EVER AFTER?” THE PROBLEM OF HELEN IN ODYSSEY 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Doyle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Book 4 of Homer’s Odyssey contains two μύθοι (stories which reveal two, different “Helens”: the first “Helen” is a self-portrait, Helen tells her guests a story about her encounter with Odysseus at Troy. The second “Helen” is revealed in a counter story told straight after hers by her husband Menelaus. This counter tale reveals how Helen nearly succeeded in betraying the Greek soldiers hidden in the Trojan horse. In Helen’s story, she saves Odysseus’ life and her silence and complicity result in Trojan losses. In Menelaus’ story she threatens Odysseus’ life as well as those others hidden inside the Horse almost bringing about the downfall of the Greeks and the victory of the Trojans and thus reversing the outcome of the Trojan War.

    The questions to be asked are these: what is the purpose of these two portrayals of Helen? Indeed what is Helen doing in the Odyssey at all, after all, “The Iliad was Helen’s poem; the Odyssey is Penelope’s”?1 Why are we given this glimpse into the unquiet life of the reunited husband and wife and what does it portend, if anything, for the homecoming of Odysseus and his reunion with Penelope? This article examines the House of Sparta episode, and in particular its “Helen” stories, in an attempt to answer the above questions.

  17. An onboard data analysis method to track the seasonal polar caps on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, K.L.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Ivanov, A.B.; Pounders, E.; Titus, T.N.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The Martian seasonal CO2 ice caps advance and retreat each year. They are currently studied using instruments such as the THermal EMission Imaging System (THEMIS), a visible and infra-red camera on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft [1]. However, each image must be downlinked to Earth prior to analysis. In contrast, we have developed the Bimodal Image Temperature (BIT) histogram analysis method for onboard detection of the cap edge, before transmission. In downlink-limited scenarios when the entire image cannot be transmitted, the location of the cap edge can still be identified and sent to Earth. In this paper, we evaluate our method on uncalibrated THEMIS data and find 1) agreement with manual cap edge identifications to within 28.2 km, and 2) high accuracy even with a smaller analysis window, yielding large reductions in memory requirements. This algorithm is currently being considered as a capability enhancement for the Odyssey second extended mission, beginning in fall 2006.

  18. Magnetic Strips Preserve Record of Ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This image is a map of Martian magnetic fields in the southern highlands near the Terra Cimmeria and Terra Sirenum regions, centered around 180 degrees longitude from the equator to the pole. It is where magnetic stripes possibly resulting from crustal movement are most prominent. The bands are oriented approximately east - west and are about 100 miles wide and 600 miles long, although the longest band stretches more than 1200 miles. The false blue and red colors represent invisible magnetic fields in the Martian crust that point in opposite directions. The magnetic fields appear to be organized in bands, with adjacent bands pointing in opposite directions, giving these stripes a striking similarity to patterns seen in the Earth's crust at the mid-oceanic ridges. NASA's Mars Global Surveyor has discovered surprising new evidence of past movement of the Martian crust, suggesting that ancient Mars was a more dynamic, Earth-like planet than it is today. Scientists using the spacecraft's magnetometer have found banded patterns of magnetic fields on the Martian surface. The adjacent magnetic bands point in opposite directions, giving these invisible stripes a striking similarity to patterns seen in the crust of Earth's sea floors. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (P50330,MRPS94769) Above: An artist's concept comparing the present day magnetic fields on Earth and Mars. Earth's magnetic field is generated by an active dynamo - a hot core of molten metal. The magnetic field surrounds Earth and is considered global (left). The various Martian magnetic fields (right) do not encompass the entire planet and are local. The Martian dynamo is extinct, and its magnetic fields are 'fossil' remnants of its ancient, global magnetic field. I On the Earth, the sea floor spreads apart slowly at mid-oceanic ridges as new crust flows up from Earth's hot interior. Meanwhile, the direction of Earth's magnetic field reverses occasionally, resulting in alternating stripes in

  19. Radio Wave Propagation Handbook for Communication on and Around Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Christian; Golshan, Nasser; Kliore, Arvydas

    2002-01-01

    This handbook examines the effects of the Martian environment on radio wave propagation on Mars and in the space near the planet. The environmental effects include these from the Martian atmosphere, ionosphere, global dust storms, aerosols, clouds, and geomorphologic features. Relevant Martian environmental parameters were extracted from the measurements of Mars missions during the past 30 years, especially from Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor. The results derived from measurements and analyses have been reviewed through an extensive literature search. The updated parameters have been theoretically analyzed to study their effects on radio propagation. This handbook also provides basic information about the entire telecommunications environment on and around Mars for propagation researchers, system engineers, and link analysts. Based on these original analyses, some important recommendations have been made, including the use of the Martian ionosphere as a reflector for Mars global or trans-horizon communication between future Martian colonies, reducing dust storm scattering effects, etc. These results have extended our wave propagation knowledge to a planet other than Earth; and the tables, models, and graphics included in this handbook will benefit telecommunication system engineers and scientific researchers.

  20. CHISL: the combined high-resolution and imaging spectrograph for the LUVOIR surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Fleming, Brian; Hoadley, Keri

    2016-07-01

    NASA is currently carrying out science and technical studies to identify its next astronomy flagship mission, slated to begin development in the 2020s. It has become clear that a Large Ultraviolet/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission (dprimary ≍ 12 m, Δλ ≍ 1000 Å - 2 μm spectroscopic bandpass) can carry out the largest number of NASA's exoplanet and astrophysics science goals over the coming decades. The science grasp of a LUVOIR Surveyor is broad, ranging from the direct detection of potential biomarkers on rocky planets to the flow of matter into and out of galaxies and the history of star-formation across cosmic time. There are technical challenges for several aspects of the LUVOIR Surveyor concept, including component level technology readiness maturation and science instrument concepts for a broadly capable ultraviolet spectrograph. We present the scientific motivation for, and a preliminary design of, a multiplexed ultraviolet spectrograph to support both the exoplanet and astrophysics goals of the LUVOIR Surveyor mission concept, the Combined High-resolution and Imaging Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor (CHISL). CHISL includes a highresolution (R ≍ 120,000; 1000 - 1700Å) point-source spectroscopy channel and a medium resolution (R >= 14,000 from 1000 - 2000 Å in a single observation and R 24,000 - 35,000 in multiple grating settings) imaging spectroscopy channel. CHISL addresses topics ranging from characterizing the composition and structure of planet-forming disks to the feedback of matter between galaxies and the intergalactic medium. We present the CHISL concept, a small sample of representative science cases, and the primary technological hurdles. Technical challenges include high-efficiency ultraviolet coatings and high-quantum efficiency, large-format, photon counting detectors. We are actively engaged in laboratory and flight characterization efforts for all of these enabling technologies as components on sounding rocket payloads under

  1. Mar Capeans

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Mar Capeans, CERN researcher, answers the question to "What can we do in the world of sciences and innovation to make visible the invisible?". This piece belongs to a series of videos made by the Spanish Aquae Foundation, a supporter of the CERN & Society Foundation.

  2. Mar adentro

    OpenAIRE

    Florián Guerrero, Mayra

    2014-01-01

    La bravura del mar destruyó primero las canchas de fútbol, luego se tragó casas y finalmente las playas. El otrora balneario exclusivo de Buenos Aires, donde se fundó el famoso restaurant Morillas en los años 40, es ahora un tímido recuerdo en medio del chocar incesante de las olas.

  3. Further Analysis on the Mystery of the Surveyor III Dust Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip; Hintze, Paul; Trigwell, Steven; Lane, John

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo 12 lunar module (LM) landing near the Surveyor III spacecraft at the end of 1969 has remained the primary experimental verification of the predicted physics of plume ejecta effects from a rocket engine interacting with the surface of the moon. This was made possible by the return of the Surveyor III camera housing by the Apollo 12 astronauts, allowing detailed analysis of the composition of dust deposited by the LM plume. It was soon realized after the initial analysis of the camera housing that the LM plume tended to remove more dust than it had deposited. In the present study, coupons from the camera housing have been reexamined. In addition, plume effects recorded in landing videos from each Apollo mission have been studied for possible clues.

  4. Solar wind rare gas analysis: Trapped solar wind helium and neon in Surveyor 3 material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, F.; Eberhardt, P.; Geiss, J.; Schwarzmueller, J.

    1972-01-01

    The He-4 and Ne-20 contents in sections of the Surveyor 3 support strut samples were determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy and are compared to the results of the Apollo solar wind composition (SWC) experiments. The He-4/Ne-20 ratio in the samples from the sunlit side of the strut was approximately 300; the ratios determined in Apollo 12 lunar fines and SWC foil were below 100. The He-4/He-3 ratios were also determined, and the ratio obtained from Surveyor 3 material is higher than those found with Apollo 11 and 12 SWC experiments. The effects of spallation by cosmic rays or solar protons, stripping by cosmic ray or energetic solar alpha particles, recycling of solar wind He and radiogenic Ne, He from terrestrial atmosphere, mass discrimination near the moon, mass dependence of trapping probability, diffusion, and contamination by lunar dust are considered.

  5. Mars-GRAM: Increasing the Precision of Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.; Badger, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM's perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). It has been discovered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process that Mars-GRAM, when used for sensitivity studies for MapYear=0 and large optical depth values such as tau=3, is less than realistic. A comparison study between Mars atmospheric density estimates from Mars-GRAM and measurements by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been undertaken for locations of varying latitudes, Ls, and LTST on Mars. The preliminary results from this study have validated the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) limb data. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). MGCM results that were used for Mars-GRAM with MapYear=0 were from a MGCM run with a fixed value of tau=3 for the entire year at all locations. This has resulted in an imprecise atmospheric density at all altitudes. To solve this pressure-density problem, density factor values were determined for tau=.3, 1 and 3 that will adjust the input values of MGCM MapYear 0 pressure and density to achieve a better match of Mars-GRAM MapYear 0 with TES observations for MapYears 1 and 2 at comparable dust loading. The addition of these density factors to Mars-GRAM will improve the results of the sensitivity studies done for large optical depths.

  6. The Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) Dataset V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montabone, L.; Marsh, K.; Lewis, S. R.; Read, P. L.; Smith, M. D.; Holmes, J.; Spiga, A.; Lowe, D.; Pamment, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) dataset version 1.0 contains the reanalysis of fundamental atmospheric and surface variables for the planet Mars covering a period of about three Martian years (a Martian year is about 1.88 terrestrial years). This has been produced by data assimilation of observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft during its science mapping phase (February 1999-August 2004). In particular, we have used retrieved thermal profiles and total dust optical depths from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on board MGS. Data have been assimilated into a Mars global climate model (MGCM) using the Analysis Correction scheme developed at the UK Meteorological Office. The MGCM used is the UK spectral version of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD, Paris, France) MGCM. MACDA is a joint project of the University of Oxford and The Open University in the UK.

  7. Exploring PV on the Red Planet: Mars Array Technology Experiment and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Baraona, Cosmo; Brinker, David; Schelman, David

    2004-01-01

    The environment on the surface of Mars is different in several critical ways from the orbital environment in which space solar arrays normally operate. Some important differences are: 1) Low intensity, low temperature operation; 2) Spectrum modified by atmospheric dust, varies with time; 3) Indirect sunlight; 4) Possibility of dust atoms at some times of year; 5) Deposited dust; 6) Wind; 7) Peroxide-rich reactive soil. We are developing two experiments to test operation of solar arrays on the surface of Mars, to be flown on the 2001 Surveyor Lander mission. The Mars Array Technology Experiment (MATE) will test the operation of several types of solar cells under Mars conditions, and determine the direct and scattered solar spectrum at the surface. The Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiment will monitor the amount of dust deposition on a target solar cell, measure the characteristics of the dust, and test the feasibility of dust removal.

  8. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz detector array of bolometric polarimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Appel, John W; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakla, John; Kogut, Alan J; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D; Miller, Nathan; Moseleyb, Samuel H; Novakh, Giles; Reintsemad, Carl; Rostemab, Karwan; Stevensonb, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  9. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz Detector Array of Bolometric Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Kogut, Alan J..; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  10. Correlates of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Job satisfaction is the sense of well- being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an incumbent worker when his obtained reward consequent upon his performance is congruent with his equitable reward.The aim of this study is to ascertain the levels of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Biographical and job descriptive index questionnaires (JDI were administered to gather the data. The JDI measures job satisfaction on five facets, namely, pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers and the work itself. A total of 100 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. The survey covered quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos and the respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, t-test and one way anova. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents were satisfied with the relationship with co-workers, nature of work and the supervision they receive. Major sources of dissatisfaction are promotion and salaries of the respondents. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving major sources of dissatisfaction among quantity surveyors in consulting firms. The roles of other contextual factors on job satisfaction need to be contemplated for future research.

  11. Correlates of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is the sense of well- being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an incumbent worker when his obtained reward consequent upon his performance is congruent with his equitable reward.The aim of this study is to ascertain the levels of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Biographical and job descriptive index questionnaires (JDI were administered to gather the data. The JDI measures job satisfaction on five facets, namely, pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers and the work itself. A total of 100 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. The survey covered quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos and the respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, t-test and one way anova. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents were satisfied with the relationship with co-workers, nature of work and the supervision they receive. Major sources of dissatisfaction are promotion and salaries of the respondents. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving major sources of dissatisfaction among quantity surveyors in consulting firms. The roles of other contextual factors on job satisfaction need to be contemplated for future research.

  12. Assessment of Cost Management Functions of Quantity Surveyors with Lean Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroof Opeyemi Anifowose

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Construction industry in Nigeria is made up of a wide variety of activities which include the provision of professional and technical services to clients in the built environment. Despite the provision of these services to a large number of clients worldwide, the construction industry is still awash by the chronic problems of low productivity, insufficient quality, time over-runs, and poor safety, which hinder customer delivered value. The Just-In-Time phenomenon is a characteristic of lean production systems which operate with very little “fat” (e.g. excess inventory extra workers, wasted space.This study aimed at assessing the construction management function of the quantity surveyor in line with the principle of lean methodology (Just-In-Time. This was achieved by exploring the cost management function of the quantity surveyor, to investigate the current practice of cost management by quantity surveying firms. Data for the study were sourced primarily with the use of questionnaire and the subsequent data analysis, which employed the use of descriptive analysis of presenting the data as obtained on tables during the field survey and attempts a rudimentary establishment of patterns using percentages. The study concluded amongst others, that: all activities involved in the cost management function of the quantity surveyor are important, and value adding, corresponding to conversion activities in line with the Just-In-time/lean methodology

  13. Perancangan Aplikasi Komputer Berbasis Android untuk Panduan Pengawasan Pembangunan Kapal Baru oleh Owner Surveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Adrian Lasuardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru yang ada saat ini masih dilakukan secara manual dimana seorang owner surveyor melakukan pengawasan mengacu pada form pengawasan. Kegiatan pengawasan yang ada saat ini kurang efektif untuk dilakukan pada proses pembangunan kapal baru, hal ini dikarenakan tidak semua owner surveyor memiliki pengetahuan dan pengalaman yang sama. Tujuan dari tugas akhir ini adalah melakukan observasi sistem pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru yang ada saat ini, merancang aplikasi komputer berbasis android untuk panduan pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru, dan melakukan uji validitas aplikasi tersebut dalam meningkatkan efektivitas pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru. Perancangan aplikasi dilakukan dengan pembuatan mock up aplikasi, desain interface, perancangan database, dan pengkodingan aplikasi tersebut. Aplikasi ini memiliki fitur daftar proses pengawasan, review hasil pengawasan, progress pembangunan kapal, dan menu untuk menambahkan owner surveyor. Uji coba aplikasi ini dilakukan kepada beberapa responden yang memiliki pengalaman pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru dan pihak-pihak yang memiliki latar belakang pendidikan di bidang perkapalan. Dari hasil pengujian menggunakan kuisoner tersebut diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa aplikasi ini perlu diaplikasikan dalam mendukung proses pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru.

  14. Mars ISRU for Production of Mission Critical Consumables - Options, Recent Studies, and Current State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. B.; Paz, A.; Oryshchyn, L.; Araghi, K.; Muscatello, A.; Linne, D.; Kleinhenz, J.; Peters, T.

    2015-01-01

    In 1978, a ground breaking paper titled, "Feasibility of Rocket Propellant Production on Mars" by Ash, Dowler, and Varsi discussed how ascent propellants could be manufactured on the Mars surface from carbon dioxide collected from the atmosphere to reduce launch mass. Since then, the concept of making mission critical consumables such as propellants, fuel cell reactants, and life support consumables from local resources, commonly known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), for robotic and human missions to Mars has been studied many times. In the late 1990's, NASA initiated a series of Mars Human Design Reference Missions (DRMs), the first of which was released in 1997. These studies primarily focused on evaluating the impact of making propellants on Mars for crew ascent to Mars orbit, but creating large caches of life support consumables (water & oxygen) as a backup for regenerative life support systems for long-duration surface stays (>500 days) was also considered in Mars DRM 3.0. Until science data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter and subsequent robotic missions revealed that water may be widely accessable across the surface of Mars, prior Mars ISRU studies were limited to processing Mars atmospheric resources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and water vapor). In December 2007, NASA completed the Mars Human Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study which considered water on Mars as a potential resource for the first time in a human mission architecture. While knowledge of both water resources on Mars and the hardware required to excavate and extract the water were very preliminary, the study concluded that a significant reduction in mass and significant enhancements to the mission architecture were possible if Mars water resources were utilized. Two subsequent Mars ISRU studies aimed at reexamining ISRU technologies, processing options, and advancements in the state-of-the-art since 2007 and to better understand the volume and packaging associated

  15. THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE IDEAS OF STEPHEN BAXTER'S AND ARTHUR C. CLARKE'S TRILOGY A TIME ODYSSEY

    OpenAIRE

    Šopinger, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Science and science fiction as well as the ideas that are used by them are interconnected, yet, while science tries to dismiss or confirm certain ideas, science fiction uses these same ideas as substance for their stories. With the advances in science, it is possible to that some ideas move from the realm of science fiction and become science fact. In the trilogy A Time Odyssey, co-authored by Stephen Baxter and Arthur C. Clarke, we can also find ideas and assumptions that are a part of t...

  16. For a Cup of Water on Mars: Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    1998-09-01

    Though liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there are hints in the Martian landscape that water once flowed there, eroding valleys and depositing sediments. Understanding where water is, or was, on Mars is a crucial step in looking for life on this smaller, cooler neighbor of Earth. Satellite images, beginning in the early 1970s with Mariner 9 up to the current Mars Global Surveyor, have given us increasingly detailed looks at the surface of Mars, including those intriguing channels that resemble dry river valleys. Warmer temperatures and a higher surface pressure once made it possible for liquid water to exist on the surface of Mars. When the water existed and where it went are just two of the questions being studied today. A larger question has to do with Martian life. If the wetter, early environment on Mars supported life, then where are the most appropriate places to look for evidence of life? The answer seems to be channels and ancient lake beds. Nathalie Cabrol and colleagues at NASA Ames Research Center, the Vernadksy Institute in Moscow, and Arizona State University recently published their study of a valley and impact crater on Mars which together had a prolonged history of water-related activity. The researchers established a sequence of events for the Ma'adim Vallis/Gusev crater area that included flowing water, ponding, and sedimentation over a period of a couple of billion years. This history makes Gusev crater a prominent depositional site and a key location for future biological explorations on Mars.

  17. Simultaneous Mars Express / MGS observations of plasma near Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, D.; Luhmann, J.; Halekas, J.; Frahm, R.; Winningham, D.; Barabash, S.

    2006-12-01

    Since late 2003, Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) have been making complementary in situ measurements (in terms of both instrument and orbit) of the Martian plasma environment. Study of MGS and MEX data in tandem provides an opportunity to mitigate the shortcomings of each dataset and increase our overall understanding of the Martian solar wind interaction and atmospheric escape. Close passes of spacecraft (conjunctions) are one particularly powerful means of increasing the utility of measurements, as evidenced by the Cluster mission at Earth. At Mars, conjunctions might be used to obtain more complete simultaneous and/or co-located plasma measurements, which can be used to study a variety of phenomena, including measurements of auroral-like particle acceleration near crustal fields and the three-dimensional motion and shape of plasma boundaries. We will present an analysis of approximately forty conjunctions (instances with instantaneous spacecraft separation smaller than 400 km) of MEX and MGS identified between January 2004 and February 2006. The closest pass was ~40~km, near the South Pole. Conjunctions occur both at mid-latitudes (when the surface-projected orbit tracks of the two spacecraft nearly overlap), and at the poles. We will present comparisons of MEX Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) data with MGS Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) data for these events. Our case studies include intercomparison of MEX and MGS electron data, the addition of MGS magnetic field and MEX ion data, and the inclusion of solar wind proxy information to establish context. In addition to these close conjunctions, we will present the preliminary results of a search for times when MEX and MGS pass through the same region of space separated by a delay (for time evolution of plasma populations in certain regions), and times when they occupy the same flux tube (for spatial evolution of particle distributions). Continued study of

  18. UHF Relay Antenna Measurements on Phoenix Mars Lander Mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilott, Peter; Harrel, Jefferson; Arnold, Bradford; Bliznyuk, Natalia; Nielsen, Rick; Dawson, David; McGee, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, a NASA Discovery mission which lands on Mars in the spring of 2008, will rely entirely on UHF relay links between it and Mars orbiting assets, (Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)), to communicate with the Earth. As with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) relay system, non directional antennas will be used to provide roughly emispherical coverage of the Martian sky. Phoenix lander deck object pattern interference and obscuration are significant, and needed to be quantified to answer system level design and operations questions. This paper describes the measurement campaign carried out at the SPAWAR (Space and Naval Warfare Research) Systems Center San Diego (SSC-SD) hemispherical antenna range, using a Phoenix deck mockup and engineering model antennas. One goal of the measurements was to evaluate two analysis tools, the time domain CST, and the moment method WIPL-D software packages. These would subsequently be used to provide pattern analysis for configurations that would be difficult and expensive to model and test on Earth.

  19. Mars Array Technology Experiment Developed to Test Solar Arrays on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    and two different solar cell strings, to qualify advanced solar cell types for future Mars missions. The MATE instrument, designed for the Mars-2001 Surveyor Lander mission, contains a capable suite of sensors that will provide both scientific information as well as important engineering data on the operation of solar power systems on Mars. MATE will characterize the intensity and spectrum of the solar radiation on Mars and measure the performance of solar arrays in the Mars environment. MATE flight hardware was built and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center and is ready for flight.

  20. Using the Mars Student Imaging Project to Integrate Science and English into Middle School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, C. F.; Troy, M. T.; Valderrama, P.

    2005-12-01

    Bringing science to life in a middle school classroom, and getting students excited about writing an English research paper can be a challenge. We met the challenge by using the exploration of Mars with Arizona State University`s (ASU) Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP). We replaced individuals writing their own research papers with teams writing scientific proposals for use of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. The 126 students on our academic team divided themselves into 26 teams. Each team selected a Leader, Archivist, Publicist, and Bibliographer. I was the Principal Investigator for each team. For twelve weeks the teams formally met once a week to discuss their progress and plan strategies for the following week. We created a website to communicate our progress. During the twelve weeks, the major task was to narrow each general topic such as ``Volcanoes on Mars," to a specific topic that could be answered by an 18km by 60km visible light image such as ``Is it Possible to Find the Relative Age of Volcanic Depressions in a Lava Flow Using a Mars Odyssey Image?" In addition to traditional research methods, we also participated in four teleconferences with ASU scientists chaired by Paige Valderrama, Assistant Director of the Mars Education Program. As the project evolved, I guided the teams with content, while the English teacher provided strategies for writing a meaningful persuasive essay, using citations, and recording bibliographical entries. When the proposals were completed, each team created a PowerPoint presentation to introduce their proposal to everyone for peer review. The students were hard, but fair with their evaluations. In several cases, they did not cast one of their three votes for their own! They decided that ten proposals met the criteria established by ASU. Those teams selected one member to use the JMARS software to target locations on Mars. The imagers spent two intensive days learning the software and targeting the surface. When we received

  1. Analytical Laboratory Science on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    The Odyssey Missions orbital maps of near surface ice abundance using neutron spectroscopy (Boynton et al., 2002), the Mars Exploration Rover s confirmation of aqueous processing (Squyres et al., 2004), and the Mars Express detailed infrared maps of specific mineral types that were likely formed in aqueous environments (Bibring et al., 2005) have dramatically expanded our tool set for understanding of aqueous processes on Mars. The 2009 Mars Science Laboratory is designed to extend the "follow the water" crosscutting theme of the Mars Exploration Program toward an even more detailed exploration of habitability - the potential of the Mars environment to support life. The next steps in understanding the habitability of Mars are a more detailed in situ analysis of the chemical state of elements such as C, H, O, N, S, P, Ca, and Fe that are essential for terrestrial life. Of particular interest are experiments that establish definitive mineralogy for a wider range of compounds and those that implement a more comprehensive and sensitive search for organic molecules both in the atmosphere and in surface or near surface rocks, soils, and fines. The recent reports of atmospheric methane in the Martian atmosphere make the organics exploration even more compelling. The substantial mass and power resources of MSL combined with its mobility and powerful sample acquisition and processing tools will enable it to locate a variety of near-surface samples and analyze these in some detail. NASA is presently considering the possibility of landing a second MSL rover in 2011.

  2. Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Clark C. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    disciplines to design sub- experiments and to benefit from the investigations that can be conducted. In this sense, it will have the value of a facility, although our recommendation would be that it be under the stewardship of a single lead investigator to insure that conflicting requirements not compromise the straight-forward design that have been achieved. MACE is an excellent candidate for upcoming Mars missions, including the Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) lander missions in 2001 and 2003. In addition, it could be used for any mission to the surface of any other planet or planetary body (including small bodies). An important next step is to encourage various investigators to propose specific uses for this experiment that specifically address their major scientific objectives for upcoming missions.

  3. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater in Noachis Terra. This high resolution view (top left) from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) shows channels and associated aprons of debris that are interpreted to have formed by groundwater seepage, surface runoff, and debris flow. The lack of small craters superimposed on the channels and apron deposits indicates that these features are geologically young. It is possible that these gullies indicate that liquid water is present within the martian subsurface today. The MOC image was acquired on September 28, 1999. The scene covers an area approximately 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 6.7 km (4.1 mi) high (note, the aspect ratio is 1.5 to 1.0). Sunlight illuminates this area from the upper left. The image is located near 54.8S, 342.5W. The context image (above) shows the location of the MOC image on the south-facing wall of an impact crater approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter. The context picture was obtained by the Viking 1 orbiter in 1980 and is illuminated from the upper left. The large mound on the floor of the crater in the context view is a sand dune field. The Mars Orbiter Camera high resolution images are taken black-and-white (grayscale); the color seen here has been synthesized from the colors of Mars observed by the MOC wide angle cameras and by the Viking Orbiters in the late 1970s. A brief description of how the color was generated: The MOC narrow angle camera only takes grayscale (black and white) pictures. To create the color versions seen here, we have taken much lower resolution red and blue images acquired by the MOC's wide angle cameras, and by the Viking Orbiter cameras in the 1970s, synthesized a green image by averaging red and blue, and created a pallete of colors that represent the range of colors on Mars. We then use a relationship that correlates color and brightness to assign a color to each gray level. This is only a crude approximation of

  4. Mars @ ASDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Francesco

    "Mars @ ASDC" is a project born with the goal of using the new web technologies to assist researches involved in the study of Mars. This project employs Mars map and javascript APIs provided by Google to visualize data acquired by space missions on the planet. So far, visualization of tracks acquired by MARSIS and regions observed by VIRTIS-Rosetta has been implemented. The main reason for the creation of this kind of tool is the difficulty in handling hundreds or thousands of acquisitions, like the ones from MARSIS, and the consequent difficulty in finding observations related to a particular region. This led to the development of a tool which allows to search for acquisitions either by defining the region of interest through a set of geometrical parameters or by manually selecting the region on the map through a few mouse clicks The system allows the visualization of tracks (acquired by MARSIS) or regions (acquired by VIRTIS-Rosetta) which intersect the user defined region. MARSIS tracks can be visualized both in Mercator and polar projections while the regions observed by VIRTIS can presently be visualized only in Mercator projection. The Mercator projection is the standard map provided by Google. The polar projections are provided by NASA and have been developed to be used in combination with APIs provided by Google The whole project has been developed following the "open source" philosophy: the client-side code which handles the functioning of the web page is written in javascript; the server-side code which executes the searches for tracks or regions is written in PHP and the DB which undergoes the system is MySQL.

  5. The Athena Mars Rover Science Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyes, S. W.; Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Carr, M.; Christensen, P.; DesMarais, D.; Economou, T.; Gorevan, S.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Haskin, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor missions that will be launched in April of 2001 will include a highly capable rover that is a successor to the Mars Pathfinder mission's Sojourner rover. The design goals for this rover are a total traverse distance of at least 10 km and a total lifetime of at least one Earth year. The rover's job will be to explore a site in Mars' ancient terrain, searching for materials likely to preserve a record of ancient martian water, climate, and possibly biology. The rover will collect rock and soil samples, and will store them for return to Earth by a subsequent Mars Surveyor mission in 2005. The Athena Mars rover science payload is the suite of scientific instruments and sample collection tools that will be used to perform this job. The specific science objectives that NASA has identified for the '01 rover payload are to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition. (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials. (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials. (4) Collect and store samples. The Athena payload has been designed to meet these objectives. The focus of the design is on field operations: making sure the rover can locate, characterize, and collect scientifically important samples in a dusty, dirty, real-world environment. The topography, morphology, and mineralogy of the scene around the rover will be revealed by Pancam/Mini-TES, an integrated imager and IR spectrometer. Pancam views the surface around the rover in stereo and color. It uses two high-resolution cameras that are identical in most respects to the rover's navigation cameras. The detectors are low-power, low-mass active pixel sensors with on-chip 12-bit analog-to-digital conversion. Filters provide 8-12 color spectral bandpasses over the spectral region from 0.4 to 1.1 micron Narrow-angle optics provide an angular resolution of 0

  6. The Athena Mars Rover Science Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyes, S. W.; Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Carr, M.; Christensen, P.; DesMarais, D.; Economou, T.; Gorevan, S.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Haskin, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor missions that will be launched in April of 2001 will include a highly capable rover that is a successor to the Mars Pathfinder mission's Sojourner rover. The design goals for this rover are a total traverse distance of at least 10 km and a total lifetime of at least one Earth year. The rover's job will be to explore a site in Mars' ancient terrain, searching for materials likely to preserve a record of ancient martian water, climate, and possibly biology. The rover will collect rock and soil samples, and will store them for return to Earth by a subsequent Mars Surveyor mission in 2005. The Athena Mars rover science payload is the suite of scientific instruments and sample collection tools that will be used to perform this job. The specific science objectives that NASA has identified for the '01 rover payload are to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition. (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials. (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials. (4) Collect and store samples. The Athena payload has been designed to meet these objectives. The focus of the design is on field operations: making sure the rover can locate, characterize, and collect scientifically important samples in a dusty, dirty, real-world environment. The topography, morphology, and mineralogy of the scene around the rover will be revealed by Pancam/Mini-TES, an integrated imager and IR spectrometer. Pancam views the surface around the rover in stereo and color. It uses two high-resolution cameras that are identical in most respects to the rover's navigation cameras. The detectors are low-power, low-mass active pixel sensors with on-chip 12-bit analog-to-digital conversion. Filters provide 8-12 color spectral bandpasses over the spectral region from 0.4 to 1.1 micron Narrow-angle optics provide an angular resolution of 0

  7. Space odysseys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Antologi om unge danske arkitekter og designere. Udgivet som Arkitektur DK 5/2006 og som selvstændig publikation. Den indledende artikel er af arkitekturteoretisk karakter, de øvrige formidlende.   ...

  8. Analysis of Surveyor 3 television cable after residence on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, F. C.; Park, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 12 astronauts brought the Surveyor III television camera back from the moon in November 1969. Chemical analyses of a portion of television cable revealed changes in the glass fabric sleeve and in the wire insulation as a result of exposure to the lunar environment. Loss of volatile constituents from the glass fabric and a discoloration of the glass occurred. The Teflon layer on the wire showed a slight discoloration and possibly a slight change in its infrared spectrum. Both the polyimide layer and the Teflon layer of the wire insulation showed changes in tensile strength and elongation.

  9. Surveyor Manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyt, Henrik; Hessellund, Regner Bæk

    providing the qualification of ‘building maintenance technician’. Being addressed to people seeking jobs, but also to professionals already working in domains connected to the administration and maintenance of building stock, such as local administration, public and private companies owning buildings, SMEs...

  10. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  11. A Revolution in Mars Topography and Gravity and Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Since the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) at Mars in September 1997 and the subsequent beginning of observations of the planet there has been a constant stream of surprises and puzzling observations that have kept scientists looking at new 'out of the box' explanations. Observations of the shape and topography have shown a planet with one hemisphere, the southern, several kilometers higher than the north and a northern hemisphere that is so flat and smooth in places that it's difficult to imagine it was not once the bottom of an ocean. And yet the ocean idea presents some enormous difficulties. The measurements of gravity derived from the tracking of MGS have shown that several Mars volcanoes are enormous positive gravity anomalies much larger than we see on Earth and revealed small errors in the orbit of Mars and or Earth. And the magnetic field is found to be composed of a number of extremely large crustal anomalies; but as far as can be ascertained there is no main dipole field such as we have on Earth. Understanding these diverse observations and placing them in the sequence of the evolution of the planet will be a long, challenging but rewarding task.

  12. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  13. Alirocumab for hyperlipidemia: ODYSSEY Phase III clinical trial results and US FDA approval indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eli M

    2016-03-01

    A new class of lipid-lowering drugs, inhibitors of PCSK9 has been generating impressive clinical trial data over the last several years, and alirocumab (Praluent) has become the first to be approved by the US FDA. Alirocumab has been shown to lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 45-62% with a safety profile generally comparable to placebo. Alirocumab is a monoclonal antibody to PCSK9 administered subcutaneously and has been evaluated in 16 Phase III clinical trials, the majority of which have been enrolled or completed. This article will be a review of the available Phase III safety and efficacy data of the ODYSSEY studies including a brief description of each of the 16 studies.

  14. The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept study: forging the path to NASA astrophysics 2020 decadal survey prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Özel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  15. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study: Forging the Path to NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Ozel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  16. Effects of Crustal Fields on the Ionosphere of Mars as seen by MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Marissa F.; Withers, Paul; Flynn, Casey L.; Andersson, Laila; Brain, David; Mitchell, David; Connerney, Jack; Espley, Jared R.

    2016-10-01

    Mars lacks a global intrinsic magnetic field but possesses regions of strong crustal magnetic field that are concentrated in the southern hemisphere. Previous studies have used Mars Global Surveyor or Mars Express data to show that these crustal fields influence the electron densities in the Martian ionosphere. However, many of these studies relied on remote radio occultation or radar sounding measurements and therefore relied on models to infer the crustal magnetic field strength and direction. In fall 2015 the MAVEN spacecraft passed through these crustal field regions at low altitudes, on the day side, and collected comprehensive measurements of the local plasma and magnetic field properties. The MAVEN observations therefore provide an excellent dataset with which to examine the effects of crustal fields on the ionosphere. We report on the MAVEN electron density measurements in the southern crustal field regions and discuss the influence of the magnetic field direction and topology on the dayside Martian ionosphere.

  17. Surveyor nuclease detection of mutations and polymorphisms of mtDNA in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, Jacek; Asman, Marek; Jamroz, Ewa; Kajor, Maciej; Kotrys-Puchalska, Elżbieta; Goss, Małgorzata; Krzak, Maria; Witecka, Joanna; Gmiński, Jan; Sieroń, Aleksander L

    2010-11-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies are complex disorders with wide range of clinical manifestations. Particularly time-consuming is the identification of mutations in mitochondrial DNA. A group of 20 children with clinical manifestations of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies was selected for molecular studies. The aims were (a) to identify mutations in mtDNA isolated from muscle and (b) to verify detected mutations in DNA isolated from blood, in order to assess the utility of a Surveyor nuclease assay kit for patient screening. The most common changes found were polymorphisms, including a few missense mutations altering the amino acid sequence of mitochondrial proteins. In two boys with MELAS (i.e., mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes), a mutation A→G3243 was detected in the tRNALeu gene of mtDNA isolated from muscle and blood. In one boy, the carrier status of his mother was confirmed, based on molecular analysis of DNA isolated from blood. A method using Surveyor nuclease allows systematic screening for small mutations in mtDNA, using as its source blood of the patients and asymptomatic carriers. The method still requires confirmation studying a larger group. In some patients, the use of this method should precede and might limit indications for traumatic muscle and skin biopsy.

  18. The Production of Small Primary Craters on Mars and the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jean-Pierre; Aharonson, Oded

    2013-01-01

    We model the primary crater production of small (D < 100 m) primary craters on Mars and the Moon using the observed annual flux of terrestrial fireballs. From the size-frequency distribution (SFD) of meteor diameters, with appropriate velocity distributions for Mars and the Moon, we are able to reproduce martian and lunar crater-count chronometry systems (isochrons) in both slope and magnitude. We include an atmospheric model for Mars that accounts for the deceleration, ablation, and fragmentation of meteors. We find that the details of the atmosphere or the fragmentation of the meteors do not strongly influence our results. The downturn in the crater SFD from atmospheric filtering is predicted to occur at D ~ 10-20 cm, well below the downturn observed in the distribution of fresh craters detected by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) or the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX). Crater counts conducted on the ejecta blanket of Zunil crater on Mars and North Ray crate...

  19. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-09-01

    -bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Samples of the crater wall and rim rock, and more recent to currently active surface materials also may be studied. Gale has a well-defined regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments. These environments are represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, and insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars. The interior mountain of Gale Crater has been informally designated at Mount Sharp, in honor of the pioneering planetary scientist Robert Sharp. The major subsystems of the MSL Project consist of a single rover (with science payload), a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, an Earth-Mars cruise stage, an entry, descent, and landing system, a launch vehicle, and the mission operations and ground data systems. The primary communication path for downlink is relay through the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The primary path for uplink to the rover is Direct-from-Earth. The secondary paths for downlink are Direct-to-Earth and relay through the Mars Odyssey orbiter. Curiosity is a scaled version of the 6-wheel drive, 4-wheel steering, rocker bogie system from the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit and Opportunity and the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner. Like Spirit and Opportunity, Curiosity offers three primary modes of navigation: blind-drive, visual odometry, and visual odometry with hazard avoidance. Creation of terrain maps based on HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and other remote sensing data were used to conduct simulated driving with Curiosity in these various modes, and allowed selection of the Gale crater landing site which requires climbing the base of a

  20. Application of THEMIS Data to an Investigation of a Long Lava Flow in the Tharsis Montes Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Peitersen, M. N.; Christensen, P. R.; Rice, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    The Tharsis region of Mars has long been known for the numerous lava flows radiating from the Tharsis Montes shield volcanoes. A 480-km-long flow southwest of Ascraeus Mons has been the subject of previous investigations using Viking and MGS data. The new data currently being obtained with the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft can shed new light on the volcanology of Martian lava flows, illustrated in this paper by two THEMIS images of the previously studied flow near Ascraeus Mons. The lava flow examined is on the western flank of the topographic saddle between the Ascraeus Mons and Pavonis Mons shield volcanoes. Flow morphology in the dust-covered Tharsis region is revealed in exquisite detail in daytime IR and VIS images from THEMIS, which will aid in documentation and analysis of lava flow features on Mars and improve constraints for volcanic modeling.

  1. A Look at Dust Storms on Mars (2007 To 2009) Using MCS and THEMIS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, William; Bowles, N. E.; Teanby, N. A.; Montabone, L.; Calcutt, S. B.; Read, P. L.; Kass, D. M.; Hale, A. S.

    2009-09-01

    Martian dust storms may be small, localised and short lived or can be large and intense and expand to enshroud most, if not all, of the planet within a few days. The martian dusty season occurs near the time of perihelion (closest approach to the sun) during Mars' southern hemisphere spring and summer. During this period (+/- 90 degrees Ls of perihelion) local and regional dust storms are more frequent and there is a higher probability of a major and possible planet-encircling dust storm occuring. Despite this there is still a lot of interannual variability and uncertainty regarding the occurence of both major and regional dust storms. The Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) instrument onboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a two telescope 9 channel filter IR radiometer (0.3 to 45 microns), with each channel consisting of a linear array of 21 detectors. Each pixel sounds a 5km thick region of the Martian atmosphere in a limb viewing/scanning mode. We present a comparison of dust storm activity on Mars for 2007 to 2009 using MCS limb observations of changes in dust opacity. These measurements are also compared with observations and atmospheric opacity maps generated by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) multi-wavelength instrument onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft and Mars weather maps from MRO's Mars Color Imager (MARCI) for this period. Model predictions from the Mars Climate Database and simulations from the UK Mars General Circulation Model (GCM) are also used. This comparison gives us an empirical method for using MCS data directly to identify dust storm activity during this period.

  2. Impact-generated winds on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Quintana, Stephanie N.

    2017-08-01

    Bright and dark wind streaks across Mars record wind patterns related to atmospheric circulation. In some cases these streaks represent erosion of a surface veneer; in others, they indicate sand grains mobilized by strong vortices shed off of positive relief, such as crater rims. While many streaks change length or orientation over time, others not only remain unchanged but also may indicate a completely different wind direction. These permanent streaks could reflect past circulation patterns in response to conditions related to orbital forcing (e.g., Thomas and Veverka, 1979; Veverka et al., 1981). Here, however, we focus on a subset of permanent wind streaks unrelated to global circulation, rather to impact-generated winds that can extend more than 500 km away from the crater. Nighttime images from the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) reveal certain large craters (> 15 km in diameter) having sets of thermally bright streaks that radiate from certain fresh impact craters. These streaks extend from pre-existing topographic highs (crater rims, wrinkle ridges) beyond the continuous ejecta deposits to more than 6 crater radii, unrelated to secondary craters. For illustration, this contribution primarily focuses on the 20 km-diameter Santa Fe crater in Chryse Planitia. Context Camera (CTX) images reveal that these streaks correspond to zones of erosion. The thermally bright rays in nighttime images correlate with regions where coarser materials have been exposed, not always resolved even in HiRISE images. Models of the impact process indicate impact-generated vapor most likely generated intense winds that scoured the region, well before arrival of secondary craters and later ejecta run-out flows. Pre-existing relief (such as crater rims) disturbed this flow and generated intense cross-flow instabilities resulting in long parallel streaks.

  3. Can Hydrous Minerals Account for the Observed Mid-Latitude Water on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Clays, zeolites, and Mg-sulfates are all phases that could potentially retain H2O in martian regolith. The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i.e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question. The purpose of this communication is to estimate the possible magnitude of the H2O reservoir constituted by these H2O-bearing minerals. In other words, can minerals containing H2O and/or OH such clays, zeolites, or Mg-sulfates, reasonably be expected to account for the amounts of near-equatorial H2O-equivalent hydrogen recently documented by Mars Odyssey?

  4. Knowledge and Attitudes of Nursing Home Staff and Surveyors about the Revised Federal Guidance for Incontinence Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBeau, Catherine E.; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Palmer, Mary H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed nursing home staff and state nursing home surveyors regarding their knowledge and attitudes about urinary incontinence, its management, and the revised federal Tag F315 guidance for urinary incontinence. Design and Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey of a convenience sample of nursing home staff and state nursing home…

  5. Comparison of T7E1 and surveyor mismatch cleavage assays to detect mutations triggered by engineered nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillot, Léna; Thélie, Aurore; Pollet, Nicolas

    2015-01-07

    Genome editing using engineered nucleases is used for targeted mutagenesis. But because genome editing does not target all loci with similar efficiencies, the mutation hit-rate at a given locus needs to be evaluated. The analysis of mutants obtained using engineered nucleases requires specific methods for mutation detection, and the enzyme mismatch cleavage method is used commonly for this purpose. This method uses enzymes that cleave heteroduplex DNA at mismatches and extrahelical loops formed by single or multiple nucleotides. Bacteriophage resolvases and single-stranded nucleases are used commonly in the assay but have not been compared side-by-side on mutations obtained by engineered nucleases. We present the first comparison of the sensitivity of T7E1 and Surveyor EMC assays on deletions and point mutations obtained by zinc finger nuclease targeting in frog embryos. We report the mutation detection limits and efficiencies of T7E1 and Surveyor. In addition, we find that T7E1 outperforms the Surveyor nuclease in terms of sensitivity with deletion substrates, whereas Surveyor is better for detecting single nucleotide changes. We conclude that T7E1 is the preferred enzyme to scan mutations triggered by engineered nucleases.

  6. Rotorcrafts for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaram, J.; Tokumaru, P. T.

    2014-06-01

    Rotorcraft mobility provides a number of useful capabilities to potential Mars missions. We present some recent results relating to the design and test of Mars rotorcraft mobility elements, and aspects of rotorcraft system and mission design.

  7. Mars Gashopper Airplane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Gas Hopper Airplane, or "gashopper" is a novel concept for propulsion of a robust Mars flight and surface exploration vehicle that utilizes indigenous CO2...

  8. Unraveling Local Dust Storm Structure on Mars: The Case of Northern Amazonis During Mars Year 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    Orbiter Camera, Thermal Emission Spectrometer, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on Mars Global Surveyor, I will present a composite description of the structure of an individual storm of this class and its variability. This work is supported by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program (NNX14AM32G).

  9. The Mars In-Situ-Propellant-Production Precursor (MIP) Flight Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Ratliff, J. E.; Baird, R. S.; Sanders, G. B.; Johnson, K. R.; Karlmann, P. B.; Baraona, C. R.; Landis, G. A.; Jenkins, P. P.; Scheiman, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Strategic planning for human missions of exploration to Mars has conclusively identified insitu propellant production (ISPP) as an enabling technology. A team of scientists and engineers from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Glenn Research Center is preparing the MARS ISPP PRECURSOR (MIP) Flight Demonstration. The objectives of MIP are to characterize the performance of processes and hardware that are important to ISPP concepts and to demonstrate how these processes and hardware interact with the Mars environment. Operating this hardware in the actual Mars environment is extremely important due to (1) uncertainties in our knowledge of the Mars environment, and (2) conditions that cannot be adequately simulated on Earth. The MIP Flight Demonstration is a payload onboard the MARS SURVEYOR Lander and will be launched in April 2001. MIP will be the first hardware to utilize the indigenous resources of a planet or moon. Its successful operation will pave the way for future robotic and human missions to rely on propellants produced using Martian resources as feedstock.

  10. Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor (MIP) Flight Demonstration Project: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Ratliff, J. E.; Baird, R. S.; Sanders, G. B.; Johnson, K. R.; Karlmann, P. B.; Juanero, K. J.; Baraona, C. R.; Landis, G. A.; Jenkins, P. P.; hide

    1999-01-01

    Strategic planning for human missions of exploration to Mars has conclusively identified in-situ propellant production (ISPP) as an enabling technology. A team of scientists and engineers from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Lewis Research Center is preparing the MARS ISPP PRECURSOR (MIP) Flight Demonstration. The objectives of MIP are to characterize the performance of processes and hardware which are important to ISPP concepts and to demonstrate how these processes and hardware interact with the Mars environment. Operating this hardware in the actual Mars environment is extremely important due to both uncertainties in our knowledge of the Mars environment as well as because of conditions that cannot be adequately simulated on Earth. The MIP Flight Demonstration is a payload onboard the MARS SURVEYOR Lander and will be launched in April 2001. MIP will be the first hardware to utilize the indigenous resources of a planet or moon. Its successful operation will pave the way for future robotic and human missions to rely on propellants produced using Martian resources as feedstock.

  11. A method to estimate the neutral atmospheric density near the ionospheric main peak of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hong; Ye, Yu Guang; Wang, Jin Song; Nielsen, Erling; Cui, Jun; Wang, Xiao Dong

    2016-04-01

    A method to estimate the neutral atmospheric density near the ionospheric main peak of Mars is introduced in this study. The neutral densities at 130 km can be derived from the ionospheric and atmospheric measurements of the Radio Science experiment on board Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). The derived neutral densities cover a large longitude range in northern high latitudes from summer to late autumn during 3 Martian years, which fills the gap of the previous observations for the upper atmosphere of Mars. The simulations of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Mars global circulation model can be corrected with a simple linear equation to fit the neutral densities derived from the first MGS/RS (Radio Science) data sets (EDS1). The corrected simulations with the same correction parameters as for EDS1 match the derived neutral densities from two other MGS/RS data sets (EDS2 and EDS3) very well. The derived neutral density from EDS3 shows a dust storm effect, which is in accord with the Mars Express (MEX) Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars measurement. The neutral density derived from the MGS/RS measurements can be used to validate the Martian atmospheric models. The method presented in this study can be applied to other radio occultation measurements, such as the result of the Radio Science experiment on board MEX.

  12. On the existence and stability of liquid water on the surface of mars today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetz, L. H.; Gan, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery of high concentrations of hydrogen just below the surface of Mars' polar regions by Mars Odyssey has enlivened the debate about past or present life on Mars. The prevailing assumption prior to the discovery was that the liquid water essential for its existence is absent. That assumption was based largely on the calculation of heat and mass transfer coefficients or theoretical climate models. This research uses an experimental approach to determine the feasibility of liquid water under martian conditions, setting the stage for a more empirical approach to the question of life on Mars. Experiments were conducted in three parts: Liquid water's existence was confirmed by droplets observed under martian conditions in part 1; the evolution of frost melting on the surface of various rocks under martian conditions was observed in part 2; and the evaporation rate of water in Petri dishes under Mars-like conditions was determined and compared with the theoretical predictions of various investigators in part 3. The results led to the conclusion that liquid water can be stable for extended periods of time on the martian surface under present-day conditions.

  13. Temporal Variability of Waves at the Proton Cyclotron Frequency Upstream from Mars: Implications for Mars Distant Hydrogen Exosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Bertucci, Cesar; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Gomez, Daniel; Mazelle, Christian; Delva, Magda; Modolo, Ronan; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Brain, David Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We report on the temporal variability of the occurrence of waves at the local proton cyclotron frequency upstream from the Martian bow shock from Mars Global Surveyor observations during the first aerobraking and science phasing orbit periods. Observations at high southern latitudes during minimum-to-mean solar activity show that the wave occurrence rate is significantly higher around perihelion southern summer solstice and lower around the same hemisphere's spring and autumn equinoxes. A similar trend is observed in the hydrogen (H) exospheric density profiles over the Martian South Pole obtained from a model including UV thermospheric heating effects. In spite of the complexity in the ion pick-up and plasma wave generation and evolution processes, these results support the idea that variations in the occurrence of waves could be used to study the temporal evolution of the distant Martian H corona and its coupling with the thermosphere at altitudes currently inaccessible to direct measurements.

  14. The biochemical and genetic odyssey to the function of a nicastrin-like protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, Christof; Haass, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-secretase is a high-molecular-weight protein complex required for the proteolytic processing of various transmembrane proteins including the Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid precursor protein and the signaling receptor Notch. One of the gamma-secretase complex components is the type I transmembrane protein nicastrin. Here we review the odyssey to a cyclopic fish, which at the end allowed the functional analysis of nicalin, a novel member of the nicastrin protein family. This 60-kDa protein is part of a previously unknown membrane protein complex unrelated to gamma-secretase and binds to Nomo (Nodal modulator, previously known as pM5), a novel 130-kDa transmembrane protein. Both proteins are highly conserved in metazoans and show almost identical tissue distribution in humans. Functional studies in zebrafish embryos and cultured human cells revealed that nicalin and Nomo collaborate to antagonize the Nodal/TGFbeta signaling pathway. Thus, nicastrin and nicalin are both associated with protein complexes involved in cell fate decisions during early embryonic development.

  15. OSLER and ODYSSEY LONG TERM: PCSK9 inhibitors on the right track of reducing cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have emerged as a novel treatment option in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Evolocumab and alirocumab have achieved consistent and significant (around 60%) reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels when added to statin therapy in short term studies. The Open-Label Study of Long-term Evaluation Against LDL-C (OSLER), and The Long-term Safety and Tolerability of Alirocumab in High Cardiovascular Risk Patients with Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled with Their Lipid Modifying Therapy (ODYSSEY LONG TERM) studies are two phase 3, multicentre, randomized, placebo controlled studies that were conducted to evaluate the long term efficacy and safety of evolocumab and alirocumab respectively in reducing lipids and cardiovascular (CV) events. Both studies demonstrated additional 48-53% reduction of CV events when added to statin therapy. Most adverse events occurred with similar frequency in the two groups; however the rate of neurocognitive adverse events was higher with evolocumab and alirocumab than with placebo. These data provide strong support for the notion that lower LDL-C goal is better, and may confirm the role of PCSK9 inhibitors as a new frontier in lipid management. The results of larger long-term outcome studies are still awaited.

  16. Synaptogenesis in the CNS: an odyssey from wiring together to firing together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munno, David W; Syed, Naweed I

    2003-10-01

    To acquire a better comprehension of nervous system function, it is imperative to understand how synapses are assembled during development and subsequently altered throughout life. Despite recent advances in the fields of neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that guide synapse formation in the central nervous system (CNS). Although many structural components of the synaptic machinery are pre-assembled prior to the arrival of growth cones at the site of their potential targets, innumerable changes, central to the proper wiring of the brain, must subsequently take place through contact-mediated cell-cell communications. Identification of such signalling molecules and a characterization of various events underlying synaptogenesis are pivotal to our understanding of how a brain cell completes its odyssey from "wiring together to firing together". Here we attempt to provide a comprehensive overview that pertains directly to the cellular and molecular mechanisms of selection, formation and refinement of synapses during the development of the CNS in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  17. El asunto del “Nuestra señora de la Mercedes” (Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jesús Carrera Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye, básicamente, una valoración del informe emitido en Estados Unidos por el Juez Pizzo en el que ya podemos calificar como asunto del “Nuestra Señora de La Mercedes”, iniciado hace dos años tras las actividades de expolio desarrolladas por la empresa Odyssey en aguas del Atlántico próximas al Estrecho de Gibraltar. Se trata de un caso que afecta directamente a los intereses españoles en relación con el patrimonio cultural submarino situado en zonas próximas a nuestras costas. De convertirse en jurisprudencia, estaremos dando un paso más en aras de la protección del patrimonio cultural, soslayando la aplicación de legislaciones ancladas enla aplicación de principios de salvamento y hallazgos a bienes que poseen un valor arqueológico, histórico o cultural, y que se encuentran en santuarios de nuestros antepasados.

  18. Mars global digital dune database: MC-30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R.K.; Fenton, L.K.; Titus, T.N.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) provides data and describes the methodology used in creating the global database of moderate- to large-size dune fields on Mars. The database is being released in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The first report (Hayward and others, 2007) included dune fields from lat 65° N. to 65° S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1158/). The second report (Hayward and others, 2010) included dune fields from lat 60° N. to 90° N. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1170/). This report encompasses ~75,000 km2 of mapped dune fields from lat 60° to 90° S. The dune fields included in this global database were initially located using Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) Infrared (IR) images. In the previous two reports, some dune fields may have been unintentionally excluded for two reasons: (1) incomplete THEMIS IR (daytime) coverage may have caused us to exclude some moderate- to large-size dune fields or (2) resolution of THEMIS IR coverage (100 m/pixel) certainly caused us to exclude smaller dune fields. In this report, mapping is more complete. The Arizona State University THEMIS daytime IR mosaic provided complete IR coverage, and it is unlikely that we missed any large dune fields in the South Pole (SP) region. In addition, the increased availability of higher resolution images resulted in the inclusion of more small (~1 km2) sand dune fields and sand patches. To maintain consistency with the previous releases, we have identified the sand features that would not have been included in earlier releases. While the moderate to large dune fields in MGD3 are likely to constitute the largest compilation of sediment on the planet, we acknowledge that our database excludes numerous small dune fields and some moderate to large dune fields as well. Please note that the absence of mapped dune fields does not mean that dune fields do not exist and is not intended to imply a lack of saltating sand in other areas

  19. Improving Mars-GRAM: Increasing the Accuracy of Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.; Badger, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Extensively utilized for numerous mission applications, the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model. In a Monte-Carlo mode, Mars-GRAM's perturbation modeling capability is used to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). Mars-GRAM has been found to be inexact when used during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process for sensitivity studies for MapYear=0 and large optical depth values such as tau=3. Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) from the surface to 80 km altitude. Mars-GRAM with the MapYear parameter set to 0 utilizes results from a MGCM run with a fixed value of tau=3 at all locations for the entire year. Imprecise atmospheric density and pressure at all altitudes is a consequence of this use of MGCM with tau=3. Density factor values have been determined for tau=0.3, 1 and 3 as a preliminary fix to this pressure-density problem. These factors adjust the input values of MGCM MapYear 0 pressure and density to achieve a better match of Mars-GRAM MapYear 0 with Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations for MapYears 1 and 2 at comparable dust loading. These density factors are fixed values for all latitudes and Ls and are included in Mars-GRAM Release 1.3. Work currently being done, to derive better multipliers by including variations with latitude and/or Ls by comparison of MapYear 0 output directly against TES limb data, will be highlighted in the presentation. The TES limb data utilized in this process has been validated by a comparison study between Mars atmospheric density estimates from Mars-GRAM and measurements by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). This comparison study was undertaken for locations on Mars of varying latitudes, Ls, and LTST. The more precise density factors will be included in Mars-GRAM 2005 Release 1.4 and thus improve the results of future sensitivity studies done for large

  20. Thanks to CERN's team of surveyors, the Organization's stand at the Night of Science attracted a large number of visitors : the technology and tools used by the surveyors, such as the Terrameter shown here, attracted many visitors to the CERN stand

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Thanks to CERN's team of surveyors, the Organization's stand at the Night of Science attracted a large number of visitors : the technology and tools used by the surveyors, such as the Terrameter shown here, attracted many visitors to the CERN stand

  1. Interpretation of collapsed terrain on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewa Zalewska, Natalia; Skocki, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    On the images from HiRISE camera within volcanoes and circumpolar areas there are depressions that can be explained in two ways, either by melting subsurface layer of ice or by cooling of lava which forms branch intrusion and flank craters underneath. On many pictures from Mars similar cavities are found on the slopes of Martian craters on Arsia Mons , Pavonis Mons on northern hemisphere and Alba Patera on southern hemisphere. Such cavities can be compared to a Hawaiian type volcanoes. At the top of Mauna Loa linearly arranged craters can be seen, strikingly similar to those on Arsia Mons . Basing on map ice content measured by Odyssey GRS apparatus, in this place of the volcanic cone, quite small ice content can be observed that varies in the range of 2-4% hydrogen abundance. It is therefore difficult to explain these collapses by unfreezing of subsurface ice. In an infrared spectrum of these areas there are no bands of water in the CRISM spectra, although it does not say that the water in the form of ice couldn't have been there before. In the central part of Chryse, there are series of chains depressions caused most likely by the collapse of land. These forms have been associated with an open pingo type system additionally with assisted topography of the area or tectonics and internal cracks in the rocks. These are noticed on the slopes of craters or wherever the area decline. Then flowing subsurface water or brine coming from the ice layer could while freezing accumulate and create a longitudinal hill that collapsed due to seasonal thawing forming gullies or canyons . At the end of these gullies remaining trace of the leak can be seen, as if there was a crack in the ground and liquid flew out on the surface. Cryosubsurface processes on Mars can support the hypothesis of geochemical origin of water, which separates from the magma, and its primary source comes from the protoplanetary disk. The water separated from the magma migrates up to the surface and if the

  2. Geographic Information Systems and Martian Data: Compatibility and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Planning future landed Mars missions depends on accurate, informed data. This research has created and used spatially referenced instrument data from NASA missions such as the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter and the Mars Orbital Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter. Creating spatially referenced data enables its use in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. It has then been possible to integrate this spatially referenced data with global base maps and build and populate location based databases that are easy to access.

  3. The MESSIER surveyor: unveiling the ultra-low surface brightness universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Gabaud, David; MESSIER Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The MESSIER surveyor is a small mission designed at exploring the very low surface brightness universe. The satellite will drift-scan the entire sky in 6 filters covering the 200-1000 nm range, reaching unprecedented surface brightness levels of 34 and 37 mag arcsec-2 in the optical and UV, respectively. These levels are required to achieve the two main science goals of the mission: to critically test the ΛCDM paradigm of structure formation through (1) the detection and characterisation of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, which are predicted to be extremely abundant around normal galaxies, but which remain elusive; and (2) tracing the cosmic web, which feeds dark matter and baryons into galactic haloes, and which may contain the reservoir of missing baryons at low redshifts. A large number of science cases, ranging from stellar mass loss episodes to intracluster light through fluctuations in the cosmological UV-optical background radiation are free by-products of the full-sky maps produced.

  4. Status and path forward for the large ultraviolet/optical/infrared surveyor (LUVOIR) mission concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, Julie A.; Roberge, Aki; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Mandell, Avi M.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Rioux, Norman M.; Perez, Mario R.; Smith, Erin C.

    2016-07-01

    In preparation of the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has commenced a process for the astronomical community to study several large mission concepts leveraging the lessons learned from past Decadal Surveys. This will enable the Decadal Survey committee to make more informed recommendations to NASA on its astrophysics science and mission priorities with respect to cost and risk. Four astrophysics large mission concepts were identified. Each of them had a Science and Technology Definition Teem (STDT) chartered to produce scientifically compelling, feasible, and executable design reference mission (DRM) concepts to present to the 2020 Decadal Survey. In addition, The Aerospace Corporation will perform an independent cost and technical evaluation (CATE) of each of these mission concept studies in advance of the 2020 Decadal Survey, by interacting with the STDTs to provide detailed technical details on certain areas for which "deep dives" are appropriate. This paper presents the status and path forward for one of the four large mission concepts, namely, the Large UltraViolet, Optical, InfraRed surveyor (LUVOIR).

  5. The Role of County Surveyors and County Drainage Boards in Addressing Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Mike; Mullendore, Nathan; de Jalon, Silvestre Garcia; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2016-06-01

    Water quality problems stemming from the Midwestern U.S. agricultural landscape have been widely recognized and documented. The Midwestern state of Indiana contains tens of thousands of miles of regulated drains that represent biotic communities that comprise the headwaters of the state's many rivers and creeks. Traditional management, however, reduces these waterways to their most basic function as conveyances, ignoring their role in the ecosystem as hosts for biotic and abiotic processes that actively regulate the fate and transport of nutrients and farm chemicals. Novel techniques and practices such as the two-stage ditch, denitrifying bioreactor, and constructed wetlands represent promising alternatives to traditional management approaches, yet many of these tools remain underutilized. To date, conservation efforts and research have focused on increasing the voluntary adoption of practices among agricultural producers. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the roles of the drainage professionals responsible for the management of waterways and regulated drains. To address this gap, we draw on survey responses from 39 county surveyors and 85 drainage board members operating in Indiana. By examining the backgrounds, attitudes, and actions of these individuals, we consider their role in advocating and implementing novel conservation practices.

  6. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 40 GHz Optical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph R.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Marriage, Tobias; Wollack, Edward J.; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) instrument will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 40, 90, and 150 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope system. The telescope is a diffraction limited catadioptric design consisting of a front-end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), two ambient temperature mirrors, two cryogenic dielectric lenses, thermal blocking filters, and an array of 36 smooth-wall scalar feedhorn antennas. The feed horns guide the signal to antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. Polarization diplexing and bandpass definition are handled on the same microchip as the TES. The feed horn beams are truncated with 10 dB edge taper by a 4 K Lyot-stop to limit detector loading from stray light and control the edge illumination of the front-end VPM. The field-of-view is 19 deg x 14 deg with a resolution for each beam on the sky of 1.5 deg. FWHM.

  7. Long-Term Cryogenic Propellant Storage for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Shuvo; Francis, John; Li, Xiaoyi; DeLee, Hudson; Purves, Lloyd; Willis, Dewey; Nixon, Conor; Mcguinness, Dan; Riall, Sara; Devine, Matt; hide

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) can dramatically enhance NASAs ability to explore the solar system because of their superior specific impulse (Isp) capability. Although these cryogenic propellants can be challenging to manage and store, they allow significant mass advantages over traditional hypergolic propulsion systems and are therefore technically enabling for many planetary science missions. New cryogenic storage techniques such as subcooling and the use of advanced insulation and low thermal conductivity support structures will allow for the long term storage and use of cryogenic propellants for solar system exploration and hence allow NASA to deliver more payloads to targets of interest, launch on smaller and less expensive launch vehicles, or both. Employing cryogenic propellants will allow NASA to perform missions to planetary destinations that would not be possible with the use of traditional hypergolic propellants. These new cryogenic storage technologies were implemented in a design study for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission, with LH2 and LOX as propellants, and the resulting spacecraft design was able to achieve a 43 launch mass reduction over a TOPS mission, that utilized a conventional hypergolic propulsion system with mono-methyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants. This paper describes the cryogenic propellant storage design for the TOPS mission and demonstrates how these cryogenic propellants are stored passively for a decade-long Titan mission.

  8. Development of x-ray microcalorimeter imaging spectrometers for the X-ray Surveyor mission concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Simon R.; Adams, Joseph S.; Chervenak, James A.; Datesman, Aaron M.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele; Miniussi, Antoine R.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Smith, Stephen J.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wakeham, Nicholas A.; Wassell, Edward J.; Yoon, Wonsik; Becker, Dan; Bennett, Douglas; Doriese, William B.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gard, Johnathan D.; Hilton, Gene C.; Mates, Benjamin; Morgan, Kelsey M.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Swetz, Daniel; Ullom, Joel N.; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Irwin, Kent D.; Lee, Sang-Jun; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Four astrophysics missions are currently being studied by NASA as candidate large missions to be chosen in the 2020 astrophysics decadal survey.1 One of these missions is the "X-Ray Surveyor" (XRS), and possible configurations of this mission are currently under study by a science and technology definition team (STDT). One of the key instruments under study is an X-ray microcalorimeter, and the requirements for such an instrument are currently under discussion. In this paper we review some different detector options that exist for this instrument, and discuss what array formats might be possible. We have developed one design option that utilizes either transition-edge sensor (TES) or magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) in pixel array-sizes approaching 100 kilo-pixels. To reduce the number of sensors read out to a plausible scale, we have assumed detector geometries in which a thermal sensor such a TES or MCC can read out a sub-array of 20-25 individual 1" pixels. In this paper we describe the development status of these detectors, and also discuss the different options that exist for reading out the very large number of pixels.

  9. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 40 GHz optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Eimer, Joseph R; Chuss, David T; Marriage, Tobias A; Wollack, Edward J; Zeng, Lingzhen; 10.1117/12.925464

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) instrument will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 40, 90, and 150 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope system. The telescope is a diffraction limited catadioptric design consisting of a front-end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), two ambient temperature mirrors, two cryogenic dielectric lenses, thermal blocking filters, and an array of 36 smooth-wall scalar feedhorn antennas. The feed horns guide the signal to antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. Polarization diplexing and bandpass definition are handled on the same microchip as the TES. The feed horn beams are truncated with 10 dB edge taper by a 4 K Lyot-stop to limit detector loading from stray light and control the edge illumination of the front-end VPM. The field-of-view is 19deg x 14deg with a resolution for each beam on the sky of 1.5deg FWHM.

  10. Future Japanese X-ray TES Calorimeter Satellite: DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S.; Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Miyazaki, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Kuromaru, G.; Suzuki, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Sakai, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Tawara, Y.; Mitsuishi, I.; Babazaki, Y.; Nakamichi, R.; Bandai, A.; Yuasa, T.; Ota, N.

    2016-08-01

    We present the latest update and progress on the future Japanese X-ray satellite mission Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS). DIOS is proposed to JAXA as a small satellite mission, and would be launched with an Epsilon rocket. DIOS would carry on the legacy of ASTRO-H, which carries semiconductor-based microcalorimeters and is scheduled to be launched in 2016, in high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. A 400-pixel array of transition-edge sensors (TESs) would be employed, so DIOS would also provide valuable lessons for the next ESA X-ray mission ATHENA on TES operation and cryogen-free cooling in space. We have been sophisticating the entire design of the satellite to meet the requirement for the Epsilon payload for the next call. The primary goal of the mission is to search for warm-hot intergalactic medium with high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy by detecting redshifted emission lines from OVII and OVIII ions. The results would have significant impacts on our understanding of the nature of "dark baryons," their total amount and spatial distribution, as well as their evolution over cosmological timescales.

  11. The cosmology large angular scale surveyor (CLASS): 40 GHz optical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph R.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Marriage, Tobias; Wollack, Edward J.; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2012-09-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) instrument will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 40, 90, and 150 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope system. The telescope is a diffraction limited catadioptric design consisting of a front-end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), two ambient temperature mirrors, two cryogenic dielectric lenses, thermal blocking filters, and an array of 36 smooth-wall scalar feedhorn antennas. The feed horns guide the signal to antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. Polarization diplexing and bandpass definition are handled on the same microchip as the TES. The feed horn beams are truncated with 10 dB edge taper by a 4 K Lyot-stop to limit detector loading from stray light and control the edge illumination of the front-end VPM. The field-of-view is 19° x 14° with a resolution for each beam on the sky of 1.5° FWHM.

  12. Visualization of particle flux in the human body on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganti, Premkumar B.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2002-01-01

    For a given galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment, information on the particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, that varies with respect to the topographical altitude on the Martian surface, are needed for planning exploration missions to Mars. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission with its Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument has been providing precise topographical surface map of the Mars. With this topographical data, the particle flux at the Martian surface level through the CO2 atmospheric shielding for solar minimum and solar maximum conditions are calculated. These particle flux calculations are then transported first through an anticipated shielding of a conceptual shelter with several water equivalent shield values (up to 50 g/cm2 of water in steps of 5 g/cm2) considered to represent a surface habitat, and then into the human body. Model calculations are accomplished utilizing the HZETRN, QMSFRG, and SUM-MARS codes. Particle flux calculations for 12 different locations in the human body were considered from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs (BFO). Visualization of particle flux in the human body at different altitudes on the Martian surface behind a known shielding is anticipated to provide guidance for assessing radiation environment risk on the Martian surface for future human missions.

  13. Extratropical Cyclogenesis and Frontal Waves on Mars: Influences on Dust, Weather and the Planet's climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Kahre, Melinda A.

    2012-01-01

    Between late autumn and early spring, middle and high latitudes on Mars exhibit strong equatortopole mean temperature contrasts (i.e., "baroclinicity"). Data collected during the Viking era and observations from both the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) indicate that this strong baroclinicity supports vigorous, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems (i.e., transient synoptic periodwaves) [1,2]. For a rapidly rotating, differentially heated, shallow atmosphere such as on Earth and Mars, these large-scale, extratropical weather disturbances are critical components of the global circulation. The wavelike disturbances act as agents in the transport of heat and momentum between low and high latitudes of the planet. Through cyclonic/anticyclonic winds, intense shear deformations, contractions-dilatations in temperature and density, and sharp perturbations amongst atmospheric tracers (i.e., dust, volatiles (e.g., water vapor) and condensates (e.g., water-ice cloud particles)), Mars extratropical weather systems have significant subsynoptic scale ramifications by supporting atmospheric frontal waves (Fig. 1).

  14. Mars at Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  15. Mars at Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  16. Mars Museum Visualization Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohus, A. M.; Viotti, M. A.; de Jong, E. M.

    2004-11-01

    The Mars Museum Visualization Alliance is a collaborative effort funded by the Mars Public Engagement Office and supported by JPL's Informal Education staff and the Solar System Visualization Project to share the adventure of exploration and make Mars a real place. The effort started in 2002 with a small working group of museum professionals to learn how best to serve museum audiences through informal science educators. By the time the Mars Exploration Rovers landed on Mars in January 2004, over 100 organizations were partners in the Alliance, which has become a focused community of Mars educators. The Alliance provides guaranteed access to images, information, news, and resources for use by the informal science educators with their students, educators, and public audiences. Thousands of people have shared the adventure of exploring Mars and now see it as a real place through the efforts of the Mars Museum Visualization Alliance partners. The Alliance has been lauded for "providing just the right inside track for museums to do what they do best," be that webcasts, live presentations with the latest images and information, high-definition productions, planetarium shows, or hands-on educational activities. The Alliance is extending its mission component with Cassini, Genesis, Deep Impact, and Stardust. The Mars Exploration and Cassini Programs, as well as the Genesis, Deep Impact, and Stardust Projects, are managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

  17. Digital cartography of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, R. M.

    1987-01-01

    A medium-resolution Digital Image Model (DIM) of Mars is being compiled. A DIM is a mosaic of radiometrically corrected, photometrically modelled spacecraft images displaying accurate reflectance properties at uniform resolution, and geometrically tied to the best available control. The Mars medium-resolution DIM contains approximately 4700 Viking Orbiter image frames that were used to compile the recently completed 1:2,000,000-scale controlled photomosaic series of Mars. This DIM provides a planimetric control base to which all other Mars maps will be registered. A similar control base of topographic elevations (Digital Terrain Model, or DTM) is also being compiled. These products are scheduled for completion in 1989.

  18. Characterization of Mars' seasonal caps using neutron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Feldman, W.C.; Titus, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    Mars' seasonal caps are characterized during Mars years 26 and 27 (April 2002 to January 2006) using data acquired by the 2001 Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer. Time-dependent maps of the column abundance of seasonal CO 2 surface ice poleward of 60?? latitude in both hemispheres are determined from spatially deconvolved, epithermal neutron counting data. Sources of systematic error are analyzed, including spatial blurring by the spectrometer's broad footprint and the seasonal variations in the abundance of noncondensable gas at high southern latitudes, which are found to be consistent with results reported by Sprague et al. (2004, 2007). Corrections for spatial blurring are found to be important during the recession, when the column abundance of seasonal CO2 ice has the largest latitude gradient. The measured distribution and inventory of seasonal CO2 ice is compared to simulations by a general circulation model (GCM) calibrated using Viking lander pressure data, cap edge functions determined by thermal emission spectroscopy, and other nuclear spectroscopy data sets. On the basis of the amount of CO2 cycled through the caps during years 26 and 27, the gross polar energy balance has not changed significantly since Viking. The distribution of seasonal CO2 ice is longitudinally asymmetric: in the north, deposition rates of CO2 ice are elevated in Acidalia, which is exposed to katabatic winds from Chasma Borealis; in the south, CO2 deposition is highest near the residual cap. During southern recession, CO 2 ice is present longer than calculated by the GCM, which has implications for the local polar energy balance. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. The Odyssey of Dental Anxiety: From Prehistory to the Present. A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Facco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental anxiety (DA can be considered as a universal phenomenon with a high prevalence worldwide; DA and pain are also the main causes for medical emergencies in the dental office, so their prevention is an essential part of patient safety and overall quality of care. Being DA and its consequences closely related to the fight-or-flight reaction, it seems reasonable to argue that the odyssey of DA began way back in the distant past, and has since probably evolved in parallel with the development of fight-or-flight reactions, implicit memory and knowledge, and ultimately consciousness. Basic emotions are related to survival functions in an inseparable psychosomatic unity that enable an immediate response to critical situations rather than generating knowledge, which is why many anxious patients are unaware of the cause of their anxiety. Archeological findings suggest that humans have been surprisingly skillful and knowledgeable since prehistory. Neanderthals used medicinal plants; and relics of dental tools bear witness to a kind of Neolithic proto-dentistry. In the two millennia BC, Egyptian and Greek physicians used both plants (such as papaver somniferum and incubation (a forerunner of modern hypnosis, e.g., in the sleep temples dedicated to Asclepius in the attempt to provide some form of therapy and painless surgery, whereas modern scientific medicine strongly understated the role of subjectivity and mind-body approaches until recently. DA has a wide range of causes and its management is far from being a matter of identifying the ideal sedative drug. A patient's proper management must include assessing his/her dental anxiety, ensuring good communications, and providing information (iatrosedation, effective local anesthesia, hypnosis, and/or a wise use of sedative drugs where necessary. Any weak link in this chain can cause avoidable suffering, mistrust, and emergencies, as well as having lifelong psychological consequences. Iatrosedation and

  20. The Odyssey of Dental Anxiety: From Prehistory to the Present. A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Zanette, Gastone

    2017-01-01

    Dental anxiety (DA) can be considered as a universal phenomenon with a high prevalence worldwide; DA and pain are also the main causes for medical emergencies in the dental office, so their prevention is an essential part of patient safety and overall quality of care. Being DA and its consequences closely related to the fight-or-flight reaction, it seems reasonable to argue that the odyssey of DA began way back in the distant past, and has since probably evolved in parallel with the development of fight-or-flight reactions, implicit memory and knowledge, and ultimately consciousness. Basic emotions are related to survival functions in an inseparable psychosomatic unity that enable an immediate response to critical situations rather than generating knowledge, which is why many anxious patients are unaware of the cause of their anxiety. Archeological findings suggest that humans have been surprisingly skillful and knowledgeable since prehistory. Neanderthals used medicinal plants; and relics of dental tools bear witness to a kind of Neolithic proto-dentistry. In the two millennia BC, Egyptian and Greek physicians used both plants (such as papaver somniferum) and incubation (a forerunner of modern hypnosis, e.g., in the sleep temples dedicated to Asclepius) in the attempt to provide some form of therapy and painless surgery, whereas modern scientific medicine strongly understated the role of subjectivity and mind-body approaches until recently. DA has a wide range of causes and its management is far from being a matter of identifying the ideal sedative drug. A patient's proper management must include assessing his/her dental anxiety, ensuring good communications, and providing information (iatrosedation), effective local anesthesia, hypnosis, and/or a wise use of sedative drugs where necessary. Any weak link in this chain can cause avoidable suffering, mistrust, and emergencies, as well as having lifelong psychological consequences. Iatrosedation and hypnosis are no

  1. Microscope on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  2. Microscope on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  3. Mirko Danijel Bogdanić (1760-1802, Astronomer, Mathematician, Surveyor and Croatian Educator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Kren

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides valuable information about the life and work of Mirko Danijel Bogdanić (Bogdanić Imre Dániel (Virovitica, 1762 – Buda, 1802 who was an astronomer, mathematician, surveyor and the author of a book on world history in Croatian. This article observes his life and work from the historical perspective of the time of Emperor Joseph II in Austria. From 1782 to 1785, Bogdanić studied mathematics, physics and astronomy in Buda and Pešt. He often worked with famous Croatian scientists such as Ivan Paskvić (János Pasquich, Franjo Bruna (Ferenc Bruna, Josip Mitterpacher (József Mitterpacher and others. Particular attention is paid to the period between approximately 1791 and 1796, which he spent in Vienna. At first, he focused on publishing the first volume of his history of the world in Croatian (Dogodjaji svieta (World events, 1792 in which he paid particular attention to astronomy and Croatian astronomical terminology. From 1793 to 1795, he studied astronomy at the University of Vienna. The following period was the most important in his life. He was second, then first assistant at the Buda Observatory (1796–1802 and also (1798–1802 appointed Imperial Assistant Astronomer to the cartographer János Lipszky, charged with conducting precise astronomical observations to determine the geographical coordinates for the geographical map of Hungary (Mappa Generalis Regni Hungariae. His observations, especially of latitudes, were considered excellent. He spent many long, hard hours working in the field under adverse weather conditions, leading to extreme exhaustion, which resulted in serious illness and his premature death.

  4. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): In search of the energy scale of inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph R.

    The hypothesis that the early universe underwent a period of accelerating expansion, called inflation, has become an essential mechanism for explaining the flatness and homogeneity of the universe and explaining the fluctuations found in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Inflation predicts the existence of primordial gravitational waves that would have produced a unique polarization pattern on the CMB. Measurement of the amplitude of these gravitational waves can be used to infer the energy scale of the potential driving the expansion. Detection of this signal would be a dramatic confirmation of the inflation paradigm and significantly tighten constraints on inflationary models. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a new ground-based instrument designed to search for the inflationary B-mode signal from the Atacama Desert in northern Chile (elevation ~ 5200 m). The CLASS instrument will observe over 60% of the sky to target the large scale polarization signal (> 10 deg), and consist of four separate telescopes: one observing at 40 GHz, two observing at 90 GHz and one observing at 150 GHz. The detectors for each band will be background limited antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers. A variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) will be placed as the first optical element in each of the telescopes. The front-end polarization modulator will mitigate many systematic effects and provide a powerful means of distinguishing the instrument response from the input signal. This dissertation contains an overview of the CLASS instrument. Specific emphasis is placed on the connection between the science goals and the instrument architecture. A description of the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope is given, and the application of the VPM technology to the CLASS instrument is described. We end with an overview of the detectors.

  5. Strategies to Improve the Accuracy of Mars-GRAM Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.; Badger, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). It has been discovered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process that Mars-GRAM when used for sensitivity studies for MapYear=0 and large optical depth values such as tau=3 is less than realistic. A comparison study between Mars atmospheric density estimates from Mars- GRAM and measurements by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been undertaken for locations of varying latitudes, Ls, and LTST on Mars. The preliminary results from this study have validated the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) limb data. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars- GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). MGCM results that were used for Mars-GRAM with MapYear=0 were from a MGCM run with a fixed value of tau=3 for the entire year at all locations. Unrealistic energy absorption by uniform atmospheric dust leads to an unrealistic thermal energy balance on the polar caps. The outcome is an inaccurate cycle of condensation/sublimation of the polar caps and, as a consequence, an inaccurate cycle of total atmospheric mass and global-average surface pressure. Under an assumption of unchanged temperature profile and hydrostatic equilibrium, a given percentage change in surface pressure would produce a corresponding percentage change in density at all altitudes. Consequently, the final result of a change in surface pressure is an imprecise atmospheric density at all altitudes. To solve this pressure-density problem, a density factor value was determined for tau=.3, 1 and 3 that will adjust the input values of MGCM MapYear 0 pressure and density to achieve a better match of Mars-GRAM MapYear=0 with MapYears 1 and 2 MGCM output

  6. Mars plasma system response to ICME transients at different phases of the solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cano, Beatriz; Lester, Mark; Hall, Benjamin E. S.; Witasse, Olivier; Mays, M. Leila; Blelly, Pierre-Louis; Andrews, David G.; Cartacci, Marco; Opgenoorth, Hermann; Milan, Stephen E.; Ambrosi, Richard M.; Odstrcil, Dusan; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Imber, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    We assess the reaction of the full Martian plasma system after the impact of different Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICME) at Mars at different levels of solar activity and phases of the solar cycle 23/24. The Mars' plasma system behaviour is characterised from the surface of the planet to the bow shock position, which is the most external boundary where the solar wind directly interacts with the Martian system. Events at the extreme phases of the solar cycle will be given special attention, i.e. low and high solar activity periods, since variations in the maximum of the thermal pressure of the ionosphere are a key factor in order to create a significant/weak plasma obstacle to compete with the solar wind. The strength of this obstacle is ultimately controlled by the long-term EUV flux modulations. Likewise, the effect of such ICMEs on the plasma boundaries and induced magnetic fields within the ionosphere will be analysed in detail. The study uses data from TIMED, GOES and STEREOs observatories at 1 AU to monitor the solar irradiance and the propagation of such space weather transits. At Mars, long-term data come from Mars Express and Mars Odyssey missions since both spacecraft have been working from more than 12 years. The MAVEN and MSL missions provide supplementary data. Solar wind propagation modelling is used through the WSA-ENLIL+Cone model, as well as several numerical simulations of the ionosphere of Mars for such scenarios are made through the numerical/fluid TRANSMARS model.

  7. In situ and remote characterization of the external field temporal variations at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, François; Thébault, Erwan

    2017-01-01

    Since there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the temporal variability of the external field as it is done on Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this paper we examine two indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First, we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We sort the measurements on a fine spatial mesh, 0.8° × 0.8° at the equator. We then subtract for each bin and measurement the internal, crustal (static) field without any a priori modeling. We finally compute daily averages of the individual residuals to obtain a time series of an in situ proxy. Second, we use the Advanced Composition Explorer mission which measures the solar wind about 1 h upstream of the Earth at the L1 Lagrange point. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the average velocity of particles carrying the interplanetary magnetic field to obtain a remote proxy time series. We compare these time series and demonstrate that they are complementary. When Mars and the Earth are close to the same Parker spiral arm, in situ and remote series have correlation coefficients close to 0.5. We show how these series, or proxies, can help to select magnetic field measurements on Mars. This dual approach and these proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  8. ExoMars 2016 arrives at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, Hakan; Vago, Jorge L.; ExoMars Team

    2016-10-01

    The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and the Schiaparelli Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Model (EDM) will arrive at Mars on 19 October 2016. The TGO and the EDM are part of the first step of the ExoMars Programme. They will be followed by a Rover and a long lived Surface Platform to be launched in 2020.The EDM is attached to the TGO for the full duration of the cruise to Mars and will be separated three days before arrival at Mars. After separation the TGO will perform a deflection manoeuvre and, on 19 October (during the EDM landing), enter into a highly elliptical near equatorial orbit. TGO will remain in this parking orbit until January 2017, when the orbital plane inclination will be changed to 74 degrees and aerobraking to the final 400 km near circular orbit will start. The final operational orbit is expected to be reached at the end of 2017.The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector for search of subsurface hydrogen. The mass of the TGO is 3700 kg, including fuel. The EDM, with a mass of 600 kg, is mounted on top of the TGO as seen in its launch configuration. The main objective of the EDM is to demonstrate the capability of performing a safe entry, descent and landing on the surface, but it does carry a descent camera and a small battery powered meteorological package that may operate for a few days on the surface.The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency(ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and Schiaparelli (EDM) and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2020 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and

  9. MARS: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribble, R.E.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Liu, W. (Cyclotron Inst., Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1991-05-01

    We are building a momentum achromat recoil spectrometer (MARS) for use with the new K500 superconducting cyclotron at Texas A and M University. MARS uses a unique optical design utilizing two dispersive planes to combine a momemtum achromat with a recoil mass spectrometer. This configuration makes MARS applicable to a broad range of nuclear reaction studies utilizing inverse kinematics. It also leads to a system that is well matched to the range of secondary particle energies that will be produced in reactions with K500 beam. MARS will have a typical mass resolution of {delta}M/M{approx equal}1/300, with an energy acceptance of {+-}9% {Delta}E/E and a geometric solid angle of up to 9 msr. A beam swinger system will alow reaction products in the angular range 0deg to 30deg to be studied. MARS will be used to study both the excited states and decay properties of very proton- and neutron-rich nuclei. MARS will also be used to provide a reaction mechanism filter to assist investigations of the dynamics of heavy ion collisions and to produce secondary radioactive beams for reaction and spectroscopic studies of particular interest for nuclear astrophysics. We briefly describe the design of MARS, give a status report on its construction and an overview of the scientific program planned for it. (orig.).

  10. Russian contribution to the ExoMars project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, L.; Korablev, O.; Rodionov, D.; Khartov, V.; Martynov, M.; Lukyanchikov, A.

    2014-04-01

    The ExoMars ESA-led mission is dedicated to study of Mars and in particular its habitability. It consists of two launches, one planned in 2016 to deliver to Mars a telecommunication and science orbiter Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and a demonstrator of entry into the atmosphere and landing on the Mars surface, Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM). In 2018 a rover with drilling capability will be delivered to the surface of Mars. Since 2012 this mission, previously planned in cooperation with NASA is being developed in cooperation with Roscosmos. Both launches are planned with Proton-Breeze. In 2016 Russia contributes a significant part of the TGO science payload. In 2018 the landing will be provided by a joint effort capitalizing on the EDM technology. Russia contributes few science instruments for the rover, and leads the development of a long-living geophysical platform on the surface of Mars. Russian science instruments for TGO, the Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) and the Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutrons Detector (FREND) constituent a half of its scientific payload, European instrument being NOMAD for mapping and detection of trace species, and CASSIS camera for high-resolution mapping of target areas. The ACS package consists of three spectrometers covering spectral range from 0.7 to 17 μm with spectral resolving power reaching 50000. It is dedicated to studies of the composition of the Martian atmosphere and the Martian climate. FREND is a neutron detector with a collimation module, which significantly narrows the field of view of the instrument, allowing to create higher resolution maps of hydrogen-abundant regions on Mars. The spatial resolution of FREND will be ~40 km from the 400- km TGO orbit that is ~10 times better than HEND on Mars-Odyssey. Additionally, FREND includes a dosimeter module for monitoring radiation levels in orbit around Mars. In the 2018 mission, Russia takes the major responsibility of the descent module. The primary

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab 150 mg Every 4 Weeks in Patients With Hypercholesterolemia Not on Statin Therapy : The ODYSSEY CHOICE II Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroes, Erik; Guyton, John R; Lepor, Norman; Civeira, Fernando; Gaudet, Daniel; Watts, Gerald F; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T; Lecorps, Guillaume; Manvelian, Garen; Farnier, Michel; Visseren, FLJ|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166267678

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The PCSK9 antibody alirocumab (75 mg every 2 weeks; Q2W) as monotherapy reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 47%. Because the option of a monthly dosing regimen is convenient, ODYSSEY CHOICE II evaluated alirocumab 150 mg Q4W in patients with inadequately control

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab 150 mg Every 4 Weeks in Patients With Hypercholesterolemia Not on Statin Therapy : The ODYSSEY CHOICE II Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroes, Erik; Guyton, John R; Lepor, Norman; Civeira, Fernando; Gaudet, Daniel; Watts, Gerald F; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T; Lecorps, Guillaume; Manvelian, Garen; Farnier, Michel; Visseren, FLJ

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The PCSK9 antibody alirocumab (75 mg every 2 weeks; Q2W) as monotherapy reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 47%. Because the option of a monthly dosing regimen is convenient, ODYSSEY CHOICE II evaluated alirocumab 150 mg Q4W in patients with inadequately

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab 150 mg Every 4 Weeks in Patients With Hypercholesterolemia Not on Statin Therapy : The ODYSSEY CHOICE II Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroes, Erik; Guyton, John R; Lepor, Norman; Civeira, Fernando; Gaudet, Daniel; Watts, Gerald F; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T; Lecorps, Guillaume; Manvelian, Garen; Farnier, Michel; Visseren, FLJ

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The PCSK9 antibody alirocumab (75 mg every 2 weeks; Q2W) as monotherapy reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 47%. Because the option of a monthly dosing regimen is convenient, ODYSSEY CHOICE II evaluated alirocumab 150 mg Q4W in patients with inadequately control

  14. Export Odyssey: An Exposition and Analytical Review of Literature Concerning an Undergraduate Student Project in International Marketing on Key Teaching-Learning Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Export Odyssey (EO), a structured, Internet-intensive, team-based undergraduate student project in international marketing. Presents an analytical review of articles in the literature that relate to three key teaching-learning dimensions of student projects (experiential versus non-experiential active learning, team-based versus…

  15. Mars Observer's costly solitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, John

    1993-09-01

    An evaluation is presented of the ramifications of the loss of contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft in August, 1993; the Observer constituted the first NASA mission to Mars in 17 years. It is noted that most, if not all of the scientists involved with the mission will have to find alternative employment within 6 months. The loss of the Observer will leave major questions concerning the geologic history of Mars, and its turbulent atmospheric circulation, unanswered. A detailed account of the discovery of the loss of communications, the unsuccessful steps taken to rectify the problem, and the financial losses incurred through the failure of the mission, are also given.

  16. Martian Polar Region Impact Craters: Geometric Properties From Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Frawley, J. J.; Matias, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has so far observed approximately 100 impact landforms in the north polar latitudes (>60 degrees N) of Mars. Correlation of the topography with Viking Orbiter images indicate that many of these are near-center profiles, and for some of the most northern craters, multiple data passes have been acquired. The northern high latitudes of Mars may contain substantial ground ice and be topped with seasonal frost (largely CO2 with some water), forming each winter. We have analyzed various diagnostic crater topologic parameters for this high-latitude crater population with the objective of characterizing impact features in north polar terrains, and we explore whether there is evidence of interaction with ground ice, frost, dune movement, or other polar processes. We find that there are substantial topographic variations from the characteristics of midlatitude craters in the polar craters that are not readily apparent from prior images. The transition from small simple craters to large complex craters is not well defined, as was observed in the midlatitude MOLA data (transition at 7-8 km). Additionally, there appear to be additional topographic complexities such as anomalously large central structures in many polar latitude impact features. It is not yet clear if these are due to target-induced differences in the formation of the crater or post-formation modifications from polar processes.

  17. Identifying Surface Changes on HRSC Images of the Mars South Polar Residual CAP (sprc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Alfiah Rizky Diana; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-06-01

    The surface of Mars has been an object of interest for planetary research since the launch of Mariner 4 in 1964. Since then different cameras such as the Viking Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS), Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) have been imaging its surface at ever higher resolution. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board of the European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express, has been imaging the Martian surface, since 25th December 2003 until the present-day. HRSC has covered 100 % of the surface of Mars, about 70 % of the surface with panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98 % at better than 100 m/pixel (Neukum et. al., 2004), including the polar regions of Mars. The Mars polar regions have been studied intensively recently by analysing images taken by the Mars Express and MRO missions (Plaut et al., 2007). The South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) does not change very much in volume overall but there are numerous examples of dynamic phenomena associated with seasonal changes in the atmosphere. In particular, we can examine the time variation of layers of solid carbon dioxide and water ice with dust deposition (Bibring, 2004), spider-like channels (Piqueux et al., 2003) and so-called Swiss Cheese Terrain (Titus et al., 2004). Because of seasonal changes each Martian year, due to the sublimation and deposition of water and CO2 ice on the Martian south polar region, clearly identifiable surface changes occur in otherwise permanently icy region. In this research, good quality HRSC images of the Mars South Polar region are processed based on previous identification as the optimal coverage of clear surfaces (Campbell et al., 2015). HRSC images of the Martian South Pole are categorized in terms of quality, time, and location to find overlapping areas, processed into high quality Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) and

  18. IDENTIFYING SURFACE CHANGES ON HRSC IMAGES OF THE MARS SOUTH POLAR RESIDUAL CAP (SPRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. D. Putri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars has been an object of interest for planetary research since the launch of Mariner 4 in 1964. Since then different cameras such as the Viking Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO Context Camera (CTX and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE have been imaging its surface at ever higher resolution. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC on board of the European Space Agency (ESA Mars Express, has been imaging the Martian surface, since 25th December 2003 until the present-day. HRSC has covered 100 % of the surface of Mars, about 70 % of the surface with panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98 % at better than 100 m/pixel (Neukum et. al., 2004, including the polar regions of Mars. The Mars polar regions have been studied intensively recently by analysing images taken by the Mars Express and MRO missions (Plaut et al., 2007. The South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC does not change very much in volume overall but there are numerous examples of dynamic phenomena associated with seasonal changes in the atmosphere. In particular, we can examine the time variation of layers of solid carbon dioxide and water ice with dust deposition (Bibring, 2004, spider-like channels (Piqueux et al., 2003 and so-called Swiss Cheese Terrain (Titus et al., 2004. Because of seasonal changes each Martian year, due to the sublimation and deposition of water and CO2 ice on the Martian south polar region, clearly identifiable surface changes occur in otherwise permanently icy region. In this research, good quality HRSC images of the Mars South Polar region are processed based on previous identification as the optimal coverage of clear surfaces (Campbell et al., 2015. HRSC images of the Martian South Pole are categorized in terms of quality, time, and location to find overlapping areas, processed into high quality Digital Terrain Models (DTMs and

  19. Bringing Authentic Research into the Classroom with the Mars Student Imaging Project: Comparison of the PBL Gold Standards to the Scientific Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The goal of Project Based Learning (PBL) is to actively engage students through authentic, real word study to increase content knowledge, understanding, and skills for everyday success. The essential design of PBL is very similar in nature to the scientific method and therefore easy to adapt to the science classroom. In my classroom, students use these essential elements when engaging in the study of the processes that affect the surface of a planet such as weathering and erosion. Studying Mars is a hook to getting students to learn about the same processes that occur on Earth and to contrast the differences that occur on another planetary body. As part of the Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP), students have the opportunity to engage and collaborate with NASA scientists at Arizona State University and get feedback on their work. They research and develop their own question or area of focus to study. They use images of Mars taken using the THEMIS camera onboard the Mars Odyssey Satellite, which has been orbiting Mars since 2001. Students submit a proposal to the scientists at ASU and, if accepted, they are given the opportunity to use the THEMIS camera in orbit to photograph a new region on Mars that will hopefully contribute to their research. Students give a final presentation to the faculty, staff, community, and other students by presenting their work in a poster session and explaining their work to the audience.

  20. Mars' core and magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D J

    2001-07-12

    The detection of strongly magnetized ancient crust on Mars is one of the most surprising outcomes of recent Mars exploration, and provides important insight about the history and nature of the martian core. The iron-rich core probably formed during the hot accretion of Mars approximately 4.5 billion years ago and subsequently cooled at a rate dictated by the overlying mantle. A core dynamo operated much like Earth's current dynamo, but was probably limited in duration to several hundred million years. The early demise of the dynamo could have arisen through a change in the cooling rate of the mantle, or even a switch in convective style that led to mantle heating. Presently, Mars probably has a liquid, conductive outer core and might have a solid inner core like Earth.

  1. Mars Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA’s Mars Exploration Program (MEP) calls for a series of highly ambitious missions over the next decade and beyond. The overall goals of the MEP must be...

  2. Mars Rover Photos API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This API is designed to collect image data gathered by NASA's Curiosity, Opportunity, and Spirit rovers on Mars and make it more easily available to other...

  3. Internal constitution of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Models of the internal structure of Mars consistent with the mass, radius and moment of inertia of the planet are constructed. The models assume that the radius of the core is between 0.36 and 0.60 of the radius of the planet, that the zero-pressure density of the mantle is between 3.54 and 3.49 g/cu cm, and that the planet contains 25 to 28% iron. Meteorite models of Mars containing 25 wt % iron and 12 wt % core are also proposed. It is maintained that Mars in contrast to the earth is an incompletely differentiated planet with a core substantially richer in sulfur than the core of the earth. The absence of a magnetic field on Mars is possibly linked with lack of lunar precessional torque and the small size and high resistivity of the Martian core.

  4. The Origin of Transverse Aeolian Ridges on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P.

    2015-12-01

    Transverse aeolian ridges, or TARs, are found throughout the tropics of Mars and typically appear as rows of bright ripples that are several meters tall and spaced semi-regularly several tens of meters apart. The origin of these features remained mysterious for decades after their discovery in Viking and Mars Global Surveyor images. A new hypothesis (Geissler, 2014, 10.1002-2014JE004633) suggests that TARs might be deposits left behind by dusty turbidity currents in the Martian atmosphere. The hypothesis assumes that the micron-sized dust particles are transported in suspension in turbulent flows, driven both by the winds and by gravity. The dust is concentrated near the surface, much like turbidity currents on Earth. Because of the difference in density, however, the dust clouds behave as a fluid distinct from the clear sky above. In particular, waves can appear at the surface of the dense "fluid" when the flows encounter topographic obstacles along their paths. Such gravity waves travel at speeds that are determined by gravity and the thickness of the flow, much like waves in shallow water on Earth. When the wave propagation speed matches the speed of the flow, stationary waves are produced that persist in fixed locations. The bedforms deposited by such stationary waves are called "antidunes" (Gilbert, 1914, USGS Prof. Paper 86) because, unlike dunes, they can migrate upstream in a supercritical flow. Antidunes are commonly seen in shallow, high energy fluvial deposits on Earth. They are usually destroyed as quickly as they form, and are rarely preserved. The Martian TARs survive because the dust is sticky; TARs are deposited by currents that are much slower than the wind speeds needed to lift the dust again. Subaerial antidunes are much rarer on Earth and less well studied, and so the giant subaerial stationary antidunes of Mars, if that is what the TARs turn out to be, may teach us much about a geological process that is poorly known on our planet.

  5. A Mars 1984 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  6. Status of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  7. Why exobiology on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, A.

    1996-11-01

    Processing of organic molecules by liquid water was probably an essential requirement towards the emergence of terrestrial primitive life. According to Oparin's hypothesis, organic building blocks required for early life were produced from simple organic molecules formed in a primitive reducing atmosphere. Geochemists favour now a less reducing atmosphere dominated by carbon dioxide. In such an atmosphere very few building blocks are formed. Import of extra-terrestrial organic molecules may represent an alternative supply. Experimental support for such an alternative scenario is examined in comets, meteorites and micrometeorites. The early histories of Mars and Earth clearly show similarities. Liquid water was once stable on the surface of Mars attesting the presence of an atmosphere capable of deccelerating C-rich micrometeorites. Therefore, primitive life may have developed on Mars as well. Liquid water disappeared from the surface of Mars very early, about 3.8 Ga ago. The Viking missions did not find, at the surface of the Martian soil, any organic molecules or clear-cut evidence for microbial activities such as photo-synthesis, respiration or nutrition. The results can be explained referring to an active photochemistry of Martian soil driven by the high influx of solar UV. These experiments do not exclude the existence of organic molecules and fossils of micro-organisms which developed on early Mars until liquid water disappeared. Mars may store below its surface some well preserved clues of a still hypothetical primitive life.

  8. Mars Rover RTG Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-11-27

    This report summarizes the results of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) design study conducted by Fairchild Space Company at the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of the Mars Rover and Sample Return mission under investigation at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Presented at the 40th Congress of the IAF, Oct. 7-13, 1989 in Torremolinos, Malaga-Spain. The paper describes the design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the Mars Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The RTG design study was conducted by Fairchild Space for the U.S. DOE in support of the JPL MRSR Project. The paper briefly describes a reference mission scenario, an illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, and its power system requirements and environmental constraints, including the RTG cooling requirements during transit to Mars. It summarizes the baseline RTG's mass breakdown, and presents a detailed description of its thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analysis. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments. It provides a basis for selecting the optimum strategy for meeting the Mars Rover design goals with minimal programmatic risk and cost. Cross Reference CID #7135 dated 10/1989. There is a duplicate copy. This document is not relevant to the OSTI Library. Do not send.

  9. Clouds over Mars!

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This is the first color image ever taken from the surface of Mars of an overcast sky. Featured are pink stratus clouds coming from the northeast at about 15 miles per hour (6.7 meters/second) at an approximate height of ten miles (16 kilometers) above the surface. The clouds consist of water ice condensed on reddish dust particles suspended in the atmosphere. Clouds on Mars are sometimes localized and can sometimes cover entire regions, but have not yet been observed to cover the entire planet. The image was taken about an hour and forty minutes before sunrise by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 16 at about ten degrees up from the eastern Martian horizon.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages and Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  10. Improvement of job satisfaction and organisational commitment through work group identification: an examination of the quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yee Betty Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Though extant literatures in other sectors indicatethat job satisfaction and organizational commitment are important fordetermining individual and organisational outcomes, limited related researchhas been conducted amongst quantity surveyors in Hong Kong. Given cooperativeworking arrangement in the quantity surveying profession, work groupidentification is regarded as an important antecedent for determining jobsatisfaction and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to examinewhether work group identification improves job satisfaction and organisationalcommitment. A questionnaire survey is conducted to collect data from quantitysurveyors working in private sector. A total of 71 valid responses are obtainedfrom 509 contacted quantity surveyors in Hong Kong. Bivariate correlation andmultiple regression analyses are performed to find the significance ofrelationships among the variables. Data analysis results support mosthypotheses. Work group identification is found to have significant positiveeffect on job satisfaction, affective and normative commitment. The finding isa bold step for quantity surveying companies to improve their quantity surveyors’job satisfaction and commitment level. The role of other contextual and organisationalfactors on job satisfaction and organisational commitment needs to becomplemented for future research.

  11. A simple, high sensitivity mutation screening using Ampligase mediated T7 endonuclease I and Surveyor nuclease with microfluidic capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mo Chao; Cheong, Wai Chye; Lim, Li Shi; Li, Mo-Huang

    2012-03-01

    Mutation and polymorphism detection is of increasing importance for a variety of medical applications, including identification of cancer biomarkers and genotyping for inherited genetic disorders. Among various mutation-screening technologies, enzyme mismatch cleavage (EMC) represents a great potential as an ideal scanning method for its simplicity and high efficiency, where the heteroduplex DNAs are recognized and cleaved into DNA fragments by mismatch-recognizing nucleases. Thereby, the enzymatic cleavage activities of the resolving nucleases play a critical role for the EMC sensitivity. In this study, we utilized the unique features of microfluidic capillary electrophoresis and de novo gene synthesis to explore the enzymatic properties of T7 endonuclease I and Surveyor nuclease for EMC. Homoduplex and HE DNAs with specific mismatches at desired positions were synthesized using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) gene synthesis. The effects of nonspecific cleavage, preference of mismatches, exonuclease activity, incubation time, and DNA loading capability were systematically examined. In addition, the utilization of a thermostable DNA ligase for real-time ligase mediation was investigated. Analysis of the experimental results has led to new insights into the enzymatic cleavage activities of T7 endonuclease I and Surveyor nuclease, and aided in optimizing EMC conditions, which enhance the sensitivity and efficiency in screening of unknown DNA variations.

  12. The MARS2013 Mars analog mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Soucek, Alexander; Frischauf, Norbert; Stumptner, Willibald; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Bartenstein, Thomas; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Petrova, Polina; Evetts, Simon; Sivenesan, Chan; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja

    2014-05-01

    We report on the MARS2013 mission, a 4-week Mars analog field test in the northern Sahara. Nineteen experiments were conducted by a field crew in Morocco under simulated martian surface exploration conditions, supervised by a Mission Support Center in Innsbruck, Austria. A Remote Science Support team analyzed field data in near real time, providing planning input for the management of a complex system of field assets; two advanced space suit simulators, four robotic vehicles, an emergency shelter, and a stationary sensor platform in a realistic work flow were coordinated by a Flight Control Team. A dedicated flight planning group, external control centers for rover tele-operations, and a biomedical monitoring team supported the field operations. A 10 min satellite communication delay and other limitations pertinent to human planetary surface activities were introduced. The fields of research for the experiments were geology, human factors, astrobiology, robotics, tele-science, exploration, and operations research. This paper provides an overview of the geological context and environmental conditions of the test site and the mission architecture, in particular the communication infrastructure emulating the signal travel time between Earth and Mars. We report on the operational work flows and the experiments conducted, including a deployable shelter prototype for multiple-day extravehicular activities and contingency situations.

  13. Effects of X-ray flares on the aeronomy of Mars: Simultaneous measurements of ionospheric effects of X-ray flares on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Syed A.; Machado Santos, Angela; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Batista, Inez S.; Shah, Siddhi Y.; Thirupathaiah, P.

    2016-07-01

    MIRI: Validation and Testing Requirements We have studied X-ray aeronomy in the ionospheric E region of Mars during six X-ray flares that occurred on 28 March and 6 April, 2001; 17,18 March and 21 April, 2003 and 19 February, 2005 respectively. These flares were responded by the corresponding electron density profiles of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). The time series of photoionization rate, photoelectron impact ionization rate, photoelectron flux, ion density, electron density and total Electron Content (TEC) are predicted for each flare day. The estimated production rate, flux and densities are increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude due to effects of these flares in the E region ionosphere of Mars. The normalized estimated TEC are compared with the normalized measured TEC of MGS profiles. At the peak flare time the normalized estimated and normalized measured TEC were enhanced by a factor of 5-10 and 2 respectively. The effects of these flares were also registered in the D region equatorial ionosphere of Earth at Fortaleza observatory. The flares of 6 April, 2001, 17 March and 21 April, 2003 also produced electron density enhancement in the E region ionosphere of Earth at College AK and Cachoeira Paulista observatories. The minimum frequency fmin, recorded in ionogram, increased by 100% (due to D region absorption) while the foE increased by 20%, in the Earth's ionosphere.

  14. 100 New Impact Crater Sites Found on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M. R.; Malin, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent observations constrain the formation of 100 new impact sites on Mars over the past decade; 19 of these were found using the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), and the other 81 have been identified since 2006 using the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera (CTX). Every 6 meter/pixel CTX image is examined upon receipt and, where they overlap images of 0.3-240 m/pixel scale acquired by the same or other Mars-orbiting spacecraft, we look for features that may have changed. New impact sites are initially identified by the presence of a new dark spot or cluster of dark spots in a CTX image. Such spots may be new impact craters, or result from the effect of impact blasts on the dusty surface. In some (generally rare) cases, the crater is sufficiently large to be resolved in the CTX image. In most cases, however, the crater(s) cannot be seen. These are tentatively designated as “candidate” new impact sites, and the CTX team then creates an opportunity for the MRO spacecraft to point its cameras off-nadir and requests that the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) team obtain an image of ~0.3 m/pixel to confirm whether a crater or crater cluster is present. It is clear even from cursory examination that the CTX observations are areographically biased to dusty, higher albedo areas on Mars. All but 3 of the 100 new impact sites occur on surfaces with Lambert albedo values in excess of 23.5%. Our initial study of MOC images greatly benefited from the initial global observations made in one month in 1999, creating a baseline date from which we could start counting new craters. The global coverage by MRO Mars Color Imager is more than a factor of 4 poorer in resolution than the MOC Wide Angle camera and does not offer the opportunity for global analysis. Instead, we must rely on partial global coverage and global coverage that has taken years to accumulate; thus we can only treat impact rates statistically. We subdivide the total data

  15. Experimental Approaches to Understanding Surficial Processes on Mars: The Stony Brook Experience 2000-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, S. M.; Dehouck, E.; Hurowitz, J.; Lindsley, D. H.; Schoonen, M. A.; Tosca, N. J.; Zhao, Y. Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    Starting with Pathfinder and Global Surveyor, recent missions to Mars have provided great opportunity for low-temperature experimental geochemistry investigations of the Martian sedimentary record by providing geochemical and mineralogical data that can be used as meaningful tests for experiments. These missions have documented a long-lived, complex and dynamic sedimentary rock cycle, including "source-to-sink" sedimentary systems and global paleoenvironmental transitions through time. We designed and constructed an experimental facility, beginning in 2000, specifically to evaluate surficial processes on Mars. Our experimental philosophy has been to (1) keep apparatus simple and flexible, and if feasible maintain sample access during experiments; (2) use starting materials (minerals, rocks) close to known Mars compositions (often requiring synthesis); (3) address sedimentary processes supported by geological investigations at Mars; (4) begin with experiments at standard conditions so they are best supported by thermodynamics; (5) support experiments with thermodynamic-kinetic-mass balance modeling in both design and interpretation, and by high quality chemical, mineralogical and textural lab analyses; (6) interpret results in the context of measurements made at Mars. Although eliciting much comment in proposal and manuscript reviews, we have not attempted to slavishly maintain "Mars conditions", doing so only to the degree required by variables being tested in any given experiments. Among the problems we have addressed are (1) Amazonian alteration of rock surfaces; (2) Noachian-Hesperian chemical weathering; (3) epithermal alteration of `evolved' igneous rocks; (4) mineral surface chemical reactivity from aeolian abrasion; (5) evaporation of mafic brines; (6) early diagenesis of sedimentary iron mineralogy; (7) trace element and halogen behavior during chemical weathering and diagenesis; (8) photochemical influences on halogen distribution and speciation; (9) post

  16. Extratropical Weather Systems on Mars: Radiatively-Active Water Ice Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Urata, R. A.; Montmessin, F.

    2017-01-01

    Extratropical, large-scale weather disturbances, namely transient, synoptic-period,baroclinic barotropic eddies - or - low- (high-) pressure cyclones (anticyclones), are components fundamental to global circulation patterns for rapidly rotating, differentially heated, shallow atmospheres such as Earth and Mars. Such "wave-like" disturbances that arise via (geophysical) fluid shear instability develop, mature and decay, and travel west-to-east in the middle and high latitudes within terrestrial-like planetary atmospheres. These disturbances serve as critical agents in the transport of heat and momentum between low and high latitudes of the planet. Moreover, they transport trace species within the atmosphere (e.g., water vapor/ice, other aerosols (dust), chemical species, etc). Between early autumn through early spring, middle and high latitudes on Mars exhibit strong equator-to-pole mean temperature contrasts (i.e., "baroclinicity"). Data collected during the Viking era and observations from both the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) indicate that such strong baroclinicity supports vigorous, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems [Banfield et al., 2004; Barnes et al., 1993]. A good example of traveling weather systems, frontal wave activity and sequestered dust activity from MGS/MOC image analyses is provided in Figure 1 (cf. Wang et al. [2005]). Utilizing an upgraded and evolving version of the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Mars global climate model, investigated here are key dynamical and physical aspects of simulated northern hemisphere (NH) large-scale extratropica lweather systems,with and without radiatively-active water ice clouds. Mars Climate Model:

  17. The Bisa GEM-Mars GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Lori; Daerden, Frank

    2013-04-01

    data from HEND [Litvak et al. 2004] and GRS [Kelly et al. 2006]. The effect of the polar cap formation on the pressure cycle is found to be in very good agreement with the Viking Landers and Phoenix [Taylor et al. 2010] data. References: Côté J., S. Gravel, A. Méthot, A. Patoine, M. Roch and A. Staniforth, The operational CMC-MRB Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model: Part I - Design considerations and formulation, Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1373-1395. Davy, R., J. A. Davis, P. A. Taylor, C. F. Lange, W. Weng, J. Whiteway, and H. P. Gunnlaugson (2010), Initial analysis of air temperature and related data from the Phoenix MET station and their use in estimating turbulent heat fluxes, J. Geophys. Res., 115, E00E13, doi:10.1029/2009JE003444. Kelly, N. J., W. V. Boynton, K. Kerry, D. Hamara, D. Janes, R. C. Reedy, K. J. Kim, and R. M. Haberle (2006), Seasonal polar carbon dioxide frost on Mars: CO2 mass and columnar thickness distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E03S07, doi:10.1029/2006JE002678 [printed 112(E3), 2007]. Kleinbohl, A., J. T. Schofield, D. M. Kass, W. A. Abdou, C. R. Backus, B. Sen, J. H. Shirley,W. G. Lawson, M. I. Richardson, F. W. Taylor, N. A. Teanby, and D. J. McCleese (2009). "Mars Climate Sounder limb profile retrieval of atmospheric temperature, pressure, dust and water ice opacity," J. Geophys. Res., 114, E10006, doi:10.1029/2009JE003358. Litvak, M. L., et al. (2004), Seasonal carbon dioxide depositions on the Martian surface as revealed from neutron measurements by the HEND instrument onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft, Sol. Syst. Res., 38, 167 - 177. Smith M. D. (2004), Interannual variability in TES atmospheric observations of Mars during 1999-2003, Icarus 167, 148 -165. Taylor, P. A., et al. (2010), On pressure measurement and seasonal pressure variations during the Phoenix mission, J. Geophys. Res., 115, E00E15, doi:10.1029/2009JE003422. Wolff, M. J., et al. (2006), Constraints on dust aerosols from the Mars Exploration Rovers using MGS

  18. Guidelines for 2008 MARS exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Full details of the Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS) are available via the HR Department’s homepage or directly on the Department’s MARS web page: https://cern.ch/hr-dept/ https://cern.ch/hr-eguide/mars/mars.asp You will find on these pages: MARS procedures including the MARS timetable for proposals and decisions; Regulations with links to the scheme’s statutory basis; Frequently Asked Questions; Useful documents with links to relevant documentation; e.g. mandate of the Senior Staff Advisory Committee (SSAC); Related links and contacts. HR Department Tel. 73566

  19. Mars Rover RTG Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-10-01

    Presented at the 40th Congress of the IAF, Oct. 7-13, 1989 in Torremolinos, Malaga-Spain. The paper describes the design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the Mars Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The RTG design study was conducted by Fairchild Space for the U.S. DOE in support of the JPL MRSR Project. The paper briefly describes a reference mission scenario, an illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, and its power system requirements and environmental constraints, including the RTG cooling requirements during transit to Mars. It summarizes the baseline RTG's mass breakdown, and presents a detailed description of its thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analysis. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments. It provides a basis for selecting the optimum strategy for meeting the Mars Rover design goals with minimal programmatic risk and cost. There is a duplicate copy and three copies in the file.

  20. Four Finalist Landing Site Candidates for Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Out of more than 30 sites considered as possible landing targets for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission, by November 2008 four of the most intriguing places on Mars rose to the final round of the site-selection process. The four finalists are, alphabetically: Eberswalde, where an ancient river deposited a delta in a possible lake; Gale, with a mountain of stacked layers including clays and sulfates; Holden, a crater containing alluvial fans, flood deposits, possible lake beds and clay-rich deposits; and Mawrth, which shows exposed layers containing at least two types of clay. The locations of these four candidates are indicated here on a background map of color-coded topographical data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Red is higher elevation; blue is lower elevation. In latitude, the map extends from 70 degrees (north) to minus 70 degrees (south). The east-west axis is labeled at the top in degrees of east longitude, with the zero meridian at the center. The Mars Science Laboratory mission's capabilities for landing more precisely and at higher elevation than ever before, for driving farther, and for generating electricity without reliance on sunshine have enabled consideration of a wider range of possible landing sites than for any previous Mars mission. During the past two years, multiple observations of dozens of candidate sites by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have augmented data from earlier orbiters for evaluating sites' scientific attractions and engineering risks. More than 100 Mars scientists have participated in a series of open workshops presenting and assessing data that the orbiters have provided about the candidate sites. The four sites rated highest by researchers at a September 2008 workshop were the same ones chosen by mission leaders after a subsequent round of safety evaluations and analysis of terrain for rover driving. As a clay-bearing site where a river once flowed into a lake, Eberswalde Crater

  1. Mars Spark Source Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Lindamood, Glenn R.; Weiland, Karen J.; VanderWal, Randall L.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Spark Source Prototype (MSSP) hardware has been developed as part of a proof of concept system for the detection of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic in Martian dusts and soils. A spark discharge produces plasma from a soil sample and detectors measure the optical emission from metals in the plasma that will allow their identification and quantification. Trace metal measurements are vital for the assessment of the potential toxicity of the Martian environment for human exploration. The current method of X-ray fluorescence can yield concentrations only of major species. Other instruments are incompatible with the volume, weight, and power constraints for a Mars mission. The instrument will be developed primarily for use in the Martian environment, but would be adaptable for terrestrial use in environmental monitoring. This paper describes the Mars Spark Source Prototype hardware, the results of the characterization tests, and future plans for hardware development.

  2. Remanent magnetism at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, S. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that a strong case can be made for an intrinsic magnetic field of dynamo origin for Mars earlier in its history. The typical equatorial magnetic field intensity would have been equal to about 0.01-0.1 gauss. The earlier dynamo activity is no longer extant, but a significant remanent magnetic field may exist. A highly non-dipole magnetic field could result from the remanent magnetization of the surface. Remanent magnetization may thus play an important role in the Mars solar wind interactions, in contrast to Venus with its surface temperatures above the Curie point. The anomalous characteristics of Mars'solar wind interaction compared to that of Venus may be explicable on this basis.

  3. VR for Mars Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Theodore

    1998-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology has played an integral role for Mars Pathfinder mission, operations Using an automated machine vision algorithm, the 3d topography of the Martian surface was rapidly recovered fro -a the stereo images captured. by the Tender camera to produce photo-realistic 3d models, An advanced, interface was developed for visualization and interaction with. the virtual environment of the Pathfinder landing site for mission scientists at the Space Flight Operations Facility of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The VR aspect of the display allowed mission scientists to navigate on Mars in Bud while remaining here on Earth, thus improving their spatial awareness of the rock field that surrounds the lenders Measurements of positions, distances and angles could be easily extracted from the topographic models, providing valuable information for science analysis and mission. planning. Moreover, the VR map of Mars has also been used to assist with the archiving and planning of activities for the Sojourner rover.

  4. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is a novel technology for recovering oxygen, iron, and other constituents from lunar and Mars soils. The closed-loop...

  5. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1996-09-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission is a Discovery class mission that will place a small lander and rover on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997. The Pathfinder flight system is a single small lander, packaged within an aeroshell and back cover with a back-pack-style cruise stage. The vehicle will be launched, fly independently to Mars, and enter the atmosphere directly on approach behind the aeroshell. The vehicle is slowed by a parachute and 3 small solid rockets before landing on inflated airbags. Petals of a small tetrahedron shaped lander open up, to right the vehicle. The lander is solar powered with batteries and will operate on the surface for up to a year, downlinking data on a high-gain antenna. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, with 3 imagers and an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The rover (includes a series of technology experiments), the instruments (including a stereo multispectral surface imager on a pop up mast and an atmospheric structure instrument-surface meteorology package) and the telemetry system will allow investigations of: the surface morphology and geology at meter scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products and early environments and conditions on Mars.

  6. Flying To Mars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周铭杨

    2015-01-01

    <正>Do you know"Mars migration programme"by SpaceX?It’s an immigrant plan to a planet—Mars,Sounds incredible,isn’t it?After two-round tests,Li Dapeng,graduating from Handan NO.1 high school in 2001,was selected.There entered four Chinese in final test.To be more precise,Li is the only one who comes from the mainland of China.Last weekend,Li came to our school for a speech.Driven by

  7. EquiMar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnstone, C. M.; McCombes, T.; Bahaj, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    / financiers etc when attempting to quantify the performance of a device since it makes it very difficult to reference and benchmark the performance of a marine energy converter. The EC Framework Programme VII EquiMar project has set out to develop a suite of Best Practices to be adopted when undertaking...... the performance evaluation of such systems in order to address this deficiency. This paper reports the development of a set of ‘Best Practices’ within the ECFPVII EquiMar project to be adopted for the performance quantification of wave and tidal energy converters as they evolve from an engineering concept...

  8. Mars Obliquity Cycle Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The tilt of Mars' spin axis (obliquity) varies cyclically over hundreds of thousands of years, and affects the sunlight falling on the poles. Because the landing site of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is so near the north pole, higher sun and warmer temperatures during high obliquity lead to warmer, more humid surface environments, and perhaps thicker, more liquid-like films of water in soil. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Lakes on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, lakes provide favorable environments for the development of life and its preservation as fossils. They are extremely sensitive to climate fluctuations and to conditions within their watersheds. As such, lakes are unique markers of the impact of environmental changes. Past and current missions have now demonstrated that water once flowed at the surface of Mars early in its history. Evidence of ancient ponding has been uncovered at scales ranging from a few kilometers to possibly that of the Arctic ocean. Whether life existed on Mars is still unknown; upcoming missions may find critic

  10. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north

  11. DHPLC/SURVEYOR nuclease: a sensitive, rapid and affordable method to analyze BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilato, Brunella; De Summa, Simona; Danza, Katia; Papadimitriou, Stavros; Zaccagna, Paolo; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2012-09-01

    Hereditary breast cancer accounts for about 10% of all breast cancers and BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been identified as validated susceptibility genes for this pathology. Testing for BRCA gene mutations is usually based on a pre-screening approach, such as the partial denaturation DHPLC method, and capillary direct sequencing. However, this approach is time consuming due to the large size of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Recently, a new low cost and time saving DHPLC protocol has been developed to analyze gene mutations by using SURVEYOR(®) Nuclease digestion and DHPLC analysis. A subset of 90 patients, enrolled in the Genetic Counseling Program of the National Cancer Centre of Bari (Italy), was performed to validate this approach. Previous retrospective analysis showed that 9/90 patients (10%) were mutated in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and these data were confirmed by the present approach. DNA samples underwent touchdown PCR and, subsequently, SURVEYOR(®) nuclease digestion. BRCA1 and BRCA2 amplicons were divided into groups depending on amplicon size to allow multiamplicon digestion. The product of this reaction were analyzed on Transgenomic WAVE Nucleic Acid High Sensitivity Fragment Analysis System. The operator who performed the DHPLC surveyor approach did not know the sequencing results at that time. The SURVEYOR(®) Nuclease DHPLC approach was able to detect all alterations with a sensitivity of 95%. Furthermore, in order to save time and reagents, a multiamplicon setting preparation was validated.

  12. Vulkanisme en water op Mars?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loef, J.; Schmets, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In januari 2004 werd Mars bezocht door de tweeling robotverkenners Spirit en Opportunity. Zij werden erop uitgestuurd om eindelijk het definitieve antwoord te geven op de vraag of er leven op Mars is geweest. Alles wijst er inmiddels op dat er op Mars ooit vloeibaar water stroomde. Of daarmee een

  13. Vulkanisme en water op Mars?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loef, J.; Schmets, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In januari 2004 werd Mars bezocht door de tweeling robotverkenners Spirit en Opportunity. Zij werden erop uitgestuurd om eindelijk het definitieve antwoord te geven op de vraag of er leven op Mars is geweest. Alles wijst er inmiddels op dat er op Mars ooit vloeibaar water stroomde. Of daarmee een be

  14. Vulkanisme en water op Mars?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loef, J.; Schmets, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In januari 2004 werd Mars bezocht door de tweeling robotverkenners Spirit en Opportunity. Zij werden erop uitgestuurd om eindelijk het definitieve antwoord te geven op de vraag of er leven op Mars is geweest. Alles wijst er inmiddels op dat er op Mars ooit vloeibaar water stroomde. Of daarmee een be

  15. Evaluation of Cast Re-Orientation on a Dental Surveyor Using Three Tripod Techniques: A Survey and In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Mohammed E; Busaily, Idris A; Nahari, Rana J; Hakami, Ruaa O; Maashi, Sami M; Ramireddy, Naveen R

    2017-01-18

    To survey different educational levels (i.e., students, interns, technicians, and prosthodontic faculty) with regard to their opinions, attitudes, and adoption of three selected tripod techniques. The study will also investigate the accuracy of these techniques to reposition casts on the dental surveyor in anterio-posterior (AP) and lateral directions at both technique and educational levels. Tripod points, scored lines, and cemented post tripod techniques were used in this study. Three Kennedy class II modification I stone casts, duplicated from a standard cast, were assigned to each of the tripod techniques. The tilt angles of all casts were set on the dental surveyor to 10° (control angle) in AP and lateral directions using a digital angle gauge with an accuracy of 0.2°. The casts were tripoded accordingly. A total of 243 participants were involved in this study. Participants were first asked to remount the three casts on three different dental surveyors using the tripod technique noted on each cast. Questionnaires were then given to each participant in an individual interview setting; this assured a 100% response rate. The angle differences were calculated. All data were coded and entered into an Excel Spreadsheet file. Statistical analyses were performed using a paired Chi-square, Wilcoxon Matched-pairs, ANOVA, and Tukey post hoc tests at 5% level of significance. No significant difference was found between the educational levels relative to the responses to technique demands, sensitivity, and time required for reorientation (p = 0.08202, 0.8108, 0.6874, respectively); however, the majority of respondents reported low technique demands, low sensitivity, and time saving for technique C in comparison to techniques A and B. Significant differences were noted among the educational levels in response to preference and adoption questions (p = 0.0035 and 0.0015, respectively). The highest percentage of faculty chose technique A for inclusion into the academic

  16. Traveling Weather Disturbances in Mars' Southern Extratropics: Sway of the Great Impact Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.

    2016-04-01

    As on Earth, between late autumn and early spring on Mars middle and high latitudes within its atmosphere support strong mean thermal contrasts between the equator and poles (i.e., "baroclinicity"). Data collected during the Viking era and observations from both the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) indicate that this strong baroclinicity supports vigorous, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems (i.e., transient synoptic-period waves). Within a rapidly rotating, differentially heated, shallow atmosphere such as on Earth and Mars, such large-scale, extratropical weather disturbances are critical components of the global circulation. These wave-like disturbances act as agents in the transport of heat and momentum, and moreover generalized tracer quantities (e.g., atmospheric dust, water vapor and water-ice clouds) between low and high latitudes of the planet. The character of large-scale, traveling extratropical synoptic-period disturbances in Mars' southern hemisphere during late winter through early spring is investigated using a high-resolution Mars global climate model (Mars GCM). This global circulation model imposes interactively lifted (and radiatively active) dust based on a threshold value of the instantaneous surface stress. Compared to observations, the model exhibits a reasonable "dust cycle" (i.e., globally averaged, a more dusty atmosphere during southern spring and summer occurs). In contrast to their northern-hemisphere counterparts, southern synoptic-period weather disturbances and accompanying frontal waves have smaller meridional and zonal scales, and are far less intense synoptically. Influences of the zonally asymmetric (i.e., east-west varying) topography on southern large-scale weather disturbances are examined. Simulations that adapt Mars' full topography compared to simulations that utilize synthetic topographies emulating essential large-scale features of the southern middle latitudes indicate that Mars

  17. Compositional Constraints on Hematite-Rich Spherule (Blueberry) Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. L.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Jolliff, B.

    2007-01-01

    Meridiani Planum was chosen as the landing site for the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity partially based on Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data indicating an abundance of hematite. Hematite often forms through processes that involve water, so the site was a promising one to determine whether conditions on Mars were ever suitable for life. Opportunity struck pay dirt; it s Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) and Mossbauer Spectrometer (MB) confirmed the presence of hematite in sulfate-rich sedimentary beds and in lag deposits. Meridiani Planum rocks contain three main components: silicate phases, sulfate and possibly chloride salts, and ferric oxide phases such as hematite. Primary igneous phases are at low abundance despite the basaltic origin of the protoliths. Jarosite, an alkali ferric sulfate, was identified by Mossbauer. Some of the hematite is contained in the spherules, and some resides in finer grains in outcrops. Mossbauer and Mini-TES data indicate that hematite is a dominant constituent of the spherules. Panoramic Camera (Pancam) and Microscopic Imager (MI) images of spherule interiors show that hematite is present throughout. The exact composition of the spherules is unknown. Mini-TES only identifies a hematite signature in the spherules; any other constituents have an upper limit of 5-10% .The MB data are consistent with the spherules being composed of only hematite.

  18. Data-Model Comparisons of Photoelectron Flux Intensities on the Strong Crustal Field Lines at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Michael; Trantham, Matthew; Mitchell, David

    2010-05-01

    This study quantifies the factors controlling photoelectron fluxes on strong crustal field lines in the Martian ionosphere. Using data from Mars Global Surveyor's Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer instruments, dayside electron populations near the strong crustal fields in the southern hemisphere are analyzed versus various controlling parameters. These parameters include a Mars F10.7 proxy, a solar wind pressure proxy, local solar zenith angle, magnetic elevation angle, magnetic field strength. It was found that solar EUV radiation (corrected for solar zenith angle and the Mars-Sun distance) has the strongest influence on the photoelectron fluxes, and during different time periods this radiation has a stronger influence than at others times. Second, fluxes show a slight enhancement when the magnetic elevation angle is near zero degrees (horizontal field lines). Finally, other parameters, such as pressure and magnetic field strength, seem to have no major influence. These measurement-based results are then compared against numerical modeling flux intensities to quantify the physical mechanisms behind the observed relationships. The numerical code used for this study is our superthermal electron transport model, which solves for the electric distribution function along a magnetic field line. The code includes the influence of a variable magnetic field strength, pitch angle scattering and mirror trapping, and collisional energy cascading. The influence of solar EUV flux, atmospheric composition, solar wind dynamic pressure, and the local magnetic field are systematically investigated with this code to understand why some of these parameters have a strong influence on photoelectron flux intensity while others do not.

  19. Surface properties of Mars' polar layered deposits and polar landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Greeley, Ronald; Murray, Bruce C.; Bass, Deborah S.; McBride, Karen S.

    2000-03-01

    On December 3, 1999, the Mars Polar Lander and Mars Microprobes will land on the planet's south polar layered deposits near (76°S, 195°W) and conduct the first in situ studies of the planet's polar regions. The scientific goals of these missions address several poorly understood and globally significant issues, such as polar meteorology, the composition and volatile content of the layered deposits, the erosional state and mass balance of their surface, their possible relationship to climate cycles, and the nature of bright and dark aeolian material. Derived thermal inertias of the southern layered deposits are very low (50-100 Jm-2s-1/2K-1), suggesting that the surface down to a depth of a few centimeters is generally fine grained or porous and free of an appreciable amount of rock or ice. The landing site region is smoother than typical cratered terrain on ~1 kmpixel-1 Viking Orbiter images but contains low-relief texture on ~5 to 100 mpixel-1 Mariner 9 and Mars Global Surveyor images. The surface of the southern deposits is older than that of the northern deposits and appears to be modified by aeolian erosion or ablation of ground ice.

  20. Flare X-ray photochemistry of the E region ionosphere of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S. A.; Batista, I. S.; Abdu, M. A.; Santos, A. M.; Shah, Siddhi Y.; Thirupathaiah, P.

    2016-07-01

    Based on electron density profiles obtained from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) we report X-ray flare responses in the E region ionosphere of Mars during six events that occurred on 28 March and 6 April 2001, 17 and 18 March and 21 April 2003, and 19 February 2005. We have developed a time-dependent Analytical Yield Spectrum model to calculate a time series of photoionization rate, photoelectron impact ionization rate, photoelectron flux, ion density, electron density, and ionospheric electron content (IEC) of the E region for each flare day. The estimated production rate, flux, and densities increase by 1-2 orders of magnitude due to effect of these flares in the E region ionosphere of Mars. The estimated IEC are compared with the measured IEC. It is found that the normalized IEC of the simulated E layer increased by a factor of 5-10 at the flare time compared to a factor of 2 enhancements in the normalized IEC of the corresponding MGS profiles.

  1. Ancient aliens on mars

    CERN Document Server

    Bara, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Best-selling author and Secret Space Program researcher Bara brings us this lavishly illustrated volume on alien structures on Mars. Was there once a vast, technologically advanced civilization on Mars, and did it leave evidence of its existence behind for humans to find eons later? Did these advanced extraterrestrial visitors vanish in a solar system wide cataclysm of their own making, only to make their way to Earth and start anew? Was Mars once as lush and green as the Earth, and teeming with life? Did Mars once orbit a missing member of the solar system, a "Super Earth” that vanished in a disaster that devastated life on Earth and Venus and left us only the asteroid belt as evidence of its once grand existence? Did the survivors of this catastrophe leave monuments and temples behind, arranged in a mathematical precision designed to teach us the Secret of a new physics that could lift us back to the stars? Does the planet have an automated defense shield that swallows up robotic probes if they wander int...

  2. Mission from Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  3. Carbon sequestration on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Christopher S.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.

    2015-01-01

    On Earth, carbon sequestration in geologic units plays an important role in the carbon cycle, scrubbing CO_2 from the atmosphere for long-term storage. While carbonate is identified in low abundances within the dust and soils of Mars, at

  4. Mission from Mars:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  5. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  6. The Small Mars System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Grassi, M.; Pasolini, P.; Causa, F.; Molfese, C.; Aurigemma, R.; Cimminiello, N.; de la Torre, D.; Dell'Aversana, P.; Esposito, F.; Gramiccia, L.; Paudice, F.; Punzo, F.; Roma, I.; Savino, R.; Zuppardi, G.

    2017-08-01

    The Small Mars System is a proposed mission to Mars. Funded by the European Space Agency, the project has successfully completed Phase 0. The contractor is ALI S.c.a.r.l., and the study team includes the University of Naples ;Federico II;, the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte and the Space Studies Institute of Catalonia. The objectives of the mission are both technological and scientific, and will be achieved by delivering a small Mars lander carrying a dust particle analyser and an aerial drone. The former shall perform in situ measurements of the size distribution and abundance of dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere, whereas the latter shall demonstrate low-altitude flight in the rarefied planetary environment. The mission-enabling technology is an innovative umbrella-like heat shield, known as IRENE, developed and patented by ALI. The mission is also a technological demonstration of the shield in the upper atmosphere of Mars. The core characteristics of SMS are the low cost (120 M€) and the small size (320 kg of wet mass at launch, 110 kg at landing), features which stand out with respect to previous Mars landers. To comply with them is extremely challenging at all levels, and sets strict requirements on the choice of the materials, the sizing of payloads and subsystems, their arrangement inside the spacecraft and the launcher's selection. In this contribution, the mission and system concept and design are illustrated and discussed. Special emphasis is given to the innovative features and to the challenges faced in the development of the work.

  7. [MaRS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruljothi, Arunvenkatesh

    2016-01-01

    The Space Exploration Division of the Safety and Mission Assurances Directorate is responsible for reducing the risk to Human Space Flight Programs by providing system safety, reliability, and risk analysis. The Risk & Reliability Analysis branch plays a part in this by utilizing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) tools to identify possible types of failure and effective solutions. A continuous effort of this branch is MaRS, or Mass and Reliability System, a tool that was the focus of this internship. Future long duration space missions will have to find a balance between the mass and reliability of their spare parts. They will be unable take spares of everything and will have to determine what is most likely to require maintenance and spares. Currently there is no database that combines mass and reliability data of low level space-grade components. MaRS aims to be the first database to do this. The data in MaRS will be based on the hardware flown on the International Space Stations (ISS). The components on the ISS have a long history and are well documented, making them the perfect source. Currently, MaRS is a functioning excel workbook database; the backend is complete and only requires optimization. MaRS has been populated with all the assemblies and their components that are used on the ISS; the failures of these components are updated regularly. This project was a continuation on the efforts of previous intern groups. Once complete, R&M engineers working on future space flight missions will be able to quickly access failure and mass data on assemblies and components, allowing them to make important decisions and tradeoffs.

  8. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  9. Atypical pit craters on Mars: new insights from THEMIS, CTX and HiRISE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen; Okubo, Chris H.; Titus, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    More than 100 pit craters in the Tharsis region of Mars exhibit morphologies, diameters and thermal behaviors that diverge from the much larger bowl-shaped pit craters that occur in most regions across Mars. These Atypical Pit Craters (APCs) generally have sharp and distinct rims, vertical or overhanging walls that extend down to their floors, surface diameters of ~50-350 m, and high depth-to-diameter (d/D) ratios that are usually greater than 0.3 (which is an upper-range value for impacts and bowl-shaped pit craters), and can exceed values of 1.8. Observations by the Mars Odyssey THermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) show that APC floor temperatures are warmer at night, and fluctuate with much lower diurnal amplitudes than nearby surfaces or adjacent bowl-shaped pit craters. Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i, hosts pit craters that formed through subsurface collapse into active volcanic dikes, resulting in pits that can appear morphologically analogous to either APCs or bowl-shaped pit craters. Partially-drained dikes are sometimes exposed within the lower walls and floors of these terrestrial APC analogs and can form extensive cave systems with unique microclimates. Similar caves in martian pit craters are of great interest for astrobiology. This study uses new observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) to refine previous work where seven APCs were described from lower-resolution THEMIS visible-wavelength (VIS) observations. Here, we identify locations of 115 APCs, map their distribution across the Tharsis region, characterize their internal morphologies with high-resolution observations, and discuss possible formation mechanisms.

  10. Global distribution of bedrock exposures on Mars using THEMIS high-resolution thermal inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C.S.; Bandfield, J.L.; Christensen, P.R.; Fergason, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate high thermal inertia surfaces using the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) nighttime temperature images (100 m/pixel spatial sampling). For this study, we interpret any pixel in a THEMIS image with a thermal inertia over 1200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 as "bedrock" which represents either in situ rock exposures or rock-dominated surfaces. Three distinct morphologies, ranked from most to least common, are associated with these high thermal inertia surfaces: (1) valley and crater walls associated with mass wasting and high surface slope angles; (2) floors of craters with diameters >25 km and containing melt or volcanics associated with larger, high-energy impacts; and (3) intercrater surfaces with compositions significantly more mafic than the surrounding regolith. In general, bedrock instances on Mars occur as small exposures (less than several square kilometers) situated in lower-albedo (thermal inertia (>350 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), and relatively dust-free (dust cover index <0.95) regions; however, there are instances that do not follow these generalizations. Most instances are concentrated in the southern highlands, with very few located at high latitudes (poleward of 45oN and 58oS), suggesting enhanced mechanical breakdown probably associated with permafrost. Overall, Mars has very little exposed bedrock with only 960 instances identified from 75oS to 75oN with likely <3500 km2 exposed, representing???1% of the total surface area. These data indicate that Mars has likely undergone large-scale surface processing and reworking, both chemically and mechanically, either destroying or masking a majority of the bedrock exposures on the planet. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Estimation of dust thickness in Arabia Terra region on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, C.; Mangold, N.; Masson, P.; Ansan, V.

    2003-04-01

    The almost totality of Mars planet surface is recovered by aeolian dust deposit whose thickness varies according to regions. Mariner and Viking imagery highlighted this aeolian dust deposit with the presence of smooth geomorphologic surface characteristic of dust recovering, with the apparition of dust wind streaks to leeward area of numerous relief, and with seasonal changes in surface albedo after dust storms (Greeley, 1992). These observations have been recently confirmed by the high resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbiter (Malin et al., 1998 ; Edgett and Malin, 2000). At present time no method exists to estimate aeolian dust thickness at global scale. Only the geographic distribution of the first top centimeters have been realized with the help of thermal inertia cartography from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data (Jakosky et al., 2000). The aeolian dust deposits recover first the small impact craters and consequently disturb their distribution at the planet surface. Variations between distributions curves locally measured and Hartmann's Isochrons (Hartmann and Neukum, 2001) for a Martian lands not affected by surface phenomenon, give the diameter of the biggest crater obliterated by the surface process. This diameter allows us to estimate the minimal aeolian dust thickness using geometrical proprieties of impact crater between diameter (D) and the rim height (H) (Garvin et al., 2002) : H=0.07D0.52 (for D<7km). Indeed the rim height is a good approximation of minimal dust thickness needed to completely erase the impact crater from the surface if one suppose that there's no evidence of aeolian erosion. The first objective of this study is to determine the distribution variations of the small impact craters to estimate locally the different thickness of aeolian dust. The second objective is to realize a global cartography of the aeolian dust thickness. We study the region of Arabia Terra to apply this method because this

  12. Fusion of photogrammetric and photoclinometric information for high-resolution DEMs from Mars in-orbit imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng; Douté, Sylvain; Luo, Bin; Zhang, Liangpei

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of the Martian surface are instrumental for studying the red planet. The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument onboard the Mars Global Surveyor provided global DEM of high vertical resolution but with a limited spatial resolution that is not enough for characterizing small geological objects, normalizing illumination conditions across in-orbit optical images, modeling local meteorology, and other applications. This article addresses the problem of producing DEMs for regions of interest on Mars using available in-orbit imagery, typically ≈1000 km2 in area, while insuring a ≈10 m vertical accuracy and a spatial accuracy which is comparable to that of the imagery. A method is proposed that combines photogrammetric and photoclinometric approaches in order to retain their mutual advantages. According to experiments using Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera (CTX) images, the proposed method is indeed able to produce DEMs satisfying the previous requirements, with less artifacts, better surface continuity, and sharper details than the photogrammetric method when it is used alone.

  13. Icebergs on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uceda, E.; Fairen, A.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.; Palmero Rodriguez, A.

    2015-12-01

    The smooth topography of the Martian northern lowlands has been classically equated to an ancient ocean basin. The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is providing unprecedented images of the Martian surface at scales of 25 to 32 cm per pixel. The analysis of this high-resolution imaging reveals the presence of three differentiated geomorphologies throughout the northern lowlands of Mars and the Hellas basin, which are informative of the presence of icebergs floating in ancient oceans and/or seas. These morphologies are: (i) scattered scour marks, including curvilinear furrows several km long and some meters deep; (ii) boulders ranging in size from 0.5 m to ~2 m in diameter, distributed forming clusters with sizes from several hundred meters to 1-2 km; and (iii) flat-topped and conical circular fractured mounds. The association of plough marks, clusters of boulders and mounds on the northern plains of Mars can be related to the dual processes of ice keel scouring and ice rafting of both glacial and non-glacial detritus by a floating ice canopy and icebergs. These processes are well documented on Earth and result in distinct morphologies on the ocean floor, which are analogous to features observed in the Martian basins. Importantly, the features are located in elevated areas of the northern plains and Hellas, near the dichotomy boundary and on local topographic highs. Such distribution is expected, as these relatively shoal areas are where the iceberg-related features should occur on Mars: these areas had shallow water depths, less than the iceberg's keel depth, and therefore keels reached through the full depth of the water column to impinge on the sediments below. The presence of icebergs floating in cold oceans early in Mars' history imply the occurrence of continental glaciers forming in the highlands and streaming northward towards the lowlands, and towards the Hellas and Argyre Basins. Glacier

  14. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars: Gullies in Crater Wall, Noachis Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater in Noachis Terra. This high resolution view (top left) from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) shows channels and associated aprons of debris that are interpreted to have formed by groundwater seepage, surface runoff, and debris flow. The lack of small craters superimposed on the channels and apron deposits indicates that these features are geologically young. It is possible that these gullies indicate that liquid water is present within the martian subsurface today.The MOC image was acquired on September 28, 1999. The scene covers an area approximately 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 6.7 km (4.1 mi) high (note, the aspect ratio is 1.5 to 1.0). Sunlight illuminates this area from the upper left. The image is located near 54.8oS, 342.5oW. The context image (above) shows the location of the MOC image on the south-facing wall of an impact crater approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter. The context picture was obtained by the Viking 1 orbiter in 1980 and is illuminated from the upper left. The large mound on the floor of the crater in the context view is a sand dune field. The Mars Orbiter Camera high resolution images are taken black-and-white (grayscale); the color seen here has been synthesized from the colors of Mars observed by the MOC wide angle cameras and by the Viking Orbiters in the late 1970s.A brief description of how the color was generated: The MOC narrow angle camera only takes grayscale (black and white) pictures. To create the color versions seen here, we have taken much lower resolution red and blue images acquired by the MOC's wide angle cameras, and by the Viking Orbiter cameras in the 1970s, synthesized a green image by averaging red and blue, and created a pallette of colors that represent the range of colors on Mars. We then use a relationship that correlates color and brightness to assign a color to each gray

  15. Analysis of Dark Slope Streaks on Mars based on Multitemporal HRSC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Björn; van Gasselt, Stephan; Jan-Peter, Muller

    2016-04-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) on Mars are dark and narrow downhill oriented surface features found in equatorial regions (1) associated with water or hydrated salt flows (2). On the other hand there are Dark Slope Streaks which seem to be dry avalanches on dust covered slopes (3). The origin of both ist still under discussion. We found linear features in eastern Noctis Labyrinthus region (6°S, 265°E) with lengths of up to several kilometres and lateral extensions of 20-30 metres. As described by (4), RSL fade and recur in the same location over multiple Mars years. Similarily, Dark Slope Streaks form on at least annual to decade-long timescales (5). During 10 years of HRSC observation time (2005-2015) several linear features in Noctis Labyrinthus changed in visibility. Slope parameters and seasonal illumination conditions are investigated based on a digital elevation model derived from HRSC data. For large datasets a feature identification is presented which involves spatial filtering in conjunction with elevation data analysis. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement n° 607379. (1) McEwen, A.S., et al. (2014): Recurring slope lineae in equatorial regions of Mars. Nat. Geosci 7: 53-58. (2) Ojha, L. et al. (2015): Spectral evidence for hydrated salts in recurring slope linear on Mars. Nat. Geosci, DOI:10.1038/NGEO2546. (3) Sullivan, R. et al. (2001). Mass Movement Slope Streaks Imaged by the Mars Orbiter Camera. J. Geophys. Res., 106(E10), 23,607-23,633. (4) McEwen, A.S., et al. (2011): Seasonal Flows on Warm Martian Slopes. Science, Vol. 333, Issue 6043, pp. 740-743. (5) Malin, M.C.; Edgett, K.S. (2001). Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera: Interplanetary cruise through primary mission. J. Geophys. Res., 106(E10), 23,429-23,570.

  16. The Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA): A reference atmospheric reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montabone, Luca; Lewis, Stephen R.; Steele, Liam J.; Holmes, James; Read, Peter L.; Valeanu, Alexandru; Smith, Michael D.; Kass, David; Kleinboehl, Armin; LMD Team, MGS/TES Team, MRO/MCS Team

    2016-10-01

    The Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) dataset version 1.0 contains the reanalysis of fundamental atmospheric and surface variables for the planet Mars covering a period of about three Martian years (late MY 24 to early MY 27). This four-dimensional dataset has been produced by data assimilation of retrieved thermal profiles and column dust optical depths from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor/Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS/TES), which have been assimilated into a Mars global climate model (MGCM) using the Analysis Correction scheme developed at the UK Meteorological Office.The MACDA v1.0 reanalysis is publicly available, and the NetCDF files can be downloaded from the archive at the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis/British Atmospheric Data Centre (CEDA/BADC). The variables included in the dataset can be visualised using an ad-hoc graphical user interface (the "MACDA Plotter") located at the following URL: http://macdap.physics.ox.ac.uk/The first paper about MACDA reanalysis of TES retrievals appeared in 2006, although the acronym MACDA was not yet used at that time. Ten years later, MACDA v1.0 has been used by several researchers worldwide and has contributed to the advancement of the knowledge about the martian atmosphere in critical areas such as the radiative impact of water ice clouds, the solsticial pause in baroclinic wave activity, and the climatology and dynamics of polar vortices, to cite only a few. It is therefore timely to review the scientific results obtained by using such Mars reference atmospheric reanalysis, in order to understand what priorities the user community should focus on in the next decade.MACDA is an ongoing collaborative project, and work funded by NASA MDAP Programme is currently undertaken to produce version 2.0 of the Mars atmospheric reanalysis. One of the key improvements is the extension of the reanalysis period to nine martian years (MY 24 through MY 32), with the assimilation of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance

  17. Polygonal terrains on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of water ice on Mars is well established. Some featureson the planet point to the occurrence of processes similar to those that take place in periglacial areas of Earth. One of the clues for this is the existence of small-scale polygonal terrains. In this paper, we present a methodology that aims at the automated identification of polygonal patterns on high-spatial resolution images of the surface of Mars. In the context of the research project TERPOLI, this step will be complemented with a full characterization, in both geometric and topological terms, of thenetworks detected. In this manner, we hope to collect data that will lead to a better understanding of the conditions of formation of the polygons, and of their temporal evolution; namely, we intend to identify different groups of polygons and to compare them with terrestrial examples.

  18. The politics of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1986-01-01

    A discussion is presented comparing past and present major accomplishments of the U.S. and the Soviet Union in space. It concludes that the Soviets are presently well ahead of the U.S. in several specific aspects of space accomplishment and speculates that the Soviet strategy is directed towards sending a man to the vicinity of Mars by the end of this century. A major successful multinational space endeavor, INTELSAT, is reviewed and it is suggested that the manned exploration of Mars offers a unique opportunity for another such major international cooperative effort. The current attitude of U.S. leadership and the general public is assessed as uniformed or ambivalent about the perceived threat of Soviet dominance in space.

  19. Geophysics of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A physical model of Mars is presented on the basis of light-scattering observations of the Martian atmosphere and surface and interior data obtained from observations of the geopotential field. A general description of the atmosphere is presented, with attention given to the circulation and the various cloud types, and data and questions on the blue haze-clearing effect and the seasonal darkening wave are summarized and the Mie scattering model developed to explain these observations is presented. The appearance of the planet from earth and spacecraft through Mariner 9 is considered, and attention is given to the preparation of topographical contour maps, the canal problem and large-scale lineaments observed from Mariner 9, the gravity field and shape of the planet and the application of Runcorn's geoid/convection theory to Mars. Finally, a summary of Viking results is presented and their application to the understanding of Martian geophysics is discussed.

  20. Organics on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, Inge L

    2010-01-01

    Organics are expected to exist on Mars based on meteorite infall, in situ production, and any possible biological sources. Yet they have not been detected on the martian surface; are they there, or are we not capable enough to detect them? The Viking gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer did not detect organics in the headspace of heated soil samples with a detection limit of parts per billion. This null result strongly influenced the interpretation of the reactivity seen in the Viking biology experiments and led to the conclusion that life was not present and, instead, that there was some chemical reactivity in the soil. The detection of perchlorates in the martian soil by instruments on the Phoenix lander and the reports of methane in the martian atmosphere suggest that it may be time to reconsider the question of organics. The high-temperature oxidizing properties of perchlorate will promote combustion of organics in pyrolytic experiments and may have affected the ability of both Phoenix's organic analysis experiment and the Viking mass spectrometer experiments to detect organics. So the question of organics on Mars remains open. A primary focus of the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory will be the detection and identification of organic molecules by means of thermal volatilization, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry--as was done on Viking. However, to enhance organic detectability, some of the samples will be processed with liquid derivatization agents that will dissolve organics from the soil before pyrolysis, which may separate them from the soil perchlorates. Nonetheless, the problem of organics on Mars is not solved, and for future missions other organic detection techniques should therefore be considered as well.

  1. Meteorites from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, M.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    The SNC METEORITES, named after the initials of the first discovered members (Shergotty, Nakhla and Chassigny), are a group of stony meteorites that are thought to come from Mars, rather than the asteroid belt. They are all igneous rocks (i.e. formed by crystallizing from molten material) and are distinguished from other meteorites by their ages, which are as low as 165 million years old. A young...

  2. Chemical Thermodynamics on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selco, Jodye I.

    1995-07-01

    This seven question take-home exam guides the students through a marathon problem to arrive at a single answer to the overall question: "How sensitive a probe do you need in order to detect signs of "life" (methane produced by bacteria instead of by chemical equilibrium) on Mars". This exam was originally written to correspond to chapters four through seven in Ira Levine's Physical Chemistry, 3rd edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 1988.

  3. Exobiological exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H. P.; Devincenzi, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    Of all the other planets in the solar system, Mars remains the most promising for further elucidating concepts about chemical evolution and the origin of life. Strategies were developed to pursue three exobiological objectives for Mars exploration: determining the abundance and distribution of the biogenic elements and organic compounds, detecting evidence of an ancient biota on Mars, and determining whether indigenous organisms exist anywhere on the planet. The three strategies are quite similar and, in fact, share the same sequence of phases. In the first phase, each requires global reconnaissance and remote sensing by orbiters to select sites of interest for detailed in situ analyses. In the second phase, lander missions are conducted to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the selected sites. The third phase involves conducting 'critical' experiments at sites whose properties make them particularly attractive for exobiology. These critical experiments would include, for example, identification of organics, detection of fossils, and detection of extant life. The fourth phase is the detailed analysis of samples returned from these sites in Earth-based laboratories to confirm and extend previous discoveries. Finally, in the fifth phase, human exploration is needed to establish the geological settings for the earlier findings or to discover and explore sites that are not accessible to robotic spacecraft.

  4. Mars Rocket Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Harber, Dan; Nabors, Sammy

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses the methane and carbon monoxide/LOX (McLOx) rocket for ascent from Mars as well as other critical space propulsion tasks. The system offers a specific impulse over 370 s roughly 50 s higher than existing space-storable bio-propellants. Current Mars in-situ propellant production (ISPP) technologies produce impure methane and carbon monoxide in various combinations. While separation and purification of methane fuel is possible, it adds complexity to the propellant production process and discards an otherwise useful fuel product. The McLOx makes such complex and wasteful processes unnecessary by burning the methane/CO mixtures produced by the Mars ISPP systems without the need for further refinement. Despite the decrease in rocket-specific impulse caused by the CO admixture, the improvement offered by concomitant increased propellant density can provide a net improvement in stage performance. One advantage is the increase of the total amount of propellant produced, but with a decrease in mass and complexity of the required ISPP plant. Methane/CO fuel mixtures also may be produced by reprocessing the organic wastes of a Moon base or a space station, making McLOx engines key for a human Lunar initiative or the International Space Station (ISS) program. Because McLOx propellant components store at a common temperature, very lightweight and compact common bulkhead tanks can be employed, improving overall stage performance further.

  5. Guidelines for 2007 MARS exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Following the introduction of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), full details of the scheme are now available via the HR Department's homepage or directly on the Department's MARS web page: in English: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/HumanResources/internal/personnel/pmd/cr/MARS.asp or French: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/internal/personnel/pmd/cr/mars_fr.asp You will find on this page: 'Introduction to MARS' with detailed information presented in Frequently Asked Questions; these include the MARS timetable for proposals and decisions; 'Regulations' with links to the scheme's statutory documents; 'Procedures and Forms' and 'Useful Information' with links to all the relevant documentation; these include the mandates of the Senior Staff Advisory Committee (SSAC) and the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC). HR Department Tel. 73566

  6. Simultaneous mutation detection of three homoeologous genes in wheat by High Resolution Melting analysis and Mutation Surveyor®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Kate

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes is a powerful tool for reverse genetics, combining traditional chemical mutagenesis with high-throughput PCR-based mutation detection to discover induced mutations that alter protein function. The most popular mutation detection method for TILLING is a mismatch cleavage assay using the endonuclease CelI. For this method, locus-specific PCR is essential. Most wheat genes are present as three similar sequences with high homology in exons and low homology in introns. Locus-specific primers can usually be designed in introns. However, it is sometimes difficult to design locus-specific PCR primers in a conserved region with high homology among the three homoeologous genes, or in a gene lacking introns, or if information on introns is not available. Here we describe a mutation detection method which combines High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis of mixed PCR amplicons containing three homoeologous gene fragments and sequence analysis using Mutation Surveyor® software, aimed at simultaneous detection of mutations in three homoeologous genes. Results We demonstrate that High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis can be used in mutation scans in mixed PCR amplicons containing three homoeologous gene fragments. Combining HRM scanning with sequence analysis using Mutation Surveyor® is sensitive enough to detect a single nucleotide mutation in the heterozygous state in a mixed PCR amplicon containing three homoeoloci. The method was tested and validated in an EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate-treated wheat TILLING population, screening mutations in the carboxyl terminal domain of the Starch Synthase II (SSII gene. Selected identified mutations of interest can be further analysed by cloning to confirm the mutation and determine the genomic origin of the mutation. Conclusion Polyploidy is common in plants. Conserved regions of a gene often represent functional domains and have high sequence

  7. Formation of recent gullies and debris-flows on Mars by the melting of near-surface ground ice at high obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F.; Costard, F.; Mangold, N.; Peulvast, J.-P.

    2001-11-01

    The observation of small gullies associated with recent surface run-off on Mars by Mars Global Surveyor has renewed the question of liquid water stability at the surface of Mars. In their initial analyses, Malin and Edgett [1] suggested that the gullies could be formed by groundwater seepage from underground aquifers. However, observations of gullies originating from the top of peaks question this scenario. We show here that these landforms are more likely to result from the melting of liquid water in the first meter of the Martian subsurface at high obliquity. On the one hand, this is suggested by the analogy between the martian gullies and terrestrial debris flows observed in Greenland which are known to result from the thawing of near-surface ground when above-freezing temperatures are reached. On the other hand, numerical simulations show that above-freezing temperatures can occur at high obliquities in the near-surface of Mars, and that such temperatures are only predicted at latitudes and for slope orientations corresponding exactly to where the gullies have been observed on Mars. [1] Malin M.C. and Edgett K.E. Science 288, 2330-2335 (2000).

  8. The origin, evolution, and trajectory of large dust storms on Mars during Mars years 24-30 (1999-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqun; Richardson, Mark I.

    2015-05-01

    Mars Daily Global Maps (MDGM) derived from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) are used to study the distribution and evolution of large dust storms over the period from Mars years 24-30 (1999-2001). Large storms are defined here as discrete dust events visible in image sequences extending over at least 5 sols (Mars days) and where the dust covers areas beyond the origination region. A total of 65 large dust storms meeting these criteria are identified during the observational period and all are observed during the Ls = 135-30° seasonal window. Dust storms originating in the northern and southern hemispheres appear to form two distinct families. All but two of the storms originating in the northern hemisphere are observed in two seasonal windows at Ls = 180-240° and Ls = 305-350°; while all but two of those originating in the southern hemisphere are observed during Ls = 135-245°. None of the large dust storms originating in the northern hemisphere are observed to develop to global scale, but some of them develop into large regional storms with peak area >1 × 107 km2 and duration on the order of several weeks. In comparison, large dust storms originating in the southern hemisphere are typically much smaller, except notably in the two cases that expanded to global scale (the 2001 and 2007 global storms). Distinct locations of preferred storm origination emerge from the dust storm image sequences, including Acidalia, Utopia, Arcadia and Hellas. A route (trajectory) 'graph' for the observed sequences is provided. The routes are highly asymmetric between the two hemispheres. In the south, for non-global dust storms, the main routes are primarily oriented eastwest, whereas in the north, the routes are primarily north-south and zonally-concentrated into meridional channels. In a few impressive cases, storms originating in the northern hemisphere are observed to "flush" through

  9. Marine bird specimen, marine bird sighting, and other data from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 24 July 1979 to 19 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8300058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine bird specimen, marine bird sighting, and other data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 24 July 1979 to 19 November 1982. Data were collected by...

  10. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1976-09-27 to 1976-10-22 (NCEI Accession 7601473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the National Ocean...

  11. Delayed XBT data from the Southern Surveyor, collected by Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), and submitted to the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP), date range from 02/07/2009 - 03/14/2009 (NODC Accession 0059379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected in the Pacific Ocean aboard the Southern Surveyor from 07 February to 14 March 2009. Data were submitted by the CommonWealth Scientific...

  12. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 14 November 1986 to 23 November 1986 (NODC Accession 8600384)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the National...

  13. Marine animal sighting and census data from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 11 May 1982 to 19 March 1983 (NODC Accession 8400150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine animal sighting and census data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 11 May 1982 to 19 March 1983. Data were collected by the Envirosphere Co. as...

  14. Marine toxic substance and other data from bottle casts from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 13 August 1980 to 21 February 1981 (NODC Accession 8100531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substance and other data were collected from bottle casts from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 13 August 1980 to 21 February 1981. Data were collected by...

  15. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts from the SURVEYOR and other platforms as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 23 February 1981 to 30 April 1983 (NODC Accession 8300167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from the SURVEYOR and other platforms from 23 February 1981 to 30 April...

  16. Zooplankton and other data from net casts in Prince William Sound from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1975-10-03 to 1975-10-10 (NCEI Accession 7601873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and other data were collected from net casts in Prince William Sound from the SURVEYOR from 03 October 1975 to 10 October 1975. Data were collected by...

  17. Zooplankton and other data from net casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 30 September 1975 to 24 October 1975 (NODC Accession 7601809)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and other data were collected from net casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR from 30 September 1975 to 24 October 1975. Data were collected by...

  18. Zooplankton and other data from net casts from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1977-06-28 to 1977-07-04 (NCEI Accession 7900066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and other data were collected from net casts from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 28 June 1977 to 04 July 1977. Data were collected by the University of Alaska,...

  19. Zooplankton and other data from net casts from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1976-03-17 to 1976-04-26 (NCEI Accession 7601628)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and other data were collected from net casts from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 17 March 1976 to 26 April 1976. Data were collected by the University of Alaska...

  20. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts from SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 16 August 1977 to 15 September 1977 (NODC Accession 7800013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine Environmental...

  1. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 15 April 1976 to 26 April 1976 (NODC Accession 7601823)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the University of...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in dataset CTD taken from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR (VLHJ) in the Coastal S Pacific, Equatorial Pacific and other locations from 2003 to 2006 (NODC Accession 0043461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, chemical, and other data were collected using CTD casts from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Iceland Sea and North / South Pacific Ocean. Data...

  3. Temperature and salinity profiles from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 21 September 1975 to 22 September 1975 (NODC Accession 7601224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profiles were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the Pacific...

  4. Physical and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 05 June 1975 to 12 June 1975 (NODC Accession 7601225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine...

  5. Marine animal sighting and census data from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 17 May 1975 to 13 October 1977 (NODC Accession 8000349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine animal sighting and census data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 17 May 1975 to 13 October 1977. Data were collected by the U.S. National...

  6. Marine bird sighting and other data from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 01 September 1976 to 02 September 1976 (NODC Accession 7800704)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine bird sighting and other data were collected from the SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP). Data were...

  7. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 15 August 1980 to 05 September 1980 (NODC Accession 8200116)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 15 August 1980 to 05 September 1980. Data...

  8. Oceanographic profile data collected aboard Atlantic Surveyor as part of project OPR-D302-KR-12 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-07-05 to 2012-09-05 (NCEI Accession 0130622)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130622 includes physical and profile data collected aboard the Atlantic Surveyor during project OPR-D302-KR-12 in the North Atlantic Ocean from...

  9. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 22 July 1975 to 28 August 1979 (NODC Accession 8100349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 22 July 1975 to 28 August 1979. Data were collected by the University of...

  10. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 10 February 1977 to 19 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7900320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected from the SURVEYOR and other platforms from 10 February 1977 to 19 November 1977. Data were collected by the...

  11. Marine mammal specimen and other data from the SURVEYOR and other platforms as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 20 March 1977 to 02 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7900319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal specimen and other data were collected from the SURVEYOR and other platforms from 20 March 1977 to 02 November 1977. Data were collected by the Alaska...

  12. Marine bird sighting and other data from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 16 August 1980 to 05 September 1980 (NODC Accession 8100473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine bird sighting and other data were collected from the NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 16 August 1980 to 05 September 1980. Data were collected by the University of...

  13. Interference of Co-Amplified Nuclear Mitochondrial DNA Sequences on the Determination of Human mtDNA Heteroplasmy by Using the SURVEYOR Nuclease and the WAVE HS System

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiu-Chuan Yen; Shiue-Li Li; Wei-Chien Hsu; Petrus Tang

    2014-01-01

    High-sensitivity and high-throughput mutation detection techniques are useful for screening the homoplasmy or heteroplasmy status of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but might be susceptible to interference from nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences (NUMTs) co-amplified during polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, we first evaluated the platform of SURVEYOR Nuclease digestion of heteroduplexed DNA followed by the detection of cleaved DNA by using the WAVE HS System (SN/WAVE-HS) for detectin...

  14. What Are the Origins of Detached Layers of Dust on Mars ? Investigation with Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, T.; Spiga, A.; Forget, F.

    2014-12-01

    The climate on Mars is strongly controlled by the amount of dust lifted and transported in the atmosphere, which causes fluctuations of air opacity and affects temperatures and winds. Recently, observations of the vertical dust distribution of the Martian atmosphere by the Mars Climate Sounder on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter revealed a phenomenon which is still poorly understood: the formation of detached layers of dust. These detached layers, also confirmed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on-board the Mars Global Surveyor, reside above the planetary boundary layer typically at altitudes between 20 and 40 km and have been mostly observed at low latitudes. These detached layers of dust are not reproduced by Global Climate Models (GCM) and different atmospheric processes are discussed and can be combined to explain their origin, such as small-scale lifting, upslope topographic winds, scavenging by water ice clouds, dust storms… Here we use the Martian GCM developed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) to simulate the formation of detached layers of dust. To start, we developed a new implementation of the water cycle, taking into account nucleation on dust particles, ice particle growth, and scavenging of dust particles due to the condensation of ice. However, this method didn't yield to satisfying results in the GCM. Then, we performed the parameterization in the GCM of the so-called "rocket dust storms", governed by deep convection and able to inject dust at high altitudes in the Martian troposphere. By coupling this new parameterization with general circulation of the GCM, we succeed to model detached layers of dust. Here we present this parameterization and we discuss about the spatial and temporal variability of the detached layers of dust, in comparison with observations.

  15. Transient teleconnection event at the onset of a planet-encircling dust storm on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Martínez-Alvarado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We use proper orthogonal decomposition (POD to study a transient teleconnection event at the onset of the 2001 planet-encircling dust storm on Mars, in terms of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. There are several differences between this and previous studies of atmospheric events using EOFs. First, instead of using a single variable such as surface pressure or geopotential height on a given pressure surface, we use a dataset describing the evolution in time of global and fully three-dimensional atmospheric fields such as horizontal velocity and temperature. These fields are produced by assimilating Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft into a Mars general circulation model. We use total atmospheric energy (TE as a physically meaningful quantity which weights the state variables. Second, instead of adopting the EOFs to define teleconnection patterns as planetary-scale correlations that explain a large portion of long time-scale variability, we use EOFs to understand transient processes due to localised heating perturbations that have implications for the atmospheric circulation over distant regions. The localised perturbation is given by anomalous heating due to the enhanced presence of dust around the northern edge of the Hellas Planitia basin on Mars. We show that the localised disturbance is seemingly restricted to a small number (a few tens of EOFs. These can be classified as low-order, transitional, or high-order EOFs according to the TE amount they explain throughout the event. Despite the global character of the EOFs, they show the capability of accounting for the localised effects of the perturbation via the presence of specific centres of action. We finally discuss possible applications for the study of terrestrial phenomena with similar characteristics.

  16. Feedhorn-coupled Bolometer Detectors at 40 GHz Implemented on the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.; Ali, A.; Appel, J. W.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Marriage, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wollack, E.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed, produced, and tested 40 GHz feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) detectors using microstrip circuits on monocrystalline silicon dielectric substrates. Symmetric planar orthomode transducers (OMTs) couple two independent orthogonal linear polarization modes from feedhorns onto planar transmission lines over a broad (60 %) bandwidth. The 33-43 GHz band is defined by a combination of on-chip planar filtering and effective integrated shielding of stray light (blue leaks). The integrated stray light control is achieved over a frequency range of > 10:1. The monocrystalline silicon substrate provides a highly uniform dielectric constant that results in reliable circuit uniformity and performance. In addition, the monocrystalline silicon enables high efficiency due to its extremely low loss. The efficiency of the devices, including all integrated filtering, has been measured to be ~90 % for each polarization. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) cosmic microwave background B-mode experiment is employing a 36-element focal plane of these detectors, along with similar detectors at higher frequencies, to map a large fraction of the sky.

  17. A Mars Riometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C. D.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Lutz, L.; Detrick, D. L.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Knouse, E.; Breden, H.; Giganti, J.

    1998-09-01

    The Planetary Surface Instruments Workshop (Meyer et al., LPI Tech. Rpt. 95-05, 1995) identified surface-based radio science instruments as key tools for observing Mars' middle atmosphere, its ionosphere and solar-wind interaction. For example, Mars has a substantial daytime ionosphere, and some important features of the Martian ionosphere can only be observed from below. One instrument, the Relative Ionospheric Opacity Meter (Riometer), is expected to work well on Mars (Detrick et al., PSS, 45, p. 289, 1997). In the past, the size, power requirements and complexity of these instruments have argued against including them on a lander or rover mission, in spite of the potentially rich science return. We describe the development of a miniature radio receiver designed to operate as a Riometer. The development of this receiver was funded by NASA as an enabling technology for future planetary radio science missions. Our receiver includes features that are desirable for extended autonomous operation: low power consumption, wide dynamic range and linearity, computer command and data interface, and the ability to be remotely reconfigured. The receiver design provides significant improvements over previous implementations used in terrestrial riometry. The high degree of system linearity, combined with a digital feedback loop (including a low-duty calibration cycle), allows a longer measurement time. We were able to significantly miniaturize the receiver by using modern, low-power electronic components that have come on the market. We also implemented several of the subsystems in a field-programmable gate array, including the receiver detector, the control logic, and the data acquisition and processing blocks. Considerable efforts were made to eliminate or minimize RF noise and spurious emissions generated by the receiver's digital circuitry. Results of laboratory and field tests are presented and discussed.

  18. Un mar compartido

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Existen pocos ámbitos más reveladores que el mar para entender las virtudes de la cooperación internacional en materia científica. En las ciencias marinas esta cooperación es más que deseable: es imprescindible para poder contestar preguntas relacionadas con el movimiento de las corrientes, el aporte de los ríos, los ciclos migratorios de las especies, las pesquerías, etc. Se analiza la importancia de los proyectos conjuntos donde participaron países latinoamericanos, algunos con éxitos, y so...

  19. Mars Rover RTG Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-08-25

    This report summarizes the results of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) design study conducted by Fairchild Space Company at the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of SpecialApplications, in suppport of the Mars Rover and Sample Return mission under investigation at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The report is a rearranged, updated, and significantly expanded amalgam of three interrelated papers presented at the 24th Intersocity Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC) at Arlington, Virginia, on August 10, 1989.

  20. The salts of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Van Hart, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Salt compounds are apparently an important component of the fine-grained regolith on Mars. Salt enrichment may be explained either as a secondary concentration of chemical weathering products or as direct incorporation of planetary released volatiles. Geochemical measurements and chemical relationships constrain the salt species and resultant physicochemical consequences. A likely assemblage is dominated by (Mg,Na)SO4, NaCl, and (Mg,Ca)CO3. Formation of brine in equilibrium with such a salt mixture is unlikely under the temperature and water-vapor restrictions prevalent over most, if not all, of the Martian surface. Acidic conditions, accompanying salt formation, favor the preferential destruction of susceptible igneous minerals.

  1. Mars Surface Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørnberg, Per; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur P.

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory simulations of the Martian surface are of importance to broaden scientific understanding of the physical processes, but also in order to develop the technology necessary for exploration of the planet. The Mars Simulation Laboratory at Aarhus University [1] has been involved in such simulations for around ten years and has developed several experimental facilities for carrying out science or instrument testing under conditions similar to those at the Martian surface, specifically low pressure, low temperature and importantly recreating the wind flow environment and dust suspension (reproducing the Martian dusty aerosol) using Mars analogue material [2]. The science involved in this simulation work has covered a broad spectrum including, erosion induced mineralogy/chemistry, particulate electrification, magnetic properties of Martian dust, biological survival, UV induced chemistry/mineralogy (using a solar simulator), adhesion/cohesion processes and the wind driven transport of dust and sand [3,4]. With regard to technology the wind tunnel facilities have been used in the development of the latest wind and dust sensing instrumentation [5,6]. With support from the European Space Agency (ESA) and Danish national funding an advanced Mars simulation facility has recently been constructed (2009). This wind tunnel facility has a cross section of 2 x 1 m and a length of 8 m, a temperature range down to below -120C, wind speeds in excess of 20m/s, and automated dust control. With a range of (specialised) sensing instrumentation it provides the opportunity to perform a new generation of scientific experiments and allow testing and technology development in the most realistic and rigorous environment. As well as being available for the space agencies, this facility will be open to all potential scientific collaborators. Also European planetary scientists may benefit from support through the EU Europlanet FP7 networking programme. For more information on access

  2. MARS15 overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    MARS15 is a Monte Carlo code for inclusive and exclusive simulation of three-dimensional hadronic and electromagnetic cascades, muon, heavy-ion, and low-energy neutron transport in accelerator, detector, spacecraft, and shielding components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV. Main features of the code are described in this paper with a focus on recent developments and benchmarking. Newest developments concern inclusive and exclusive nuclear event generators, extended particle list in both modes, heavy-ion capability, electromagnetic interactions, enhanced geometry, tracking, histogramming and residual dose modules, improved graphical-user interface, and other external interfaces.

  3. 'Doctor Google' ending the diagnostic odyssey in lysosomal storage disorders: parents using internet search engines as an efficient diagnostic strategy in rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Machtelt G; Teunissen, Quirine G A; Wijburg, Frits A; Linthorst, Gabor E

    2010-08-01

    The expansion of the internet has resulted in widespread availability of medical information for both patients and physicians. People increasingly spend time on the internet searching for an explanation, diagnosis or treatment for their symptoms. Regarding rare diseases, the use of the internet may be an important tool in the diagnostic process. The authors present two cases in which concerned parents made a correct diagnosis of a lysosomal storage disorder in their child by searching the internet after a long doctor's delay. These cases illustrate the utility of publicly available internet search engines in diagnosing rare disorders and in addition illustrate the lengthy diagnostic odyssey which is common in these disorders.

  4. Using Mars Mission Analogs and Authentic Experiences to Stimulate STEM Learning in K-14 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, S. L.; Grigsby, B.; Valderrama, P.; Watt, K.

    2005-12-01

    achieve science goals, populate a spacecraft with a meaningful payload for science return, not exceed mass margins, and stay within budget. A full set of Standards-based activities and curriculum are also available for the teacher at the same website. The Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP) is an authentic research experience available to 5th grade - early college student teams across the U.S. During this program, students formulate a question about Mars, write a proposal, and target an image at Mars using the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera (THEMIS) onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The students then analyze the image and report their findings to NASA. As of June 2005, over 10,000 students have participated in MSIP. The data gathered on this program shows a high rate of interest in students of all ages, demographics, skill levels, and diverse audiences. To sustain our country and the ability to be a nation that will continue to lead and move forward educationally, technologically, and scientifically, we as educators and trainers of educators must persevere to reach diverse audiences in ways that will resonate with our customers - the students. We must pay attention to important issues such as accessibility, cost, Standards, teacher concerns and student interest.

  5. BUILDING ON THE MARS PLANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Pershakov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  The main task is the terraforming of the Mars planet. Nowadays it is a very important task, because there are a lot of problems on the planet Earth, which deals with the exhaustion of natural resources. The solution is in the colonizing and building on the Mars planet.

  6. Monitoring Mars for Electrostatic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, D.

    2011-01-01

    The DSN radio telescope DSS-13 was used to monitor Mars for electrostatic discharges from 17 February to 11 April, 2010, and from 19 April to 4 May, 2011, over a total of 72 sessions. Of these sessions, few showed noteworthy results and no outstanding electrostatic disturbances were observed on Mars from analyzing the kurtosis of radio emission from Mars. Electrostatic discharges on mars were originally detected in June of 2006 by Ruf et al. using DSS-13. he kurtosis (normalized fourth moment of the electrical field strength) is sensitive to non-thermal radiation. Two frequencies bands, either 2.4 and 8.4 GHz or 8.4 and 32 GHz were used. The non-thermal radiation spectrum should have peaks at the lowest three modes of the theoretical Schumann Resonances of Mars. The telescope was pointed away from Mars every 5 minutes for 45 seconds to confirm if Mars was indeed the sources of any events. It was shown that by including a down-link signal in one channel and by observing when the kurtosis changed as the telescope was pointed away from the source that the procedure can monitor Mars without the need of extra equipment monitoring a control source.

  7. Assessing the Distribution and State of Subsurface Water on Mars: Theoretical Expectations, the Geologic Evidence, and Potential Geophysical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of water on Mars has important implications for understanding the planet's geologic, hydrologic, and climatic history; the potential origin and continued survival of life; and the accessibility of a critical in-situ resource for sustaining future human explorers. For this reason, the search for water has become a key objective of NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Evidence of water, both past and present, is found almost everywhere, but most persuasively in the form of the planet's outflow channels -- broad scoured depressions hundreds of kilometers long that emerge abruptly from large areas of collapsed and disrupted terrain, the apparent result of a massive release of subpermafrost groundwater. Based on a conservative estimate of the volume of water required to erode the channels, Carr (Icarus, 68, 187-216, 1986) has estimated that Mars may possess a total planetary inventory of water equivalent to a global ocean 0.5 - 1 km deep. Of this global inventory, ~0.000001% is found in the atmosphere, while ~5-10% is visible as ice in the perennial polar caps. This leaves ~90-95% of the planetary inventory of water unaccounted for, the vast bulk of which is believed to reside, as ground ice and groundwater, within the planet's crust. Theoretical and geomorphic approaches to assessing the current distribution and state of subsurface water on Mars face numerous obstacles -- thus geophysical techniques hold the most promise. The first such investigation, the Gamma-Ray Neutron Spectrometer aboard the Mars Odyssey Orbiter, arrived at Mars in 2001. It revealed that the top half-meter of the Martian regolith is rich in hydrogen at latitudes above ~40-degrees, an observation consistent with the presence of near-surface ground ice. Assessing the distribution of water at greater depths (up to several kilometers) is one of the chief objectives of the MARSIS experiment on ESA's Mars Express spacecraft. MARSIS is a low-frequency (1-5 MHz) orbital radar

  8. The 2009 Mars Telecommunications Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. R.; Depaula, R.; Diehl, R. E.; Edwards, C. D.; Fitzgerald, R. J.; Franklin, S. F.; Gibbs, R. G.; Kerridge, S. A.; Komarek, T. A.; Noreen, G. K.

    The first spacecraft with a primary function of providing communication links while orbiting a foreign planet has begun development for a launch in 2009. NASA's Mars Telecommunications Orbiter would use three radio bands to magnify the benefits of other future Mars missions and enable some types of missions otherwise impractical. It would serve as the Mars hub for a growing interplanetary Internet. And it would pioneer the use of planet-to-planet laser communications to demonstrate the possibility for even great networking capabilities in the future. During its nearly 10-year mission in orbit, Mars Telecommunications Orbiter would aid navigation of arriving spacecraft to their martian landing sites and monitor critical events during landings and orbit insertions. In addition, it would enable data-transmission volumes great enough to bring a virtual Mars presence to the public through a range of Internet and video features.

  9. Mars Express 10 years at Mars: Observations by the Mars Express Radio Science Experiment (MaRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pätzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Tyler, G. L.; Andert, T.; Asmar, S. W.; Bird, M. K.; Dehant, V.; Hinson, D. P.; Rosenblatt, P.; Simpson, R. A.; Tellmann, S.; Withers, P.; Beuthe, M.; Efimov, A. I.; Hahn, M.; Kahan, D.; Le Maistre, S.; Oschlisniok, J.; Peter, K.; Remus, S.

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Express spacecraft is operating in Mars orbit since early 2004. The Mars Express Radio Science Experiment (MaRS) employs the spacecraft and ground station radio systems (i) to conduct radio occultations of the atmosphere and ionosphere to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, neutral number densities and electron density, (ii) to conduct bistatic radar experiments to obtain information on the dielectric and scattering properties of the surface, (iii) to investigate the structure and variation of the crust and lithosphere in selected target areas, (iv) to determine the mass, bulk and internal structure of the moon Phobos, and (v) to track the MEX radio signals during superior solar conjunction to study the morphology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Here we report observations, results and discoveries made in the Mars environment between 2004 and 2014 over almost an entire solar cycle.

  10. Mathematics and Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, M. P.; Usero, D.; Jiménez, S.; Aguirre, C.; Vázquez, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we consider modelization associated with study of solar radiation at the surface of Mars and the Martian atmosphere. In particular, we present elements concerning retrieval of the solar irradiance spectrum on the surface of Mars from data collected by arrays of photodiodes, such as those onboard the "Curiosity" MSL-rover and other missions currently under design. By using these techniques we are able to provide an approximate description of the expected measures. In this work we have also developed a new method of tomography-based signal analysis for detection of events in the Martian atmosphere boundary layer, such as dust devils. In general, this method enables detection of events that occur briefly in time and are localized in space. This tomographic method allows us to identify the presence of more dust devils than detected previously using the same data. Finally we show new scenarios of modelization through fractional differential equations associated with diffusion processes and nonlocal problems. Such approaches could be used to model complex Martian dynamics.

  11. Mars synthetic topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.S.C.

    1978-01-01

    Topographic contour maps of Mars are compiled by the synthesis of data acquired from various scientific experiments of the Mariner 9 mission, including S-band radio-occulation, the ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS), the infrared radiometer (IRR), the infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) and television imagery, as well as Earth-based radar information collected at Goldstone, Haystack, and Arecibo Observatories. The entire planet is mapped at scales of 1:25,000,000 and 1:25,000,000 using Mercator, Lambert, and polar stereographic map projections. For the computation of map projections, a biaxial spheroid figure is adopted. The semimajor and semiminor axes are 3393.4 and 3375.7 km, respectively, with a polar flattening of 0.0052. For the computation of elevations, a topographic datum is defined by a gravity field described in terms of spherical harmonics of fourth order and fourth degree combined with a 6.1-mbar occulation pressure surface. This areoid can be approximated by a triaxial ellipsoid with semimajor axes of A = 3394.6 km and B = 3393.3 km and a semiminor axis of C = 3376.3 km. The semimajor axis A intersects the Martian surface at longitude 105??W. The dynamic flattening of Mars is 0.00525. The contour intercal of the maps is 1 km. For some prominent features where overlapping pictures from Mariner 9 are available, local contour maps at relatively larger scales were also compiled by photogrammetric methods on stereo plotters. ?? 1978.

  12. Oxygen foreshock of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Frahm, R. A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Holmström, M.; Barabash, S.

    2015-12-01

    Mars Express (MEX) has operated for more than 10 years in the environment of Mars, providing solar wind ion observations from the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms experiment's Ion Mass Analyser (IMA). On 21 September 2008, MEX/IMA detected foreshock-like discrete distributions of oxygen ions at around 1 keV in the solar wind attached to the bow shock and this distribution was observed continuously up to more than 2000 km from the bow shock. Foreshock-like protons are also observed but at a shifted location from the oxygen by about 1000 km, at a slightly higher energy, and flowing in a slightly different direction than the oxygen ions. Both protons and oxygen ions are flowing anti-sunward at different angles with respect to the solar wind direction. This is the first time that a substantial amount of planetary oxygen is observed upstream of the bow shock. Although rare, this is not the only IMA observation of foreshock-like oxygen: oxygen ions are sometimes observed for a short period of time (<5 min) inside the foreshock region. These observations suggest a new escape channel for planetary ions through the acceleration in the bow shock-magnetosheath region.

  13. Water on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Large flood channels, valley networks and a variety of features attributed to the action of ground ice indicate that Mars emerged from heavy bombardment 3.8 Ga ago, with an inventory of water at the surface equivalent to at least a few hundred metres spread over the whole planet, as compared with 3 km for the Earth. The mantle of Mars is much drier than that of the Earth, possibly as a result of global melting at the end of accretion and the lack of plate tectonics to subsequently reintroduce water into the interior. The surface water resided primarily in a porous, kilometres-thick megaregolith created by the high impact rates. Under today's climatic conditions groundwater is trapped below a thick permafrost zone. At the end of heavy bombardment any permafrost zone would have been much thinner because of the high heat flows, but climatic conditions may have been very different then, as suggested by erosion rates 1000 times higher than subsequent rates. Water trapped below the permafrost periodically erupted onto the surface to form large flood channels and lakes. Given abundant water at the surface and sustained volcanism, hydrothermal activity must have frequently occurred but we have yet to make the appropriate observations to detect the results of such activity.

  14. [Cryptobiosphere of Mars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal'chenko, V F

    2003-01-01

    The US Viking missions (1975-1976) failed to discover any biological activity on the surface of Mars. Yet, life may exist in the planet lithosphere which was found to contain a substantial amount of water. Martian interior can also provide microbial cryptolife with sources of carbon (CO, CO2, CH4) and energy (reduced elements and compounds, e.g. H2, CO, H2S, NH4+, CH4, Fe3+). Microorganisms identical to the Earth's anaerobic methanogens, sulfate reducers, acetogens, denitrifiers etc. are the most probable Martian aborigines. Well-balanced continuous functioning of the Martian cryptobiosphere implies closure of biochemical carbon, sulfur and nitrogen cycles which cannot be reached but with participation of organotrophic and anaerobic hydrolytic and zymotic organisms, ammonifiers and denitrifiers. Considering the low intensity of biological and chemical processes in the absence of surface hydrosphere, low-power atmosphere and cryptobiosphere closure on Mars, and slow global energy matter cycles, evolution of the presumable Martian cryptolife should also go at a slack pace and directions and forms of the evolution of living substance can have little in common with those on Earth. Comprehensive investigations of the Martian biota will employ a great variety of geochemical, radi- and stable isotope, microbiological, enzymatic and molecular biology methods.

  15. Water on early Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M H

    1996-01-01

    Large flood channels, valley networks and a variety of features attributed to the action of ground ice indicate that Mars emerged from heavy bombardment 3.8 Ga ago, with an inventory of water at the surface equivalent to at least a few hundred metres spread over the whole planet, as compared with 3 km for the Earth. The mantle of Mars is much drier than that of the Earth, possibly as a result of global melting at the end of accretion and the lack of plate tectonics to subsequently reintroduce water into the interior. The surface water resided primarily in a porous, kilometres-thick megaregolith created by the high impact rates. Under today's climatic conditions groundwater is trapped below a thick permafrost zone. At the end of heavy bombardment any permafrost zone would have been much thinner because of the high heat flows, but climatic conditions may have been very different then, as suggested by erosion rates 1000 times higher than subsequent rates. Water trapped below the permafrost periodically erupted onto the surface to form large flood channels and lakes. Given abundant water at the surface and sustained volcanism, hydrothermal activity must have frequently occurred but we have yet to make the appropriate observations to detect the results of such activity.

  16. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  17. Safety during MARS exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    It is MARS(1) time again! All employed members of the CERN personnel are currently undergoing the annual MARS evaluations.   This is also a good occasion for supervisors and their supervisees to fill in or update the OHS-0-0-3 form(2) “Identification of occupational hazards”. Filling in the OHS-0-0-3 form is an opportunity to assess any safety issues related to the supervisee's activities.  Each of us should, together with our supervisor, regularly identify and assess the hazards we may be exposed to in the course of our professional activities and reflect on how to control and mitigate them. When filling in the OHS form for the first time, it is important to determine any potential hazards as well as the corresponding preventive measures, in particular training and protective equipment. When updating the form, please review the available information to ensure that it still corresponds to the current activities. The form should be updated w...

  18. The Residual Polar Caps of Mars: Geological Differences and Possible Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. C.; Sullivan, R.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Murray, B. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Soderblom, L.; Malin, M. C.; Edgett, K. S.; James, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    The Martian polar regions have been known to have thick layered sequences (presumed to consist of silicates and ice), CO2 seasonal frost, and residual frosts that remain through the summer: H2O in the north, largely CO2 in the south. The relationship of the residual frosts to the underlying layered deposits could not be determined from Viking images. The Mars Orbiter Camera on Mars Global Surveyor has provided a 50-fold increase in resolution that shows more differences between the two poles. The north residual cap surface has rough topography of pits, cracks, and knobs, suggestive of ablational forms. This topography is less than a few meters in height, and grades in to surfaces exposing the layers underneath. In contrast, the south residual cap has distinctive collapse and possibly ablational topography emplaced in four or more layers, each approx. two meters thick. The top surface has polygonal depressions suggestive of thermal contraction cracks. The collapse and erosional forms include circular and cycloidal depressions, long sinuous troughs, and nearly parallel sets of troughs. The distinctive topography occurs throughout the residual cap area, but not outside it. Unconformities exposed in polar layers, or other layered materials, do not approximate the topography seen on the south residual cap. The coincidence of a distinct geologic feature, several layers modified by collapse, ablation, and mass movement with the residual cap indicates a distinct composition and/or climate compared to both the remainder of the south polar layered units and those in the north.

  19. A New View of the Surface of Mars: High-Resolution Rock Abundance from MGS TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, S.; Christensen, P.

    2001-12-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data from the most dust-free seasons on Mars were used to calculate the areal percentage of rocks and finer materials such as dust and sand. Rock is defined as a surface material that has a thermal inertia of 1250 J/m2-s1/2-K (30 cal/cm2-s1/2-K) or greater. A surface with a high rock abundance value could be exposed bedrock, blocky debris, well-cemented materials or a combination. Globally, the TES and IRTM data agree well, with no rocks exposed in the large dusty regions such as Tharsis and Arabia, and exposure of rocks in small (a few km) areas where likely eolian or mass-wasting processes actively remove dust from the ancient rocky surface. Analysis of high-resolution TES rock abundance suggests that there are extremely varied surfaces within relatively small regions, and places an upper limit of ~45 % rocks in the rockiest regions. Thermal inertia and rock abundance are correlate to some degree over much of the planet, but the highest thermal inertia surfaces often do not have the highest rock abundances. A global perspective will be presented here, with detailed look at a few high-resolution ares including Ares Vallis/Pathfinder, Valles Marineris, and the proposed landing sites for the 2003 MER landers.

  20. Longitudinal Distribution of the Dayside Ionosphere of Mars at High Latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S. A.; Sheel, Varun; Singh, V.; Maguire, W. C.; Molina-Cuberos, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    Accelerometer and radio science data obtained from Mars Global Surveyor have been used to study the longitudinal structure of thermosphere and troposphere of Mars at high latitude region. These datasets represent primary and secondary ionization peaks at altitudes 130 km and 122 km, respectively. These peaks are reproduced by photoionization and photoelectron impact processes. The production rates of different ions are estimated in the thermosphere and troposphere at solar zenith angle 80°, using analytical yield spectrum and energy loss models, respectively. The electron densities are calculated under photochemical equilibrium condition. The impact ionization sources are taken as EUV and galactic cosmic rays. The characteristics of longitudinal distribution of production and density are fitted up to waves 2 and 3 by least square method with 0.95 confidence limits. The peak electron density in the troposphere is obtained at an altitude of 30 km due to high efficiency of electron attachment to Ox molecules, which entails that concentration of negative ions is higher than that of electron below 30 km. Of the 35 ions considered in the model, the densities of electron and nine major ions (H3O+(H2O)n for n = 1,2,3,4, notation="LaTeX">CO^{-}_{4}, notation="LaTeX">CO^{-}_{3}, notation="LaTeX">NO^{-}_{2}H_{2}O, and notation="LaTeX">CO^{-}_{3}(H_{2}O)_{n} for n = 1,2) are discussed.