WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveying earth-moving revegetation

  1. Survey of Revegetated Areas on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve: Status and Initial Monitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Janelle L.; Link, Steven O.; Rozeboom, Latricia L.; Durham, Robin E.; Cruz, Rico O.; Mckee, Sadie A.

    2011-09-01

    During 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office removed a number of facilities and debris from the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM). Revegetation of disturbed sites is necessary to stabilize the soil, reduce invasion of these areas by exotic weeds, and to accelerate re-establishment of native plant communities. Seven revegetation units were identified on ALE based on soils and potential native plant communities at the site. Native seed mixes and plant material were identified for each area based on the desired plant community. Revegetation of locations affected by decommissioning of buildings and debris removal was undertaken during the winter and early spring of 2010 and 2011, respectively. This report describes both the details of planting and seeding for each of the units, describes the sampling design for monitoring, and summarizes the data collected during the first year of monitoring. In general, the revegetation efforts were successful in establishing native bunchgrasses and shrubs on most of the sites within the 7 revegetation units. Invasion of the revegetation areas by exotic annual species was minimal for most sites, but was above initial criteria in 3 areas: the Hodges Well subunit of Unit 2, and Units 6 and 7.

  2. Fiscal Year 2016 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, Jenifer B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to document revegetation efforts at Idaho National Laboratory to verify restoration of disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations occurs as required. This report provides the following information for projects at Idaho National Laboratory completed during FY 2016 that were identified during the National Environmental Policy Act review process as having the potential to disturb soils or vegetation: 1) A summary of all projects identified as having the potential to require revegetation efforts 2) A summary of site disturbance and restoration efforts of each project. For FY 2016, one project required revegetation and sagebrush restoration. For other projects, implementation of best management practices minimized impacts to vegetation and revegetation efforts were not required.

  3. 2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

    2009-09-30

    This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

  4. Fiscal Year 2014 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, Jenifer [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2014 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to document revegetation efforts at Idaho National Laboratory to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Five disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Four sites are recommended to be removed from the annual assessment, and one is recommended for continued evaluation. New sites are also identified for future monitoring as part of the annual assessment.

  5. Revegetation increase bird diversity in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban, East Java - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Yeni Indah; Edi, Wasito; Alivvy, Alkautsar; Ibadah, Acib Setia; Sari, Fadina Yuliana; Nuraini, Finda; Yanuar, Ahmad; Satriyono, Agus; Riany, Citra Fitrie; Saptarini, Dian; Muzaki, Farid Kamal

    2017-06-01

    Study to address positive impact of revegetation program to increasing diversity of bird had been conducted in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban - Indonesia. Field observation conducted during April 2011 (representing pre-revegetation period), April 2015 and May 2016 (representing post-revegetation period). A belt transect (500 meter long and 50 meter width) was used to survey the abundance and species composition of birds community. In general, we identified at least 51 bird species from three observation times. From 2011 to 2016, the numbers of the birds identified are 23, 37 and 37 species; while the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') are 1.865, 2.071 and 2.957, respectively. In addition, there are 11 national or internationally protected species, 3 Indonesian endemic species and 12 migratory species occurred in the area. As a conclusion, the coastal revegetation program provides positive impact by generating habitat function for bird community.

  6. Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenifer Nordstrom; Mike Lewis

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

  7. Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Lewis

    2009-10-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

  8. Practitioner perspectives on using nonnative plants for revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Gornish

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Restoration practitioners use both native and nonnative plant species for revegetation projects. Typically, when rehabilitating damaged working lands, more practitioners consider nonnative plants; while those working to restore habitat have focused on native plants. But this may be shifting. Novel ecosystems (non-analog communities are commonly being discussed in academic circles, while practical factors such as affordability and availability of natives and the need for more drought tolerant species to accommodate climate change may be making nonnative species attractive to land managers. To better understand the current use of nonnatives for revegetation, we surveyed 192 California restoration stakeholders who worked in a variety of habitats. A large portion (42% of them considered nonnatives for their projects, and of survey respondents who did not use nonnatives in vegetation rehabilitation, almost half indicated that they would consider them in the future. Across habitats, the dominant value of nonnatives for vegetation rehabilitation was found to be erosion control, and many respondents noted the high cost and unavailability of natives as important drivers of nonnative use in revegetation projects. Moreover, 37% of respondents noted they had changed their opinion or use of nonnatives in response to climate change.

  9. Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2013-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: Summary of each site Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location Actions and Resolutions for each site. Six disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. One has achieved final stabilization. The remaining five sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

  10. Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Ten disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Six have achieved final stabilization. The remaining four sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

  11. Revegetation manual for the environmental restoration contractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, T.; Redente, E.F.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance and general guidelines for the revegetation of remediation waste sites and other disturbed areas on the Hanford Site. Specific revegetation plans will be developed using guidance from this manual. Locations, resources, and funding will dictate the specific revegetation design at each disturbed area. Disturbances have occurred to some of the ecological communities of the Hanford Site. Many of these disturbances are the result of operations of the Hanford Site, including Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 waste sites on small portions of the Hanford Site. There were, however, extensive disturbances to the native vegetation prior to operations of the facility. These resulted from cultivation, grazing, fire, and the introduction of exotics. Revegetation planning must take into account these early disturbances, as well as the later ones.

  12. Revegetation techniques in arctic and subarctic environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the revegetation techniques in the arctic and subarctic environments. Background on the subject, as well as a literature reviews concerning...

  13. Earth-moving equipment as base machines in forest work. Final report of an NSR project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Jerry [ed.

    1997-12-31

    Excavators have been used for forest draining for a long time in the Nordic countries. Only during the 1980s they were introduced as base machines for other forest operations, such as mounding, processing, harvesting, and road construction and road maintenance. Backhoe loaders were introduced in forestry at a somewhat later stage and to a smaller degree. The number of this type of base machines in forestry is so far small and is increasing very slowly. The NSR project `Earth moving equipment as base machines in forest work` started in 1993 and the project ended in 1995. The objective of the project was to obtain an overall picture of this type of machines up to a point where the logs are at landing site, ready for transportation to the industry. The project should cover as many aspects as possible. In order to obtain this picture, the main project was divided into sub projects. The sub projects separately described in this volume are (1) Excavators in ditching operations and site preparation, (2) Backhoe loaders in harvesting operations, (3) Excavators in wood cutting operations, (4) Tracked excavators in forestry operations, (5) Crawler versus wheeled base machines for single-grip harvester, and (6) Soil changes - A comparison between a wheeled and a tracked forest machine

  14. 2008 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2008 and includes 22 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and two bat habitat mitigation projects.

  15. 2007 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. A. Gano; C. T. Lindsey

    2007-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2007 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 3 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  16. 30 CFR 816.116 - Revegetation: Standards for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revegetation: Standards for success. 816.116... ACTIVITIES § 816.116 Revegetation: Standards for success. (a) Success of revegetation shall be judged on the... success and statistically valid sampling techniques for measuring success shall be selected by...

  17. 30 CFR 817.116 - Revegetation: Standards for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revegetation: Standards for success. 817.116... ACTIVITIES § 817.116 Revegetation: Standards for success. (a) Success of revegetation shall be judged on the... success and statistically valid sampling techniques for measuring success shall be selected by...

  18. POST-FIRE REVEGETATION AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROOS RC; JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; RODRIGUEZ JM; WILDE JW

    2010-01-05

    Range fires on the Hanford Site can have a long lasting effect on native plant communities. Wind erosion following removal of protective vegetation from fragile soils compound the damaging effect of fires. Dust storms caused by erosion create health and safety hazards to personnel, and damage facilities and equipment. The Integrated Biological Control Program (IBC) revegetates burned areas to control erosion and consequent dust. Use of native, perennial vegetation in revegetation moves the resulting plant community away from fire-prone annual weeds, and toward the native shrub-steppe that is much less likely to burn in the future. Over the past 10 years, IBC has revegetated major fire areas with good success. IBC staff is monitoring the success of these efforts, and using lessons learned to improve future efforts.

  19. 2006 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Johnson; K. A. Gano

    2006-10-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. One of the objectives of restoration is the revegetation of remediated waste sites to stabilize the soil and restore the land to native vegetation. The report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2006 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 2 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  20. Ecological impacts of revegetation and management practices of ski slopes in northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Katja; Tolvanen, Anne; Kälkäjä, Tarja; Siikamäki, Pirkko

    2009-09-01

    Outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism represent an increasingly intensive form of land use that has considerable impacts on native ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to investigate how revegetation and management of ski runs influence soil nutrients, vegetation characteristics, and the possible invasion of nonnative plant species used in revegetation into native ecosystems. A soil and vegetation survey at ski runs and nearby forests, and a factorial experiment simulating ski run construction and management (factors: soil removal, fertilization, and seed sowing) were conducted at Ruka ski resort, in northern Finland, during 2003-2008. According to the survey, management practices had caused considerable changes in the vegetation structure and increased soil nutrient concentrations, pH, and conductivity on the ski runs relative to nearby forests. Seed mixture species sown during the revegetation of ski runs had not spread to adjacent forests. The experimental study showed that the germination of seed mixture species was favored by treatments simulating the management of ski runs, but none of them could eventually establish in the study forest. As nutrient leaching causes both environmental deterioration and changes in vegetation structure, it may eventually pose a greater environmental risk than the spread of seed mixture species alone. Machine grading and fertilization, which have the most drastic effects on soils and vegetation, should, therefore, be minimized when constructing and managing ski runs.

  1. Weather-centric rangeland revegetation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree, Stuart P; Abatzoglou, John T.; Brunson, Mark W; Germino, Matthew; Hegewisch, Katherine C; Moffet, Corey A; Pilliod, David; Roundy, Bruce A.; Boehm, Alex R; Meredith, Gwendwr R

    2017-01-01

    Invasive annual weeds negatively impact ecosystem services and pose a major conservation threat on semiarid rangelands throughout the western United States. Rehabilitation of these rangelands is challenging due to interannual climate and subseasonal weather variability that impacts seed germination, seedling survival and establishment, annual weed dynamics, wildfire frequency, and soil stability. Rehabilitation and restoration outcomes could be improved by adopting a weather-centric approach that uses the full spectrum of available site-specific weather information from historical observations, seasonal climate forecasts, and climate-change projections. Climate data can be used retrospectively to interpret success or failure of past seedings by describing seasonal and longer-term patterns of environmental variability subsequent to planting. A more detailed evaluation of weather impacts on site conditions may yield more flexible adaptive-management strategies for rangeland restoration and rehabilitation, as well as provide estimates of transition probabilities between desirable and undesirable vegetation states. Skillful seasonal climate forecasts could greatly improve the cost efficiency of management treatments by limiting revegetation activities to time periods where forecasts suggest higher probabilities of successful seedling establishment. Climate-change projections are key to the application of current environmental models for development of mitigation and adaptation strategies and for management practices that require a multidecadal planning horizon. Adoption of new weather technology will require collaboration between land managers and revegetation specialists and modifications to the way we currently plan and conduct rangeland rehabilitation and restoration in the Intermountain West.

  2. Comparing Potential Unstable Sites and Stable Sites on Revegetated Cut-Slopes of Mountainous Terrain in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Kil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a diverse set of variables to explain slope stabilization on stable versus failure-prone revegetated cut-slopes in Korea. A field survey was conducted at potential unstable sites and stable sites using 23 variables. Through a non-parametric test of the field survey results, 15 variables were identified as primary determinants of slope failure. Of these variables, one described physical characteristics (elapsed year; four variables described vegetation properties (plant community, vegetation coverage rate, number of trees, and number of herbs; and 10 variables represented soil properties (porosity, soil hardness, water content, sand ratio and silt ratio of soil texture, tensile strength, permeability coefficient, soil depth, soil acidity, salt concentration, and organic matter. Slope angle, which was mainly considered in previous studies, of variables in physical characteristics was not statistically selected as one of the 15 variables because most of sites were located on steep slopes. The vegetation community, vegetation coverage, and number of trees influence slope stabilization. Vegetation coverage is highly correlated with other soil and vegetation variables, making it a major indicator of slope stabilization. All soil variables were related to slope failure such that subsequent slope failure was related to the method of slope revegetation rather than the environmental condition of the slope. Slope failure did not occur in revegetated slopes that matched the characteristics of the surrounding landscape and contained a large number of native trees. Most soil and vegetation variables showed differing values for whether a revegetated slope is potentially unstable or stable.

  3. 2005 River Corridor Cleanup Contractor Revegetation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Johnson

    2005-09-12

    This report contains a compilation of the results of vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2005 for the Environmental Restoration Contractor's revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  4. 2010 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey, A. L. Johnson

    2010-09-30

    This report documents eh status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with CERLA cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2010 from the River Corridor Closure Contract’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  5. 2011 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, W. J.; Lucas, J. G.; Gano, K. A.

    2011-11-14

    This report documents the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains the vegetation monitoring data that was collected in the spring and summer of 2011 from the River Corridor Closure Contractor’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  6. Revegetation of serpentine substrates: Response to phosphate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Roger T.; Mooney, Harold A.

    1987-08-01

    Revegetation was studied on stockpiled serpentine substrate. The native vegetation surrounding the revegetation site is annual grassland. The seed mixture applied to both subsoil and topsoil plots was largely ineffective for revegetation. No growth occurred in the subsoil plots and most of the growth in the topsoil plots was from indigenous seed. Phosphate application (100 kg P ha-1 as NaH2PO4 · H2O) to the topsoil plots resulted in a significant increase in total above-ground productivity. Annual legumes (mostly Lotus subpinnatus Lag.) and, to a lesser degree, Plantago erecta Morris responded to the added phosphate with an increased above-ground productivity. Other annual forbs and annual grasses showed no significant response. The legumes also increased in abundance. Mycorrhizal root colonization for Plantago was not significantly affected by phosphate application, but was lower in this disturbed serpentine site compared to other undisturbed serpentine annual grassland sites nearby.

  7. Is rhizosphere remediation sufficient for sustainable revegetation of mine tailings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Baumgartl, Thomas; Mulligan, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Revegetation of mine tailings (fine-grained waste material) starts with the reconstruction of root zones, consisting of a rhizosphere horizon (mostly topsoil and/or amended tailings) and the support horizon beneath (i.e. equivalent to subsoil – mostly tailings), which must be physically and hydro-geochemically stable. This review aims to discuss key processes involved in the development of functional root zones within the context of direct revegetation of tailings and introduces a conceptual process of rehabilitating structure and function in the root zones based on a state transition model. Scope Field studies on the revegetation of tailings (from processing base metal ore and bauxite residues) are reviewed. Particular focus is given to tailings' properties that limit remediation effectiveness. Aspects of root zone reconstruction and vegetation responses are also discussed. Conclusions When reconstructing a root zone system, it is critical to restore physical structure and hydraulic functions across the whole root zone system. Only effective and holistically restored systems can control hydro-geochemical mobility of acutely and chronically toxic factors from the underlying horizon and maintain hydro-geochemical stability in the rhizosphere. Thereafter, soil biological capacity and ecological linkages (i.e. carbon and nutrient cycling) may be rehabilitated to integrate the root zones with revegetated plant communities into sustainable plant ecosystems. A conceptual framework of system transitions between the critical states of root zone development has been proposed. This will illustrate the rehabilitation process in root zone reconstruction and development for direct revegetation with sustainable plant communities. Sustainable phytostabilization of tailings requires the systematic consideration of hydro-geochemical interactions between the rhizosphere and the underlying supporting horizon. It further requires effective remediation strategies to

  8. Is rhizosphere remediation sufficient for sustainable revegetation of mine tailings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Baumgartl, Thomas; Mulligan, David

    2012-07-01

    Revegetation of mine tailings (fine-grained waste material) starts with the reconstruction of root zones, consisting of a rhizosphere horizon (mostly topsoil and/or amended tailings) and the support horizon beneath (i.e. equivalent to subsoil - mostly tailings), which must be physically and hydro-geochemically stable. This review aims to discuss key processes involved in the development of functional root zones within the context of direct revegetation of tailings and introduces a conceptual process of rehabilitating structure and function in the root zones based on a state transition model. Field studies on the revegetation of tailings (from processing base metal ore and bauxite residues) are reviewed. Particular focus is given to tailings' properties that limit remediation effectiveness. Aspects of root zone reconstruction and vegetation responses are also discussed. When reconstructing a root zone system, it is critical to restore physical structure and hydraulic functions across the whole root zone system. Only effective and holistically restored systems can control hydro-geochemical mobility of acutely and chronically toxic factors from the underlying horizon and maintain hydro-geochemical stability in the rhizosphere. Thereafter, soil biological capacity and ecological linkages (i.e. carbon and nutrient cycling) may be rehabilitated to integrate the root zones with revegetated plant communities into sustainable plant ecosystems. A conceptual framework of system transitions between the critical states of root zone development has been proposed. This will illustrate the rehabilitation process in root zone reconstruction and development for direct revegetation with sustainable plant communities. Sustainable phytostabilization of tailings requires the systematic consideration of hydro-geochemical interactions between the rhizosphere and the underlying supporting horizon. It further requires effective remediation strategies to develop hydro-geochemically stable

  9. 30 CFR 816.111 - Revegetation: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACTIVITIES § 816.111 Revegetation: General requirements. (a) The permittee shall establish on regraded areas and on all other disturbed areas except water areas and surface areas of roads that are approved as... vegetation of the area; and (4) Capable of stabilizing the soil surface from erosion. (b) The...

  10. 30 CFR 817.111 - Revegetation: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACTIVITIES § 817.111 Revegetation: General requirements. (a) The permittee shall establish on regraded areas and on all other disturbed areas except water areas and surface areas of roads that are approved as... vegetation of the area; and (4) Capable of stabilizing the soil surface from erosion. (b) The...

  11. Revegetation dynamics after 15 years of rewetting in two extracted peatlands in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Kozlov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of extracted peatlands poses challenges with regard to their recolonisation by vegetation. The most significant problems are unstable water levels, destroyed propagule bank, and temperature fluctuations on bare peat surfaces. Rewetting is considered necessary for the re-establishment of peat-forming vegetation. Revegetation was investigated in a long-term field study at two rewetted extracted peatland sites in south-central Sweden, namely Västkärr (originally a lagg fen and Porla (originally a bog. Both sites were expanses of bare peat before rewetting. Rewetting procedures were applied in 1999 and strongly promoted plant colonisation. At Västkärr, colonisation started in the first year after rewetting, mostly by species that were not found during repeat vegetation surveys 15 years later. By 2014, Västkärr was a shallow lake surrounded by mesotrophic and eutrophic vegetation with species such as Carex rostrata, Lemna minor, Typha latifolia, Phalaris arundinacea and Phragmites australis. Revegetation of the Porla site was slower and started with Eriophorum vaginatum and Polytrichum spp. Sphagnum mosses appeared after six years and had established quite well after 13 years. A residual Sphagnum peat layer, inflowing surface water and groundwater provided spatially variable nutrient conditions. Sphagnum species and E. vaginatum established in nutrient-poor areas, while C. rostrata, P. australis and Eriophorum angustifolium colonised more nutrient-rich locations.

  12. Improving revegetation success: Evaluation of several soil treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, W.M.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Kemp, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Hanford practice for stabilizing contaminated soil sites and retired burial grounds involves placing clean soil over the surface, followed by revegetation. This procedure has resulted in the establishment of a viable plant cover at a number of locations. In other cases, however, these efforts have failed to establish healthy shallow-rooted grass coverage. The establishment of a viable plant community is inherently difficult on the Hanford Site for a variety of reasons, including inadequate and sporadic natural precipitation; windy conditions that produce large erosive forces; soils low in nutrients and organic matter; invasion of disturbed sites by aggressive, weedy annuals; and limited supplies of quality topsoil. This report describes the results of work designed to address three environmental issues (soil moisture, erosion, and soil nutrients). Compost and soil sealants were evaluated in various combinations with the expectation of developing revegetation procedures with a higher probability of success.

  13. Revegetation rewilds the soil bacterial microbiome of an old field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellie, Nicholas J C; Mills, Jacob G; Breed, Martin F; Lowe, Andrew J

    2017-03-05

    Ecological restoration is a globally important and well-financed management intervention used to combat biodiversity declines and land degradation. Most restoration aims to increase biodiversity towards a reference state, but there are concerns that intended outcomes are not reached due to unsuccessful interventions and land use legacy issues. Monitoring biodiversity recovery is essential to measure success, however most projects remain insufficiently monitored. Current field-based methods are hard to standardise and are limited in their ability to assess important components of ecosystems, such as bacteria. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of environmental DNA (metabarcoding of eDNA) has been proposed as a cost-effective, scalable and uniform ecological monitoring solution, but its application in restoration remains largely untested. Here we show that metabarcoding of soil eDNA is effective at demonstrating the return of the native bacterial community in an old field following native plant revegetation. Bacterial composition shifted significantly after 8 years of revegetation, where younger sites were more similar to cleared sites and older sites were more similar to remnant stands. Revegetation of the native plant community strongly impacted on the belowground bacterial community, despite the revegetated sites having a long and dramatically altered land use history (i.e. >100 years grazing). We demonstrate that metabarcoding of eDNA provides an effective way of monitoring changes in bacterial communities that would otherwise go unchecked with conventional monitoring of restoration projects. With further development, awareness of microbial diversity in restoration has significant scope for improving the efficacy of restoration interventions more broadly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Transplanting shrubs for revegetation of salt-affected soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, M.L.; Hartmann, S. (University of Texas System, Midland, TX (USA)); Ueckert, D.N. (Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, San Angelo, TX (USA)); Hons, F.M. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Vegetation (secondary) succession is extremely slow on soils contaminated with soluble salts by petroleum exploration activities in arid and semiarid areas. Excessive salt accumulations interfere with seed germination and seedling establishment of most species used for revegetation. Establishment and growth of transplanted fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) seedlings and rooted stem cuttings, and seedlings of oldman saltbush (Atriplex nummularia), winterfat (Ceratoides lanata), and prostrate kochia (Kochia prostrata) were evaluated on three saline-sodic (EC (electrical conductivity) = 23-93 dS m{sup {minus}1}, ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) = 13-46%) oil well reserve pits over a three-year period. Survival of fourwing saltbush seedlings from an accession not adapted to saline soils was only 32%, compared with {>=} 73% for seedlings or stem cuttings from an accession adapted to saline soil. Oldman saltbush suffered 100% mortality subsequent to subfreezing temperatures during the first winter following planting. Survival of winterfat and prostrate kochia transplants was 61% and 48%, respectively, after three years, and growth of these species was acceptable on the saline-sodic soils. Selection of specific accessions of species adapted to the existing conditions of the site to be revegetated appeared most promising for revegetation under extremely harsh environmental conditions. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Modifying alumina red mud to support a revegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenidis, A.; Harokopou, A. D.; Mylona, E.; Brofas, G.

    2005-02-01

    Alumina red mud, a fine-textured, iron-rich, alkaline residue, is the major waste product of bauxite digestion with caustic soda to remove alumina. The high alkalinity and salinity as well as the poor nutrient status are considered to be the major constraints of red mud revegetation. This research was conducted to evaluate the ameliorating effect of gypsum, sewage sludge, ferrous sulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and calcium phosphate on alumina red mud. The effectiveness of the mixtures was evaluated by applying extraction tests and performing experiments using six plant species. Gypsum amendment significantly reduced the pH, electrical conductivity, and sodium and aluminum content of red mud. Sewage sludge application had an extended effect in improving both the soil structure and the nutrient status of the gypsum-amended red mud. Together with the gypsum and sewage sludge, calcium phosphate application into red mud enhanced plant growth and gave the most promising results.

  16. Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

  17. The role of mangrove revegetation as a means of restoring macrofaunal communities along degraded coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel; Turra, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    As coastal habitats face unprecedented pressure globally, there is a need to better understand how revegetation can fortify or restore biodiversity. We examined the early-stage outcomes of mangrove revegetation efforts for benthic invertebrate communities within degraded mangrove habitats in south eastern Brazil. We followed changes in macrofaunal abundance and species richness within small-scale Avicennia schaueriana revegetation plots over a 12month period. The assemblages of revegetation plots (RP) became progressively more diverse when compared to structural (SC) and blank controls (BC). The trajectory of change also differed with RP communities demonstrating convergence with those of remnant mangrove forest. After 12months, RP had greater abundances of crustaceans (41%) and polychaetes (13%) as well as higher but variable numbers of gastropods and bivalves than both SC and BC. A spatial examination of revegetation outcomes showed that success may vary across sheltered vs. exposed coastal microhabitats. Indeed, subsequent analysis using generalised linear mixed models pointed to a stronger influence of tidal height, than many of the commonly attributed sedimentary variables such as grain-size and organic matter content as determinants of community structure. Given the encouraging results of this study, we advocate an intensification of revegetation initiatives to augment natural recovery, increase benthic biodiversity and restore ecosystems services to degraded coasts.

  18. Revegetation assessment on different areas of a methane pipeline in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staglianò N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Revegetation assessment on different areas of methane pipeline in Tuscany. Degraded areas due to extra-agricultural activity (such as quarries, dumps, ski runs, methane tracks, etc. or to natural events (such as landslides are present in a wide part of Italian territory and for this reason is extremely necessary an effective restoration in order to reduce erosion risks and to permit their better integration in the surrounding landscape. Revegetation is usually performed using commercial mixtures constituted by species with a forage aptitude. The aim of this work was to analyse the evolution of revegetation performed on different areas of methane pipeline in Tuscany (central Italy, both in Mediterranean environments and in mountain areas. Knowledge of mixture used during revegetation and time of intervention allowed, on one hand, to discriminate species introduced by revegetation from those coming out from native recolonisation of tracks, on the other hand, to know the age of canopies at time of botanical analysis. The following variables were assessed on the studied herbaceous resources: ground cover, floristic composition, biodiversity, level of recolonization by native species, similarity with natural areas. Data collection permitted the evaluation of efficiency of studied revegetation, the awareness of the role played by sown and native species, the estimation of the level of native species in order to integrate the restoration with the environment and the analysis of most important parameters that affect vegetal evolution in these peculiar settings.

  19. Revegetation of Copper Mine Tailings with Ryegrass and Willow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xiu-Zhen; ZHOU Dong-Mei; SI You-Bin

    2004-01-01

    To restore vegetation on metal mine tailings is very difficult because they often contain high concentrations of heavy metals, low nutrient content and low water retention capacity. This study involved 3 experiments that evaluated the effects of 4 treatment amendments: montmorillonite, rice straw, organic manure and chemical fertilizer on the growth of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and willow (Saliz viminalis L.) with Cu and Zn mine tailings from two mining areas. The results showed that ryegrass was the most tolerant of 4 crops to Cu toxicity. Also when organic manure, which contained high concentrations of inorganic salts, was added to the mine tailings, it significantly hindered ryegrass growth (P = 0.05).Meanwhile, with ryegrass organic manure significantly increased (P= 0.05) the extractable Cu concentration in both mine tailings. When montmorillonite was used as a mine tailings amendment with willow, the height and tress number at the 1st cut were significantly greater (P =- 0.05) than a control without montmorillonite. However there was no significant difference for height, tress number, dry weight or root dry weight at the 2nd cut. So, amendment applications to reduce metal toxicity and increase nutrients retention in mine tailings were essential during revegetation of mine tailings.

  20. Aggregate Characteristics During Natural revegetation on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Shao-Shan; HUANG Yi-Mei; ZHENG Fen-Li; YANG Jian-Guo

    2008-01-01

    Field investigations and laboratory analysis were conducted to study the characteristics of soil water-stable aggregates during vegetation rehabilitation in typical grassland soils of the hilly-gullied loess area. The relationship between water-stable aggregates and other soil properties was analyzed using canonical correlation analysis and principal component analysis. The results show that during the natural revegetation, the aggregates > 5 mm dominated and constituted between 50% and 80% of the total soil water-stable aggregates in most of the soil layers. The 2-5 mm aggregate class was the second main component. The mean value of water-stable aggregates > 5 mm within the 0-2 m soil profile under different plant communities decreased in the following order: Stipa grandis > Stipa bungeana Trin. > Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. > Thymus mongolicus Ronn. > Hierochloe odorata (L.) Beauv. Clay, organic matter, and total N were the key factors that influenced the water stability of the aggregates. Total N and organic matter were the main factors that affected the water stability of the aggregates > 5 mm and 0.5-1 mm in size. The contents of Fe2O3, Al2O3, and physical clay (< 0.01 mm) were the main factors which affected the water stability of the 1-2 and 0.25-0.5 mm aggregates.

  1. Geochemical Characterization of Copper Tailings after Legume Revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Perry T. Domingo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the geochemistry of mine tailings is important in understanding the challenges in establishing vegetation cover on tailings dumps and mined out areas. In this study, the mineralogy and trace element composition of copper tailings were examined. Two legume species, Calopogonium mucunoides and Centrosema molle, were utilized to investigate the possible effects of these plants in the geochemical development of mine tailings into soil-like material. The initial mineralogical and chemical analysis of the tailings samples indicated poor conditions for plant growth—minimal levels of major nutrients and organic matter as well as elevated copper concentrations. Despite these conditions, the two legume species exhibited good growth rates. Both legumes have likewise signif icantly reduced heavy metal concentrations in the tailings, indicating the possibility of metal hyperaccumulation in the plant tissue. The mineral composition has been retained even after revegetation; nevertheless, breakdown of primary minerals and subsequent formation of clay minerals were detected. These results provide insights on the transformation of toxic materials into habitable substrates for sustained plant growth.

  2. Phosphogypsum capping depth affects revegetation and hydrology in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mallory E; Naeth, M Anne; Chanasyk, David S; Nichol, Connie K

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), a byproduct of phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, is commonly stacked and capped with soil at decommissioning. Shallow (0, 8, 15, and 30 cm) and thick (46 and 91 cm) sandy loam caps on a PG stack near Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada, were studied in relation to vegetation establishment and hydrologic properties. Plant response was evaluated over two growing seasons for redtop ( L.), slender wheatgrass ( (Link) Malte ex H.F. Lewis), tufted hairgrass ( (L.) P. Beauv.), and sheep fescue ( L.) and for a mix of these grasses with alsike clover ( L.). Water content below the soil-PG interface was monitored with time-domain reflectometry probes, and leachate water quantity and quality at a depth of 30 cm was measured using lysimeters. Vegetation responded positively to all cap depths relative to bare PG, with few significant differences among cap depths. Slender wheatgrass performed best, and tufted hairgrass performed poorly. Soil caps <1 m required by regulation were sufficient for early revegetation. Soil water fluctuated more in shallow than in thick caps, and water content was generally between field capacity and wilting point regardless of cap depth. Water quality was not affected by cap depths ≤30 cm. Leachate volumes at 30 cm from distinct rainfall events were independent of precipitation amount and cap depth. The study period had lower precipitation than normal, yet soil caps were hospitable for plant growth in the first 2 yr of establishment.

  3. SLOPE LITHOLOGIC PROPERTY, SOIL MOISTURE CONDITION AND REVEGETATION IN DRY-HOT VALLEY OF JINSHA RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Dong-hong; ZHOU Hong-yi; YANG Zhong; ZHANG Xin-bao

    2005-01-01

    The dry-hot valley of the Jinsha River is one of the typical eco-fragile areas in Southwest China, as well as a focus ofrevegetation study in the upper and middle reaches of the Changjiang River. Due to its extremely dry and hot climate, severely degraded vegetation and the intense soil and water loss, there are extreme difficulties in vegetation restoration in this area and no great breakthrough has ever been achieved on studies of revegetation over the last several decades. Through over ten years' research conducted in the typical areas-the Yuanmou dry-hot valley, the authors found that the lithologic property is one of the crucial factors determining soil moisture conditions and vegetation types in the dry-hot valley, and the rainfall infiltration capability is also one of the key factors affecting the tree growth. Then the revegetation zoning based on different slopes was conducted and revegetation patterns for different zones were proposed.

  4. Revegetation of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) Producing Slope Surface Using Phosphate Microencapsulation and Artificial Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Gon

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation of sulfides produces acid rock drainage (ARD) upon their exposure to oxidation environment by construction and mining activities. The ARD causes the acidification and metal contamination of soil, surface water and groundwater, the damage of plant, the deterioration of landscape and the reduction of slope stability. The revegetation of slope surface is one of commonly adopted strategies to reduce erosion and to increase slope stability. However, the revegetation of the ARD producing slope surface is frequently failed due to its high acidity and toxic metal content. We developed a revegetation method consisting of microencapsualtion and artificial soil in the laboratory. The revegetation method was applied on the ARD producing slope on which the revegetation using soil coverage and seeding was failed and monitored the plant growth for one year. The phosphate solution was applied on sulfide containing rock to form stable Fe-phosphate mineral on the surface of sulfide, which worked as a physical barrier to prevent contacting oxidants such as oxygen and Fe3+ ion to the sulfide surface. After the microencapsulation, two artificial soil layers were constructed. The first layer containing organic matter, dolomite powder and soil was constructed at 2 cm thickness to neutralize the rising acidic capillary water from the subsurface and to remove the dissolved oxygen from the percolating rain water. Finally, the second layer containing seeds, organic matter, nutrients and soil was constructed at 3 cm thickness on the top. After application of the method, the pH of the soil below the artificial soil layer increased and the ARD production from the rock fragments reduced. The plant growth showed an ordinary state while the plant died two month after germination for the previous revegetation trial. No soil erosion occurred from the slope during the one year field test.

  5. Revegetation in China’s Loess Plateau is approaching sustainable water resource limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoming; Fu, Bojie; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Shuai; Ciais, Philippe; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Lü, Yihe; Zeng, Yuan; Li, Yue; Jiang, Xiaohui; Wu, Bingfang

    2016-11-01

    Revegetation of degraded ecosystems provides opportunities for carbon sequestration and bioenergy production. However, vegetation expansion in water-limited areas creates potentially conflicting demands for water between the ecosystem and humans. Current understanding of these competing demands is still limited. Here, we study the semi-arid Loess Plateau in China, where the `Grain to Green’ large-scale revegetation programme has been in operation since 1999. As expected, we found that the new planting has caused both net primary productivity (NPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) to increase. Also the increase of ET has induced a significant (p ecological and socio-economic resource demands in a coupled anthropogenic-biological system.

  6. Revegetation of Degraded Lands at U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Defense Installation: Strategies and Successes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. C. Anderson; W. K. Ostler

    2002-01-01

    Recent research has provided important principles to follow in successfully revegetating disturbed lands in arid climates. Sustainable revegetation needs to be accomplished within the confines of the existing ecosystem of the area. Revegetation planning, revegetation implementation, and evaluation and monitoring should be considered for each revegetation project. Planning includes conducting a site assessment, establishing goals and standards, determining site preparation requirements, selecting species, selecting revegetation techniques, selecting conservation and water management treatments, determining timing and evaluating costs. Revegetation implementation begins with the selection of an on-site manager who will monitor adherence to the revegetation plan, conduct pre-job meetings and endure revegetation is implemented as planned. Project evaluation and long-term management includes conducting on-site inspections, evaluating success and implementing modification where necessary. Successful revegetation projects completed within the Great Basin and Mojave Desert ecoregions are presented. Seeding and transplanting prove to be successful in Great Basin ecoregion. Irrigation was used with highly predictable success in transition zone between Great Basin and Mojave Desert ecoregions. Seed pretreatment,irrigation, and various mulches show promise for successful revegetation in drier Mojave Desert ecoregion.

  7. Enhanced Cover Assessment Project:Soil Manipulation and Revegetation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W. Joseph [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Albright, Dr. Bill [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Benson, Dr. Craig [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management is evaluating methods to enhance natural changes that are essentially converting conventional disposal cell covers for uranium mill tailings into water balance covers. Conventional covers rely on a layer of compacted clayey soil to limit exhalation of radon gas and percolation of rainwater. Water balance covers rely on a less compacted soil “sponge” to store rainwater, and on soil evaporation and plant transpiration (evapotranspiration) to remove stored water and thereby limit percolation. Over time, natural soil-forming and ecological processes are changing conventional covers by increasing hydraulic conductivity, loosening compaction, and increasing evapotranspiration. The rock armor on conventional covers creates a favorable habitat for vegetation by slowing soil evaporation, increasing soil water storage, and trapping dust and organic matter, thereby providing the water and nutrients needed for plant germination, survival, and sustainable transpiration. Goals and Objectives Our overall goal is to determine if allowing or enhancing these natural changes could improve cover performance and reduce maintenance costs over the long term. This test pad study focuses on cover soil hydrology and ecology. Companion studies are evaluating effects of natural and enhanced changes in covers on radon attenuation, erosion, and biointrusion. We constructed a test cover at the Grand Junction disposal site to evaluate soil manipulation and revegetation methods. The engineering design, construction, and properties of the test cover match the upper three layers of the nearby disposal cell cover: a 1-foot armoring of rock riprap, a 6-inch bedding layer of coarse sand and gravel, and a 2-foot protection layer of compacted fine soil. The test cover does not have a radon barrier—cover enhancement tests leave the radon barrier intact. We tested furrowing and ripping as means for creating depressions parallel to the slope

  8. Soil biological attributes in arsenic-contaminated gold mining sites after revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Jessé Valentim; de Melo Rangel, Wesley; Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Rufini, Márcia; Marra, Leandro Marciano; Varón López, Maryeimy; Pereira da Silva, Michele Aparecida; Fonsêca Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-12-01

    Recovery of arsenic contaminated areas is a challenge society faces throughout the world. Revegetation associated with microbial activity can play an essential role in this process. This work investigated biological attributes in a gold mining area with different arsenic contents at different sites under two types of extant revegetation associated with cover layers of the soil: BS, Brachiaria sp. and Stizolobium sp., and LEGS, Acacia crassicarpa, A. holosericea, A. mangium, Sesbania virgata, Albizia lebbeck and Pseudosamanea guachapele. References were also evaluated, comprising the following three sites: B1, weathered sulfide substrate without revegetation; BM, barren material after gold extraction and PRNH (private reserve of natural heritage), an uncontaminated forest site near the mining area. The organic and microbial biomass carbon contents and substrate-induced respiration rates for these sites from highest to lowest were: PRNH > LEGS > BS > B1 and BM. These attributes were negatively correlated with soluble and total arsenic concentration in the soil. The sites that have undergone revegetation (LEGS and BS) had higher densities of bacteria, fungi, phosphate solubilizers and ammonium oxidizers than the sites without vegetation. Principal component analysis showed that the LEGS site grouped with PRNH, indicating that the use of leguminous species associated with an uncontaminated soil cover layer contributed to the improvement of the biological attributes. With the exception of acid phosphatase, all the biological attributes were indicators of soil recovery, particularly the following: microbial carbon, substrate-induced respiration, density of culturable bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria, phosphate solubilizers and metabolic quotient.

  9. Development of North American forb plant materials for rangeland revegetation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant materials development for Intermountain rangelands is a primary mission of the USDA-ARS Forage and Range Research Laboratory. Currently there is a significant demand for North American forbs (including legumes) for rangeland revegetation and restoration in the Great Basin, but commercial quan...

  10. Evaluation of indigenous Lotus species for the western USA for rangeland revegetation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid rangelands in the western USA are facing serious challenges related to past mismanagement, invasive weedy species, wildfires, and climatic change. Leguminous forbs that are native to the western USA are of interest for rangeland revegetation and restoration because they provide biologicall...

  11. The Stability of Revegetated Ecosystems in Sandy Areas: An Assessment and Prediction Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The stability and sustainability of revegetated ecosystems is a central topic in ecological research. In this study, long-term monitoring and focused research on vegetation, soil and soil moisture from 2006 to 2012 were used to develop a model for evaluating indices of ecosystem stability using the analytical hierarchy process method. The results demonstrated that rainfall (R, vegetation coverage (C, and surface soil moisture (S were the three most influential factors among the 14 indicators considered in a revegetated desert area in the Tengger Desert, China. A stability index (SI was defined as SI = VAR (R × VAR (C/VAR (S, and a comparative study was conducted to examine the stability index of the natural vegetation community. The SI was divided into three regimes: SI < 0.006 was stable, 0.006 ≤ SI < 0.015 was semi-stable, and 0.015 ≤ SI was unstable. The stable, semi-stable and unstable periods of revegetated ecosystems in our simulations were 191, 17 and 11 years, respectively, within the total modeling period of 219 years. These results indicated that the revegetated desert ecosystem would be stable in most years during the vegetation succession, and this study presents new ideas for future artificial vegetation management in arid desert regions.

  12. Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Establish Weighted Values for Evaluating the Stability of Slope Revegetation based on Hydroseeding Applications in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Kil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the major variables identified as important for considering the stabilization of slope revegetation based on hydroseeding applications and evaluate weights of each variable using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP with both environmental experts and civil engineers. Twenty-five variables were selected by the experts’ survey from a total of 65 from the existing literature, with each variable considered as an important factor for slope stabilization in South Korea. The final results from the AHP method showed that variables associated with the driving force of water resources showed higher values in all expert groups such as rain intensity, seepage water and drainage condition. Other important variables were related to plant growth such as vegetation community, vegetation coverage and quality of soil ameliorant produced in an artificial factory such as tensile strength, permeability coefficient, soil texture and organic matter. The five highest-ranked variables that satisfied both environmental experts and civil engineers were rain intensity, seepage water, slope angle, drainage condition and ground layer. The findings of this research could be helpful for developing a more accurate rating system to evaluate the stability of slope revegetation.

  13. Modeling Soil Moisture in Support of the Revegetation of Military Lands in Arid Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, T. G.; McDonald, E. V.; Young, M. H.

    2003-12-01

    The National Training Center (NTC), the Army's primary mechanized maneuver training facility, covers approximately 2600 km2 within the Mojave Desert in southern California, and is the subject of ongoing studies to support the sustainability of military lands in desert environments. Revegetation of these lands by the Integrated Training Areas Management (ITAM) Program requires the identification of optimum growing conditions to reestablish desert vegetation from seed and seedling, especially with regard to the timing and abundance of plant-available water. Water content, soil water potential, and soil temperature were continuously monitored and used to calibrate the Simultaneous Heat And Water (SHAW) model at 3 re-seeded sites. Modeled irrigation scenarios were used to further evaluate the most effective volume, frequency, and timing of irrigation required to maximize revegetation success and minimize water use. Surface treatments including straw mulch, gravel mulch, soil tackifier and plastic sheet

  14. A Review On Dump Slope Stabilization By Revegetation With Reference To Indigenous Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhash Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The waste sub-grade ROM and Fines dumps are characterized by high rock fragment contents low moisture retention capacity higher bulk density low nutrients lower pH and elevated metal concentrations. Use of suitable revegetation programme that require the selection of right type of plants to be used vis--vis the site condition and characteristics can enhance the long term stability both mechanical and ecological of dumps waste sub-grade ROM and fines through providing vegetative cover to control soil erosion amp gully formation consolidation of dump top amp side surfaces binding the loose particles through intricate roof system etc. This paper overviews the roles of Revegetation programme that can be used where vegetation is considered to be the long term answer to slope protection and erosion control. Various revegetation processes like Coir matting Lemmon Grass Vetiver Grass and Indigenous plant etc. may find a wide range of usage in Iron ore mines for dump stabilization.Miyawaki method of plantation is more effective than the conventional method of plantation. This will lead to co-existence of plants and as a matter of fact each plant draws from the other vital nutrients and they grow to become strong and healthy. The Miyawaki Plantation technique aim at Survival at fittest the area undergone such plantation have an ecology of their own. The Indigenous Plant has good binding capacity and helps to control soil erosion as well as improve the dump stability. Indigenous plant species like as Shorea robusta Sal CROTON ROXBURGHII Dal-bergia Sisoo SHISHAM KARANJ Azadirachta NEEM etc. The growth of indigenous plants is depending upon the soil quality as well as the organic matter of the dump material. The leaf debris plays important role for improving the organic matter of dump material for successfully implementation of revegetation programme.

  15. Assessing the impact of revegetation and weed control on urban sensitive bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Carla L; McKinney, Matthew; Mustin, Karen; Shanahan, Danielle F; Possingham, Hugh P

    2017-06-01

    Nature in cities is concentrated in urban green spaces, which are key areas for urban biodiversity and also important areas to connect people with nature. To conserve urban biodiversity within these natural refugia, habitat restoration such as weed control and revegetation is often implemented. These actions are expected to benefit biodiversity, although species known to be affected by urbanization may not be interacting with restoration in the ways we anticipate. In this study, we use a case study to explore how urban restoration activities impact different bird species. Birds were grouped into urban sensitivity categories and species abundance, and richness was then calculated using a hierarchical species community model for individual species responses, with "urban class" used as the hierarchical parameter. We highlight variable responses of birds to revegetation and weed control based on their level of urban sensitivity. Revegetation of open grassy areas delivers significant bird conservation outcomes, but the effects of weed control are neutral or in some cases negative. Specifically, the species most reliant on remnant vegetation in cities seem to remain stable or decline in abundance in areas with weed control, which we suspect is the result of a simplification of the understorey. The literature reports mixed benefits of weed control between taxa and between locations. We recommend, in our case study site, that weed control be implemented in concert with replanting of native vegetation to provide the understory structure preferred by urban sensitive birds. Understanding the impacts of revegetation and weed control on different bird species is important information for practitioners to make restoration decisions about the allocation of funds for conservation action. This new knowledge can be used both for threatened species and invasive species management.

  16. Incorporating Geological Effects in Modeling of Revegetation Strategies for Salt-Affected Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke; Bell; Hobbs; George

    1999-07-01

    / This paper synthesizes results of research into the impact that major faults have on dryland salinity and the development of revegetation treatments in the wheatbelt of Western Australia. Currently, landscape planning does not routinely incorporate geology, but this research shows that faults can have a dramatic impact on land and stream salinization and on the effectiveness of revegetation treatments, and evidence exists that other geological features can have a similar influence. This research shows that faults can be identified from airborne magnetic data, they can be assigned a characteristic hydraulic conductivity based on simple borehole tests, and four other geological features that are expected to affect land and stream salinity could be identified in airborne geophysical data. A geological theme map could then be created to which characteristic hydraulic conductivities could be assigned for use in computer groundwater models to improve prediction of the effectiveness of revegetation treatments and thus enhance the landscape planning process. The work highlights the difficulties of using standard sampling and statistical techniques to investigate regional phenomena and presents an integrated approach combining small-scale sampling with broad-scale observations to provide input into a modeling exercise. It is suggested that such approaches are vital if landscape- and regional-scale processes are to be understood and managed. The way in which the problem is perceived (holistically or piecemeal) affects the way treatments are designed and their effectiveness: past approaches have failed to integrate the various scales and processes involved. Effective solutions require an integrated holistic response.KEY WORDS: Dryland salinity; Geology; Landscape; Revegetation integrationhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n1p99.html

  17. Co-composting solid biowastes with alkaline materials to enhance carbon stabilization and revegetation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Saikat; Bolan, Nanthi S; Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Wijesekara, Hasintha; Xu, Yilu; Yang, Jianjun; Kim, Geon-Ha; Sparks, Donald; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    Co-composting biowastes such as manures and biosolids can be used to stabilize carbon (C) without impacting the quality of these biowastes. This study investigated the effect of co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials on C stabilization and monitored the fertilization and revegetation values of these co-composts. The stabilization of C in biowastes (poultry manure and biosolids) was examined by their composting in the presence of various alkaline amendments (lime, fluidized bed boiler ash, flue gas desulphurization gypsum, and red mud) for 6 months in a controlled environment. The effects of co-composting on the biowastes' properties were assessed for different physical C fractions, microbial biomass C, priming effect, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, bioavailable phosphorus, and revegetation of an urban landfill soil. Co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials increased C stabilization, attributed to interaction with alkaline materials, thereby protecting it from microbial decomposition. The co-composted biowastes also increased the fertility of the landfill soil, thereby enhancing its revegetation potential. Stabilization of biowastes using alkaline materials through co-composting maintains their fertilization value in terms of improving plant growth. The co-composted biowastes also contribute to long-term soil C sequestration and reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals.

  18. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J. [CSIRO, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures

    1997-07-01

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Surface stabilization and revegetation test plots. Fiscal year 1993 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.; Kemp, C.J.; Hayward, W.M.

    1993-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Decommissioning and Decontamination Engineering Group and Environmental Technology and Assessment Groups are developing new technologies to improve revegetation techniques for interim stabilization control over underground waste sites within the Radiation Area Remedial Action Program. Successful revegetation is an integral aspect of waste isolation strategy. Unfortunately, revegetation can be very difficult to achieve on the Hanford Site due to several factors: low annual precipitation, unpredictable timing of precipitation, low fertility of available soils, and coarse physical texture of soils covering waste sites. The tests in this report were performed during fiscal years 1992 and 1993 and include the use of two soil sealants in combination with bare soil and a soil/compost mixture and a comparison of a wheatgrass mixture and a native seed mixture. Hydroprobe access ports were placed in one-half of the test plots and moisture data was collected. Soil fertility and plant community characteristics were monitored during the two years of the test. During the first year all sites with compost provided additional fertility and retained greater amounts of soil moisture than noncomposted sites. The use of Enduraseal soil fixative provided greater soil moisture than the use of Aerospray-77 soil fixative. During the second year the use of compost and soil fixative`s had a lesser effect on soil moisture. During late summer periods all treatments had very similar soil moisture profiles. The use of compost greatly increased vegetative cover and soil fertility in comparison to sites that had no compost added. Testing of the seed mixtures found that Siberian wheatgrass and Sandberg`s bluegrass were the most dominant of the seeded species observed. All plots exhibited a dominant plant cover of volunteer cheatgrass. Biomass production was significantly greater on plots with compost than on the noncomposted plots.

  20. Dew formation characteristics in a revegetation-stabilized desert ecosystem in Shapotou area, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan-xia; Wang, Xin-ping; Zhang, Ya-feng

    2010-06-01

    SummarySoil moisture in the upper layer plays an important role in arid desert ecosystems. Dew as an additional source of fresh water, may have a positive impact upon the ecosystems in arid and semi-arid zones. Measurements on dew formation amount and duration were carried out in the whole October of 2008 at different condensing surface types (bare dune sands, physical soil crusts and biological soil crusts) associated with different inter-space positions between plants, and at the area under plant canopy in a revegetation-stabilized arid desert ecosystem in Shapotou area, China. The results indicated that there was a positive linear correlation between dew amounts and relative humidity, while mean temperature was negatively linearly related to dew amounts and no significant relationship was found between dew amounts and wind speed. Clear and foggy mornings were characterized by higher dew amounts and longer dew duration, whereas less dew was recorded during cloudy and especially windy mornings. Crusts, especially the biological soil crusts, obtained significantly higher amounts of dew than that of bare moving sand dunes. It was more difficult for dew to condense under the canopy of the plants than on the bare sand dunes. At the first stage of ecological engineering projects, dew can renew the moisture losing through the evaporation of soil and transpiration of leaves, and thus can supply important source of water for xerophytic shrubs. The higher dew amount at the inter-space of re-vegetated plants is an important driving factor for the growth of microorganisms and spore plants, which further accelerate the formation of biological soil crusts and stabilization of moving sand dunes. The presence of biological soil crusts, in turn, helps to facilitate the formation of dew. Therefore, a mutual enhanced effect exists between dew and artificially revegetation ecosystems.

  1. Field evaluation of seven grasses for use in the revegetation of lands disturbed by coal mining in Central Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Mott, J.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1999-07-01

    Pasture-based systems, dominated by the tussock forming Cenchrus cilliaris cv. Biloela (buffel grass) and the stoloniferous Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (rhodes grass), are commonly used in the revegetation of lands disturbed by coal mining in the Bowen Basin of Central Queensland. Although able to establish quickly under favourable conditions, neither species has proven entirely suitable for use in this situation, particularly in providing effective ground cover for erosion control on the re-contoured post-mining landscape. The aim of this study was to evaluate a range of new pasture grasses, with the objective of identifying accessions better adapted to the climatic conditions of the areas requiring revegetation.

  2. Comparison of revegetation techniques on mineral clay soil: analysis of quantitative response of vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Muzzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Revegetation of mineral-clay soils is a notably complex ecological and technically challenging undertaking that depends on substrate profile and local micro-environmental conditions, factors making it a particularly long procedure as well. This study compared and assessed the medium-term effectiveness of four treatments employed to promote stable pedogenesis and herbaceous recolonisation of abandoned clay quarries in the Apennine foothills of northern Italy’s Emilia- Romagna region. The treatments included: slow-release N organic fertiliser, phosphate fertiliser, organic amendment and topsoil [the soil top layer (0-0.2 m of a local natural meadow]. The state of the vegetative cover was monitored monthly from 1994 through 2004, until problems of slope stability at the site compromised the integrity of the trial plots. Significant effects were achieved by the recycled topsoil through 8 years and by organic amendment through 6 years; the effects of slow-release nitrogen were notably limited over time and phosphorous delivered a medium-term response but of notable year-toyear swings. No interactions among factors emerged in the mediumterm. After 11 years, treatments did not induce effects statistical appreciable. Our results suggest that the tested agronomic strategies on mineral clay soil did not trigger, in the medium-term, secondary succession processes able to potentially alter the spontaneous revegetation course.

  3. Photoinhibition of germination in grass seed--implications for prairie revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Federico P O; Naeth, M Anne

    2014-09-01

    Germination photoinhibition is not a recognized cause of revegetation failure; yet prolonged sunlight exposure can inhibit germination of several grass species. This research addressed susceptibility to photoinhibition of selected native grass species used to restore Canadian prairies, and reclamation treatments to alter environmental conditions in order to release seeds from photoinhibition. Under laboratory conditions effects of photoinhibition were tested on the ability of seeds to germinate at low water potential and effects of daily alternating temperatures and nitrates to break photoinhibition. Whether surficial mulch can release seeds from photoinhibition was assessed in a field experiment. Germination photoinhibition was evident in Festuca hallii and Koeleria macrantha seeds even under very low irradiances. The prolonged exposure to light decreased germination rates and ability of seeds to germinate at low water potentials. Daily fluctuating temperatures released a fraction of Bromus carinatus and Elymus trachycaulus seeds from photoinhibition yet did not improve F. hallii or K. macrantha germinability. Nitrates failed to break seed photoinhibition in all species tested. In the field experiment, mulched F. hallii seeds (covered with an erosion control blanket) showed a tenfold increase in germination percentages relative to seeds exposed to direct sunlight, indicating the facilitative effects of mulching on attenuation of the light environment. We conclude that germination photoinhibition as a cause of emergence failures in land reclamation where seed is broadcast or shallow seeded should be recognized and germination photoinhibition included in the decision making process to select revegetation seeding techniques.

  4. Changes in Microbial Community Structure and Soil Biological Properties in Mined Dune Areas During Re-vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Indra Elena C.; Santos, Vilma M.; da Silva, Danielle Karla A.; Fernandes, Marcelo F.; Cavalcante, Uided Maaze T.; Maia, Leonor C.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of re-vegetation on the restoration of microbial community structure and soil microbiological properties in sand dunes that had been affected by mining activity. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons from a chronosequence (1, 9, 21 years) of re-vegetated dunes using a single preserved dune as a reference. The composition of the fatty acid methyl esters and soil microbial properties were evaluated. The results showed that the changes in microbial community structure were related to seasonal variations: biomarkers of Gram-positive bacteria were higher than Gram-negative bacteria during the dry season, showing that this group of organisms is more tolerant to these stressful conditions. The microbial community structure in the natural dune was less affected by seasonal variation compared to the re-vegetated areas, whereas the opposite was observed for microbiological properties. Thus, in general, the proportion of saprobic fungi was higher in the natural dune, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were proportionally more common in the younger areas. Although over time the re-vegetation allows the recovery of the microbial community and the soil functions, these communities and functions are different from those found in the undisturbed areas.

  5. Using common gardens and AFLP analyses to identify metapopulations of indigenous plant materials for rangeland revegetation in western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid rangelands in the western USA are facing unprecedented challenges related to past mismanagement, invasive weedy species, wildfires, and climatic change. A diversity of plant species are needed to effectively revegetate these rangelands. Legumes indigenous to western North America are of p...

  6. Changes in Microbial Community Structure and Soil Biological Properties in Mined Dune Areas During Re-vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Indra Elena C; Santos, Vilma M; da Silva, Danielle Karla A; Fernandes, Marcelo F; Cavalcante, Uided Maaze T; Maia, Leonor C

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of re-vegetation on the restoration of microbial community structure and soil microbiological properties in sand dunes that had been affected by mining activity. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons from a chronosequence (1, 9, 21 years) of re-vegetated dunes using a single preserved dune as a reference. The composition of the fatty acid methyl esters and soil microbial properties were evaluated. The results showed that the changes in microbial community structure were related to seasonal variations: biomarkers of Gram-positive bacteria were higher than Gram-negative bacteria during the dry season, showing that this group of organisms is more tolerant to these stressful conditions. The microbial community structure in the natural dune was less affected by seasonal variation compared to the re-vegetated areas, whereas the opposite was observed for microbiological properties. Thus, in general, the proportion of saprobic fungi was higher in the natural dune, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were proportionally more common in the younger areas. Although over time the re-vegetation allows the recovery of the microbial community and the soil functions, these communities and functions are different from those found in the undisturbed areas.

  7. Impacts of Re-Vegetation on Surface Soil Moisture over the Chinese Loess Plateau Based on Remote Sensing Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Jiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale re-vegetation supported by the Grain for Green Project (GGP has greatly changed local eco-hydrological systems, with an impact on soil moisture conditions for the Chinese Loess Plateau. It is important to know how, exactly, re-vegetation influences soil moisture conditions, which not only crucially constrain growth and distribution of vegetation, and hence, further re-vegetation, but also determine the degree of soil desiccation and, thus, erosion risk in the region. In this study, three eco-environmental factors, which are Soil Water Index (SWI, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and precipitation, were used to investigate the response of soil moisture in the one-meter layer of top soil to the re-vegetation during the GGP. SWI was estimated based on the backscatter coefficient produced by the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1/2 and Meteorological Operational satellite program (MetOp, while NDVI was derived from SPOT imageries. Two separate periods, which are 1998–2000 and 2008–2010, were selected to examine the spatiotemporal pattern of the chosen eco-environmental factors. It has been shown that the amount of precipitation in 1998–2000 was close to that of 2008–2010 (the difference being 13.10 mm. From 1998–2000 to 2008–2010, the average annual NDVI increased for 80.99%, while the SWI decreased for 72.64% of the area on the Loess Plateau. The average NDVI over the Loess Plateau increased rapidly by 17.76% after the 10-year GGP project. However, the average SWI decreased by 4.37% for two-thirds of the area. More specifically, 57.65% of the area on the Loess Plateau experienced an increased NDVI and decreased SWI, 23.34% of the area had an increased NDVI and SWI. NDVI and SWI decreased simultaneously for 14.99% of the area, and the decreased NDVI and increased SWI occurred at the same time for 4.02% of the area. These results indicate that re-vegetation, human activities, and climate change have

  8. Using remote sensing data to evaluate the impacts of re-vegetation on soil moisture of the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Li

    2017-04-01

    A large-scale re-vegetation supported by the Grain for Green Project (GGP) has greatly changed local eco-hydrological systems of Loess Plateau, in the meantime, with an impact on soil moisture conditions . It is important to know how exactly re-vegetation influences soil moisture condition, which not only crucially constraint growth and distribution of vegetation, and hence, further re-vegetation in the region but also determine the degree of soil desiccation and thus erosion risk. In this study, three eco-environmental factors, which are soil water index (SWI), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and precipitation, were used to analyze the response of soil moisture in the 1-metre layer of top soil to the re-vegetation. SWI was estimated based on the back-scatter coefficient produced by the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1/2) and Meteorological Operational satellite program (MetOp) while NDVI was derived from SPOT imagery. Two separate periods, which are 1998-2000 and 2008-2010, were selected to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of the chosen eco-environmental factors. It has been shown that the amount of precipitation in 1998-2000 was close to that of 2008-2010 (the difference being 13.10 mm). From 1998-2000 to 2008-2010, the average annual NDVI increased for 80.99%, while the SWI decreased for 72.64% of the area on the Loess Plateau. More specifically, 57.65% of the area on the Loess Plateau experienced an increased NDVI and decreased SWI. These results indicate that re-vegetation and climate changes have impacts on soil moisture. However, re-vegetation may be the major factor for soil moisture change in most areas of the Loess Plateau. It is ,therefore, suggested that soil moisture content (SMC) should be kept in mind when carrying out re-vegetation in the arid and semi-arid regions. Keywords: Grain for Green Project (GGP), soil water index (SWI) ,Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Loess Plateau, remote sensing

  9. Soil carbon sequestration and mineralization potential in an old-field revegetated with shrubs in semi-arid climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dato, G.; Lagomarsino, A.; Abou Jaoudé, R.; De Angelis, P.

    2012-04-01

    Revegetation and afforestation of abandoned fields can modify mineralisation processes of soil organic matter and, as a consequence, the potential for C sequestration. Our work aimed to analyse these changes identifying C fractions with different degrees of physical protection and potential mineralization, in a old-field revegetated with shrubby species in a Mediterranean semi-arid area. A multi-specific plantation was made up in February 2006, by planting Juniperus phoenicea L. (JP), Pistacia lentiscus L. (PL) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (RO). The area has a typical Mediterranean climate with an average temperature of 16.8 °C and a total annual precipitation of 643 mm. Soil cores were collected in three plots with a mixed specific composition, and in one plot used as control (grass cover). Soil cores (0 - 20 cm depth) were sampled in April 2010 at two distances (30 and 60 cm) from the centre of shrub crown cover in revegetated plots, and randomly in the control. The following variables were examined: soil aggregates (macro- > 250 µm and micro-aggregates between 53 and 250 µm), fine particulate organic matter (F-POM) and its C and N content, microbial respiration after 28 days at 24 °C, and mineralization rate of labile and stable C. In the short period, no variation in soil C accumulation induced by the plantation was detected. On the other hand, C input from the different soil covers had a distinct pattern: in revegetated plots it was mainly made up by POM, while fine roots represented the major C input in the control. Macro- and micro-aggregates distribution differed in the control and revegetated plots, allowing a higher physical protection of organic carbon in the control. Nevertheless, more recalcitrant organic matter inputs in the plantation can likely determine a more robust soil C accumulation in the long term.

  10. Reclamation and revegetation of fly ash disposal sites - challenges and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, R.J. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    Coal-fired power generation is a principal energy source throughout the world. Approximately, 70-75% of coal combustion residues are fly ash and its utilization worldwide is only slightly above 30%. The remainder is disposed of in landfills and fly ash basins. It is desirable to revegetate these sites for aesthetic purposes, to stabilize the surface ash against wind and water erosion and to reduce the quantity of water leaching through the deposit. Limitations to plant establishment and growth in fly ash can include a high pH (and consequent deficiencies of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and P), high soluble salts, toxic levels of elements such as B, pozzalanic properties of ash resulting in cemented/compacted layers and lack of microbial activity. An integrated organic/biotechnological approach to revegetation seems appropriate and should be investigated further. This would include incorporation of organic matter into the surface layer of ash, mycorrhizal inoculation of establishing vegetation and use of inoculated legumes to add N. Leaching losses from ash disposal sites are likely to be site-specific but a sparse number of studies have revealed enriched concentrations of elements such as Ca, Fe, Cd, Pb, and Sb in surrounding groundwater. This aspect deserves further study particularly in the longer-term. In addition, during weathering of the ash and deposition of organic matter during plant growth, a soil will form with properties vastly different to that of the parent ash. In turn, this will influence the effect that the disposal site has on the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, the effects of ash weathering and organic matter accumulation over time on the chemical, physical and biological properties of the developing ash-derived soil are not well understood and require further study.

  11. Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Elliott

    Full Text Available The UK hosts 15-19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6 and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals. Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in

  12. TRACE ELEMENTS LATERAL DISTRIBUTION AND LIMITATIONS FOR REVEGETATION IN LEAD MINE SOILS: CASE OF LAKHOUAT MINE, TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities such as mining have increased the prevalence and occurrence of trace elements soil contamination. Abandoned mine tailings cause the contamination of adjacent agricultural soils. In Lakhouat mining area (West-Northern Tunisia, the dispersion of particles containing Pb, Zn and Cd results in the contamination of the surrounding agricultural soils. These soils presented high concentrations of Pb (1272 mg kg-1, Zn (5543 mg kg-1 and Cd (25 mg kg-1. Furthermore, the tailing sample and soil sample close the dam tailing presented higher concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd and conferred more limitation factors for revegetation than adjacent soils of mining area. The main limiting factors of mine soils are their low effective depth, low organic matter content and low phosphorus content and an imbalance between potassium and manganese exchangeable cations. These mine soils are strongly affected by high Pb, Zn and Cd levels which hinder revegetation.

  13. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  14. A review of biochars' potential role in the remediation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beesley, Luke, E-mail: luke.beesley@hutton.ac.uk [James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Eyles, Jose L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Harris, Eva; Robinson, Brett [Department of Soil and Physical Sciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647 (New Zealand); Sizmur, Tom [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Biochars are biological residues combusted under low oxygen conditions, resulting in a porous, low density carbon rich material. Their large surface areas and cation exchange capacities, determined to a large extent by source materials and pyrolysis temperatures, enables enhanced sorption of both organic and inorganic contaminants to their surfaces, reducing pollutant mobility when amending contaminated soils. Liming effects or release of carbon into soil solution may increase arsenic mobility, whilst low capital but enhanced retention of plant nutrients can restrict revegetation on degraded soils amended only with biochars; the combination of composts, manures and other amendments with biochars could be their most effective deployment to soils requiring stabilisation by revegetation. Specific mechanisms of contaminant-biochar retention and release over time and the environmental impact of biochar amendments on soil organisms remain somewhat unclear but must be investigated to ensure that the management of environmental pollution coincides with ecological sustainability. - Highlights: > Biochars can reduce mobilities of some organic and inorganic pollutants in soil. > Source material and production conditions influence pollutant retention. > Highly alkaline pH and water soluble carbon can undesirably mobilise some elements. > Large surface area may be toxic to soil fauna but create microbial niches. > Efficacy of biochar may depend on other organic materials applied in combination. - Biochars can reduce the mobility and impact of some soil pollutants but, if applied alone, may fail to support soil restoration, revegetation and hence ecologically circumspect remediation.

  15. Soil bacterial community responses to revegetation of moving sand dune in semi-arid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chengyou; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Zhenbo; Feng, Shuwei; Wang, Tingting; Ren, Qing

    2017-08-01

    Grasslands in semi-arid Northern China are widely desertified, thus inducing the formation of a large area of moving sand lands. Revegetation of the sandy land is commonly adopted to restore degraded grasslands. The structure of the soil microbial community might dramatically change during degradation and recovery because microorganisms are one of the major drivers of ecological process through their interactions with plants and soil. Assuming that soil properties are the key determinants of the structure of soil bacterial community within the same soil type, whether the vegetation type causes the significant difference in the structure of soil bacterial community during revegetation and restoration of the degraded grasslands remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to (1) investigate the response of soil bacterial communities to the changes during vegetation degradation and recovery and (2) evaluate whether the soil bacterial communities under plantations return to their native state. We detected the shifts in diversities and compositions of the soil bacterial communities and the relative abundance of dominant bacterial taxa by using the high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing technique in an area covered by 32-year-old Caragana microphylla, Artemisia halodendron, Hedysarum fruticosum, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Populus simonii, and Salix gordejevii sand-fixing plantations and in the native community (NC) dominated by elm, and moving sandy dune (MS). We found that the obtained operational taxonomic units by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and diversity index in MS were all significantly lower than those in NC, and the number and composition of dominant genera were significantly different between NC and MS. Interestingly, the compositions of bacterial communities and the dominant genera in different sand-fixation plantations (C. microphylla, A. halodendron, H. fruticosum, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, P. simonii, and S. gordejevii) were all similar to those of

  16. [Effects of revegetation on organic carbon storage in deep soils in hilly Loess Plateau region of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Zheng; Ma, Xin-Xin; Qiu, Yu-Jie

    2012-10-01

    Taking the Robinia pseudoacacia woodlands, Caragana korshinskii shrublands, and abandoned croplands with different years of revegetation in the hilly Loess Plateau region of Northwest China as test objects, this paper studied the profile distribution and accumulation dynamics of organic carbon storage in deep soil (100-400 cm), with those in 0-100 cm soil profile as the control. In 0-100 cm soil profile, the organic carbon storage decreased significantly with the increase of soil depth; while in deep soil, the organic carbon storage had a slight fluctuation. The total organic carbon storage in 100-400 cm soil profile was considerably high, accounting for approximately 60% of that in 0-400 cm soil profile. The organic carbon storage in 80-100 cm soil layer had a significant linear correlation with that in 100-200 and 200-400 cm soil layers, and among the organic carbon storages in the five layers in 0-100 cm soil profile, the organic carbon storage in 80-100 cm soil layer had the strongest correlation with that in 100-400 cm soil profile, being able to be used to estimate the organic carbon storage in deep soil in this region. The organic carbon storage in 0-20 cm soil layer in the three types of revegetation lands was significantly higher than that in slope croplands, but the organic carbon storage in deep soil had no significant difference among the land use types. The organic carbon storage in deep soil increased with the increasing years of revegetation. In R. pseudoacacia woodlands and C. korshinskii shrub lands, the average increasing rate of the organic carbon storage in 100-400 cm soil layer was 0.14 and 0.19 t x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively, which was comparable to that in the 0-100 cm soil layer in C. korshinskii shrublands. It was suggested that in the estimation of the soil carbon sequestration effect of revegetation in hilly Loess Plateau region, the organic carbon accumulation in deep soil should be taken into consideration. Otherwise, the effect of

  17. Compost Amendment Enhances Natural Revegetation of a Mediterranean Degraded Agricultural Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Bellino, Alessandro; Morra, Luigi; Alfani, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A vegetation analysis was carried out on a degraded agricultural soil of the Mediterranean area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to study the effects of different fertilization practices (quality compost, mineral fertilizers, mixed fertilization, and no fertilization) on the whole spontaneous vegetation community. The study was performed for two consecutive years at three different scales (species level, community structure, and community properties), using three different units of abundance (number of individuals, biomass, and cover of each species). The observations were carried out in spring, after 5 and 6 years of soil treatments, on a total area of 4 m(2) for each soil treatment and in each year. The different fertilization practices did not determine changes in species composition; however, the relative abundance of dominant species increased in compost and mixed fertilized soils, particularly in the second year of observation. Although the dominance and diversity were unaffected by the different fertilization practices, the total biomass and total number of individuals increased in compost-amended soils. These results indicate the effectiveness of soil quality compost amendments to enhance natural revegetation, a key step in the recovery of degraded areas.

  18. Revegetation of a uranium mine dump by using fertilizer treated sessile oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian A; Böcker, Lutz; Katzur, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The rehabilitation of contaminated sites and the establishment of suitable trees for revegetation purposes is often problematic due to the mostly suboptimal nutrient supply and the poor humus reservoir. For these reasons hydrogels (Stockosorb) and novel humus substitutes (NOVIHUM), serving as long lasting fertilizer (LLF), were recently tested successfully. At the beginning of this multiyear study, those LLFs were administered to the root zone of young sessile oaks (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl.), growing in test trials on a uranium mine dump in Schlema (Germany). To quantify the effect of LLFs on plant vitality, chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements and JIP test analyses were used. The results revealed up to 49% higher average photosynthetic vitality (PI(ABS)) of the LLF treated plants compared to controls. Particularly in the first test year, the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport was strongly increased. This stimulation of photosynthetic activity was supported by direct measurements showing up to 129% increased diameter growth of the treated plants after a four year experimental period. Furthermore an increase of the maximum water holding capacity of the dump soil was attained by using LLFs. Overall, the findings reported here represent a feasible, ecologically justifiable reforestation method with a low environmental hazard potential.

  19. Revegetation of an abandoned uranium millsite on the Colorado Plateau, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E P; Waugh, W J; Moore, D; McKeon, C; Nelson, S G

    2001-01-01

    We attempted to restore native plants on disturbed sites at a former uranium mill on the Colorado Plateau near Tuba City, AZ. Four-wing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.] was successfully established in compacted caliche soil and in unconsolidated dune soil when transplants were irrigated through the first summer with 20 L/plant/wk. The caliche soil was ripped before planting to improve water-holding capacity. The diploid saltbush variety, angustifolia, had higher survival and growth than the common tetraploid variety, occidentalis, especially on dune soil. The angustifolia variety grew to 0.3 to 0.4 m3 per plant over 3 yr even though irrigation was provided only during the establishment year. By contrast, direct seeding of a variety of native forbs, grasses, and shrubs yielded poor results, despite supplemental irrigation throughout the first summer. In this arid environment (precipitation = 100 to 200 mm/yr), the most effective revegetation strategy is to establish keystone native shrubs, such as four-wing saltbush, using transplants and irrigation during the establishment year, rather than attempting to establish a diverse plant community all at once.

  20. Field studies on raw soil revegetation and effects of mycorrhizal soil pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauer, Daniel; Obriejetan, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Establishing vegetation on raw soil embankments demands specific needs regarding seeding techniques, planting material or additional soil treatment. Regarding the complex subsoil relations, in specific the connections between plants and fungi there is a great deal of uncertainty. Therefore an experimental setup was constructed within a research project which deals with revegetation measures on raw soil embankments at a compensation reservoir in Austria. The reservoir is based in Vandans/Vorarlberg and is part of a hydroelectric power station complex. In the course of the project, different substrates and methods of seeding are tested to set up protective vegetation cover at the reservoir-embankment consisting of concrete panels. The main objectives of these measures were specified as follows: waterproofing of the reservoir may not be damaged by the vegetation and maintenance should be conducted in a very extensive way. Especially the rapid fluctuations of water levels in the reservoir present a severe damage to the vegetation. Therefore, a series of tests were conducted in field and in the laboratory, to test the effects of Mycorrhiza regarding growing success rate of plants on raw soils using auxiliary greening material. Constructional issues regarding the field trials and results of aboveground and underground vegetation development are presented.

  1. Compost Amendment Enhances Natural Revegetation of a Mediterranean Degraded Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Bellino, Alessandro; Morra, Luigi; Alfani, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A vegetation analysis was carried out on a degraded agricultural soil of the Mediterranean area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to study the effects of different fertilization practices (quality compost, mineral fertilizers, mixed fertilization, and no fertilization) on the whole spontaneous vegetation community. The study was performed for two consecutive years at three different scales (species level, community structure, and community properties), using three different units of abundance (number of individuals, biomass, and cover of each species). The observations were carried out in spring, after 5 and 6 years of soil treatments, on a total area of 4 m2 for each soil treatment and in each year. The different fertilization practices did not determine changes in species composition; however, the relative abundance of dominant species increased in compost and mixed fertilized soils, particularly in the second year of observation. Although the dominance and diversity were unaffected by the different fertilization practices, the total biomass and total number of individuals increased in compost-amended soils. These results indicate the effectiveness of soil quality compost amendments to enhance natural revegetation, a key step in the recovery of degraded areas.

  2. The visibility of using water boxes and mulch in dryland revegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamad, Mohammad Noor; Alrababah, Mohammad; Athamneh, Hanaa

    2017-04-01

    Drylands cover more than 41% of the world's surface area and are homeland for about one-third of the world's population, 90% of them in developing countries. Land degradation in the drylands is hot environmental topic as it impacts environmental quality and jeopardizes food security in developing countries. The climate of Jordan varies from dry sub-humid Mediterranean in northwestern areas to desert conditions over a distance of 100 km, where more than 90 % of the county's area receives annual rainfall of less than 200 mm. In Jordan revegetation programs are rainfed; rainfall in Jordan is characterized by variable nature, thus, these programs faces a major challenge of the low survival rate of transplanted seedlings. The present study ought to explore the visibility of using water boxes and plastic mulch as an innovative approach to enhance seedling survival and establishment of four forest tress species ( Carob, Cupressus, Quercus, and Pinus). The experiment results showed that Cupressus, and Pinus seedlings expressed the highest survival rate of 88% and 84 % respectively, flowed by Crob (64%) and Querrcus (16%). The plastic mulch significantly enhanced the seedling survival rate b y40 % over the control while the water boxes resulted in an increase of 32 % over the control.

  3. [Effects of different re-vegetation patterns on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the wind-water erosion crisscross region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-tong; Wei, Yan-chun; Yang, Xian-long; Hao, Ming-de; Wei, Xiao-rong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) to three typical re-vegetation patterns, i.e., grassland, alfalfa land and peashrub land on the Loess Plateau of China, and also to assess the dynamics of SOC and TN with re-vegetation age. The results showed that all the three re-vegetation practices increased the concentrations of SOC and TN in the 0-10 cm soil layer, but their effects differed with re-vegetation age. Compared with adjacent croplands, the concentrations of SOC and TN in the 0-10 cm soil layer in grassland did not change within 10 years of succession, but increased after 20 years of succession. In alfalfa land, the concentrations of SOC and TN increased by 51.6%-82.9% and 43.4%-67.0% in the 0-10 cm soil layer, with the increasing rates of stocks of SOC and TN being 0.17-0.46 and 0.015-0.043 t · hm⁻² · a⁻¹, respectively. However, SOC and TN were not affected by re-vegetation age in alfalfa land. The increases of concentrations of SOC and TN remained high in the first 20 years after conversion of cropland to peashrub land, but decreased after 40 years of conversion. In conclusion, the conversion of croplands to peashrub or alfalfa land could be better in contributing to high stocks of SOC and TN than natural succession of grassland. However, their positive effects on the enrichment of SOC and TN may not be sustainable due to the scarcity of soil moisture and high water consumption of these two re-vegetation plants.

  4. Evaluation of Soil Manipulation to Prepare Engineered Earthen Waste Covers for Revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, W Joseph; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Smith, Gregory M; Bush, Richard P

    2015-11-01

    Seven ripping treatments designed to improve soil physical conditions for revegetation were compared on a test pad simulating an earthen cover for a waste disposal cell. The field test was part of study of methods to convert compacted-soil waste covers into evapotranspiration covers. The test pad consisted of a compacted layer of fine-textured soil simulating a barrier protection layer overlain by a gravelly sand bedding layer and a cobble armor layer. Treatments included combinations of soil-ripping implements (conventional shank [CS], wing-tipped shank [WTS], and parabolic oscillating shank with wings [POS]), ripping depths, and number of passes. Dimensions, dry density, moisture content, and particle size distribution of disturbance zones were determined in two trenches excavated across rip rows. The goal was to create a root-zone dry density between 1.2 and 1.6 Mg m and a seedbed soil texture ranging from clay loam to sandy loam with low rock content. All treatments created V-shaped disturbance zones as measured on trench faces. Disturbance zone size was most influenced by ripping depth. Winged implements created larger disturbance zones. All treatments lifted fines into the bedding layer, moved gravel and cobble down into the fine-textured protection layer, and thereby disrupted the capillary barrier at the interface. Changes in dry density within disturbance zones were comparable for the CS and WTS treatments but were highly variable among POS treatments. Water content increased in the bedding layer and decreased in the protection layer after ripping. The POS at 1.2-m depth and two passes created the largest zone with a low dry density (1.24 Mg m) and the most favorable seedbed soil texture (gravely silt loam). However, ripping also created large soil aggregates and voids in the protection layer that may produce preferential flow paths and reduce water storage capacity.

  5. Soil respiration sensitivities to water and temperature in a revegetated desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Dong, Xue-Jun; Xu, Bing-Xin; Chen, Yong-Le; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yi-Gang; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Soil respiration in water-limited ecosystems is affected intricately by soil water content (SWC), temperature, and soil properties. Eight sites on sand-fixed dunes that revegetated in different years since 1950s, with several topographical positions and various biological soil crusts (BSCs) and soil properties, were selected, as well as a moving sand dune (MSD) and a reference steppe in the Tengger Desert of China. Intact soil samples of 20 cm in depth were taken and incubated randomly at 12 levels of SWC (0 to 0.4 m3 m-3) and at 9 levels of temperature (5 to 45°C) in a growth chamber; additionally, cryptogamic and microbial respirations (RM) were measured. Total soil respiration (RT, including cryptogamic, microbial, and root respiration) was measured for 2 years at the MSD and five sites of sand-fixed dunes. The relationship between RM and SWC under the optimal SWC condition (0.25 m3 m-3) is linear, as is the entire range of RT and SWC. The slope of linear function describes sensitivity of soil respiration to water (SRW) and reflects to soil water availability, which is related significantly to soil physical properties, BSCs, and soil chemical properties, in decreasing importance. Inversely, Q10 for RM is related significantly to abovementioned factors in increasing importance. However, Q10 for RT and respiration rate at 20°C are related significantly to soil texture and depth of BSCs and subsoil only. In conclusion, through affecting SRW, soil physical properties produce significant influences on soil respiration, especially for RT. This indicates that a definition of the biophysical meaning of SRW is necessary, considering the water-limited and coarse-textured soil in most desert ecosystems.

  6. A review of the characterization and revegetation of bauxite residues (Red mud).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shengguo; Zhu, Feng; Kong, Xiangfeng; Wu, Chuan; Huang, Ling; Huang, Nan; Hartley, William

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite residue (Red mud) is produced in alumina plants by the Bayer process in which Al-containing minerals are dissolved in hot NaOH. The global residue inventory reached an estimated 3.5 billion tons in 2014, increasing by approximately 120 million tons per annum. The appropriate management of bauxite residue is becoming a global environmental concern following increased awareness of the need for environmental protection. Establishment of a vegetation cover is the most promising way forward for the management of bauxite residue, although its physical and chemical properties can limit plant growth due to high alkalinity and salinity, low hydraulic conductivity, trace element toxicity (Al and Fe), and deficiencies in organic matter and nutrition concentrations. This paper discusses the various revegetation and rehabilitation strategies. Studies of the rehabilitation of bauxite residues have mainly focused on two approaches, amelioration of the surface layer and screening of tolerant plants and soil microorganisms. Amendment with gypsum can reduce the high alkalinity and salinity, promote soil aggregation, and increase the hydraulic conductivity of bauxite residues. Organic matter can provide a source of plant nutrients, form stable complexes with metal cations, promote hydraulic conductivity, stabilize soil structure, and provide an energy source for soil organisms. Tolerant plants and microorganisms such as halophytes and alkaliphilic microbes show the greatest potential to ameliorate bauxite residues. However, during restoration or as a result of natural vegetation establishment, soil formation becomes a critical issue and an improved understanding of the various pedogenic processes are required, and future direction should focus on this area.

  7. Relative performance of native prairie grasses and forbs for revegetation of a pipeline disturbance on native prairie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D. G. [Walker and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Results of an extensive revegetation testing program involving 59 species of native grasses and forbs, and three types of soil disturbed by pipeline operations -- clay loam, sandy loam and loam -- at three different locations, all within a 50 km area, are described. Plant responses varied widely with respect to plant survival, seedling emergence, first season seedling survival, spread, biomass productivity, cover, vigour and apparent competitive ability. In general, cultivars of native species were more successful and performed more uniformly. Three cultivars of slender wheatgrass, Highlander, Revenue and Hillcrest, had the best above average performance. Among the trial species that had above average performances were the blue grama and needle and thread grass. One source of junegrass that is widely used for revegetation in Alberta as well as in Saskatchewan did not survive the first winter at any of the three locations. Many other native forb lines also performed poorly and do not appear to be long-term survivors. The overall results point towards the need for cultivar development and/or a seed source identification system that provides more predictable results.

  8. Plant Species Richness After Revegetation on The Reclaimed Coal Mine Land of PT Adaro Indonesia, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Arief Soendjoto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of monitoring was the plant purposely cultivated because after re-vegetation, there were a very few of other plants growing naturally on reclimed coal mining area which were recorded, whereas these plants had important values. The research aimed to record all plants and to identify predominant plants over the reclaimed land of PT Adaro Indonesia. There were four sampling locations with 13 squares of 50 × 20 m2 on each location established and on each square there were 5 plots of 2 × 2 m2 plotse made. Both plant species and its individual number of woodyplantsaplings were recorded on each square, so in each plot, there were small species and its individual number of either woody-plant seedlings or non-woody plants (herbs/shrubs, grasses, ferns. The relative density and the relative frequency of woody or non-woody plants were summed to obtain the important value index (IVI of each successional stage. There were 107 plant species consisting of 32, 43, 27, and 5 species of saplings,seedlings/herbs/shrubs, grasses, and ferns respectively. From those species, 16 species of woody plants and 2 species of herbs were planted purposely,other species grew naturally and even some of them were dominants. Either the number of plants or the dominating plant is varied according to the sampling location and the growing stage.Keywords: plant, revegetation, richness, sapling, seedling

  9. Environmental remediation through sequestration of airfall-derived metals contamination by selective revegetation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagian, D.; Peters, S.; Yasko, G.

    2006-12-01

    Industrial activities in the 20th century left a legacy of contaminated air, water, and soils. The relative environmental enlightenment of the 21st century has already led to reductions in pollution sources, and has improved air and surface water quality in many areas. However, the residence time of contaminants in soils can be lengthy, presenting a challenge to 21st century restoration of impacted ecosystems and communities. The present study is centered on the Borough of Palmerton, PA, and a broad region of adjacent communities that were affected by two zinc smelters that operated continuously for more than 80 years, emitting thousands of tons of heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic. While the air quality has vastly improved since the closure of the zinc smelters, the community remains adversely affected by the ecological damage caused by the pollution. The north face of the Kittatiny ridge was completely denuded of vegetation from the high metals concentrations. The region suffers further due to the ongoing perception of contaminated soils and water, leaving the town and surrounding areas economically depressed. In this study, we are examining the impact of revegetation strategies, particularly those using warm season grasses to determine which species survive and indeed thrive in the metals-contaminated soils. Because of the large areal extent and locally steep slopes in the broad area of concern, removal of metals from the entire region is impractical. It is considered more effective to sequester the metals in the soil so that they do not leach into the rivers, or enter the food web. Vegetation that absorbs and transports the metals throughout its tissues would mobilize these pollutants into the food web as well as make the metals available to reach the river via leaves and other vegetative structures. In this study, we are monitoring the uptake of metals by test grasses and other plants that are colonizing the contaminated area, as well as

  10. Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities

  11. Effects of Re-vegetation on Herbaceous Species Composition and Biological Soil Crusts Development in a Coal Mine Dumping Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Yigang; Huang, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Despite the critical roles of plant species' diversity and biological soil crusts (BSCs) in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, the restoration of the diversity of herbaceous species and BSCs are rarely discussed during the process of vegetation restoration of anthropogenically damaged areas in these regions. In this study, the herbaceous plant species composition, along with the BSCs coverage and thicknesses, was investigated at six different re-vegetation type sites, and the natural vegetation site of the Heidaigou open pit coal mine in China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was used as a reference. The highest total species richness (16), as well as the species richness (4.4), occurred in the Tree and Herbaceous vegetation type site. The species composition similarities between the restored sites and the reference site were shown to be very low, and ranged from 0.09 to 0.42. Also, among the restored sites, the similarities of the species were fairly high and similar, and ranged from 0.45 to 0.93. The density and height of the re-vegetated woody plants were significantly correlated with the indexes of the diversity of the species. The Shrub vegetation type site showed the greatest total coverage (80%) of BSCs and algae crust coverage (48%). The Shrub and Herbaceous type had the greatest thicknesses of BSCs, with as much as 3.06 mm observed, which was followed by 2.64 mm for the Shrub type. There was a significant correlation observed between the coverage of the total BSCs, and the total vegetation and herbaceous vegetation coverage, as well as between the algae crust coverage and the herbaceous vegetation coverage. It has been suggested that the re-vegetated dwarf woody plant species (such as shrubs and semi-shrubs) should be chosen for the optimal methods of the restoration of herbaceous species diversity at dumping sites, and these should be planted with low density. Furthermore, the effects of vegetation coverage on the colonization and development the BSCs

  12. Landfill cover revegetation using organic amendments and cobble mulch in the arid southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AGUILAR,RICHARD; DWYER,STEPHEN F.; REAVIS,BRUCE A.; NEWMAN,GRETCHEN CARR; LOFTIN,SAMUEL R.

    2000-02-01

    biomass production in the irrigated control plots over that produced in the non-irrigated control plots. This surprising result was probably due to the cumulative effects of other factors that influenced the initial establishment and production of plants in the plots (e.g., plant species competition, seed germination delay times, differences in nutrient release and availability). Variation within individual plots, and among the three replicate plots associated with each treatment, rendered many of the recorded differences in vegetation establishment and production statistically insignificant. However, after two complete growing seasons the highest total plant foliar cover and the greatest biomass production and plant species diversity occurred in the cobble-mulched plots. These results suggest that cobble-mulch may be the desired amendment in re-vegetated arid landfill covers if the principal objectives are to quickly establish vegetation cover, stabilize the site from erosion, and increase water usage by plants, thereby reducing the potential for leaching and contaminant movement from the landfill's waste-bearing zone.

  13. Effects of Revegetation on Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Erosion-Induced Carbon Loss under Extreme Rainstorms in the Hill and Gully Region of the Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Loess Plateau, an ecologically vulnerable region, has long been suffering from serious soil erosion. Revegetation has been implemented to control soil erosion and improve ecosystems in the Loess Plateau region through a series of ecological recovery programs. However, the increasing atmospheric CO2 as a result of human intervention is affecting the climate by global warming, resulting in the greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as storms that may weaken the effectiveness of revegetation and cause severe soil erosion. Most research to date has evaluated the effectiveness of revegetation on soil properties and soil erosion of different land use or vegetation types. Here, we study the effect of revegetation on soil organic carbon (SOC storage and erosion-induced carbon loss related to different plant communities, particularly under extreme rainstorm events. Materials and methods: The erosion-pin method was used to quantify soil erosion, and soil samples were taken at soil depths of 0–5 cm, 5–10 cm and 10–20 cm to determine the SOC content for 13 typical hillside revegetation communities in the year of 2013, which had the highest rainfall with broad range, long duration and high intensity since 1945, in the Yanhe watershed. Results and discussion: The SOC concentrations of all plant communities increased with soil depth when compared with slope cropland, and significant increases (p < 0.05 were observed for most shrub and forest communities, particularly for natural ones. Taking the natural secondary forest community as reference (i.e., soil loss and SOC loss were both 1.0, the relative soil loss and SOC loss of the other 12 plant communities in 2013 ranged from 1.5 to 9.4 and 0.30 to 1.73, respectively. Natural shrub and forest communities showed greater resistance to rainstorm erosion than grassland communities. The natural grassland communities with lower SOC content produced lower SOC loss even

  14. Revegetación de áreas degradadas con especies nativas Revegetation of degraded areas with native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Daniel Dalmasso

    2010-06-01

    nivel de diversidad superior y próxima a la del monte. Se concluye que la selección de especies nativas en el marco teórico de la geosinfitosociología resulta efectiva para recuperar áreas degradadas; el establecimiento asistido de especies vegetales nativas en estas áreas reduce el tiempo de recuperación de la cobertura y estructura de la vegetación; la plantación de las especies en el terreno genera condiciones adecuadas para la instalación espontánea de otras especies de las comunidades de contacto.The area of work is located in the South of Malargüe, Mendoza. The climate is arid, mean annual rainfall is 134 mm, and mean annual temperature 13.3°C. An assessment is made of the results of revegetation with native species in lands degraded by oil production, aimed at achieving higher stability in disturbed ecosystems for them to revert to conditions prior to the impact. A geomorphological and vegetation survey was conducted, and dynamic hypotheses were established regarding vegetation. Through a geosynphytosociological approach, and according to plant dynamics, a total of 10 species were selected, reproduced in greenhouse and established in three oil well areas, in both autumn and spring. The experimental design consisted of random plots with 10 species and 20 repetitions in each oil well area. The soil was plowed and the plants established in all three trial areas. After four years of records, a statistical analysis was performed of the temporal evolution of the variables height, canopy diameter and percentage of survival per species. For these same variables, the average behaviours of the different species were compared using ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test (a= 5%. Plant populations used in the trial were fitted to a normal distribution with nonhomogeneous variances (Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Bartlett. On the fourth year after plant establishment, the degree of plant cover in oil well areas was assessed, as compared to the natural Monte. Analyses showed

  15. Revegetation of Bulrushes Bolboschoenus Maritimus, Schoenoplectus Acutus, and S. Americanus in Great Salt Lake Wetlands: Seed Biology and Influence of Environmental Factors on Rhizomes

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, James

    2016-01-01

    A primary goal of ecological restoration is to establish desirable plant species. This goal is particularly important following the removal of invasive plants. Understanding biological traits of plant species important to revegetation is crucial to plant establishment. In the globally important Great Salt Lake (GSL) wetlands, native habitat-forming bulrushes Bolboschoenus maritimus, Schoenoplectus acutus, and S. americanus are frequently displaced by the invasive grass Phragmites australis. S...

  16. The relative merits of dolomitic and calcitic limestone in detoxifying and revegetating acidic, nickel- and copper-contaminated soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region of Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, D.; Winterhalder, K. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region have been rendered phytotoxic and barren by acidification and Particulate metal contamination, but can be detoxified revegetated by the surface application of an growth is better on soil treated ground limestone. On certain barren sites, plant growth is better on soil treated with dolomitic limestone than with calcitic limestone and greenhouse experiments using mung beans (Vigna radiata) have shown superior root and shoot growth on certain contaminated soils when the limestone is dolomitic rather than calcitic. Results of experiments with species used in revegetation (Agrostis gigantea and Lotus corniculatus) suggest that leguminous species are more sensitive to Ca:Mg ratio than grasses, that the plant response to this ratio is greater at lowering liming levels, and that the response is more marked on more toxic soils. The effects of calcium:magnesium ratio of the limestone used in revegetating acidic, metal-contaminated soils are clearly complex, interactive and difficult to interpret. Further studies are needed, but meanwhile it is recommended that the practice of using dolomitic limestone to detoxify barren Sudbury soils be continued, since there is a risk of induced magnesium deficiency at certain sites when calcitic limestone is used.

  17. Changes in soil physical properties of a coal mining site influenced by liming, poultry manure and revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A.L.; Albuquerque, J.A.; de Almeida, J.A.; Mafra, A.L.; Medeiros, J.C.; Alberton, A. [UDESC, Lages (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    The physical, chemical and biological properties of soils of reconstructed areas after coal mining are altered. This study aimed to evaluate liming, mineral and organic fertilizers and revegetation effects on the physical properties of a reconstructed soil after open-pit mining. The experiment was carried out in a former mine in Lauro Muller County - SC, in southern Brazil, from 2001 to 2005. The site was mined in 1991 and reconstructed in 1995. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications. The treatments consisted of. (1) Control; (2) 'dregs' (alkaline residue); (3) Lime; (4) Lime + Brachiaria brizantha; (5) Lime + Brachiaria brizantha + poultry litter. Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus saligna seedlings were transplanted to subplots of all treatments. Dolomitic limestone and dregs were incorporated in the soil at a depth of 10 cm. Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous fertilizers were added on the soil surface of all plots according to the official recommendation. Soil samples were collected in February 2005 (from the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm), and their physical and chemical properties evaluated. The treatments had no effects on soil bulk density, particle density, total porosity, macroporosity and microporosity. Liming increased pH, caused clay dispersion and reduced aggregates stability in water, while dregs increased pH without dispersing clay. Poultry litter and Brachiaria brizantha increased the aggregate stability and volumetric water content, thus favoring the recovery of soil physical quality in degraded areas.

  18. Strip mine reclamation: criteria and methods for measurement of revegetation success. Progress report, April 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrel, J.E.; Kucera, C.L.; Johannsen, C.J.; Blanchar, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    During this contract period research was continued at finding suitable methods and criteria for determining the success of revegetation in Midwestern prime ag lands strip mined for coal. Particularly important to the experimental design was the concept of reference areas, which were nearby fields from which the performance standards for reclaimed areas were derived. Direct and remote sensing techniques for measuring plant ground cover, production, and species composition were tested. 15 mine sites were worked in which were permitted under interim permanent surface mine regulations and in 4 adjoining reference sites. Studies at 9 prelaw sites were continued. All sites were either in Missouri or Illinois. Data gathered in the 1980 growing season showed that 13 unmanaged or young mineland pastures generally had lower average ground cover and production than 2 reference pastures. In contrast, yields at approximately 40% of 11 recently reclaimed mine sites planted with winter wheat, soybeans, or milo were statistically similar to 3 reference values. Digital computer image analysis of color infrared aerial photographs, when compared to ground level measurements, was a fast, accurate, and inexpensive way to determine plant ground cover and areas. But the remote sensing approach was inferior to standard surface methods for detailing plant species abundance and composition.

  19. Tolerance of Chrysantemum maximum to heavy metals: The potential for its use in the revegetation of tailings heaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma.del Carmen A; González-Chávez; Rogelio Carrillo-González

    2013-01-01

    To find if ornamental plants are applicable to the remediation of metal-polluted areas,the tolerance of chrysanthemum plants (Chysanthemum maximum) var.Shasta to different metals under hydroponic conditions was studied.Their responses as influenced by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol.& Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe BEG25 on substrates containing mine residues were also investigated.Our results showed that chrysanthemum is a metal-tolerant plant under hydroponic conditions,plants behaving as Pb-excluders,whereas Cd,Cu and Ni were accumulated in roots.Low accumulation in flowers was observed for Cd and Cu but it was concentration-dependent.Ni and Pb were not translocated to flowers.Shoot biomass was not significantly affected by the different rates of mine residue addition for both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants.Mycorrhizal plants accumulated less Pb and Cu in both shoots and roots than non-mycorrhizal plants.Chysanthemum could be a prospective plant for revegetation of tailings and the use of inoculation may decrease plant metal accumulation in polluted soils.

  20. Development of bacterial communities in biological soil crusts along a revegetation chronosequence in the Tengger Desert, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lichao; Liu, Yubing; Zhang, Peng; Song, Guang; Hui, Rong; Wang, Zengru; Wang, Jin

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of structure and function of microbial communities in different successional stages of biological soil crusts (BSCs) is still scarce for desert areas. In this study, Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to assess the compositional changes of bacterial communities in different ages of BSCs in the revegetation of Shapotou in the Tengger Desert. The most dominant phyla of bacterial communities shifted with the changed types of BSCs in the successional stages, from Firmicutes in mobile sand and physical crusts to Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in BSCs, and the most dominant genera shifted from Bacillus, Enterococcus and Lactococcus to RB41_norank and JG34-KF-361_norank. Alpha diversity and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis indicated that bacterial richness and abundance reached their highest levels after 15 years of BSC development. Redundancy analysis showed that silt + clay content and total K were the prime determinants of the bacterial communities of BSCs. The results suggested that bacterial communities of BSCs recovered quickly with the improved soil physicochemical properties in the early stages of BSC succession. Changes in the bacterial community structure may be an important indicator in the biogeochemical cycling and nutrient storage in early successional stages of BSCs in desert ecosystems.

  1. Comparing watershed black locust afforestation and natural revegetation impacts on soil nitrogen on the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao; Li, Xiangru; Wang, Yunqiang; Wang, Yi; Wang, Kaibo; Cui, Buli

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a pair of neighbouring small watersheds with contrasting vegetations: artificial forestland and natural grassland. Since 1954, afforestation which mainly planted with black locust has been conducted in one of these watersheds and natural revegetation in the other. The differences in soil total N, nitrate, ammonium, foliar litterfall δ15N and dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O in soil nitrate were investigated in the two ecosystems. Results showed that there was no significant difference in soil total N storage between the two ecosystems, but the black locust forestland presented higher soil nitrate than the grassland. Moreover, the foliar litterfall N content and δ15N of the forestland were significant higher than the grassland. These results indicate that 60 years of watershed black locust afforestation have increased soil N availability. The higher nitrate in the forestland was attributed to the biological N fixation of black locust and difference in ecosystem hydrology. The dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O revealed that the two ecosystems had different sources of soil nitrate. The soil nitrate in the forestland was likely derived from soil N nitrification, while the soil nitrate in the grassland was probably derived from the legacy of NO3‑ fertiliser.

  2. Field approach to mining-dump revegetation by application of sewage sludge co-compost and a commercial biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Perea, A; Mingorance, M D

    2015-08-01

    An approach was devised for revegetation of a mining dump soil, sited in a semiarid region, with basic pH as well as Fe and Mn enrichment. A field experiment was conducted involving the use of co-compost (a mixture of urban sewage sludge and plant remains) along with a commercial biofertilizer (a gel suspension which contains arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus) to reinforce the benefits of the former. Four treatments were studied: unamended soil; application of conditioners separately and in combination. Pistachio, caper, rosemary, thyme and juniper were planted. We evaluated the effects of the treatments using soil quality (physicochemical properties, total content of hazardous elements, nutrient availability, microbial biomass and enzyme activities) and plant establishment indicators (survival, growth, vigor, nutrient content in leaves, nutrient balances and mycorrhizal root colonization). Thyme and juniper did not show a suitable survival rate (biofertilizer + co-compost > co-compost > biofertilizer > unamended. The application of co-compost was therefore essential with regard to improving soil fertility; furthermore, it increased leaf N and P content, whereas leaf Fe and Mn concentrations showed a decrease. The combined treatment, however, provided the best results. The positive interaction between the two soil conditioners might be related to the capacity of the biofertilizer to increase nutrient uptake from the composted residue, and to protect plants against Fe and Mn toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Revegetation of Abandoned Sulphur Flotation Waste in Keçiborlu, Isparta/Turkey: Heavy Metals Concentrations of Growing Media and Agropyron elongatum Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin KALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the study are to evaluate the effectiveness of using amendment materials (calcareous soil and farmyard manure and to grow Agropyron elongatum (tall wheat grass for the revegetation of sulphur flotation waste in tailing ponds. Calcareous soil (CS at 10, 20, 30, 40% and farmyard manure (FYM at 4, 8% were applied to the flotation waste (FW. pH, electrical conductivity (EC, DTPA-extractable Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pd, Cd, Co concentrations of growing media, also, total Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pd, Cd, Co concentrations of plants were analysed together with the dry weight yield of the plant which were determined at end of the experiment. The results have shown that pH, shoot Zn, Mn, Cu and Pb concentrations increased by CS-alone but this increment tended to decrease by FYM. The EC, DTPA-extractable Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cr, Co and shoot Fe, Ni, Cr, Co concentrations were decreased by CS-alone, but this decline tended to increase by FYM. There was no change in DTPA-extractable Pb and Cd concentrations between CS and CS with FYM. The dry weight of the plant shoots increased CS with FYM more than CS-alone. The plant grew well and had high cover in CS with FYM treatments compared to CS-alone. However this work indicates that A. elongatum can be used to revegetate sulphur flotation waste, further studies with different plant species are needed in order to obtain better plant cover in revegetation efforts.

  4. Paraho environmental data. Part IV. Land reclamation and revegetation. Part V. Biological effects. Part VI. Occupational health and safety. Part VII. End use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limbach, L.K.

    1982-06-01

    Characteristics of the environment and ecosystems at Anvil Points, reclamation of retorted shale, revegetation of retorted shale, and ecological effects of retorted shale are reported in the first section of this report. Methods used in screening shale oil and retort water for mutagens and carcinogens as well as toxicity studies are reported in the second section of this report. The third section contains information concerning the industrial hygiene and medical studies made at Anvil Points during Paraho research operations. The last section discusses the end uses of shale crude oil and possible health effects associated with end use. (DMC)

  5. Seasonal dynamics of the photosynthetic pigments content in Populus tremula L. leaves at the adaptation on an open-pit coal mine revegetating dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Zagurskaya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal dynamics of the basic photosynthetic pigments (a and b chlorophylls, carotenoids content in the samples of aspen Populus tremula during natural regeneration on a revegetating pit dump of a worked-out coal pit has been studied. The studies were conducted every ten days during the vegetation period in 2015 (June–September on the territory of «Yuzhniy» dump of «Kedrovskiy» open-pit coal mine (Kemerovo region. The pigment content was identified by the means of spectrophotometric detection. The content of photosynthetic pigments in aspen leaves was calculated on oven-dry weight of the leaves, as moisture aspen leaves can greatly vary, and the determination of accuracy of dry matter content higher than the for specific gravity of the sheet. No changes in visible absorption spectrum of acetone extracts indicating pheophytin formation in chlorophylls have been identified. For all variants the larger amount of b chlorophyll was contained in control samples. The largest differences in a/b chlorophylls and chlorophylls/carotenoids ratio were observed in the end of vegetation period. The ratio between a and b chlorophylls of aspen leaves in both cases by the end of the season was considerably lower. The adaptation of aspen photosynthetic system to the revegetating dump conditions was performed due to decrease in the total pigment content and the percent of b chlorophyll in their composition.

  6. Effects of wood chip amendments on the revegetation performance of plant species on eroded marly terrains in a Mediterranean mountainous climate (Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Vincent; Crosaz, Yves; Rey, Freddy

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of plant species can limit soil erosion dynamics in degraded lands. In marly areas in the Southern French Alps, both harsh water erosion and drought conditions in summer due to the Mediterranean mountainous climate prevent the natural implementation and regeneration of vegetation. Soil fertility improvement is sometimes necessary. With the purpose of revegetating such areas, we aimed to evaluate the effects of wood chip amendments on the revegetation performance of different native or sub-spontaneous plant species. We conducted two experiments on steep slopes over three growing seasons (2012-2014). The first consisted of planting seedlings (10 species), and the second consisted of seeding (nine species including six used in the first experiment). First we noted that wood chips were able to remain in place even in steep slope conditions. The planting of seedlings showed both an impact of wood chip amendment and differences between species. A positive effect of wood chips was shown with overall improvement of plant survival (increasing by 11 % on average, by up to 50 % for some species). In the seeding experiment, no plants survived after three growing seasons. However, intermediate results for the first and second years showed a positive effect of wood chips on seedling emergence: seeds of four species only sprouted on wood chips, and for the five other species the average emergence rate increased by 50 %.

  7. Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the first year following herbicide and scalping in a revegetation trial in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Bai, Shahla; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J; Wild, Clyde H; Chen, Chengrong

    2014-04-01

    During revegetation, the maintenance of soil carbon (C) pools and nitrogen (N) availability is considered essential for soil fertility and this study aimed to evaluate contrasting methods of site preparation (herbicide and scalping) with respect to the effects on soil organic matter (SOM) during the critical early establishment phase. Soil total C (TC), total N (TN), hot-water extractable organic C (HWEOC), hot-water extractable total N (HWETN), microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN), total inorganic N (TIN) and potentially mineralizable N (PMN) were measured over 53 weeks. MBC and MBN were the only variables affected by herbicide application. Scalping caused an immediate reduction in all variables, and the values remained low without any sign of recovery for the period of the study. The impact of scalping on HWETN and TIN lasted 22 weeks and stabilised afterwards. MBC and MBN were affected by both herbicide and scalping after initial treatment application and remained lower than control during the period of the study but did not decrease over time. While scalping had an inevitable impact on all soil properties that were measured, that impact did not worsen over time, and actually improved plant growth (unpublished data) while reducing site establishment costs. Therefore, it provides a useful alternative for weed control in revegetation projects where it is applied only once at site establishment and where SOM would be expected to recover as canopy closure is obtained and nutrient cycling through litterfall commences.

  8. Necessity of irrigation for revegetation on reclaimed land with fly ash. Sekitanbai umetatechi ni okeru ryokuka no tameno kangai no hitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiyama, Tetsuo; Kozakai, Kazuki; Okabe, Katsumi.

    1989-02-01

    In view of the growing importance of revegetation measures of a reclaimed land with fly ash discharged from a coal burning thermal power plant, a study was made on necessity of irrigation in case of the positive execution of the above revegetation. This is a report of the above study. The conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) Comparing the available moisture amounts in terms of volume percentage of moisture, about 36% is for fly ash and about 34% for volcanic ash soil, but when fly ash is solidified, the above figure for fly ash becomes about 90% of that for volcanic ash soil. (2) The maximum water infiltration capacity of fly ash is 1/10-1/50 of that of volcanic ash soil and the surface run-off is much. The furrow or drip irrigation system is suitable. (3) The evaporation in fly ash is almost same as that in volcanic ash soil and the designed duty of water irrigation is considered to be 7-8mm/day (in case of cultivation of tangerine and pasture). (4) In case when the above reclaimed land is covered with volcanic ash soil, an aquifer is observed at the boundary layer between the surface soil coverage and the land. Hence draining measures such as underdrainage systems are desirable from the viewpoint of the growth of plants. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Site-specific climate analysis elucidates revegetation challenges for post-mining landscapes in eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Audet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In eastern Australia, the availability of water is critical for the successful rehabilitation of post-mining landscapes and climatic characteristics of this diverse geographical region are closely defined by factors such as erratic rainfall and periods of drought and flooding. Despite this, specific metrics of climate patterning are seldom incorporated into the initial design of current post-mining land rehabilitation strategies. Our study proposes that a few common rainfall parameters can be combined and rated using arbitrary rainfall thresholds to characterise bioregional climate sensitivity relevant to the rehabilitation these landscapes. This approach included assessments of annual rainfall depth, average recurrence interval of prolonged low intensity rainfall, average recurrence intervals of short or prolonged high intensity events, median period without rain (or water-deficit and standard deviation for this period in order to address climatic factors such as total water availability, seasonality and intensity – which were selected as potential proxies of both short- and long-term biological sensitivity to climate within the context of post-disturbance ecological development and recovery. Following our survey of available climate data, we derived site "climate sensitivity" indexes and compared the performance of 9 ongoing mine sites: Weipa, Mt. Isa and Cloncurry, Eromanga, Kidston, the Bowen Basin (Curragh, Tarong, North Stradbroke Island, and the Newnes Plateau. The sites were then ranked from most-to-least sensitive and compared with natural bioregional patterns of vegetation density using mean NDVI. It was determined that regular rainfall and relatively short periods of water-deficit were key characteristics of sites having less sensitivity to climate – as found among the relatively more temperate inland mining locations. Whereas, high rainfall variability, frequently occurring high intensity events, and (or prolonged seasonal

  10. 三峡库区消涨带植被恢复策略%Revegetation Strategies for Water-Level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志军; 江明喜

    2012-01-01

    After the full functioning of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) , the hydrologic regime will be markedly changed and most of the pre-dam vegetation in the new Water-Level Fluctuation Zone ( WLFZ) may fail to persist. How to revegetate WLFZ of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) has become a hot topic for the scientific community and the governments. Based on review of scientific literature and the findings of our research, we here bring forward a scheme addressing strategies for revegetation of WLFZ of TGRR. Firstly, monitor vegetation dynamics based on permanent plots along the Three Gorges upstream from TGD, potentially providing suitable plants for the future revegetation plans. Secondly, examine the potential of soil seed bank for revegetation of the above-ground vegetation, and evaluate self-regeneration of the post-dam vegetation. Based on these data, select suitable plants for revegetation that integrate desirable physiological and life-history traits. Specifically, wetland vegetation could be constructed with lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera) and aquatic plants. For sites with gentle terrain and fairly hospitable soil conditions, vertical planting of trees, shrubs and grasses/forbs along the elevation gradient could be considered. To attain the sustainable vegetation cover, the newly artificial vegetation should be monitored for at least 5 years.%三峡工程全面运行之后,水文条件发生巨大变化,新形成的消涨带(海拔145~ 175 m)原有植被大部分可能逐渐消亡.如何重建该地段植被成为科研人员和管理部门关注的热点问题.在文献综合分析的基础上,结合在三峡消涨带植被重建方面的前期工作,建议如下:首先对库区消涨带植被进行长期定位监测,了解新的水文条件下原有植被动态及命运,同时为消涨带植被人工重建提供备选物种;其次,评价土壤种子库恢复地上植被的潜力,结合地上植被监测结果,评价消涨带植被的自我恢复(更新)能

  11. Effects of sand burial on dew deposition on moss soil crust in a revegetated area of the Tennger Desert, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rong-liang; Li, Xin-rong; Liu, Li-chao; Pan, Yan-xia; Gao, Yan-hong; Wei, Yong-ping

    2014-11-01

    Sand burial and dew deposition are two fundamental phenomena profoundly influencing biological soil crusts in desert areas. However, little information is available regarding the effects of sand burial on dew deposition on biological soil crusts in desert ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sand burial at depths of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mm on dew formation and evaporation of three dominant moss crusts in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert (Northern China) in 2010. The results revealed that sand burial significantly decreased the amount of dew deposited on the three moss crust types by acting as a semi-insulator retarding the dew formation and evaporation rates. The changes in surface temperature cannot fully explain the variations of the formation and evaporation rates of dew by moss crusts buried by sand. The extension of dew retention time was reflected by the higher dew ratios (the ratio of dew amount at a certain time to the maximum value in a daily course) in the daytime, and may to some extent have acted as compensatory mechanisms that diminished the negative effects of the reduction of dew amount induced by sand burial of moss crusts. The resistances to reduction of dewfall caused by sand burial among the three moss crusts were also compared and it was found that Bryum argenteum crust showed the highest tolerance, followed by crusts dominated by Didymodon vinealis and Syntrichia caninervis. This sequence corresponds well with the successional order of the three moss crusts in the revegetated area, thereby suggesting that resistance to reduction of dewfall may act as one mechanism by which sand burial drives the succession of moss crusts in desert ecosystems. This side effect of dew reduction induced by sand burial on biological soil crusts should be considered in future ecosystem construction and management of desert area.

  12. Comparison of diurnal dynamics in evaporation rate between bare soil and moss-crusted soil within a revegetated desert ecosystem of northwestern China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ya-Feng Zhang; Xin-Ping Wang; Yan-Xia Pan; Rui Hu

    2016-02-01

    Effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil evaporation is quite controversial in literature, being either facilitative or inhibitive, and therein few studies have actually conducted direct evaporation measurements. Continuous field measurements of soil water evaporation were conducted on two microlysimeters, i.e., one with sand soil collected from bare sand dune area and the other with moss-crusted soil collected from an area that was revegetated in 1956, from field capacity to dry, at the southeastern edge of the Tengger Desert. We mainly aimed to quantify the diurnal variations of evaporation rate from two soils, and further comparatively discuss the effects of BSCs on soil evaporation after revegetation. Results showed that in clear days with high soil water content (Day 1 and 2), the diurnal variation of soil evaporation rate followed the typical convex upward parabolic curve, reaching its peak around midday. Diurnal evaporation rate and the accumulated evaporation amount of moss-crusted soil were lower (an average of 0.90 times) than that of sand soil in this stage. However, as soil water content decreased to a moderately low level (Day 3 and 4), the diurnal evaporation rate from moss-crusted soil was pronouncedly higher (an average of 3.91 times) than that of sand soil, prolonging the duration of this higher evaporation rate stage; it was slightly higher in the final stage (Day 5 and 6) when soil moisture was very low. We conclude that the effects of moss crusts on soil evaporation vary with different evaporation stages, which is closely related to soil water content, and the variation and transition of evaporation rate between bare soil and moss-crusted soil are expected to be predicted by soil water content.

  13. The use of sewage sludges from waste water treatment plants for re-vegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, F. I.; Camarero, J. G.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.; Fernandez, C.; Codoner, M. A.

    1999-08-01

    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in re-vegetation of closed urban landfill in which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with anaerobic sewage sludge. In this work we expose the phases and the design for the implementation of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by GIRSA, in a collaborative research between CIDE (CSIC-UVEG-GV), Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and DAM, S.L. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, bush and trees) after incorporation into the degrades soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. Twelve plots of 20 m by 8 m will be employed to a quarterly research of the effects on the soil and on the introduced vegetation of three doses (0,60, 120 tn/ha) of the anaerobic sewage sludge. (Author) 17 refs.

  14. Application of urban waste water sludge in revegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingelmo Sanchez, F.; Garcia Camarero, J.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.

    2000-07-01

    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in the re-vegetation of a closed urban landfill which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with urban anaerobic sewage sludges. In this work we expose the firsts results of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by the company Gestion Integral de Residuos in a collaborative research among the Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion, the Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and the company Depuracion de Aguas del Mediterraneo. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, busch and trees) after incorporation into the degraded soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. (Author) 3 refs.

  15. Long-term impact of biochar on the revegetation and mobility of Ni and Zn in an industrial contaminated site soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengtao; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a promising material in soil remediation for its multiple benefits in sustainable development, greening and carbon storage in addition to immobilising heavy metals and organic contaminants. However, its long-term performance in immobilising heavy metals has not been well investigated yet. In this research, a British hardwood biochar accompanied by a small amount of compost was employed in an industrial contaminated site in UK in 2011. A following three-year study was conducted to explore the impact of biochar on the revegetation of the trial pits, as well as the mobility of Ni and Zn in the soils. The revegetation on site failed, and the further laboratory incubation tests indicate that the failure was due to the insufficient addition of biochar and compost. The three-year carbonic acid leaching results of the treated soils reveal a reduction of Ni and Zn concentrations in the leachates along the time. The total metal tests and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) on the third-year samples confirm that biochar can significantly reduce the mobility of Ni and Zn in the soils in the long term. Further, a quantitatively chemical method defined as "sequential extraction", which differentiates from the qualitative methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microscopies, was conducted to explore the interaction among heavy metals, biochar and soil. The results of the sequential extraction tests on the third-year samples indicate that Ni and Zn were mainly bound to Fe-Mn oxides and primary and secondary soil minerals, which had been enhanced by biochar addition. The findings in this research indicates that biochar rather than compost played the major role in immobilising Ni and Zn, and 0.5% (in w/w) addition of biochar was sufficient in practice. It also confirms the good performance of biochar in immobilising Ni and Zn in soils in the long term, and supports the potential large-scale application of biochar in soil remediation

  16. Analysis of arsenic and antimony distribution within plants growing at an old mine site in Ouche (Cantal, France) and identification of species suitable for site revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Ulrike; Chassany, Vincent; Bertrand, Georges; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse; Aubry, Emmanuel; Boudsocq, Simon; Laffray, Daniel; Repellin, Anne

    2012-11-15

    One of the objectives of this study was to assess the contamination levels in the tailings of an old antimony mine site located in Ouche (Cantal, France). Throughout the 1.3 ha site, homogenous concentrations of antimony and arsenic, a by-product of the operation, were found along 0-0.5 m-deep profiles. Maximum concentrations for antimony and arsenic were 5780 mg kg(-1) dry tailings and 852 mg kg(-1) dry tailings, respectively. Despite the presence of the contaminants and the low pH and organic matter contents of the tailings, several patches of vegetation were found. Botanical identification determined 12 different genera/species. The largest and most abundant plants were adult pines (Pinus sylvestris), birches (Betula pendula) and the bulrush (Juncus effusus). The distribution of the metalloids within specimens of each genera/species was analysed in order to deduce their concentration and translocation capacities. This was the second goal of this work. All plant specimens were highly contaminated with both metalloids. Most were root accumulators with root to shoot translocation factors <1. Whereas contamination levels were high overall, species with both a low translocation factor and a low root accumulation coefficient were identified as suitable candidates for the complete revegetation of the site. Species combining those characteristics were the perennials P. sylvestris, B. pendula, Cytisus scoparius and the herbaceous Plantago major, and Deschampsia flexuosa.

  17. Current re-vegetation patterns and restoration issues in degraded geological phosphorus-rich mountain areas: A synthetic analysis of Central Yunnan, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest area of inland geological phosphorus-rich (GPR mountains in the world, where vegetation restoration is key to safeguarding the environment. We reviewed the published literature and collected new data in order to analyze re-vegetation patterns and the status of plant communities in central Yunnan. The aim of our analysis was to suggest future improvements to restoration strategies in GPR mountain regions. Our results showed that spontaneous recovery was the most widespread type of restoration. N-fixing species such as Coriaria nepalensis and Alnus nepalensis play a vital role in succession. In the past, monoculture tree plantation was the primary method used in afforestation activities in central Yunnan; in recent years however, several different methods of restoration have been introduced including the use of agroforestry systems. For practical restoration, we found that spontaneous recovery was capable of delivering the best results, but that during its early stages, restoration results were affected by several factors including erosion risk, the origin of propagates and environmental variation. In contrast, methods employing human-made communities performed better in their early stages, but were constrained by higher costs and vulnerability to degradation and erosion. The use of N-fixing species such as A. nepalensis and Acacia mearnsii in plantations were unsuccessful in restoring full ecosystem functions. The success of restoration activities in GPR mountain regions could be improved through the following measures: (1 developing a better understanding of the respective advantages and disadvantages of current natural and human-engineered restoration approaches; (2 elucidating the feedback mechanism between phosphorus-rich soil and species selected for restoration, especially N-fixing species; (3 introducing market incentives aimed at encouraging specific restoration activities such as agroforestry, and improving the

  18. Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) as a potential candidate for revegetating industrial waste contaminated sites in peri-urban Greater Hyderabad: remarks on seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Ravi Kiran; Majeti, Narasimha Vara Prasad; Suthari, Sateesh

    2017-07-09

    Ricinus communis L. (castor bean or castor oil plant) was found growing on metal-contaminated sites (4) of peri-urban Greater Hyderabad comprises of erstwhile industrial areas viz Bollaram, Patancheru, Bharatnagar, and Kattedan industrial areas. During 2013-2017, about 60 research papers have appeared focusing the role of castor bean in phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils, co-generation of biomaterials, and environmental cleanup, as bioenergy crop and sustainable development. The present study is focused on its use as a multipurpose phytoremediation crop for phytostabilization and revegetation of waste disposed peri-urban contaminated soils. To determine the plant tolerance level, metal accumulation, chlorophyll, protein, proline, lipid peroxidation, oil content, and soil properties were characterized. It was noticed that the castor plant and soils have high concentration of metals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). The soils have high phosphorous (P), adequate nitrogen (N), and low concentration of potassium (K). Iron (Fe) concentrations ranged from1672±50.91 to 2166±155.78 mg kg(-1) in the soil. The trend of metal accumulation Fe>Zn>Mn>Pb>Cd was found in different plant parts at polluted sites. The translocation of Cd and Pb showed values more than one in industrial areas viz Bollaram, Kattedan, and Bharatnagar indicating the plants resistance to metal toxicity. Chlorophyll and protein content reduced while proline and malondialdehyde increased due to its tolerance level under metal exposure. The content of ricinoleic acid was higher, and the fatty acids composition of polluted areas was almost similar to that of the control area. Thus, R. communis L. can be employed for reclamation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  19. The potential use of storm water and effluent from a constructed wetland for re-vegetating a degraded pyrite trail in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaliya, R.; Kansiime, F.; Oryem-Origa, H.; Kateyo, E.

    trail and the unpolluted zone. The concentration of lead in the regeneration zone and bare pyrite trail were similar but significantly higher in the unpolluted zone. Concentrations of TP and TN were significantly higher in unpolluted zone, followed by regeneration zone and bare pyrite trail. Storm water and effluent from a constructed wetland enhanced the revegetation process by modifying soil pH, making plant growth nutrients available and by providing a steady supply of moisture necessary for plant growth. T. latifolia and C. dactylon which seem to have tolerance of high concentrations of metals were the dominant species in the regeneration zone. If storm water and effluent supply continues, the aforementioned vegetation will colonize the pyrite trail and will eventually protect QENP and Lake George from metal contamination.

  20. Responses of soil enzyme activities to re-vegetation in gully Loess Plateau of Northwest China%黄土高原沟壑区土壤酶活性对植被恢复的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林海; 邱莉萍; 梦梦

    2012-01-01

    结合野外调查与室内分析,研究了黄土高原沟壑区小流域自然坡面和不同植被恢复条件下剖面土壤酶活性的分布特征,以及土壤酶活性对植被恢复的响应.结果表明:黄土高原沟壑区小流域坡地土壤的脲酶、蔗糖酶和碱性磷酸酶活性为高度变异指标,过氧化氢酶活性则为弱变异指标.土壤剖面酶活性受植被恢复措施的显著影响,随土层的加深,土壤脲酶、蔗糖酶和碱性磷酸酶活性逐渐降低,过氧化氢酶活性升高.3种水解酶活性之间呈显著正相关,并与土壤物理性质显著负相关,与土壤化学性质显著正相关;过氧化氢酶活性除与含水量和pH正相关外,与其他理化性质呈负相关.土壤水解酶类可以敏感指示植被恢复的土壤效应,植被恢复措施可以改善表层和深层土壤的生物学性质.%In combining field investigation with laboratory analysis, this paper studied the distribution characteristics of soil enzyme activities along the soil profiles and natural slopes with different re-vegetation treatments in gully Loess Plateau, aimed to assess the responses of the soil enzyme activities to re-vegetation. In the study area, the activities of soil urease, invertase and alkaline phos-phatase along natural slopes were highly varied, but the activity of soil catalase was in adverse. The profile distribution of the soil enzyme activities varied significantly with vegetation type, and with increasing soil depth, the activities of soil urease, invertase and alkaline phosphatase decreased while the catalase activity increased. There existed significant positive correlation among the three hydro-lases activities. The activities of the three hydrolases were all significantly negatively correlated with soil physical properties and positively correlated with soil chemical properties, while the soil catalase activity was positively correlated with soil moisture content and pH and negatively correlated

  1. 西藏高寒河谷流动沙地植被恢复潜力综合评价模型%Comprehensive evaluation model for revegetation potentiality on moving sandy land in alpine valley of Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海东; 秦卫华; 张涛; 沈渭寿

    2015-01-01

    The large area and fast development of aeolian sandy lands in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin of Tibet, China has caused immense damages to local social and economic development, and thus, it is necessary to carry out a series of ecological engineering to recover vegetation on moving sand dunes. However, revegetation potentiality of moving sandy land has rarely been reported with integrated studies, and under the harsh conditions of habitat stress, revegetation potentiality of different types of moving sandy lands is still unclear, which is one of most important technical bottlenecks and critical basis for policy making as well as for ecological restoration. In this paper, three types of moving sandy lands (on flood plain, on river bank, on mountain slope, respectively) in alpine valley in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River basin were first chosen as the study objects, and then evaluation indicators and criterion systems of revegetation potentiality were established on the ground of the division of vegetation succession stages and the analysis of their habitat characteristics on different moving sandy lands. Thereafter, a comprehensive evaluation model for revegetation potentiality (CEMRP) on moving sandy land in the alpine valley was built using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results showed that the potentiality of moving sandy land on mountain slope was the strongest at Level I and with the biggest membership degree value (0.2884), versus little strong to moving sandy land on flood plain at Level II and with the biggest membership degree value (0.2869), little poor to moving sandy land on river bank at Level IV and with the biggest membership degree value (0.3296). The congenital conditions which affected the habitat of vegetation growth, such as climate (precipitation, temperature, sunshine duration), topographic (elevation, slope, aspect) and soil conditions (moisture, pH value, organic matter

  2. Garden as 1:1: Between Paper Thinking and Earth Moving in Landscape Architectural Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Harrisson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Decisions about design are invariably decisions about materials (Temple, 2011,p 50.Design education seeks to mimic the design process in landscape architectural practice. Yet the educational process is fundamentally different because design ideas are rarely tested through building. Student learning, therefore, remains in the realm of abstraction: the representation of a design idea without translation into the actual material these ideas are intended to shape. Thinking through ideas at full scale off ers an alternative way to explore design learning so students understand the spatial, social and material consequences of their ideas. Working at the 1:1 scale gives them an insight into the implications of their design decisions and experience in working directly with the materials of their concern. It also off ers an opportunity to work one to one with each other and clients.

  3. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  4. Survey Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  5. Revegetação de áreas de mineração: critérios de monitoramento e avaliação do desempenho Monitoring and evaluating performance of mining revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Olímpia Peláez Ocampo Almeida

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A recuperação de áreas degradadas pela mineração normalmente envolve atividades que têm o objetivo de restabelecer a vegetação. O acompanhamento dos resultados dessa atividade é muitas vezes inexistente ou conduzido de maneira assistemática. O trabalho seleciona um conjunto de indicadores com a finalidade de facilitar a tarefa de avaliação dos resultados da recuperação ambiental em áreas de extração de areia. O emprego de indicadores adequados facilita a compreensão e a interpretação dos resultados da revegetação para diferentes categorias de interessados, como empresários, agentes públicos e a comunidade em geral. Cinco indicadores selecionados - aspecto visual, densidade de plantas, altura média de plantas, número de espécies arbóreas e mortalidade de mudas - foram levantados em duas minas. Na primeira, foram avaliadas duas áreas revegetadas em uma bacia de disposição de rejeitos; na segunda mina, foi avaliada uma área de mata ciliar em vias de recuperação. Em parcelas situadas em cada mina foram medidos ou observados os parâmetros correspondentes aos indicadores selecionados. Os resultados apontam que as áreas ainda não atingiram o patamar esperado em termos de sucesso da revegetação. Os indicadores utilizados revelam-se eficazes para a avaliação pretendida, uma vez que podem ser obtidos com procedimentos de baixo custo, demandam pouco tempo, não requerem conhecimento especializado e representam satisfatoriamente o estado da área revegetada.Rehabilitation of mined areas usually involves some revegetation. However, as follow-up is seldom implemented, the success of such programs is largely unknown. This paper reviews a set of indicators potentially applicable to monitoring and evaluating the results of revegetation in mined areas. A benefit of using indicators is that, ideally, they can facilitate the understanding and interpretation of obtained data, being useful to all stakeholders - mining company

  6. Technology transfer for the revegetation of phytotoxic, smelter-denuded soils -- The potential use of minimal amelioration and reciprocal transplantation of metal-tolerant grasses at Flin Flon, Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterhalder, K. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1998-12-31

    Soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region that have been rendered phytotoxic and barren by acidification and particulate copper and nickel contamination can be detoxified and revegetated by the surface application of ground limestone, an approach referred to as minimal amelioration. Soils at Flin Flon, Manitoba have been similarly denuded, in this case by acidification and particulate copper and zinc contamination. Field plot experiments carried out in Flin Flon, a more northerly location than Sudbury, with a more severe climate, have shown that the surface application of ground limestone to barren soil leads to colonization of birches, poplars and willows, as on the Sudbury barrens. Furthermore, it has been shown that the copper/nickel tolerant ecotype of Tufted Hairgrass (Deschampsia caevpitosa) found on the Sudbury barrens can be successfully transplanted onto the Flin Flon barrens, and that the copper/zinc tolerant ecotype of Browntop (Agrostis tenuis) found on the Flin Flon barrens can be successfully transplanted onto phytotoxic soils in Sudbury. The significance of these findings, and the possibility of extending such technology transfer to similar sites, such as the copper/zinc smelters of the Kola Peninsula in Russia, are discussed.

  7. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  8. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...

  9. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures...

  10. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  11. 用显微CT研究不同植被恢复模式的土壤团聚体微结构特征%Characterization of soil aggregate microstructure under different revegetation types using micro-computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬; 许明祥; 刘国彬; 张蓉蓉; 脱登峰

    2016-01-01

    为了更好了解不同植被恢复模式对土壤团聚体微结构的影响,该研究采用显微CT技术扫描3~5 mm土壤团聚体,获取了3.25μm 分辨率的二维图像,并应用数字图像处理软件对团聚体孔隙结构进行三维重建,定量研究了黄土丘陵区不同植被恢复模式下(自然草地、人工灌木和坡耕地)土壤团聚体微结构特征。结果表明,两种植被恢复模式均显著提高了土壤有机碳含量和团聚体水稳性(P100μm)、瘦长型孔隙度分别增加了20%、23%和24%,而分形维数和连通性指数欧拉特征值分别降低了2%和75%,且各指标二者间差异均显著(P100μm large pores and on the other hand decreased that of the pore size classes of natural grassland > cropland. The 3D fractal dimension and connectivity of soil aggregates showed a higher value in both revegetation types, suggesting pore system was improved after vegetation restoration. The total porosity, macro-porosity (>100μm), fraction of elongated pores, fractal dimension and pore connectivity were significantly higher in the artificial shrubland aggregates compared to the natural grassland aggregates, indicating that the soil structure of the artificial shrubland was more developed than that of the natural grassland. That may be due to a higher organic carbon content and more developed root system under the artificial shrubland. The 3D fractal dimension of soil aggregates showed a curvilinear positive correlation with total porosity, however, Euler number showed a curvilinear negative correlation with total porosity. The fractal dimension and connectivity showed a high sensitivity to the change of soil structure, and thus could be used for evaluating the soil quality during the revegetation in this region. These results from this study can help understand the soil processes and may be used to quantify the effects of management on environment. With the development of computed tomography, it

  12. Qualidade do substrato minerado de uma área de empréstimo revegetada no distriro federal Quality of a revegeted mine spoil in the federal disrict of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de resíduos orgânicos tem-se mostrado eficaz para a revegetação de áreas mineradas. Entretanto, dados acerca da qualidade de substratos tratados com resíduos orgânicos são escassos. Dessa forma, este trabalho visou avaliar a qualidade edáfica de um substrato minerado no Distrito Federal que recebeu 250 Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto e uma cobertura herbácea estabelecida a partir de sementes. Os atributos edáficos utilizados na avaliação foram densidade de solo, porosidade total, água disponível, resistência mecânica à penetração, ΔpH, CTC, saturação por bases, P disponível, matéria orgânica, abundância e diversidade da macrofauna de solo. Os resultados mostraram que a incorporação do lodo de esgoto e o desenvolvimento de um estrato herbáceo resultaram em melhoria das qualidades química e biológica do substrato exposto pela mineração, mas não alteraram a qualidade física dele. A dose de lodo de esgoto utilizada elevou os valores dos atributos químicos para além dos medidos em solos sob Cerrado nativo. Caso o objetivo da recuperação seja a restauração do ecossistema local, técnicas que melhorem a qualidade física do substrato e não excedam os níveis naturais de fertilidade devem ser desenvolvidas.The use of organic residues has been shown to be effective for the revegetation of mined areas. However, data on the quality of mine spoils treated with organic residues are rather scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the spoil quality of a mined area in the Brazilian Federal District treated with 250 Mg ha-1 of domestic sewage sludge and covered with herbs grown from seeds. The soil attributes used for the evaluation were bulk density, total porosity, available water capacity, soil resistance to penetration, ΔpH, CEC, base saturation, available phosphorus, organic matter content, abundance and diversity of soil macro-fauna. Results show that plowing sewage sludge into the spoil and the establishment of a

  13. 植被恢复用植生卷材制造技术及其应用%Manufacture Technology of Vegetative Blanket of Natural Fiber for Revegetation and Its Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文静; 赵平; 王正; 范留芬

    2011-01-01

    综述以植物纤维为主要原料的复合植生卷材在边坡绿化中的应用优势,介绍复合植生卷材的特点以及以无纺布或纸、农作物秸秆、木纤维为主要原料的不同复合植生卷材的制造技术及其特点,概述复合植生卷材的国内外技术发展应用状况,并提出复合植生卷材在植被恢复和边坡绿化等领域的应用前景及其在我国生态环境综合治理中低碳加工、循环利用的新思路。%The application advantages of vegetative blanket made from natural fiber in slope vegetation were summarized. Both the characteristics of compounded vegetative blanket as well as the manufacture technology and characteristics of different types of compounded vegetative blanket made from paper or nonwoven fabrics, crop stalks and wood fiber respectively were described. The technology development and application of compounded vegetative blanket at home and abroad were also reviewed. Finally, the paper prospected the application of compounded vegetative blanket in revegetation and slope vegetation, and proposed the new thought that corapounded vegetative blanket can be used in China's eological environment improvement to achieve low-carbon and recycling use.

  14. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  15. Happiness Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Are Chinese people happy in today’s fast-paced, modern society? What are the sources of their happiness? In today’s rapidly developing economy, is happiness closely related to wealth or not? A recent happiness survey conducted in China gives some answers.

  16. What Are Probability Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  17. W-OH新材料特性及在青海湖周边地区沙化地植生固沙中的应用%Characteristics of the New Chemical Material W-OH in the Revegetation of Desertified Areas around Qinghai Lake and Their Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯先

    2012-01-01

    W-OH是一种新型的化学植生固沙材料,通过室内试验及青海湖周边地区的不同处理方式植生固沙试验表明,3%~5%浓度的W-OH材料在抗冻、抗压、抗拉、抗紫外线等性能均能达到青海湖周边地区植生固沙的要求,在处理方式喷涂W-OH+沟处理试验中取得了良好的植被恢复和治沙效果,适合在青海湖周边地区类似条件的地区进行推广应用。%W-OH is a new chemical material applied to revegetation and sand-fixation.Through indoor tests and different treatment experiments around Qinghai Lake,it is found that 3%~5% concentration of W-OH can satisfy the requirement in the resistances to frost,crushing,and UV.When spraying W-OH is combined with ditch treatment,a good effect will be obtained in revegetation and sand-fixation,and it can be widely used in the surrounding regions of Qinghai Lake.

  18. Survey Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Weale

    2005-01-01

    This paper focusses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focusses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. ...

  19. Survey Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, M.H.; Weale, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focuses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. Te...

  20. Survey expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, Mohammad Hashem; Weale, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focuses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. Te...

  1. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a rele...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.......In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...

  2. New Submerged Macrophytes Revegetation Method and Its Impacts on Water Environment%新型沉水植物种植方法及其对水环境的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 周维成; 彭成荣; 李双双; 张凤格; 王高鸿

    2015-01-01

    Restoring submerged macrophytes artificially is one of the effective measures to recover the contaminated water eco-system.In this study a new revegetation method by employing vallisneria natans was established, in which mud or clay used as package material in traditional sinking method was replaced by agar gel.At the same time we monitored the growth of vallisneria natans and water quality of two different planting methods.The research results showed that under the agar gel-sinking method the survival rate of vallisneria natans reached 100% and other measuring parameters such as biomass, optimal/maximal photo-chemical efficiency of PSⅡin the dark, and the growth of F1 plants also have excellent performance.Meanwhile during the exper-iment time with the sharp drop of CODMn value, total nitrogen content, total phosphorus content and discernable increase of dis-solved oxygen value, oxidation-reduction potential value water quality improved significantly.%人工快速种植沉水植物是受污染水体生态修复与沉水植物重建的有效措施之一.研究采用琼脂凝胶取代传统抛栽法的软泥或粘土作为外裹物对苦草进行人工种植,并与传统插栽法进行了对比研究,结果表明:(1)新型琼脂抛栽法种植的苦草成活率达到100%,生物量、光合效率、子株生长情况等指标都表现优良;(2)新型琼脂抛栽法种植苦草过程中水体的CODMn值、TN含量、TP含量都现大幅下降,DO值、ORP值都明显上升,水体水质明显改善.

  3. Evolução da qualidade do substrato de uma área minerada no cerrado revegetada com Stylosanthes spp Evolution of substrate quality of a mined area in the Brazilian Savanna after revegetation with Stylosanthes spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas C. R. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A retirada da camada superficial do solo e a escavação do subsolo pela mineração deixam expostos materiais inadequados ao estabelecimento e desenvolvimento de plantas. Nesses locais a regeneração natural é incipiente, de modo que intervenções que visem à melhoria do substrato são necessárias para o restabelecimento da vegetação. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a evolução física, química e biológica de um substrato minerado no Distrito Federal após a introdução de uma cobertura herbácea de Stylosanthes spp. Os resultados mostram que as operações necessárias para a implantação do estrato herbáceo e o desenvolvimento das plantas melhoraram significativamente os atributos avaliados. Os parâmetros químicos foram os mais modificados e os físicos, os que menos evoluíram após dois anos da revegetação. Houve, ainda, recuperação satisfatória do teor de matéria orgânica do substrato, mas a atividade microbiana permaneceu em cerca de 60% da encontrada em solos sob vegetação nativa de Cerrado.Removal of superficial soil layer and mining expose the material unsuitable for plant growth. In such areas, natural regeneration is incipient and intervention to improve substrate quality is necessary for the reestablishment of a vegetative cover. This study aimed to evaluate physical, chemical, and biological evolution of a mined substrate in the Federal District of Brazil after the establishment of a Stylosanthes spp. herbaceous cover. Results show that the operations necessary for planting and growth of plants improved all measured parameters. The chemical attributes of substrate were the most improved and physical characteristics were the ones that least evolved two years after the establishment of revegetation. There was a satisfactory recovery of organic matter content, but microbial activity represented only 60% of the value measured in soils under native vegetation.

  4. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  5. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  6. 30 CFR 715.20 - Revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meet applicable State and Federal seed or introduced species statutes, and shall not include poisonous... shall be used on all regraded and topsoiled areas to control erosion, to promote germination of seeds... other suitable materials that aid in soil stabilization and soil moisture conservation, thus providing...

  7. Robotic Surveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    -actuated functions to be controlled by an onboard computer. The computer-controlled Speedrower was developed at Carnegie Mellon University to automate agricultural harvesting. Harvesting tasks require the vehicle to cover a field using minimally overlapping rows at slow speeds in a similar manner to geophysical data acquisition. The Speedrower had demonstrated its ability to perform as it had already logged hundreds of acres of autonomous harvesting. This project is the first use of autonomous robotic technology on a large-scale for geophysical surveying.

  8. Lesotho - Enterprise Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The 2011 MCA-Lesotho baseline enterprise survey is a national survey of enterprises. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current status of businesses...

  9. Classes sucessionais e síndromes de dispersão de espécie arbóreas e arbustivas existentes em vegetação ciliar remanescente (Conchal, SP, como subsídio para avaliar o potencial do fragmento como fonte de propágulos para enriquecimento de áreas revegetadas no Rio Mogi-Guaçu, SP Successional groups and dispersal syndromes of tree and shrub species at the riparian forest fragment in Conchal, SP, Brazil to evaluate its potential as a source of seeds to the enrichment of revegetated riparian areas along the Mogi-Guaçu River, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa de Aquino

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado em fragmento de vegetação ciliar remanescente, localizado à margem direita do rio Mogi-Guaçu, Município de Conchal, SP, tendo como objetivo a avaliação do potencial desse fragmento como fonte de propágulos para projetos de enriquecimento em áreas ciliares implantadas na região de Mogi-Guaçu, SP. Para tanto, foi realizada a caracterização sucessional e da síndrome de dispersão das espécies arbóreas e arbustivas. No local, foram registradas 99 espécies arbóreas e arbustivas, pertencentes a 38 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae e Rubiaceae. Quanto aos grupos sucessionais, foi verificado equilíbrio na quantidade de espécies secundárias tardias (28,3% e daquelas típicas de sub-bosque (23,2%. A síndrome de dispersão predominante entre as espécies arbóreas e arbustivas foi a zoocoria, identificada em 64,6% delas, seguida pela anemocoria, que representou 20,2% dos casos. Os resultados gerais apontaram o bom estado de conservação desse fragmento e a viabilidade de sua utilização como fonte de propágulos para ações de revegetação em áreas ciliares da região.This work was conducted in a reminiscent Riparian forest fragment at the Mogi-Guaçu River, in Conchal, SP, Brazil, to evaluate the potential of this fragment as a seed supplier to other projects regarding the preservation and enrichment of this type of forest in the region. Thus, the tree and scrub species sampled in floristic surveys were classified according to their dispersal syndromes and successional groups, with 38 families and 99 species being recorded in the area. The families with the most species were Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, and Rubiaceae. A balance was observed between late secondary species (28.3% and understory species (23.2%. Zoochory was the most frequently observed syndrome (64.6%, followed by anemochory (20.2%. These results show the good

  10. Aporte de nutrientes pela serapilheira em uma área degradada e revegetada com leguminosas arbóreas Nutrient input through litter in a degraded area revegetated with legume trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Costa

    2004-10-01

    this work was to evaluate the nutrient input through litterfall, in one area degraded by soil remotion, replanted with ten-year-old nitrogen-fixing legume trees Acacia auriculiformis (acácia, Gliricidia sepium (gliricídia, and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (sabiá and another neighbor area with a secondary growth Atlantic forest ("capoeira" fragment. The experiment was carried out at the Embrapa - Agrobiologia research station, Km 47, Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The litterfall was quantified in litter traps with an area of 0.25 m²; nutrients and polyphenols of the litter components were determined. The litterfall quantity varied according to the legume tree species, reaching a dry mass (DM of 5.7 Mg ha-1 year-1 where gliricídia predominated, and 11.2 Mg ha-1 year-1 under sabiá land cover including some litterfall from acácia. The litterfall production under "capoeira" was 9.2 Mg ha-1 year-1 . The gliricídia litterfall showed the lowest polyphenol concentration and was richest in nutrients (N, P, Ca, and Mg, representing the most favorable litter quality for decomposition processes. The nutrient input was correlated with the amount of litterfall. The annual nutrient input in kg ha-1 year-1 ranged from 130-170 for N, 4.9-7.9 for P, 24-31 for K, 150-190 for Ca, and 29-40 for Mg. These values are similar or superior to those observed in "capoeira" which are 140 for N, 4.9 for P, 110 for Ca, and 31.7 for Mg, except for 63 for K. Land revegetation with legume trees added large quantities of organic matter and N to the system through litterfall in a relatively short time, improving nutrient cycling and the rehabilitation process.

  11. Handbook of web surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.; Biffignandi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Best practices to create and implementhighly effective web surveys Exclusively combining design and sampling issues, Handbook of Web Surveys presents a theoretical yet practical approach to creating and conducting web surveys. From the history of web surveys to various modes of data collection to ti

  12. Using Electronic Surveys: Advice from Survey Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the perceptions and recommendations of sixty-two experienced survey..researchers from the American Educational Research Association regarding the use of..electronic surveys. The most positive aspects cited for the use of electronic surveys were..reduction of costs (i.e., postage, phone charges, the use of electronic mail for pre-notification or..follow-up purposes, and the compatibility of data with existing software programs. These..professionals expressed limitations in using electronic surveys pertaining to the limited..sampling frame as well as issues of confidentiality, privacy, and the credibility of the sample...They advised that electronic surveys designed with the varied technological background and..capabilities of the respondent in mind, follow sound principles of survey construction, and be..administered to pre-notified, targeted populations with published email addresses.

  13. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liljana Boci; Elona Berberi

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the ...

  14. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Boci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the identification and treatment of outliers, and analyses of coefficient of variation. It provides sources of errors and gives recommendations of how to improve them throw sample survey techniques.

  15. High resolution survey for topographic surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, L. C.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Tan, Z.

    2014-02-01

    In this decade, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is getting popular in many fields such as reconstruction, monitoring, surveying, as-built of facilities, archaeology, and topographic surveying. This is due the high speed in data collection which is about 50,000 to 1,000,000 three-dimensional (3D) points per second at high accuracy. The main advantage of 3D representation for the data is that it is more approximate to the real world. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show the use of High-Definition Surveying (HDS), also known as 3D laser scanning for topographic survey. This research investigates the effectiveness of using terrestrial laser scanning system for topographic survey by carrying out field test in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor. The 3D laser scanner used in this study is a Leica ScanStation C10. Data acquisition was carried out by applying the traversing method. In this study, the result for the topographic survey is under 1st class survey. At the completion of this study, a standard of procedure was proposed for topographic data acquisition using laser scanning systems. This proposed procedure serves as a guideline for users who wish to utilize laser scanning system in topographic survey fully.

  16. Handbook of web surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bethlehem, Jelke

    2011-01-01

    BEST PRACTICES TO CREATE AND IMPLEMENTHIGHLY EFFECTIVE WEB SURVEYS Exclusively combining design and sampling issues, Handbook of Web Surveys presents a theoretical yet practical approach to creating and conducting web surveys. From the history of web surveys to various modes of data collection to tips for detecting error, this book thoroughly introduces readers to the this cutting-edge technique and offers tips for creating successful web surveys. The authors provide a history of web surveys and go on to explore the advantages and disadvantages of this mode of dat

  17. Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS): Survey Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tanaka, Masaomi; Mori, Kensho; Matsumoto, Emiko; Kikuchi, Yuki; Shibata, Takumi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Naoto; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Sarugaku, Yuki; Richmond, Michael W; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Aldering, Greg; Arimatsu, Ko; Contreras, Carlos; Horiuchi, Takashi; Hsiao, Eric Y; Itoh, Ryosuke; Iwata, Ikuru; Koji,; Kawabata, S; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Paolo,; Mazzali,; Misawa, Toru; Moritani, Yuki; Morrell, Nidia; Okamoto, Rina; Pavlyuk, Nikolay; Phillips, Mark M; Pian, Elena; Sahu, Devendra; Saito, Yoshihiko; Sano, Kei; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; Tachibana, Yutaro; Taddia, Francesco; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Tateuchi, Ken; Tomita, Akihiko; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Ui, Takahiro; Ukita, Nobuharu; Urata, Yuji; Walker, Emma S; Yoshii, Taketoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) is a high-cadence optical wide-field supernova (SN) survey. The primary goal of the survey is to catch the very early light of a SN, during the shock breakout phase. Detection of SN shock breakouts combined with multi-band photometry obtained with other facilities would provide detailed physical information on the progenitor stars of SNe. The survey is performed using a 2.2x2.2 deg field-of-view instrument on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt telescope, the Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC). We take a three-minute exposure in g-band once every hour in our survey, reaching magnitude g~20-21. About 100 nights of telescope time per year have been spent on the survey since April 2012. The number of the shock breakout detections is estimated to be of order of 1 during our 3-year project. This paper summarizes the KISS project including the KWFC observing setup, the survey strategy, the data reduction system, and CBET-reported SNe discovered so far by KISS.

  18. Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS): Survey strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Mori, Kensho; Matsumoto, Emiko; Kikuchi, Yuki; Shibata, Takumi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Naoto; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Sarugaku, Yuki; Richmond, Michael W.; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Aldering, Greg; Arimatsu, Ko; Contreras, Carlos; Horiuchi, Takashi; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Itoh, Ryosuke; Iwata, Ikuru; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Mazzali, Paolo; Misawa, Toru; Moritani, Yuki; Morrell, Nidia; Okamoto, Rina; Pavlyuk, Nikolay; Phillips, Mark M.; Pian, Elena; Sahu, Devendra; Saito, Yoshihiko; Sano, Kei; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Tachibana, Yutaro; Taddia, Francesco; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Tateuchi, Ken; Tomita, Akihiko; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Ui, Takahiro; Ukita, Nobuharu; Urata, Yuji; Walker, Emma S.; Yoshii, Taketoshi

    2014-12-01

    The Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) is a high-cadence optical wide-field supernova (SN) survey. The primary goal of the survey is to catch the very early light of a SN, during the shock breakout phase. Detection of SN shock breakouts combined with multi-band photometry obtained with other facilities would provide detailed physical information on the progenitor stars of SNe. The survey is performed using a 2.2° × 2.2° field-of-view instrument on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt telescope, the Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC). We take a 3-min exposure in g-band once every hour in our survey, reaching magnitude g ˜ 20-21. About 100 nights of telescope time per year have been spent on the survey since 2012 April. The number of the shock breakout detections is estimated to be of the order of 1 during our three-year project. This paper summarizes the KISS project including the KWFC observing setup, the survey strategy, the data reduction system, and CBET-reported SNe discovered so far by KISS.

  19. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  20. SURVEY, MCLEOD COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, KENT COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  2. SURVEY, KENT COUNTY, DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  3. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the state averages for the HCAHPS survey responses. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  4. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  5. SURVEY, CHARLES COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  6. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  7. SURVEY, SOLANO COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Solano County California, hydrographic survey data collected by Harned Surveying and Engineering (HSE). Data collection period January 1, 2011 through March 1, 2011.

  8. SURVEY, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. Survey, OCONEE COUNTY, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. SURVEY, BENTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. SURVEY, TUSCALOSAA COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. SURVEY, FREMONT COUNTY, COLORADO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. SURVEY, DOUGLAS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, OCONTO COUNTY, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. SURVEY, OSCEOLA COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, SANDERS COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  18. SURVEY, CALHOUN COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. SURVEY, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  20. SURVEY, CALVERT COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  1. SURVEY, VICTORIA COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, Somerset COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  3. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. 1998 Harrisburg Airport Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes data collected in 1998 to evaluate the ability of lidar to survey airport obstructions in collaboration with NOAA National Geodetic Survey....

  5. Water Use: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Rose Glee; Warden, Jessie

    1976-01-01

    A survey of Florida State University students showed that their current laundry practices generate energy and water over-consumption. The survey also resulted in some concrete suggestions to the students that would improve their conservation practices. (Author/BP)

  6. SURVEY, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. SURVEY, CITRUS County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  8. SURVEY, BUFFALO COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. SURVEY, NANTUCKET COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. SURVEY, HONOLULU COUNTY, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. Surveys: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenfeld, Gordon D

    2004-10-01

    Surveys are a valuable research tool for studying the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of a study population. This article explores quantitative analyses of written questionnaires as instruments for survey research. Obtaining accurate and precise information from a survey requires minimizing the possibility of bias from inappropriate sampling or a flawed survey instrument, and this article describes strategies to minimize sampling bias by increasing response rates, comparing responders to nonresponders, and identifying the appropriate sampling population. It is crucial that the survey instrument be valid, meaning that it actually measures what the investigator intends it to measure. In developing a valid survey instrument, it can be useful to adapt survey instruments that were developed by other researchers and to conduct extensive pilot-testing of your survey instrument.

  12. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, ATTALA COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. SURVEY, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, REFUGIO COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. Global Land Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Global Land Survey (GLS) datasets are a collection of orthorectified, cloud-minimized Landsat-type satellite images, providing near complete coverage of the...

  20. Black Rail Pilot Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aural surveys using tape recorded calls proved to be an efficient and effective way to survey large expanses of shallow marsh for black rails (Laterallus...

  1. SURVEY, Baltomore City, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  2. SURVEY, Poquoson City, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  3. SURVEY, Caroline COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  4. SURVEY, ATTALA COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. SURVEY, GRAFTON COUNTY, NH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  7. HCAHPS Hospital Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) Hospital Survey The intent of the HCAHPS initiative is to provide a standardized survey...

  8. National Health Care Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  9. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  10. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  11. SURVEY, Cecil County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  12. SURVEY, Lowndes County, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. GIS Readiness Survey 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2014-01-01

    The GIS Readiness Survey 2014 is a follow-up to the corresponding survey that was carried out among public institutions in Denmark in 2009. The present survey thus provides an updated image of status and challenges in relation to the use of spatial information, the construction of the com- mon...

  14. China Executive Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENWEIXIAN

    2005-01-01

    Beiiing-based CTR Market Research recently completed a survey named China Business Executive Survey in the four Chinese dries of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. The survey identified 340,000 senior executives in the four cities and found that around 20,000 ofthem have annual income of over 200,000yuan (US$24,000).

  15. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2004-01-01

    Plane and Geodetic Surveying blends theory and practice, conventional techniques and GPS, to provide the ideal book for students of surveying.Detailed guidance is given on how and when the principle surveying instruments (theodolites, Total Stations, levels and GPS) should be used. Concepts and formulae needed to convert instrument readings into useful results are explained. Rigorous explanations of the theoretical aspects of surveying are given, while at the same time a wealth of useful advice about conducting a survey in practice is provided. An accompanying least squares adjustment program

  16. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  17. Developing the online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffry S; McNew, Ryan

    2008-12-01

    Institutions of higher education are now using Internet-based technology tools to conduct surveys for data collection. Research shows that the type and quality of responses one receives with online surveys are comparable with what one receives in paper-based surveys. Data collection can take place on Web-based surveys, e-mail-based surveys, and personal digital assistants/Smartphone devices. Web surveys can be subscription templates, software packages installed on one's own server, or created from scratch using Web programming development tools. All of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The survey owner must make informed decisions as to the right technology to implement. The correct choice can save hours of work in sorting, organizing, and analyzing data.

  18. Surveying your internal customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, V L

    1998-06-01

    Internal customers often are overlooked when business techniques are applied. By applying common external customer satisfaction survey techniques to internal business functions, one hospital identified areas for improvement.

  19. Management Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers' Managers' Satisfaction Survey asks managers to rate their perception of workforce planning, interaction with and levels of support...

  20. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  1. A Survey of the Innovation Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Shangqin; Oxley, Les; McCann, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Both theoretical and conceptual understanding of innovation has developed significantly since the early 1980s. More noticeable, however, are the major changes that have been experienced in empirically-oriented innovation research as a result of the introduction of firm level innovation surveys. Coll

  2. A Survey of the Innovation Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Shangqin; Oxley, Les; McCann, Philip

    Both theoretical and conceptual understanding of innovation has developed significantly since the early 1980s. More noticeable, however, are the major changes that have been experienced in empirically-oriented innovation research as a result of the introduction of firm level innovation surveys.

  3. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2011-01-01

    Since the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) first began conducting its Alumni Perspectives Surveys 11 years ago, several "truths" about graduate business school alumni have consistently stood the test of time: They are and remain eminently employable. They constantly rate the value of the degree highly. This year's results are…

  4. IT Barometer survey, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs.......Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs....

  5. Survey team on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Bruder, Regina; Planas, Núria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of the work of the ICME 13 Survey Team on ‘Conceptualisation and the role of competencies, knowing and knowledge in mathematics education research’. It surveys a variety of historical and contemporary views and conceptualisations of what it means to master...

  6. Reflexive cacti: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bojana Mihailović; Marija Rašajski; Zoran Stanić

    2016-01-01

    A graph is called reflexive if its second largest eigenvalue does not exceed 2. We survey the results on reflexive cacti obtained in the last two decades. We also discuss various patterns of appearing of Smith graphs as subgraphs of reflexive cacti. In the Appendix, we survey the recent results concerning reflexive bipartite regular graphs.

  7. Sandhills native bee survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes the results of a bee survey conducted in Sandhills region of north and south Carolina on May 18th and 19th 2006. Part of the survey was...

  8. EHRA research network surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nikolaos;

    2015-01-01

    of surveys covering the controversial issues in clinical electrophysiology (EP). With this in mind, an EHRA EP research network has been created, which included EP centres in Europe among which the surveys on 'hot topic' were circulated. This review summarizes the overall experience conducting EP wires over...

  9. And the Survey Says...

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Last month we highlighted our Quadrennial Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Using data from the survey, we have looked at the availability of high school physics. We report that about 95% of high school seniors attend a high school where physics is offered regularly--either every year or every other year. A U.S. Department of Education…

  10. Graduate Assessment Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    Determines the degree to which Santa Fe Community College (Florida) is providing quality educational programs and services to its students. Surveys outgoing students to gather their opinions and perceptions of the educational experiences and services they received while attending the college. The survey instrument is divided into three sections:…

  11. Annual HR Salary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    A trainers' salary survey collected data on 1,091 companies, 31,615 employees, and 97 human resource jobs. Results show pay for human resource professionals is continuing to rise. The survey contains information on base salaries, annual bonuses and incentives, and long-term eligibility incentives. (JOW)

  12. The FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Markova, N; Bastian, N; Beletsky, Y; Bestenlehner, J; Brott, I; Cantiello, M; Carraro, G; Clark, J; Crowther, P; de Koter, A; de Mink, S; Doran, E; Dufton, P; Dunstall, P; Gieles, M; Graefener, G; Henault-Brunet, V; Herrero, A; Howarth, I; Langer, N; Lennon, D; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Sana, H; Simon-Diaz, S; Smartt, S; Stroud, V; Taylor, W; van Loon, J; Vink, J; Walborn, N

    2011-01-01

    The Tarantula survey is an ESO Large Programme which has obtained multi-epochs spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Dor region in the Large Magelanic Cloud. Here we briefly describe the main drivers of the survey and the observational material derived.

  13. Seven Survey Sins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    As pressure builds to assess students, teachers, and schools, educational practitioners and policy makers are increasingly looking toward student perception surveys as a promising means to collect high-quality, useful data. For instance, the widely cited Measures of Effective Teaching study lists student perception surveys as one of the three key…

  14. Detail and survey radioautographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, Wm.W.

    1949-04-19

    The much used survey or contact type of radioautograph is indispensible for a study of the gross distribution of radioactive materials. A detail radioautograph is equally indispensible. The radioautograph makes possible the determination of plutonium with respect to cells. Outlines of survey and detail techniques are given.

  15. Extragalactic HI Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We review the results of HI line surveys of extragalactic sources in the local Universe. In the last two decades major efforts have been made in establishing on firm statistical grounds the properties of the HI source population, the two most prominent being the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey (ALFALFA). We review the choices of technical parameters in the design and optimization of spectro-photometric "blind" HI surveys, which for the first time produced extensive HI-selected data sets. Particular attention is given to the relationship between optical and HI populations, the differences in their clustering properties and the importance of HI-selected samples in contributing to the understanding of apparent conflicts between observation and theory on the abundance of low mass halos. The last section of this paper provides an overview of currently ongoing and planned surveys which will explore the cosmic evolution of properties of the HI population.

  16. Physics Survey Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-12-30

    An overview of a series of assignments of the branches of physics carried out by the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council. It identifies further theories in physics and makes recommendations on preventive priorities. The Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) has conducted a new decadal survey of physics entitled ''Physics in a New Era''. The survey includes assessments of the main branches of physics as well as certain selected emerging areas. The various elements of the survey were prepared by separately-appointed National Research Council (NRC) committees. The BPA formed the Physics Survey Overview Committee (PSOVC) to complete the survey by preparing an overview of the field of physics to summarize and synthesize the results of the various assessments and to address cross-cutting issues that concern physics as a whole.

  17. Public surveys at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa; Hilker, Michael; Hussain, Gaitee; Mascetti, Laura; Micol, Alberto; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; Rejkuba, Marina; Retzlaff, Jörg; Mieske, Steffen; Szeifert, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Leibundgut, Bruno; Romaniello, Martino

    2016-07-01

    ESO has a strong mandate to survey the Southern Sky. In this article, we describe the ESO telescopes and instruments that are currently used for ESO Public Surveys, and the future plans of the community with the new wide-field-spectroscopic instruments. We summarize the ESO policies governing the management of these projects on behalf of the community. The on-going ESO Public Surveys and their science goals, their status of completion, and the new projects selected during the second ESO VISTA call in 2015/2016 are discussed. We then present the impact of these projects in terms of current numbers of refereed publications and the scientific data products published through the ESO Science Archive Facility by the survey teams, including the independent access and scientific use of the published survey data products by the astronomical community.

  18. The Deep Lens Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wittman, D; Dell'Antonio, I P; Becker, A C; Margoniner, V E; Cohen, J; Norman, D; Loomba, D; Squires, G; Wilson, G; Stubbs, C; Hennawi, J F; Spergel, D N; Boeshaar, P C; Clocchiatti, A; Hamuy, M; Bernstein, G; González, A; Guhathakurta, R; Hu, W; Seljak, U; Zaritsky, D

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Lens Survey (DLS) is a deep BVRz' imaging survey of seven 2x2 degree fields, with all data to be made public. The primary scientific driver is weak gravitational lensing, but the survey is also designed to enable a wide array of other astrophysical investigations. A unique feature of this survey is the search for transient phenomena. We subtract multiple exposures of a field, detect differences, classify, and release transients on the Web within about an hour of observation. Here we summarize the scientific goals of the DLS, field and filter selection, observing techniques and current status, data reduction, data products and release, and transient detections. Finally, we discuss some lessons which might apply to future large surveys such as LSST.

  19. Web-Based Surveys: Not Your Basic Survey Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys are not new to the library environment. Although such surveys began as extensions of print surveys, the Web-based environment offers a number of approaches to conducting a survey that the print environment cannot duplicate easily. Since 1994, the author and others have conducted national surveys of public library Internet…

  20. PLANT SPECIES FOR REVEGETATION OF OVERBURDEN ROCK AND IRON MINE SPOIL OF THE ALEGRIA IRON MINE, MARIANA, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL POTENCIALIDADE DE PLANTAS PARA REVEGETAÇÃO DE ESTÉREIS E REJEITO DA MINERAÇÃO DE FERRO DA MINA DE ALEGRIA, MARIANA-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Pereira Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    An experiment was conducted to verify the potentiality of some plant species to revegetate areas under the influence of iron mining. Field conditions were simulated laying mining overburden (soil, phyllite and rock over the mine spoil to cultivate the plants. Four plant species and two irrigation frequencies were tested for pile covering and plant tops dry matter production. Plants showed larger dry matter production when substrate was either soil or mixtures in which soil was one of the components. Among the plants utilized, Brachiaria brizantha and Melinis minutiflora produced the larger amounts of dry matter as compared to Cajanus cajan and Panicum maximum. The frequency of irrigation markedly affected plant growth and development. P. maximum was the species with the least decrease n dry matter production with the reduction of irrigation frequency.

    KEY-WORDS: Iron mining revegetation; irrigation; grasses; legumes.

    Foi conduzido, em casa de vegetação, um experimento para verificar a potencialidade de diversas plantas para a revegetação de áreas de mineração de ferro. Nesse sentido, procurou-se simular a condição de campo colocando-se camadas de estéreis da mina (solo, filito e rocha sobre o rejeito da mineração para o cultivo das diversas plantas utilizadas. Testaram-se quatro espécies vegetais para recobrimento da pilha, duas freqüências de irrigação e avaliou-se a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas. As plantas apresentaram maior produção de matéria seca da parte aérea quando o substrato foi solo ou misturas nas quais o solo aparecia como componente. Dentre as plantas utilizadas, Brachiaria brizantha (brizantão e Melinis minutiflora (capim-gordura produziram maior quantidade de matéria seca da parte aérea do que Cajanus cajan (guandu e

  1. 衡阳紫色土丘陵坡地不同恢复阶段土壤微生物特性%Soil microbial properties under different re-vegetation stages on sloping-land with purple soils in Hengyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璟; 杨宁

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to study the soil microbial properties under different re-vegetation stages on sloping-land with purple soils in Hengyang. Taking the 0-40 cm soil layers in grassplot community stage(Ⅰ), frutex and grassplot community stage(Ⅱ), FG), frutex community stage(Ⅲ) and arbor and frutex community stage(Ⅳ) in typical areas as test objects by using the space series to replace time series. The results showed that:(1)From Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ, BD(bulk density, BD), qCO2 significantly decreased(P0.05). (2) The value of SMBC/SMBN was from 5.26 to 6.29 in the whole re-vegetation stages and the soil microbial community was mainly composed of bacteria; inⅡ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ, the ratio of fungi to microbial community, the ratio of ergosterol-C to SMBC and SMBC/SMBN were significantly higher than them in Ⅰ(P<0.05). This study will to some degree enrich the restoration ecology of this area and provide theoretical basis for the vegetation recovery and reconstruction of ecosystem on sloping-land with purple soils in Hengyang.%  为了探讨衡阳紫色土丘陵坡地不同恢复阶段土壤微生物特性,采用空间代替时间序列方法,以草坡群落阶段(Ⅰ)、灌草群落阶段(Ⅱ)、灌丛群落阶段(Ⅲ)与乔灌群落阶段(Ⅳ)的0~40 cm的土层为研究对象,研究土壤微生物特性的演变特征。结果表明:(1)从Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ至Ⅳ,土壤容重(Bulk Density,BD)、代谢熵(qCO2)显著降低(P<0.05);非毛管孔隙度(Non-capillary Porosity,NCP)、孔隙比(Non-capillary Porosity/Capillary Porosity,NCP/CP)、土壤有机碳(Soil Organic Carbon,SOC)、全氮(Total Nitrogen,TN)、阳离子交换量(Cation Exchange Capacity,CEC)、土壤微生物量碳(Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon,SMBC)、土壤微生物量氮(Soil Microbial Biomass Nitrogen,SMBN)与土壤基础呼吸(Soil Base Respiration,SBR)显著增加(P<0.05);pH值逐渐减小(P>0.05)。(2)SMBC/SMBN比在5.23~6.96之间,土

  2. Telephony user survey

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    Let us know your needs to better plan the transition to a new CERN telephony system.   CERN is planning to upgrade its telephony network and replace the system with a new and modern VoIP infrastructure. We strive to make this transition as beneficial and smooth as possible for you. Please let us know more about your current working environment, expectations and suggestions by responding to this survey: https://cern.ch/tel-survey. The more answers we get, the better the new system will serve everyone in the future. The survey will take you about five minutes to complete; we are counting on your feedback!

  3. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  4. EPRINT ARCHIVE USER SURVEY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    University of Southampton invites the CERN community to participate in a survey Professor Stevan Harnad is conducting on current users and non-users of Eprint Archives. http://www.eprints.org/survey/ The findings will be used to suggest potential enhancements of the services as well as to get a deeper understanding of the very rapid developments in the on-line dissemination and use of scientific and scholarly research. (The survey is anonymous. Revealing your identity is optional and it will be kept confidential.)

  5. FLEXI Project Management Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohunen, Anna; Krzanik, Lech; Kuvaja, Pasi; Similä, Jouni; Rodriguez, Pilar; Hyysalo, Jarkko; Linna, Tommi

    FLEXI Project Management Survey (FLEXI PMS) has been established to gain detailed knowledge on how the software industry - in particular successful companies - manages agile software development. FLEXI PMS investigates the actual agile values, principles, practices and contexts. The survey is supported by a careful literature review and analysis of existing studies. Special attention is attached to large, multi-site, multi-company and distributed projects - the target area of FLEXI project. The survey is intended to provide solid data for further knowledge acquisition and project/company positioning with regard to feasible agile management practices.

  6. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionAim And ScopeClassification Of SurveysThe Structure Of This BookGeneral Principles Of SurveyingErrorsRedundancyStiffnessAdjustmentPlanning And Record KeepingPrincipal Surveying ActivitiesEstablishing Control NetworksMappingSetting OutResectioningDeformation MonitoringAngle MeasurementThe Surveyor's CompassThe ClinometerThe Total StationMaking ObservationsChecks On Permanent AdjustmentsDistance MeasurementGeneralTape MeasurementsOptical Methods (Tachymetry)Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)Ultrasonic MethodsGNSSLevellingTheoryThe InstrumentTechniqueBookingPermanent Adjustmen

  7. Hake Survey ADCP (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  8. Shrimp Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Shrimp Survey was initiated in 1983 by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and monitors the relative abundance (number of shrimp),...

  9. National Nursing Home Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Nursing Home Survey provides includes characteristics such as size of nursing home facilities, ownership, Medicare/Medicaid certification, occupancy rate, number of days of care provided, and expenses.

  10. Eagle surveys near Valdez

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A shoreline survey of birds in Port Valdez, Sawmill Bay and Jack Bay was completed between September 14 and September 16, 1976, by Special Studies Team Mike Jacobson...

  11. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  12. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  13. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  14. Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Midwinter Bald Eagle survey is to monitor the status of Bald Eagle wintering populations in the contiguous United States by estimating national...

  15. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  16. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  17. Artesian Wetlands Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Artesian Wetlands Survey includes data on the wetlands in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. Data recorded includes location, area of influence, area inundated,...

  18. Fisheries Disaster Survey, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Responses to selected questions from the Social and Economic Survey administered in spring and summer 2000 to recipients of the second round (Round II) of financial...

  19. Wolf Population Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Snow track surveys are a common method of estimating relative abundance, estimating density, and documenting range use of furbearers and large carnivores. The...

  20. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...

  1. Hake Survey ADCP (1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  2. Hake Survey ADCP (2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  3. IT User Community Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peter Jones (IT-CDA-WF)

    2016-01-01

    IT-CDA is gathering information to more accurately form a snapshot of the CERN IT user community and we would appreciate you taking time to complete the following survey.   We want to use this survey to better understand how the user community uses their devices and our services, and how the delivery of those services could be improved. You will need to authenticate to complete the survey. However please note that your responses are confidential and will be compiled together and analysed as a group. You can also volunteer to offer additional information if you so wish. This survey should take no longer than 5 minutes. Thanks in advance for your collaboration.

  4. NWRS Survey Prioritization Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A SMART Tool and User's Guide for aiding NWRS Station staff when prioritizing their surveys for an Inventory and Monitoring Plan. This guide describes a process and...

  5. Industry Based Monkfish Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monkfish industry leaders expressed concerns that the NEFSC bottom trawl surveys did not sample in all monkfish habitats; particularly the deeper water outside the...

  6. ASD Customer Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ASD implemented a customer satisfaction survey for our products and services. This feedback will provide a better understanding of how ASD products and services can...

  7. Hake Survey ADCP (1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  8. Patient survey (ICH CAHPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In-Center Hemodialysis Facilites Patient evaluations from the In-Center Hemodialysis Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (ICH-CAHPS) Survey. The...

  9. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  10. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  11. Web surveys' hidden hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Palmer

    2003-07-01

    The same question posed on the Web and in print can yield very different answers, dramatically distorting survey results and misleading management. But, as psychologist Palmer Morrel-Samuels demonstrates, the problems are readily fixed.

  12. Billfish Angler Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Billfish Angler Survey provides estimates of billfish angling activities in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This collection of recreational billfish catch and...

  13. 2007 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  14. 2013 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  15. 2009 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  16. Muskox survey, Nunivak Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial survey completed July 1958 is presented with results. Muskox were located and plotted on a map. Animals were also classified by Adult bull, calve, cows and...

  17. Dulbi River goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) and Canada goose (Branta canadensis) broods was conducted on 58 3/8 miles of the Dulbi River in Alaska. Four...

  18. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  19. 2011 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  20. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  1. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  2. Arctic survey, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey and game patrol conducted to twelve villages in the Arctic from April 24 to May 2 1957. The report covers animals take for income and...

  3. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  4. Applicant Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers developed 3 surveys that asks applicants to assess their satisfaction with the application process on a 1-10 point scale, with 10...

  5. NMFS Reef Survey Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reef Environmental Survey Project (REEF) mission to educate and enlist divers in the conservation of marine habitats is accomplished primarily through its Fish...

  6. Fuel cells: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  7. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospital ratings for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital...

  8. 2005 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  9. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  10. Use of Public Opinion Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to design and administer public-opinion surveys. Includes types of surveys, preparing survey questions, drawing and validating a sample, and processing the data. (Contains 16 references.) (PKP)

  11. DSM-5 field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania).......The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania)....

  12. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  13. Hong Kong Geological Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R J Sewell

    2007-01-01

    @@ History and objectives The Hong Kong Geological Survey(HKGS) was created on 5 May,1982,wimin the then Engineering Development Department of the Hong Kong Govemment.The initial objective was to carry out a new geological survey of the Territory at 1∶20,000 scale.This followed recognition of an urgent need to produce high quality geological maps at a large scale with sufficient detail to facilitate physical planning and land use management of Hong Kong.

  14. Retirement Applicant Satisfaction Survey Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset contains information about the Retirement Applicant Survey (RAS). The survey measured satisfaction results with the retirement application process. The...

  15. LIBRARY SURVEY 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The primary role of the library is to make sure that you can do YOUR work in the most efficient way possible. To ensure that we continue to match our services to your information needs, the library regularly gathers the views and opinions of its readers in a variety of ways, [link for e-version: http://library/library_general/statistics/library_statistics_ surveys.html], including user surveys. The last survey was carried out in 1996. One of the most visible results of that survey was the extension of the library desk service until seven o'clock in the evening, to meet the demand for greater access to library materials. Now the 'electronic library' is becoming more important than the physical one, we feel it is once again time to ensure that we are providing the services and information you need, in the most effective way possible. We also want to make sure you are aware of the full range of services that the library provides. Please spare just a few minutes to fill out our survey at http://library.cern.ch/su...

  16. SURVEY AND RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mileto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  17. PEP Laser Surveying System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1979-03-01

    A Laser Surveying System has been developed to survey the beam elements of the PEP storage ring. This system provides automatic data acquisition and analysis in order to increase survey speed and to minimize operator error. Two special instruments, the Automatic Readout Micrometer and the Small Automatic Micrometer, have been built for measuring the locations of fiducial points on beam elements with respect to the light beam from a laser. These instruments automatically encode offset distances and read them into the memory of an on-line computer. Distances along the beam line are automatically encoded with a third instrument, the Automatic Readout Tape Unit. When measurements of several beam elements have been taken, the on-line computer analyzes the measured data, compared them with desired parameters, and calculates the required adjustments to beam element support stands.

  18. The Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, T; Annis, J; Barlow, M; Bebek, C; Bigelow, B; Beldica, C; Bernstein, R; Bridle, S; Brunner, R; Carlstrom, J; Campbell, M; Castander, F; Cunha, C; Diehl, H T; Dodelson, S; Doel, P; Efstathiou, G P; Estrada, J; Evrard, A; Fernndez, E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J A; Gaztaaga, E; Gerdes, D; Gladders, M; Hu, W; Huterer, D; Jain, B; Karliner, I; Kent, S; Lahav, O; Levi, M; Lima, M; Lin, H; Limon, P; Martínez, M; McKay, T; McMahon, R; Merritt, W K; Miller, C; Miralda-Escudé, J; Mohr, J; Nichol, R; Oyaizu, H; Peacock, J; Peoples, John; Perlmutter, S; Plante, R; Ricker, P; Roe, N; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Selen, M; Sheldon, E S; Smith, C; Stebbins, A; Stoughton, C; Suntzeff, N; Sutherland, W; Takada, M; Tarle, G; Tecchio, M; Thaler, J; Tucker, D; Viti, S; Walker, A; Wechsler, R; Weller, J; Wester, W

    2006-01-01

    We describe the Dark Energy Survey (DES), a proposed optical-near infrared survey of 5000 sq. deg of the South Galactic Cap to ~24th magnitude in SDSS griz, that would use a new 3 sq. deg CCD camera to be mounted on the Blanco 4-m telescope at Cerro Telolo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The survey data will allow us to measure the dark energy and dark matter densities and the dark energy equation of state through four independent methods: galaxy clusters, weak gravitational lensing tomography, galaxy angular clustering, and supernova distances. These methods are doubly complementary: they constrain different combinations of cosmological model parameters and are subject to different systematic errors. By deriving the four sets of measurements from the same data set with a common analysis framework, we will obtain important cross checks of the systematic errors and thereby make a substantial and robust advance in the precision of dark energy measurements.

  19. DSM-5 field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Pathologic skin picking (skin picking disorder [SPD]) is a prevalent and disabling condition, which has received increasing study. It is timely to consider including SPD in DSM-5. The aim of this field survey was to investigate possible diagnostic criteria for SPD.......Pathologic skin picking (skin picking disorder [SPD]) is a prevalent and disabling condition, which has received increasing study. It is timely to consider including SPD in DSM-5. The aim of this field survey was to investigate possible diagnostic criteria for SPD....

  20. Surveys on surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. There have been some extraordinary accomplishments in that time, which have led to enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source that surveys surgery theory and its applications. Indeed, no one person could write such a survey. The sixtieth birthday of C. T. C. Wall, one of the leaders of the founding generation of surgery theory, provided an opportunity to rectify the situation and produce a

  1. Surveys on surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. The sixtieth birthday (on December 14, 1996) of C.T.C. Wall, a leading member of the subject''s founding generation, led the editors of this volume to reflect on the extraordinary accomplishments of surgery theory as well as its current enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source surveying surgery theory and its applications. Because no one person could write such a survey, the editors ask

  2. SURVEY ON SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H Thomas R; Rakar, Fredrik

    This report is based on a survey sent to 150 representatives of social enterprises in Sweden, out of which 47 responded. Despite not being statistically representative due to the low response rate and the fact that Sweden lacks reliable data on the number of Swedish enterprises, according...... to the knowledge and experience resulting from a three-year study on social entrepreneurship, social enterprises and social innovation, we believe that the results presented in this report depict the diversity of the social entrepreneurship sector in Sweden. This report is based on a survey of 47 representatives...

  3. ExtraHF survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Binno, Simone; Corrà, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: In heart failure (HF), exercise training programmes (ETPs) are a well-recognized intervention to improve symptoms, but are still poorly implemented. The Heart Failure Association promoted a survey to investigate whether and how cardiac centres in Europe are using ETPs in their HF patients...... of evidence on safety or benefit was cited. When implemented, an ETP was proposed to all HF patients in only 55% of the centres, with restriction according to severity or aetiology. CONCLUSIONS: With respect to previous surveys, there is evidence of increased availability of ETPs in HF in Europe, although too...

  4. Lupus Alma Disk Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, Megan

    2016-07-01

    We present the first unbiased ALMA survey of both dust and gas in a large sample of protoplanetary disks. We surveyed 100 sources in the nearby (150-200 pc), young (1-2 Myr) Lupus region to constrain M_dust to 2 M_Mars and M_gas to 1 M_Jup. Most disks have masses < MMSN and gas-to-dust ratios < ISM. Such rapid gas depletion may explain the prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  5. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    ). The consumer survey was conducted in four countries (Germany, Poland, Sweden, and United States) with approximately 1,000 respondents per country. The purpose of the survey was to explore consumption and psychological differences across markets and cultures. The collected data represents the empirical...... clothing consumption. One of the main results of the descriptive analyses was that the average consumer across all four countries purchased 5.74 clothing items worth €153.79 over a three-month period. Interestingly, country differences were observed in relation to consumption volume, spending, preferred...

  6. CDS User survey

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Document Service

    2011-01-01

      The CERN Document Server is launching a user survey in order to collect information relative to its search engine, submission interfaces, collaborative features and content organisation. With the view of re-shaping its collections and interfaces and to better integrate with the new INSPIRE platform that serves all HEP literature, CERN Document Server team invites you to take part in the survey. Your input is essential to provide us with useful information before setting up the new service and improve your interactions with CDS. Thanks for participating !  

  7. Conducting a Withdrawal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Sue; Rowley, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    A survey at Edge Hill College of Higher Education in Canada, designed to be part of the mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the quality of the student experience, revealed that key factors influencing withdrawal were: course not as expected, traveling difficulties, institution not as expected, domestic difficulties, and financial difficulties.…

  8. Refraction corrections for surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angles are distorted by refraction of Earth's atmosphere. Theoretical discussion of effect, along with equations for determining exact range and elevation corrections, is presented in report. Potentially useful in optical site surveying and related applications, analysis is easily programmed on pocket calculator. Input to equation is measured range and measured elevation; output is true range and true elevation.

  9. The Herschel Reference Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Cortese, L; Bendo, G; Chanial, P; Buat, V; Davies, J; Auld, R; Rigby, E; Baes, M; Barlow, M; Bock, J; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Charlot, S; Clements, D; Cormier, D; Dwek, E; Elbaz, D; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Gomez, H; Griffin, M; Hony, S; Isaak, K; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J; Symeonidis, M; Vaccari, M; Vigroux, L; Wilson, C; Wozniak, H; Wright, G; Zeilinger, W

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel Reference Survey is a guaranteed time Herschel key project and will be a benchmark study of dust in the nearby universe. The survey will complement a number of other Herschel key projects including large cosmological surveys that trace dust in the distant universe. We will use Herschel to produce images of a statistically-complete sample of 323 galaxies at 250, 350 and 500 micron. The sample is volume-limited, containing sources with distances between 15 and 25 Mpc and flux limits in the K-band to minimize the selection effects associated with dust and with young high-mass stars and to introduce a selection in stellar mass. The sample spans the whole range of morphological types (ellipticals to late-type spirals) and environments (from the field to the centre of the Virgo Cluster) and as such will be useful for other purposes than our own. We plan to use the survey to investigate (i) the dust content of galaxies as a function of Hubble type, stellar mass and environment, (ii) the connection betwe...

  10. The Survey Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…

  11. Galactic Archaeology: Current Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2016-01-01

    I present an overview of the science goals and achievements of ongoing spectroscopic surveys of individual stars in the nearby Universe. I include a brief discussion of the development of the field of Galactic Archaeology - using the fossil record in old stars nearby to infer how our Galaxy evolved and place the Milky Way in cosmological context.

  12. Qatar Exoplanet Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsubai, Khalid; Mislis, Dimitris; Tsvetanov, Zlatan I.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of Qatar-3b, Qatar-4b, and Qatar-5b, three new transiting planets identified by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey. The three planets belong to the hot Jupiter family, with orbital periods of PQ3b=2.50792 days, PQ4b=1.80539 days, and PQ5b=2.87923 days. Follow-up spectroscopic...

  13. ATSDR Marines Health Survey

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    This podcast gives an overview of the health survey ATSDR is conducting of more than 300,000 people who lived or worked at Camp Lejeune or Camp Pendleton in the 1970s and 1980s.  Created: 8/30/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  14. Interval Scheduling: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolen, A.W.J.; Lenstra, J.K.; Papadimitriou, C.H.; Spieksma, F.C.R.

    2007-01-01

    In interval scheduling, not only the processing times of the jobs but also their starting times are given. This article surveys the area of interval scheduling and presents proofs of results that have been known within the community for some time. We first review the complexity and approximability o

  15. The GAMA Panchromatic Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly Survey (GAMA) has now been operating for almost 5 years gathering spectroscopic redshifts for five regions of sky spanning 300 sq degrees in total to a depth of r<19.8 mag. The survey has amassed over 225,000 redshifts making it the third largest redshift campaign after the SDSS and BOSS surveys. The survey has two novel features that set it apart: (1) complete and uniform sampling to a fixed flux limit (r<19.8 mag) regardless of galaxy clustering due to multiple-visits to each sky region, enabling the construction of high-fidelity catalogues of groups and pairs, (2) co-ordination with diverse imaging campaigns which together sample an extremely broad range along the electro-magnetic spectrum from the UV (GALEX) through optical (VST KIDs), near-IR (VISTA VIKING), mid-IR (WISE), far-IR (Herschel-Atlas), 1m (GMRT), and eventually 20cm continuum and rest-frame 21cm line measurements (ASKAP DINGO). Apart from the ASKAP campaign all multi-wavelength programmes are either complete...

  16. Membership Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis M Bowie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to gather feedback from Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS members, the Executive sent out a survey to the membership and received replies from approximately one-third of the membership. This was an attempt to look at the role of the CTS and what the members wanted from the CTS.

  17. IBM Small Business Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY.

    A telephone survey conducted March 15-22, 1991, examined how small businesses are currently performing. Interviewees were 400 small business owners randomly selected from a Dun and Bradstreet list of companies with 50 or fewer employees. Major findings were as follows: (1) owners were survivors, highly confident in their own abilities, and…

  18. And the Survey Says ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Two-Year Colleges, Physics Majors, and Diversity. As noted last month, we're taking a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). We expect to have the first reports from our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers in the spring of 2014. Last month we noted that the high school physics experience of undergraduate physics…

  19. A call for surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Jensen, Christian S.; Tan, Kian-Lee

    2012-01-01

    The database field is experiencing an increasing need for survey papers. We call on more researchers to set aside time for this important writing activity. The database field is growing in population, scope of topics covered, and the number of papers published. Each year, thousands of new papers...

  20. 2007 Global Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauzon, Jean-Claude; Preng, Richard; Sutton, Bob; Pavlovic, Bojan

    2007-06-15

    The World Energy Council (WEC), in partnership with Korn/Ferry International undertook a survey focussing on the topic ''Tackling the Three S's: Sustainability, Security and Strategy.'' More than 50 senior executives from the world's leading energy companies and their strategic suppliers were interviewed by Korn/Ferry International.

  1. An Astronomical Misconceptions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Misconceptions that students bring with them to the introductory science classroom plague every area of science and are especially prevalent in astronomy. One way to identify and possibly dispel some of these misconceptions is through the use of a misconceptions survey. The following is a report on the development, implementation, and some early…

  2. SURVEY ON SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H. Thomas R.; Rakar, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    This report is based on a survey sent to 150 representatives of social enterprises in Sweden, out of which 47 responded. Despite not being statistically representative due to the low response rate and the fact that Sweden lacks reliable data on the number of Swedish enterprises, according to the ...

  3. Surveys and Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Surveys and benchmarks continue to grow in importance for community colleges in response to several factors. One is the press for accountability, that is, for colleges to report the outcomes of their programs and services to demonstrate their quality and prudent use of resources, primarily to external constituents and governing boards at the state…

  4. A call for surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Jensen, Christian S.; Tan, Kian-Lee

    2012-01-01

    The database field is experiencing an increasing need for survey papers. We call on more researchers to set aside time for this important writing activity. The database field is growing in population, scope of topics covered, and the number of papers published. Each year, thousands of new papers ...

  5. 新的国际标准促进土方机械的可回收性%NEW ISO STANDARD TACKLES RECYCLABILITY OF EARTH-MOVING MACHINERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚正凡

    2009-01-01

    在过去几年里,大量到达使用寿命的土方机械需要被处理或回收。因此,达到使用寿命机械的回收已经成为市场需求,并构成整个机械使用周期的一部分。

  6. Initial nonresponse and survey response mode biases in survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Chen, Chao Ying

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated survey response factors (particularly initial nonresponse and survey mode) that may be associated with bias in survey research. We examined prevention-related beliefs and outcomes for initial mail survey responders (n=209), follow-up mail survey responders (n=78), and follow-up telephone survey responders (n=74). The Pearson chi-square test and analysis of variance identified beliefs and behavioral outcomes associated with survey response mode. Follow-up options to the initial mail survey improved response rates (22.0-38.0 percent). Initial mail survey responders more strongly believed topical fluoride protects teeth from cavities than others (P=0.04). A significantly larger proportion of parents completing a follow-up telephone survey (30.8 percent) refused topical fluoride for their child than those completing mail surveys (10.3-10.4 percent) (Psurveys with follow-up improve response rates. Initial nonresponse and survey response mode may be associated with biases in survey research. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. Revegetação com plantas de cobertura em solos arenizados sob erosão eólica no Rio Grande do Sul Revegetation with cover crops for soils under arenization and wind erosion in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Moreira Rovedder

    2008-02-01

    revegetation with cover crops such as Avena strigosa Schieb. and Lupinus albescens H. et Arn., was developed to reduce the soil particle movement by eolic erosion. The experiment was carried out on a Quartzipsament soil, from September to December 2001 and from January to December 2002, in a completely randomizased design and nine replications, on a degraded area and on a degraded area under cover crops. Galvanized metal boxes of 0.5 x 0.5 m, in a pyramid base shape, were buried in the center of the plots, with the upper opening at the ground level. The sand volume deposited in the boxes by the wind was measured every fortnight, and the water content determined. In 2001, the amount of transported sand was 365 Mg ha-1 from the area with cover crops and 5.053 Mg ha-1 from the degraded area, expressing a reduction of 93 % in sand transport by eolic erosion. In 2002, 775 Mg ha-1 of sand was transported from the area with cover crops, whereas 11080 Mg ha-1 was moved from the degraded area, with the same reduction of 93 % in sediment transport due to soil covering. These results indicate that the technique of revegetation with cover plants may be used to detain the sand in degraded areas.

  8. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Trumpeter Swan - Winter Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the survey is to inform a regional effort to estimate the distribution and total number of wintering swans in Western North America. The survey...

  9. Volumetric Survey Speed: A Figure of Merit for Transient Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Time-domain surveys can exchange sky coverage for revisit frequency, complicating the comparison of their relative capabilities. By using different revisit intervals, a specific camera may execute surveys optimized for discovery of different classes of transient objects. We propose a new figure of merit, the instantaneous volumetric survey speed, for evaluating transient surveys. This metric defines the trade between cadence interval and snapshot survey volume and so provides a natural means of comparing survey capability. The related metric of areal survey speed imposes a constraint on the range of possible revisit times: we show that many modern time-domain surveys are limited by the amount of fresh sky available each night. We introduce the concept of "spectroscopic accessibility" and discuss its importance for transient science goals requiring followup observing. We present an extension of the control time algorithm for cases where multiple consecutive detections are required. Finally, we explore how surv...

  10. The Princeton Variability Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, C

    2002-01-01

    The Princeton Variability Survey (PVS) is a robotic survey which makes use of readily available, ``off-the-shelf'' type hardware products, in conjunction with a powerful set of commercial software products, in order to monitor and discover variable objects in the night sky. The main goal of the PVS has been to devise an automated telescope and data reduction system, requiring only moderate technical and financial resources to assemble, which may be easily replicated by the dedicated amateur, a student group, or a professional and used to study and discover a variety of variable objects, such as stars. This paper describes the hardware and software components of the PVS device, as well as observational results from the initial season of the PVS, including the discovery of a new bright variable star.

  11. Business Confidence Survey 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ In order to gain a better understanding about the depth and breadth of its effect on European companies'businesses,the new strategies they are adopting to cope with the crisis,and how their attitudes to towards China-including long-term plans-have changed in its aftermath,the European Union Chamber of Commerce in China today launches its sixth annual European Chamber Business Confidence Survey,which is published in partnership with Roland Berger Strategy Consultants in Beijing on June 30,2009.Drawing on the responses of more than 300 European companies active in China.the 2009 Survey highlights a European business community that remains bullish in China in most sectors and read to back up that confidence with continued investment in the local economy provided that Chinese government is committed to creating a more free,fair and competitive market.

  12. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhabrata Majumdar

    2004-10-01

    Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter . Upcoming Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high red-shifts. Self-calibration of cluster scaling relations, possible for such a huge sample, would be able to constrain systematic biases on mass estimators. Combining cluster red-shift abundance with limited mass follow-up and cluster mass power spectrum can then give constraints on , as well as on 8 and to a few per cents.

  13. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  14. Oral syringe use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J N; Wedemeyer, H F

    1980-09-01

    Use of oral syringes at children's and ASHP-accredited residency hospitals in the United States was surveyed. Questionnaires were mailed to 131 hospitals; 117 (89.3%) were returned. Of the responding hospitals, 54.5% of children's hospitals and 67.1% of residency hospitals used oral syringes. There was no definite preference for a particular brand or type (glass vs. plastic) of syringe. Patients who often required liquid dosage forms, including pediatric and geriatric patients and patients with nasogastric tubes, were most frequently included in oral syringe distribution systems. Twenty-six of the 73 hospitals utilizing oral syringes used them for most unit dose liquids in all drug distribution systems. The remainder reported use for specific medications or circumstances. Expiration dating policies varied from 24 hours to one year to the manufacturer's expiration dating. The survey indicates widespread use of oral syringes and identifies a need for evaluation of medication stability in these devices.

  15. The Void Galaxy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    van de Weygaert, R; Platen, E; Beygu, B; van Gorkom, J H; van der Hulst, J M; Aragon-Calvo, M A; Peebles, P J E; Jarrett, T; Rhee, G; Kovac, K; Yip, C -W

    2011-01-01

    The Void Galaxy Survey (VGS) is a multi-wavelength program to study $\\sim$60 void galaxies. Each has been selected from the deepest interior regions of identified voids in the SDSS redshift survey on the basis of a unique geometric technique, with no a prior selection of intrinsic properties of the void galaxies. The project intends to study in detail the gas content, star formation history and stellar content, as well as kinematics and dynamics of void galaxies and their companions in a broad sample of void environments. It involves the HI imaging of the gas distribution in each of the VGS galaxies. Amongst its most tantalizing findings is the possible evidence for cold gas accretion in some of the most interesting objects, amongst which are a polar ring galaxy and a filamentary configuration of void galaxies. Here we shortly describe the scope of the VGS and the results of the full analysis of the pilot sample of 15 void galaxies.

  16. Global Management Education Graduate Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    Each year for the past 12 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. This Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating business schools. The survey allows students to express their…

  17. 2012 Global Management Education Graduate Survey. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Each year for the past 13 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. The Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating schools. The survey allows students to express their opinions about…

  18. Survey report: Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M M

    1987-10-01

    With a population of 6.2 million, Haiti is one of the poorest, most densely populated countries in the Caribbean. According to a 1983 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, fertility averages 6.2 children/woman compared with 6 children/woman in 1977. Moreover, the proportion of women in union practicing family planning declined from 14% in 1977 to 7% in 1983. Female sterilization increased slightly between 1977 and 1983, from 0.2 to 0.7% of women in union, but at the same time there were declines in the percentage of women using traditional methods such as withdrawal and rhythm as well as supply methods such as oral contraceptives and condoms. Concerns about health problems associated with use of the pill and the IUD were cited by many respondents in the 1983 survey as reasons for nonuse of modern methods. The increase in fertility has been created in part by a growing percentage of women in Haiti married or cohabitating. Of the 4321 respondents in the 1983 survey, 23% were married, 31% were cohabitating, and another 9% were in less stable unions. 10% of the formally married women and 7% of the women in noncohabitating unions used family planning compared with only 4% of cohabitating women. Women who had some secondary education were 2-3 times more likely to use contraception, while urban women had use rates twice those of rural residents. Another concern is the high infant mortality rate--107 deaths/1000 births in 1977--caused by poor sanitation and limited access to health services. 77% of Haitian mothers surveyed had given birth at home. 63% had received some prenatal care, but only 22% sought postnatal care. On the other hand, over 90% of the mothers breastfed their infants and over 80% of children over 5 years of age had been vaccinated against the major childhood diseases.

  19. Quality Culture Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pritesh; Baker, Denyse; Burdick, Rick; Chen, Cylia; Hill, Jonathon; Holland, Morgan; Sawant, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Parenteral Drug Association conducted an anonymous global survey of quality culture in the pharmaceutical industry to determine whether there is a relationship between certain quality behaviors and certain quality attributes, and whether these quality attributes could be used as surrogates (or proxy variables) to assess quality culture. Other studies have shown that an unhealthy quality culture is a root cause of many quality or compliance issues seen by sites and organizations. Statistical analysis of survey data suggests that certain attributes are driving good behaviors, and the demographic data suggests that this relationship holds irrespective of the geographic location of the site. Executive survey respondents had a more optimistic view of the current state of quality culture than survey respondents at large, with cross-functional vision showing the biggest gap (P-value = 0.07, F-Test). The top five quality attributes that can serve as surrogates for quality culture were (1) Management communication that quality is everyone's responsibility, (2) Site has formal quality improvement objectives and targets, (3) Clear performance criteria for feedback and coaching, (4) Quality topics included in at least half of all-hands meetings, and (5) Collecting error prevention metrics. These identified mature quality attributes are related to management responsibility, and continual improvement of the pharmaceutical quality system sections of ICH Q10, and therefore may be amenable to be incorporated in audit programs or in regulatory inspections. Additional research and discussion is required to build a coherent approach, which the pharmaceutical industry and regulators can adopt. © PDA, Inc. 2015.

  20. Mescaline: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R H

    1988-04-01

    The hallucinogen mescaline is found in the peyote and San Pedro cacti, which are prevalent in Mexico and the southwestern United States. In a survey of middle-class, predominantly white adolescents in a drug treatment facility, 18 percent of the respondents indicated that they had taken mescaline. Much of the purported mescaline was probably another hallucinogen, usually LSD. The effects of equipotent doses of mescaline and LSD are almost indistinguishable.

  1. The WFCAM Transit Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin S.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS has been obtaining data on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope since 2007. The WTS targets about 8,000 M dwarfs over several square degrees of sky, and aims to find low-mass eclipsing binaries and planets, down to the size of the Earth, transiting M dwarf stars with periods up to a few days.

  2. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  3. Onychomycosis. A Mexican survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Roberto; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Padilla, Ma Carmen; Arce, Martín; Atoche, Carlos; Barba, José; Campos, Pablo; Fernández, Ramón; Mayorga, Jorge; Nazar, Dulce; Ocampo, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a nail infection caused by dermatophytes, Candida and molds. We aimed to obtain an estimated frequency of onychomycosis in out-patients in private practice through a survey in ten representative cities of Mexico. 12,637 ambulatory patients voluntarily agreed to participate in this National Survey, answering 17 questions on onychomycosis, regardless if they had or did not have any clinical suspicion of onychomycosis. 53% of them were seen for the first time and their main complaint was not onychomycosis. The study was performed in the private offices of 300 physicians in different cities. 48% were clinically diagnosed with onychomycosis. Toenails were affected in 88%, fingernails in 5% and both in 7%. Onychomycosis was diagnosed more frequently in the nails of the first toes and of the thumbs. The main complaint was nail thickening and aesthetic changes. Other associated diseases were diabetes (22%) and arterial hypertension (21%). This survey showed the high frequency of onychomycosis. An intentional search with mycological confirmation is needed in out-patients attending general practice with other complaints, to detect undiagnosed cases.

  4. The VMC survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cioni, Maria-Rosa L

    2015-01-01

    The VISTA survey of the Magellanic Clouds system (VMC) is a public survey project of the European Southern Observatory. It is collecting multi-band near-infrared data across large areas of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the Magellanic Bridge and a few fields in the Magellanic Stream. The combination of great sensitivity to stars below the old main sequence turn off, and the multiplicity at Ks band (at least 12 epochs) make VMC highly suitable for the determination of the spatially resolved star formation history and three-dimensional geometry, using variable stars such as Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars. The VMC observations are progressing well and will be completed in 2018. The VMC survey has a high legacy value and many science results have already been published, e.g. the most detailed star formation history map of the Small Magellanic Cloud, and others are in preparation, e.g. a comprehensive investigation of classical Cepheids and a study of the proper motion in the foreground 47 Tuc cluster.

  5. The Einstein Slew Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan; Fabbiano, G.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of 819 sources detected in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey of the X-ray sky is presented; 313 of the sources were not previously known as X-ray sources. Typical count rates are 0.1 IPC count/s, roughly equivalent to a flux of 3 x 10 exp -12 ergs/sq cm s. The sources have positional uncertainties of 1.2 arcmin (90 percent confidence) radius, based on a subset of 452 sources identified with previously known pointlike X-ray sources (i.e., extent less than 3 arcmin). Identifications based on a number of existing catalogs of X-ray and optical objects are proposed for 637 of the sources, 78 percent of the survey (within a 3-arcmin error radius) including 133 identifications of new X-ray sources. A public identification data base for the Slew Survey sources will be maintained at CfA, and contributions to this data base are invited.

  6. 2013 mask industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  7. Alaska waterfowl production survey, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for Alaska during 1968. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck...

  8. Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a nationwide effort to survey waterfowl in areas of major concentration on their wintering grounds and provide winter distribution...

  9. Assessment of Established Survey Protocols

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A form and instructions for quickly and briefly assessing a previously (prior to 2013) reviewed or approved survey protocol for use as a National or Regional survey...

  10. Alaska duck production surveys: 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the duck production survey for Alaska during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck production from the...

  11. Nowitna NWR swan surveys, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of aerial surveys and a ground species identification survey that was conducted on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge in 1988....

  12. SURVEY, HAMILTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. SURVEY, CALHOUN COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, LIBERTY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. SURVEY, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. The WEAVE disk dynamics survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famaey, B.; Antoja, T.; Romero-Gomez, M.; Siebert, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Di Matteo, P.; Figueras, F.; Fragkoudi, F.; Garzon-Lopez, F.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Martinez-Valpuesta, I.; Monari, G.; Mor-Crespo, R.; Hill, V.

    2016-12-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field survey facility for the William Herschel Telescope. It consists of a multi-object fibre spectrograph with a 2°-diameter field of view that can obtain ˜ 1000 spectra simultaneously. The "WEAVE Galactic Archaeology survey" is the survey focused on the Milky Way, as a complement to the Gaia space mission, and will start operating in early 2018. This survey is subdivided in four sub-surveys, among which the "WEAVE disk dynamics survey". This survey plans to measure the radial velocities (and abundances as far as possible) of ˜ 10^6 stars with magnitude 15speed? -, as well as (iii) about their influence on secular processes such as stellar radial migration are essential elements for a better understanding of the chemo-dynamical evolution of our Galaxy, and of galaxies in general. This survey is designed to answer these questions.

  17. SURVEY, CAMPBELL COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, KNOX COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. SURVEY, SAINT MARY'S COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  20. SURVEY, SILVER BOW COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, MASON COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, MAGOFFIN COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. SURVEY, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. SURVEY, KENTON COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. Nowitna NWR wolf survey, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of an aerial wolf survey that was conducted on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge in April of 1988. Survey flightlines followed...

  6. SURVEY, St Lucie County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. SURVEY, Charles COUNTY, MD, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  8. Geodetic Survey Water Level Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over one million images of National Coast & Geodetic Survey (now NOAA's National Geodetic Survey/NGS) forms captured from microfiche. Tabular forms and charts...

  9. SURVEY, LA PAZ COUNTY, ARIZONA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. SURVEY, JEFFERSON DAVIS COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. SURVEY, NEW HAVEN COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. SURVEY, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. FIELD SURVEY, YAVAPAI COUNTY, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, PIKE COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. SURVEY, Virginia Beach City, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  16. SURVEY, SHELBY COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, GADSDEN COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, HAMILTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. SURVEY, GREENUP COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. SURVEY, HANCOCK COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, FRANKLIN COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, LEWIS COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. SURVEY, KNOX COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. Sport Management Survey. Employment Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)

  5. Soils - NRCS Web Soil Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Web Soil Survey (WSS) provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It is operated by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation...

  6. SURVEY, TODD COUNTY, MN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. SURVEY, Newport News City, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  8. SURVEY, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. FIELD SURVEY, Androscoggin, MAINE USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. FIELD SURVEY DUKES COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. FIELD SURVEY, SUSQUEHANNA COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. SURVEY, MILLE LACS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. Mount Tom Survey Summary 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides recommendations regarding breeding landbirds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and rare plant surveys and which surveys should be conducted in 2005....

  14. FIELD SURVEY PROVIDENCE COUNTY, RI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. EuroGeoSurveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demicheli, L.; Ludden, J. N.; Robida, F.

    2012-04-01

    In order to create safe, healthy and wealthy places to live in, it is vital that we understand our planet. At national level the collection of information on the state of the solid Earth and its processes is normally mandated to Geological Surveys. In fact, a Geological Survey is the national institution responsible for the geological inventory, monitoring, knowledge and research for the security, health and prosperity of the society. And EuroGeoSurveys (EGS) is the organisation representing the Geological Surveys from 33 countries around Europe. With one member for each country of the European Union and beyond, including the Russian Federation and Ukraine, the EGS network covers the whole continent. EGS'principal purpose is to provide geoscientific knowledge that underpins European policies and regulations for the benefit of society. Naturally, in our day-to-day activities, we contribute to the merging of economic, environmental and social agendas. Engaging a joint workforce of several thousands of geoscientists, also involving regional geological surveys in Germany, Italy and Spain, we strive to be the first body to be contacted when there is an international need for European geodata, or'geo-help'. For this reason we work on a daily basis with the EU institutions, and are considered the natural source of information on Earth science issues and relevant downstream applications in Europe. Our General Secretariat is based in the European Quarter of Brussels close to the European Commission, the EU Council, the European Parliament, and the political seat of NATO. Our operational strategy is based on the cooperation between national institutions, which enables to synergistically integrate both information and activities of our member organisations. This has allowed us to make significant progress over the years, permitting geology to become a topic deserving great attention on the European agenda. In order to enable a quick but high quality response to requests for

  16. Preventing pitfalls in patient surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiber, S R

    1989-05-01

    Properly conceived, customer satisfaction surveys can yield the quantitative data needed to gauge patient satisfaction. But, as the author notes, these surveys can be "a veritable mine field of surprises for the uninitiated." This article, the last in a three-part series on measuring patient satisfaction, describes potential pitfalls and discusses the merits of in-person, mail and telephone surveys.

  17. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P.G.; Bassa, C. G.; Dieball, A.; Greiss, S.; Maccarone, T. J.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Britt, C. T.; Clem, J. L.; Gossen, L.; Grindlay, J. E.; Groot, P.J.; Kuiper, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Mendez, M.; Mikles, V. J.; Ratti, E. M.; Rea, N.; van Haaften, L.; Wijnands, R.; in't Zand, J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (CGBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to de

  18. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Greiss, S.; Clem, J.; Dieball, A.; Mikles, V. J.; Britt, C. T.; Gossen, L.; Collazzi, A. C.; Wijnands, R.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Mendez, M.; Rea, N.; Kuulkers, E.; Ratti, E. M.; van Haaften, L. M.; Heinke, C.; Ozel, F.; Groot, P. J.; Verbunt, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to det

  19. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... No: 2012-7479] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283, amaher@usgs.gov ). Registrations are due...

  20. Dutch perfusion incident survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenenberg, Ingrid; Weerwind, Patrick W; Everts, Peter A M; Maessen, Jos G

    2010-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass procedures remain complex, involving many potential risks. Therefore, a nationwide retrospective study was conducted to gain insight into the number of incidents and accidents in Dutch adult perfusion practice. An anonymous postal survey (85 questions about hardware, disposables, fluids and medication, air emboli, anticoagulation, practice, and safety measures) was sent to all Dutch perfusionists involved in adult cardiovascular perfusion during 2006 and 2007. To guarantee complete anonymity, respondents were asked to return the survey to a notary who discarded personal information. The net response rate was 72% and covered 23,500 perfusions. Individual respondents performed 240 ± 103 perfusions during the 2-year study period and had 13.8 ± 8.7 years of practical experience. The incident rate was 1 per 15.6 perfusions and the adverse event rate was 1 per 1,236 perfusions. The three most reported incidents were: (1) persistent inability to raise the activated coagulation time above 400s during perfusion (184 incidents); (2) an allergic or anaphylactic reaction to drugs, fluids, or blood products (114 incidents); and (3) clotting formation in the extracorporeal circuit (74 incidents). Furthermore, pre-bypass safety measures showed no statistically significant association with the reported incidents. In comparison with data from the recent literature, the reported number of incidents is high. Nevertheless, the adverse outcome rate is well matched to other published surveys. The relatively high response rate conveys the impression that the Dutch perfusionist is vigilant and willing to report incidents. Hence, a web-based Dutch perfusion incident registration system is recommended.

  1. Game engines: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andrade

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to hardware limitations at the origin of the video game industry, each new game was generally coded from the ground up. Years later, from the evolution of hardware and the need for quick game development cycles, spawned the concept of game engine. A game engine is a reusable software layer allowing the separation of common game concepts from the game assets (levels, graphics, etc.. This paper surveys fourteen different game engines relevant today, ranging from the industry-level to the newcomer-friendlier ones.

  2. LAMOST Quasar Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xue-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the Chinese LAMOST spectroscopic quasar survey is to discover 0.4 million new quasars from 1 million quasar candidates brighter than the magnitude limit i=20.5 in the next 5 years. This will hopefully provide the largest quasar sample for the further studies of AGN physics and cosmology. The improved quasar selection criteria based on the UKIDSS near-IR and SDSS optical colors are presented, and their advantages in uncovering the missing quasars in the quasar 'redshift desert' are demonstrated. In addition, some recent discoveries of new quasars during the LAMOST commissioning phase are presented.

  3. Survey of Mobile Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    STANDARDS-1963-A IMY Techical Report ND. 450-90G-1R-ODWa p. 00 SURVEY OF MOBLE ROBOTS ’ Anita N& Flym Research Scientist !; "IT Artificlal Intelligence...case of an attempt at system building before the technology for the components was available. 1.3 The Stanford Cart 1973-1981 From 1973 to 1981, work...autonomous and yet still exhibit a high level of sophistication. Rapidly changing technology , including both the advent of the home computer and

  4. Risk analysis methodology survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    NASA regulations require that formal risk analysis be performed on a program at each of several milestones as it moves toward full-scale development. Program risk analysis is discussed as a systems analysis approach, an iterative process (identification, assessment, management), and a collection of techniques. These techniques, which range from simple to complex network-based simulation were surveyed. A Program Risk Analysis Handbook was prepared in order to provide both analyst and manager with a guide for selection of the most appropriate technique.

  5. The Hubble Space Telescope advanced camera for surveys coma cluster survey. I. Survey objectives and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, David; Goudfrooij, Paul; Mobasher, Bahram; Ferguson, Henry C.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Balcells, Marc; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Davies, Jonathan I.; Erwin, Peter; Graham, Alister W.; Guzmán, Rafael; Hammer, Derek; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoyos, Carlos; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jogee, Shardha; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Peletier, Reynier F.; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Sharples, Ray M.; Smith, Russell J.; Trentham, Neil; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2008-01-01

    We describe the HST ACS Coma Cluster Treasury survey, a deep two-passband imaging survey of one of the nearest rich clusters of galaxies, the Coma Cluster (Abell 1656). The survey was designed to cover an area of 740 arcmin2 in regions of different density of both galaxies and intergalactic medium w

  6. Biofertilizers for the revegetation of coal overburden dumps top materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikhil, K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Environmental Management Group

    2001-07-01

    Adding and improving nutrient status of overburden dump top material through biofertilizer for supporting vegetation and for sustainable spoil development, a pot experiment was conducted. In this, two bio-fertilizers namely bactin and phosphin in three doses were applied on overburden dump top material kept in pots growing two grass species. The growths were compared with control on dump and soil both. Results shows that overburden dump amended with bio-fertilizer at lowest dose have significant increase in growth over the control of dump material and soil in vetiver grass but failed to shows the same result in lemon grass. This may be due to different growth behaviour of the grasses. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Revegetation Study of Adobe Dam, Phoenix, Arizona. Task 2. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    Report) -. GI 419a3 I$. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Copies are obtainable from the National Technical Information SVCS A Springfield, VA 22151 19. KEY WORDS...macrotopography is the key to the rapid establishment of plant species. Soils tests showed that no soil amendments were required and the alkaline soils were...parriflora 15.40 1.54 Rumex triangularis 7.70 0.77 Salsola kali 93.00 36.40 15.40 1.54 *Sphaeralcea sp. 7.70 0.77 Solanum elaegnifolium, 7.70 0.77 Sonchus

  8. Cold Tolerance of Plants Used for Cold-Regions Revegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    from tempted to transfer the rye cold-tolerance genome to increased concentrations of solutes in cells and extra- wheat in hybrids. While the gene...Journal, 76: 516-517. Tryon, E.H. and R.P. True (1952) Blister shake of Yelenosky, G. (1988) Capacity of citrus flowers to yellow poplar. Bulletin of the

  9. Revegetation studies on oil shale related disturbances in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    An interdisciplinary research project was initiated in 1976 to provide both basic and applied information that would aid in the reestablishment of natural functioning ecosystems on land disturbances associated with energy development. The approach included field, laboratory, and greenhouse experiments designed to provide both structural and functional information about disturbed ecological systems in the semiarid west. This report presents results from the sixth year of the study. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the 4 studies reported for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  10. Revegetation studies on oil shale related disturbances in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    An interdisciplinary research project was initiated in 1976 to provide both basic and applied information that would aid in the reestablishment of natural functioning ecosystems on land disturbances associated with energy development. The approach included field, laboratory, and greenhouse experiments designed to provide both structural and functional information about disturbed ecological systems in the semiarid west. This report presents results from the sixth year of the study. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the 4 studies reported for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  11. Revegetation of fossil-fuel power plant spoil banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maly, V.

    1981-10-01

    This paper evaluates land reclamation of spoil banks used for disposal of fly ash from the Hodonin and Opatovice coal power plants. The evaluation concentrates on assessment of plant growth over a 5 year period. Types of fertilizers, quantity ratio per ha and fertilizer composition are given. During the first year 54 kg nitrogen, 60 kg phosphorous pentoxide and 120 kg potassium oxide were used for one ha of spoil bank. In the second year 150 kg/ha of calcium nitrate were used. During the third year 150 kg ammonium sulfates and 300 kg superphosphate were used for one ha. During the fifth year 150 kg/ha calcium nitrate were used for the second time. Growth intensity of plants is evaluated in two tables. The following plants were used: Onobrychis sativa, Melilotus albus, Trifolium hybrydum, Lotus corniculatus, Festuca rubra, Lovium multiflorum. In the Hodonin spoil bank growth of Onobrychis sativa was most intensive. In the Opatovice spoil bank growth of Lolium multiflorum was satisfactory. (8 refs.) (In Czech)

  12. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  13. Revegetation at Two Construction Sites in New Hampshire and Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    nutrients , or maize seedlings was adversely affected when maintaining soil moisture. The cost effectiveness soils contained a high concentration of gravels...New Hampshire, and Fairbanks, Alaska. During three growing seasons, we studied the applicability and I. cost effectiveness of various nutrient sources...and mulch materials. The nutrient sources included sewage sludge (at 40, 60 and S0 tons/acre) and commercial fertilizer (at 200, 400 and 600 lb/acre

  14. Rhizobial characterization in revegetated areas after bauxite mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Wardsson Lustrino; Prin, Yves; Ducousso, Marc; Le Roux, Christine; de Faria, Sergio Miana

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding how the increased diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria contributes to the productivity and diversity of plants in complex communities. However, some authors have shown that the presence of a diverse group of nodulating bacteria is required for different plant species to coexist. A better understanding of the plant symbiotic organism diversity role in natural ecosystems can be extremely useful to define recovery strategies of environments that were degraded by human activities. This study used ARDRA, BOX-PCR fingerprinting and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene to assess the diversity of root nodule nitrogen-fixing bacteria in former bauxite mining areas that were replanted in 1981, 1985, 1993, 1998, 2004 and 2006 and in a native forest. Among the 12 isolates for which the 16S rDNA gene was partially sequenced, eight, three and one isolate(s) presented similarity with sequences of the genera Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium and Mesorhizobium, respectively. The richness, Shannon and evenness indices were the highest in the area that was replanted the earliest (1981) and the lowest in the area that was replanted most recently (2006).

  15. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  16. Rhizobial characterization in revegetated areas after bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardsson Lustrino Borges

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known regarding how the increased diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria contributes to the productivity and diversity of plants in complex communities. However, some authors have shown that the presence of a diverse group of nodulating bacteria is required for different plant species to coexist. A better understanding of the plant symbiotic organism diversity role in natural ecosystems can be extremely useful to define recovery strategies of environments that were degraded by human activities. This study used ARDRA, BOX-PCR fingerprinting and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene to assess the diversity of root nodule nitrogen-fixing bacteria in former bauxite mining areas that were replanted in 1981, 1985, 1993, 1998, 2004 and 2006 and in a native forest. Among the 12 isolates for which the 16S rDNA gene was partially sequenced, eight, three and one isolate(s presented similarity with sequences of the genera Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium and Mesorhizobium, respectively. The richness, Shannon and evenness indices were the highest in the area that was replanted the earliest (1981 and the lowest in the area that was replanted most recently (2006.

  17. Water quality of runoff from revegetated mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouart, J.E.; Knight, R.W.

    1985-03-01

    Permanent vegetation plots were established on mixed overburden and topsoiled overburden on a lignite test pit in eastern Texas in 1982. Vegetative treatments included two grass-legume treatments (switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) - sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) - subterranean clover (Trifolium subterranean) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) - sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) - Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoiensis)) and three monocultures (Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) and yellow Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans)). Water was applied to the 0.5 m/sup 2/ plots using a sprinkler-type rainfall simulator and quality of runoff was determined for each plot. Parameters analyzed included: settleable solids, total filterable solids, sediment production, infiltration rate, nitrites, nitrates, total iron and total manganese. Topsoiling significantly increased infiltration and significantly decreased filterable sediments, sediment production and settleable solids. The hydrologic qualities of the switchgrass-sideoats grama-subterranean clover mixture coincided closely with those of the Coastal bermudagrass monoculture. 11 references.

  18. Revegetation Strategies for Kaho’olawe Island, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Prosopis pallida Vachta for their assistance in developing and conducting this project. Funding was (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth] and a variety of...plastic fence by the metal fence posts. Sandwiching the fence Snbetween 2 lengths of wood lath prior to attaching it to the posts significantly reduced...provided protection from soil erosion. The less successful species occurred only occasionally on the Unusually heavy precipitation during the 2nd year

  19. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Reservoir Shoreline Revegetation Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    support high populations of potentially destructive animals, e.g., beavers, muskrats, and cattle. Sites with adverse characteristics such as steep or...North Modesto , CA 95352 Saint Helena, CA 94374 Ferry Morse Seed Company Northrup-King and Company 2120 Via Burton Box 1383 Anaheim, CA 92806 Fresno, CA

  20. Biodigester User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandararot, K.; Dannet, L.

    2007-06-15

    In May 2005, SNV and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) agreed to a joint development of a National Biodigester Programme (NBP) in Cambodia as a way to create an indigenous, sustainable energy source in the country and to utilize the potential of biogas in the country. The overall objective of the first phase of the National Biodigester Programme is 'The dissemination of domestic biodigesters as an indigenous, sustainable energy source through the development of a commercial, market oriented, biodigester sector in selected provinces of Cambodia'. The program aims to support the construction of 17,500 biodigesters in at least 6 provinces over the period of 2006 to 2009. To gain insights and feedbacks on the impacts of their activities to date, NBP commissioned the Cambodia Institute of Development Study (CIDS) to carry out a Biodigester User Survey in January 2007. The purpose of the survey is to evaluate the effects of domestic biodigester installations, as supported by the program, on 100 households in 3 provinces in Cambodia- Kampong Cham, Kandal and Svay Rieng.

  1. BLAST: the Redshift Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Eales, Stephen; Devlin, Mark J; Dye, Simon; Halpern, Mark; Hughes, David H; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Raymond, Gwenifer; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Siana, Brian; Truch, Matthew D P; Viero, Marco P

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed ~=8.7 deg^2 centered on GOODS-South at 250, 350 and 500 microns. In Dye et al. (2009) we presented the catalogue of sources detected at $\\rm 5\\sigma$ in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 83 of these counterparts. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST band...

  2. Atributos físicos do solo em área de mineração de carvão influenciados pela correção da acidez, adubação orgânica e revegetação Changes in soil physical properties of a coal mining site influenced by liming, poultry manure and revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lunardi Neto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Solos reconstruídos após mineração de carvão têm suas propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas alteradas. Nesse sentido, este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar efeitos da aplicação de corretivos, da adubação e da revegetação nas propriedades físicas de um solo reconstruído após mineração a céu aberto. O experimento foi conduzido na Mina do Apertado, em Lauro Müller, SC, entre 2001 e 2005, sobre um solo minerado em 1991 e reconstruído em 1995. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram: (1 testemunha; (2 "dregs" (resíduo alcalino; (3 calcário; (4 calcário + Brachiaria brizantha; (5 calcário + Brachiaria brizantha + cama de aviário. Em todos os tratamentos, foram transplantadas mudas de Pinus taeda e de Eucalyptus saligna em subparcelas. O calcário dolomítico e o "dregs" foram incorporados a 10 cm de profundidade. Toda a área recebeu adubação nitrogenada, potássica e fosfatada conforme recomendação técnica. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em fevereiro de 2005, nas camadas de 0 a 5 e 5 a 10 cm, avaliando-se os seus atributos físicos. Os tratamentos não alteraram a densidade de partículas, densidade do solo, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade do solo. O calcário elevou o pH, dispersou a argila e reduziu a estabilidade de agregados, enquanto o "dregs" aumentou o pH sem dispersar a argila. A adubação orgânica e o uso de Brachiaria brizantha aumentaram a estabilidade dos agregados e a água prontamente disponível, favorecendo a recuperação da qualidade física do solo degradado.The physical, chemical and biological properties of soils of reconstructed areas after coal mining are altered. This study aimed to evaluate liming, mineral and organic fertilizers and revegetation effects on the physical properties of a reconstructed soil after open-pit mining. The experiment was carried out in a former mine in Lauro M

  3. Effect of Slope Degree and Slope Position on Soil Nutrient Variability in the Early Succession of Rocky Slope Revegetation%坡度和坡位对岩质边坡早期生态恢复土壤养分变异性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘树林; 周顺涛; 辜彬

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis on 16 rocky slopes of Zhejiang Province which had already been ecological restored for one year,in the early vegetation recovery stage when there was no interactive development between vegetation and environment on the slope,the influence of slope angle and slope position on soil nutrient variability were as follow:(1) in some rocky slopes with slope degree of 45°-52°,available P content showed consistent trends: the lower slope position〉the middle slope position〉the upper slope position,and the total N,total P,total K contents of other rocky slopes varied significantly: the middle slope position〉the lower slope position〉the upper slope position;(2) in different slope positions with similar slope degree,the total N,total K contents and organic matter had no significant differences,but soil available nutrients had showed more remarkable differences in the multiple comparisons of soil nutrients;(3) in different slope angles with the same slope position,significant differences were only found in two groups in the multiple comparisons of soil nutrients,and there was no large—scale variability of soil nutrients.In other words,in the early succession stage of rocky slope revegetation,soil nutrients wouldn′t be significantly influence by slope angle ranging from 30° to 52°.%通过对浙江省经过1a生态恢复的16个岩质边坡,在坡面没有植被和坡面环境形成交互发展的植被早期恢复进行研究,结果表明:(1)除45°~52°类型的边坡土壤有效磷含量为坡下〉坡中〉坡上外,其它3个坡度类型中全氮、全磷、全钾都呈现出较明显的坡中〉坡下〉坡上的分布规律。(2)在相似坡度及不同坡位条件下,全氮、全钾、有机质都没有表现出显著性差异。土壤养分多重比较出现较多差异的是有效态养分。(3)在相同坡位不同坡度条件下,对岩质边坡早期生态恢复的土壤养分进行多

  4. Caracterização de rejeito de mineração de ouro para avaliação de solubilização de metais pesados e arsênio e revegetação local Characterization of gold mine tailing to evaluate the arsenic and heavy metal solubility and local revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Silva

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Depósitos de rejeitos e pilhas de estéril, decorrentes de atividades de mineração, podem ser fontes de contaminação ambiental, por causa da presença de metais pesados e arsênio, principalmente quando esses materiais contêm minerais sulfetados e teores elevados de metais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o rejeito proveniente do beneficiamento de minério de ouro de uma mineração no estado de Minas Gerais, para avaliação de problemas de drenagem ácida e solubilização de metais e para planejamento da revegetação do local. Amostras de rejeito foram coletadas na camada superficial (0-20 cm, sendo submetidas a análises químicas de rotina da fertilidade do solo e a uma caracterização química específica de Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Cr, As e S extraídos em Água Régia, Mehlich-1, EDTA e água deionizada. Foram determinados o potencial de acidez (PA, o potencial de neutralização (PN e equilíbrio ácido-base (EAB; além da realização de análise granulométrica e difração de raios-X. As amostras analisadas apresentaram baixos teores de matéria orgânica, P e K, alta acidez e salinidade, além de alto teor de As, o que indica sérias restrições ao estabelecimento de espécies vegetais. O rejeito apresentou potencial de geração de acidez e solubilização de elementos como As, Fe e S, o que pode acarretar problemas ambientais, como a drenagem ácida e a contaminação de solos e cursos d'água, bem como a incorporação desses elementos na cadeia trófica.Dumps of waste and sterile matter from mine activities are potential sources of environmental contamination with their contents of heavy metals and arsenic, especially when these materials contain sulfide minerals and high metal levels. The objective of this study was the characterization of refuse from a gold mine area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to evaluate acid drainage and metal solubilization problems, and local revegetation planning

  5. EAST OJAI SURVEY, VENTURA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Field Survey for East Ojai FIS mostly consists of hydraulic structures survey as well as geological and geomorphologic surveys. No topographic surveys are rendered...

  6. Burrell-Optical-Kepler Survey (BOKS) I: Survey Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, John J.; Howell, S.; Harding, P.; Mihos, C.; Rudick, C.; Sherry, W.; Lee, T.; Knox, C.; Ciardi, D.; von Braun, K.; Everett, M.; Proctor, M.; van Belle, G.

    2006-12-01

    The Burrell Optical Kepler Survey (BOKS) is a ground-based, high cadence, stellar variability survey over a portion of the planned science field for the Kepler mission. The survey was carried out at the 0.6m Burrell Schmidt telescope, with an observed field size of 1.36 square degrees. Over 60,000 stars were observed within the BOKS field in the SDSS r-band spanning a time period of 39 days, with a 4.5 minute cadence. We give a basic description of the survey, and calculate the observability function for stellar variablity of different types.

  7. CERN Mobility Survey

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Shipping and Transport of the University of the Aegean and the National Technical University of Athens are partners with CERN in a study of mobility patterns between and within the CERN sites and to that effect have realized a mobility survey dedicated to the CERN community.         The study aims to understand: How you presently get around the CERN sites; What problems you encounter regarding mobility; What your needs are; What improvements you’d like to see; What measures you would like to see implemented most. The replies we receive will enable us to define a general policy promoting the diversity of mobility at CERN and to establish and quantify the strategic actions to be implemented for both the short and medium term. The objectives of the transport mobility plans are to: Facilitate mobility within and between the CERN sites by identifying adequate solutions in response to individual ...

  8. Vegetation survey of Sengwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Craig

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach and initial results of a vegetation survey of the Sengwa Wildlife Area are outlined. The objectives were to produce a vegetation classification and map sufficiently detailed to serve as a base for the management of the natural vegetation. The methods adopted consist of (a stratification of the area into homogeneous units using 1:10 000 colour aerial photographs; (b plotless random sampling of each stratum by recording cover abundance on the Braun-Blaunquet scale for all woody species; and (c analysis of the data by indicator species analysis using the computer programme 'Twinspan’. The classification produced is successful in achieving recognizable vegetation types which tie in well with known environmental features.

  9. National narcolepsy survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doherty, L.

    2010-04-01

    Narcolepsy is characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and has a prevalence of 25 per 100,000. We suspect this is higher than presently seen in the Republic of Ireland. We aimed to calculate the Irish prevalence of Narcolepsy and to examine current management practices. We conducted an online survey of respiratory physicians, neurologists, paediatric neurologists, and psychiatrists with an interest in sleep disorders (73% response rate). Of this group, a total of 16 physicians managed 180 patients prior to January 2009. A clinical diagnosis alone was reached in 67 (41%) patients, the remainder by polysomnography or multiple sleep latency testing. No patients were diagnosed by cerebro-spinal fluid analysis of hypocretin levels. While 70 (42%) patients received modafanil, only 7 (4%) were treated with sodium oxybate. Even allowing for missing data it is apparent that Narcolepsy is hugely under-diagnosed in Ireland, however, current practises adhere with new international guidelines.

  10. X-Ray Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, P; Perri, M

    1998-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the field of X-ray surveys, especially in the hard (2-10 and 5-10 keV) bands, is given. A new detailed comparison between the measurements in the hard band and extrapolations from ROSAT counts, that takes into proper account the observed distribution of spectral slopes, is presented. Direct comparisons between deep ROSAT and BeppoSAX images show that most hard X-ray sources are also detected at soft X-ray energies. This may indicate that heavily cutoff sources, that should not be detectable in the ROSAT band but are expected in large numbers from unified AGN schemes, are in fact detected because of the emerging of either non-nuclear components, or of reflected, or partially transmitted nuclear X-rays. These soft components may complicate the estimation of the soft X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of AGN.

  11. The Cesarean Decision Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puia, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive study design was used to describe the decision of women having a cesarean surgery. The Cesarean Birth Decision Survey was used to collect data from 101 postpartum women who underwent a cesarean. Most of the surgeries were to primipara women who reported doctor recommendation and increased safety for the baby as the main reasons for the cesarean. Those women who had repeat cesarean surgery all cited their previous cesarean as the main reason for the current surgery. Women’s knowledge of cesarean surgery needs to be assessed early in pregnancy so that appropriate education may be provided. Accurate and ongoing information may decrease the number of women choosing a cesarean surgery. PMID:24868134

  12. Generic Airspace Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  13. PEP surveying procedures and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linker, F.

    1982-06-01

    The PEP Survey and Alignment System, which employs both laser-based and optical survey methods, is described. The laser is operated in conjunction with the Tektronix 4051 computer and surveying instruments such as ARM and SAM, system which is designed to automate data input, reduction, and production of alignment instructions. The laser system is used when surveying ring quadrupoles, main bend magnets, sextupoles, and is optional when surveying RF cavities and insertion quadrupoles. Optical methods usually require that data be manually entered into the computer for alignment, but in some cases, an element can be aligned using nominal values of fiducial locations without use of the computer. Optical surveying is used in the alignment of NIT and SIT, low field bend magnets, wigglers, RF cavities, and insertion quadrupoles.

  14. The GALAH Survey: Scientific Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    De Silva, G. M.; Freeman, K. C.; J. Bland-Hawthorn; Martell, S.; de Boer, E. Wylie; Asplund, M.; Keller, S.; Sharma, S.; Zucker, D B; Zwitter, T.; Anguiano, B.; Bacigalupo, C.; Bayliss, D.; Beavis, M. A.; Bergemann, M.

    2015-01-01

    The GALAH survey is a large high-resolution spectroscopic survey using the newly commissioned HERMES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The HERMES spectrograph provides high-resolution (R ~28,000) spectra in four passbands for 392 stars simultaneously over a 2 degree field of view. The goal of the survey is to unravel the formation and evolutionary history of the Milky Way, using fossil remnants of ancient star formation events which have been disrupted and are now dispersed thro...

  15. 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...

  16. A geological survey in transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterM.Allen; BernardELeake

    2004-01-01

    This is an account of the changes in funding, administration, and management of the British Geological Survey (BGS), the oldest government-funded geological survey in the world, from the early 1980s to 2000. It will interest students of public administration, historians of science and geological surveys, and those who have followed the convoluted recent history of BGS. Peter Allen has rendered a most valuable service in documenting and describing as an insider (he only recently retired from a position as Assistant Director) the struggles to maintain the Survey and its prime role of discovering,

  17. 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...

  18. Surveying free and low-cost survey software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; McClellan, Leah; Zambrana, Ruth E

    2006-06-01

    Surveys are widely used to gather health information from a sample of individuals. This brief report reviews 14 free and low-cost software packages (free or low-cost software options appropriate for questionnaire development are readily available. Questionnaire mode and complexity, data management and analytical needs, and computing environment are all important considerations in selecting survey software.

  19. ASHA Survey of Health Curriculum Needs: Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Livingston S.; Thier, Herbert D.

    The results of a survey conducted by the Ad hoc Committee to Study the Needs and Problems of the Classroom Teacher in Curriculum Development are reported. Questionnaires were sent to members of the American School Health Association (ASHA). The survey was composed of four sections: (1) background information on demographic data, institutional…

  20. Bulletin Survey: Technical clarifications

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the latest of our articles on the results of the Bulletin survey, we respond to some of your technical comments on the Electronic Bulletin. Many thanks to the more than 500 of you who completed the questionnaire. The full statistics will be published next week. 'It takes too long to download the pages' Yes, it's true that the Electronic Bulletin's download time isn't perfect but it will improve when the Bulletin migrates to another, faster database. 'I find it very difficult to locate all the articles' Some people experience difficulty negotiating their way through the Bulletin once they have entered a specific section. The blue column on the left contains an 'In this issue' link taking you to the other sections. What's more, the whole of the paper Bulletin is available in the electronic version. As the latter is relatively new, however, it will take a bit of time to get used to browsing through it. Many of you say that it's still too early to form an opinion. 'Pull-down menus would be good, so that yo...

  1. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  2. Bulletin Survey - Early Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    There was a good response to our questionnaire on the Bulletin (around 450 so far). Many thanks to all of you - your views are invaluable to us. Pending publication of the full figures, which will give latecomers time to take part in the survey, here we give here answers some of your most frequent comments. Thank you for the many warm tributes and messages of encouragement we received. We also received criticisms about the way information is handled in the Bulletin and on its circulation. In today's issue we reply to these two points. Why is the Bulletin politically correct ? Many respondents reproach the Bulletin for a lack of objectivity and for being too politically correct to the point of being a propaganda organ. It is true that the Bulletin is not a newspaper, but rather a bulletin of communication (like SLAC's Beam Line). What is the difference ? A newspaper is objectively independent of the subjects it reports on, and when its reporters write stories they dig around for information from all parties...

  3. School nutrition survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, M

    1993-05-01

    Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p < 0.01). Food eaten at school reflects approximately one third of a child\\'s daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.

  4. Survey of mammography practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, L.W.; Diamond, J.J.; Gold, R.H.; McLelland, R.

    1987-12-01

    Of the 319 radiologists who responded to a survey concerning mammography practices, 50% were employed in a private hospital and 26% in a private office. Film-screen mammography was used most often (54%) followed by xeromammography (30%) and a combination of film-screen and xeromammography (16%). Of the respondents, 62% had changed their method of performing mammography in the last 10 years. Of these, 50% had switched from xeromammography to film-screen, 23% from direct film to film-screen, 15% from direct film to xeromammography, and 6% from film-screen to xeromammography. Mammographic equipment had been purchased by 71% of respondents after 1983. Most respondents (71%) monitored mammography equipment doses, usually at 6- to 12-month intervals. Manual breast examinations were done at the time of mammography at 42% of the facilities, and breast self-examination was taught at 32%. For screening, 87.4% used a two-view examination, 92% required the name of a referring physician to whom the report could be sent, 28% accepted self-referred patients, and only 12% charged a reduced fee for screening. Breast sonography was performed by 53% (93% hand-held vs 7% automated), but none used sonography for screening. Only one respondent reported using thermography; three used light scanning. A need for postgraduate mammography courses for radiologists was indicated by 81%, while 69% recommended technologist courses and 64% recommended 1-week fellowships for radiologists.

  5. Nowitna River goose survey, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial goose survey of the upper Nowitna River and a river-floating goose brood survey of the upper Nowitna River were conducted May 27th through July 5th of...

  6. Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puymirat, Etienne; Battler, Alex; Birkhead, John

    2013-01-01

    Detailed data on patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on a European-wide basis are lacking. The Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot was designed to assess characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes of AMI patients throughout European Society of Cardiology (ESC) member...... countries in a contemporary 'real-world' setting, using a methodology designed to improve the representativeness of the survey....

  7. Market Survey for Business Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kocsis, Mate

    2016-01-01

    In order to find new customers abroad the company should analyze the market situation precisely in the desired market. This is necessary with a well-made market research, based on several survey methods. The answers collected by the survey should be analyzed and taken into consideration about the product and about the way of entry.

  8. Treating Globalization in History Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Peter N.

    2003-01-01

    Globalization provides history teachers with an opportunity to link past to present in new ways and to test historical thinking. This is particularly true in world history surveys, but has relevance to Western civilization or United States history surveys as well. For globalization in turn, the historical perspective offers opportunities for more…

  9. Rate Gyroscopic Wellbore Survey System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Limin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The rate gyroscopic wellbore survey system as a new type of survey instruments adopts the inertial-grade rate gyro and quartz flexible accelerometers to compose a gyrocompassing system, transiting data to surface instrument by single core cable. The azimuth, inclination and tool-face angle can be computed from these data by surface computer.

  10. The Hubble Sphere Hydrogen Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, J B; Pen, U L; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Bandura, Kevin; Pen, Ue Li

    2006-01-01

    An all sky redshift survey, using hydrogen 21 cm emission to locate galaxies, can be used to track the wavelength of baryon acoustic oscillations imprints from z ~ 1.5 to z = 0. This will allow precise determination of the evolution of dark energy. A telescope made of fixed parabolic cylindrical reflectors offers substantial benefit for such a redshift survey. Fixed cylinders can be built for low cost, and long cylinders also allow low cost fast fourier transform techniques to be used to define thousands of simultaneous beams. A survey made with fixed reflectors naturally covers all of the sky available from it's site with good uniformity, minimizing sample variance in the measurement of the acoustic peak wavelength. Such a survey will produce about a billion redshifts, nearly a thousand times the number available today. The survey will provide a three dimensional mapping of a substantial fraction of the Hubble Sphere.

  11. Estimates from two survey designs: national hospital discharge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, B J; Kozak, L J

    1992-05-01

    The methodology for the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) has been revised in several ways. These revisions, which were implemented for the 1988 NHDS, included adoption of a different hospital sampling frame, changes in the sampling design (in particular the implementation of a three-stage design), increased use of data purchased from abstracting service organizations, and adjustments to the estimation procedures used to derive the national estimates. To investigate the effects of these revisions on the estimates of hospital use from the NHDS, data were collected from January through March of 1988 using both the old and the new survey methods. This study compared estimates based on the old and the new survey methods for a variety of hospital and patient characteristics. Although few estimates were identical across survey methodologies, most of the variations could be attributed to sampling error. Estimates from two different samples of the same population would be expected to vary by chance even if precisely the same methods were used to collect and process the data. Because probability samples were used for the old and new survey methodologies, sampling error could be measured. Approximate relative standard errors were calculated for the estimates using the old and new survey methods. Taking these errors into account, less than 10 percent of the estimates were found to differ across survey methodologies at the 0.05 level of significance. Because a large number of comparisons were made, 5 percent of the estimates could have been found to be significantly different by chance alone. When there were statistically significant differences in nonmedical data, the new methods appeared to produce more accurate estimates than the old methods did. Race was more likely to be reported using the new methods. "New" estimates for hospitals in the West Region and government-owned hospitals were more similar than the corresponding "old" estimates to data from the census of

  12. The Rocky Planet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Debra

    In direct support of the NASA Origins program, we propose the Rocky Planet Survey, a high cadence exoplanet search of sixty late G and K dwarf stars using the CHIRON spectrometer, which we built and commissioned at CTIO. CHIRON operates in two high- resolution modes (R=90,000 and R=120,000) and has a demonstrated precision of better than 1 m s-1. We are contributing 200 nights of telescope time for the next three years, for the excellent phase coverage needed to carry out this work. We have developed simulation software to optimize scheduling of observations to suppress aliases and quickly extract dynamical signals. Our science objectives are to (1) provide a statistical assessment of planet occurrence as a function of decreasing mass in the range of parameter space 3 objectives, we intend to push the frontiers of extreme precision Doppler measurements to keep the U.S. competitive with the next generation of European Doppler spectroscopy (ESPRESSO on the VLT). Our team has significant expertise in optical design, fiber coupling, raw extraction, barycentric velocity corrections, and Doppler analysis. The proposed work includes a new optimal extraction algorithm, with the optical designers and software engineers working together on the 2-D PSF description needed for a proper row-by-row extraction and calibration. We will also develop and test upgrades to the barycentric correction code and improvements in the Doppler code that take advantage of stability in the dispersion solution, afforded by a new vacuum-enclosed grating upgrade (scheduled for November 2011). We will test use of emission wavelength calibrations to extend the iodine (absorption) wavelength calibration that we currently use to prepare for eventual use of stabilized etalons or laser frequency combs. Radial velocity measurements play a fundamental role, both in the detection of exoplanets and in support of NASA missions. This program will train postdoctoral fellows, grad students and undergrads, while

  13. Innovations in national nutrition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Alison M; Mak, Tsz Ning; Fitt, Emily; Nicholson, Sonja; Roberts, Caireen; Sommerville, Jill

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe innovations taking place in national nutrition surveys in the UK and the challenges of undertaking innovations in such settings. National nutrition surveys must be representative of the overall population in characteristics such as socio-economic circumstances, age, sex and region. High response rates are critical. Dietary assessment innovations must therefore be suitable for all types of individuals, from the very young to the very old, for variable literacy and/or technical skills, different ethnic backgrounds and life circumstances, such as multiple carers and frequent travel. At the same time, national surveys need details on foods consumed. Current advances in dietary assessment use either technological innovations or simplified methods; neither lend themselves to national surveys. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme, and the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children (DNSIYC), currently use the 4-d estimated diary, a compromise for detail and respondent burden. Collection of food packaging enables identification of specific products. Providing space for location of eating, others eating, the television being on and eating at a table, adds to eating context information. Disaggregation of mixed dishes enables determination of true intakes of meat and fruit and vegetables. Measurement of nutritional status requires blood sampling and processing in DNSIYC clinics throughout the country and mobile units were used to optimise response. Hence, innovations in national surveys can and are being made but must take into account the paramount concerns of detail and response rate.

  14. 42 CFR 488.310 - Extended survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extended survey. 488.310 Section 488.310 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.310 Extended survey. (a) Purpose of survey. The purpose of an...

  15. 42 CFR 488.7 - Validation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Validation survey. 488.7 Section 488.7 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.7 Validation survey. (a) Basis for survey. CMS may require a survey of an accredited provider or supplier...

  16. The Aalborg Survey / Part 1 - Web Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 1 Web Base Survey The 1st part of the research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS) has been carried out during the period from December 1st 2007 to February 1st 2008 as a Web Based Survey of the 27.040 gross...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary...

  17. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Jordan, C.; Dickey, John M.; Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Balser, Dana S.; Bania, T. M.; Dawson, J. R.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2017-07-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  18. Survey report: moose surveys in lower Chignik Unit, May 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Subsistence Board requested that moose surveys be flown in the area of the lower Chignik Unit proposed for closure to non-qualified moose hunters by the...

  19. Initial Survey Instructions for mid-winter waterfowl survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey (MWS) is conducted annually in early January as part of the nationwide wintering waterfowl monitoring effort led by U.S. Fish &...

  20. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Shorebird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the shorebird survey is to assess, to the extent possible within the period of time available ashore, the presence/absence, number, and distribution...

  1. VISION - Vienna survey in orion : I. VISTA orion A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Meingast, S.; Alves,J.; Mardones, D.; Teixeira, P. S.; Lombardi, M.; Großschedl, J.; Ascenso, J.; Bouy, H.; Forbrich, J.; Goodman, A; Hacar, A.; Hasenberger, B.; Kainulainen, J.; Kubiak, K.; Lada, C.

    2016-01-01

    Orion A hosts the nearest massive star factory, thus offering a unique opportunity to resolve the processes connected with the formation of both low- and high-mass stars. Here we present the most detailed and sensitive near-infrared (NIR) observations of the entire molecular cloud to date. With the unique combination of high image quality, survey coverage, and sensitivity, our NIR survey of Orion A aims at establishing a solid empirical foundation for further studies of this important cloud. ...

  2. Potential Theory Surveys and Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    The volume comprises eleven survey papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference in Prague in July 1987, which covered various facets of potential theory, including its applications in other areas. The survey papers deal with both classical and abstract potential theory and its relations to partial differential equations, stochastic processes and other branches such as numerical analysis and topology. A collection of problems from potential theory, compiled on the occasion of the conference, is included, with additional commentaries, in the second part of this volume.

  3. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D. [Geophex, Ltd., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  4. A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharif

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures, Hidden Markov Model (HMM, geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and processes are also discussed along with the solutions provided by different authors.

  5. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Nightjar Survey Network Survey Field Procedures and Completed Data Sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Raw data and survey instructions from the Nightjar Survey Network's nighjar survey on Okefenokee NWR. Nightjar Surveys are standardized population counts conducted...

  6. Pharmacy school survey standards revisited

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mészáros, Károly; Barnett, Mitchell J; Lenth, Russell V; Knapp, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    ..., and these criteria are reflected in the Author Instructions provided on the Journal's Web site. This paper discusses the relevance of these criteria for publication of survey research regarding pharmacy colleges and schools...

  7. Nowitna NWR moose survey, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1988 Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge moose survey was conducted over a 147.8 square mile portion of the Lower Nowitna Trend Area. A total of 409 moose was...

  8. 2010 Fresno Reservoir Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Fresno Reservoir in June of 2010 to develop a topographic map and compute a storage-elevation relationship...

  9. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration of the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries and the fishing industry, with support...

  10. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  11. Steller's Eider spring migration surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual spring aerial surveys were conducted most years from 1992 to 2008, to monitor the population status and habitat use of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri)...

  12. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  13. A Survey Course in Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaates, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a 10-week survey course in catalysis for chemical engineering and chemistry students designed to show how modern chemistry and chemical engineering interact in the ongoing development of industrial catalysts. Includes course outline and instructional strategies. (Author/JN)

  14. Nowitna NWR goose surveys, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Both aerial and river float goose surveys were conducted on the Nowitna NWR in 1988 to document migration chronology and peak numbers and to index production....

  15. Biannual Fish Survey, Spring 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biannual fish survey was initiated in 1989 to monitor population trends of federally endangered fish species at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Item 421 of...

  16. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  17. Folsom Lake 2005 Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Folsom Lake in the fall of 2005 via an interagency agreement with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps of...

  18. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  19. Calculating transient rates from surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Dario; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Rowlinson, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method to determine the transient surface density and transient rate for any given survey, using Monte-Carlo simulations. This method allows us to determine the transient rate as a function of both the flux and the duration of the transients in the whole flux-duration plane rather than one or a few points as currently available methods do. It is applicable to every survey strategy that is monitoring the same part of the sky, regardless the instrument or wavelength of the survey, or the target sources. We have simulated both top-hat and Fast Rise Exponential Decay light curves, highlighting how the shape of the light curve might affect the detectability of transients. Another application for this method is to estimate the number of transients of a given kind that are expected to be detected by a survey, provided that their rate is known.

  20. National Survey of Family Growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) gathers information on family life, marriage and divorce, pregnancy, infertility, use of contraception, and men's and...

  1. Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey, conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, became operational in 1955 in the Canadian prairies (strata 26-40). In...

  2. Merit Principles Survey 2016 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Merit Systems Protection Board — MPS contains a combination of core items that MSPB tracks over time and special-purpose items developed to support a particular special study. This survey differs...

  3. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  4. Alaska Harbor Seal Glacial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Floating glacial ice serves as a haul-out substrate for a significant number (10-15%) of Alaskan harbor seals, and thus surveying tidewater glacial fjords is an...

  5. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  6. U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Officials Congressional Budget Opportunities Doing Business Emergency Management U.S. Geological Survey Magnitude 7.8 Earthquake in New ... notifications, and learn about hazards and history of U.S. volcanoes. View Alerts Landslides Landslides Learn about landslides ...

  7. Glendo Reservoir 2003 Sedimenation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Glendo Reservoir in May and July of 2003 and January 2005 to develop a new topographic map and compute a present...

  8. Calculating transient rates from surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Rowlinson, A.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a method to determine the transient surface density and transient rate for any given survey, using Monte Carlo simulations. This method allows us to determine the transient rate as a function of both the flux and the duration of the transients in the whole flux-duration plane rather than one or a few points as currently available methods do. It is applicable to every survey strategy that is monitoring the same part of the sky, regardless the instrument or wavelength of the survey, or the target sources. We have simulated both top-hat and Fast Rise Exponential Decay light curves, highlighting how the shape of the light curve might affect the detectability of transients. Another application for this method is to estimate the number of transients of a given kind that are expected to be detected by a survey, provided that their rate is known.

  9. ASHA Completes National Schools Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Johnson, Cassandra

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of speech-language pathologists working in school-based settings examined such topic areas as caseload characteristics, service delivery models, bilingual/bicultural services, support personnel, shortages of speech-language pathologists, and demographic information. (DB)

  10. 1986 Dulbi Slough goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) was conducted on 69.0 miles of Dulbi Slough in Alaska. Seven hundred and...

  11. Process for Reviewing Survey Protocols

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the process for conducting two types of reviews of survey protocols. A quick assessment is used to acknowledge and describe to potential...

  12. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  13. Crestridge Plant Surveys [ds210

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Sensitive plant surveys were conducted in 2000 for development of a Habitat Management and Monitoring Plan by Patricia Gordon-Reedy of the Conservation Biology...

  14. ShoreZone Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a point file showing GPS trackline data collected during a ShoreZone aerial imaging survey. This flight trackline is recorded at 1-second intervals...

  15. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Yellowtail

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Southern New England Yellowtail Flounder Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration between the Rhode Island Division of Fish and Wildlife and the fishing...

  16. FY 2009 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2009 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  17. FY 2011 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2011 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  18. FY 2010 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2010 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  19. FY 2008 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2008 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  20. Patient survey (ICH-CAHPS) - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State averages for ICH-CAHPS Survey measures. The ICH-CAHPS Survey is a national, standardized survey of in-center hemodialysis patients about their experiences with...