WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveyed important environments

  1. Open-source tool for automatic import of coded surveying data to multiple vector layers in GIS environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Stopková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a tool that enables import of the coded data in a singletext file to more than one vector layers (including attribute tables, together withautomatic drawing of line and polygon objects and with optional conversion toCAD. Python script v.in.survey is available as an add-on for open-source softwareGRASS GIS (GRASS Development Team. The paper describes a case study basedon surveying at the archaeological mission at Tell-el Retaba (Egypt. Advantagesof the tool (e.g. significant optimization of surveying work and its limits (demandson keeping conventions for the points’ names coding are discussed here as well.Possibilities of future development are suggested (e.g. generalization of points’names coding or more complex attribute table creation.

  2. Quality of Life (QoL) Survey in Hong Kong: Understanding the Importance of Housing Environment and Needs of Residents from Different Housing Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Zhonghua; Xie, Xiaohuan; Lu, Yi; Khoshbakht, Maryam

    2018-01-27

    This study presents a Quality of Life (QoL) survey to understand the influence of the housing environment and needs of residents from different housing sectors. The research focuses on Hong Kong where living conditions have become the main affect for people's QoL. Through a household survey using a standard instrument "Word Health Organisation (WHO) Quality of Life-BREF", the article found that among the four WHO QoL domains (Physical Health, Psychological Health, Social Relations And Environment), Environment, particularly its constitute aspect housing environment was the most influential factor for overall quality of life for the public rental housing sector where low-income people live. This research also found that different groups of people have differing needs of their housing environments: the low-income group needs better location and privacy while the medium and high-income groups need better architectural quality. Based on differentiating their needs and wants, this research argues for prioritizing the low-income group's needs for effectively improving their QoL.

  3. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  4. Importance of Soil Quality in Environment Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Márta Birkás; Tibor Kalmár; László Bottlik; Tamás Takács

    2007-01-01

    Soil quality can be characterised by the harmony between it’s physical and biological state and the fertility. From the practical crop production viewpoint, some important contrasting factors of soil quality are: (1) soil looseness – compaction; (2) aggregation – clod and dust formation; friable structure – smeared or cracked structure; (3) organic material: conservation – decrease; (4) soil moisture: conservation – loss; water transmission – water-logging; (5) at least soil condition as a re...

  5. Importance of radiometric survey in radiodiagnosis installationscalculated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyton, Fernando; Alarcon, Luis; Zapata, Victor H.; Ortega, Dulia; Ramirez, Alfredo; Aravena, Gonzalo; Ubeda, Carlos; Oyarzun, Carlos; Inzulza, Alonso

    2005-01-01

    A radiometric survey was conducted in two services of imaging with a total of 7 evaluated radiology rooms. The Quality Control Protocol methodology was used in Radiology ARCAL (Regional Agreement of cooperation for the promotion of nuclear science and technology in Latin America and the Caribbean) XLIX of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The effective dose in different positions of interest rates were calculated, from the point of view of radiation protection. All evaluated rooms have rates of effective doses that meet the values limits set in the Protocol ARCAL XLIX, for 82% of the positions evaluated. However operators located in the position A (controlled area) exceed on average 370% with a range of [1-870] the limit proposed by ARCAL XLIX

  6. Document: the radiological survey of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerno, Linden; Leprieur, F.; Janssens, A.

    2002-01-01

    The document presents the radiological survey of the environment in France today with a comparison of the situation in Switzerland, Germany and Belgium. The evolution of the policy in this activity is also concerned. The laboratories and their monitoring equipment, the regulation and the social impacts are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  7. The importance of nature to Canadians: survey highlights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuWors, E

    1999-01-01

    .... The 1996 Survey on the Importance of Nature to Canadians (the Nature Survey) also tells us that Canadians commit large amounts of their leisure time to activities that depend on natural areas and wildlife...

  8. Survey of Forensically Important Calliphoridae in Samsun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kökdener

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted from June 2009 to 2010 in north of Turkey, province Samsun. The objective was to determine forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera species and their seasonal distribution on dog carrcass during one year, this studies were carried out in a three different area of Samsun. Material and Methods: Three dogs carcass (Canis lupus familiaris L., weighing approximately 15-20 kg each, were used as models for studying decomposition and insect succession in each experiments. Ambient daily temperature (maximum and minimum, relative humidity (RH were recorded and existing keys were used for identification of different species. Results: Lucillia sericata (Meigen, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy species were encountered. It was shown that the seasonal distribution of the collected species was different from each other. Chrysomya albiceps was observed in summer, auntumn and spring. In the spring and winter, the dominant fly species were Calliphora vicina. The rate of carcass's decomposition was faster in summer and autumn as compared to spring and winter. Results indicated that ambient temperature is the chief factor determining the seasonal variations in decay rate. Conclusion: This report also identified some of the Calliphoridae that occur in north of Turkey. The importance of regional faunistic studies of the calliphoridous community, the results of which may be applied to forensic practice in the future. Keywords: Forensic entomology, insect succession, corpse, postmortem interval, decomposition.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Rewarding Environment Culture Study, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Janis C.; Paradise-Tornow, Carol A.; Gray, Vicki K.; Griffin-Bemis, Sarah P.; Agnew, Pamela R.; Bouchet, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    In its 2001 review of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Research Council (NRC, p. 126) cautioned that ?high-quality personnel are essential for developing high-quality science information? and urged the USGS to ?devote substantial efforts to recruiting and retaining excellent staff.? Recognizing the importance of the NRC recommendation, the USGS has committed time and resources to create a rewarding work environment with the goal of achieving the following valued outcomes: ? USGS science vitality ? Customer satisfaction with USGS products and services ? Employee perceptions of the USGS as a rewarding place to work ? Heightened employee morale and commitment ? The ability to recruit and retain employees with critical skills To determine whether this investment of time and resources was proving to be successful, the USGS Human Resources Office conducted a Rewarding Environment Culture Study to answer the following four questions. ? Question 1: Does a rewarding work environment lead to the valued outcomes (identified above) that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 2: Which management, supervisory, and leadership behaviors contribute most to creating a rewarding work environment and to achieving the valued outcomes that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 3: Do USGS employees perceive that the USGS is a rewarding place to work? ? Question 4: What actions can and should be taken to enhance the USGS work environment? To begin the study, a conceptual model of a rewarding USGS environment was developed to test assumptions about a rewarding work environment. The Rewarding Environment model identifies the key components that are thought to contribute to a rewarding work environment and the valued outcomes that are thought to result from having a rewarding work environment. The 2002 Organizational Assessment Survey (OAS) was used as the primary data source for the study because it provided the most readily available data. Additional survey data were included as they

  10. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world’s developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Methods We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. Results 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight

  11. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Li, Yan; Wang, May C

    2014-03-06

    Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world's developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight. The prevalence of

  12. The importance of the food and physical activity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in identifying characteristics of neighborhood environments (physical, social, economical) that might favor unhealthy dietary and physical activity patterns leading to excess weight at population level. Measurement of characteristics of the physical environment in relation to food and physical activity has greatly improved in recent years. Methods based on assessment of perceptions by residents of their neighborhood or on objective assessment of the actual built environment (such as provided by Geographic Information Systems tools) would benefit to be combined. A number of recent systematic reviews have updated our knowledge on relationships of food and physical activity environments with relevant behaviors and obesity. Available evidence appears to show more consistent evidence of association between built environment characteristics related to physical activity ('walkability' indices, land use mix, variety of transports. . .) with physical activity behavior than with weight status. In contrast, built environment characteristics related to food habits (accessibility to different types of food outlets, availability of healthy foods. . .) would be more consistently associated with weight status than with eating behavior. The need for data from different countries and cultures is emphasized, as much as the importance of transdisciplinary research efforts for translation of these findings into our living environment. Copyright © 2012 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The Development and Preliminary Validation of the Behavior, Environment, and Changeability Survey (BECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer R.; Hebert, Angel; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Carey, Gale; Colby, Sarah; Brown-Esters, Onikia N.; Greene, Geoffrey; Hoerr, Sharon; Horacek, Tanya; Kattelmann, Kendra; Kidd, Tandalayo; Koenings, Mallory; Phillips, Beatrice; Shelnutt, Karla P.; White, Adrienne A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test the validity of the Behavior, Environment, and Changeability Survey (BECS) for identifying the importance and changeability of nutrition, exercise, and stress management behavior and related aspects of the environment. Design: A cross-sectional, online survey of the BECS and selected validated instruments. Setting:…

  14. The importance of the supportive control environment for internal audit effectiveness – the case of Croatian companies

    OpenAIRE

    Barišić, Ivana; Tušek, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigates whether a supportive control environment is associated with the internal audit effectiveness and what characteristics of a control environment are important in this respect. A survey was conducted via a questionnaire on 54 mostly large companies in Croatia. Appropriate methods of statistical analysis were used in order to analyse the survey results. According to the research results, in the case of a supportive control environment there is a greater ch...

  15. French people and the environment. Final report, Environment Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, Daniel; Martin, Solange

    2014-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data tables and graphs representing the results of a survey performed on the perception French people have of renewable energies and air quality. As far as renewable energies are concerned, the survey questioned the reputation of renewable energies, the compared qualities of the different energies, the preferences for renewable energies, and the domestic use of renewable energies. As far as air quality is concerned, the addressed issues are air pollution at the national and local level, the inconvenience caused by air pollution, and the quality of indoor air

  16. Importing food damages domestic environment: Evidence from global soybean trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Mooney, Harold; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Tong, Yuxin; Xu, Zhenci; Huang, Baorong; Cheng, Yeqing; Yang, Xinjun; Wei, Dan; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-05-22

    Protecting the environment and enhancing food security are among the world's Sustainable Development Goals and greatest challenges. International food trade is an important mechanism to enhance food security worldwide. Nonetheless, it is widely concluded that in international food trade importing countries gain environmental benefits, while exporting countries suffer environmental problems by using land and other resources to produce food for exports. Our study shows that international food trade can also lead to environmental pollution in importing countries. At the global level, our metaanalysis indicates that there was increased nitrogen (N) pollution after much farmland for domestically cultivated N-fixing soybeans in importing countries was converted to grow high N-demanding crops (wheat, corn, rice, and vegetables). The findings were further verified by an intensive study at the regional level in China, the largest soybean-importing country, where the conversion of soybean lands to corn fields and rice paddies has also led to N pollution. Our study provides a sharp contrast to the conventional wisdom that only exports contribute substantially to environmental woes. Our results suggest the need to evaluate environmental consequences of international trade of all other major goods and products in all importing countries, which have significant implications for fundamental rethinking in global policy-making and debates on environmental responsibilities among consumers, producers, and traders across the world.

  17. Childhood temperament: passive gene-environment correlation, gene-environment interaction, and the hidden importance of the family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Kao, Karen; Swann, Gregory; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2013-02-01

    Biological parents pass on genotypes to their children, as well as provide home environments that correlate with their genotypes; thus, the association between the home environment and children's temperament can be genetically (i.e., passive gene-environment correlation) or environmentally mediated. Furthermore, family environments may suppress or facilitate the heritability of children's temperament (i.e., gene-environment interaction). The sample comprised 807 twin pairs (mean age = 7.93 years) from the longitudinal Wisconsin Twin Project. Important passive gene-environment correlations emerged, such that home environments were less chaotic for children with high effortful control, and this association was genetically mediated. Children with high extraversion/surgency experienced more chaotic home environments, and this correlation was also genetically mediated. In addition, heritability of children's temperament was moderated by home environments, such that effortful control and extraversion/surgency were more heritable in chaotic homes, and negative affectivity was more heritable under crowded or unsafe home conditions. Modeling multiple types of gene-environment interplay uncovered the complex role of genetic factors and the hidden importance of the family environment for children's temperament and development more generally.

  18. The perceived importance and the presence of creative potential in the health professional's work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukersmith, Sue; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The value of creative employees to an organisation's growth and innovative development, productivity, quality and sustainability is well established. This study examined the perceived relationship between creativity and work environment factors of 361 practicing health professionals, and whether these factors were present (realised) in their work environment. Job design (challenges, team work, task rotation, autonomy) and leadership (coaching supervisor, time for thinking, creative goals, recognition and incentives for creative ideas and results) were perceived as the most important factors for stimulating creativity. There was room for improvement of these in the work environment. Many aspects of the physical work environment were less important. Public health sector employers and organisations should adopt sustainable strategies which target the important work environment factors to support employee creativity and so enhance service quality, productivity, performance and growth. Implications of the results for ergonomists and workplace managers are discussed with a participatory ergonomics approach recommended. Creative employees are important to an organisation's innovation, productivity and sustainability. The survey identified health professionals perceive a need to improve job design and leadership factors at work to enhance and support employee creativity. There are implications for organisations and ergonomists to investigate the creative potential of work environments.

  19. Obesity and Lifespan Health—Importance of the Fetal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice F. Tarantal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in the frequency of obesity at the population level has resulted in an increasing number of obese women entering pregnancy. The increasing realization of the importance of the fetal environment in relation to chronic disease across the lifespan has focused attention on the role of maternal obesity in fetal development. Previous studies have demonstrated that obesity during adolescence and adulthood can be traced back to fetal and early childhood exposures. This review focuses on factors that contribute to early developmental events, such as epigenetic modifications, the potential for an increase in inflammatory burden, early developmental programming changes such as the variable development of white versus brown adipose tissue, and alterations in organ ontogeny. We hypothesize that these mechanisms promote an unfavorable fetal environment and can have a long-standing impact, with early manifestations of chronic disease that can result in an increased demand for future health care. In order to identify appropriate preventive measures, attention needs to be placed both on reducing maternal obesity as well as understanding the molecular, cellular, and epigenetic mechanisms that may be responsible for the prenatal onset of chronic disease.

  20. The importance of work environment: evidence-based strategies for enhancing nurse retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Linda

    2005-06-01

    As the nation faces a growing nursing shortage, it is imperative that home care leaders implement evidence-based strategies to improve nurse recruitment and retention. Previous research indicates that characteristics of the work environment that support nursing practice enhance nurses' job satisfaction and reduce turnover. Yet, there is little evidence to assist in prioritizing initiatives to improve the work environment of nurses. In this nationwide survey, home care nurses were asked to rate the importance of specific agency work environment traits, as listed on the Nursing Work Index-Revised, in supporting their home care practice. The 10 agency traits rated as most important are presented, and evidence-based recommendations for creating a culture of nurse retention are discussed.

  1. The role and importance of victim surveys in criminal research

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Polat; Serdar Kenan Gül

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing crime rates, insufficient policies and the limitations of the official statistics, victim surveys are being used as an alternative crime measurement technique. These types of surveys are inspired most of the criminological theories and regarded as a data source especially in shaping the crime policies of the Anglo-Saxon countries. Even though they have developed over time, victim surveys have limitations which create an obstacle in measuring crime. However, these surveys cou...

  2. Results of a survey on the sustainable import of biomass; Resultaat Enquete duurzame import van biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsma, G.C.; Groot, M.I.

    2006-06-15

    As part of an array of strategies to combat climate change, biomass is being used increasingly as a substitute for fossil fuels. It is important that the sustainability benefits thus accruing to the Netherlands are not at the expense of sustainable development in producer countries. Against this background the 'Sustainable biomass imports' project group is developing a set of criteria for evaluating the sustainability of biomass projects. To assess support for such criteria, CE conducted an internet survey among the various stakeholders (NGOs, industry, government), drawing a total of 104 responses. This report presents all the results and conclusions of the survey, for each category of stakeholders and overall. Among the most striking conclusions are the following: The majority of respondents see a sustainability audit on biomass as feasible, provided the sustainability criteria are adequate for the purpose (68%); Almost all the respondents are of the opinion that such sustainability criteria should apply to all applications of biomass (90%); On the issue of whether these criteria should vary according to the producer region concerned, respondents were divided (50% for, 50% against); Many NGOs state there should be different sustainability criteria in force for different biomass flows (50%), in contrast to industry, which argues for a uniform set of criteria for all flows; Most respondents hold that any biomass criteria should apply to both subsidised and unsubsidised projects; At the same time, a sizable majority of respondents state that subsidisation of biomass projects should depend on the degree of sustainability (72%) and in particular on the CO2 emission cuts achieved, this being regarded as the single most important factor; When it comes to the issue of GMO, opinions differ markedly between NGOs and industry, with some 75% of NGOs wanting this aspect included, but only 10% of industry; Respondents also commented on a number of additional issues

  3. An ethnobotanical survey of plants of veterinary importance in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the survey was to document and analyze information on the traditional use of medicinal plants by farmers in Ofla and Raya-Azebo woredas of South Tigray Zone for the treatment and prevention of livestock ailments. Data were collected mainly through interviews carried out with randomly selected farmers of ...

  4. Literature survey on how different factors influence human comfort in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    examined the extent to which other factors unrelated to the indoor environment, such as individual characteristics of building occupants, building-related factors and outdoor climate including seasonal changes, influence whether the indoor environment is evaluated as comfortable or not. The results suggest...... environmental conditions influencing comfort in the built environment were surveyed: thermal, visual and acoustic, as well as air quality. The literature was surveyed to determine which of these conditions were ranked by building users as being the most important determinants of comfort. The survey also...... quality. Thermal comfort is ranked by building occupants to be of greater importance compared with visual and acoustic comfort and good air quality. It also seems to influence to a higher degree the overall satisfaction with indoor environmental quality compared with the impact of other indoor...

  5. The importance of sense of coherence when implementing blended learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Constraints in the implementation of models of blended learning can be explained by several causes, but in this paper, it is illustrated that lack of sense of coherence is a major factor of these constraints along with the referential whole of the perceived learning environments. The question...... examined is how activation of models of blended learning in undergraduate education for teacher and radiograph affects the knowledge development. The empirical data consists of data from surveys as well as focus group interviews and some observation studies. These data are analyzed and interpreted through...... a critical hermeneutical process of prefiguration, configuration and refiguration. The findings illustrate significant importance of sense of coherence among participants as a condition for implementing new designs and new learning environments....

  6. Public say food regulatory policies to improve health in Western Australia are important: population survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Daly, Alison; Moore, Michael; Binns, Colin W

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the level of support among Western Australian adults for food control policies to improve diet, reduce obesity and protect the environment. Attitudes towards government food control policies on food labelling, food advertising, and the supply of environmentally friendly food data were pooled from two Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone surveys of 2,147 adults aged 18-64 years collected in 2009 and 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using survey module of STATA 12. The majority of adults believe it is important that government regulates food policy options under consideration: nutrition information on food labels (97% versus 2% who think it is not important); health rating on food labels (95% versus 3%); food advertising (83% versus 11%); and the supply of environmentally friendly food (86% versus 9%). Community perception is that government control or regulation of food labelling, food advertising and the supply of environmentally friendly food is important. Curbing excess weight gain and related disease burden is a public health priority. Australian governments are considering food regulatory interventions to assist the public to improve their dietary intake. These findings should provide reassurance to government officials considering these regulatory measures. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Flavonoids as Important Molecules of Plant Interactions with the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Mierziak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are small molecular secondary metabolites synthesized by plants with various biological activities. Due to their physical and biochemical properties, they are capable of participating in plants’ interactions with other organisms (microorganisms, animals and other plants and their reactions to environmental stresses. The majority of their functions result from their strong antioxidative properties. Although an increasing number of studies focus on the application of flavonoids in medicine or the food industry, their relevance for the plants themselves also deserves extensive investigations. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functions of flavonoids in the physiology of plants and their relations with the environment.

  8. Survey on present status and trend of parallel programming environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemiya, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Kenji; Honma, Ichiro; Ohta, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Takuji; Imamura, Toshiyuki; Koide, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Masayuki.

    1997-03-01

    This report intends to provide useful information on software tools for parallel programming through the survey on parallel programming environments of the following six parallel computers, Fujitsu VPP300/500, NEC SX-4, Hitachi SR2201, Cray T94, IBM SP, and Intel Paragon, all of which are installed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), moreover, the present status of R and D's on parallel softwares of parallel languages, compilers, debuggers, performance evaluation tools, and integrated tools is reported. This survey has been made as a part of our project of developing a basic software for parallel programming environment, which is designed on the concept of STA (Seamless Thinking Aid to programmers). (author)

  9. Technological learning in energy-environment-economy modelling: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahouli-Brahmi, Sondes

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview and a critical analysis of the technological learning concept and its incorporation in energy-environment-economy models. A special emphasis is put on surveying and discussing, through the so-called learning curve, both studies estimating learning rates in the energy field and studies incorporating endogenous technological learning in bottom-up and top-down models. The survey of learning rate estimations gives special attention to interpreting and explaining the sources of variability of estimated rates, which is shown to be mainly inherent in R and D expenditures, the problem of omitted variable bias, the endogeneity relationship and the role of spillovers. Large-scale models survey show that, despite some methodological and computational complexity related to the non-linearity and the non-convexity associated with the learning curve incorporation, results of the numerous modelling experiments give several new insights with regard to the analysis of the prospects of specific technological options and their cost decrease potential (bottom-up models), and with regard to the analysis of strategic considerations, especially inherent in the innovation and energy diffusion process, in particular the energy sector's endogenous responses to environment policy instruments (top-down models)

  10. The importance of protozoan bacterivory in a subtropical environment (Lobo-Broa Reservoir, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Mansano

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the importance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF and ciliates bacterivory in a mesotrophic subtropical environment (Lobo-Broa Reservoir, Brazil by the quantification of their ingestion rates. The in situ experiments using fluorescently labelled bacteria (FLB were carried out bimonthly over one year (three surveys in the dry season and three in the rainy one at the sub-surface of two sampling points that have different trophic degrees. The ingestion rates for both ciliates and HNF were higher in the meso-eutrophic region (point 2 due to the higher water temperatures, which accelerate the metabolism of protozoans and the higher bacteria densities. Concerning total protozoan bacterivory, the HNF had the greatest grazing impact on bacterial community, especially the HNF <5µm. The data showed that HNF grazing, in addition to regulating the bacteria abundance, also induced changes to the bacterial community structure, such as increasing size and numbers of bacterial filaments. The ciliates were also important to the system bacterivory, especially in point 2, where there were high densities and ingestion rates. The protozoan bottom-up control was more important in the dry season and the top-down control was more important in the rainy season, so, these two forces are equally important to the bacterial abundance regulation in this reservoir in an annual basis.

  11. Microbiological survey of imported produce available at retail across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kevin J; Kovacevic, Jovana; Cancarevic, Ana; Wood, Jayde; Xu, Jieqing; Gill, Bradford; Allen, Jennifer K; Mesak, Lili R

    2013-03-15

    Increasing consumption and year-round consumer demand for fresh, minimally processed green vegetables have been observed in Canada and other developed countries. However, in the past two decades, produce has been increasingly implicated in outbreaks and correspondingly recognized as a vector for the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. To this end, we examined the microbiological quality of imported produce available at retail across Canada during a period of limited domestic availability. In total, 106 samples obtained from five Canadian cities were purchased from retail outlets and subjected to microbiological analyses, including aerobic plate (APC) and coliform counts, and enrichments for enterococci, indicator Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Also, recovered Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were screened for antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Overall, samples included herbs (n=61), leafy greens (n=25), and spinach (n=20) deriving from five countries (Columbia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Mexico, and the United States [US]). APCs were consistent across commodities regardless of country, ranging from mean log10 CFU/g of 6.1 to 7.4, with no significant differences observed. Excluding a single leafy green sample from Guatemala, the lowest prevalence of coliforms was for Mexican herbs (22.2%), with a high of 66.7% on US leafy greens. With the exception of spinach, concentrations of coliforms varied widely, ranging from undetectable to too numerous to count (>8.5 log10 CFU/g). Of the commodities assessed, Mexican and US spinach had the lowest coliform concentrations (undetectable to 4.0 log10 CFU/g). Organic herbs and conventional leafy greens possessed significantly lower (pgreens, respectively. The most frequent recovery of indicator E. coli was observed for herbs, with 11.1, 8.3, and 3.7% prevalence observed in samples from Columbia, US, and Mexico, respectively. For spinach, 0 and 6.7% of Mexican and US samples tested

  12. LiDAR in extreme environment: surveying in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abate

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed under the patronage of the Italian National Research Programme in Antarctica (PNRA with the aim to realize a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the moraine named "Boulder Clay" which insists approximately 7 km far from the Italian Research Base "Mario Zucchelli Station" in the Terra Nova Bay area. The DEM will be included in the project for the construction of two runways to be used as support facilities for the scientific research campaigns which take place on regular basis each year. Although the research efforts to realize a detailed cartography of the area is on-going, for the specific aim and urgency of this project it was decided to perform a laser scanning survey in this extreme environment in order to obtain contour lines describing the terrain elevation each 50 cm and volume analysis. The final result will be super imposed on a photogrammetric DEM with contour lines each 2.5 m and satellite images. This paper focus both on the final scientific data and on all the challenges have to be faced in such extreme and particular environment during the laser scanning survey.

  13. Survey of heat-pipe application under nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuyuzaki, Noriyoshi; Saito, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshizo; Hishida, Makoto; Negishi, Kanji.

    1986-11-01

    Heat pipes today are employed in a wide variety of special heat transfer applications including nuclear reactor. In this nuclear technology area in Japan, A headway speed of the heat pipe application technique is not so high because of safety confirmation and investigation under each developing step. Especially, the outline of space craft is a tendency to increase the size. Therefore, the power supply is also tendency to increase the outlet power and keep the long life. Under SP-100 project, the development of nuclear power supply system which power is 1400 - 1600 KW thermal and 100 KW electric power is steadily in progress. Many heat pipes are adopted for thermionic conversion and coolant system in order to construct more safety and light weight system for the project. This paper describes the survey of the heat pipe applications under the present and future condition for nuclear environment. (author)

  14. Public say food regulatory policies to improve health in Western Australia are important: population survey results

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Christina M; Daly, Alison; Moore, Michael; Binns, Colin W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of support among Western Australian adults for food control policies to improve diet, reduce obesity and protect the environment. Methods Attitudes towards government food control policies on food labelling, food advertising, and the supply of environmentally friendly food data were pooled from two Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone surveys of 2,147 adults aged 18?64 years collected in 2009 and 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses wer...

  15. International survey of veterinarians to assess the importance of competencies in professional practice and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, H.G.; Teunissen, P.W.; Boerboom, T.B.; Rhind, S.M.; Baillie, S.; Tegzes, J.; Annandale, H.; Matthew, S.; Torgersen, A.; Hecker, K.G.; Hardi-Landerer, C.M.; Gomez-Lucia, E.; Ahmad, B.; Muijtjens, A.M.; Jaarsma, D.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Beukelen, P. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the perceived importance of specific competencies in professional veterinary practice and education among veterinarians in several countries. DESIGN: Survey-based prospective study. SAMPLE: 1,137 veterinarians in 10 countries. PROCEDURES: Veterinarians were invited via email

  16. When Does Money Make Money More Important? Survey and Experimental Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanford E. DeVoe; Jeffrey Pfeffer; Byron Y. Lee

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigate how the amount and source of income affects the importance placed on money. Using a longitudinal analysis of the British Household Panel Survey and evidence from two laboratory experiments, they found that larger amounts of money received for labor were associated with individuals placing greater importance on money; but this effect did not hold for money not related to work. The longitudinal survey analysis demonstrated these differential effects of the source of inco...

  17. Our Environment Shapes Us: The Importance of Environment and Sex Differences in Regulation of Autoantibody Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Edwards

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consequential differences exist between the male and female immune systems’ ability to respond to pathogens, environmental insults or self-antigens, and subsequent effects on immunoregulation. In general, females when compared with their male counterparts, respond to pathogenic stimuli and vaccines more robustly, with heightened production of antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the precise reasons for sex differences in immune response to different stimuli are not yet well understood, females are more resistant to infectious diseases and much more likely to develop autoimmune diseases. Intrinsic (i.e., sex hormones, sex chromosomes, etc. and extrinsic (microbiome composition, external triggers, and immune modulators factors appear to impact the overall outcome of immune responses between sexes. Evidence suggests that interactions between environmental contaminants [e.g., endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs] and host leukocytes affect the ability of the immune system to mount a response to exogenous and endogenous insults, and/or return to normal activity following clearance of the threat. Inherently, males and females have differential immune response to external triggers. In this review, we describe how environmental chemicals, including EDCs, may have sex differential influence on the outcome of immune responses through alterations in epigenetic status (such as modulation of microRNA expression, gene methylation, or histone modification status, direct and indirect activation of the estrogen receptors to drive hormonal effects, and differential modulation of microbial sensing and composition of host microbiota. Taken together, an intriguing question develops as to how an individual’s environment directly and indirectly contributes to an altered immune response, dysregulation of autoantibody production, and influence autoimmune disease development. Few studies exist utilizing well-controlled cohorts of both sexes

  18. Importance of adaptation and genotype × environment interactions in tropical beef breeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, H M

    2012-05-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of productive and adaptive traits in beef breeding systems based on Bos taurus and tropically adapted breeds across temperate and (sub)tropical environments. In the (sub)tropics, differences that exist between breeds in temperate environments are masked by the effects of environmental stressors. Hence in tropical environments, breeds are best categorised into breed types to compare their performance across environments. Because of the presence of environmental stressors, there are more sources of genetic variation in tropical breeding programmes. It is therefore necessary to examine the genetic basis of productive and adaptive traits for breeding programmes in those environments. This paper reviews the heritabilities and genetic relationships between economically important productive and adaptive traits relevant to (sub)tropical breeding programmes. It is concluded that it is possible to simultaneously genetically improve productive and adaptive traits in tropically adapted breeds of beef cattle grazed in tropical environments without serious detrimental consequences for either adaptation or production. However, breed-specific parameters are required for genetic evaluations. The paper also reviews the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions impacting on production and adaptation of cattle, where 'genotype' is defined as breed (within a crossbreeding system), sire within breed (in a within-breed selection programme) or associations between economically important traits and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs - within a marker-assisted selection programme). It is concluded that re-ranking of breeds across environments is best managed by the use of the breed type(s) best suited to the particular production environment. Re-ranking of sires across environments is apparent in poorly adapted breed types across extreme tropical and temperate environments or where breeding animals are selected in a temperate

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN ANALYZING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND BUSINESS EVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea-Mihaela STROE

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of economic environment brings into attention of the ones interest important trends and important evolutions that can bring into surface new strategies and new ways of obtaining profit. This is to say that staying in connection with all the changes and analyzing the trends in business performance, analyzing performance indicators helps managers to know not only their firm but the environment, the opponents, stakeholders and the opportunities that can be optimized and used as adva...

  20. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been published from circumpolar indigenous communities. The purpose of the study is to compare information on the consumption of tobacco and alcohol obtained from 3 population surveys in Greenland with import statistics. Estimates of consumption of cigarettes and alcohol using several different survey instruments in cross-sectional population studies from 1993-1994, 1999-2001 and 2005-2010 were compared with import statistics from the same years. For cigarettes, survey results accounted for virtually the total import. Alcohol consumption was significantly under-reported with reporting completeness ranging from 40% to 51% for different estimates of habitual weekly consumption in the 3 study periods. Including an estimate of binge drinking increased the estimated total consumption to 78% of the import. Compared with import statistics, questionnaire-based population surveys capture the consumption of cigarettes well in Greenland. Consumption of alcohol is under-reported, but asking about binge episodes in addition to the usual intake considerably increased the reported intake in this population and made it more in agreement with import statistics. It is unknown to what extent these findings at the population level can be inferred to population subgroups.

  1. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bjerregaard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been published from circumpolar indigenous communities. Objective. The purpose of the study is to compare information on the consumption of tobacco and alcohol obtained from 3 population surveys in Greenland with import statistics. Design. Estimates of consumption of cigarettes and alcohol using several different survey instruments in cross-sectional population studies from 1993–1994, 1999–2001 and 2005–2010 were compared with import statistics from the same years. Results. For cigarettes, survey results accounted for virtually the total import. Alcohol consumption was significantly under-reported with reporting completeness ranging from 40% to 51% for different estimates of habitual weekly consumption in the 3 study periods. Including an estimate of binge drinking increased the estimated total consumption to 78% of the import. Conclusion. Compared with import statistics, questionnaire-based population surveys capture the consumption of cigarettes well in Greenland. Consumption of alcohol is under-reported, but asking about binge episodes in addition to the usual intake considerably increased the reported intake in this population and made it more in agreement with import statistics. It is unknown to what extent these findings at the population level can be inferred to population subgroups.

  2. Patients’ experience of important factors in the healthcare environment in oncology care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Wijk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective. The aim of this study was to describe what factors of the healthcare environment are perceived as being important to patients in oncology care. Design. A qualitative design was adopted using focus group interviews. Setting and participants. The sample was 11 patients with different cancer diagnoses in an oncology ward at a university hospital in west Sweden. Results. Analysis of the patients’ perceptions of the environment indicated a complex entity comprising several aspects. These came together in a structure consisting of three main categories: safety, partnership with the staff, and physical space. The care environment is perceived as a complex entity, made up of several physical and psychosocial aspects, where the physical factors are subordinated by the psychosocial factors. It is clearly demonstrated that the patients’ primary desire was a psychosocial environment where they were seen as a unique person; the patients wanted opportunities for good encounters with staff, fellow patients, and family members, supported by a good physical environment; and the patients valued highly a place to withdraw and rest. Conclusions. This study presents those attributes that are valued by cancer patients as crucial and important for the support of their well-being and functioning. The results show that physical aspects were subordinate to psychosocial factors, which emerged strongly as being the most important in a caring environment.

  3. Perceptions of Field Instructors: What Skills are Critically Important inManaged Care and Privatized Environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Kane

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for social work practitioners to work in managed care and privatized environments. In an attempt to build social work curriculum and identify important competencies needed in contemporary service environments, researchers investigated South Florida field instructors’ (N=79 perceptions of necessary knowledge and skill to work in environments affected by privatization and managed care. This study’s findings indicate that field instructors (98% identified documentation as the most critically important skill for any social work position. Additionally, respondents identified intervention evaluation (95%, time focused and needs-based assessments strategies (94%, and evaluation of progress through outcome measures (94% as other critically important skills for current and future practitioners.

  4. Organizational climate survey: management model tool on continuous improvement promotion in Finantial Institutional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Amancio da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The organizational climate survey has been an important tool in the corporate world, the way in which the institutions can assess and ascertain through the results, the degree of satisfaction of its employees and look through plan of action, achieve better results in both performance and production. Through an empirical research, exploratory qualitative research, with collection of secondary data, it was found that the implementation of the organizational climate survey, "Speak Frankly" from Itaú Unibanco, it could analyze data and make a plan of effective action aiming at continuous improvement in the organizational environment, serving as personnel management model. The results were favorable in the period from year 2012 to 2014 with an increase of the degree of satisfaction in four 4% and maintained excellent adherence to answer questions reaching 90% the number of employees.

  5. Combining a survey approach and energy and indoor environment auditing in historic buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, Patrik; Dalewski, Mariusz; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents an approach where a survey study is combined with energy and indoor environment auditing in the built environment. The combination of methods presented in this paper is one way to obtain a wider perspective on the indoor environment and energy use and also let...... this research project. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of energy and indoor environment auditing and standardized occupant surveys. Findings – The main findings in the paper are related to the good agreement between results from standardized occupant surveys and physical measurements...

  6. Benchmarking the Importance and Use of Labor Market Surveys by Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to benchmark the importance and use of labor market survey (LMS) among U.S. certified rehabilitation counselors (CRCs). A secondary post hoc analysis of data collected via the "Rehabilitation Skills Inventory--Revised" for the 2011 Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification job analysis resulted in…

  7. International survey of veterinarians to assess the importance of competencies in professional practice and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, Harold G. J.; Teunissen, Pim W.; Boerboom, Tobias B. B.; Rhind, Susan M.; Baillie, Sarah; Tegzes, John; Annandale, Henry; Matthew, Susan; Torgersen, Anne; Hecker, Kent G.; Härdi-Landerer, Christina M.; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Ahmad, Bashir; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; van Beukelen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To determine the perceived importance of specific competencies in professional veterinary practice and education among veterinarians in several countries. Survey-based prospective study. 1,137 veterinarians in 10 countries. Veterinarians were invited via email to participate in the study. A

  8. Radiological survey of Ingalls Shipbuilding Division, Pascagoula, Mississippi, and environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.W.; Windham, S.T.; Callis, R.S.; Phillips, C.R.

    1983-09-01

    This report presents results of the survey conducted by EERF personnel to assess environmental radioactivity remaining from operations of nuclear-powered vessels at Ingalls Shipyard, Pascagoula, Mississippi. Since Ingalls Shipyard will no longer build or service nuclear powered ships and has completed the decommissioning of the nuclear support facilities, an additional purpose of the survey was to determine if there is any remaining radioactivity from previous operations which could contribute to significant population exposure

  9. Survey for service selection approaches in dynamic environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manqele, Lindelweyizizwe S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The usage of the service selection approaches across different dynamic service provisioning environments has increased the challenges associated with an effective method that can be used to select a relevant service. The use of service selection...

  10. Survey of Collaboration Technologies in Multi-level Security Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-28

    urban area. It evaluates how municipal fire service, law enforcement, emergency management, and public health organizations have used federal government...heterogeneous operational environments. Mercado , A. (2008) Exploring Data Sharing Between Geographically Distributed Mobile and Fixed Nodes Supporting

  11. The importance of chemical components in cleaning agents for the indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejrup, Karl Ventzel

    In order to evaluate the importance for the indoor environment of chemical compounds in cleaning agents, the emission of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) from 10 selected cleaning agents and the content of LAS (Linear AlkanbenzeneSulfonate) in dust samples from 7 buildings were investigated.The...... of LAS between smooth floored corridors to carpeted offices, are apparently also of importance for the LAS content in individual rooms.The amounts of LAS found in the dust samples indicated that LAS may be of importance for the indoor environment, but inadequate knowledge about how low concentrations...... investigation of VOC emission from 10 selected cleaning agents showed that it was useful to classify the VOCs into two groups: nonpolar VOCs and polar VOCs.The nonpolar VOCs consisted of several hundred different compounds, mainly terpenes typically used as perfume in cleaning agents. The nonpolar VOC...

  12. EFFECTS OF HIGH ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL BRANCHES ON HUMAN LIFE QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doguş Deniz Özarslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance of industrialization which has a role in determination of the civilization levels of societies is increasing everyday due to meet rapidly increasing demands. However this process has led up to environmental problems with time and thus effects on quality of human life also brought along. In this study, three sectors were selected among different branches of industry according to their economical importance in Turkey. These sectors are paper, metal and construction chemicals industry. Production processes of selected sectors were examined and effects of production stages on the environment and human health as well as their contribution to sustainable development were investigated. Well known Turkish companies from each industrial branch were evaluated in detail. These industrial sectors having economic importance are compared to each other according to their effects on quality of human life and environment and the results are evaluated accordingly.

  13. Technetium in the geologic environment - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torstenfelt, B.; Allard, B.; Andersson, K.; Olofsson, U.

    1981-07-01

    The authors present a literature survey of technetium, discussing, in particular, the oxidation states, the chemistry of technetium in connection with spent nuclear fuel storage, the sorption of technetium in rock, clay, soil and sea bottom sediments. (G.T.H.)

  14. Careers in the Environment in Australia: Surveying Environmental Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Lane, Ruth; Ribon-Tobon, Leonardo; May, Charley

    2007-01-01

    Internationally, commentators have identified a growing demand for environmental expertise. Matching this has been an expansion in the range of environmental careers available to workers: from environment protection and bio-physical areas, to local government operations, environmental auditing, assessment, and management. However, in Australia…

  15. A survey of object oriented languages in programming environments

    OpenAIRE

    Haakonsen, Harald

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses object oriented programming languages; and a restrictive definition of object oriented programming languages is presented and defended. Differences between programming languages are discussed and related to interactive integrated programming environments. Topics related to user friendly interface to the computer system and modem programming practice are discussed. The thesis especially addresses features in ...

  16. Nature as the Most Important Coping Strategy Among Cancer Patients: A Swedish Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Fereshteh; Ahmadi, Nader

    2015-08-01

    The authors have conducted a quantitative survey to examine the extent to which the results obtained in a qualitative study among cancer patients in Sweden (Ahmadi, Culture, religion and spirituality in coping: The example of cancer patients in Sweden, Uppsala, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006) are applicable to a wider population of cancer patients in this country. In addition to questions relating to the former qualitative study, this survey also references the RCOPE questionnaire (designed by Kenneth I Pargament) in the design of the new quantitative study. In this study, questionnaires were distributed among persons diagnosed with cancer; 2,355 people responded. The results show that nature has been the most important coping method among cancer patients in Sweden. The highest mean value (2.9) is the factor 'nature has been an important resource to you so that you could deal with your illnesses'. Two out of three respondents (68 %) affirm that this method helped them feel significantly better during or after illness. The second highest average (2.8) is the factor 'listening to 'natural music' (birdsong and the wind)'. Two out of three respondents (66 %) answered that this coping method significantly helped them feel better during illness. The third highest average (2.7) is the factor 'to walk or engage in any activity outdoors gives you a spiritual sense'. This survey concerning the role of nature as the most important coping method for cancer patients confirms the result obtained from the previous qualitative studies.

  17. Review of survey data on the importance of energy efficiency to new home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    The surveys reviewed for this report support the notion that the Council's model conservation standards will be received reasonably well and can be successfully marketed. A number of subtopics are addressed including the home purchase process and the role of energy efficiency considerations in the process, the importance of energy efficiency considerations in the decision to purchase a new home, the relative importance of energy efficiency in comparison to other home selection attributes, homeowner preferences for particular energy efficiency features, and measures of the willingness to pay for energy efficiency improvements.

  18. Towards a future robotic home environment: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güttler, Jörg; Georgoulas, Christos; Linner, Thomas; Bock, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Demographic change has resulted in an increase of elderly people, while at the same time the number of active working people is falling. In the future, there will be less caretaking, which is necessary to support the aging population. In order to enable the aged population to live in dignity, they should be able to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) as independently as possible. The aim of this paper is to describe several solutions and concepts that can support elderly people in their ADLs in a way that allows them to stay self-sufficient for as long as possible. To reach this goal, the Building Realization and Robotics Lab is researching in the field of ambient assisted living. The idea is to implement robots and sensors in the home environment so as to efficiently support the inhabitants in their ADLs and eventually increase their independence. Through embedding vital sensors into furniture and using ICT technologies, the health status of elderly people can be remotely evaluated by a physician or family members. By investigating ergonomic aspects specific to elderly people (e.g. via an age-simulation suit), it is possible to develop and test new concepts and novel applications, which will offer innovative solutions. Via the introduction of mechatronics and robotics, the home environment can be made able to seamlessly interact with the inhabitant through gestures, vocal commands, and visual recognition algorithms. Meanwhile, several solutions have been developed that address how to build a smart home environment in order to create an ambient assisted environment. This article describes how these concepts were developed. The approach for each concept, proposed in this article, was performed as follows: (1) research of needs, (2) creating definitions of requirements, (3) identification of necessary technology and processes, (4) building initial concepts, (5) experiments in a real environment, and (6) development of the final concepts. To keep these concepts

  19. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) SNOW SURVEYS GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada Snow Surveys GCPEx dataset was manually collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx), which...

  20. What Factors are Important to Patients when Assessing Treatment Response: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kobyletzki, Laura B; Thomas, Kim S; Schmitt, Jochen; Chalmers, Joanne R; Deckert, Stefanie; Aoki, Valeria; Weisshaar, Elke; Ojo, Jumoke Ahubelem; Svensson, Åke

    2017-01-04

    This study investigated the perspective of international patients on individual symptoms of atopic dermatitis (eczema) in determining treatment response. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the importance of symptoms from the patient's perspective. Patients were asked: "How important are these features in deciding whether or not a treatment is working?", and rated symptoms on a 5-point Likert scale. Patients were approached via Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) collaborators and self-selected to take part in the on-line survey. Patients from 34 countries (n = 1,111) completed the survey; of these, 423 (38.3%) were parents of children with eczema. Nine items were rated as being "quite important" or "very important" by more than 80% of the respondents: itch, pain/soreness, skin feels hot or inflamed, bleeding, involvement of visible or sensitive body sites, cracks, sleep difficulties, amount of body affected, and weeping/oozing. These results may be of use in determining the face validity of scales from a cross-cultural patients' perspective.

  1. Neighborhood food environments and Body Mass Index: the importance of in-store contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donald; Hutchinson, Paul L; Bodor, J Nicholas; Swalm, Chris M; Farley, Thomas A; Cohen, Deborah A; Rice, Janet C

    2009-09-01

    Most public health studies on the neighborhood food environment have focused on types of stores and their geographic placement, yet marketing research has long documented the influence of in-store shelf-space on consumer behavior. This paper combines these two strands of research to test whether the aggregate availability of specific foods in a neighborhood is associated with the BMIs of its residents. Fielded from October 2004 to August 2005, this study combines mapping of retail food outlets, in-store surveys, and telephone interviews of residents from 103 randomly sampled urban census tracts in southeastern Louisiana. Linear shelf-space of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods was measured in 307 food stores in the study tracts. Residential addresses, demographic information, and heights and weights were obtained from 1243 respondents through telephone interviews. Cumulative shelf-space of foods within defined distances of each respondent was calculated using observations from the in-store survey and probability-based assignments of shelf-space to all unobserved stores in the area. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, income, and car ownership, regression analysis, conducted in 2008, showed that cumulative shelf-space availability of energy-dense snack foods was positively, although modestly, associated with BMI. A 100-meter increase in shelf-space of these foods within 1 kilometer of a respondent's household was associated with an additional 0.1 BMI points. Fruit and vegetable shelf-space was not significantly related to BMI. Interventions that seek to improve the neighborhood food environment may need to focus on more than just increasing access to healthy foods, because the results suggest that the availability of energy-dense snack foods plays a role in weight status.

  2. THE SLACS SURVEY. VIII. THE RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gorecki, Alexia; Marshall, Philip J.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Bolton, Adam S.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between the internal structure of early-type galaxies and their environment using 70 strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS Survey. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is used to determine two measures of overdensity of galaxies around each lens-the projected

  3. Consequences of electricity restructuring on the environment: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevi, Benoit

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess theoretical consequences of restructuring electricity markets on the environment. We examine changes in potential behaviours in consumption-side as well as in supply-side. We show that restructuring and following access to competition is not neutral from an environmental standpoint. Deregulation could induce some negative externalities due to requirements in cost-efficiency. The principal result of this paper is the need of strong incentives in public policies to compensate the new short-term horizon in which energy sector's firms are evolving, particularly concerning R and D. (author)

  4. Fiscal 1995 geothermal development promotion survey. Natural environment survey report; 1995 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Shizen kankyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In Candidate C area for the geothermal development survey, the natural environment was surveyed and `the secondary landscape assessment` was summed up in which places proposed for drilling of large-size wells and for construction of power generation facilities are extracted and a simulation of the landscape is conducted. The area for survey is the Shiramizu-gawa region in the south of Lake Akan, Akan-cho, Akan-gun, Hokkaido. The field survey was carried out about three items of landscape, plants and animals during the June-November period, 1995. As to the flora, diverse florae including vegetation unique to alpine areas, wetlands, and fumarole surrounding areas were found in the region, which is covered with summer-green broad-leaved forests or mixed forests of coniferous and broad-leaved trees. As to the fauna, faunae inhabitant of the highly natural forests were found including black woodpeckers and mountain hawk eagles. As a result of studying the places proposed for geothermal development from the above-mentioned survey, two places were picked up in the west of the survey area, where geothermal development is comparatively less influential in the natural environment and landscape and there is a high locational adaptability. 19 refs., 56 figs., 49 tabs.

  5. Evolution of dispersal in spatially and temporally variable environments: The importance of life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massol, François; Débarre, Florence

    2015-07-01

    Spatiotemporal variability of the environment is bound to affect the evolution of dispersal, and yet model predictions strongly differ on this particular effect. Recent studies on the evolution of local adaptation have shown that the life cycle chosen to model the selective effects of spatiotemporal variability of the environment is a critical factor determining evolutionary outcomes. Here, we investigate the effect of the order of events in the life cycle on the evolution of unconditional dispersal in a spatially heterogeneous, temporally varying landscape. Our results show that the occurrence of intermediate singular strategies and disruptive selection are conditioned by the temporal autocorrelation of the environment and by the life cycle. Life cycles with dispersal of adults versus dispersal of juveniles, local versus global density regulation, give radically different evolutionary outcomes that include selection for total philopatry, evolutionary bistability, selection for intermediate stable states, and evolutionary branching points. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for life-cycle specifics when predicting the effects of the environment on evolutionarily selected trait values, such as dispersal, as well as the need to check the robustness of model conclusions against modifications of the life cycle. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Identifying selectively important amino acid positions associated with alternative habitat environments in fish mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Hong Lian; Zhang, Yong; Meng, Zi Ning; Lin, Hao Ran

    2018-05-01

    Fish species inhabitating seawater (SW) or freshwater (FW) habitats have to develop genetic adaptations to alternative environment factors, especially salinity. Functional consequences of the protein variations associated with habitat environments in fish mitochondrial genomes have not yet received much attention. We analyzed 829 complete fish mitochondrial genomes and compared the amino acid differences of 13 mitochondrial protein families between FW and SW fish groups. We identified 47 specificity determining sites (SDS) that associated with FW or SW environments from 12 mitochondrial protein families. Thirty-two (68%) of the SDS sites are hydrophobic, 13 (28%) are neutral, and the remaining sites are acidic or basic. Seven of those SDS from ND1, ND2 and ND5 were scored as probably damaging to the protein structures. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree based Bayes Empirical Bayes analysis also detected 63 positive sites associated with alternative habitat environments across ten mtDNA proteins. These signatures could be important for studying mitochondrial genetic variation relevant to fish physiology and ecology.

  7. Painted surfaces - Important sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination to the urban and marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jartun, Morten; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Steinnes, Eiliv; Volden, Tore

    2009-01-01

    A study of a large number of samples of flaking old paint from various buildings in Bergen, Norway (N = 68) suggests that paint may be the most important contemporary source of PCBs in this urban environment with concentrations of PCB 7 up to 3.39 g/kg. Twenty-three of the samples were collected from a single building, and the concentrations were found to vary over 3 orders of magnitude. In addition, 16 concrete samples from a large bridge previously coated with PCB-containing paint were collected and separated into outer- and inner samples indicating that PCBs are still present in high concentrations subsequent to renovation. PCBs were found in several categories of paint from wooden and concrete buildings, potentially introduced to the environment by natural weathering, renovation, and volatilization. Consequently, this dispersion may lead to increased levels of PCBs in urban atmospheres, soils, and harbor sediments where high concentrations have resulted in Governmental advice against consumption of certain seafood. - Paint from structures built during the period 1950-1970 may be the most important source of PCBs in an urban environment

  8. Validation of a Spanish Version of the Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES) in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pascual, Maria Dolores; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Albaladejo-Blázquez, Natalia; Walker, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the Spanish version of the Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (Sp-DELES). This instrument assesses students' perceptions of virtual learning environments using six scales: Instructor Support, Student Interaction and Collaboration, Personal Relevance, Authentic Learning, Active…

  9. A survey of the urban radiofrequency (RF) environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tell, Richard A.; Kavet, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In 1980, Tell and Mantiply published a study of radiofrequency (RF) fields measured across 15 major metropolitan areas in the USA. They required a van fully equipped with instrumentation and computing capability for their measurements. This study aimed to assess whether and how hand-held instrumentation available today would facilitate and enhance the efficiency of large-scale surveys of ambient RF fields. In addition, the data would provide a suggestion as to how the profile of ambient RF fields has changed with respect to frequency content and magnitude. Not unexpectedly, the relative power densities were orders of magnitude lower than the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for the general public, with a maximum time-averaged value across the VHF-FM-UHF-cellular bands of 0.12 % of the MPE (AM's contribution was negligible). In both the 1980 and the present study, the power density in the FM band was a major contributor to overall power density, but over time, power densities in the VHF and UHF band decreased and increased, respectively. From the perspective of absolute power density, the wideband values in the 1980 study, this study and any number of assessments conducted in European nations are not generally different from one another. (authors)

  10. Annual environment report 2012 - EDF Flamanville (annual report 2012 of environment survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delauge, A.

    2013-01-01

    After a presentation of the Flamanville site (history, operation principle of a nuclear plant, life of both units, impacts on the environment, organization, legislation, actions performed in 2012, ability management and communication regarding the management of the environment), this report presents the activity of Flamanville: production, events and incidents. It gives an overview of issues related to the control of impacts on the environment: radioactive releases, chemical and thermal releases, water resource management, dredging operations, conventional and nuclear wastes, radiological cleanliness, noise. Controls and inspections are indicated and briefly reported

  11. Survey of occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    separately by means of multiple logistic regression in order to quantify factors influencing occupants’ behaviour. The window opening behaviour was strongly related to the outdoor temperature. The perception of the environment and factors concerning the dwelling also impacted the window opening behaviour......Repeated surveys of occupant control of the indoor environment were carried out in Danish dwellings from September to October 2006 and again from February to March 2007. The summer survey comprised 933 respondents and the winter survey 636 respondents. The surveys were carried out by sending out....... The proportion of dwellings with the heating turned on was strongly related to the outdoor temperature and the presence of a wood burning stove. The solar radiation, dwelling ownership conditions and the perception of the indoor environment also affected the use of heating. The results of the statistical...

  12. Warning dreams preceding the diagnosis of breast cancer: a survey of the most important characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Larry

    2015-01-01

    There are rare reports of warning dreams about breast cancer in the dream literature and even fewer in the medical literature. Anxiety about breast cancer is increasing due to uncertainty about conflicting guidelines regarding mammography screening. The purpose of the study was to survey women with breast cancer who had warning dreams prior to diagnosis to determine the most common and important characteristics of these dreams. Eighteen women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer completed a survey of 19 Yes or No questions about their warning dreams and submitted dream narratives. The five most common characteristics of warning dreams in descending order of frequency reported in the survey were: a sense of conviction about the importance in 94%; the dreams were more vivid, real or intense than ordinary in 83%; an emotional sense of threat, menace or dread in 72%; the use of the specific words breast cancer/tumor in 44%; and the sense of physical contact with the breast in 39%. Warning dreams of breast cancer were often reported to be life changing experiences that prompted medical attention leading directly to diagnosis. Further research needs to be done to determine the frequency of such dreams in women without known breast cancer in order to assess the predictive value of a warning dream. These preliminary results suggest that keeping a dream diary might be a useful adjunct to routine self-examination as part of a breast self-care program, particularly for women in a high-risk category. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN ANALYZING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND BUSINESS EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Mihaela STROE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of economic environment brings into attention of the ones interest important trends and important evolutions that can bring into surface new strategies and new ways of obtaining profit. This is to say that staying in connection with all the changes and analyzing the trends in business performance, analyzing performance indicators helps managers to know not only their firm but the environment, the opponents, stakeholders and the opportunities that can be optimized and used as advantages in a turbulent economic area. In general, performance is associated with two key processes: performance management and its measurement. Performance management is a holistic process which embodies the subject of performance and reflects the connection between the economic entity and performance, including processes such as definition of strategy, implementation of strategy and training and performance measurement. Performance measurement appears as a low performance management that focuses mainly on the identification, tracking and communicating performance that results through the use of performance. Key performance indicators help quantify the formation of a result, providing visibility in relation to the performance of individuals, teams, departments and organizations, allowing decision makers to take action in order to achieve the objectives desired. These indicators can be appreciated based upon the trends in the company or benchmarking - comparisons with standard industry values or reference companies.

  14. Nurses' expert opinions of workplace interventions for a healthy working environment: a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Clarke, Sean; Hayes, Laureen; Nincic, Vera

    2014-09-01

    Much has been written about interventions to improve the nursing work environment, yet little is known about their effectiveness. A Delphi survey of nurse experts was conducted to explore perceptions about workplace interventions in terms of feasibility and likelihood of positive impact on nurse outcomes such as job satisfaction and nurse retention. The interventions that received the highest ratings for likelihood of positive impact included: bedside handover to improve communication at shift report and promote patient-centred care; training program for nurses in dealing with violent or aggressive behaviour; development of charge nurse leadership team; training program focused on creating peer-supportive atmospheres and group cohesion; and schedule that recognizes work balance and family demands. The overall findings are consistent with the literature that highlights the importance of communication and teamwork, nurse health and safety, staffing and scheduling practices, professional development and leadership and mentorship. Nursing researchers and decision-makers should work in collaboration to implement and evaluate interventions for promoting practice environments characterized by effective communication and teamwork, professional growth and adequate support for the health and well-being of nurses.

  15. [A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-30

    In order to understand the current status and trends of the important parasitic diseases in human population, to evaluate the effect of control activities in the past decade and provide scientific base for further developing control strategies, a national survey was carried out in the country (Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau not included) from June, 2001 to 2004 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health. The sample sizes of the nationwide survey and of the survey in each province (autonomous region and municipality, P/A/M) were determined following a calculating formula based on an estimation of the sample size of random sampling to the rate of population. A procedure of stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in each province based on geographical location and economical condition with three strata: county/city, township/town, and spot, each spot covered a sample of 500 people. Parasitological examinations were conducted for the infections of soil-transmitted nematodes, Taenia spp, and Clonorchis sinensis, including Kato-Katz thick smear method, scotch cellulose adhesive tape technique and test tube-filter paper culture (for larvae). At the same time, another sampled investigation for Clonorchis sinensis infection was carried out in the known endemic areas in 27 provinces. Serological tests combined with questionnaire and/or clinical diagnosis were applied for hydatid disease, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, trichinosis, and toxoplasmosis. A total sampled population of 356 629 from the 31 P/A/M was examined by parasitological methods and 26 species of helminth were recorded. Among these helminth, human infections of Metorchis orientalis and Echinostoma aegypti were detected in Fujian Province which seemed to be the first report in the world, and Haplorchis taichui infection in Guangxi Region was the first human infection record in the country. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 21.74%. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19

  16. Importance of Tourism Paradox, Tourism Equinox and Tourism Detox for Urban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arikan Irfan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When looking at the increase of tourism in a destination, it can be said that tourism is a valuable part of the economy. The proposal offered by today’s competitive paradigm: that higher the number of tourists visiting a city, the higher the income, sounds good at first. The increased number of tourist arrivals gives the appearance of increasing desirability of the city. Parallel with the increased tourism activities, new buildings, new lifestyles, foreign capital and new socio-economic relationships appear rapidly and replace the traditional ones. However, there will be a huge amount of social, cultural, economic and environmental problems faced by the local people as well as the tourists the city. Tourism paradox is the name given to the phenomenon where tourism industry destroys natural and cultural environment in a destination that is necessary for tourism activities. On the other hand the balance, which does not change and disturbs the social and economic relations at the destination is called “tourism equinox”. Therefore, spatial reorganization and urban regeneration play a crucial role for the marketing of cities and this transformation action affects all infrastructure facilities, restorations of old buildings, reorganization of historical zones, and revitalizing the architectural style of the cities. New projects and approaches to solve the problems caused by the growth of urban populations and to establish healthy sustainable tourism destinations are becoming more important than ever. Tourism detox is a treatment that is intended to remove harmful substances from these destinations. This paper investigates the influence of tourism paradox and tourism equinox on urban environments in relation to tourism activities and the protection of natural and cultural resources with the help of tourism detox. It primarily relies on qualitative research to understand the main futures of tourism paradox, equinox and detox taking the physical

  17. The Important Selection Criteria in Choosing Islamic Banks: A Survey in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Hamzah Al-Hadrami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selection criteria of banks in general and Islamic banks in particular have been given high attention by the marketing researchers nowadays. But this kind of research is still insufficient in numbers especially in the developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to identify the important selection criteria that are considered by customers in selecting Islamic banks in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A 5-Likert scale survey questionnaire and ANOVA were used as the research method. The results indicate that the religious factors were ranked as the most important selection criteria for selecting Islamic banks. The study also found service quality factors as the second important selection criteria. This study is expected to provide Islamic banks in Bahrain with some inputs in setting up their marketing strategies in order to attract new customers and retain their existing customers. This study is also expected to add value to the literature by providing the updated empirical study in the area. DOI: 10.15408/aiq9i2.4635

  18. The importance of teaching communication in dental education. A survey amongst dentists, students and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelber, J P; Deimling, D; Langenbach, D; Ratka-Krüger, P

    2012-02-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the subjective importance of teaching communication in the dental curriculum by conducting a survey amongst dentists, students and patients. Three questionnaires about communication-related issues were developed in which different questions could be rated on a five-point Likert scale. These questions included the subjective importance of the dental team's friendliness, an elaborated consultation, modern office equipment or the dentist's technical skills. Seven hundred and twenty-nine questionnaires were completed [233 by dentists (32%), 310 by students (43%) and 185 by patients (25%)]. Eighty-seven percentage of the dentists, 84% of the students and 84% of the patients supported an integration of communicational issues in dental education; 94.7% of the dentists and 77.2% of the patients attached vital importance to the dentist-patient relationship regarding the therapeutic outcomes. Dentists with prior communicational training experience would spend significantly (Pimportance of integrating aspects of communication in dental education. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. The importance of modelling in European decisions concerning energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossetti di Valdalbero, D.

    2012-01-01

    Under pressure as much from the economic crisis as from a desire to improve governance, political decision makers seek to evaluate economic and social impacts of their choices. Quantification of trend projections and alternative scenarios - developed with the aid of economic and energy models - provide a base on which to make these choices. Attempts to put figures on and to clarify contrasting options provoke animated debates, both about the quantitative tools used (a scientific question) and on their use (a political question). This article aims to show the importance of the modellers in providing answers to these questions, by analysing the process of European policy decisions on energy and the environment over the period 1995-2005. (authors)

  20. The importance of early investigation and publishing in an emergent health and environment crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kaori

    2016-10-01

    To minimize the damage resulting from a long-term environmental disaster such as the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan, early disclosure of research data by scientists and prompt decision making by government authorities are required in place of careful, time-consuming research and deliberation about the consequences and cause of the accident. A Bayesian approach with flexible statistical modeling helps scientists and encourages government authorities to make decisions based on environmental data available in the early stages of a disaster. It is evident from Fukushima and similar accidents that classical research methods involving statistical methodologies that require rigorous experimental design and complex data sets are too cumbersome and delay important actions that may be critical in the early stages of an environmental disaster. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:680-682. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Still making progress to improve the hospital workplace environment? Results from the 2008 National Survey of Registered Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerhaus, Peter I; DesRoches, Catherine; Donelan, Karen; Hess, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Despite the majority of RNs perceiving a shortage of nurses, findings from the 2008 National Survey of RNs indicate the hospital workplace improved in several areas compared to a 2006 survey. Improvements included the time RNs spend with patients, quality of nursing care, and a decreasing impact of the shortage on delaying nurses' responses to pages or calls, staff communication, patients' wait time for surgery, and timeliness and efficiency of care. Areas the environment was perceived to have worsened included overtime hours, sexual harassment/hostile, and physical violence. RNs hold mixed views about the consequences of reporting errors and mistakes with a majority agreeing that reporting them had led to positive changes to prevent future errors, but that mistakes were held against them. Overall, results suggest that hospital managers can be reassured that their efforts to improve the workplace environment are having their intended effect but, at the same time, important areas for improvement remain.

  2. Investigation of individual radiation exposures from discharges to the aquatic environment: techniques used in habits surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.; Jones, P.G.W.

    1982-01-01

    The techniques used by the Fisheries Radiobiological Laboratory (FRL) in conducting habits surveys are described and discussed. The main objectives of these surveys are to investigate exposure pathways to the public resulting from radioactive discharges to the aquatic environment and to provide the basic data from which critical groups can be identified. Preparation, conduct and interpretation of the results of surveys are described and possible errors obtained by the interview technique are highlighted. A means of verifying the results of interviews by a logging technique has been devised and some comparative results are presented. (author)

  3. Survey on the awareness of Czechoslovak students on energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, Jaroslav

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Information Centre in Prague took part in the international project surveying the knowledge and opinion of secondary school students. The survey was performed on the initiative of the Japan Atomic Energy Relations Organization (JAERO). It took place in June 1992 simultaneously in seven countries: Japan, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Czechoslovakia. The survey was aimed at finding out the level of acquaintance of secondary school students with issues of the environment, and at determining the attitude of the young to nuclear power. In Czechoslovakia 1030 students aged between 15 and 18 took part in the survey. The questionnaire contained 17 basic questions and a number of more detailed questions. Because of the amount of evaluated answers not all results are given here. The complete evaluation of the survey was handed over to JAERO

  4. Reduced-Item Food Audits Based on the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Susan N; Menzies, Tim J; Colburn, Trina A; Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The community food environment may contribute to obesity by influencing food choice. Store and restaurant audits are increasingly common methods for assessing food environments, but are time consuming and costly. A valid, reliable brief measurement tool is needed. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate reduced-item food environment audit tools for stores and restaurants. Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys for stores (NEMS-S) and restaurants (NEMS-R) were completed in 820 stores and 1,795 restaurants in West Virginia, San Diego, and Seattle. Data mining techniques (correlation-based feature selection and linear regression) were used to identify survey items highly correlated to total survey scores and produce reduced-item audit tools that were subsequently validated against full NEMS surveys. Regression coefficients were used as weights that were applied to reduced-item tool items to generate comparable scores to full NEMS surveys. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008-2013. The reduced-item tools included eight items for grocery, ten for convenience, seven for variety, and five for other stores; and 16 items for sit-down, 14 for fast casual, 19 for fast food, and 13 for specialty restaurants-10% of the full NEMS-S and 25% of the full NEMS-R. There were no significant differences in median scores for varying types of retail food outlets when compared to the full survey scores. Median in-store audit time was reduced 25%-50%. Reduced-item audit tools can reduce the burden and complexity of large-scale or repeated assessments of the retail food environment without compromising measurement quality. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Importance of dispersal and thermal environment for mycorrhizal communities: lessons from Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekberg, Ylva; Meadow, James; Rohr, Jason R; Redecker, Dirk; Zabinski, Catherine A

    2011-06-01

    The relative importance of dispersal and niche restrictions remains a controversial topic in community ecology, especially for microorganisms that are often assumed to be ubiquitous. We investigated the impact of these factors for the community assembly of the root-symbiont arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) by sampling roots from geothermal and nonthermal grasslands in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), followed by sequencing and RFLP of AMF ribosomal DNA. With the exception of an apparent generalist RFLP type closely related to Glomus intraradices, a distance-based redundancy analysis indicated that the AMF community composition correlated with soil pH or pH-driven changes in soil chemistry. This was unexpected, given the large differences in soil temperature and plant community composition between the geothermal and nonthermal grasslands. RFLP types were found in either the acidic geothermal grasslands or in the neutral to alkaline grasslands, one of which was geothermal. The direct effect of the soil chemical environment on the distribution of two AMF morphospecies isolated from acidic geothermal grasslands was supported in a controlled greenhouse experiment. Paraglomus occultum and Scutellospora pellucida were more beneficial to plants and formed significantly more spores when grown in acidic than in alkaline soil. Distance among grasslands, used as an estimate of dispersal limitations, was not a significant predictor of AMF community similarity within YNP, and most fungal taxa may be part of a metacommunity. The isolation of several viable AMF taxa from bison feces indicates that wide-ranging bison could be a vector for at least some RFLP types among grasslands within YNP. In support of classical niche theory and the Baas-Becking hypothesis, our results suggest that AMF are not limited by dispersal at the scale of YNP, but that the soil environment appears to be the primary factor affecting community composition and distribution.

  6. A Survey of Security Tools for the Industrial Control System Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Carl M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McCarty, Michael V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-12

    This report details the results of a survey conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to identify existing tools which could be used to prevent, detect, mitigate, or investigate a cyber-attack in an industrial control system (ICS) environment. This report compiles a list of potentially applicable tools and shows the coverage of the tools in an ICS architecture.

  7. A Survey of Security Tools for the Industrial Control System Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, Carl M.; McCarty, Michael V.

    2017-01-01

    This report details the results of a survey conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to identify existing tools which could be used to prevent, detect, mitigate, or investigate a cyber-attack in an industrial control system (ICS) environment. This report compiles a list of potentially applicable tools and shows the coverage of the tools in an ICS architecture.

  8. Radiological survey of the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard and Environs, Honolulu, Hawaii. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    This report presents results of the survey conducted by the Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility personnel to assess levels of environmental radioactivity resulting from maintenance and operation of nuclear-powered warships at the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard and Environs on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu

  9. Community Health Environment Scan Survey (CHESS): a novel tool that captures the impact of the built environment on lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Stevens, Denise; O'Connor-Duffany, Kathleen; Siegel, Karen; Gao, Yue

    2011-03-07

    Novel efforts and accompanying tools are needed to tackle the global burden of chronic disease. This paper presents an approach to describe the environments in which people live, work, and play. Community Health Environment Scan Survey (CHESS) is an empirical assessment tool that measures the availability and accessibility, of healthy lifestyle options lifestyle options. CHESS reveals existing community assets as well as opportunities for change, shaping community intervention planning efforts by focusing on community-relevant opportunities to address the three key risk factors for chronic disease (i.e. unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use). The CHESS tool was developed following a review of existing auditing tools and in consultation with experts. It is based on the social-ecological model and is adaptable to diverse settings in developed and developing countries throughout the world. For illustrative purposes, baseline results from the Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Mexico site are used, where the CHESS tool assessed 583 food stores and 168 restaurants. Comparisons between individual-level survey data from schools and community-level CHESS data are made to demonstrate the utility of the tool in strategically guiding intervention activities. The environments where people live, work, and play are key factors in determining their diet, levels of physical activity, and tobacco use. CHESS is the first tool of its kind that systematically and simultaneously examines how built environments encourage/discourage healthy eating, physical activity, and tobacco use. CHESS can help to design community interventions to prevent chronic disease and guide healthy urban planning. © 2011 Fiona Wong et al.

  10. Community Health Environment Scan Survey (CHESS: a novel tool that captures the impact of the built environment on lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Novel1 1This study was performed on behalf of the Community Interventions for Health (CIH collaboration. efforts and accompanying tools are needed to tackle the global burden of chronic disease. This paper presents an approach to describe the environments in which people live, work, and play. Community Health Environment Scan Survey (CHESS is an empirical assessment tool that measures the availability and accessibility, of healthy lifestyle options lifestyle options. CHESS reveals existing community assets as well as opportunities for change, shaping community intervention planning efforts by focusing on community-relevant opportunities to address the three key risk factors for chronic disease (i.e. unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use. Methods: The CHESS tool was developed following a review of existing auditing tools and in consultation with experts. It is based on the social-ecological model and is adaptable to diverse settings in developed and developing countries throughout the world. Results: For illustrative purposes, baseline results from the Community Interventions for Health (CIH Mexico site are used, where the CHESS tool assessed 583 food stores and 168 restaurants. Comparisons between individual-level survey data from schools and community-level CHESS data are made to demonstrate the utility of the tool in strategically guiding intervention activities. Conclusion: The environments where people live, work, and play are key factors in determining their diet, levels of physical activity, and tobacco use. CHESS is the first tool of its kind that systematically and simultaneously examines how built environments encourage/discourage healthy eating, physical activity, and tobacco use. CHESS can help to design community interventions to prevent chronic disease and guide healthy urban planning.

  11. The relationship between hospital work environment and nurse outcomes in Guangdong, China: a nurse questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; You, Li-Ming; Chen, Shao-Xian; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Li-Feng; Aiken, Linda H

    2012-05-01

    This study examines the relationship between hospital work environments and job satisfaction, job-related burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Guangdong province, China. The nursing shortage is an urgent global problem and also of concern in China. Studies in Western countries have shown that better work environments are associated with higher nurse satisfaction and lower burnout, thereby improving retention and lowering turnover rates. However, there is little research on the relationship between nurse work environments and nurse outcomes in China. This is a cross-sectional study. Survey data were collected from 1104 bedside nurses in 89 medical, surgical and intensive care units in 21 hospitals across the Guangdong province in China. Stratified convenience sampling was used to select hospitals, and systematic sampling was used to select units. All staff nurses working on participating units were surveyed. The China Hospital Nurse Survey, including the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and Maslach Burnout Inventory, was employed to collect data from nurses. Statistical significance level was set at 0·05. Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses experienced high burnout, and 54% were dissatisfied with their jobs. Improving nurses' work environments from poor to better was associated with a 50% decrease in job dissatisfaction and a 33% decrease in job-related burnout among nurses. Burnout and job dissatisfaction are high among hospital nurses in Guangdong province, China. Better work environments for nurses were associated with decreased job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout, which may successfully address the nursing shortage in China. The findings of this study indicate that improving work environments is essential to deal with the nursing shortage; the findings provide motivation for nurse managers and policy makers to improve work environments of hospital nurses in China. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. [A survey on ecological environment of wild Adiantum reniforme var. sinense in Three Gorges Reservoir region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-de; Jia, Han; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating the ecological environment Adiantum reniforme var. sinense of in Three Gorges Reservoir region, and providing a reference basis for the protection of resources and artificial cultivation of A. reniforme var. sinense. By using the method of investigation, field survey and experimental analysis, the vegetation, natural geographical environment, climate, soil nutrients of A. reniforme var. sinense were studied and analyzed. The survey found that A. reniforme var. sinense distribution area reduced fast in Three Gorges region, a lot of distribution has diminished and vanished due to excessive digging, currently only in 3 towns of Wanzhou there exist 4 wild distribution areas. The growth of A. reniforme var. sinense needs an environment with low altitude, steep slope and thin soil, northeast slope, canopy height and warm and humid climate characteristics, and the soil in distribution has the characteristics of high organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium, and low available phosphorus content. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Work environment and health in the fishing fleet: results from a survey amongst Norwegian fishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie; Thorvaldsen, Trine; Holmen, Ingunn M; Øren, Anita

    Fishery is an important industry in Norway. Compared to other industries the number of occupational accidents is high. Fishers are exposed to a range of unfavourable working conditions, but there is limited research-based knowledge about the interaction between working conditions and health. The aim of the article is to study fishers' 1) work-related exposures and health complaints, 2) sickness absence, 3) subjective perception of health status and 3) level of job satisfaction. Data was gathered through a telephone survey. The survey included questions about exposure, health complaints, health status and job satisfaction. Methods for analysis were descriptive statistics and relative risk (RR). A total of 830 full-time fishers were interviewed. Coastal fishers are more exposed to factors such as climatic (RR = 1.546, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.311-1.823), ergonomic (RR = 1.539, 95% CI 1.293-1.833) and processing (RR = 2.119, 95% CI 1.847-2.431), compared to other groups of fishers. Coastal fishers are also more likely to experience musculoskeletal problems (RR = 1.623, 95% CI 1.139-2.314), sickness absence (RR = 1.337, 95% CI 1.081-1.655) and to perceive their own health as poor (RR = 2.155, 95% CI 1.119-4.152). Purse sein fishers are less exposed to climatic (RR = 0.777, 95% CI 0.633-0.953), ergonomic (RR = 0.617, 95% CI 0.487-0.783) and processing (RR = 0.292, 95% CI 0.221-0.385) factors and are less likely to experience sickness absence (RR = 0.635, 95% CI 0.479-0.840). In terms of job satisfaction, 99% if our respondents enjoy their work. Norwegian fishers have a high degree of job satisfaction and overall good health. Challenges regarding health complaints and exposures in the working environment were identified. This may be helpful for the industry, showing where measures should be implemented to prevent exposure, illness and sickness absence. Findings may also serve as a basis for future intervention studies aimed at promoting healthy working environments

  14. Casting the Die before the Die Is Cast: The Importance of the Home Numeracy Environment for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Frank; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical competencies are important not only for academic achievement at school but also for professional success later in life. Although we know a lot about the impact of "Home Literacy Environment" on the development of early linguistic competencies, research on "Home Numeracy Environment" (HNE) and the assessment of its…

  15. A social survey on the noise impact in open-plan working environments in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian; Jiao, Fenglei

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal noise impact in open-plan working environments in China, through a series of questionnaire surveys and acoustic measurements in typical open-plan working environments. It has been found that compared to other physical environmental factors in open-plan working environments, people are much less satisfied with the acoustic environment. The noise impact in the surveyed working environments is rather significant, in terms of sound level inside the office, understanding of colleagues' conversation, and the use of background music such as music players. About 30-50% of the interviewees think that various noise sources inside and outside offices are 'very disturbing' and 'disturbing', and the most annoying sounds include noises from outside, ventilation systems, office equipment, and keyboard typing. Using higher panels to separate work space, or working in enclosed offices, are regarded as effective improvement measures, whereas introducing natural sounds to mask unwanted sounds seems to be not preferable. There are significant correlations between the evaluation of acoustic environment and office symptoms, including hypersensitivity to loud sounds, easily getting tired and depression. There are also significant correlations between evaluation of various acoustics-related factors and certain statements relating to job satisfaction, including sensitivity to noise, as well as whether conversations could be heard by colleagues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The importance of standardized observations to evaluate nutritional care quality in the survey process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnelle, John F; Bertrand, Rosanna; Hurd, Donna; White, Alan; Squires, David; Feuerberg, Marvin; Hickey, Kelly; Simmons, Sandra F

    2009-10-01

    Guidelines written for government surveyors who assess nursing home (NH) compliance with federal standards contain instructions to observe the quality of mealtime assistance. However, these instructions are vague and no protocol is provided for surveyors to record observational data. This study compared government survey staff observations of mealtime assistance quality to observations by research staff using a standardized protocol that met basic standards for accurate behavioral measurement. Survey staff used either the observation instructions in the standard survey process or those written for the revised Quality Improvement Survey (QIS). Trained research staff observed mealtime care in 20 NHs in 5 states during the same time period that survey staff evaluated care in the same facilities, although it could not be determined if survey and research staff observed the same residents during the same meals. Ten NHs were evaluated by government surveyors using the QIS survey instructions and 10 NHs were evaluated by surveyors using the standard survey instructions. Research staff observations using a standardized observation protocol identified a higher proportion of residents receiving inadequate feeding assistance during meals relative to survey staff using either the standard or QIS survey instructions. For example, more than 50% of the residents who ate less than half of their meals based on research staff observation were not offered an alternative to the served meal, and the lack of alternatives, or meal substitutions, was common in all 20 NHs. In comparison, the QIS survey teams documented only 2 instances when meal substitutes were not offered in 10 NHs and the standard survey teams documented no instances in 10 NHs. Standardized mealtime observations by research staff revealed feeding assistance care quality issues in all 20 study NHs. Surveyors following the instructions in either the standard or revised QIS surveys did not detect most of these care quality

  17. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin [CEOU—Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Chapman, Scott [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Pak, Soojong [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Edge, Alastair, E-mail: mkarouzos@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  18. The Importance and Prevalence of Modern Forms of Staff Training in the Corporate Environments of Transition Countries: The Case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovič-Hribernik Tanja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Compared with traditional forms of education and training, e-learning is gaining increasing importance not only within the academic setting of formal education, but also in the corporate environment. Concerning the latter, it is evident that with increasing pressure on cost efficiency and competitiveness, in addition to the current harsh financial and economic conditions, companies are being challenged and this tends to change their behaviour patterns. In this article, the results of a survey are presented. The survey focused on the current status and possible future trends of corporate e-learning methods in Slovenia, which is among the so-called transition countries. This survey brings more than one aspect of this issue to light. The findings show increasing rates of acceptance of the e-learning education model by the local corporate environment. Nevertheless, significant gaps are evident when compared with the most advanced European and worldwide economies in terms of the widespread use of comprehensive e-learning models and the latest e-learning technologies, such as LMS systems. Furthermore, the survey reveals that e-learning is perceived by companies as cost efficient and flexible, but on the other hand it is not yet perceived to contribute to a higher quality level of staff training when compared with traditional methods.

  19. The importance of environment on respiratory genotype/phenotype relationships in the Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candelaria, P V; Backer, Vibeke; Khoo, S-K

    2010-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences and their interactions are central to asthma pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different macro-environments on asthma genotype-phenotype associations in two geographically separated populations with common ancestry....

  20. The importance of environment on respiratory genotype/phenotype relationships in the Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candelaria, P V; Backer, V; Khoo, S-K

    2010-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences and their interactions are central to asthma pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different macro-environments on asthma genotype-phenotype associations in two geographically separated populations with common ancestry.......Genetic and environmental influences and their interactions are central to asthma pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different macro-environments on asthma genotype-phenotype associations in two geographically separated populations with common ancestry....

  1. Development and Validation of Culture-Sensitive Physics Learning Environment Survey (CS-PLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Paz E. Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study combined qualitative approaches with quantitative research design to come up with a survey instrument called Culture-Sensitive Physics Learning Environment Survey (CS-PLES.This survey instrument is intended to extract the learners’ beliefs and expectations on the integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts. Significant contribution of the instrument can be traced to establishing and defining the constructs and categories on how curriculum localization and context-based science learning can be developed aligned with students’ expectations and beliefs. The development process employed non-conventional processes adopted from literature which included pilot study to identify pre-deterministic constructs and specific categories for the items to be included in the survey. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and factor analysis to establish the categories or constructs of the survey instruments. Reliability measures of the instrument and its respective constructs were established for standardization. These categories were intended to aid researchers for an in-depth analysis when the instrument is administered for its purpose. The raw statistical categories were qualitatively paralleled with the pre-deterministic constructs to establish congruence of the survey tool to Instructional Congruence Framework (ICF.

  2. Establishing the importance of human health risk assessment for metals and metalloids in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, A; González-Muñoz, M J; Lobo-Bedmar, M C

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development, industrialisation, and urbanisation have resulted in serious contamination of soil by metals and metalloids from anthropogenic sources in many areas of the world, either directly or indirectly. Exponential urban and economic development has resulted in human populations settling in urban areas and as a result being exposed to these pollutants. Depending on the nature of the contaminant, contaminated urban soils can have a deleterious effect on the health of exposed populations and may require decontamination, recovery, remediation and restoration. Therefore, human health risk assessments in urban environments are very important. In the case of Spain, there are few studies regarding risk assessment of trace elements in urban soils, and those that exist have been derived mainly from areas potentially exposed to industrial contamination or in the vicinity of point pollution. The present study analysed Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, V and Zn soil concentrations in and around the city of Alcalá de Henares (35 km NE of Madrid). Soil samples were collected in public parks and recreation areas within the city and in an industrial area on the periphery of the city. From these results, an assessment of the health risk for the population was performed following the methodology described by the US EPA (1989). In general, it was observed that there could be a potential increased risk of developing cancer over a lifetime from exposure to arsenic (As) through ingestion of the soils studied (oral intake), as well as an increased risk of cancer due to inhalation of chromium (Cr) present in re-suspended soils from the industrial area. Our group has previously reported (Granero and Domingo, 2002; Peña-Fernández et al., 2003) that there was an increased risk of developing cancer following exposure to As in the same soils in a previous study. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the levels of contaminants in these soils, especially As and Cr

  3. Social science literature on the environment: review and prospects for energy studies. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    Much of the social science literature on environment is of recent origin and represents the response of the social science research community to a complex societal problem in which technology is a major factor. Energy represents another such problem to which the social science research community is now turning its attention. Because energy problems and environment problems have some similarities and because energy-conversion processes have large effects on the environment, a review of the social science literature on environment was undertaken. The purposes of this review are as follows: (1) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the concepts developed in social science research on the environment; (2) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the methodologies utilized in social science research on the environment; and (3) to study the extent to which the results of social science research on the environment have contributed to the development of policy. The first two items above receive major attention in this preliminary literature survey. 50 references.

  4. Nationwide Survey of Work Environment, Work-Life Balance and Burnout among Psychiatrists in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. AIMS: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. METHOD: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry depart...

  5. A survey of the educational environment for oncologists as perceived by surgical oncology professionals in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are Chandrakanth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current educational environment may need enhancement to tackle the rising cancer burden in India. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of Surgical Oncologists to identify their perceptions of the current state of Oncology education in India. Methods An Institutional Review Board approved questionnaire was developed to target the audience of the 2009 annual meeting of the Indian Association of Surgical Oncology in India. The survey collected demographic information and asked respondents to provide their opinions about Oncology education in India. Results A total of 205 out of 408 attendee's participated in the survey with a 42.7% response rate. The majority of respondents felt that Oncology education was poor to fair during medical school (75%, residency (56% and for practicing physicians (71%. The majority of participants also felt that the quality of continuing medical education was poor and that minimal emphasis was placed on evidence based medicine. Conclusions The results of our survey demonstrate that the majority of respondents feel that the current educational environment for Oncology in India should be enhanced. The study identified perceptions of several gaps and needs, which can be the targets for implementing measures to enhance the training of Oncology professionals.

  6. Modelling the relationship between soil color and particle size for soil survey in Ferralsol environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kone

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil texture is an important property for evaluating its inherent fertility especially by using pedo-transfers functions requiring particle size data. However, there is no existing quantitative method for in situ estimation of soil particle size, delaying judgement of soil chemical properties in the field. For this purpose, laboratory particle size analyses of 1028 samples from 281 Ferralsol profiles, located between latitudes 7º N and 10º N in Côte d’Ivoire and their respective colour notation by Munsell chart were used to generate prediction models. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis by Group was processed to identify clay, sand and silt contents in the soil based on color hue (2.5YR, 5YR, 7.5YR, and 10YR and Chroma (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. The evaluation was conducted for each horizon coded as H1 (0-20 cm, H2 (20-60 cm, H3 (60-80 cm and H4 (80-150 cm and used as grouping variables. Highly significant (P< 0.001 models were identified for clay and sand. These models were used to estimate successfully clay and sand contents for other Ferralsol samples by comparing calculated and measured mean using the null hypothesis of difference and Tukey’s tests. They were accurate for at all depths, except 80 - 150 cm, for sand in 10YR soils. The method was deemed appropriate for in situ estimation of soil particle size contents in Ferralsol environment for improving reconnaissance agricultural soil surveys.

  7. A Research Review: The Importance of Families and the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Parents are a child's first educator. A child's family and home environment has a strong impact on his/her language and literacy development and educational achievement. This impact is stronger during the child's early years but continues throughout their school years. Many background variables affect the impact of the family and home environment…

  8. The Importance of Providing Multiple-Channel Sections in Dredging Activities to Improve Fish Habitat Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Chiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After Typhoon Morakot, dredging engineering was conducted while taking the safety of humans and structures into consideration, but partial stream reaches were formed in the multiple-channel sections in Cishan Stream because of anthropogenic and natural influences. This study mainly explores the distribution of each fish species in both the multiple- and single-channel sections in the Cishan Stream. Parts of the environments did not exhibit significant differences according to a one-way ANOVA comparing the multiple- and single-channel sections, but certain areas of the multiple-channel sections had more diverse habitats. Each fish species was widely distributed by non-metric multidimensional scaling in the multiple-channel sections as compared to those in the single-channel sections. In addition, according to the principal component analysis, each fish species has a preferred environment, and all of them have a wide choice of habitat environments in the multiple-channel sections. Finally, the existence of multiple-channel sections could significantly affect the existence of the fish species under consideration in this study. However, no environmental factors were found to have an influence on fish species in the single-channel sections, with the exception of Rhinogobius nantaiensis. The results show that providing multiple-channel sections in dredging activities could improve fish habitat environments.

  9. More than words: On the importance of picture-text congruence in the online environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; de Vries, Pieter Walter; van Venrooij, Xaviera G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses effects of picture–text congruence in the online environment on consumer response. Based on recent theorizing on processing fluency, it is argued that congruence among symbolic meanings connoted by pictorial and textual elements of web design increases processing fluency, in

  10. Social Adjustment of College Freshmen: The Importance of Gender and Living Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochs, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between living environment, gender and both overall adjustment to college and social adjustment in freshmen students was examined in this study. The College Adjustment Scales were administered to 511 freshmen students living in on-campus housing. There were 259 students living in Freshmen Year Experience (FYE) Halls verses 252…

  11. The importance of the social environment for physically active lifestyle: results from an international study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, T.; Rütten, A.; Nutbeam, D.; Bauman, A.; Kannas, L.; Abel, T.; Lüschen, G.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2001-01-01

    Physically active lifestyles are regularly associated with improved health and quality of life. Differences in lifestyles in society can partly be understood through the differences in the social and physical environment. This study examines the relationships between reported physical activity, and

  12. Breathing thermal manikin for indoor environment assessment: Important characteristics and requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2003-01-01

    Recently breathing thermal manikins have been developed and used for indoor environment measurement, evaluation and optimization as well as validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions of airflow around a human body. Advances in the assessment of occupants¿ thermal comfort...... and shape of body segments, control mode, breathing simulation, etc. are discussed and specified in this paper....

  13. The importance of size in private equity : Evidence from a survey of limited partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, Marco; Phalippou, L.

    Using a comprehensive survey, we show that investors with a larger capital allocation to private equity are more specialized − measured by the degree to which the investor focuses on private equity rather than other classes of investments − and have a wider scope of due diligence and investment

  14. Residents' barometer 2010. Residents' survey on residential environments in Finland; Asukasbarometri 2010. Asukaskysely suomalaisista asuinympaeristoeistae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandell, A.

    2011-12-15

    The Residents' Barometer 2010 is a survey on the quality of Finnish residential environments in settlements with a population of 10,000 or more. The survey was carried out in cooperation with Statistics Finland. Implemented for the third time, the Residents' Barometer is used by the environmental administration to monitor the quality of the living environment. The first Residents' Barometer survey was conducted in 1998, and the second in 2004. While the majority of questions remained the same, new topical questions were included, such as those on the environmental friendliness of housing choices. In general, residents are highly satisfied with their living environment: of the respondents, 97 per cent find their residential area pleasant and the degree of satisfaction has increased. Key factors in this include peacefulness, natural environment, location and transport connections, alongside the supply of services and leisure activities. Factors causing most discomfort are traffic-related disturbances and problems. The supply of basic services in residential areas remained largely unchanged in large, densely populated areas targeted by the survey. The most sought-after additional services include a grocery store, other shops and public transport. There was a considerable decline in the number of people wishing for banking and postal services, whereas the number of those expressing the desire for public transport almost doubled. In general, people are satisfied with parks and outdoor recreation areas and more dissatisfied with the condition of their yards. Residents of densely built areas with blocks of flats, particularly residents of rented apartments, are most dissatisfied with their yard. Car ownership, the possibility to use a car, and using a car for commuting to work and shops has become more common, as the share of walking and public transport has decreased. The average distance commuted to work has increased. Dissatisfaction with public

  15. Importance of lunar and temporal conditions for spotlight surveys of adult black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Jachowski, David S.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Biggins, Dean E.

    2012-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) spend most daylight hours underground in prairie dog (Cynomys) burrows and exhibit aboveground movements primarily at night. Moonlight can influence the activity patterns of ferrets and, consequently, might influence the efficiency of spotlight surveys used by biologists to monitor ferret populations. We related detection of adult ferrets during postbreeding spotlight surveys to lunar and temporal conditions. We most frequently located ferrets during surveys in which the moon breached the horizon. The data suggested intersexual differences in response to moonlight. We located male ferrets most frequently during nights with greater moon illumination, but we did not detect a correlation between moon illumination and spotlight detection of female ferrets. In general, moonlight could facilitate aboveground navigation by ferrets. However, it seems activity under bright moonlight could be costly for female ferrets while they raise young. Detection of ferrets also varied among months. We detected female ferrets most frequently in August–September, when mothers increase hunting efforts to acquire prey for growing offspring (kits). Detection of adult female ferrets declined in October, when kits were likely independent of their mother. We located male ferrets most frequently in September–October, when males might increase activity to monitor female ferrets and male competitors. Consideration of lunar and temporal influences and standardization of postbreeding surveys could enhance site-specific assessment of reintroduction success and across-site assessment of species recoveiy progress. We suggest that postbreeding surveys for ferrets should be enhanced by concentrating efforts in August–September during moonlit nights when the moon is above the horizon.

  16. Cancer treatment in childhood and testicular function: the importance of the somatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Hutka, Marsida

    2018-01-01

    Testicular function and future fertility may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. Whilst survival of the germ (stem) cells is critical for ensuring the potential for fertility in these patients, the somatic cell populations also play a crucial role in providing a suitable environment to support germ cell maintenance and subsequent development. Regulation of the spermatogonial germ-stem cell niche involves many signalling pathways with hormonal influence from the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In this review, we describe the somatic cell populations that comprise the testicular germ-stem cell niche in humans and how they may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. We also discuss the experimental models that may be utilized to manipulate the somatic environment and report the results of studies that investigate the potential role of somatic cells in the protection of the germ cells in the testis from cancer treatment. PMID:29351905

  17. Importance of health and environment as quality traits in the buying decision of organic products

    OpenAIRE

    Mondelaers, Koen; Verbeke, Wim; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to explore consumer preference for fresh vegetables labelled as organic in combination with health and environment related quality traits. The study decomposes organic farming into its main quality aspects and measures consumers' preference structure for organic, in general, and for specific organic quality traits in particular. Design/methodology/approach - By means of stated choice preference modelling, the following hypotheses are tested: consumers prefer healt...

  18. Importance of Survey Design for Studying the Epidemiology of Emerging Tobacco Product Use Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Manderski, Michelle T B; Giovenco, Daniel P; Giovino, Gary A

    2017-08-15

    Accurate surveillance is critical for monitoring the epidemiology of emerging tobacco products in the United States, and survey science suggests that survey response format can impact prevalence estimates. We utilized data from the 2014 New Jersey Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 3,909) to compare estimates of the prevalence of 4 behaviors (ever hookah use, current hookah use, ever e-cigarette use, and current e-cigarette use) among New Jersey high school students, as assessed using "check-all-that-apply" questions, with estimates measured by means of "forced-choice" questions. Measurement discrepancies were apparent for all 4 outcomes, with the forced-choice questions yielding prevalence estimates approximately twice those of the check-all-that-apply questions, and agreement was fair to moderate. The sensitivity of the check-all-that-apply questions, treating the forced-choice format as the "gold standard," ranged from 38.1% (current hookah use) to 58.3% (ever e-cigarette use), indicating substantial false-negative rates. These findings highlight the impact of question response format on prevalence estimates of emerging tobacco products among youth and suggest that estimates generated by means of check-all-that-apply questions may be biased downward. Alternative survey designs should be considered to avoid check-all-that-apply response formats, and researchers should use caution when interpreting tobacco use data obtained from check-all-that-apply formats. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Integrated geophysical surveys to assess the structural conditions of a karstic cave of archaeological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Leucci

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical survey using both the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT and ground-penetrating radar (GPR methods was undertaken over a cave of great archaeological interest in southern Italy. The survey was performed to assess the stability of the carbonate rock roof of the cave. A geophysical survey was preferred to boreholes and geotechnical tests, in order to avoid the risk of mass movements. The interpretation of integrated data from ERT and GPR resulted in an evaluation of some of the electromagnetic (EM characteristics (such as the EM wave velocity and the detection of discontinuities (fractures in the carbonate rock. It is well known that rock fractures constitute a serious problem in cave maintenance, and progressive cracking within the bed rock is considered to be one of the main causes of collapse. An analysis of the back-scattered energy was also required for the GPR data interpretation. Cracks within the bedrock were detected to a depth of about 2 m by using GPR, which allowed for the identification of the loosened zone around the cave.

  20. EFFECTS OF HIGH ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL BRANCHES ON HUMAN LIFE QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Özarslan, Doguş Deniz; Cumbul Altay, Melek; Arabaci, Aliye; Altay, H. Fatih; Sivri, Nüket

    2012-01-01

    Importance of industrialization which has a role in determination of the civilization levels of societies is increasing everyday due to meet rapidly increasing demands. However this process has led up to environmental problems with time and thus effects on quality of human life also brought along. In this study, three sectors were selected among different branches of industry according to their economical importance in Turkey. These sectors are paper, metal and construction chemicals industry...

  1. Statistical survey of the consumption of the products from seminatural environment in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatova, I.; Tecl, J.

    2001-01-01

    The central aspect of the work in international project SAVEC (Spatial Analysis of Vulnerable Ecosystems in Central Europe) is the identification of vulnerable areas. These are areas which, by virtue of the processes governing the transfer of radionuclides through food- chains, deliver high radionuclide fluxes to man. Identification of vulnerable areas is essential in establishing where intervention levels are likely to be exceeded in the event of a nuclear accident. Vulnerable areas could be identified using many criteria, a.o. high production rates of certain foodstuffs which substantially accumulate specific radionuclide. In addition to environmental factors, social factors will also contribute to vulnerability, in particular, dietary preferences can lead to the ingestion of more contaminated foodstuffs. Since Chernobyl accident, it is well known fact that in the Czech Republic, the most contaminated foodstuff is coming from semi-natural ecosystem (mushroom, forest berries and game). However, critical group as to the size and composition was not quantitatively evaluated up to now. Therefore, in the frame of SAVEC project, a statistical survey with the aim of finding critical group of inhabitants in the Czech Republic was performed. The survey was performed by a specialised marketing agency AMASIA. It was aimed at the consumption of products from semi-natural environment -mushrooms, forest berries and game. Two independent sub-surveys were performed. The first one, aimed at randomly selected households from phone directory, had a goal to obtain 1500 interviews among the whole population. In individual regions, number of respondent was selected according to the number of inhabitants of the region. The second survey was aimed at the hunters and their households. Mostly members of the hunting association were included into survey as there is only small number of professional hunters in the Czech Republic. The criterion was chosen that the respondent has to be hunter

  2. Alcohol and tobacco use during adolescence: the importance of the family mealtime environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2010-05-01

    Despite evidence that frequent family meals are associated with low levels of substance use during adolescence, prior studies have not examined the role of how adolescents perceive mealtimes. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, perceived priority, atmosphere and structure of mealtimes as predictors of alcohol and tobacco consumption, using data from 550 adolescents (50% boys; age range 11-16). Frequent family meals were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol and tobacco use. However, this association was explained by adolescents' perception of the atmosphere at mealtimes. These findings suggest adolescents' perception of the mealtime environment contributes to family meals' protective effect.

  3. SMEs Financing as an Important Factor of Business Environment in Slovak Republic Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Koisova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of every healthy economy is to reduce differences between regions in economic life, living standards and employment. It is a difficult task for most countries and especially in the Slovak Republic, because of the hard-pressed situation in decreasing regional differences. Paper's aim was to determine whether from a regional perspective, exist differences between entrepreneurs' opinion in obtaining loans in Slovak banks. In this context; we focused on the perception of bank involvement with SMEs, the transparency of bank lending, the information gap in bank loan terms and perception of the contemporary loan terms compared with the past ones. We conducted the survey on the sample of 541 respondents, in 2016. We found that more than one-half of them did not believe in bank transparency and about the same number considered information gap as significant. Approximately 60% of entrepreneurs thought that credit conditions are more acceptable than the past ones.

  4. An international survey of cleaning and disinfection practices in the healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenters, Nikki; Gottlieb, Thomas; Hopman, Joost; Mehtar, Shaheen; Schweizer, Marin L; Tartari, Ermira; Huijskens, E G W; Voss, Andreas

    2018-05-14

    Antimicrobial resistance has become an urgent global health priority. Basic hygiene practices and cleaning and disinfection of the hospital environment are key in preventing pathogen cross-transmission. To our knowledge no studies have assessed the worldwide differences in cleaning and disinfection practices in healthcare facilities. The electronic survey described here was developed in order to evaluate differences in healthcare facility cleaning practices around the world. The International Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (ISAC, formerly ISC), Infection Prevention and Control work group developed a survey with 30 multiple-choice questions. The questions were designed to assess the current cleaning practices in healthcare settings around the world. A total of 110 healthcare professionals, representing 23 countries participated in the online survey. In 96% of the facilities a written cleaning policy was present. Training of cleaning staff occurred in 70% of the facilities at the start of employment. Cleaning practices and monitoring of these practices varied. In summary, the survey enabled assessment and recognition of widely differing global practices in approaches to environmental cleaning and disinfection. Development of guideline recommendations for cleaning and disinfection could improve practices and set minimum standards worldwide. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineers' Role in the Management of Working Environment in Danish Enterprises: Results of a National Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Hansen, Nanette Juhler; Høgsbo, Mette Maribo

    1998-01-01

    training at engineering schools are very limited. As the engineers find it very important to teach working environment at engineering schools it must be considered what kind of curriculum would be most effective for the engineering career. Finally, the engineers do not perceive that management or others......This study confirms that many engineers are not aware that they influence the working environment of other people through their engineering. Also, it indicates that the extent of influence dependends on engineering domain and task content. Many engineers and enterprises have an espoused theory...... expressing a positive attitude towards working environment considerations in engineering. However, the theory-in-action seems to be quite different. Engineers do not know what to do in relation to working environment considerations. They mainly point to solidifying their knowledge in the area combined...

  6. Technology in the Pharmacy Learning Environment: Surveys of Use and Misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley J. Begley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of technology in the classroom may have positive and negative effects on learning. The purpose of this investigation was twofold: to identify the effect technology is having on the pharmacy learning environment; and, to assess students' use of technology during class time for non-academic purposes. This study included a national cross-sectional survey as well as a single, college-specific survey. The national survey had a faculty response rate of 71.2%. Of the responders, approximately 61% identified significant problems related to students' use of technology in the pharmacy learning environment. Cell phones were a recognized concern and more than 90% of programs have chosen to restrict cell phone use in the classroom. The single college survey examining technology use during class for non-academic purposes had a student response rate of 87% and faculty response rate of 100%. Students and faculty members disagreed regarding the negative effects of technology use during class for non-academic purposes. Notably, 16% of students acknowledged their in-class use of technology for non-academic purposes had been disruptive to their learning, as compared to 95.7% of faculty. According to students, common reasons for off-task technology use included checking e-mail/text messages (75.1%, lack of engagement (58.1%, multitasking (56.2%, and accessing social media sites (33%. Faculty and students were asked about enforcement of technology policy. More faculty than students supported policy enforcement by faculty (65.2% versus 22.8%, respectively; p<0.001 as well as policy enforcement by students (78.3% versus 31.9%, respectively; p<0.001. Overall, technology use during class for non-academic purposes was common. Many schools and colleges of pharmacy are developing approaches to address these evolving issues by revising their technology use policies.   Type: Original Research

  7. Work Placements as Learning Environments for Patient Safety: Finnish and British Preregistration Nursing Students' Important Learning Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    Learning to ensure patient safety in complex health care environments is an internationally recognised concern. This article explores and compares Finnish (n = 22) and British (n = 32) pre-registration nursing students' important learning events about patient safety from their work placements in health care organisations. Written descriptions were…

  8. Principals' Perceptions of Social Networking Access, Its Relationship to Cyberbullying, the Importance of Student Achievement, and the School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsel, Andrae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the principals' perceptions of social networking access and its relationship to cyberbullying, the importance of student achievement, and the school environment across the United States. This research provides some evidence on how principals perceive and understand the threat of cyberbullying and its…

  9. The competitive advantage of nations: the importance of the national environment for strategic management in the EC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); T. Elfring (Tom); P. de Wolf (Peter)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractSummary: In this paper we investigate the usefulness for strategic management of Porter's framework of analysis of the competitive advantage of nations in particular regarding the importance of the changing national environment within the EC. It appears that Porter's framework

  10. Student beliefs and learning environments: Developing a survey of factors related to conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Mary

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents a model for the type of classroom environment believed to facilitate scientific conceptual change. A survey based on this model contains items about students' motivational beliefs, their study approach and their perceptions of their teacher's actions and learning goal orientation. Results obtained from factor analyses, correlations and analyses of variance, based on responses from 113 students, suggest that an empowering interpersonal teacher-student relationship is related to a deep approach to learning, a positive attitude to science, and positive self-efficacy beliefs, and may be increased by a constructivist approach to teaching.

  11. The importance of the instructional guide in the design of virtual learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mercedes Gomez-Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The appropriation of information and communication technologies (ICTs in the processes of teaching and learning is one of the main challenges of educational institutions and teachers in the current society of knowledge, as responsible for a use Rational and meaningful use of its digital educational resources (RED. This involves developing competencies in the implementation of ICT in the classroom to enrich the learning environments. This article presents a reflection on the instructional guide as a didactic tool in the elaboration of RED that facilitates the design of these resources to support the activities of the classroom in these processes. This reflection is the result of a research on the subject carried out in a context of university teaching

  12. Nature vs. Nurture: Which Is More Important to Intelligence: Genes or Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Alexinia

    2000-01-01

    This brief article reviews the literature on the relative importance of genetic or environmental influences on intelligence. It concludes that: (1) giftedness has various expressions; (2) intelligence encompasses a wide range of human abilities; (3) both subjective and objective assessment techniques should be used; and (4) all ethnicities have…

  13. The Most Important Attributes of Entrepreneurs. Case Study of the Environment of Czech SMEs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belás J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to define and quantify the most important attributes of entrepreneurs in the segment of small and medium-sized enterprises. The partial objective was to compare the opinions of the entrepreneurs in relation to their gender, age and level of education. Scientific questions, defined in this paper, were verified through empirical research conducted in the Czech Republic in 2015 on a sample of 1,141 entrepreneurs. In our research, we found that entrepreneurs consider expertise, responsibility and perseverance to be the most important personal characteristics and skills. Propensity to risk and decisiveness are ranked right after them. The same group of three most important attributes is presented by all defined groups of entrepreneurs, which means that the assessment of the importance of these attributes remains the same regardless of gender, age and level of education of the entrepreneur. It is interesting that the weight of the expertise increases with the age of the entrepreneur. This trend is caused by the fact that men significantly more intensively presented this opinion. When evaluating the attitudes of entrepreneurs to other characteristics and skills no significant differences in relation to gender, age and education were identified.

  14. Metal Sulfide Cluster Complexes and their Biogeochemical Importance in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, George W.; Rickard, David T.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous clusters of FeS, ZnS and CuS constitute a major fraction of the dissolved metal load in anoxic oceanic, sedimentary, freshwater and deep ocean vent environments. Their ubiquity explains how metals are transported in anoxic environmental systems. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations show that they have high stability in oxic aqueous environments, and are also a significant fraction of the total metal load in oxic river waters. Molecular modeling indicates that the clusters are very similar to the basic structural elements of the first condensed phase forming from aqueous solutions in the Fe-S, Zn-S and Cu-S systems. The structure of the first condensed phase is determined by the structure of the cluster in solution. This provides an alternative explanation of Ostwald's Rule, where the most soluble, metastable phases form before the stable phases. For example, in the case of FeS, we showed that the first condensed phase is nanoparticulate, metastable mackinawite with a particle size of 2 nm consisting of about 150 FeS subunits, representing the end of a continuum between aqueous FeS clusters and condensed material. These metal sulfide clusters and nanoparticles are significant in biogeochemistry. Metal sulfide clusters reduce sulfide and metal toxicity and help drive ecology. FeS cluster formation drives vent ecology and AgS cluster formation detoxifies Ag in Daphnia magna neonates. We also note a new reaction between FeS and DNA and discuss the potential role of FeS clusters in denaturing DNA

  15. Survey of environment related monitoring programmes of international organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report is a summary of environment-related monitoring programmes of international governmental organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes. it presents the situation as of November 1986: This survey has been prepared by a consultant for the Secretariat as a background document for the second meeting of the Environment Experts, Economic Summit in Munich, November 1986. It serves information purposes only. No claim for completeness is intended. This report may also prove to be helpful for administrators and the scientific community as regards gaining knowledge on present arrangements, approaches and environmental activities in the framework of international organizations. In this light, the present report could facilitate communication and progress in solving pressing environmental problems on the international level. (orig.)

  16. Solid Lubricants and Coatings for Extreme Environments: State-of-the-Art Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to survey anticipated requirements for solid lubricants in lunar and Martian environments, as well as the effects of these environments on lubricants and their performance and durability. The success of habitats and vehicles on the Moon and Mars, and ultimately, of the human exploration of and permanent human presence on the Moon and Mars, are critically dependent on the correct and reliable operation of many moving mechanical assemblies and tribological components. The coefficient of friction and lifetime of any lubricant generally vary with the environment, and lubricants have very different characteristics under different conditions. It is essential, therefore, to select the right lubrication technique and lubricant for each mechanical and tribological application. Several environmental factors are hazardous to performance integrity on the Moon and Mars. Potential threats common to both the Moon and Mars are low ambient temperatures, wide daily temperature swings (thermal cycling), solar flux, cosmic radiation, and large quantities of dust. The surface of Mars has the additional challenges of dust storms, winds, and a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Solid lubricants and coatings are needed for lunar and Martian applications, where liquid lubricants are ineffective and undesirable, and these lubricants must perform well in the extreme environments of the Moon, Mars, and space, as well as on Earth, where they will be assembled and tested. No solid lubricants and coatings and their systems currently exist or have been validated that meet these requirements, so new solid lubricants must be designed and validated for these applications.

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN A CHANGING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Mironescu

    2013-01-01

    Change is a factor of impact on managerial functions especially upon those related to the coordination and training of the human resources. Change management is a broad spectrum of means, referring to different types of change , however, it is generally used in the processing management and in the strategic management, in the information management , including the electronic one. The analysis of changes inside the organization is very important , these changes allow the organizations to be mo...

  18. Import and visualization of clinical medical imagery into multiuser VR environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrle, Andreas H.; Freysinger, Wolfgang; Kikinis, Ron; Gunkel, Andreas; Kral, Florian

    2005-03-01

    The graphical representation of three-dimensional data obtained from tomographic imaging has been the central problem since this technology is available. Neither the representation as a set of two-dimensional slices nor the 2D projection of three-dimensional models yields satisfactory results. In this paper a way is outlined which permits the investigation of volumetric clinical data obtained from standard CT, MR, PET, SPECT or experimental very high resolution CT-scanners in a three dimensional environment within a few worksteps. Volumetric datasets are converted into surface data (segmentation process) using the 3D-Slicer software tool and saved as .vtk files and exported as a collection of primitives in any common file format (.iv, .pfb). Subsequently this files can be displayed and manipulated in the CAVE virtual reality center. The CAVE is a multiuser walkable virtual room consisting of several walls on which stereoscopic images are projected by rear panel beamers. Adequate tracking of the head position and separate image calculation for each eye yields a vivid impression for one or several users. With the use of a seperately tracked 6D joystick manipulations such as rotation, translation, zooming, decomposition or highlighting can be done intuitively. The usage of the CAVE technology opens new possibilities especially in surgical training ("hands-on-effect") and as an educational tool (availability of pathological data). Unlike concurring technologies the CAVE permits a walk-through into the virtual scene but preserves enough physical perception to allow interaction between multiple users, e.g. gestures and movements. By training in a virtual environment on one hand the learning process of students in complex anatomic findings may be improved considerably and on the other hand unaccustomed views such as the one through a microscope or endoscope can be trained in advance. The availability of low-cost PC based CAVE-like systems and the rapidly decreasing price

  19. The First Survey of Forensically Important Entomofauna Collected from Medicolegal Autopsies in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Eon Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic entomology applies insect evidence to legal problems such as the estimation of minimum postmortem interval (mPMI. For this purpose, knowledge of the insect fauna that are attracted to human cadavers in each geographic region is a prerequisite. Despite many studies investigating the insect fauna attracted to meat, there has been no survey of the entomofauna on human cadavers in the East Asian temperate climate zone, particularly in Korea. Therefore, this study reports the entomofauna collected from medicolegal autopsies in northeastern Seoul and its suburbs. Insect samples were collected from 35 medicolegal autopsies in 2010, 2011, and 2013. Molecular and morphological methods were utilized for taxonomic identification. Among 1398 individual samples belonging to 3 orders, 13 families, 18 genera, and 32 species, the dominant family and species were Calliphoridae and Lucilia sericata, respectively. Despite its limited scale, this study provides a snapshot of the general entomofauna that are attracted to human cadavers in this region.

  20. The First Survey of Forensically Important Entomofauna Collected from Medicolegal Autopsies in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Eon; Lee, Hyun Ju; Park, Ji Hye; Ko, Kwang Soo; Kim, Yu-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Ryoul

    2015-01-01

    Forensic entomology applies insect evidence to legal problems such as the estimation of minimum postmortem interval (mPMI). For this purpose, knowledge of the insect fauna that are attracted to human cadavers in each geographic region is a prerequisite. Despite many studies investigating the insect fauna attracted to meat, there has been no survey of the entomofauna on human cadavers in the East Asian temperate climate zone, particularly in Korea. Therefore, this study reports the entomofauna collected from medicolegal autopsies in northeastern Seoul and its suburbs. Insect samples were collected from 35 medicolegal autopsies in 2010, 2011, and 2013. Molecular and morphological methods were utilized for taxonomic identification. Among 1398 individual samples belonging to 3 orders, 13 families, 18 genera, and 32 species, the dominant family and species were Calliphoridae and Lucilia sericata, respectively. Despite its limited scale, this study provides a snapshot of the general entomofauna that are attracted to human cadavers in this region. PMID:26185759

  1. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-04-22

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people's stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant's home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments.

  2. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine Ward Thompson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people’s stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant’s home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments.

  3. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people’s stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant’s home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments. PMID:27110803

  4. Questionnaire survey report on measurement of radioactivity in working environment of radioisotopes facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    To look over the current measurement of radioactivity concentration in working environment of many radioisotopes facilities, a questionnaire survey was carried out under the auspices of the Planning Committee of the Japan Society of Radiation Safety Management. 64 responses were obtained in 128 radiation facilities, which the questionnaires were sent to. The main results were obtained by aggregate analysis of the answers for questionnaires as the followings. Major nuclides subject to measurement were 3 H, 14 C, 32 P and 125 I Sampling of radioisotopes in air was mainly performed using collectors like dust samplers and HC-collectors. Liquid scintillation counters and gamma counters were used to measure β and γ radioactivity contained in airborne particles or gas samples. Contamination by radioactivity was not detected in 55% facilities surveyed, but in 40% facilities at the same level as or at lower levels than a hundredth part of the regulated concentration limit of each nuclide. Almost all facilities is found to consider that the measurement of radioactivity concentration in working environments is not always necessary. (author)

  5. Hypothalamic obesity after treatment for craniopharyngioma: the importance of the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijneke, Ruud W H; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; de Boer, Nienke Y; van Zundert, Suzanne; van Trotsenburg, Paul A S; Stoelinga, Femke; van Santen, Hanneke M

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic obesity after treatment for craniopharyngioma is a well-recognized, severe problem. Treatment of hypothalamic obesity is difficult and often frustrating for the patient, the parents and the professional care-giver. Because hypothalamic obesity is caused by an underlying medical disorder, it is often assumed that regular diet and exercise are not beneficial to reduce the extraordinarily high body mass index, and in fact, lifestyle interventions have been shown to be insufficient in case of extreme hypothalamic obesity. Nevertheless, it is important to realize that also in this situation, informal care delivered by the family and appropriate parenting styles are required to minimize the obesity problem. We present a case in which weight gain in the home situation was considered unstoppable, and a very early mortality due to complications of the severe increasing obesity was considered inevitable. A permissive approach toward food intake became leading with rapid weight increase since a restrictive lifestyle was considered a senseless burden for the child. By admission to our hospital for a longer period of time, weight reduction was realized, and the merely permissive approach could be changed into active purposeful care by adequate information, instruction, guidance and encouragement of the affected child and her parents. This case illustrates that, although this type of obesity has a pathological origin, parental and environmental influences remain of extreme importance.

  6. A survey of arsenic in foodstuffs on sale in the United Kingdom and imported from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Rmalli, S.W.; Haris, P.I.; Harrington, C.F.; Ayub, M.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element and its presence in food composites is a matter of concern to the well being of both humans and animals. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is often used in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India) to irrigate crops used for food and animal consumption, which could potentially lead to arsenic entering the human food chain. In this study, we used graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy to determine the total arsenic concentrations in a range of foodstuffs, including vegetables, rice and fish, imported into the United Kingdom from Bangladesh. The mean and range of the total arsenic concentration in all the vegetables imported from Bangladesh were 54.5 and 5-540 μg/kg, respectively. The highest arsenic values found were for the skin of Arum tuber, 540 μg/kg, followed by Arum Stem, 168 μg/kg, and Amaranthus, 160 μg/kg. Among the other samples, freshwater fish contained total arsenic levels between 97 and 1318 μg/kg. The arsenic content of the vegetables from the UK was approximately 2- to 3-fold lower than those observed for the vegetables imported from Bangladesh. The levels of arsenic found in vegetables imported from Bangladesh in this study, in some cases, are similar to those previously recorded for vegetables grown in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India, although lower than the levels reported in studies from Bangladesh. While the total arsenic content detected in our study in vegetables, imported from Bangladesh, is far less than the recommended maximum permitted level of arsenic, it does provide an additional source of arsenic in the diet. This raises the possibility that the level of arsenic intake by certain sectors of the UK population may be significantly higher then the general population and requires further investigations

  7. Survey Development to Assess College Students' Perceptions of the Campus Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Morgan F; Colby, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey W; Pickett, Mackenzie; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Olfert, Melissa D; Shelnutt, Karla; Brown, Onikia; Horacek, Tanya M; Kidd, Tandalayo; Kattelmann, Kendra K; White, Adrienne A; Zhou, Wenjun; Riggsbee, Kristin; Yan, Wangcheng; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2017-11-01

    We developed and tested a College Environmental Perceptions Survey (CEPS) to assess college students' perceptions of the healthfulness of their campus. CEPS was developed in 3 stages: questionnaire development, validity testing, and reliability testing. Questionnaire development was based on an extensive literature review and input from an expert panel to establish content validity. Face validity was established with the target population using cognitive interviews with 100 college students. Concurrent-criterion validity was established with in-depth interviews (N = 30) of college students compared to surveys completed by the same 30 students. Surveys completed by college students from 8 universities (N = 1147) were used to test internal structure (factor analysis) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). After development and testing, 15 items remained from the original 48 items. A 5-factor solution emerged: physical activity (4 items, α = .635), water (3 items, α = .773), vending (2 items, α = .680), healthy food (2 items, α = .631), and policy (2 items, α = .573). The mean total score for all universities was 62.71 (±11.16) on a 100-point scale. CEPS appears to be a valid and reliable tool for assessing college students' perceptions of their health-related campus environment.

  8. Gemini Observations of Galaxies in Rich Early Environments (GOGREEN) I: survey description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Michael L.; Gilbank, David G.; Muzzin, Adam; Rudnick, Gregory; Cooper, Michael C.; Lidman, Chris; Biviano, Andrea; Demarco, Ricardo; McGee, Sean L.; Nantais, Julie B.; Noble, Allison; Old, Lyndsay; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, Howard K. C.; Bellhouse, Callum; Cerulo, Pierluigi; Chan, Jeffrey; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Simpson, Rane; van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Ziparo, Felicia; Alonso, María Victoria; Bower, Richard G.; De Lucia, Gabriella; Finoguenov, Alexis; Lambas, Diego Garcia; Muriel, Hernan; Parker, Laura C.; Rettura, Alessandro; Valotto, Carlos; Wetzel, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    We describe a new Large Program in progress on the Gemini North and South telescopes: Gemini Observations of Galaxies in Rich Early Environments (GOGREEN). This is an imaging and deep spectroscopic survey of 21 galaxy systems at 1 10 in halo mass. The scientific objectives include measuring the role of environment in the evolution of low-mass galaxies, and measuring the dynamics and stellar contents of their host haloes. The targets are selected from the SpARCS, SPT, COSMOS, and SXDS surveys, to be the evolutionary counterparts of today's clusters and groups. The new red-sensitive Hamamatsu detectors on GMOS, coupled with the nod-and-shuffle sky subtraction, allow simultaneous wavelength coverage over λ ˜ 0.6-1.05 μm, and this enables a homogeneous and statistically complete redshift survey of galaxies of all types. The spectroscopic sample targets galaxies with AB magnitudes z΄ < 24.25 and [3.6] μm < 22.5, and is therefore statistically complete for stellar masses M* ≳ 1010.3 M⊙, for all galaxy types and over the entire redshift range. Deep, multiwavelength imaging has been acquired over larger fields for most systems, spanning u through K, in addition to deep IRAC imaging at 3.6 μm. The spectroscopy is ˜50 per cent complete as of semester 17A, and we anticipate a final sample of ˜500 new cluster members. Combined with existing spectroscopy on the brighter galaxies from GCLASS, SPT, and other sources, GOGREEN will be a large legacy cluster and field galaxy sample at this redshift that spectroscopically covers a wide range in stellar mass, halo mass, and clustercentric radius.

  9. The importance of leisure reading to health sciences students: results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Erin M

    2016-03-01

    To determine what value health sciences students place on leisure reading, whether they prefer to read online or in print, what the principal barriers are to their reading and whether they wish to have a leisure reading collection at their health sciences library. In October 2010, a link to a survey was sent to all 1800 students in health sciences professional programmes at the author's institution. Two hundred and thirteen students (11.8%) responded. Most felt that leisure reading had helped in their development as health professionals and increased their empathy. They listed many benefits of reading, such as improved understanding of minority groups, reduced stress, and improved thinking and communication skills. The majority preferred to read books and magazines in print, while the largest number preferred reading newspapers in print as well. Lack of time, fatigue and the expense of purchasing reading materials were the greatest barriers to reading. A majority of students were in favour of having a leisure reading collection set up at their library. Leisure reading was valued by the respondents, who felt it provided personal and professional benefits. However, many indicated that circumstances made it difficult to participate in leisure reading. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  10. Job satisfaction and importance for intensive care unit research coordinators: results from binational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Claire M; Roberts, Brigit L; Foote, Jonathon; McGrail, Matthew R

    2007-09-01

    To measure Intensive Care Unit Research coordinator job satisfaction and importance and to identify priorities for role development. Research coordinator numbers are growing internationally in response to increasing clinical research activity. In Australia, 1% of registered nurses work principally in research, many as Research coordinators. Internationally, the Association of Clinical Research Professionals currently has 6536 certified Research coordinators in 13 countries, with likely additional large numbers practicing without the voluntary certification. Research coordinators are almost always nurses, but little is know about this emerging specialty. Design. Cross-sectional study using anonymous self-report questionnaire. After ethics approval, the McCloskey-Mueller Satisfaction Scale and McCloskey-Mueller Importance Scale were administered via the Internet. The sample was 49 (response rate 71%) Research coordinators from the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Unit Research coordinators' Interest Group. Research coordinators were satisfied with structural aspects of the position working business hours; flexibility of working hours; high levels of responsibility and control over their work. Dissatisfaction was expressed regarding: remuneration and recognition; compensation for weekend work; salary package; career advancement opportunities; and childcare facilities. High priorities for role development are those rated highly important but with much lower satisfaction. These are: compensation for weekend call-out work; salary and remuneration package; recognition by management and clinicians; career advancement opportunities; departmental research processes; encouragement and feedback; and number of working hours. Increasing numbers of nurses have been attracted to this clinically based research position. These data contribute to the understanding and development of the role.

  11. A survey on important factors influencing brand equity: A case study of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sehhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in increasing customers' needs is to increase the quality of services through providing better quality services. Customer satisfaction is one of the primary requirements to meet people's needs and to have an efficient customer relationship management (CRM we need to detect the most important factors influencing efficiency and effectiveness in banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect these factors in one of private banks in Iran. The proposed study of this paper tries to reach three objectives. We first detect important factors, which build customers' perception towards CRM, then we detect all influencing factors, which impact CRM, and finally, we evaluate the impact of CRM towards brand equity. The proposed study first designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 386 customers. Using structural equation modeling and certified factor analysis, we analyze the results. The results indicate that three factors including information, employee job behavior and suggestions and other factor have meaningful impact on customer brand equity. However, the impact of equipment on customer brand equity was not meaningful.

  12. Urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of Helicobacter pylori in a viscous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Yoshiyama, H; Takeuchi, H; Mizote, T; Okita, K; Nakazawa, T

    1998-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibits chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide, acetohydroxamic acid, and sodium bicarbonate. In buffer, the chemotactic activities of a urease-positive strain were higher than those of the isogenic urease-negative strain. Moreover, the chemotactic activities of the urease-positive strain were increased in a viscous solution containing 3% polyvinylpyrrolidone, whereas those of the urease-negative mutant were not. These results are in accordance with the fact that the mutant strain did not show swarming in motility agar regardless of having flagella. Incubation of the wild-type strain with flurofamide resulted in partial inhibition of the chemotactic activities in the viscous solution. In addition, incubation with acetohydroxamic acid, a low-molecular-weight, diffusible urease inhibitor, resulted in complete loss of chemotactic activity in the viscous solution. The inhibition of the chemotactic activity by urease inhibitors paralleled the inhibition of urease. The chemotactic activity of H. pylori was also inhibited by the proton carrier carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, showing that H. pylori utilizes proton motive force for motility. These results indicate that cytoplasmic urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of H. pylori under a condition that mimics the ecological niche of the bacterium, the gastric mucous layer.

  13. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  14. Importance-Performance Analysis of Personal Health Records in Taiwan: A Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chen, Kang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background Empowering personal health records (PHRs) provides basic human right, awareness, and intention for health promotion. As health care delivery changes toward patient-centered services, PHRs become an indispensable platform for consumers and providers. Recently, the government introduced “My health bank,” a Web-based electronic medical records (EMRs) repository for consumers. However, it is not yet a PHR. To date, we do not have a platform that can let patients manage their own PHR. Objective This study creates a vision of a value-added platform for personal health data analysis and manages their health record based on the contents of the "My health bank." This study aimed to examine consumer expectation regarding PHR, using the importance-performance analysis. The purpose of this study was to explore consumer perception regarding this type of a platform: it would try to identify the key success factors and important aspects by using the importance-performance analysis, and give some suggestions for future development based on it. Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Taiwan. Web-based invitation to participate in this study was distributed through Facebook. Respondents were asked to watch an introductory movie regarding PHR before filling in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was focused on 2 aspects, including (1) system functions, and (2) system design and security and privacy. The questionnaire would employ 12 and 7 questions respectively. The questionnaire was designed following 5-points Likert scale ranging from 1 (“disagree strongly”) to 5 (“Agree strongly”). Afterwards, the questionnaire data was sorted using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 for descriptive statistics and the importance-performance analysis. Results This research received 350 valid questionnaires. Most respondents were female (219 of 350 participants, 62.6%), 21-30 years old (238 of 350 participants, 68.0%), with a university degree (228 of 350 participants, 65

  15. Importance-Performance Analysis of Personal Health Records in Taiwan: A Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Syuan; Chu, Chi-Ming; Wang, Fu-Chung; Hsu, Min-Huei; Chang, Chi-Wen; Chen, Kang-Hua; Lee, Yen-Liang; Kao, Senyeong; Chiu, Yu-Lung; Wen, Hsyien-Chia; Fuad, Anis; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Chiu, Hung-Wen

    2017-04-27

    Empowering personal health records (PHRs) provides basic human right, awareness, and intention for health promotion. As health care delivery changes toward patient-centered services, PHRs become an indispensable platform for consumers and providers. Recently, the government introduced "My health bank," a Web-based electronic medical records (EMRs) repository for consumers. However, it is not yet a PHR. To date, we do not have a platform that can let patients manage their own PHR. This study creates a vision of a value-added platform for personal health data analysis and manages their health record based on the contents of the "My health bank." This study aimed to examine consumer expectation regarding PHR, using the importance-performance analysis. The purpose of this study was to explore consumer perception regarding this type of a platform: it would try to identify the key success factors and important aspects by using the importance-performance analysis, and give some suggestions for future development based on it. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Taiwan. Web-based invitation to participate in this study was distributed through Facebook. Respondents were asked to watch an introductory movie regarding PHR before filling in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was focused on 2 aspects, including (1) system functions, and (2) system design and security and privacy. The questionnaire would employ 12 and 7 questions respectively. The questionnaire was designed following 5-points Likert scale ranging from 1 ("disagree strongly") to 5 ("Agree strongly"). Afterwards, the questionnaire data was sorted using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 for descriptive statistics and the importance-performance analysis. This research received 350 valid questionnaires. Most respondents were female (219 of 350 participants, 62.6%), 21-30 years old (238 of 350 participants, 68.0%), with a university degree (228 of 350 participants, 65.1%). They were still students (195 out of 350

  16. Governance, Scale and the Environment: The Importance of Recognizing Knowledge Claims in Transdisciplinary Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Buizer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Any present day approach of the world's most pressing environmental problems involves both scale and governance issues. After all, current local events might have long-term global consequences (the scale issue and solving complex environmental problems requires policy makers to think and govern beyond generally used time-space scales (the governance issue. To an increasing extent, the various scientists in these fields have used concepts like social-ecological systems, hierarchies, scales and levels to understand and explain the "complex cross-scale dynamics" of issues like climate change. A large part of this work manifests a realist paradigm: the scales and levels, either in ecological processes or in governance systems, are considered as "real". However, various scholars question this position and claim that scales and levels are continuously (reconstructed in the interfaces of science, society, politics and nature. Some of these critics even prefer to adopt a non-scalar approach, doing away with notions such as hierarchy, scale and level. Here we take another route, however. We try to overcome the realist-constructionist dualism by advocating a dialogue between them on the basis of exchanging and reflecting on different knowledge claims in transdisciplinary arenas. We describe two important developments, one in the ecological scaling literature and the other in the governance literature, which we consider to provide a basis for such a dialogue. We will argue that scale issues, governance practices as well as their mutual interdependencies should be considered as human constructs, although dialectically related to nature's materiality, and therefore as contested processes, requiring intensive and continuous dialogue and cooperation among natural scientists, social scientists, policy makers and citizens alike. They also require critical reflection on scientists' roles and on academic practices in general. Acknowledging knowledge claims

  17. Insects associated with hospital environment in Egypt with special reference to the medically important species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenawy, Mohamed A; Amer, Hanan S; Lotfy, Nadia M; Khamis, Nagwa; Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M

    2014-12-01

    A study was planned to examine the insect fauna associated with two hospitals: urban (A) in Cairo and rural (B) in Banha, Egypt with varying hygienic levels and their adjacent residential areas (AC) and (BC), respectively and to investigate the effect of hygienic level on species composition and relative abundance. A total of 22 species belonging to 7 orders and 15 families were reported in the four study areas of which, Dipterous flies were the most common (8/22, 36.36% species). A total of 5257 adults were collected of which Dipterous flies were the abundant (3800, 72.28% insect) and Musca domestica was the most abundant species (3535, 67.24% insect) which was present in all areas where it was more common / predominant species (21.94%-90.91% insect). Moreover, higher densities of M domestica were in (B) and BC than in (A) or (AC). The heavily infested area was AC (54.55% species) followed by (A), (BC) and (B) however, the total number of the collected insects was higher in (BC) and (B) than in (AC) and (A). This was confirmed by finding maximum diversity indices in (AC) and minimum ones in B. In all areas, means of M domestica was more common during summer/autumn and spring than in the winter. Periplaneta americana collected oily during autumn in AC and was more common in autumn in (BC) while Blatella germanica collected only during summer in (AC) and was more common in autumn in (B). The prevalence and higher abundance of the medically important species mainly M domestica, P. americana and B. germanica in rural hospital than in urban one attribute mainly to the lower hygienic level of rural hospital This require a control program based mainly on sanitation supplemented by other measures to overcome the risk of disease transmission by such insects

  18. The Importance of a Teacher in a Distance Education and the Progressive Methods of Teaching in a Virtual Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Miščenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyze the experience of the first work years of teaching the students, who study by distance, to compare other authors’ experience and to examine the advantages of Moodle virtual learning environment (VLE, searching for new applications of it. The relevance of e-learning is noted. It is affirmed that metacognitive learning strategies are typical for learning foreign languages in virtual environment. It is said that the Internet is a tool that ensures studies by distance. It is said that raising the qualification and learning by distance allows a responsible employee to improve foreign language skills while lifelong learning. VLE adaptability for teaching and studying English is being discussed. It is stated that the Internet conditions all types of methods in the virtual environment, application, and its existence expands and deepens the learning approach. In the paper it is claimed that the Moodle VLE function is to improve the learning process to ensure a high level of expertise and the objectivity of assessment. Studying in conventional way and in the virtual environment are briefly compared. Moodle virtual learning environment application objectives to learning outcomes, emphasizing the importance of the traditional teaching methods, the student’s responsibility to call attention to the learning process and system characteristics are defined. It is noted that learning in the virtual environment is based on the principles of epistemology, therefore the Moodle system meets the didactic tasks. The virtual learning environment possibilities ensure a very good feedback and increase students’ motivation, and, consequently, that provides better knowledge. It is emphasized that while teaching by distance, the teacher’s responsibility, his role in the development of educational material and the course tasks have increased. Some specific cases for various forms of studies and exercises to perform in the

  19. Clinical learning environment and supervision: experiences of Norwegian nursing students - a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Mari Wolff; Normann, Hans Ketil; Henriksen, Nils

    2011-08-01

    To measure nursing students' experiences and satisfaction with their clinical learning environments. The primary interest was to compare the results between students with respect to clinical practice in nursing homes and hospital wards. Clinical learning environments are important for the learning processes of nursing students and for preferences for future workplaces. Working with older people is the least preferred area of practice among nursing students in Norway. A cross-sectional design. A validated questionnaire was distributed to all nursing students from five non-randomly selected university colleges in Norway. A total of 511 nursing students completed a Norwegian version of the questionnaire, Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES+T) evaluation scale in 2009. Data including descriptive statistics were analysed using the Statistical Program for the Social Sciences. Factor structure was analysed by principal component analysis. Differences across sub-groups were tested with chi-square tests and Mann-Whitney U test for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables. Ordinal logistic regression analysis of perceptions of the ward as a good learning environment was performed with supervisory relationships and institutional contexts as independent variables, controlling for age, sex and study year. The participating nursing students with clinical placements in nursing homes assessed their clinical learning environment significantly more negatively than those with hospital placements on nearby all sub-dimensions. The evidence found in this study indicates that measures should be taken to strengthen nursing homes as learning environments for nursing students. To recruit more graduated nurses to work in nursing homes, actions to improve the learning environment are needed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. First survey of forensically important insects from human corpses in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad D; Keshavarzi, Davood; Fereidooni, Mehran; Soltani, Aboozar

    2018-02-01

    The presence of insects on human cadavers has potential judicial value in medicolegal cases. This research emphasized the important role of insects in postmortem decomposition. It was conducted to investigate the composition and abundance of insects from human corpses during autopsies in legal medicine. It was implemented in the city of Shiraz, south Iran. Insects associated with human corpses were carefully collected and put into labelled vials. They were then identified using valid taxonomic keys. Fifteen outdoor (67%) and indoor discovered cadavers were examined. All but one was covered at the time of discovery. From these several species of entomofauna played important roles in the minimum postmortem interval (minPMI) estimate. Insects included the orders of Diptera and Coleoptera. Overall, 14 different species of arthropods were identified. Within Diptera, 2 families of Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae were present in 73% of the cases with Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann accounting for about half of the cases. The latter family members, Calliphoridae, were more frequently (52%) collected in autumn and winter. Only 4/15 outdoor cadavers had beetles. Four species of Coleopterans; namely Dermestes frischii Kugelann, Nitidula flavomaculata Rossi, Creophilus maxillosus Linnaeus and Saprinus chalcites Illiger; were recorded for the first time from 3 corpses in Iran. The presence and diversity of different insects on human corpses could contribute to the advancement of forensic entomology knowledge and the refined estimates of minPMI in medicolegal cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The importance of physician knowledge of autism spectrum disorder: results of a parent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpa Angela

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis and referral to treatment prior to age 3–5 years improves the prognosis of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. However, ASD is often not diagnosed until age 3–4 years, and medical providers may lack training to offer caregivers evidence-based treatment recommendations. This study tested hypotheses that 1 children with ASD would be diagnosed between ages 3–4 years (replicating prior work, 2 caregivers would receive little information beyond the diagnosis from their medical providers, and 3 caregivers would turn to other sources, outside of their local health care professionals, to learn more about ASD. Methods 146 ASD caregivers responded to an online survey that consisted of questions about demographics, the diagnostic process, sources of information/support, and the need and availability of local services for ASDs. Hypotheses were tested using descriptives, regression analyses, analyses of variance, and chi-squared. Results The average age of diagnosis was 4 years, 10 months and the mode was 3 years. While approximately 40% of professionals gave additional information about ASD after diagnosis and 15–34% gave advice on medical/educational programs, only 6% referred to an autism specialist and 18% gave no further information. The diagnosis of Autism was made at earlier ages than Asperger's Disorder or PDD-NOS. Developmental pediatricians (relative to psychiatrists/primary care physicians, neurologists, and psychologists were associated with the lowest age of diagnosis and were most likely to distribute additional information. Caregivers most often reported turning to the media (i.e., internet, books, videos, conferences, and other parents to learn more about ASD. Conclusion The average age of ASD diagnosis (4 years, 10 months was later than optimal if children are to receive the most benefit from early intervention. Most professionals gave caregivers further information about ASDs, especially

  2. The Importance of Insects in Australian Aboriginal Society: A Dictionary Survey

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    Aung Si

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Insects and their products have long been used in Indigenous Australian societies as food, medicine and construction material, and given prominent roles in myths, traditional songs and ceremonies. However, much of the available information on the uses of insects in Australia remains anecdotal. In this essay, we review published dictionaries of Aboriginal languages spoken in many parts of Australia, to provide an overview of the Indigenous names and knowledge of insects and their products. We find that that native honeybees and insect larvae (particularly of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera are the most highly prized insects, and should be recognized as cultural keystone species. Many insects mentioned in dictionaries lack scientific identifications, however, and we urge documentary linguists to address this important issue.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Science at the Intersection of Health and Environment

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    Kimball, S. M.; Plumlee, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    People worldwide worry about how their environment affects their health, and expect scientists to help address these concerns. The OneHealth concept recognizes the crucial linkages between environment, human health, and health of other organisms. Many US Geological Survey science activities directly examine or help inform how the Earth and the environment influence toxicological and infectious diseases. Key is our ability to bring to bear a collective expertise in environmental processes, geology, hydrology, hazards, microbiology, analytical chemistry, ecosystems, energy/mineral resources, geospatial technologies, and other disciplines. Our science examines sources, environmental transport and fate, biological effects, and human exposure pathways of many microbial (e.g. bacteria, protozoans, viruses, fungi), inorganic (e.g. asbestos, arsenic, lead, mercury) and organic (e.g. algal toxins, pesticides, pharmaceuticals) contaminants from geologic, anthropogenic, and disaster sources. We develop new laboratory, experimental, and field methods to analyze, model, and map contaminants, to determine their baseline and natural background levels, and to measure their biological effects. We examine the origins, environmental persistence, wildlife effects, and potential for transmission to humans of pathogens that cause zoonotic or vector-borne diseases (e.g., avian influenza or West Nile virus). Collaborations with human health scientists from many organizations are essential. For example, our work with epidemiologists and toxicologists helps understand the exposure pathways and roles of geologically sourced toxicants such as arsenic (via drinking water) and asbestos (via dusts) in cancer. Work with pulmonologists and pathologists helps clarify the sources and fate of inhaled mineral particles in lungs. Wildlife health scientists help human health scientists assess animals as sentinels of human disease. Such transdisciplinary science is essential at the intersection of health

  4. The dependence of galaxy clustering on tidal environment in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Hahn, Oliver; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2018-06-01

    The influence of the Cosmic Web on galaxy formation and evolution is of great observational and theoretical interest. We investigate whether the Cosmic Web leaves an imprint in the spatial clustering of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), using the group catalogue of Yang et al. and tidal field estimates at ˜2 h-1 Mpc scales from the mass-tides-velocity data set of Wang et al. We use the tidal anisotropy α (Paranjape et al.) to characterize the tidal environment of groups, and measure the redshift-space 2-point correlation function (2pcf) of group positions and the luminosity- and colour-dependent clustering of group galaxies using samples segregated by α. We find that all the 2pcf measurements depend strongly on α, with factors of ˜20 between the large-scale 2pcf of objects in the most and least isotropic environments. To test whether these strong trends imply `beyond halo mass' effects for galaxy evolution, we compare our results with corresponding 2pcf measurements in mock catalogues constructed using a halo occupation distribution that uses only halo mass as an input. We find that this prescription qualitatively reproduces all observed trends, and also quantitatively matches many of the observed results. Although there are some statistically significant differences between our `halo mass only' mocks and the data - in the most and least isotropic environments - which deserve further investigation, our results suggest that if the tidal environment induces additional effects on galaxy properties other than those inherited from their host haloes, then these must be weak.

  5. Monitoring the impact of trade agreements on national food environments: trade imports and population nutrition risks in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne-Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian

    2017-06-13

    Trade agreements are increasingly recognised as playing an influential role in shaping national food environments and the availability and nutritional quality of the food supply. Global monitoring of food environments and trade policies can strengthen the evidence base for the impact of trade policy on nutrition, and support improved policy coherence. Using the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol, we reviewed available food supply data to understand associations between Fiji's commitments under WTO trade agreements and food import volume trends. First, a desk review was conducted to map and record in one place Fiji's commitments to relevant existing trade agreements that have implications for Fiji's national food environment under the domains of the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol. An excel database was developed to document the agreements and their provisions. The second aspect of the research focused on data extraction. We began with identifying food import volumes into Fiji by country of origin, with a particular focus on a select number of 'healthy and unhealthy' foods. We also developed a detailed listing of transnational food corporations currently operating in Fiji. The study suggests that Fiji's WTO membership, in conjunction with associated economic and agricultural policy changes have contributed to increased availability of both healthy and less healthy imported foods. In systematically monitoring the import volume trends of these two categories of food, the study highlights an increase in healthy foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables and whole-grain refined cereals. The study also shows that there has been an increase in less healthy foods including fats and oils; meat; processed dairy products; energy-dense beverages; and processed and packaged foods. By monitoring the trends of imported foods at country level from the perspective of trade agreements, we are able to develop appropriate and targeted interventions to improve diets and health. This

  6. A market basket survey of As, Zn and Se in rice imports in Qatar: health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Al-Saad, Khalid; Nriagu, Jerome; Shomar, Basem

    2014-08-01

    Qatar is dependent on importation of rice, its staple dish, and is therefore susceptible to compromises of food quality in the global market. This market basket study assesses potential health risks of As exposure from rice consumption in Qatar and examines its contribution to the recommended nutritional intakes (RNI) for Zn and Se. Fifty-six rice types and 12 products sold in Qatar were analyzed by ICP/MS. Mean concentrations and ranges were 96.2±54.1μg/kg (9.76-258μg/kg) for As; 12.5±5.35mg/kg (2.79-29.9mg/kg) for Zn and 103±113μg/kg (Qatar is not a significant route of As exposure but can contribute up to 100% and 50% of the RNI for Se and Zn, respectively. Results indicate that children in Qatar may be at elevated risk of arsenic exposure from rice-based infant cereals but more data is needed to obtain a definitive assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Survey of Attitudes towards Curriculum Reforms among Medical Teachersin Different Socio-economic and Cultural Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Curriculum reforms in medical schools require cultural and conceptual changes from the faculty. We assessed attitudes towards curriculum reforms in different academic, economic, and social environments among 776 teachers from 2 Western European medical schools (Belgium and Denmark) and 7 medical...... schools in 3 countries in post-communist transition (Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina). The survey included a 5-point Likert-type scale on attitudes towards reforms in general and towards reforms of medical curriculum (10 items each). Teaching staff from medical schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina...... had more positive attitude towards reforms of medical curriculum (mean score 36.8 out of maximum 50 [95% CI 36.1 to 37.3]) than those from medical schools in Croatia or Slovenia (30.7 [29.8 to 31.6]) or Western Europe (27.7 [27.1 to 28.3]) (Pattitudes...

  8. Consumer attitudes about health care acquired infections: a German survey on factors considered important in the choice of a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Sander, Carsten; Gastmeier, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Most patients are free in their choice of hospital for nonemergency admissions. In a nationwide survey in 1000 German households, we interviewed randomly chosen persons (age 14 and older) by phone about what they consider important when choosing a hospital. A standardized questionnaire was used. Additionally, question order was randomized prior to each interview. Demographic data included age, gender, education, and previous admissions to hospitals. Categories that might influence the choice of hospital included "distance to hospital," "friendly staff," "staff-to-patient ratio," "cleanliness," "nosocomial infection rate," "own experiences," "friend's opinion," and "facility's reputation in public media." General cleanliness, low nosocomial infection rates, and friendly staff proved to be the most important issues in our study. In contrast, the reputation of the health care facility in the public media was much less important. It seems that kindness and basic hygiene measures, both quite inexpensive factors, are key issues for patients.

  9. Institutional Level Identity Control Strategies in the Distance Education Environment: A Survey of Administrative Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Amigud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical separation of students and instructors creates the gap of anonymity and limited control over the remote learning environment. The ability of academic institutions to authenticate students and validate authorship of academic work at various points during a course is necessary for preserving not only perceived credibility but also public safety. With the growing scope of distance education programs that permeate critical areas such as healthcare, airspace, water management, and food solutions, universities have a moral obligation to employ secure measures to verify learning outcomes. This study examines the measures universities with large distance education programs employ to align identity of learners with the academic work they do, as well as the effectiveness of and challenges and barriers to their implementation. The research was undertaken using a multiple case approach and examined survey responses from five academic administrators at five officially accredited post secondary institutions in three countries. The cases examined in the study include: Athabasca University, Open University UK, Penn State University World Campus, University of Maryland University College, and eConcordia, Concordia University’s distance learning facility. This study is not an exhaustive attempt to examine all aspects of academic integrity, but rather to create awareness about various learner authentication strategies. This study confirms that secure learner authentication in the distance education environment is possible. However, with greater pressure to enhance security of learner authentication, the openness of open learning is challenged and may change as we know it.

  10. 3. Neural changes in different gravity and ecophysiological environments - A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.

    Neural changes or neuronal plasticity occur after and during different stimulations and inputs in general. Gravity is one major input to the brain transferred from the vestibular system. However, often also direct effects of gravity on the cellular level are discussed. Our group was investigating the influence of different gravity environments on a large variety of neuronal enzymes in the developing fish brain. Long-term space travel or bases on Moon and Mars will have to deal not only with neural changes based on the different gravity environment, but also with potential negative or even toxic changes in the respective life support system. Our goal is now to identify reported enzyme activity changes in the brain based for example on potential toxic drugs or endocrine disruptors in combination with gravity induced changes. In this paper a survey will be undertaken discussing recent results obtained in ecotoxicology, gravitational biology combined with new data from our group regarding potential differences in brain glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of medaka and zebrafish.

  11. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakako Umene-Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. AIMS: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. METHOD: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, were used. RESULTS: Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0% responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0% experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. CONCLUSIONS: A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  12. Nationwide Survey of Work Environment, Work-Life Balance and Burnout among Psychiatrists in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by ‘high-burnout’; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. Aims The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. Method We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Results Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. Conclusions A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout. PMID:23418435

  13. The relationship of positive work environments and workplace injury: evidence from the National Nursing Assistant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; McGhan, Gwen; Walsh, Erin M; Rathert, Cheryl; Belue, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    With estimates of a 51% growth in the number of nursing assistants needed by 2016, there is a critical need to examine workplace factors that negatively contribute to the recruitment and retention of nursing assistants. Studies have shown that high demands, physical stress, and chronic workforce shortages contribute to a working environment that fosters one of the highest workforce injury rates in the United States. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between nursing assistant injury rates and key outcomes, such as job satisfaction and turnover intent, while exploring workplace environment factors, such as injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement, that can decrease the rates of workplace injury. Data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey were used to examine the negative effects of workplace injury on nursing assistants and the workplace environment factors that are related to the rate of worker injury. Nursing assistants who experience job-related injuries have lower levels of job satisfaction, increased turnover intentions, and are less likely to recommend their facility as a place to work or seek care services. It was also found that nursing assistant injury rates are related to employee ratings of injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement. NAs with multiple injuries (>2) were 1.3-1.6 times more likely to report being injured at work than NAs who had not been injured when supervisor support, employee engagement, and training ratings were low. Evidence that health care organizations can use to better understand how workplace injuries occur and insight into ways to reduce the current staggering rate of on-the-job injuries occurring in health care workplaces were offered in this study. The findings also offer empirical support for an extension of the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety/National Occupational Research Agenda Work Organization Framework for

  14. Prevalence of child abuse in school environment in Kerala, India: An ICAST-CI based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj Therayil; Kumar, Sebind; Singh, Surendra P; Kar, Nilamadhab

    2017-08-01

    Very few studies focus on childhood abuse in developing countries and only a small fraction of such studies explicitly deal with abuse in a school environment. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse in a school environment in a developing country. Abuse history was collected using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool - Children's Institutional Version (ICAST-CI). Demographic variables were also collected. Student supportive measures were provided both during and after the survey. 6682 school attending adolescents in Thrissur, Kerala participated in this cross sectional self report study. One year and lifetime prevalence of physical (75.5%, 78.5%), emotional (84.5%, 85.7%) and sexual (21.0%, 23.8%) abuse was high. Abuse was considered to be present even if an individual item from these three categories was reported. Most abuse was reported as occurring 'sometimes' rather than 'many times'. More males than females reported being victims of abuse; figures for one-year prevalence were: physical abuse (83.4% vs. 61.7%), emotional abuse (89.5% vs. 75.7%), and sexual abuse (29.5% vs. 6.2%). Various factors significantly increase the likelihood of abuse-male gender, low socioeconomic status, regular use of alcohol and drugs by family member at home, and having other difficulties at school. Children tended to report abuse less frequently if they liked attending school and if they always felt safe at school. The results highlight the urgent need to address the issue of abuse in the school environment and minimize its impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downs Shauna M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151 with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11% of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY

  16. Environment and Spatial Influences on Aquatic Insect Communities in Cerrado Streams: the Relative Importance of Conductivity, Altitude, and Conservation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Queiroz, L L; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2017-04-01

    The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.

  17. The Importance of Environment for the Tourism Sector Of Trnc Within The Context of Environmental Issues of the Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Okan SAFAKLI

    2001-01-01

    The basic aim of this study is to emphasize the importance and necessity of the environment for the tourism sector of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) within the context of environmental. issues of the Mediterranean region. There are many types of tourism such as sea tourism (sea-sand-sun), ‘congress tourism‘, ‘health tourism‘, ‘yacht tourism‘, ‘cave tourism‘, ‘mountain tourism‘, ‘farm touris’, ‘hunting touris’, ‘golf touris’, ‘caravan touris’, ‘religion tourism’ and ‘history to...

  18. Importance of Group Therapeutic Support for Family Members of Children with Alopecia Areata: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; McFarland, Sarah L; Hordinsky, Maria K; Lindgren, Bruce R; Farah, Ronda S

    2017-07-01

    The psychological effect of alopecia areata (AA) is well documented, but group interaction may help lessen this burden. We aimed to determine factors that draw patients with AA and their families to group events. Surveys were administered at the annual alopecia areata bowling social in 2015 and 2016. This event is a unique opportunity for children with AA and their families to meet others with the disease and connect with local support group resources from the Minnesota branch of the National Alopecia Areata Foundation. Data from 2015 and 2016 were combined. Comparisons of subgroups were performed using Fisher exact tests for response frequencies and percentages and two-sample t tests for mean values. An equal number of men and women participated in the study (n = 13 each). The average age was 41.1 years. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in survey responses based on respondent age or sex. Twenty-three (88.5%) attendees sought to connect with others with AA and met three or more people during the event. Seventeen (65.4%) also attended other support group events. Twelve respondents (46.2%) came to support a friend or family member. One hundred percent of attendees identified socializing with others with AA as important. Group interaction is an important source of therapeutic support for people with AA and their families. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  20. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. Survey on an environment technology transfer information network; 1998 nendo hokokusho. Kankyo gijutsu iten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes a survey on an environment technology transfer information network. Based on the achievements obtained by the surveys in fiscal 1995 and 1996, the ICETT has participated as one organization constituting the APEC environment technology exchange virtual center, and begun providing information since April 1997. As the environment technology information, those items actually employed by factories and operation sites in Japan are put into a data base, and into a home page including training information centering around those contained in the data base, and examples of works done by local governments for prevention of pollution. Furthermore in fiscal 1997, a simulation software for a model process has been developed. Fiscal 1998 strengthened the data base for environment preservation technology information, investigated environment preserving model companies and summarized them including even their management aspect. Investigations were carried out in developing countries on application of cleaner technologies. Gaps far exceeding anticipation exist in every field between these developing countries and Japan. Environment protection measures applied and succeeded in the developing countries as the means to narrow the gaps were collected, and compiled as the specific examples. (NEDO)

  1. Environment and geographic distance differ in relative importance for determining fungal community of rhizosphere and bulk soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaoping; Adams, Jonathan M; Shi, Yu; Yang, Teng; Sun, Ruibo; He, Dan; Ni, Yingying; Chu, Haiyan

    2017-09-01

    Rhizospheric fungi play major roles in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. However, little is known about the determinants of their diversity and biogeographic patterns. Here, we compared fungal communities in rhizosphere and bulk soils of wheat fields in the North China Plain. The rhizosphere had a lower fungal diversity (observed OTUs and Chao1) than bulk soil, and a distinct fungal community structure in rhizosphere compared with bulk soil. The relative importance of environmental factors and geographic distance for fungal distribution differed between rhizosphere and bulk soil. Environmental factors were the primary cause of variations in total fungal community and major fungal phyla in bulk soil. By contrast, fungal communities in soils loosely attached to roots were predictable from both environmental factors and influences of geographic distance. Communities in soils tightly attached to roots were mainly determined by geographic distance. Our results suggest that both contemporary environment processes (present-day abiotic and biotic environment characters) and historical processes (spatial isolation, dispersal limitation occurred in the past) dominate variations of fungal communities in wheat fields, but their relative importance of all these processes depends on the proximity of fungal community to the plant roots. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Sparks, Tim H; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Hetmański, Tomasz; Martyka, Rafał; Skórka, Piotr; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Myczko, Łukasz; Kunysz, Przemysław; Kawa, Piotr; Czyż, Stanisław; Czechowski, Paweł; Polakowski, Michał; Zduniak, Piotr; Jerzak, Leszek; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Goławski, Artur; Duduś, Leszek; Nowakowski, Jacek J; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Wysocki, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas). The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE) 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  3. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tryjanowski

    Full Text Available Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas. The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  4. Fiscal 1992 survey report. Survey of research trends in search for important research domains; 1992 nendo juten kenkyu ryoiki tansaku no tame no kenkyu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    For contribution of suggestions for establishing directions and concrete tasks for new industrial technology research and development projects, a survey is conducted about trends of industrial technology development and into research domains where importance will gather in the future, for which development trends are studied such as limiting, providing of intelligence, and advanced composition. In this report, domains expected to become important in the future are investigated. Important subjects are found in the domains of the space limiting (micromachining, atom/molecule manipulation, microanalysis, etc.), the time limiting (super-spacetime processing, quantum device, femtosecond technology, 4-dimensional device, etc.), biomimetics and providing of intelligence (intelligent material, neural network, genetic algorithm, artificial life, sensor fusion, intelligent robot, etc.). In addition to these, 'ultrastructure that learns from organisms,' 'intensive interaction system,' and 'nonlinearity/chaos technology' are proposed as promising fields of development. Since Japan is traditionally strong in hardware technologies relating to micromachining and substance/material processing, good results will be attained when the industrial, governmental, and academic circles exert endeavors. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 1992 survey report. Survey of research trends in search for important research domains; 1992 nendo juten kenkyu ryoiki tansaku no tame no kenkyu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    For contribution of suggestions for establishing directions and concrete tasks for new industrial technology research and development projects, a survey is conducted about trends of industrial technology development and into research domains where importance will gather in the future, for which development trends are studied such as limiting, providing of intelligence, and advanced composition. In this report, domains expected to become important in the future are investigated. Important subjects are found in the domains of the space limiting (micromachining, atom/molecule manipulation, microanalysis, etc.), the time limiting (super-spacetime processing, quantum device, femtosecond technology, 4-dimensional device, etc.), biomimetics and providing of intelligence (intelligent material, neural network, genetic algorithm, artificial life, sensor fusion, intelligent robot, etc.). In addition to these, 'ultrastructure that learns from organisms,' 'intensive interaction system,' and 'nonlinearity/chaos technology' are proposed as promising fields of development. Since Japan is traditionally strong in hardware technologies relating to micromachining and substance/material processing, good results will be attained when the industrial, governmental, and academic circles exert endeavors. (NEDO)

  6. Regional survey of radionuclides in the marine environment of the French Mediterranean coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve; Arnaud, Mireille; Duffa, Celine; Charmasson, Sabine; Dimeglio, Yves [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM/ARM c/o Ifremer, CS 20330 Zone Portuaire de Bregaillon, 83507 La Seyne sur Mer Cedex (France)

    2014-07-01

    The French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) runs a continuous monitoring program of the marine environment as a mandatory task. For the French Mediterranean coast, this monitoring activity focuses on two bio-indicators species: the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and the red mullet (Mullus sp.) sampled on a regular basis from natural populations at ten locations along the coast. Radionuclides are measured using direct low-level gamma spectrometry as a routine technique. In addition to this long-lasting monitoring, a broad survey of radionuclide baseline levels is conducted on all compartments of the coastal zone: water, sediments and a large selection of fish species among those most currently fished and marketed. This extended data collection is necessary to fulfill the information requirements of the UE Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and its implementation by member states. This information is also essential for impact assessment of any incident or accident, included from a remote source. Levels of less commonly measured radionuclides like {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Po and U, Pu isotopes are investigated. Fish sampling relies mostly on scientific stock assessment campaigns. Mussel sampling is complemented by transplanted mussels on 40 specific sites. This regional survey also focuses on two possibly impacted areas: the Rhone river mouth coastal zone, with inputs from nuclear power plants along the river and the Bay of Toulon sheltering Navy harbor of nuclear-powered sub-marines and aircraft-carrier. First results show that the activity levels of artificial radionuclides are very low for most bio-indicator species, in accordance with previous monitoring trends. {sup 137}Cs is the only artificial radionuclide regularly detected by gamma spectrometry in mussel and fish samples at a level below 1 Bg.kg{sup -1} of dry weight. Values of {sup 3}H (organically bound Tritium) in the same samples lies under

  7. IMPORTANCE AND VULNERABILITY OF TRUE AND FAIR VIEW IN THE ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matis Dumitru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study comprises items related to the operationalization of the concept True and Fair View in day to day accounting issues in Romanian accounting environment, demarche based on which we were interested in assessing the vulnerability of the concept and also the importance attributed by Romanian practitioners. If the vulnerability is high and the importance attributed low, the concept True and Fair View `s importance as an overall basis of accounting is limited, fact that will affect the quality of accounting information. The categories approached were chosen based on their implication related to the operationalization of the concept. The company’s financial directors are responsible for ensuring that the financial statements give True and Fair View and in the same manner the expert accountants must consider it important in order to prepare the financial statements in accordance to its requirements and finally the financial auditors must assess its existence, otherwise if this principle is neglected the companies would consequently present spurious results of their activity. All the categories above asserted that the concept doesn’t have only a symbolic role at the national level and their implication in achieving its requirements can be characterized by a proactive attitude. When it comes to assessing the potential vulnerability of TFV, our respondents agreed that items like legislative ambiguity and accounting estimates have the potential to affect TFV construct in the practical side of accounting.

  8. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  9. Survey of organotin compounds in rivers and coastal environments in Portugal 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, Sergi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: sdsqam@cid.csic.es; Lacorte, Silvia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Viana, Paula [Direcao Geral do Ambiente, Ministerio do Ambiente, Rua da Murgueira, Zambujal, 2720 Amadora (Portugal); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-15

    In the period from April 1999 to May 2000, organotin pollution, namely butyl and phenyltins, was investigated in coastal and continental waters (46 stations), estuarine sediments (15 stations) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) (13 stations) throughout Portugal. Sampling points were chosen in areas of specific industrial, agricultural and harbor activities. Butyltins (BTs) were the only tin species identified of which tributyltin (TBT) was found in the whole area. Concentrations of TBT in river water ranged from 3 to 30 ng L{sup -1} (as Sn), marine sediment ranged from 4 to 12 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (as Sn), whereas concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 2.5 to 490 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (as Sn). Given that some water samples appeared to be contaminated by higher monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations, the role of biological degradation and direct inputs from agricultural and industrial applications areas are discussed. The study compares depleted butyltin pollution in sediments and mussels of the Portuguese coastline associated with antifouling paints with previously reported levels. Inputs in river waters are more related to (i) PVC leaching and (ii) industrial sources, in some cases discharged by municipal wastewaters. - Survey data illustrate the complexities of organotin sources and cycling in coastal environments.

  10. Survey of organotin compounds in rivers and coastal environments in Portugal 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, Sergi; Lacorte, Silvia; Viana, Paula; Barcelo, Damia; Bayona, Josep M.

    2005-01-01

    In the period from April 1999 to May 2000, organotin pollution, namely butyl and phenyltins, was investigated in coastal and continental waters (46 stations), estuarine sediments (15 stations) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) (13 stations) throughout Portugal. Sampling points were chosen in areas of specific industrial, agricultural and harbor activities. Butyltins (BTs) were the only tin species identified of which tributyltin (TBT) was found in the whole area. Concentrations of TBT in river water ranged from 3 to 30 ng L -1 (as Sn), marine sediment ranged from 4 to 12 μg kg -1 (as Sn), whereas concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 2.5 to 490 μg kg -1 (as Sn). Given that some water samples appeared to be contaminated by higher monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations, the role of biological degradation and direct inputs from agricultural and industrial applications areas are discussed. The study compares depleted butyltin pollution in sediments and mussels of the Portuguese coastline associated with antifouling paints with previously reported levels. Inputs in river waters are more related to (i) PVC leaching and (ii) industrial sources, in some cases discharged by municipal wastewaters. - Survey data illustrate the complexities of organotin sources and cycling in coastal environments

  11. Literature survey 'Impact of the Cadarache Centre activity on the environment'. Survey performed by the CRIIRAD laboratory for the Cadarache's CLI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a presentation of the Cadarache Centre installations and activities, this document reports a literature survey based on the documents provided by the Centre and related to dismissals and incidents since the beginning of the Centre activity, and to environment control during some critical periods. Several issues are discussed: the radioactive atmospheric effluents and their impact, the control of underground waters, the control of surface water environment (impact of liquid radioactive effluents and monitoring of run-off waters), soil and food chain monitoring. For each of these themes, control and monitoring data are analysed

  12. FY1998 survey of overseas coal import base arrangement promotion. Survey of the international coal situation; 1998 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Kokusai sekitan jijo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The paper summarized in a fixed form the coal situation of the major coal producing countries (exporting countries) in the world and major European countries. The survey outlined general circumstances, economy/industry/trade, etc. of each country. As to the coal relation, described are coal reserves, production/supply-demand/export, properties of the main brands, the mining industry law, foreign investment control, working custom, etc. In Part 1, the paper selected the following as coal exporting countries: Australia, Canada, China, Columbia, Indonesia, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, South Africa, the U.S., and Venezuela. In Part 2, the paper described coal trends in the main European countries such as France, Germany, the U.K., and Spain, in terms of maps, general circumstances, main economic indexes, changes in imports/exports, imports/exports from/to the main countries, trade configuration by item, recent energy policy and coal policy, changes in coal supply/demand and future, coal-related governmental organizations, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1999 research report. Survey on geothermal development sites (Survey on natural environment); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Shizen kankyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the result on selecting sites for large-caliber production wells, and landscape characteristic evaluation for simulation, based on the landscape survey on C candidate site for geothermal development. Field survey was made on landscape, plants and animals in the Kirishima Eboshidake area. It was clarified that this area has diverse flora including some rare species such as rein orchid and monkshood which are listed as endangered species. In addition, not a few epiphytes were identified. The zoological survey result showed that planted forests of evergreen coniferous trees which cover a wide range of the surveyed area, and peripheral grassland, scrub and natural forests provide good habitats for mammals such as sika deer and wild boars. On the other hand, no animal species in need of special protection were found. Geologically some traces of landslide occurrence in the past were detected in the northern part of the surveyed area relatively. As the survey result, some promising sites suitable for geothermal development were selected, which are judged to have a relatively small impact on natural environment and landscape. (NEDO)

  14. A survey of mosquitoes breeding in used tires in Spain for the detection of imported potential vector species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, D; Eritja, R; Escosa, R; Lucientes, J; Marquès, E; Melero-Alcíbar, R; Ruiz, S; Molina, R

    2007-06-01

    The used tire trade has facilitated the introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and other mosquito species in several countries of America, Africa, Oceania, and Europe. A strategy for detecting these imported mosquito vectors was developed in Spain during 2003-2004 by EVITAR (multidisciplinary network for the study of viruses transmitted by arthropods and rodents). A survey in 45 locations found no invasive species. Eight autochthonous species of mosquitoes were detected in used tires, including Culex pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. modestus, Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. annulata, and Aedes caspius. Dominant species were Cx. pipiens and Cs. longiareolata. Aedes caspius was found in only once, near its natural breeding habitat. Considering the recent discovery of an established population of Ae. albopictus in Catalonia, the increasing commerce of used tires in Spain for recycling, storage, and recapping might greatly contribute to the rapid spread of this species across the Iberian Peninsula.

  15. Measuring Social Relations in New Classroom Spaces: Development and Validation of the Social Context and Learning Environments (SCALE) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. D.; Baepler, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the need for reliable and valid information concerning how innovative classrooms on college and university campuses affect teaching and learning. The Social Context and Learning Environments (SCALE) survey was developed though a three-stage process involving approximately 1300 college students. Exploratory and confirmatory…

  16. The Development, Validation and Use of the Rural and Remote Teaching, Working, Living and Learning Environment Survey (RRTWLLES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Jeffrey; Kennedy, Joy; Young, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Research in rural and remote schools and communities of Queensland resulted in the development and validation of the Rural and Remote Teaching, Working, Living and Learning Environment Survey (RRTWLLES). Samples of 252 teachers and 191 community members were used to validate the structure of this questionnaire. It was developed within the standard…

  17. Avoiding the Possible Impact of Climate Change on the Built Environment: The Importance of the Building’s Energy Robustness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Coch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Following years of research and design in architecture under bio-climatic, sustainable and passive-energy concepts, today’s buildings are often well designed and constructed, responding to determined climate conditions and the user’s requirements for comfort and, in some cases, they are integrated into the urban environment. However, the lifetime of a building can be over 100 years and the climate is changing rapidly. This work investigates the impact of climate change future (2040 and 2070 on the energy consumption of residential buildings recently constructed, under three possible scenarios. The scenarios are created considering a low, medium or strong effect of global warming. Two types of buildings, with comparable consumption results of today, are investigated in three different cities around the world with a multi-zone type 56 of Trnsys simulation tool. At the end of the work, the concepts of energy robustness and global thermal effusivity of buildings are discussed as important strategies to reduce the possible impact of climate change on the built environment. The use of simulation tools to estimate the sensitivity of buildings is also analyzed, taking into consideration the recent goals of applying uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to building performance simulation science.

  18. The National Asthma Survey--New York State: association of the home environment with current asthma status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang; Lurie, Melissa; Gomez, Marta; Reddy, Amanda; Pandya, Kruti; Medvesky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The National Asthma Survey--New York State (NYS), a telephone survey of NYS residents, was conducted in 2002-2003 to further understand the burden of asthma among adults and children and to identify health, socioeconomic, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with asthma. A total of 1,412 households with at least one member with current asthma and 2,290 control households answered questions about their home environment (e.g., presence of asthma triggers and practices that promote or reduce common asthma triggers). RESULTS; For children younger than 18 years of age, we found statistically significant positive associations between current asthma and the presence of mold (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3, 3.3), air cleaners (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), dehumidifiers (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.4, 2.7), and humidifiers (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.3). For adults, there were statistically significant positive associations with the presence of mold (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.8, 3.4), air cleaners (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.7, 2.8), and humidifiers (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1, 1.8). There were no statistically significant associations with the presence of cockroaches, pets, or tobacco smoke, while use of a wood-burning stove or fireplace was significantly more prevalent in control homes. Asthma guidelines emphasize the importance of reducing triggers in the home as part of a multifaceted approach to asthma control. Despite these guidelines, many asthma triggers (specifically, mold) were as prevalent or more so in the homes of New Yorkers with asthma as compared with control households. Public health interventions in NYS should focus on educating households about potential asthma triggers and their sources and teach methods to prevent, reduce, or eliminate them.

  19. Research report of fiscal 1997. Survey on strategies of export of environment technology in overseas countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shogaikoku no kankyo gijutsu yushutsu senryaku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For active environment technology export to OECD countries, needs for environmental measures in developing countries were surveyed. Both collection of environment technology needs in developing countries and preparation of technology seeds information of Japanese enterprises, and promotion of environmental projects by adding an information dispatch function are important. Active preparation and exchange of experiences and know-how of concerned enterprises, local governments and national organizations are also necessary. For development and possible export of small- and medium-sized ventures with excellent technologies and know-how, a suitable consulting system is essential for risks. For smooth promotion of warming prevention by international cooperation, active development of monitoring technology is also important. To support developing countries, OJT of persons in charge in technology transfer sites, and preparation of information infrastructure are necessary. Japan with much know-how on environmental preservation should positively participate in international standardization activities such as ISO. 10 refs., 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  20. Physical Activity Practices, Policies and Environments in Washington State Child Care Settings: Results of a Statewide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Walters, Kelly M; Igoe, Bridget M; Payne, Elizabeth C; Johnson, Donna B

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Child care is an important setting for the promotion of physical activity (PA) in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between specific PA environments and recommended practices in child care settings as well as the degree to which child care settings met recommended standards for total PA time. Methods In 2013, all programs licensed to care for children ages 2-5 in WA state were surveyed about their PA related practices. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of meeting best-practice standards for outdoor time and PA. Results The response rate was 45.8 % from centers (692/1511) and 32.1 % from homes (1281/3991). Few programs reported meeting best-practice standards for the amount of time children spend being physically active (centers: 12.1 %, homes: 20.1 %) and outdoor time (centers: 21.8 %, homes: 21.7 %). Programs where children go outside regardless of weather and those reporting more adult-led PA had higher odds of meeting best-practice standards for both PA and outdoor time. Meeting best-practice standards for outdoor time was the strongest predictor of meeting best-practice standards for total PA time [centers: OR 15.9 (9.3-27.2), homes: OR 5.2 (3.8-7.1)]. Conclusions for Practice There is considerable room for improvement in licensed child care settings in WA to meet best-practice standards for young children's outdoor and PA time. Initiatives that create policies and environments encouraging outdoor play and adult-led PA in child care have the potential to increase physical activity in substantial numbers of young children.

  1. Intensive Care Research Coordinators in Australia and New Zealand: a cross-sectional survey of demographics, responsibilities, job satisfaction and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brigit; Eastwood, Glenn M; Raunow, Heike; Howe, Belinda; Rickard, Claire M

    2011-11-01

    The achievement of successful clinical research projects depends on multiple team members including Research Coordinators (RCs), who are the link between the researcher and the trial participants. The RCs main responsibility is to ensure that all research is conducted according to the appropriate protocols, regulations and guidelines. Description of demographics, the role and associated responsibilities and assessment of items of importance to, and satisfaction with, various job related items. An observational web-based cross-sectional study of RCs working in Intensive Care Units (ICU) across Australia and New Zealand. Fifty-six participants completed the survey. Forty percent had more than 6 years experience in ICU research and one-third held a Masters Degree. Most respondents performed research related tasks including ethics submission, patient screening, education and data collection. Autonomy and work hours were the most satisfying job characteristics reported and aspects relating to autonomy were most important for the RCs. Inadequate remuneration was of great concern to the participants. Research Coordinators in Australia and New Zealand have many and varied roles with a significant workload. Unfortunately, the RCs do not feel their employers are adequately remunerating the demand on their time and efforts. The results indicate that RCs enjoy high levels of satisfaction with general conditions and facets of their work and its environment and they remain passionate about their role in the ICU setting. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Survey on Turkish nursing students' perception of clinical learning environment and its association with academic motivation and clinical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Yeşim Yaman; Karabulut, Neziha

    2016-01-01

    Nursing education is a process that includes theoretical and practical learning and requires the acquisition of theoretical knowledge and skill. Nursing students need a good clinical practice environment in order to apply their knowledge and skills due to the fact that the clinical practice settings play an important role in the nursing profession. This study was carried out in an effort to explore nursing students' perception of the clinical learning environment and its association with academic motivation and clinical decision making. A descriptive survey design was used. This study was conducted in Giresun University in Turkey. Participants were second-, third- and fourth-year undergraduate students (n=222) in the Bachelor of Nursing Science Degree in the academic spring term of 2014-2015. The data was collected using the 'Clinical Learning Environment Scale', the 'Academic Motivation, and the 'The Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale'. Of the respondents in this study, 45% of the students were second class, 30.6% of the students were third class and 24.3% of the students were fourth class. There was a statistically significant positive correlation found between the clinical learning environment and the nursing students' academic motivation (r=0.182, pdecision making (r=0.082, p>.05). One of the prerequisites for the training of qualified students is to provide nursing students with a qualified clinical environment. It was found that nursing students' academic motivation increased as the quality of their clinical learning environment improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Getting More Value from the LibQUAL+® Survey: The Merits of Qualitative Analysis and Importance-Satisfaction Matrices in Assessing Library Patron Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlor, Brian; Ball, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the merit of conducting a qualitative analysis of LibQUAL+® survey comments as a means of leveraging quantitative LibQUAL+ results, and using importance-satisfaction matrices to present and assess qualitative findings. Comments collected from the authors' institution's LibQUAL+ survey were analyzed using a codebook based on…

  4. Regional Variations in the Prevalence of Major Congenital Malformations in Quebec: The Importance of Fetal Growth Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Ping; Sheehy, Odile; Bérard, Anick

    2015-01-01

    Congenital anomalies are the consequence of a complex interaction between genetic predisposition and fetal environment. Based on the Congenital Anomalies Surveillance in Canada Report, between 1998 and 2007 the rate of congenital heart defects in Quebec was significantly higher than the Canadian average; no data on the overall prevalence of congenital anomalies for Quebec or data on regional variations in any province are available. To estimate the prevalence of major congenital malformations (MCMs) in all of the 17 administrative regions of Quebec. Using data from the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort, we included infants if they were born between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. MCMs were identified within the infant's first year of life using validated ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. The rate of MCMs was calculated and stratified on Quebec's administrative regions. Among 152,353 eligible infants, the prevalence of MCMs was 36.6 (all rates were reported as per 1,000 live births). The regions with the highest rate of MCMs were Lanaudière (48.1), Laval (45.8), and Mauricie (45.1). Regions with the lowest rate were Outaouais (13.4), Côte-Nord (19.1), Abitibi-Témiscamingue (27.5), Gaspésie-îles-de-la-Madeleine (27.9), and Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (28.9). Congenital heart defects (10.3) and musculoskeletal anomalies (12.6) were the most common. Laval had the highest rate of heart defects (16.1), and Lanaudière had the highest rate of musculoskeletal anomalies (22.0). The central regions of Quebec had high rate of MCMs, whereas the relatively genetically homogenous peripheral regions of Quebec had lower rate of MCM, suggesting the importance of fetal growth environment in the etiology of MCMs in Quebec.

  5. Motivation for participating in leisure activities: a survey amongst individuals within a corporate environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH van Heerden

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since individuals within the working population represents a great purchasing power, it is important for the marketer to know what motivate these individuals to participate in leisure activities. The main aim of the study is to determine whether the level of activity present in leisure, the age or the gender of individuals play a role in their motivation to participate in leisure activities. This is especially useful from a South African perspective. A self-administered survey was conducted amongst individuals working in a corporate company in Johannesburg and Sandton in the Gauteng Province.. Contrary to previous academic research, neither the level of activity in leisure, neither the age nor the gender of an individual plays a significant role in their motivation (either intrinsic or extrinsic to participate in leisure activities. It may therefore indicate that whether an individual participates in leisure is dependant on other factors. This might implicate that marketers need not adjust their marketing communication with prospective clients to incorporate these difference (gender and age.

  6. Transmission investment and planning in deregulated market environment : a literature survey (part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, F.; Wu, F.F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the first half of a 2-part paper that provided details of a comprehensive survey of issues related to transmission investment and expansion planning in the electricity market. The lack of adequate transmission capacity has played an important role in recent power crises, and deregulation has had a significant impact on the investment and planning process of transmission systems. The main objective of transmission investment is to meet load demands as cheaply as possible. In a deregulated market, there is no longer centrally coordinated planning of new generation. Transmission planning is generally not coordinated with generation planning. There is considerable uncertainty with regard to transmission capacity requirements due to long lead times for transmission construction. Generating plants and transmission lines are built according to investor assessments and private interests, and current transmission systems were not designed to handle supply and demand patterns in competitive markets. It was recommended that new transmission plans should meet reliability requirements while minimizing expected unserved energy. It was concluded that reliability criteria must be redefined to account for the fact that transmission systems are more stressed under deregulation. Two popular financial transmission rights were also discussed, notably (1) point-to-point financial transmission rights (FTR); and (2) financial flowgate rights (FGR)

  7. Trajectories of childhood weight gain: the relative importance of local environment versus individual social and early life factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A Carter

    Full Text Available To determine the association between local environmental factors with child weight status in a longitudinal study, using a semi-parametric, group-based method, while also considering social and early life factors.Standardized, directly measured BMI from 4-10 y of age, and group-based trajectory modeling (PROC TRAJ were used to estimate developmental trajectories of weight change in a Québec birth cohort (n = 1,566. Associations between the weight trajectories and living location, social cohesion, disorder, and material and social deprivation were estimated after controlling for social and early life factors.FOUR WEIGHT TRAJECTORY GROUPS WERE ESTIMATED: low-increasing (9.7%; low-medium, accelerating (36.2%; medium-high, increasing (43.0%; and high-stable (11.1%. In the low-increasing and medium-high trajectory groups, living in a semi-urban area was inversely related to weight, while living in a rural area was positively related to weight in the high-stable group. Disorder was inversely related to weight in the low-increasing group only. Other important risk factors for high-stable weight included obesity status of the mother, smoking during pregnancy, and overeating behaviors.In this study, associations between local environment factors and weight differed by trajectory group. Early life factors appear to play a more consistent role in weight status. Further work is needed to determine the influence of place on child weight.

  8. Predictors of English Health Literacy among U.S. Hispanic Immigrants: The importance of language, bilingualism and sociolinguistic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E. Jacobson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, data confirm that Spanish-speaking immigrants are particularly affected by the negative health outcomes associated with low health literacy. Although the literature points to variables such as age, educational background and language, only a few studies have investigated the factors that may influence health literacy in this group. Similarly, the role that bilingualism and/or multilingualism play in health literacy assessment continues to be an issue in need of further research. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of English health literacy among adult Hispanic immigrants whose self-reported primary language is Spanish, but who live and function in a bilingual community. It also explored issues related to the language of the instrument. An analysis of data collected through a randomized controlled study was conducted. Results identified English proficiency as the strongest predictor of health literacy (p < 0.001. The results further point to the importance of primary and secondary language in the assessment of heath literacy level. This study raises many questions in need of further investigation to clarify how language proficiency and sociolinguistic environment affect health literacy in language minority adults; proposes language approaches that may be more appropriate for measuring health literacy in these populations; and recommends further place-based research to determine whether the connection between language proficiency and health is generalizable to border communities.

  9. The Importance of the Maternal/Self-Role Satisfaction for Reducing Anxiety: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Japanese Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Riho; Arimoto, Azusa; Naruse, Takashi; Nagata, Satoko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    Women who rear children have two types of roles: the maternal role and the self-role. Previous studies have suggested that maternal role satisfaction is related to anxiety, but the importance of self-role satisfaction in promoting the health of mothers has received less attention. The changing roles of women in society, especially in urban areas, have altered mothers' views of child-rearing. Our primary focus was on the relationship between maternal/self-role satisfaction and anxiety in mothers. To examine this, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaires that were distributed in 2011 to 2,342 mothers attending the 18-month health checkup of their children, in 7 cities of the Tokyo metropolitan area. A total of 881 responded (effective response rate = 38.0%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal role satisfaction and self-role satisfaction were both significantly and negatively associated with anxiety. Thus, self-role satisfaction should be considered alongside maternal role satisfaction in evaluating and reducing anxiety. Health care professionals in community settings should conduct comprehensive assessments of maternal role satisfaction and self-role satisfaction.

  10. The importance of leadership style and psychosocial work environment to staff-assessed quality of care: implications for home help services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Kristina; Tafvelin, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    Work in home help services is typically conducted by an assistant nurse or nursing aide in the home of an elderly person, and working conditions have been described as solitary with a high workload, little influence and lack of peer and leader support. Relations between leadership styles, psychosocial work environment and a number of positive and negative employee outcomes have been established in research, but the outcome in terms of quality of care has been addressed to a lesser extent. In the present study, we aimed to focus on working conditions in terms of leadership and the employee psychosocial work environment, and how these conditions are related to the quality of care. The hypothesis was that the relation between a transformational leadership style and quality of care is mediated through organisational and peer support, job control and workload. A cross-sectional survey design was used and a total of 469 questionnaires were distributed (March-April 2012) to assistant nurses in nine Swedish home help organisations, including six municipalities and one private organisation, representing both rural and urban areas (302 questionnaires were returned, yielding a 65% response rate). The results showed that our hypothesis was supported and, when indirect effects were also taken into consideration, there was no direct effect of leadership style on quality of care. The mediated model explained 51% of the variance in quality of care. These results indicate that leadership style is important not only to employee outcomes in home help services but is also indirectly related to quality of care as assessed by staff members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Generalised and abdominal adiposity are important risk factors for chronic disease in older people: results from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, V

    2011-06-01

    To look at the trends in prevalence of generalised (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) >102 cm, men; > 88 cm, women) among older people from 1993 to 2008, prevalence of chronic disease by overweight/obesity and WC categories in England 2005 and evaluate the association of these measures with chronic diseases. Analyses of nationally representative cross-sectional population surveys, the Health Survey for England (HSE). Non-institutionalised men and women aged ≥ 65 years (in HSE 2005, 1512 men and 1747 women). Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure measurements were taken according to standardised HSE protocols. Information collected on socio-demographic, health behaviour and doctor diagnosed health conditions. Generalised obesity and abdominal obesity increased among men and women from 1993 to 2008. In 2005, the HSE 2005 focussed on older people. 72% of men and 68% of women aged over 65 were either overweight or obese. Prevalence of raised WC was higher in women (58%) than in men (46%). The prevalence of diabetes and arthritis was higher in people with generalised obesity in both sexes. Men were more likely to have had a joint replacement and had a higher prevalence of stroke if they were overweight only but women were more likely to have had a joint replacement only if they were obese (13%) and had a higher risk of falls with generalised obesity. The pattern was similar for the prevalence of chronic diseases by raised WC. Multivariate analysis showed that generalised and abdominal obesity was independently associated with risk of hypertension, diabetes and arthritis in both men and women. In women only, there was an association between generalised obesity and having a fall in the last year (OR: 1.5), and between abdominal obesity and having a joint replacement (OR: 1.9, p=0.01). Complications of obesity such as diabetes, hypertension and arthritis, are more common in men and women aged over 65 who are

  12. Assessing the Learning Environment for Medical Students: An Evaluation of a Novel Survey Instrument in Four Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T; Nickell, Leslie; Reboli, Annette C; Coplit, Lisa D; Stuber, Margaret L; Vasiliou, Vasilia; Civian, Janet T; Brennan, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    A practical, reliable, and valid instrument is needed to measure the impact of the learning environment on medical students' well-being and educational experience and to meet medical school accreditation requirements. From 2012 to 2015, medical students were surveyed at the end of their first, second, and third year of studies at four medical schools. The survey assessed students' perceptions of the following nine dimensions of the school culture: vitality, self-efficacy, institutional support, relationships/inclusion, values alignment, ethical/moral distress, work-life integration, gender equity, and ethnic minority equity. The internal reliability of each of the nine dimensions was measured. Construct validity was evaluated by assessing relationships predicted by our conceptual model and prior research. Assessment was made of whether the measurements were sensitive to differences over time and across institutions. Six hundred and eighty-six students completed the survey (49 % women; 9 % underrepresented minorities), with a response rate of 89 % (range over the student cohorts 72-100 %). Internal consistency of each dimension was high (Cronbach's α 0.71-0.86). The instrument was able to detect significant differences in the learning environment across institutions and over time. Construct validity was supported by demonstrating several relationships predicted by our conceptual model. The C-Change Medical Student Survey is a practical, reliable, and valid instrument for assessing the learning environment of medical students. Because it is sensitive to changes over time and differences across institution, results could potentially be used to facilitate and monitor improvements in the learning environment of medical students.

  13. Evaluation on changes caused by volcanic activities in the groundwater environment as a natural barrier for the HLW disposal. Literature survey and groundwater observation conducted at Mt. Iwate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahara, Yasunori; Nakata, Eiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2000-01-01

    It is very important in the site characterization for the HLW disposal to understand changes in geochemical performances caused by volcanic activities in the groundwater environment as the natural barrier. The various effects and its magnitude of changes were listed up and were filed from literature surveys of the correlation between volcanic activities and hydrological can geochemical changes (e.g. water temperature, water pressure, water level, dissolved gas concentration of He and Rn, isotopic ratio of He, and chloride concentration) in volcanic aquifer. However, it is difficult to evaluate the magnitude of impacts, which volcanic activities will give to the groundwater environment in the natural barrier, through only the literature surveys. We have started monitoring of groundwater level and changes in groundwater quality, since volcanic activities have enhanced at Mt. Iwate from June in 1998. Judging from variation of isotopic ratio of dissolved He in groundwater, a prompt and sharp signals indicating volcanic activities will easily be found in shallow groundwater and discharged ponds. On the other hands, geochemical conditions in deep groundwater surroundings from some 100 m to 1000 m deep will be very stable, if the area being more than 5 km apart from the volcanic active center. Consequently, our observed results suggest that the groundwater environment which is not directly disturbed by the underground magmatic activities spreads under the area that is connected to trench side of the volcanic front. (author)

  14. Environmental survey near a decommissioning nuclear facility: example of tritium monitoring in the terrestrial environment of Creys-Malville - Environmental survey near a nuclear facility undergoing decommissioning: example of tritium monitoring in the terrestrial environment of Creys-Malville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, C.; Gontier, G.; Chauveau, J.L. [EDF CIDEN, Division Environnement, 154 Avenue Thiers, 69458 Lyon (France); Pourcelot, L.; Roussel-Debet, S.; Cossonnet, P.C. [IRSN, LERCM Cadarache and LMRE Orsay (France); Jean-Baptiste, P. [LSCE, UMR 1572-CEA/CNRS/UVQS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    As part of the regulatory environmental monitoring around its nuclear power plants (NPP) in France, EDF carries out more than 40.000 measurements of radionuclides in the environment every year. In addition, EDF performs more detailed radioecological surveys on all of its sites. The purposes of these surveys are: 1/ to control that radioactive discharge limits prescribed by the regulatory authority are respected, 2/ to monitor the environment of the NPPs to verify normal plant operation and to detect all possible failures in power station operation at an early stage and 3/ to establish if there is any increase of radionuclides of anthropogenic origin in the environment and to determine whether this build-up can be attributed to plant operations. Radioecological surveys are conducted in the environment surrounding each of EDF's NPPs. Samples are collected in surrounding ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic) where the radioactive releases are discharged (liquid and gaseous discharges). These surveys results enable the examination of the spatial distribution and temporal variability of radionuclide activity in the environment throughout the reactors life, from the first fuel load to the decommissioning of the plant. The results from this monitoring have shown that EDF's nuclear power plants have only a minor effect on radionuclide levels in the environment. These results highlight the efficiency of EDF's efforts to minimise its impacts on the environment via an efficient waste management system and high operating standards of its plants. In particular, tritium is subject to special monitoring for more than 30 years; concentrations of free tritium and organically bound tritium in major environmental compartments are therefore well-known in the vicinity of French NPPs. At the end of a reactor's life, EDF has collected a large amount of reference data before decommissioning operations start. During these operations, EDF pursue the radioecological survey

  15. Importance of demographic surveys and public lands for the conservation of eastern hellbenders Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis in southeast USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Freake

    Full Text Available Comparisons of recent and historic population demographic studies of eastern hellbenders Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis have identified significant population declines and extirpations associated with habitat degradation, poor water quality and disease, leading to nomination as a candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act. However, populations in the southern Appalachian region of the range have received less attention despite relatively high levels of watershed protection due to the establishment of federally protected National Forest and National Park public lands. These watersheds likely represent some of the best remaining available habitat, yet the lack of published studies make assessment of population stability and viability very difficult. Our objectives were to (1 conduct a capture-mark-recapture (CMR demographic study and a point transect survey on the Hiwassee River in Tennessee which is designated a National Scenic River, and is largely contained within the Cherokee National Forest, (2 quantify the size structure of the population, (3 compare abundance, survival and recruitment with historic and contemporary hellbender populations across the range, (4 assess the importance of this population and the significance of National Forest and National Park lands in the context of hellbender population conservation in the southeastern United States. We detected all age classes present, with larval hellbenders comprising 21.5% of captures. Using a combination of static life table and CMR methods, we determined that survival rates during the first year were low (~10%, but were high (68-94% for taggable sized hellbenders. Density of hellbenders at the study site was very high (84 taggable sized hellbenders per 100m of river compared to recent demographic studies conducted in other regions of the range. We detected hellbenders over ~28 km of river, with a mean density of 23 taggable sized hellbenders per 100m of river, and

  16. Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks in Marine Environment Monitoring: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobao; Shen, Weiming; Wang, Xianbin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring. PMID:25215942

  17. Rank acquisition in rhesus macaque yearlings following permanent maternal separation: The importance of the social and physical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooddell, Lauren J; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Murphy, Ashley M; Suomi, Stephen J; Dettmer, Amanda M

    2017-11-01

    Rank acquisition is a developmental milestone for young primates, but the processes by which primate yearlings attain social rank in the absence of the mother remain unclear. We studied 18 maternally reared yearling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that differed in their social and physical rearing environments. We found that early social experience and maternal rank, but not individual traits (weight, sex, age), predicted dominance acquisition in the new peer-only social group. Yearlings also used coalitions to reinforce the hierarchy, and social affiliation (play and grooming) was likely a product, rather than a determinant, of rank acquisition. Following relocation to a familiar environment, significant rank changes occurred indicating that familiarity with a physical environment was salient in rank acquisition. Our results add to the growing body of literature emphasizing the role of the social and physical environment on behavioral development, namely social asymmetries among peers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Surface Disposal of Waste Water Treatment Plant Biosludge – an Important Source of Perfluorinated Compound Contamination in the Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    With more than a decade of intensive scientific research and increasing regulatory pressure worldwide, the sources of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in the environment and routes of human exposure still need to be fully characterized. Several studies have documented PFAA contaminat...

  19. Radioactive survey of the environment of the nuclear sites of French Nuclear Board: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeau, D.; Montjoie, M.; Sauve, A.M.; Laporte, J.; Rahaplen, A.; Alphonse, L.; Huc, C.; Bensimon, C.; Cissoko, G.

    1992-01-01

    C.E.A. has set up a network of radioactive survey around its nuclear sites. This network involves terrestrial, atmospheric and marine results of radioactive measurements. This survey is structured in four levels. The level 0 homogenizes stations of measurements, level 1 centralizes real-time measurements of gross α and β measurements of atmospheric radioactivity, level 2 and 3 centralizes postponed α-β spectrometric measurements of radioactivity on water, deposition, grass, vegetables. People can have a squint at these results of measurements using popular MINITEL telephonic network. (author)

  20. The Therapeutic Environment Screening Survey for Nursing Homes (TESS-NH): an observational instrument for assessing the physical environment of institutional settings for persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Mitchell, C Madeline; Weisman, Gerald; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Foley, Kristie M Long; Lynn, Mary; Calkins, Margaret; Lawton, M Powell; Teresi, Jeanne; Grant, Leslie; Lindeman, David; Montgomery, Rhonda

    2002-03-01

    To develop an observational instrument that describes the ability of physical environments of institutional settings to address therapeutic goals for persons with dementia. A National Institute on Aging workgroup identified and subsequently revised items that evaluated exit control, maintenance, cleanliness, safety, orientation/cueing, privacy, unit autonomy, outdoor access, lighting, noise, visual/tactile stimulation, space/seating, and familiarity/homelikeness. The final instrument contains 84 discrete items and one global rating. A summary scale, the Special Care Unit Environmental Quality Scale (SCUEQS), consists of 18 items. Lighting items were validated using portable light meters. Concurrent criterion validation compared SCUEQS scores with the Professional Environmental Assessment Protocol (PEAP). Interrater kappa statistics for 74% of items were above.60. For another 10% of items, kappas could not be calculated due to empty cells, but interrater agreement was above 80%. The SCUEQS demonstrated an interrater reliability of.93, a test--retest reliability of.88, and an internal consistency of.81--.83. Light meter ratings correlated significantly with the Therapeutic Environment Screening Survey for Nursing Homes (TESS-NH) lighting items (r =.29--.38, p =.01--.04), and the SCUEQS correlated significantly with global PEAP ratings (r =.52, p TESS-NH efficiently assesses discrete elements of the physical environment and has strong reliability and validity. The SCUEQS provides a quantitative measure of environmental quality in institutional settings.

  1. A survey of selected neutron-activation reactions with short-lived products of importance to fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.C.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    The status of the cross sections for production of short-lived radioactivities in the intense high-energy neutron fields associated with D-T fusion reactors is investigated. The main concerns relative to these very radioactive isotopes are with radiation damage to sensitive components such as superconducting magnets, the decay-heat problem and the safety of personnel during operation of the facility. The present report surveys the status of nuclear data required to assess these problems. The study is limited to a few high-priority nuclear reactions which appear to be of critical concern in this context. Other reactions of lesser concern are listed but are not treated in the present work. Among the factors that were considered in defining the relevant reactions and setting priorities are: quantities of the elemental materials in a fusion reactor, isotopic abundances within elemental categories, the decay properties of the induced radioactive byproducts, the reaction cross sections, and the nature of the decay radiations. Attention has been focused on radioactive species with half lives in the range from about 1 second to 15 minutes. Available cross-section and reaction-product decay information from the literature has been compiled and included in the report. Uncertainties have been estimated by examining several sets of experimental as well as evaluated data. Comments on the general status of data for various high-priority reactions are offered. On the basis of this investigation, it has been found that the nuclear data are in reasonably good shape for some of the most important reactions but are unacceptable for others. Based on this investigation, the reactions which should be given the greatest attention are: 16 O(n,p) 16 N, 55 Mn(n,p) 55 Cr, 57 Fe(n,p) 57 Mn, 186 W(n,2n) 185m W, and 207 Pb(n,n') 207m Pb. However, the development of fusion power would benefit from an across-the-board refinement in these nuclear data so that a more accurate quantitative

  2. Distribution and importance of microplastics in the marine environment: A review of the sources, fate, effects, and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auta, H S; Emenike, C U; Fauziah, S H

    2017-05-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment poses a great threat to the entire ecosystem and has received much attention lately as the presence has greatly impacted oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, coastal areas and even the Polar Regions. Microplastics are found in most commonly utilized products (primary microplastics), or may originate from the fragmentation of larger plastic debris (secondary microplastics). The material enters the marine environment through terrestrial and land-based activities, especially via runoffs and is known to have great impact on marine organisms as studies have shown that large numbers of marine organisms have been affected by microplastics. Microplastic particles have been found distributed in large numbers in Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, India, South Africa, North America, and in Europe. This review describes the sources and global distribution of microplastics in the environment, the fate and impact on marine biota, especially the food chain. Furthermore, the control measures discussed are those mapped out by both national and international environmental organizations for combating the impact from microplastics. Identifying the main sources of microplastic pollution in the environment and creating awareness through education at the public, private, and government sectors will go a long way in reducing the entry of microplastics into the environment. Also, knowing the associated behavioral mechanisms will enable better understanding of the impacts for the marine environment. However, a more promising and environmentally safe approach could be provided by exploiting the potentials of microorganisms, especially those of marine origin that can degrade microplastics. The concentration, distribution sources and fate of microplastics in the global marine environment were discussed, so also was the impact of microplastics on a wide range of marine biota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A questionnaire survey on sleeping thermal environment and bedroom air conditioning in high-rise residences in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Z. [Institute of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Gas Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Deng, S. [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reports on the results of a questionnaire survey on sleeping thermal environment and bedroom air conditioning in high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong. The survey aimed at investigating the current situation of sleeping thermal environment and bedroom air conditioning, in order to gather relevant background information to develop strategies for bedroom air conditioning in the subtropics. It focused on the use patterns and types of bedroom air conditioning systems used, human factors such as the use of bedding and sleep wear during sleep, preference for indoor air temperature settings in bedrooms, ventilation control at nighttime with room air conditioner (RAC) turned on, etc. The results of the survey showed that most of the respondents would prefer a relatively low indoor air temperature at below 24 {sup o}C. Most of the respondents might however not be satisfied with the indoor air quality (IAQ) in bedrooms in Hong Kong. On the other hand, 68% of the respondents did not use any ventilation control intentionally during their sleep with their RACs turned on. A lack of knowledge of the ventilation control devices provided on window type room air conditioners (WRACs) indicated an urgent need for user education. (author)

  4. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey - VIII. Discovery of an isolated dwarf galaxy in the Local Volume

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, Rhys; Minchin, R.F.; Herbst, H.; Smith, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 442, č. 1 (2014), L46-L50 ISSN 0035-8711 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : surveys * galaxies * distances and redshifts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.107, year: 2014

  5. Environment and Development: A Social Evaluation Survey in Nigeria in 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chrysanthus, Sr.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the results of a nationwide survey on environmental protection and sustainable development in Nigeria in 1992. The intention of this study was to provide reliable and useful information to those involved in forming policies about environmental protection and sustainable development. A vast majority of the respondents opted for strict…

  6. The releases control and the environment survey of the Cea Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Cea sets the environment protection in the heart of its security policy, which is based on the mastership of risks resulting from the researches activities and installations development. This policy aims to reduce as small as possible compared with the technical and economical necessities, the impact of its activities on the human and the environment. This document, takes stock for the year 2002, of the liquid and gas radioactive effluents releases as also of the radioactivity level around the Cea Centers, by a systematic monitoring of the atmosphere, the waters, the vegetation and the milk. (A.L.B.)

  7. Assessment of the French environment radiological status in 2009. Synthesis of the results obtained by the IRSN survey networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a brief recall of the IRSN's missions, this report describes why and how radioactivity is controlled in France. It presents the national network for environment radioactivity measurements, and indicates the objectives of this radiological survey. It comments the status and levels of the natural and artificial radioactivity in France, discusses the results of the territory general survey (atmosphere, inland, coast, regions), the results of fuel cycle related sites (nuclear sites, old mining sites, front end industries, electricity production plants, back end industries, waste storage sites), the results concerning the nuclear medicine radioactive releases, the results obtained during selective expertises, and discusses the assessment of the exposure of the French population to ionizing radiations. It finally indicates how those data are published

  8. Radiometric surveying for the assessment of radiation dose and radon specific exhalation in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, M.; Verdoya, M.; Chiozzi, P.; Pasquale, V.

    2012-08-01

    We performed a radiometric survey for evaluating the natural radioactivity and the related potential hazard level both outdoor and indoor a mine tunnel. The mine is located in a zone of uranium enrichment in the Western Alps (Italy). At first, a γ-ray spectrometry survey of the area surrounding the mine was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, spectrometric measurements were performed in the tunnel and rock samples were collected for laboratory analyses. The results point to significant heterogeneity in uranium concentration and consequently in the absorbed dose rate spatial distribution. Spectrometric results in situ and in the laboratory, together with radon air concentration measurements, were used to infer the radon specific exhalation and flow from the mine rocks. The specific exhalation is positively related to the activity concentration of uranium.

  9. Order and control in the environment : Exploring the effects on undesired behaviour and the importance of locus of control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.M.; Giebels, Ellen; van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Austrup, Sebastian; Junger, Marianne

    Purpose This study aimed at gaining more insight into the combined influence of environmental factors and personal vulnerability to environmental cues on cheating behaviour in a task-related indoor setting. We propose that a disorderly environment increases cheating as it implicitly signals that

  10. Microworlds, Games, Animations, Mobile Apps, Puzzle Editors and More: What Is Important for an Introductory Programming Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinogalos, Stelios; Satratzemi, Maya; Malliarakis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Teaching and learning programming constitutes a challenge. Although several teaching approaches and programming tools have been proposed, it seems that they have limited impact on classroom practice. This article investigates students' perceptions on five educational programming environments that are widely used and the features that any…

  11. Collection, Processing and Accuracy of Mobile Terrestrial Lidar Survey Data in the Coastal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    is built from sequential two-dimensional linescans. A typical survey will start with the vehicle positioned parallel to the dune near the dune toe ...these maps to assess where wave runup impacted the foreshore, upper beach, and dune toe , as well as areas where aeolian transport has deposited...the lidar data. These techniques can be expanded to calculate beach/berm widths, slopes, and dune toe and dune crest positions. ERDC/CHL TR-17-5 27

  12. A survey of energy policy priorities in the United States: Energy supply security, economics, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, Dawn K.; Hines, Valerie A.; Jordan, Matthew W.; Stoltz, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Security, environment, and economic concerns are commonly identified as three major objectives of energy policy. State and federal governments have set aggressive targets for carbon emissions reductions and for alternative fuel use and increased vehicle efficiency to reduce petroleum consumption. Moreover, jobs creation and GDP growth are often cited as key drivers for energy policies. Previous studies on energy policy decision-making have examined the process for developing and evaluating options using multi-criteria decision analysis tools. In addition, energy opinion polls have either elicited preferences between two goals or whether the public supports a specific policy action. In this article, we report results from a survey of 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy across the goals of energy supply security, environment and climate, and economics and job creation. The majority favor policymaking that is balanced across all three. Security and economic concerns increase with age for male respondents, whereas environment is the highest priority for females regardless of age. Unlike previous surveys that target the general public and focus on a particular objective or technology, these results provide an example of eliciting a portfolio allocation across multiple energy policy goals from targeted constituents. - Highlights: • We surveyed 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy. • The paper addresses direct elicitation of energy policy goal portfolio allocation for a large set of energy stakeholders. • The majority of respondents favor policymaking balanced across multiple goals. • We observed differences in priorities based on age and gender. • Respondents expressed a tension in allocating across goals that are interrelated

  13. NEWLY IDENTIFIED EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs) FROM THE SPITZER GLIMPSE II SURVEY. II. MOLECULAR CLOUD ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xi; Gan Conggui; Shen Zhiqiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); He Jinhua, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory/National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011, Yunnan Province (China)

    2013-06-01

    We have undertaken a survey of molecular lines in the 3 mm band toward 57 young stellar objects using the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m radio telescope. The target sources were young stellar objects with active outflows (extended green objects (EGOs)) newly identified from the GLIMPSE II survey. We observe a high detection rate (50%) of broad line wing emission in the HNC and CS thermal lines, which combined with the high detection rate of class I methanol masers toward these sources (reported in Paper I) further demonstrates that the GLIMPSE II EGOs are associated with outflows. The physical and kinematic characteristics derived from the 3 mm molecular lines for these newly identified EGOs are consistent with these sources being massive young stellar objects with ongoing outflow activity and rapid accretion. These findings support our previous investigations of the mid-infrared properties of these sources and their association with other star formation tracers (e.g., infrared dark clouds, methanol masers and millimeter dust sources) presented in Paper I. The high detection rate (64%) of the hot core tracer CH{sub 3}CN reveals that the majority of these new EGOs have evolved to the hot molecular core stage. Comparison of the observed molecular column densities with predictions from hot core chemistry models reveals that the newly identified EGOs from the GLIMPSE II survey are members of the youngest hot core population, with an evolutionary time scale of the order of 10{sup 3} yr.

  14. 75 FR 50745 - Information Collection; National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ..., planning, and on-the- ground management. For all Federal agencies, input from and knowledge about the... information on public attitudes about the environment and about the use and management of natural resources..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology...

  15. Influence of the nuclear energetics on the environment and population in Poland - methods, survey, opinions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    During the conference 14 lectures were presented which describe all possible aspects of the nuclear power plants influence on the environment and population in Poland. They were delivered by the outstanding polish scientists from ten institutions. The supervisor of the conference is National Atomic Energy Agency

  16. The ward atmosphere important for the psychosocial work environment of nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Wann-Hansson, Christine; Eklund, Mona

    2011-06-16

    The nursing staff working in psychiatric care have a demanding work situation, which may be reflected in how they view their psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The aims of the present study were to investigate in what way different aspects of the ward atmosphere were related to the psychosocial work environment, as perceived by nursing staff working in psychiatric in-patient care, and possible differences between nurses and nurse assistants. 93 nursing staff working at 12 general psychiatric in-patient wards in Sweden completed two questionnaires, the Ward Atmosphere Scale and the QPSNordic 34+. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman rank correlations and forward stepwise conditional logistic regression analyses. The data revealed that there were no differences between nurses and nurse assistants concerning perceptions of the psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The ward atmosphere subscales Personal Problem Orientation and Program Clarity were associated with a psychosocial work environment characterized by Empowering Leadership. Program Clarity was related to the staff's perceived Role Clarity, and Practical Orientation and Order and Organization were positively related to staff perceptions of the Organizational Climate. The results from the present study indicate that several ward atmosphere subscales were related to the nursing staff's perceptions of the psychosocial work environment in terms of Empowering Leadership, Role Clarity and Organizational Climate. Improvements in the ward atmosphere could be another way to accomplish improvements in the working conditions of the staff, and such improvements would affect nurses and nurse assistants in similar ways.

  17. The ward atmosphere important for the psychosocial work environment of nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Hansson Christine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nursing staff working in psychiatric care have a demanding work situation, which may be reflected in how they view their psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The aims of the present study were to investigate in what way different aspects of the ward atmosphere were related to the psychosocial work environment, as perceived by nursing staff working in psychiatric in-patient care, and possible differences between nurses and nurse assistants. Methods 93 nursing staff working at 12 general psychiatric in-patient wards in Sweden completed two questionnaires, the Ward Atmosphere Scale and the QPSNordic 34+. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman rank correlations and forward stepwise conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The data revealed that there were no differences between nurses and nurse assistants concerning perceptions of the psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The ward atmosphere subscales Personal Problem Orientation and Program Clarity were associated with a psychosocial work environment characterized by Empowering Leadership. Program Clarity was related to the staff's perceived Role Clarity, and Practical Orientation and Order and Organization were positively related to staff perceptions of the Organizational Climate. Conclusions The results from the present study indicate that several ward atmosphere subscales were related to the nursing staff's perceptions of the psychosocial work environment in terms of Empowering Leadership, Role Clarity and Organizational Climate. Improvements in the ward atmosphere could be another way to accomplish improvements in the working conditions of the staff, and such improvements would affect nurses and nurse assistants in similar ways.

  18. Investigation of urban environment from photographic information (photosurvey). Part I. Method and survey of vigor of trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, S; Oshima, T

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental data were gathered for a tree-planting program by surveying photometrically the growth state of plants in relation to topography in Suginami Ward, where the living environment is drastically changing. The photographs taken for the purpose were natural color 1972, infrared color 1972, panchromatic 1963 and 1966, panchromatio-infrachromatic 1970, and infrared 1971. The methods of evaluating tree vigor is explained. The tree species investigated were pasania, zelkova, ginkgo, Himalayan cedar, cherry, and pine. The results were summarized in a tree-vigor map. Vigor was in the descending order of ginkgo, Himalayan cedar, pasania, pine, zelkova and cherry. Along railroads and main roads, vigor was lower.

  19. Seismic site survey investigations in urban environments: The case of the underground metro project in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Colberg-Larsen, J.; Ploug, C.

    2009-05-01

    Near surface geophysics applications are gaining more widespread use in geotechnical and engineering projects. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey time, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of wide-scale geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face great challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic pre-investigation was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using seismic methods to obtain information about the subsurface layer locations and media properties in Copenhagen. Such information is needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling related to the Cityringen underground metro project. The pre-investigation objectives were to validate methods in an urban environment and optimize field survey procedures, processing and interpretation methods in urban settings in the event of further seismic investigations. The geological setting at the survey site is characterized by several interlaced layers of clay, till and sand. These layers are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present varying thickness, overlaying several different unit types of limestone at shallow depths. Specific results objectives were to map the bedrock surface, ascertain a structural geological framework and investigate bedrock media properties relevant to the construction design. The seismic test consisted of a combined seismic reflection and refraction analyses of a profile line conducted along an approximately 1400 m section in the northern part of Copenhagen, along the projected metro city line. The data acquisition was carried out using a 192 channels array, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 10 m spacing. Complementarily, six vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were performed at boreholes located along the line. The reflection

  20. [A Survey of the Perception of Nurses Toward the Practice Environment at a Regional Teaching Hospital in Central Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Tai; Lin, Ching-Wen; Wen, Wei-Chun; Lin, Esther Ching-Lan

    2015-08-01

    The nursing practice environment has been shown to wield significant influence on nursing retention and nursing quality of care. Because a large percentage of Taiwan nurses currently work at regional teaching hospitals, exploring the perception toward the practice environment of nurses working at this type of hospital is important. This study explored the perception of nurses working at a regional teaching hospital in central Taiwan toward their practice environment. A cross-sectional research design with a sample of 474 nurses from a regional hospital in central Taiwan was conducted. Instruments including the demographic data and the Chinese-version Practice Environment Scale-Nursing Work Index (CPES-NWI) were anonymously self-administered. Overall, participants were moderately satisfied with their practice environment, with the greatest dissatisfaction focused on staffing and resource adequacy. Work unit and nursing level, respectively, had significant impacts on perceptions regarding the practice environment. Furthermore, discriminant analysis identified two new compound variables: 1) adequate staffing resources and partnership in the workplace and 2) supportive administrative management environment. Participants who worked in medical and surgical units were significantly more dissatisfied with the adequacy of staffing resources and partnership in the workplace than participants who worked in acute/intensive and special units. Participants at the N2 level were significantly more dissatisfied with the supportive nature of the administrative management environment. These findings support that the nursing practice environment of regional hospitals may be improved using several measures, including: modifying the staffing and resource adequacy of nurses, fostering collaborative nurse-physician relationships, and further involving nurses in administrative management and decision-making.

  1. Different opinions of physicians on the importance of measures to prevent acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, Gratiana; Ullrich, Gerald

    2003-12-01

    Since chronic infection with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is associated with deteriorating lung function, many parents of young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) fear the first PA positive throat swab as a milestone in the progression of the disease. To reduce the risk of PA acquisition from the environment, they perform preventive measures at home or outdoors. In an attempt to evaluate the attitude of CF physicians towards these measures and the respective consulting practice, we mailed a questionnaire to all 65 certified paediatric CF centres in Germany. Physicians from 54 (83%) CF clinics replied. They expressed widely different ideas about the impact of the environment for the acquisition of P. aeruginosa, and recommended a large spectrum of preventive measures. Some physicians proposed only few precautions, which focussed on the prevention of cross-infection between patients, whereas others suggested prevention of any contact with moist or wet places, e.g. use different toothbrushes for mornings and evenings, or do without air-conditioning in the car. CF physicians have different opinions on the risk of PA acquisition from the environment. Doctors who recommend strict precautions could engender a parental fear of a ubiquous threat from invisible bacteria. The resulting extended safety measures might impair the family's quality of life. Copyright 2003 European Cystic Fibrosis Society

  2. The European Gaucher Alliance: a survey of member patient organisations' activities, healthcare environments and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žnidar, Irena; Collin-Histed, Tanya; Niemeyer, Pascal; Parkkinen, Johanna; Lauridsen, Anne-Grethe; Zariņa, Sandra; Cohen, Yossi; Manuel, Jeremy

    2014-09-02

    The European Gaucher Alliance (EGA) was established in 1994 and constituted in 2008 as an umbrella group supporting patient organisations for Gaucher disease. Every two years, the EGA conducts a questionnaire survey of member associations to help develop its priorities and annual work programme. Results of the latest survey are presented. Between June 2012 and April 2013, the 36 members and associate members of the EGA were asked to complete a questionnaire detailing membership numbers, disease specific treatments used by patients, means of access to treatment, availability of treatment centres and home infusions, sources of support for patients with Gaucher disease, patient organisations' activities, collaborations, funding sources and any issues of concern. Questionnaires completed in 2012 were revised in January 2013 and responses analysed between July and September 2013. Thirty three members returned data on one or more questions. Findings identified inequalities in access to treatment both within and between members' countries. Three of 27 countries, for which data were available, relied totally on humanitarian aid for treatment and 6% of untreated patients in 20 countries were untreated because of funding issues, a situation many feared would worsen with deteriorating economic climates. Access to treatment and reimbursement represented 45% of members' concerns, while 35% related to access to specialist treatment centres, home infusions and doctors with expertise in Gaucher disease. Member associations' main activities centred on patient support (59% of responses) and raising awareness of Gaucher disease and patients' needs amongst the medical community, government and healthcare decision makers and the general public (34% of responses). Twenty one (78% of respondents) indicated they were the only source of help for Gaucher disease patients in their country. For many, activities were constrained by funds; two members had no external funding source. Activities

  3. A survey of simultaneous localization and mapping on unstructured lunar complex environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqiao; Zhang, Wei; An, Pei

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) technology is the key to realizing lunar rover's intelligent perception and autonomous navigation. It embodies the autonomous ability of mobile robot, and has attracted plenty of concerns of researchers in the past thirty years. Visual sensors are meaningful to SLAM research because they can provide a wealth of information. Visual SLAM uses merely images as external information to estimate the location of the robot and construct the environment map. Nowadays, SLAM technology still has problems when applied in large-scale, unstructured and complex environment. Based on the latest technology in the field of visual SLAM, this paper investigates and summarizes the SLAM technology using in the unstructured complex environment of lunar surface. In particular, we focus on summarizing and comparing the detection and matching of features of SIFT, SURF and ORB, in the meanwhile discussing their advantages and disadvantages. We have analyzed the three main methods: SLAM Based on Extended Kalman Filter, SLAM Based on Particle Filter and SLAM Based on Graph Optimization (EKF-SLAM, PF-SLAM and Graph-based SLAM). Finally, this article summarizes and discusses the key scientific and technical difficulties in the lunar context that Visual SLAM faces. At the same time, we have explored the frontier issues such as multi-sensor fusion SLAM and multi-robot cooperative SLAM technology. We also predict and prospect the development trend of lunar rover SLAM technology, and put forward some ideas of further research.

  4. AIRLINE ITINERARY CHOICE IN A DYNAMIC SUPPLY ENVIRONMENT: RESULTS FROM A STATED PREFERENCE SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzi Freund-Feinstei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the choice of airline itineraries in dynamic settings using a tailored stated preference survey. The paper hypothesizes that airline itinerary choice is not a one-time event, but a continuous process during a certain time frame. Consumers can choose either to purchase an itinerary, deferring choice up to the end of the sales period, or completely declining the purchase. Understanding such consumers’ behavior is specifically relevant to the tourism industry, where firms are extensively utilizing internet websites to offer their products (e.g., airline tickets, hotel rooms to consumers. The paper describes the stated preference survey with real itineraries of various airlines on medium and long-haul routes. Choice sets are composed with dynamic and static variables and socio-economic variables. Questionnaires were distributed electronically among various groups of respondents, yielding a sample of 914 persons. Results show that (i itinerary choice deferring takes place, with differences between tourists and business-travelers, (ii the decision whether to defer choice is affected by dynamically changing variables and by the length of each respondent’s allocated choice period, and (iii the proposed methodology is adequate for investigating choice in dynamic settings and thus indicating its potential for further research in transportation planning and in tourism.

  5. Transmission investment and planning in deregulated market environment : a literature survey (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, F.; Wu, F.F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the second half of a 2-part paper that provided details of a comprehensive survey of issues related to transmission investment and expansion planning in the electricity market. Results of the survey suggested that transmission regulation is needed to provide a fair playing field for competition and to ensure that transmission networks are optimally expanded while also meeting reliability constraints. Regulations will create further incentives for cost reduction while ensuring that regulated firms have assurance of cost recovery. Transmission planning should be controlled or monitored by a government organization or regulator. Legislation is needed to ensure that regulatory authorities can enforce reliability criteria. Mandatory reliability standards and metrics for reliability services should be implemented. The economic benefits of transmission expansion in a deregulated market should be modelled using non-deterministic approaches. It was concluded that transmission expansion plans should be able to meet future transmission capacity requirements, secure returns on investment, and ensure reliability levels for customers. Various international transmission expansion plans were also provided. 38 refs

  6. Enhanced Survey and Proposal to secure the data in Cloud Computing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    MR.S.SUBBIAH; DR.S.SELVA MUTHUKUMARAN; DR.T.RAMKUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing have the power to eliminate the cost of setting high end computing infrastructure. It is a promising area or design to give very flexible architecture, accessible through the internet. In the cloud computing environment the data will be reside at any of the data centers. Due to that, some data center may leak the data stored on there, beyond the reach and control of the users. For this kind of misbehaving data centers, the service providers should take care of the security and...

  7. DIVERSITY OF NECROPHAGOUS BLOWFLY (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY IMPORTANCE IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS IN CÓRDOBA (ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Battán-Horenstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex nature of urban environments can have different effects on species diversity and composition. The aim of this work was to characterize the assemblage of Calliphoridae regarding its richness, abundance, and synanthropy in Córdoba City, Argentina. Three sampling sites differing in their distance to the border of the city and degree of urbanization were selected. In each site, collections were carried out with 12 traps baited with cow liver (200 g per trap that were operated for five consecutive days during three different times of the year, in April, June and August 2013. A total of 341 adult calliphorids from nine species, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, L. eximia (Wiedemann, L. cuprina (Wiedemann, L. cluvia (Walker, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, C. megacephala (Fabricius and C. chloropyga (Wiedemann were collected. Lucilia sericata was the most abundant species followed by C. vicina. Species diversity, composition and abundance changed between sites, richness being lowest at the most urbanized site. All species are cosmopolitan except Sarconesia chlorogaster, whose distribution is restricted to South America. These results are consistent with a homogenization of the fauna in urban environments.

  8. Survey on Security Issues in File Management in Cloud Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Udit

    2015-06-01

    Cloud computing has pervaded through every aspect of Information technology in past decade. It has become easier to process plethora of data, generated by various devices in real time, with the advent of cloud networks. The privacy of users data is maintained by data centers around the world and hence it has become feasible to operate on that data from lightweight portable devices. But with ease of processing comes the security aspect of the data. One such security aspect is secure file transfer either internally within cloud or externally from one cloud network to another. File management is central to cloud computing and it is paramount to address the security concerns which arise out of it. This survey paper aims to elucidate the various protocols which can be used for secure file transfer and analyze the ramifications of using each protocol.

  9. Electromagnetic spectrum survey of the environment in a locality in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abood, Wafa Ali; Din, Norashidah Md; Ismail, Aiman; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum in the environment is becoming a scarce resource with the emergence of a high number of wireless communications services Cognitive radio (CR) is viewed as a possible solution to the spectrum bottleneck which work in a premise that at an any given time and spatial region there are frequency bands that has no signal occupancy. The CR technique utilizes a temporarily unoccupied licensed band by allowing secondary users to exploit opportunistically the underutilized spectrum licensed to primary users without any harmful interference. Before investigating the technical and political implications of CR, it is necessary to know to what extent the licensed bands are temporally unoccupied. In this paper a spectrum occupancy measurements is conducted to study the utilization of RF spectrum in an environment. The measurements are performed on UHF TV, GSM900 and GSM1800 frequency bands in an urban area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The evaluation made is based on the power detection principle. From the measurements, the spectrum holes are identified. The obtained results show that the spectral usage is 7.37% for UHF TV band, 12.8% for GSM900 and 5.3% for GSM1800 band leading to the conclusion that a significant amount of spectrum is available for deployment of cognitive radio.

  10. Electromagnetic spectrum survey of the environment in a locality in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Wafa Ali; Din, Norashidah Md; Ismail, Aiman; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2013-06-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum in the environment is becoming a scarce resource with the emergence of a high number of wireless communications services Cognitive radio (CR) is viewed as a possible solution to the spectrum bottleneck which work in a premise that at an any given time and spatial region there are frequency bands that has no signal occupancy. The CR technique utilizes a temporarily unoccupied licensed band by allowing secondary users to exploit opportunistically the underutilized spectrum licensed to primary users without any harmful interference. Before investigating the technical and political implications of CR, it is necessary to know to what extent the licensed bands are temporally unoccupied. In this paper a spectrum occupancy measurements is conducted to study the utilization of RF spectrum in an environment. The measurements are performed on UHF TV, GSM900 and GSM1800 frequency bands in an urban area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The evaluation made is based on the power detection principle. From the measurements, the spectrum holes are identified. The obtained results show that the spectral usage is 7.37% for UHF TV band, 12.8% for GSM900 and 5.3% for GSM1800 band leading to the conclusion that a significant amount of spectrum is available for deployment of cognitive radio.

  11. A survey of influence of work environment on temporomandibular disorders-related symptoms in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiyama Akira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This study aimed at identifying the factors that influence the incidence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD-related symptoms (TRS in a Japanese working population. Methods Our study subjects comprised of 1,969 employees from the same Japanese company. The subjects were assessed using a questionnaire that covered both TRS and the work environment. TRS were measured from 4 items on the questionnaire. The work environment factors recorded were the daily mean duration of personal computer use, driving, precise work, commuting, time spent at home before going to bed, sleeping, attending business meetings, and performing physical labor. Statistical analysis was performed using t-tests, Chi-square tests, and logistic regression analyses. A result with P  Results The median total score on the 4 items used to assess TRS was 5 (25% = 4, 75% = 7. Two groups were defined such that the participants scoring ≤7 were assigned to the low-TRS group and those scoring ≥8, to the high-TRS group. The high-TRS group constituted 22.6% of the subjects. Logistic regression analyses indicated that female gender and extended periods of computer use were significant contributors to the manifestation of TRS. Conclusion This questionnaire-based study showed that gender and computer use time was associated with the prevalence of TRS in this working population. Thus, evaluation of ergonomics is suggested for TMD patients.

  12. An evaluation of patient attitudes to colonoscopy and the importance of endoscopist interaction and the endoscopy environment to satisfaction and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Jude; Sahota, Jagdeep; Hydes, Theresa; Trebble, Timothy Mark

    2013-03-01

    Understanding patients' attitudes to their medical experience is essential for identifying value in the patient pathway, optimizing care and use of resources. This service evaluation was undertaken to determine patients' preferences and expectations for day case colonoscopy, a common gastrointestinal procedure for which there is limited such data. Patients attending for elective colonoscopy were invited to complete a composite, validated dedicated endoscopy questionnaire, with Likert-scale questions and a 15-point preference (ranking) scale of domains of endoscopy care that were considered most important (1) to least important (15) as contributing to a satisfactory experience. Two hundred and sixteen out of 224 patients returned questionnaires. Moderate to severe anxiety was recorded in 56% of patients, commonly with respect to anticipation of pain or the results of the procedure. The median values for ranked preference scores consistent with greatest importance for satisfaction were technical skill of the endoscopist (1), discomfort during the procedure (4), and manner of the endoscopist (5). Factors considered of relatively low importance included the single-sex environment (15) (although this was more important to female patients), noise levels (13), and explanation of delay (11). Only 14% of patients responded that they would be prepared to delay an appointment for a single-sex environment. Patients undergoing colonoscopy highly prioritize aspects of care relating to the interaction with the endoscopist and the procedure itself. Environment factors are considered to be less important. These findings may assist in service redesign around patient-identified value within the patient pathway.

  13. Palliative care for patients with cancer: do patients receive the care they consider important? A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, Marianne; Hofstede, Jolien; Rijken, Mieke; Korevaar, Joke; Donker, Gé; Francke, Anneke

    2018-04-17

    In many countries, GPs and home care nurses are involved in care for patients with advanced cancer. Given the varied and complex needs of these patients, providing satisfactory care is a major challenge for them. We therefore aimed to study which aspects of care patients, GPs and home care nurses consider important and whether patients receive these aspects. Seventy-two Dutch patients with advanced cancer, 87 GPs and 26 home care nurses rated the importance of support when experiencing symptoms, respect for patients' autonomy and information provision. Patients also rated whether they received these aspects. Questionnaires were based on the CQ index palliative care. Almost all patients rated information provision and respect for their autonomy as important. The majority also rated support when suffering from specific symptoms as important, especially support when in pain. In general, patients received the care they considered important. However, 49% of those who considered it important to receive support when suffering from fatigue and 23% of those who wanted to receive information on the expected course of their illness did not receive this or only did so sometimes. For most patients with advanced cancer, the palliative care that they receive matches what they consider important. Support for patients experiencing fatigue may need more attention. When symptoms are difficult to control, GPs and nurses may still provide emotional support and practical advice. Furthermore, we recommend that GPs discuss patients' need for information about the expected course of their illness.

  14. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (Pplanning implementing agencies (Pplanning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC

  15. On the relative importance of vegetation terms in computational fluid dynamics on flow and Dispersion in the urban environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Blocken, B.J.E.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of vegetation terms was analysed for flow and dispersion in an urban street canyon with avenue-trees. To this end, simulations with three k-e turbulence models and different approaches to model vegetation were performed. The different approaches resulted in rather slight

  16. Survey on bio-chemical complex harmonized with global environment. 3; Kankyo chowagata seibutsu kagaku konbinato ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A survey was conducted of bio-chemical complex harmonized with the global environment for the purpose of constructing the material production process harmonized with the environment by the process fusion between biological conversion and chemical reaction. Palm oil was taken up as renewable raw material plant resource. The process utilizing bio-chemical reaction advances at normal temperature and pressure and is high in reaction specificity and selectivity. This is a recycling, circulation and environmental harmony type production technology which brings high yield, energy conservation, resource conservation, and low environmental loads. Waste water treatment and production of useful substances from sludge were thought as elementary technology. A possibility was studied of enzyme production by culturing solid waste, and the enzyme was applied to the hydrolysis process. The paper indicated trace components in the palm oil and the extraction method and proposed the production process of new derivatives for adding value to hydrolysate. A study was also made of the overall process flow which integrated these new processes and the material balance. The comprehensive evaluation of this new process was made from the aspect of the product structure, the market, construction cost, economical efficiency, and the environment. 133 refs., 65 figs., 56 tabs.

  17. The Swift/BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. IX. The Clustering Environments of an Unbiased Sample of Local AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M. C.; Cappelluti, N.; Urry, C. M.; Koss, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Ricci, C.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Allevato, V.; Ajello, M.; Oh, K.; Schawinski, K.; Secrest, N.

    2018-05-01

    We characterize the environments of local accreting supermassive black holes by measuring the clustering of AGNs in the Swift/BAT Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). With 548 AGN in the redshift range 0.01 2MASS galaxies, and interpreting it via halo occupation distribution and subhalo-based models, we constrain the occupation statistics of the full sample, as well as in bins of absorbing column density and black hole mass. We find that AGNs tend to reside in galaxy group environments, in agreement with previous studies of AGNs throughout a large range of luminosity and redshift, and that on average they occupy their dark matter halos similar to inactive galaxies of comparable stellar mass. We also find evidence that obscured AGNs tend to reside in denser environments than unobscured AGNs, even when samples were matched in luminosity, redshift, stellar mass, and Eddington ratio. We show that this can be explained either by significantly different halo occupation distributions or statistically different host halo assembly histories. Lastly, we see that massive black holes are slightly more likely to reside in central galaxies than black holes of smaller mass.

  18. The chemical speciation of technetium in the environment: a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparkes, S.T.; Long, S.E.

    1987-07-01

    This report reviews the current understanding of the chemical forms and behaviour of technetium in the environment. Technetium (VII) is the dominant species in most systems, however when reducing conditions arise technetium (IV) species predominate. Pertechnetate is a highly mobile ion in aqueous media and can exhibit significant environmental transfer. Technetium (IV) is readily sorbed by sediments and is able to complex with various ligands which subsequently determine its fate. Complexation with high molecular weight organic moieties reduces the availability of technetium although this is not necessarily the case with smaller molecules. In plants, technetium is absorbed as TcO 4 - and can become incorporated into organic molecules. The technetium present in such forms is generally considered less available for uptake by the ingesting animal than aqueous TcO 4 - , although significant transfer of this element has been reported from food into eggs. Areas of potential future interest are suggested. (author)

  19. Air quality perception of pedestrians in an urban outdoor Mediterranean environment: A field survey approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon; Psiloglou, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Perception plays a significant role on people's response to preventive measures. In the view of public awareness, the aim of this study was to explore factors that affect air quality perception and to reveal its potential patterns. Air quality perception of individuals, in terms of dust and overall air quality, was examined in relation to air pollutants concentrations, meteorological variables, personal characteristics as well as their thermal sensation and health condition. The data used were obtained from environmental measurements, in situ and from stations, and questionnaire surveys conducted in an outdoor urban Mediterranean area, Athens, Greece. The participants were asked to report their air quality perception and thermal sensation based on predefined scales. A thermal index, Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), was estimated to obtain an objective measure of thermal sensation. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were associated with dust perception. Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO) were associated to air quality perception. Age, area of residence, health symptoms and thermal sensation also affected the perception of air quality. Dusty or poor air quality conditions were more likely to be reported when pollutants' concentrations were increased. Younger people, participants residing in the city center, experiencing health symptoms or warm thermal sensation showed a trend towards reporting more unfavorable air quality conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Survey on the importance of mange in the aetiology of skin lesions in goats in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Van Wyngaarden, T; Vercruysse, J; Symoens, C; Jalia, A

    1994-05-01

    A survey on mange mite infestations in the aetiology of skin lesions in goats in Peninsular Malaysia is described. Skin lesions were observed in 25 (93%) of the 27 goat farms investigated. Mange mites were found in 22 (88%) of these goat herds. Chorioptes texanus was found in 20.7%, Psoroptes cuniculi in 19.3%, Sarcoptes scabiei in 18.6% and Demodex canis var. caprae in 0.4% of the samples, taken from the skin lesions. Thirteen cases of generalised manage were diagnosed, from which 9 were caused by S. scabiei, 2 by P. cuniculi and one by C. texanus. All other cases had more or less localised lesions. No significant differences could be found in incidence and distribution of skin lesions between age classes.

  1. Validation of a survey instrument to assess home environments for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crane Lori A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few measures exist to measure the overall home environment for its ability to support physical activity (PA and healthy eating in overweight children. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of such a measure. Methods The Home Environment Survey (HES was developed to reflect availability, accessibility, parental role modelling, and parental policies related to PA resources, fruits and vegetables (F&V, and sugar sweetened drinks and snacks (SS. Parents of overweight children (n = 219 completed the HES and concurrent behavioural assessments. Children completed the Block Kids survey and wore an accelerometer for one week. A subset of parents (n = 156 completed the HES a second time to determine test-retest reliability. Finally, 41 parent dyads living in the same home (n = 41 completed the survey to determine inter-rater reliability. Initial psychometric analyses were completed to trim items from the measure based on lack of variability in responses, moderate or higher item to scale correlation, or contribution to strong internal consistency. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were completed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlations between the HES scores and child and parent nutrition and PA. Results Eight items were removed and acceptable internal consistency was documented for all scales (α = .66–84 with the exception of the F&V accessibility. The F&V accessibility was reduced to a single item because the other two items did not meet reliability standards. Test-retest reliability was high (r > .75 for all scales. Inter-rater reliability varied across scales (r = .22–.89. PA accessibility, parent role modelling, and parental policies were all related significantly to child (r = .14–.21 and parent (r = .15–.31 PA. Similarly, availability of F&V and SS, parental role modelling, and parental policies were related to child (r

  2. Comparative profiling of microbial community of three economically important fishes reared in sea cages under tropical offshore environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheeda, M K; Rangamaran, Vijaya Raghavan; Srinivasan, Senthilkumar; Ramaiah, Sendhil Kumar; Gunasekaran, Rajaprabhu; Jaypal, Santhanakumar; Gopal, Dharani; Ramalingam, Kirubagaran

    2017-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial composition of farmed cobia pompano and milkfish, reared in sea-cages by culture-independent methods. This study would serve as a basis for assessing the general health of fish, identifying the dominant bacterial species present in the gut for future probiotic work and in early detection of potential pathogens. High-throughput sequencing of V3-V4 hyper variable regions of 16S rDNA on Illumina MiSeq platform facilitated unravelling of composite bacterial population. Analysis of 1.3 million quality-filtered sequences revealed high microbial diversity. Characteristic marine fish gut microbes: Vibrio and Photobacterium spp. showed prevalence in cobia and pompano whereas Pelomonas and Fusobacterium spp. dominated the gut of milkfish. Pompano hindgut with 10,537 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity index followed by cobia (10,435) and milkfish (2799). Additionally unique and shared OTUs in each gut type were identified. Gammaproteobacteria dominated in cobia and pompano while Betaproteobacteria showed prevalence in milkfish. We obtained 96 shared OTUs among the three species though the numbers of reads were highly variable. These differences in microbiota of farmed fish reared in same environment were presumably due to differences in the gut morphology, physiological behavior and host specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictors of English Health Literacy among U.S. Hispanic Immigrants: The importance of language, bilingualism and sociolinguistic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Soto Mas, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, data confirm that Spanish-speaking immigrants are particularly affected by the negative health outcomes associated with low health literacy. Although the literature points to variables such as age, educational background and language, only a few studies have investigated the factors that may influence health literacy in this group. Similarly, the role that bilingualism and/or multilingualism play in health literacy assessment continues to be an issue in need of further research. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of English health literacy among adult Hispanic immigrants whose self-reported primary language is Spanish, but who live and function in a bilingual community. It also explored issues related to the language of the instrument. An analysis of data collected through a randomized controlled study was conducted. Results identified English proficiency as the strongest predictor of health literacy (p sociolinguistic environment affect health literacy in language minority adults; proposes language approaches that may be more appropriate for measuring health literacy in these populations; and recommends further place-based research to determine whether the connection between language proficiency and health is generalizable to border communities. PMID:27127416

  4. Predictors of English Health Literacy among U.S. Hispanic Immigrants: The importance of language, bilingualism and sociolinguistic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Holly E; Hund, Lauren; Soto Mas, Francisco

    In the United States, data confirm that Spanish-speaking immigrants are particularly affected by the negative health outcomes associated with low health literacy. Although the literature points to variables such as age, educational background and language, only a few studies have investigated the factors that may influence health literacy in this group. Similarly, the role that bilingualism and/or multilingualism play in health literacy assessment continues to be an issue in need of further research. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of English health literacy among adult Hispanic immigrants whose self-reported primary language is Spanish, but who live and function in a bilingual community. It also explored issues related to the language of the instrument. An analysis of data collected through a randomized controlled study was conducted. Results identified English proficiency as the strongest predictor of health literacy (p sociolinguistic environment affect health literacy in language minority adults; proposes language approaches that may be more appropriate for measuring health literacy in these populations; and recommends further place-based research to determine whether the connection between language proficiency and health is generalizable to border communities.

  5. The relationship between nurse practice environment, nurse work characteristics, burnout and job outcome and quality of nursing care: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Kowalski, Christoph; Weeks, Susan Mace; Van Heusden, Danny; Clarke, Sean P

    2013-12-01

    To explore the mechanisms through which nurse practice environment dimensions are associated with job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care. Mediating variables tested included nurse work characteristics of workload, social capital, decision latitude, as well as burnout dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Acute care hospitals face daily challenges to their efforts to achieve nurse workforce stability, safety, and quality of care. A body of knowledge shows a favourably rated nurse practice environment as an important condition for better nurse and patient outcome variables; however, further research initiatives are imperative for a clear understanding to support and guide the practice community. Cross-sectional survey. Grounded on previous empirical findings, a structural equation model designed with valid measurement instruments was tested. The study population was registered acute care nurses (N=1201) in two independent hospitals and one hospital group with six hospitals in Belgium. Nurse practice environment dimensions predicted job outcome variables and nurse ratings of quality of care. Analyses were consistent with features of nurses' work characteristics including perceived workload, decision latitude, and social capital, as well as three dimension of burnout playing mediating roles between nurse practice environment and outcomes. A revised model adjusted using various fit measures explained 52% and 47% of job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care, respectively. The study refines understanding of the relationship between aspects of nursing practice in order to achieve favourable nursing outcomes and offers important concepts for managers to track in their daily work. The findings of this study indicate that it is important for clinicians and leaders to consider how nurses are involved in decision-making about care processes and tracking outcomes of care and whether they are able to work with

  6. A survey of urban noise annoyance in a large Brazilian city: the importance of a subjective analysis in conjunction with an objective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannin, Paulo H.T.; Calixto, Alfredo; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Ferreira, Jose A.C.

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the reaction to environmental noise of the population of Curitiba (∼1.6 million inhabitants). Out of 1000 distributed forms, 860 were returned. The main isolated noise sources revealed by the survey as disturbing were traffic (73%) and neighbors (38%). As a class, neighborhood noise was pointed out as the most disturbing type of noise as 100% of the surveyed people indicated at least one of the items belonging to this class: neighbors, animals, sirens, civil construction, religion temples, night clubs, toys and domestic electric appliances. The main outcomes of exposure to noise were: irritability (58%), difficulty to concentrate (42%), sleeping disorders (20%) and headaches (20%). In this survey, the importance of the realization of objective surveys, in other words, noise emission measurements in conjunction with the subjective evaluation of the reaction of the urban population to the environmental noise, is also discussed. The present survey shows that in the subjective evaluation performed in the city of Curitiba, the perception of the population is that the urban noise has increased. On the other hand, another study conducted in the same city, where only the noise emission levels were evaluated, has showed a decrease on the urban noise

  7. Is a perceived supportive physical environment important for self-reported leisure time physical activity among socioeconomically disadvantaged women with poor psychosocial characteristics? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2013-03-27

    Over the past decade, studies and public health interventions that target the physical environment as an avenue for promoting physical activity have increased in number. While it appears that a supportive physical environment has a role to play in promoting physical activity, social-ecological models emphasise the importance of considering other multiple levels of influence on behaviour, including individual (e.g. self-efficacy, intentions, enjoyment) and social (e.g. social support, access to childcare) factors (psychosocial factors). However, not everyone has these physical activity-promoting psychosocial characteristics; it remains unclear what contribution the environment makes to physical activity among these groups. This study aimed to examine the association between the perceived physical environment and self-reported leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas demonstrating different psychosocial characteristics. In 2007-8, 3765 women (18-45 years) randomly selected from low socioeconomic areas in Victoria, Australia, self-reported LTPA, and individual, social and physical environmental factors hypothesised within a social-ecological framework to influence LTPA. Psychosocial and environment scores were created. Associations between environment scores and categories of LTPA (overall and stratified by thirds of perceived environment scores) were examined using generalised ordered logistic regression. Women with medium and high perceived environment scores had 20-38% and 44-70% greater odds respectively of achieving higher levels of LTPA than women with low environment scores. When stratified by thirds of psychosocial factor scores, these associations were largely attenuated and mostly became non-significant. However, women with the lowest psychosocial scores but medium or high environment scores had 76% and 58% higher odds respectively of achieving ≥120 minutes/week (vs. <120 minutes/week) LTPA

  8. The importance of job characteristics in determining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population, a longitudinal survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, R.

    2012-01-01

    The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will

  9. Survey of bacterial contamination of environment of swimming pools in Yazd city, in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections are readily transmitted as a result of bacterial contamination of swimming pools. Therefore, hygiene and preventing the contamination of swimming pools is of particular importance. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of bacterial contamination in indoor pools of Yazd in 2013. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, all indoor swimming pools of Yazd (12 pools were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2013, in terms of bacterial contamination. In order to determine contamination, a sterile cotton swab was used for sampling. On average, 45 samples were taken from different surfaces in each pool (shower, dressing room, sitting places in sauna, platforms and around the pool. In total, about 540 samples from all pools were tested for bacterial contamination. Results: The results show that from 540 samples, bacterial contamination was observed in about 93 samples (17.22%; and was seen more in showers, edges of the pool and jacuzzis, and the slippers used in swimming pools. The most important isolated bacteria types were E. coli, Actinobacteria, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Conclusion: The results indicate the presence of bacterial contamination on the surface of these places. It is recommended that health authorities should pay more attention to cleaning and disinfecting surfaces around the pool, showers, dressing rooms etc, to prevent infectious disease transfer as a result of contact with contaminated swimming pool surfaces.

  10. A survey on virtual environment applications to fear of public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, F; Conversano, C; Del Debbio, A; Landi, P; Carlini, M; Fanciullacci, C; Bergamasco, M; Di Fiorino, A; Dell'Osso, L

    2013-06-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders in Europe and comprises the fear of public speaking as its typical sub-type. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is the intervention of choice for SAD, and it includes exposure to anxiety-provoking stimuli to induce systematic desensitization and reduce anxiety. Similarly, exposure therapy per se has been used and found effective, although it is not as specific as CBT for the treatment of SAD. Interestingly, exposure to anxiety-provoking situations can be achieved in Virtual Environments (VEs) through the simulation of social situations allowing individuals with public speaking anxiety to live and develop real exposure-like reactions. The Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is the treatment of anxiety disorders based on such VEs. This article aims to provide an overview of the scientific literature related to the applications of Virtual Reality to the treatment of fear of public speaking. We conducted the literature review on PubMed and Google Scholar for studies including the fear-of-public-speaking VEs. Reviewed studies addressed two main aspects: the design parameters of the VEs for adequate reactions to synthetic social stimuli, and the efficacy of VEs for fear of public speaking treatment. VEs resulted effective for triggering as-if-real reactions in relation to public speaking. VE-based exposures reduced public speaking anxiety measurements, decreased scores and maintained them at 3 month follow-up. Studies comparing VRET to pharmacological therapy are lacking, and there are few randomized controlled trials that compare VRET to CBT, especially on fear of public speaking treatment.

  11. A survey on distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus flavus from indoor and outdoor hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, Asghar; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Allameh, Abdolamir; Jahanshiri, Zahra; Jamali, Mojdeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, genetic diversity and mycotoxin profiles of Aspergillus flavus isolated from air (indoors and outdoors), levels (surfaces), and soils of five hospitals in Southwest Iran were examined. From a total of 146 Aspergillus colonies, 63 isolates were finally identified as A. flavus by a combination of colony morphology, microscopic criteria, and mycotoxin profiles. No Aspergillus parasiticus was isolated from examined samples. Chromatographic analyses of A. flavus isolates cultured on yeast extract-sucrose broth by tip culture method showed that approximately 10% and 45% of the isolates were able to produce aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), respectively. Around 40% of the isolates produced sclerotia on Czapek-Dox agar. The isolates were classified into four chemotypes based on the ability to produce AF and CPA that majority of them (55.5%) belonged to chemotype IV comprising non-mycotoxigenic isolates. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated by a combination of four selected primers were used to assess genetic relatedness of 16 selected toxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates. The resulting dendrogram demonstrated the formation of two separate clusters for the A. flavus comprised both mycotoxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates in a random distribution. The obtained results in this study showed that RAPD profiling is a promising and efficient tool to determine intra-specific genetic variation among A. flavus populations from hospital environments. A. flavus isolates, either toxigenic or non-toxigenic, should be considered as potential threats for hospitalized patients due to their obvious role in the etiology of nosocomial aspergillosis.

  12. Neutron dosimeters and survey meters in accelerators, reactors and other neutron environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    Neutron fields in occupationally accessible areas around nuclear reactors, radioisotope sources and medical and high energy accelerators have been characterized using currently available information. Neutron, rem meters, such as the Leake detector, are the most suitable instruments available for conducting neutron dose rate surveys in the vicinity of radioisotope neutron sources, nuclear reactors and medical accelerators. However, these instruments have been shown to be deficient in that they overrespond by a factor of four to neutrons in the 0.1 to 1 MeV range and are insensitive to neutrons from about 1 eV up to about 10 keV. Also, they are insensitive to neutrons above 20 MeV and their use must be restricted near high energy accelerators where significant numbers of neutrons above 20 MeV are known to be present. The most suitable instrument of measure dose from neutrons above 20 MeV is the 12 C(n,2n) 11 C scintillation chamber. Commercially available rem meters frequently use BF 3 counters in the pulse mode to detect thermal neutrons. Therefore, measurements around pulsed accelerators must be made with caution to ensure that the detector is not saturated during each pulse and that the accelerator pulse period is greater than the response time of the detector. The personal neutron dosimeters currently available either are known to be insensitive to neutrons above 20 MeV or have not been tested. Also, all except the albedo dosimeter are insensitive to or have not been tested for neutron energies in the range 1 eV to 10 keV. Several dosimeter types respond reasonably well to neutrons in the energy range 0.1 to 15 MeV, for example, CR-39, bubble and superheated drop detectors. However, the first gas a lower limit of sensitivity of about 0.3 mSv. The bubble detector can be designed to measure doses as small as 1μSv and offers the additional benefit of direct-reading capability. The superheated drop detector is not suitable for use around pulsed accelerators because

  13. Diversity and importance of filamentous bacteria in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment plants – a worldwide survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Ziegler, Anja Sloth

    Filamentous bacteria are present in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) worldwide where they play an important role by providing structural backbone for activated sludge (AS) flocs and thus ensuring good settling properties. However, their excessive growth may lead to inter-floc bridging, which i...... demonstrated limited diversity of abundant filamentous bacteria in AS community around the globe presenting a hope for solution of sludge settling problems if we can couple the knowledge of filaments identity and their physiology....

  14. Relative Importance Assigned to Health Care Rationing Principles at the Bedside: Evidence From a Portuguese and Bulgarian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Micaela Moreira; Pinto Borges, Ana

    Activity was undertaken to develop a Prioritization Scoring Index for Portugal and Bulgaria that weights the importance given to ethical rationing principles that should guide decisions at the bedside. Data from two random samples of 355 Portuguese and 298 Bulgarian members of the public were collected from an online questionnaire. Questions asked about the level of importance given to specific issues related to patient's prioritization criteria. Responses were analyzed quantitatively with the SPSS. In the process of selecting the patient to treat, Portuguese and Bulgarian respondents seem unanimous in giving greater importance to (i) the treatment outcomes, (ii) the severity of illness, (iii) children, and (iv) patients' fragility. In general, Portuguese and Bulgarian respondents allocate more than 50% of the prioritization weight to equity considerations, approximately 35% to efficiency considerations, and 5% to lottery selection. Even so, Bulgarian respondents rate highly the equity and less the efficiency consideration than Portuguese respondents. Although the pursuit of efficiency seems to be valued by respondents, their major concern seems to be with the reduction of inequalities in health.

  15. IMPROVED MOCK GALAXY CATALOGS FOR THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY FROM SUBHALO ABUNDANCE AND ENVIRONMENT MATCHING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Behroozi, Peter S. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, M/S 29, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Yan, Renbin [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Coil, Alison L., E-mail: bgerke@slac.stanford.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., MC 0424, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    We develop empirical methods for modeling the galaxy population and populating cosmological N-body simulations with mock galaxies according to the observed properties of galaxies in survey data. We use these techniques to produce a new set of mock catalogs for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey based on the output of the high-resolution Bolshoi simulation, as well as two other simulations with different cosmological parameters, all of which we release for public use. The mock-catalog creation technique uses subhalo abundance matching to assign galaxy luminosities to simulated dark-matter halos. It then adds color information to the resulting mock galaxies in a manner that depends on the local galaxy density, in order to reproduce the measured color-environment relation in the data. In the course of constructing the catalogs, we test various models for including scatter in the relation between halo mass and galaxy luminosity, within the abundance-matching framework. We find that there is no constant-scatter model that can simultaneously reproduce both the luminosity function and the autocorrelation function of DEEP2. This result has implications for galaxy-formation theory, and it restricts the range of contexts in which the mock catalogs can be usefully applied. Nevertheless, careful comparisons show that our new mock catalogs accurately reproduce a wide range of the other properties of the DEEP2 catalog, suggesting that they can be used to gain a detailed understanding of various selection effects in DEEP2.

  16. IMPROVED MOCK GALAXY CATALOGS FOR THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY FROM SUBHALO ABUNDANCE AND ENVIRONMENT MATCHING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Cooper, Michael C.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop empirical methods for modeling the galaxy population and populating cosmological N-body simulations with mock galaxies according to the observed properties of galaxies in survey data. We use these techniques to produce a new set of mock catalogs for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey based on the output of the high-resolution Bolshoi simulation, as well as two other simulations with different cosmological parameters, all of which we release for public use. The mock-catalog creation technique uses subhalo abundance matching to assign galaxy luminosities to simulated dark-matter halos. It then adds color information to the resulting mock galaxies in a manner that depends on the local galaxy density, in order to reproduce the measured color-environment relation in the data. In the course of constructing the catalogs, we test various models for including scatter in the relation between halo mass and galaxy luminosity, within the abundance-matching framework. We find that there is no constant-scatter model that can simultaneously reproduce both the luminosity function and the autocorrelation function of DEEP2. This result has implications for galaxy-formation theory, and it restricts the range of contexts in which the mock catalogs can be usefully applied. Nevertheless, careful comparisons show that our new mock catalogs accurately reproduce a wide range of the other properties of the DEEP2 catalog, suggesting that they can be used to gain a detailed understanding of various selection effects in DEEP2

  17. Odonata larvae as a bioindicator of metal contamination in aquatic environments: application to ecologically important wetlands in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, Hassan; Irvine, K N

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: (i) assess the bioaccumulation characteristics of a suite of metals associated with several different species of Odonata and (ii) examine Odonata species richness as a reflection of ecosystem health in two ecologically important wetlands of southwestern Iran, the Shadegan and Hawr Al Azim wetlands. Levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in nine different Odonata larva species. Based on these data, biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were calculated and generally, it was found that Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn were being taken up by the Odonata (BSAFs >1). Because of its prevalence in the wetland and its observed ability to take up metals, it is suggested that Ischnura ramburii is an appropriate indicator of ecosystem health for these wetlands with respect to metal contamination. Odonata species richness across all sites was 49, while for the individual sites, the greatest species richness was 26 and the lowest species richness was 13. The species richness value across all sites is quite healthy, given the arid climate of the region.

  18. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications.

  19. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Alexander; Varnaccia, Gianni; Lahmann, Nils; Kottner, Jan; Kroll, Lars Eric

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041), the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2) of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0). In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16) and age 18-29 (OR 1.54), as well as agricultural (OR 5.40), technical (OR 3.41), skilled service (OR 4.24) or manual (OR 5.12), and unskilled service (OR 3.13) or manual (OR 4.97) occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78), working in awkward postures (OR 1.46), environmental stress (OR 1.48), and working under pressure (OR 1.41). Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47) and obesity (OR 1.73) present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries

  20. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rommel

    Full Text Available Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041, the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI. Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2 of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0. In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16 and age 18-29 (OR 1.54, as well as agricultural (OR 5.40, technical (OR 3.41, skilled service (OR 4.24 or manual (OR 5.12, and unskilled service (OR 3.13 or manual (OR 4.97 occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78, working in awkward postures (OR 1.46, environmental stress (OR 1.48, and working under pressure (OR 1.41. Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47 and obesity (OR 1.73 present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries

  1. Report on surveys in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the environment harmonizing catalyst technology; 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata shokubai gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the surveys in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the environment harmonizing catalyst technology. The discussion subjects taken up included suppression of discharge of carbon dioxide, catalysts used when manufacturing hydrogen and technology thereof, and environment purifying catalysts to decompose harmful substances, and technology thereof. The roles of catalysts and their technologies are expected in reducing the reforming temperatures, achieving energy saving, and reducing decomposition energy. Furthermore, the catalysts are expected of high activity, long life and low cost. Three themes were selected from the emergency and importance points of view. The themes are, in the consumer field, research and development of efficiency improvement in membrane reactors for reforming low-grade hydrocarbons to structure a technology to manufacture hydrogen for small-size portable fuel cells; and in the industrial field, development of hydrogen and carbon product manufacturing technologies with which CO2 generation is suppressed by means of the catalytic decomposition process. In practice, for such discharged harmful substances as dioxins, PCB and volatile organic compounds (VOC), treating them is the urgent environmental problem, and therefore, the fundamental research was taken up for practical application of the second-generation catalysts of the ultra-violet light and visible light responding type. (NEDO)

  2. U.S. Geological Survey science strategy for highly pathogenic avian influenza in wildlife and the environment (2016–2020)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Camille; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; White, C. LeAnn; Miles, A. Keith; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Brand, Christopher J.; Cronin, James P.; De La Cruz, Susan; Densmore, Christine L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Dusek, Robert J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Flint, Paul L.; Guala, Gerald F.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Hunt, Randall J.; Ip, Hon S.; Katz, Rachel A.; Laurent, Kevin W.; Miller, Mark P.; Munn, Mark D.; Ramey, Andy M.; Richards, Kevin D.; Russell, Robin E.; Stokdyk, Joel P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Walsh, Daniel P.

    2016-08-18

    IntroductionThrough the Science Strategy for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Wildlife and the Environment, the USGS will assess avian influenza (AI) dynamics in an ecological context to inform decisions made by resource managers and policymakers from the local to national level. Through collection of unbiased scientific information on the ecology of AI viruses and wildlife hosts in a changing world, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) will enhance the development of AI forecasting tools and ensure this information is integrated with a quality decision process for managing HPAI.The overall goal of this USGS Science Strategy for HPAI in Wildlife and the Environment goes beyond document­ing the occurrence and distribution of AI viruses in wild birds. The USGS aims to understand the epidemiological processes and environmental factors that influence HPAI distribution and describe the mechanisms of transmission between wild birds and poultry. USGS scientists developed a conceptual model describing the process linking HPAI dispersal in wild waterfowl to the outbreaks in poul­try. This strategy focuses on five long-term science goals, which include:Science Goal 1—Augment the National HPAI Surveillance Plan;Science Goal 2—Determine mechanisms of HPAI disease spread in wildlife and the environment;Science Goal 3—Characterize HPAI viruses circulating in wildlife;Science Goal 4—Understand implications of avian ecol­ogy on HPAI spread; andScience Goal 5—Develop HPAI forecasting and decision-making tools.These goals will help define and describe the processes outlined in the conceptual model with the ultimate goal of facilitating biosecurity and minimizing transfer of diseases across the wildlife-poultry interface. The first four science goals are focused on scientific discovery and the fifth goal is application-based. Decision analyses in the fifth goal will guide prioritization of proposed actions in the first four goals.

  3. The importance of job characteristics in determining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population, a longitudinal survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbeek, Romy

    2012-08-31

    The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n = 2305 workers). The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency) to a general practitioner (GP), a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance) was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP). For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency), high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency) and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist). Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP), full time work (GP frequency) and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist). We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the

  4. Preliminary comparison of different immune and production components in local and imported Saanen goats reared under a sub-tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Elie K; Itani, Houssam H; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Saade, Maya F; Harakeh, Steve; Nour, Afif M Abdel; Shaib, Houssam A

    2012-01-01

    Three objectives were included in this research work. The first objective compared different immune components in healthy mature males, mature females, and female kids of local and imported Saanen goats, reared under a sub-tropical environment. The significantly differing immune components were the blood monocyte percent, blood CD8 count, and the total white blood cell count. The second objective compared the performance of Saanen versus local does. The means of the milk yield and prolificacy of the imported Saanen does were significantly higher than those of the local does (pgoats on protection potential against prevalent diseases in the sub-tropical zone of the eastern Mediterranean countries is discussed.

  5. SURVEY OF DISTANCE EDUCATION ROLE IN UTILIZATION OF ENVIRONMENT COMPONENTS IN HIGHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra SHAMSI PAPKIADE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Life skills education is a concept which originated in thinking about training and education about skills and competencies that an individual needs for sustaining and enriching life (Bender, 2002. At the heart of life skills education is the learning of life skills. Life skills are abilities for adaptive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. In particular, life skills are a group of psychological competencies and interpersonal skills that help people make informed decisions, solve problems, think critically and curatively, communicate effectively, build healthy relationships, empathize with others, and cope with and manage their lives in a healthy and productive manner’ (WHO, 2001, p.8. The ten core life skills as laid down by WHO (1997 are: Self-awareness, Empathy Critical thinking, Creative thinking, Decision making, Problem Solving, Effective communication, Interpersonal relationship, Coping with stress, and Coping with emotion. Life skills are developed as a result of a constructive processing of information, impressions, encounters and experiences, - both individual and social - that are a part of one’s daily life and work and the rapid changes that occur in the course of one’s life. The social dimensions are particularly important as they condition life itself and compel individuals to purposefully acquire skills, develop attitudes and values in order to face and master real life situations (Ouane 2002. Considering these benefits, countries are now considering the development of life skills education in response to the need to reform traditional education systems, which appear to be out of step with the realities of modern social and economic life. Problems such as violence in schools and student drop-out are crippling the ability of school systems to achieve their academic goals. Furthermore, in addition to its wide-ranging applications in primary prevention and the

  6. [FEMALE SURGEONS SHOULD BE AWARE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF A CLEAR VISION FOR THEIR CAREER AND LIFE PLANS TO ACHIEVE THEIR CAREER DEVELOPMENT.: A SURVEY OF 20 FEMALE SURGEONS AT THE DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY AND ONCOLOGY, KYUSHU UNIVERSITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Kinuko; Mori, Hitomi; Kameda, Chizu; Nakamura, Katsuya; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao

    2015-05-01

    A shortage of surgeons has been a serious problem in recent years. There is an urgent need to utilize female surgeons who tend to resign because of bearing and raising of children. To examine possible measures to deal with the issue, we performed questionnaire survey about work-life balance and career planning on 20 female surgeons in the Department of Surgery and Oncology, Kyushu University. The response rate was 80.0%. In the 16 respondents, seven were unmarried and nine were married. A large fraction of the respondents recognized the importance of work-life-balance. Female surgeons have many difficulties to continue working with good work-life balance; therefore, understanding and cooperation of both their spouses and coworkers is considered to be necessary. Married female surgeons considered that improvement of the working environment and sufficient family support were more important for good work-life balance compared to those who were unmarried. Female surgeons should recognize the importance of improvement of their environment, including the workplace and the family to continue working with good work-life balance in youth and should have the prospects about their career plan of their own.

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sofia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Ayub, Muhammad; Khan, Mir Ajab; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2015-05-26

    Present study was commenced with an aim to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. This is the first contribution to the quantitative ethnobotany of this region, as no reported data focusing on shrubs and trees from the area have been published. Study reported the ethnobotanical significance of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases. Study was conducted during 2012-2014 following standard ethnobotanical methods. The ethnomedicinal data was collected through informed consent semi- structured interviews of 160 key informants. Documented data was analyzed by using quantitative indices of informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), use value (UV) and relative frequency citation (RFC). A total of 73 shrub and tree species belonging to 56 genera and 37 families were reported to be used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various ailments. Medicinal plant diversity showed that Rosaceae was dominating family with (9 spp.) followed by Moraceae (7 spp.), Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Pinaceae, Rhamnaceae (4 spp. each), Oleaceae (3 spp.), Apocynaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Ebenaceae, Fagaceae, Lythraceae, Papilionaceae, Acanthaceae, Verbenaceae (2 spp. each) while remaining 22 families were represented by one species each. Leaves (23%) were highly utilized plant parts, followed by fruits (22%), bark (18%), seeds (10%), roots (9%), flowers (8%), whole plant and aerial parts (4% each) and stem (2%). Modes of preparation fall into 14 categories including powder (33 reports) followed by decoction (29 reports), paste (22 reports), juice (18 reports), infusion (12 reports), raw (8 reports), extract and latex (5 reports each), gum and oil (4 reports each), fresh part and pulp (2 reports each), chewed and cooked (1 report each). The highest FIC was recorded for Gastro-intestinal disorders (0.58) followed by nail, skin and hair disorders (0.44). Maximum fidelity level (FL

  8. Research report of fiscal 1997. Survey on information networks for environment technology transfer; 1997 nendo hokokusho. Kankyo gijutsu iten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    ICETT is one of the member organizations of APEC environment technology virtual center which established in Osaka in 1996 for active environment technology exchange between APEC countries based on a survey result obtained in fiscal 1995. ICETT began its information service in April, 1997, and completed useful prototype home pages which include the database composed of practical useful information on environment preservation technology of domestic factories and offices, and training information and local governments` approach cases to pollution control. In fiscal 1997, further survey was made, and the simulation software of a model process was also developed for training. Clean technology and energy saving technology strongly demanded by developing countries were surveyed to prepare a database including useful information for developing countries. A basic design software for bio-treatment of waste water was also prepared. The total number of home page accesses exceeded a predicted number for the first half year. 5 refs., 25 figs.

  9. The role of national system of radiological survey in short, intermediate and long term monitoring the environment radioactivity and health status in uranium industry areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Alina; Milu, C.

    2000-01-01

    The environment radioactivity survey in Romania is performed by CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control) national network. The health status survey of population is carried out by national network of Health Ministry which comprises 23 laboratories. The tasks of the these networks are the following: assessment of natural and artificial irradiation of occupationally exposed personnel and population, as well as goods used by them; determination of population irradiation, survey of environment, food and human internal contamination; survey of health status of the population exposed to radiation, monitoring the medical checkups of the occupationally exposed personnel as well as their dosimetric monitoring; specific enactment, authorization and supervision of nuclear facilities, sanitary expertise and medical examinations; educational activities related to hygiene, radiotoxicology, radioecology and radiobiology. (authors)

  10. Is the 'blue' colour convention for inhaled reliever medications important? A UK-based survey of healthcare professionals and patients with airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Monica; Scullion, Jane; White, John; Thompson, Bronwen; Capstick, Toby

    2016-11-03

    In many countries, short-acting β 2 -agonist inhalers have traditionally been coloured blue. This inhaled therapy has also conventionally been known as a 'reliever' by patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), in comparison with 'preventer' medications (inhaled steroids). With the rapidly changing market in inhaled therapy for COPD and asthma and growing numbers of devices, there has been some concern that the erosion of traditional colour conventions is leading to patients (and HCPs) becoming confused about the role of different therapies. In order to assess whether there was concern over the perceived changing colour conventions, the UK Inhaler Group carried out a large online survey of patients and HCPs. The aim was to determine how patients and HCPS identify and describe inhaled drugs, and how this might impact on use of medicines and safety. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of the term 'blue inhaler' for patients with only 11.3% never referring to the colour when referring to their inhaler. For HCPs, 95% felt colour conventions were important when referring to reliever medication. In addition, HCPs appear to refer to inhalers mainly by colour when talking to patients. Our conclusions were that the concept of a 'blue inhaler' remains important to patients and healthcare professionals. These results add to the debate about the need to formalise the colour coding of inhaled therapies, in particular using the colour blue for inhalers for rapid relief of symptoms, as this convention may be an important measure and contributor to patient safety. Our survey should provide impetus for all interested parties to discuss and agree a formal industry-wide approach to colour coding of inhaled therapies for the benefit of patients and carers and HCPs.

  11. Does health facility service environment matter for the receipt of essential newborn care? Linking health facility and household survey data in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Aguirre, Liliana; Mehra, Vrinda; Amouzou, Agbessi; Khan, Shane M; Vaz, Lara; Guenther, Tanya; Kalino, Maggie; Zaka, Nabila

    2017-12-01

    Health facility service environment is an important factor for newborns survival and well-being in general and in particular in high mortality settings such as Malawi where despite high coverage of essential interventions, neonatal mortality remains high. The aim of this study is to assess whether the quality of the health service environment at birth is associated with quality of care received by the newborn. We used data from the Malawi Millennium Development Goals Endline household survey conducted as part of MICS survey program and Service Provision Assessment Survey carried out in 2014. The analysis is based on 6218 facility births that occurred during the past 2 years. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate random effect models are used to assess the association of health facility service readiness score for normal deliveries and newborn care with newborns receiving appropriate newborn care, defined for this analysis as receiving 5 out of 6 recommended interventions during the first 2 days after birth. Newborns in districts with top facility service readiness score have 1.5 higher odds of receiving appropriate newborn care (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.52, 95% confidence interval CI = 1.19-1.95, P  = 0.001), as compared to newborns in districts with a lower facility score after adjusting for potential confounders. Newborns in the Northern region were two times more likely to receive 5 newborn care interventions as compared to newborns in the Southern region (aOR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.50-2.83, P  < 0.001). Living in urban or rural areas did not have an impact on receiving appropriate newborn care. There is need to increase the level of service readiness across all facilities, so that all newborns irrespective of the health facility, district or region of delivery are able to receive all recommended essential interventions. Investments in health systems in Malawi should concentrate on increasing training and availability of

  12. Development and Preliminary Testing of the Food Choice Priorities Survey (FCPS): Assessing the Importance of Multiple Factors on College Students' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaro, Melissa J; Zhou, Wenjun; Colby, Sarah E; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Riggsbee, Kristin; Olfert, Melissa D; Barnett, Tracey E; Mathews, Anne E

    2017-12-01

    Understanding factors that influence food choice may help improve diet quality. Factors that commonly affect adults' food choices have been described, but measures that identify and assess food choice factors specific to college students are lacking. This study developed and tested the Food Choice Priorities Survey (FCPS) among college students. Thirty-seven undergraduates participated in two focus groups ( n = 19; 11 in the male-only group, 8 in the female-only group) and interviews ( n = 18) regarding typical influences on food choice. Qualitative data informed the development of survey items with a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = not important, 5 = extremely important). An expert panel rated FCPS items for clarity, relevance, representativeness, and coverage using a content validity form. To establish test-retest reliability, 109 first-year college students completed the 14-item FCPS at two time points, 0-48 days apart ( M = 13.99, SD = 7.44). Using Cohen's weighted κ for responses within 20 days, 11 items demonstrated moderate agreement and 3 items had substantial agreement. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure (9 items). The FCPS is designed for college students and provides a way to determine the factors of greatest importance regarding food choices among this population. From a public health perspective, practical applications include using the FCPS to tailor health communications and behavior change interventions to factors most salient for food choices of college students.

  13. The state of emergency obstetric care services in Nairobi informal settlements and environs: Results from a maternity health facility survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliku Teresa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge with estimates exceeding 1,000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in some countries. Successful prevention of maternal deaths hinges on adequate and quality emergency obstetric care. In addition to skilled personnel, there is need for a supportive environment in terms of essential drugs and supplies, equipment, and a referral system. Many household surveys report a reasonably high proportion of women delivering in health facilities. However, the quality and adequacy of facilities and personnel are often not assessed. The three delay model; 1 delay in making the decision to seek care; 2 delay in reaching an appropriate obstetric facility; and 3 delay in receiving appropriate care once at the facility guided this project. This paper examines aspects of the third delay by assessing quality of emergency obstetric care in terms of staffing, skills equipment and supplies. Methods We used data from a survey of 25 maternity health facilities within or near two slums in Nairobi that were mentioned by women in a household survey as places that they delivered. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Permission was also sought from the Ministry of Health and the Medical Officer of Health. Data collection included interviews with the staff in-charge of maternity wards using structured questionnaires. We collected information on staffing levels, obstetric procedures performed, availability of equipment and supplies, referral system and health management information system. Results Out of the 25 health facilities, only two met the criteria for comprehensive emergency obstetric care (both located outside the two slums while the others provided less than basic emergency obstetric care. Lack of obstetric skills, equipment, and supplies hamper many facilities from providing lifesaving emergency obstetric procedures. Accurate estimation of burden

  14. Uptake and allocation of 15N in alpine plants. Implications for the importance of competitive ability in predicting community structure in a stressful environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodose, T.A.; Jaeger, C.H.; Bowman, W.D.; Schardt, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Several potential components of competitive ability were determined for 13 plant species in a N-limited alpine moist meadow community in order to determine if competition had an influence on relative abundance in this stressful environment. The components of competitive ability examined were 15 N uptake rate, 15 N allocation, whole plant biomass, root:shoot ratio, and tissue N concentrations. It was hypothesized that 15 N uptake rate would be the component most correlated with relative abundance. However, 15 N uptake rate was negatively correlated with percent cover in the community. In contrast, whole plant biomass and root:shoot ratio were positively correlated with relative abundance. Tissue N concentrations and 15 N allocation were not important predictors of relative abundance. These results suggest that in a harsh environment, high resource uptake rates are not indicative of competitive ability, but may instead by a mechanism by which rare species are able to coexist with competitive dominants. (au) 47 refs

  15. FY 2000 report on the survey on the long-term energy technology strategy, etc. - Basement technology for implementation of industrial technology strategy. Survey on the extraction of preferential important technical subjects in FY 2002; 2000 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho - sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa. 2002 nendo yusenteki juyo gijutsu kadai no chushutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This survey is to investigate the consciousness of researchers and engineers of enterprises, universities, etc, of the importance of about 100 important technical subjects in 'the industrial technology strategy' prepared by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. In the questionnaire survey, the following were selected: 1)systematization of policy in consideration of the social needs and R and D of the technology to realize it; 2) R and D of the technology to advance the future frontier; 3) technical subjects that the government should promptly start to tackle in each classification in arrangement of the intellectual basis. Answers to the following items were obtained: 'selection reasons' for why it was considered important in each technical subject, 'lead time' toward the time of the industrialization, 'international positioning' of Japan against Western countries, 'possibility of heightening/maintaining the international competitive force,' and 'items that the government should participate in.' In 1), the following four big targets were arranged: 'security/safety,' 'informatization,' 'environment' and 'energy'. In 2), the following technical subjects were arranged: 'biotechnology,' 'information communication technology,' 'production technology,' 'materials/process technology,' 'energy/environment' and 'new blending/traversable/integrated technology.' In the results of the survey, analyzed were big targets, and trends and characteristics at technical field levels. (NEDO)

  16. Connecting the small scale to the large scale: young massive stars and their environments from the Red MSX Source Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, James S.; Morgan, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed multi-wavelength investigation of a variety of massive star forming regions in order to characterise the impact of the interactions between the substructure of the dense protostellar clumps and their local environment, including feedback from the embedded proto-cluster.A selection of 70 MYSOs and HII regions identified by the RMS survey have been followed up with observations of the ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions made with the KFPA on the GBT. These maps have been combined with archival CO data to investigate the thermal and kinematic structure of the extended envelopes down to the dense clumps. We complement this larger-scale picture with high resolution near- and mid-infrared images to probe the properties of the embedded objects themselves.We present an overview of several sources from this sample that illustrate some of the the interactions that we observe. We find that high molecular column densities and kinetic temperatures are coincident with embedded sources and with shocks and outflows as exhibited in gas kinematics.

  17. Health survey of U.S. long-haul truck drivers: work environment, physical health, and healthcare access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Sönmez, Sevil; Shattell, Mona M; Gonzales, Clifford; Fehrenbacher, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    While trucking in industrialized nations is linked with driver health afflictions, the role of trucking in U.S. truckers' health remains largely unknown. This paper sheds light on links between the trucking work environment and drivers' physical health. Using a cross-sectional design, 316 truckers were enrolled in the Healthy Trucker Survey. Questions included work history, physical and mental health, and healthcare access. PASW 18 was used to examine patterns among factors. 316 truckers participated. Respondents were mainly full-time, long-haul drivers with over 5 years of experience, and who spent over 17 days on the road per month. While almost 75% described their health as good, 83.4% were overweight/obese, 57.9% had sleeping disturbances, 56.3% fatigue, 42.3% musculoskeletal disorders, and about 40% cardiovascular disease concerns. About 33% had no health insurance, 70% had no regular healthcare visits, 24.4% could not afford insurance, and 42.1% took over-the-counter drugs when sick, while 20.1% waited to reach home for medical care. Exercise facilities were unavailable in over 70% of trucking worksites and 70% of drivers did not exercise regularly. The trucking occupation places drivers at high risk for poor health outcomes. Prospective studies are needed to delve into how continued exposure to trucking influences the progression of disease burden.

  18. Nurses' use of mobile devices to access information in health care environments in australia: a survey of undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth; Allen, Penny

    2014-12-10

    The growth of digital technology has created challenges for safe and appropriate use of mobile or portable devices during work-integrated learning (WIL) in health care environments. Personal and professional use of technology has outpaced the development of policy or codes of practice for guiding its use at the workplace. There is a perceived risk that portable devices may distract from provision of patient or client care if used by health professionals or students during employment or WIL. This study aimed to identify differences in behavior of undergraduate nurses in accessing information, using a portable or mobile device, when undertaking WIL compared to other non-work situations. A validated online survey was administered to students while on placement in a range of health care settings in two Australian states. There were 84 respondents, with 56% (n=47) reporting access to a mobile or portable device. Differences in use of a mobile device away from, compared with during WIL, were observed for non-work related activities such as messaging (PStudents continued to access nursing, medical, professional development, and study-related information away from the workplace. Undergraduate nurses limit their access to non-work or non-patient centered information while undertaking WIL. Work-related mobile learning is being undertaken, in situ, by the next generation of nurses who expect easy access to mobile or portable devices at the workplace, to ensure safe and competent care is delivered to their patients.

  19. THE SPITZER EXTRAGALACTIC REPRESENTATIVE VOLUME SURVEY: THE ENVIRONMENTS OF HIGH-z SDSS QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falder, J. T.; Stevens, J. A.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Bonfield, D. G.; Lacy, M.; Farrah, D.; Oliver, S.; Surace, J.; Mauduit, J.-C.; Vaccari, M.; Marchetti, L.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Afonso, J.; Cava, A.; Seymour, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the environments of SDSS quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) in the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). We concentrate on the high-redshift QSOs as these have not been studied in large numbers with data of this depth before. We use the IRAC 3.6-4.5 μm color of objects and ancillary r-band data to filter out as much foreground contamination as possible. This technique allows us to find a significant (>4σ) overdensity of galaxies around QSOs in a redshift bin centered on z ∼ 2.0 and an (>2σ) overdensity of galaxies around QSOs in a redshift bin centered on z ∼ 3.3. We compare our findings to the predictions of a semi-analytic galaxy formation model, based on the ΛCDM MILLENNIUM simulation, and find for both redshift bins that the model predictions match well the source density we have measured from the SERVS data.

  20. The information sources and journals consulted or read by UK paediatricians to inform their clinical practice and those which they consider important: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Teresa H; Hanney, Steve; Buxton, Martin J

    2007-01-15

    Implementation of health research findings is important for medicine to be evidence-based. Previous studies have found variation in the information sources thought to be of greatest importance to clinicians but publication in peer-reviewed journals is the traditional route for dissemination of research findings. There is debate about whether the impact made on clinicians should be considered as part of the evaluation of research outputs. We aimed to determine first which information sources are generally most consulted by paediatricians to inform their clinical practice, and which sources they considered most important, and second, how many and which peer-reviewed journals they read. We inquired, by questionnaire survey, about the information sources and academic journals that UK medical paediatric specialists generally consulted, attended or read and considered important to their clinical practice. The same three information sources--professional meetings & conferences, peer-reviewed journals and medical colleagues--were, overall, the most consulted or attended and ranked the most important. No one information source was found to be of greatest importance to all groups of paediatricians. Journals were widely read by all groups, but the proportion ranking them first in importance as an information source ranged from 10% to 46%. The number of journals read varied between the groups, but Archives of Disease in Childhood and BMJ were the most read journals in all groups. Six out of the seven journals previously identified as containing best paediatric evidence are the most widely read overall by UK paediatricians, however, only the two most prominent are widely read by those based in the community. No one information source is dominant, therefore a variety of approaches to Continuing Professional Development and the dissemination of research findings to paediatricians should be used. Journals are an important information source. A small number of key ones can be

  1. What proportion of basic surgical trainees continue in a surgical career? A survey of the factors which are important in influencing career decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J M J; Drummond, R; Murray, J; Fraser, S; MacDonald, A; Parks, R W

    2009-10-01

    Since the launch of Modernising Medical Careers, trainees are selected for a run-through training programme in a single surgical specialty. The surgical training bodies are currently considering the recommendations of the Tooke report as they review the policy for selection into surgical training in the UK. There is little information available on the factors involved in career choices amongst surgical trainees and this study aimed to address this issue. Trainees appointed to the Basic Surgical Training Programmes in the west and south-east of Scotland (1996-2006) were contacted by email and invited to participate in an online survey. Of 467 trainees identified, valid email addresses were available for 299 of which 191 (64%) responded to the survey. One hundred and forty-nine (78%) trainees were still working in surgery but 38 (20%) had moved to a non-surgical specialty and 4 (2%) had left the medical profession. Of those who had obtained a NTN at the time of the survey (n = 138), 62 (45%) had a NTN in the specialty they chose at the start of the BST but 34 (25%) had changed to a different surgical specialty and 42 (30%) had left surgery altogether. For those still working in surgery, enjoyment of the specialty was the most important factor affecting career choice. Achieving an acceptable work/life balance was the most significant factor influencing trainees who left surgery. The majority of trainees recruited to surgery at an early stage change specialty or leave surgery altogether. Both social and professional factors are important in career choices. The findings of this study support a period of core surgical training to provide flexibility prior to further training in a surgical specialty.

  2. Exploring associations between perceived home and work neighborhood environments, diet behaviors, and obesity: Results from a survey of employed adults in Missouri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tabak, PhD, RD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behaviors are associated with obesity, and may be influenced by the environment. The objective of the current work was to investigate whether perceptions of built environment factors related to eating in the residential neighborhood will have different, independent associations with BMI and dietary behaviors than perceived built environment factors in the worksite neighborhood. In 2012–2013, a cross-sectional telephone-survey of Missouri adults (n = 2015 assessed perceptions of home and workplace built environment factors related to eating, dietary behaviors, and height and weight. Logistic regression models explored associations between perceived neighborhood built environment variables, diet, and obesity. The only variable associated with any of the outcomes explored in the fully adjusted models was the home neighborhood composite scale. None of the work environment variables were significantly associated with any of the health/behavior outcomes after adjustment. Few associations were found after adjustment for personal and job-related characteristics, and none were identified with the workplace neighborhood environment. While few home environment associations were found after adjustment, and none were identified with the perceived workplace neighborhood environment, the current study adds to the limited literature looking at associations between the perceived neighborhood around the workplace neighborhood and the perceived neighborhood around the home and dietary behaviors and obesity in adults. Future studies are needed to determine whether relationships between these environments and behavior exist, and if so, if they are causal and warrant intervention attempts.

  3. Creating Cycling-Friendly Environments for Children: Which Micro-Scale Factors Are Most Important? An Experimental Study Using Manipulated Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Deforche, Benedicte; Mertens, Lieze; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; de Geus, Bas; Cardon, Greet; Nasar, Jack; Salmon, Jo; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing participation in transportation cycling represents a useful strategy for increasing children’s physical activity levels. Knowledge on how to design environments to encourage adoption and maintenance of transportation cycling is limited and relies mainly on observational studies. The current study experimentally investigates the relative importance of micro-scale environmental factors for children’s transportation cycling, as these micro-scale factors are easier to change within an existing neighborhood compared to macro-scale environmental factors (i.e. connectivity, land-use mix, …). Methods Researchers recruited children and their parents (n = 1232) via 45 randomly selected schools across Flanders and completed an online questionnaire which consisted of 1) demographic questions; and 2) a choice-based conjoint (CBC) task. During this task, participants chose between two photographs which we had experimentally manipulated in seven micro-scale environmental factors: type of cycle path; evenness of cycle path; traffic speed; traffic density; presence of speed bumps; environmental maintenance; and vegetation. Participants indicated which route they preferred to (let their child) cycle along. To find the relative importance of these micro-scale environmental factors, we conducted Hierarchical Bayes analyses. Results Type of cycle path emerged as the most important factor by far among both children and their parents, followed by traffic density and maintenance, and evenness of the cycle path among children. Among parents, speed limits and maintenance emerged as second most important, followed by evenness of the cycle path, and traffic density. Conclusion Findings indicate that improvements in micro-scale environmental factors might be effective for increasing children’s transportation cycling, since they increase the perceived supportiveness of the physical environment for transportation cycling. Investments in creating a clearly designated

  4. Work-related threats and violence in human service sectors: The importance of the psycho-social work environment examined in a multilevel prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Peter; Hogh, Annie; Biering, Karin; Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann

    2018-01-01

    Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related threats and violence in four high risk human service sectors. Questionnaire data was collected from 3011 employees working at psychiatric wards, in the elder sector, in the Prison and Probation Service and at Special Schools. Associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related violence and threats were then studied using a one-year follow-up design and multilevel logistic regression analyses. The analyses showed that quantitative demands, high emotional demands, low level of influence over own work-situation, low predictability, low rewards at work, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work-family conflicts and low organizational justice had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related threats. Furthermore, high emotional demands, low predictability, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work-family conflicts, low supervisor quality and low support from nearest supervisor had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related violence. Finally, across the four sectors both similar and different associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related violence and threats were found. The results of the study underline the importance of including the psycho-social work environment as a supplement to existing violence prevention methods and interventions aimed at reducing work-related violence and threats.

  5. Contribution of fish to intakes of micronutrients important for fetal development: a dietary survey of pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Maxine P; Duffy, Emeir M; Robson, Paula J; Wallace, Julie M; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Clarkson, Tom W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2009-09-01

    To characterise the diets of pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles and to determine the contribution of fish to intakes of nutrients important for fetal and neonatal development. Observational, prospective study. Seychelles Child Development Centre, Mahé, Republic of Seychelles. Pregnant women (n 300) were recruited at their first visit to an antenatal clinic. At 28 weeks' gestation subjects completed a 4 d diet diary (n 273) and intakes were analysed using dietary analysis software. Mean (sd) energy intake was 9.0 (2.5) MJ/d and fat intakes were higher than UK recommendations for almost two-thirds of the cohort. Fish consumption was lower than in previous surveys, suggesting a move towards a more Westernised diet. Low intakes of a number of nutrients important during pregnancy for fetal development (Fe, Zn, Se and iodine) were observed. However, women who met the current recommendations for these nutrients consumed significantly more fish than those who did not (97 v. 73 g/d). The present study highlights the importance of fish in the diet of pregnant Seychellois women for ensuring adequate intakes of micronutrients important in fetal development. Dietary patterns in Seychelles, however, are in a state of transition, with a move towards a Western-style diet as evidenced by higher fat and lower fish intakes. If these dietary trends continue and fish consumption declines further, micronutrient status may be compromised. These findings suggest caution in establishing public health policies that promote limitation of fish intake during pregnancy.

  6. Fiscal 1997 survey of the overseas coal import base preparation/improvement. Survey of a coal flow in China; 1997 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chugoku ni okeru coal flow ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper surveyed the preparation of the coal transportation infrastructure, status of its running, economical efficiency, etc. in terms mainly of the trend of coal production/consumption in China, and coal railroad/water transportation and electric power transportation by mine-mouth power generation. From the survey, the following conclusions were obtained. As to the coal which China uses as a main energy for maintaining the present high economic growth as targeted, there will remain the coal transportation problem between production site (north and west) and consumption site (east and south) still in the future (in 2000 and 2010). China is now facing with a big turning point in a socioeconomic aspect. The advancing opening market policy brought steep rises in energy prices such as coal and electric power, which is affecting various fields. Further, the energy related laws, which were unprepared, are abruptly being prepared, and the environment for the introduction of foreign investment, which is expected to be accelerated, is being prepared. In the future, attention should be paid to environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. 48 figs., 96 tabs.

  7. Nursing unit teams matter: Impact of unit-level nurse practice environment, nurse work characteristics, and burnout on nurse reported job outcomes, and quality of care, and patient adverse events--a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Timmermans, Olaf; Weeks, Susan Mace; van Heusden, Danny; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the impact of nurse practice environment factors, nurse work characteristics, and burnout on nurse reported job outcomes, quality of care, and patient adverse events variables at the nursing unit level. Nurse practice environment studies show growing insights and knowledge about determining factors for nurse workforce stability, quality of care, and patient safety. Until now, international studies have primarily focused on variability at the hospital level; however, insights at the nursing unit level can reveal key factors in the nurse practice environment. A cross-sectional design with a survey. In a cross-sectional survey, a sample of 1108 nurses assigned to 96 nursing units completed a structured questionnaire composed of various validated instruments measuring nurse practice environment factors, nurse work characteristics, burnout, nurse reported job outcomes, quality of care, and patient adverse events. Associations between the variables were examined using multilevel modelling techniques. Various unit-level associations (simple models) were identified between nurse practice environment factors, nurse work characteristics, burnout dimensions, and nurse reported outcome variables. Multiple multilevel models showed various independent variables such as nursing management at the unit level, social capital, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization as important predictors of nurse reported outcome variables such job satisfaction, turnover intentions, quality of care (at the unit, the last shift, and in the hospital within the last year), patient and family complaints, patient and family verbal abuse, patient falls, nosocomial infections, and medications errors. Results suggested a stable nurse work force, with the capability to achieve superior quality and patient safety outcomes, is associated with unit-level favourable perceptions of nurse work environment factors, workload, decision latitude, and social capital, as well low levels of burnout

  8. Is working in culturally diverse working environment associated with physicians' work-related well-being? A cross-sectional survey study among Finnish physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Heponiemi, Tarja; Väänänen, Ari; Bergbom, Barbara; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2014-08-01

    International mobility of health care professionals is increasing, though little is known about how working in a culturally diverse team affects the native physicians' psychosocial work environment. We examined Finnish physicians' perceptions of work-related wellbeing according to whether they had foreign-born colleagues (FBCs) in their work unit. We also examined whether work-related resources moderate the potential association between work-related wellbeing and working alongside FBCs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted for a random sample of physicians in Finland in 2010 (3826 respondents, response rate 55%). Analyses were restricted to native Finnish physicians working in public health care. The results were analyzed by ANCOVA. In unadjusted analyses, having FBCs was related to poor team climate (pwork unit (p=0.007 for interaction between FBCs and procedural justice and pculturally diverse work units face challenges related to team climate and job satisfaction. The results also show that leadership plays an important role in culturally diverse work units. The potential challenges of culturally diverse teams for native physicians may be reduced by fair decision-making and by increasing physicians' job control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Survey of Precipitation-Induced Atmospheric Cold Pools over Oceans and Their Interactions with the Larger-Scale Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Paquita; Torri, Giuseppe; Muller, Caroline; Chandra, Arunchandra

    2017-11-01

    Pools of air cooled by partial rain evaporation span up to several hundreds of kilometers in nature and typically last less than 1 day, ultimately losing their identity to the large-scale flow. These fundamentally differ in character from the radiatively-driven dry pools defining convective aggregation. Advancement in remote sensing and in computer capabilities has promoted exploration of how precipitation-induced cold pool processes modify the convective spectrum and life cycle. This contribution surveys current understanding of such cold pools over the tropical and subtropical oceans. In shallow convection with low rain rates, the cold pools moisten, preserving the near-surface equivalent potential temperature or increasing it if the surface moisture fluxes cannot ventilate beyond the new surface layer; both conditions indicate downdraft origin air from within the boundary layer. When rain rates exceed ˜ 2 mm h^{-1}, convective-scale downdrafts can bring down drier air of lower equivalent potential temperature from above the boundary layer. The resulting density currents facilitate the lifting of locally thermodynamically favorable air and can impose an arc-shaped mesoscale cloud organization. This organization allows clouds capable of reaching 4-5 km within otherwise dry environments. These are more commonly observed in the northern hemisphere trade wind regime, where the flow to the intertropical convergence zone is unimpeded by the equator. Their near-surface air properties share much with those shown from cold pools sampled in the equatorial Indian Ocean. Cold pools are most effective at influencing the mesoscale organization when the atmosphere is moist in the lower free troposphere and dry above, suggesting an optimal range of water vapor paths. Outstanding questions on the relationship between cold pools, their accompanying moisture distribution and cloud cover are detailed further. Near-surface water vapor rings are documented in one model inside but

  10. Clinicians' use of breast cancer risk assessment tools according to their perceived importance of breast cancer risk factors: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédart, Anne; Kop, Jean-Luc; Antoniou, Antonis C; Cunningham, Alex P; De Pauw, Antoine; Tischkowitz, Marc; Ehrencrona, Hans; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Dolbeault, Sylvie; Rhiem, Kerstin; Easton, Douglas F; Devilee, Peter; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Schmutlzer, Rita

    2018-03-05

    The BOADICEA breast cancer (BC) risk assessment model and its associated Web Application v3 (BWA) tool are being extended to incorporate additional genetic and non-genetic BC risk factors. From an online survey through the BOADICEA website and UK, Dutch, French and Swedish national genetic societies, we explored the relationships between the usage frequencies of the BWA and six other common BC risk assessment tools and respondents' perceived importance of BC risk factors. Respondents (N = 443) varied in age, country and clinical seniority but comprised mainly genetics health professionals (82%) and BWA users (93%). Oncology professionals perceived reproductive, hormonal (exogenous) and lifestyle BC risk factors as more important in BC risk assessment compared to genetics professionals (p values personal BC history as BC risk factors. BWA use was positively related to the weight given to hormonal BC risk factors. The importance attributed to lifestyle and BMI BC risk factors was not associated with the use of BWA or any of the other tools. Next version of the BWA encompassing additional BC risk factors will facilitate more comprehensive BC risk assessment in genetics and oncology practice.

  11. Differences in school environment, school policy and actions regarding overweight prevention between Dutch schools. A nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buijs Goof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. Methods In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years. Prevalences of the outcome variables were calculated for the schools in total and by school level. The association between school level and outcome variables were analysed by a log linear regression. Results Unhealthy foods and drinks are widely available at secondary schools. One third of the schools indicated that overweight has increased among students and half of the schools agreed that schools were (coresponsible for the prevention of overweight. Only 3% of the schools have a policy on overweight prevention. Small differences were observed between vocational education schools and higher education schools. The presence of vending machines did not differ by school level, but at vocational education schools, the content of the vending machines was less healthy. Conclusion This study describes the current situation at schools which is essential for the development and evaluation of future overweight prevention policies and interventions. In general, secondary schools are not actively involved in overweight prevention and the nutritional environment at most schools could be improved. The small differences between school levels do not give reason for a differential approach for a certain school level for overweight prevention.

  12. TolC is important for bacterial survival and oxidative stress response in Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis in an acidic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jen-Jie; Wu, Ying-Chen; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chen, Ter-Hsin

    2016-09-25

    The outer membrane protein TolC, which is one of the key components of several multidrug efflux pumps, is thought to be involved in various independent systems in Enterobacteriaceae. Since the acidic environment of the stomach is an important protection barrier against foodborne pathogen infections in hosts, we evaluated whether TolC played a role in the acid tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis. Comparison of the acid tolerance of the tolC mutant and the parental wild-type strain showed that the absence of TolC limits the ability of Salmonella to sustain life under extreme acidic conditions. Additionally, the mutant exhibited morphological changes during growth in an acidic medium, leading to the conflicting results of cell viability measured by spectrophotometry and colony-forming unit counting. Reverse-transcriptional-PCR analysis indicated that acid-related molecules, apparatus, or enzymes and oxidation-induced factors were significantly affected by the acidic environment in the null-tolC mutant. The elongated cellular morphology was restored by adding antioxidants to the culture medium. Furthermore, we found that increased cellular antioxidative activity provides an overlapping protection against acid killing, demonstrating the complexity of the bacterial acid stress response. Our findings reinforce the multifunctional characteristics of TolC in acid tolerance or oxidative stress resistance and support the correlative protection mechanism between oxygen- and acid-mediated stress responses in Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the importance of surface soil contributions to reservoir sediment in alpine environments: a combined modelling and fingerprinting approach in the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, L.; Gaspar, L.; Latorre, B.; Blake, W. H.; Navas, A.

    2014-09-01

    Soil in alpine environments plays a key role in the development of ecosystem services and in order to maintain and preserve this important resource, information is required on processes that lead to soil erosion. Similar to other mountain alpine environments, the Benasque catchment is characterised by temperatures below freezing that can last from November to April, intense rainfall events, typically in spring and autumn, and rugged topography which makes assessment of erosion challenging. Indirect approaches to soil erosion assessment, such as combined model approaches, offer an opportunity to evaluate soil erosion in such areas. In this study (i) the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrological and erosion model and (ii) sediment fingerprinting procedures were used in parallel to assess the viability of a combined modelling and tracing approach to evaluate soil erosion processes in the area of the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park (central Spanish Pyrenees). Soil erosion rates and sediment contribution of potential sediment sources defined by soil type (Kastanozems/Phaeozems; Fluvisols and Cambisols) were assessed. The SWAT model suggested that, with the highest specific sediment yields, Cambisols are the main source of sediment in the Benasque catchment and Phaeozems and Fluvisols were identified as the lowest sediment contributors. Spring and winter model runs gave the highest and lowest specific sediment yield, respectively. In contrast, sediment fingerprinting analysis identified Fluvisols, which dominate the riparian zone, as the main sediment source at the time of sampling. This indicates the importance of connectivity as well as potential differences in the source dynamic of material in storage versus that transported efficiently from the system at times of high flow. The combined approach enabled us to better understand soil erosion processes in the Benasque alpine catchment, wherein SWAT identified areas of potential high sediment yield in large flood

  14. The importance of a daily rhythm in a supportive environment--promoting ability in activities in everyday life among older women living alone with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbom, Sara; Wågert, Petra von Heideken; Söderlund, Anne; Söderbäck, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how older women living alone with chronic musculoskeletal pain, describe their ability in performing activities in everyday life and what could promote their ability in activities in everyday life as well as their perceived meaning of a changed ability to perform activities in everyday life. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 women, and an inductive content analysis was used. The results showed the importance of a daily rhythm of activities. Activities included in the daily rhythm were socializing with family and friends, physical activities, doing own activities as well as activities supported by relatives and the community. The activities described by the women also promoted their ability in activities in everyday life. Other findings were the women's perceived meaning of being independent and maintaining that independency, along with the meaning of accepting and adapting to a changed life situation. This paper concludes that it is important to be sensitive of individual needs regarding the daily rhythm of activities when health-care professionals intervene in the activities in everyday life of older women living alone, promote the women's independency, and enable them to participate in the community. Implications for Rehabilitation A daily rhythm of activities is important for older women who live alone with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The importance of health-care professionals being sensitive to individual needs to promote ability in activities in everyday life and to encourage the everyday activities into a daily rhythm. Facilitate the women's desire and will of independency, despite their needs of help from their environment to manage their everyday life.

  15. Which sociodemographic factors are important on smoking behaviour of high school students? The contribution of classification and regression tree methodology in a broad epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, C; Toros, F; Bayramkaya, E; Camdeviren, H; Sasmaz, T

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the most important sociodemographic factors on smoking status of high school students using a broad randomised epidemiological survey. Using in-class, self administered questionnaire about their sociodemographic variables and smoking behaviour, a representative sample of total 3304 students of preparatory, 9th, 10th, and 11th grades, from 22 randomly selected schools of Mersin, were evaluated and discriminative factors have been determined using appropriate statistics. In addition to binary logistic regression analysis, the study evaluated combined effects of these factors using classification and regression tree methodology, as a new statistical method. The data showed that 38% of the students reported lifetime smoking and 16.9% of them reported current smoking with a male predominancy and increasing prevalence by age. Second hand smoking was reported at a 74.3% frequency with father predominance (56.6%). The significantly important factors that affect current smoking in these age groups were increased by household size, late birth rank, certain school types, low academic performance, increased second hand smoking, and stress (especially reported as separation from a close friend or because of violence at home). Classification and regression tree methodology showed the importance of some neglected sociodemographic factors with a good classification capacity. It was concluded that, as closely related with sociocultural factors, smoking was a common problem in this young population, generating important academic and social burden in youth life and with increasing data about this behaviour and using new statistical methods, effective coping strategies could be composed.

  16. The association of personal importance of religion and religious service attendance with suicidal ideation by age group in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Susukida, Ryoko; Kuroda, Naoaki; Wilcox, Holly C

    2017-09-01

    Religiosity has been shown to be inversely associated with suicidal ideation, but few studies have examined associations by age group. This study aimed to examine the association between religiosity with suicidal ideation by age group. This study used a large nationally representative sample of 260,816 study participants from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Religiosity was defined as self-reported importance of religious beliefs and frequency of religious service attendance. The association between religiosity and suicidal ideation was assessed by multivariable logistic regression analysis stratified by age group (18-25, 26-34, 35-49, 50-64, 65 or older). The importance of religious beliefs was inversely associated with suicidal ideation in all age groups. The association was the strongest in people aged 65 or older, followed by people aged 18-25. Religious service attendance was also inversely associated with suicidal ideation in people aged 65 or more when attendance was more than 25 times per year. These findings may be helpful to understand age in relation to the relationship between religiosity and suicidal ideation. Particular attention to religiosity among older adults as a protective factor for suicidal ideation may be helpful in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Survey on research environment for young researchers in the U.S.. What attractive environment is for young researchers; Beikoku ni okeru wakate kenkyusha no kenkyu kankyo ni kansuru chosa. Wakate kenkyusha ni totte miryokutekina kankyo towa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-28

    A survey was conducted on 'what attractive research environment is for young researchers' as a theme. The young researchers are referred to as those who are registered on a master's or doctor's degree courses and what is called postdoctoral scholars who received a doctor's degree. In the survey, a few common comments were seen in over interviews on the U.S. research environment. The comments were such that, needless to say, subsidies are indispensable for researches but economic aspects of treatment are not necessarily satisfactory, that the research environment is generally good, allowing freedom in research, and that results tend to be achieved by providing a subsidy for experienced knowledgeable researchers rather than directly subsidizing young researchers with a large sum, while programs with individuality such as a fellowship are desired more. It is apparent that the interests of postdoctoral scholars are economic stability; in fact, uneasiness and dissatisfaction in the status and the treatment are pointed out in a survey by the U.S. Science Academy. (NEDO)

  18. Social support and antenatal depression in extended and nuclear family environments in Turkey: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berksun Oguz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social support is strongly implicated in the aetiology of perinatal mental disorder: particularly the quality of the marital and family environment. Family structures are important under-researched potential modifiers. Turkey offers particular advantages for research in this area because of long-standing coexistence of Western and Middle Eastern family structures. We aimed to investigate associations between the quality of key relationships and depression in women in their third trimester of pregnancy, and the extent to which these associations were modified by family structure. Method Women attending antenatal clinics in their third trimester were recruited from urban and rural settings in Ankara. A nuclear family structure was defined as a wife and husband living alone or with their children in the same household, whereas a traditional/extended family structure was defined if another adult was living with the married couple in the same household. Depression was ascertained using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and social support was assessed by the Close Person Questionnaire with respect to the husband, mother and mother-in-law. Social support was compared between participants with/without case-level depression on the EPDS in linear regression models adjusted for relevant covariates, then stratified by nuclear/traditional family structure. Results Of 772 women approached, 751 (97.3% participated and 730 (94.6% had sufficient data for this analysis. Prevalence of case-level depression was 33.1% and this was associated with lower social support from all three family members but not with traditional/nuclear family structure. The association between depression and lower emotional support from the husband was significantly stronger in traditional compared to nuclear family environments. Conclusions Lower quality of relationships between key family members was strongly associated with third trimester depression

  19. Social support and antenatal depression in extended and nuclear family environments in Turkey: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Vesile; Abas, Melanie; Berksun, Oguz; Stewart, Robert

    2011-03-24

    Social support is strongly implicated in the aetiology of perinatal mental disorder: particularly the quality of the marital and family environment. Family structures are important under-researched potential modifiers. Turkey offers particular advantages for research in this area because of long-standing coexistence of Western and Middle Eastern family structures. We aimed to investigate associations between the quality of key relationships and depression in women in their third trimester of pregnancy, and the extent to which these associations were modified by family structure. Women attending antenatal clinics in their third trimester were recruited from urban and rural settings in Ankara. A nuclear family structure was defined as a wife and husband living alone or with their children in the same household, whereas a traditional/extended family structure was defined if another adult was living with the married couple in the same household. Depression was ascertained using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and social support was assessed by the Close Person Questionnaire with respect to the husband, mother and mother-in-law. Social support was compared between participants with/without case-level depression on the EPDS in linear regression models adjusted for relevant covariates, then stratified by nuclear/traditional family structure. Of 772 women approached, 751 (97.3%) participated and 730 (94.6%) had sufficient data for this analysis. Prevalence of case-level depression was 33.1% and this was associated with lower social support from all three family members but not with traditional/nuclear family structure. The association between depression and lower emotional support from the husband was significantly stronger in traditional compared to nuclear family environments. Lower quality of relationships between key family members was strongly associated with third trimester depression. Family structure modified the association but, contrary to

  20. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Distribution of important habitats for coastal and offshore biological resources and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, and locations of important habitats (for example, Essential Fish Habitats (EFH), nesting areas, strandings) for marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, birds, and marine mammals. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map can be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are

  1. Mesophotic coral environment monitoring and habitat surveys at the Main Hawaiian Island Chain (SE0807, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of the cruise were to collect a variety of data to assess the status of mesophotic corals in the Auau Channel, off the west coast of Maui. Camera surveys...

  2. European otorhinolaryngology training programs: results of a European survey about training satisfaction, work environment and conditions in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, N; Alotaibi, Naif H; Reichelt, A C; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, Andreas E

    2017-11-01

    ORL-students and residents have an ongoing debate about the "best" programme in Europe. Aim of this study was to comparatively assess differences among programmes in training, satisfaction, quality of life (QoL) of residents and recent otorhinolaryngologist (ORL) specialists in France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Austria, and Belgium. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, structured in ten sections including general information, provided guidance, working environment, training structure, teaching of medical students, publication work, QoL, and satisfaction with training, were emailed to residents and recent ORL specialists. 476 returned questionnaires from 6 countries revealed that daily work hours were the highest in France and Belgium with 11 and 10.4 h on average, respectively. QoL, work conditions, and salary were best in Germany followed by Austria in terms of possibility of part-time contracts, better respect for post-duty day off, and compensation for overtime. Satisfaction with training including support and guidance of seniors was lowest in Italy, but, on the other hand, the publication work and support had a more important place than in other countries. In Belgium, there was some gap between the quality of teaching and feedback from seniors as well as apprenticeship. The highest satisfaction with training was in France and Spain followed by Austria. The study results provide guidance before choosing an ORL training programme in Europe. Country-specific strengths could be included into future harmonization efforts to improve all programmes, facilitate professional exchange and, finally, establish standards-of-care carried out by well-trained doctors also looking after a satisfying work-life balance.

  3. Transitioning Towards Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit eAnand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The millennium development goals are now replaced by seventeen sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS -2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010, included in the study. It resulted in inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011, Congo Republic (2013-14, Cote d'Ivoire (2011-12, Ethiopia (2011, Gambia (2013, Mali (2012-13, Mozambique (2011, Namibia (2013, Nepal (2011, Niger (2012, Nigeria (2013, Pakistan (2012-13, Sierra Leone (2013, Uganda (2011 and Zambia (2013. The Scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio of child mortality and health outcomes using DHS surveys. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian Countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and Household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were not

  4. Survey on acceleration of geothermal development in fiscal 1998. Report on survey for influence on environment (No. B-7, Kuwanosawa district); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa.Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    A survey was performed on the current situation in the Kuwanosawa district in Akita Prefecture to identify influence on the surrounding environment due to drilling of geothermal structure testing wells. The survey on animals covered mammals of five divisions, 10 families and 19 species, Aves of ten divisions, 25 families and 73 species, reptiles of one division, 3 families and 6 species, Amphibia of two divisions, 6 families, 9 species, and Insects of 17 divisions, 179 families and 719 species. Precious animals of a several species including black salamander were identified. In the plant survey, 132 families and 670 species were identified, with several species listed as the precious plants. In the survey of hot springs, those at three locations were all high-temperature hot springs at as high as 53.8 to 96.9 degrees C. Amount of discharge, pH and electrical conductivity differ largely by the hot springs. The hot spring in Takamatsu did not show large variation throughout the survey period. The Ogura Inn at Doroyu Spa has small variation in pH and hot spring temperature, but large variation in the amount of discharge and Al{sup 3+} concentration. Correlation was recognized between hot spring temperature and amount of discharge, between hot spring temperature and anion, between amount of discharge and electric conductivity, and between amount of discharge and anion. (NEDO)

  5. Comparison of the Availability and Cost of Foods Compatible With a Renal Diet Versus an Unrestricted Diet Using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Catherine M; Pencak, Julie A; Freedman, Darcy A; Huml, Anne M; León, Janeen B; Nemcek, Jeanette; Theurer, Jacqueline; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2017-05-01

    Hemodialysis patients' ability to access food that is both compatible with a renal diet and affordable is affected by the local food environment. Comparisons of the availability and cost of food items suitable for the renal diet versus a typical unrestricted diet were completed using the standard Nutrition Environment Measures Survey and a renal diet-modified Nutrition Environment Measures Survey. Cross-sectional study. Twelve grocery stores in Northeast Ohio. Availability and cost of food items in 12 categories. The mean total number of food items available differed significantly (P ≤ .001) between the unrestricted diet (38.9 ± 4.5) and renal diet (32.2 ± 4.7). The mean total cost per serving did not differ significantly (P = 0.48) between the unrestricted diet ($5.67 ± 2.50) and renal diet ($5.76 ± 2.74). The availability of renal diet food items is significantly less than that of unrestricted diet food items, but there is no difference in the cost of items that are available in grocery stores. Further work is needed to determine how to improve the food environment for patients with chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Constraining the relative importance of raindrop- and flow-driven sediment transport mechanisms in postwildfire environments and implications for recovery time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Luke; Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Rengers, Francis K.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.

    2016-01-01

    Mountain watersheds recently burned by wildfire often experience greater amounts of runoff and increased rates of sediment transport relative to similar unburned areas. Given the sedimentation and debris flow threats caused by increases in erosion, more work is needed to better understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed increase in sediment transport in burned environments and the time scale over which a heightened geomorphic response can be expected. In this study, we quantified the relative importance of different hillslope erosion mechanisms during two postwildfire rainstorms at a drainage basin in Southern California by combining terrestrial laser scanner-derived maps of topographic change, field measurements, and numerical modeling of overland flow and sediment transport. Numerous debris flows were initiated by runoff at our study area during a long-duration storm of relatively modest intensity. Despite the presence of a well-developed rill network, numerical model results suggest that the majority of eroded hillslope sediment during this long-duration rainstorm was transported by raindrop-induced sediment transport processes, highlighting the importance of raindrop-driven processes in supplying channels with potential debris flow material. We also used the numerical model to explore relationships between postwildfire storm characteristics, vegetation cover, soil infiltration capacity, and the total volume of eroded sediment from a synthetic hillslope for different end-member erosion regimes. This study adds to our understanding of sediment transport in steep, postwildfire landscapes and shows how data from field monitoring can be combined with numerical modeling of sediment transport to isolate the processes leading to increased erosion in burned areas.

  7. Important Skills for Internship and the Fourth-Year Medical School Courses to Acquire Them: A National Survey of Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anne G; Harrell, Heather E; Weissman, Arlene; Smith, Cynthia D; Dupras, Denise; Kane, Gregory C

    2016-06-01

    To obtain feedback from internal medicine residents, a key stakeholder group, regarding both the skills needed for internship and the fourth-year medical school courses that prepared them for residency. This feedback could inform fourth-year curriculum redesign efforts. All internal medicine residents taking the 2013-2014 Internal Medicine In-Training Examination were asked to rank the importance of learning 10 predefined skills prior to internship and to use a dropdown menu of 11 common fourth-year courses to rank the 3 most helpful in preparing for internship. The predefined skills were chosen based on a review of the literature, a national subinternship curriculum, and expert consensus. Chi-square statistics were used to test for differences in responses between training levels. Of the 24,820 internal medicine residents who completed the exam, 20,484 (83%) completed the survey, had complete identification numbers, and consented to have their responses used for research. The three skills most frequently rated as very important were identifying when to seek additional help and expertise, prioritizing clinical tasks and managing time efficiently, and communicating with other providers around care transitions. The subinternship/acting internship was most often selected as being the most helpful course in preparing for internship. These findings indicate which skills and fourth-year medical school courses internal medicine residents found most helpful in preparing for internship and confirm the findings of prior studies highlighting the perceived value of subinternships. Internal medicine residents and medical educators agree on the skills students should learn prior to internship.

  8. The Pan-STARRS1 medium-deep survey: The role of galaxy group environment in the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation and quiescent fraction out to z ∼ 0.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lihwai; Chen, Chin-Wei; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Jian, Hung-Yu; Foucaud, Sebastien; Norberg, Peder; Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Draper, P.; Heinis, Sebastien; Phleps, Stefanie; Chen, Wen-Ping; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Burgett, William; Chambers, K. C.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Using a large optically selected sample of field and group galaxies drawn from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1/MDS), we present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate (SSFR)—stellar mass (M * ) relation, as well as the quiescent fraction versus M * relation in different environments. While both the SSFR and the quiescent fraction depend strongly on stellar mass, the environment also plays an important role. Using this large galaxy sample, we confirm that the fraction of quiescent galaxies is strongly dependent on environment at a fixed stellar mass, but that the amplitude and the slope of the star-forming sequence is similar between the field and groups: in other words, the SSFR-density relation at a fixed stellar mass is primarily driven by the change in the star-forming and quiescent fractions between different environments rather than a global suppression in the star formation rate for the star-forming population. However, when we restrict our sample to the cluster-scale environments (M > 10 14 M ☉ ), we find a global reduction in the SSFR of the star-forming sequence of 17% at 4σ confidence as opposed to its field counterpart. After removing the stellar mass dependence of the quiescent fraction seen in field galaxies, the excess in the quiescent fraction due to the environment quenching in groups and clusters is found to increase with stellar mass, although deeper and larger data from the full PS1/MDS will be required to draw firm conclusions. We argue that these results are in favor of galaxy mergers to be the primary environment quenching mechanism operating in galaxy groups whereas strangulation is able to reproduce the observed trend in the environment quenching efficiency and stellar mass relation seen in clusters. Our results also suggest that the relative importance between mass quenching and environment quenching depends on stellar mass—the mass quenching plays a dominant role in producing quiescent galaxies for more

  9. The Pan-STARRS1 medium-deep survey: The role of galaxy group environment in the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation and quiescent fraction out to z ∼ 0.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Lihwai; Chen, Chin-Wei; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Jian, Hung-Yu [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Foucaud, Sebastien [Department of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, N°88, Tingzhou Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 11677, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Norberg, Peder; Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Draper, P. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Heinis, Sebastien [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, MD 20742 (United States); Phleps, Stefanie [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Chen, Wen-Ping [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Lee, Chien-Hsiu [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Burgett, William; Chambers, K. C.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W., E-mail: lihwailin@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2014-02-10

    Using a large optically selected sample of field and group galaxies drawn from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1/MDS), we present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate (SSFR)—stellar mass (M {sub *}) relation, as well as the quiescent fraction versus M {sub *} relation in different environments. While both the SSFR and the quiescent fraction depend strongly on stellar mass, the environment also plays an important role. Using this large galaxy sample, we confirm that the fraction of quiescent galaxies is strongly dependent on environment at a fixed stellar mass, but that the amplitude and the slope of the star-forming sequence is similar between the field and groups: in other words, the SSFR-density relation at a fixed stellar mass is primarily driven by the change in the star-forming and quiescent fractions between different environments rather than a global suppression in the star formation rate for the star-forming population. However, when we restrict our sample to the cluster-scale environments (M > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}), we find a global reduction in the SSFR of the star-forming sequence of 17% at 4σ confidence as opposed to its field counterpart. After removing the stellar mass dependence of the quiescent fraction seen in field galaxies, the excess in the quiescent fraction due to the environment quenching in groups and clusters is found to increase with stellar mass, although deeper and larger data from the full PS1/MDS will be required to draw firm conclusions. We argue that these results are in favor of galaxy mergers to be the primary environment quenching mechanism operating in galaxy groups whereas strangulation is able to reproduce the observed trend in the environment quenching efficiency and stellar mass relation seen in clusters. Our results also suggest that the relative importance between mass quenching and environment quenching depends on stellar mass—the mass quenching plays a dominant role in producing quiescent

  10. Taxes and the economy: A survey of the impact of taxes on growth, employment, investment, consumption and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeend, W.; van der Ploeg, R.; Timmer, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    This book discusses the impact of taxation on economic growth, employment, investment, consumption and the environment. The public finance literature commonly distinguishes between three major functions of taxation: the traditional function of raising revenue to finance government expenditure; the

  11. Health insurance is important in improving maternal health service utilization in Tanzania-analysis of the 2011/2012 Tanzania HIV/AIDS and malaria indicator survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibusi, Stephen M; Sunguya, Bruno Fokas; Kimunai, Eunice; Hines, Courtney S

    2018-02-13

    Maternal mortality rates vary significantly from region to region. Interventions such as early and planned antenatal care attendance and facility delivery with skilled health workers can potentially reduce maternal mortality rates. Several factors can be attributed to antenatal care attendance, or lack thereof, including the cost of health care services. The aim of this study was to examine the role of health insurance coverage in utilization of maternal health services in Tanzania. Secondary data analysis was conducted on the nationally representative sample of men and women aged 15-49 years using the 2011/12 Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indicator Survey. It included 4513 women who had one or more live births within three years before the survey. The independent variable was health insurance coverage. Outcome variables included proper timing of the first antenatal care visit, completing the recommended number of antenatal care (ANC) visits, and giving birth under skilled worker. Data were analyzed both descriptively and using regression analyses to examine independent association of health insurance and maternal health services. Of 4513 women, only 281 (6.2%) had health insurance. Among all participants, only 16.9%, 7.1%, and 56.5%, respectively, made their first ANC visit as per recommendation, completed the recommended number of ANC visits, and had skilled birth assistance at delivery. A higher proportion of women with health insurance had a proper timing of 1st ANC attendance compared to their counterparts (27.0% vs. 16.0%, p skilled birth attendance (77.6% vs. 55.1%, p skilled birth attendance (AOR = 2.01, p services were low in this nationally representative sample in Tanzania. Women covered by health insurance were more likely to have proper timing of the first antenatal visit and receive skilled birth assistance at delivery. To improve maternal health, health insurance alone is however not enough. It is important to improve other pillars of health

  12. Physical therapists' perception of workplace ethics in an evolving health-care delivery environment: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Roberto

    2018-03-30

    Physical therapists are trained and obligated to deliver optimal health care and put patients first above all else. In the changing health-care environment, health-care organizations are grappling with controlling cost and increasing revenues. Moral distress may be created when physical therapists' desire to provide optimal care conflicts with their organization's goals to remain financially viable or profitable. Moral distress has been associated with low perception of ethical environment, professional burnout, and high turnover in organizations. This study identified groups who may be vulnerable to low perception of organizational ethical environment and identified self-reported strategies to remedy these perceptions. An ethics environment questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1200 physical therapists in Georgia. Respondents (n = 340) were analyzed by age, workplace setting, and position in organization. Therapists working in skilled nursing/assisted living environments scored the lowest on the questionnaire and voiced concerns regarding their ethical work environments. Owners and executives perceived their organizations to be more ethical than front-line clinicians. Respondent concerns included high productivity standards, aggressive coding/billing policies, decreased reimbursement, and increased insurance regulation. Possible solutions included more frequent communication between management and clinicians about ethics, greater professional autonomy, and increased training in business ethics and finance.

  13. Which aspects of non-clinical quality of care are most important? Results from WHO's general population surveys of "health systems responsiveness" in 41 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentine, Nicole; Darby, Charles; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2008-01-01

    Quality of care research has reached some agreement on concepts like structure, process and outcome, and non-clinical versus clinical processes of care. These concepts are commonly explored through surveys measuring patient experiences, yet few surveys have focused on patient, or "user", priorities

  14. İthâl Ev Hayvanları Ve Süs Bitkilerinin Çevreye Etkileri / The Negative Effects Of Imported Ornamentals And Pets On Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Uludağ

    2012-12-01

    söz konusu tehdidin büyüklüğüne ve önemine dikkat çekilmektedir. The Negative Effects Of Imported Ornamentals And Pets On Environment Ornamentals improve environment outdoor and contribute our health, prospect and creativity indoor. Open areas and green corners that are planned well have positive impact on cities and their dwellers. Pets and companion animals have important role as friend of human, which can create a special atmosphere for owner, increase social life and help education of kids. Urbanization which has occurred in parallel to migration from rural areas to cities with industrialization era imposed a grey life style surrounded with concrete, glass and pavement. A person who is emigrated from villages himself or his parents tried to fulfill his desire of nature via growing ornamentals and having pets. Turkey has experienced the same cases. Due to the desire of being different, increasing effect of media, and effective marketing technique, new exotic ornamentals and pets have replaced usual common ones. Rising demand to the exotic plants and animals increased import, production, and retail marketing, which can increase the risk on environment due to these creatures. Those species that live in other places than their origins and have negative effect on biodiversity, human activities or health are described as invasive alien species (IAS. Ornamentals and pets escape to wild or release to wild, which can become IAS. There are legal documents and code of conducts in some countries. Unfortunately there are no legal documents enough including quarantine on IAS in Turkey. In order to control IAS, the impact of IAS should be determined nationwide and awareness should be created from policy makers to ordinary citizens. Getting attention on importance and magnitude of IAS problem caused by ornamental plants and animals by using second hand data was aimed in this paper.

  15. The possibilities of using the energetic potential of Mato Grosso in substitution for imported fuels and harmful to the environment; As possibilidades de uso dos potenciais energeticos de Mato Grosso em substituicao aos combustiveis importados e danosos ao meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavarros, Otacilio Borges; Ferreira, Noel Flavio Costa; Melo, Moises Candido de; Leite, Jose Ermete Rabello [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    The text presents the essentials information's to the understanding of the possibilities of use of energetics potentials of Mato Grosso in substitution to imports fuels and dangerous to the environment. (author)

  16. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of effect of energy efficiency improvement on global environment; 1999 nendo energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Analyses are conducted into consideration given to global warming measures in the 3rd assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and into technology transfer from developed nations to developing nations in the Asia-Pacific region etc. to contribute to their energy efficiency improvement. The aim is to present data for deliberation as to how future energy efficiency improvement measures should be in the Asia-Pacific region. The chapters (Chapter 0 through Chapter 10) of the report to be worked out by Working Group III deeply involved in energy problems are 0) Introduction, 1) Scope of the report; 2) Socio-economic and emissions scenarios; 3) Technical and economic potential of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction; 4) Technical and economic potential of biological CO2 mitigation options; 5) Barriers, opportunities and market potential of technologies and practices; 6) Policies, measures and instruments; 7) Costing methodologies; 8) Global, regional and national costs and ancillary benefits of mitigation; 9) Sector costs and ancillary benefits of mitigation; and 10) Decision making frameworks. As the result of the survey, some actual technology transfer implementations are introduced covering branches closely related to energy efficiency improvement, which are branches of construction, traffic, industry, energy supply, and wastes. (NEDO)

  17. The importance of age, sex and place in understanding socioeconomic inequalities in allostatic load: Evidence from the Scottish Health Survey (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Tony; Watts, Eleanor

    2016-02-09

    Given the broad spectrum of health and wellbeing outcomes that are patterned by socioeconomic position (SEP), it has been suggested that there may be common biological pathways linking SEP and health. Allostatic load is one such pathway, which aims to measure cumulative burden/dysregulation across multiple physiological systems. This study aimed to determine the contextual and demographic factors (age, sex and place) that may be important in better understanding the links between lower SEP and higher allostatic load. Data were from a nationally representative sample of adults (18+): the Scottish Health Survey (2008-2011). Higher SEP ('1') was defined as having 'Higher'-level, secondary school qualifications versus having lower level or no qualifications ('0'). For allostatic load, a range of 10 biomarkers across the cardiovascular, metabolic and immune systems were used. Respondents were scored "1" for each biomarker that fell into the highest quartile of risk. Linear regressions were run in STATA, including SEP, age (continuous and as a 7-category variable), sex (male/female), urbanity (a 5-category variable ranging from primary cities to remote rural areas) and geographical location (based on 10 area-level healthboards). Interactions between SEP and each predictor, as well as stratified analyses, were tested. Lower SEP was associated with higher allostatic load even after adjusting for age, sex and place (b = -0.631, 95 % CI -0.795, -0.389, p < 0.001). There was no significant effect moderation between SEP and age, sex or place. Stratified analysis did show that the inequality identified in the baseline models widened with age, becoming significant at ages 35-44, before narrowing at older ages (75+). There was no difference by sex, but more mixed findings with regards place (urbanity or geographical location), with a mix of significant and non-significant results by SEP that did not appear to follow any pattern. Inequalities in allostatic load by educational

  18. The association between neighborhood economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food intake, and obesity: findings from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, Michael; Malecki, Kristen C; Givens, Marjory L; Walsh, Matthew C; Nieto, F Javier

    2015-03-13

    Neighborhood-level characteristics such as economic hardship and the retail food environment are assumed to be correlated and to influence consumers' dietary behavior and health status, but few studies have investigated these different relationships comprehensively in a single study. This work aims to investigate the association between neighborhood-level economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity prevalence. Linking data from the population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, n = 1,570, 2008-10) and a commercially available business database, the Wisconsin Retail Food Environment Index (WRFEI) was defined as the mean distance from each participating household to the three closest supermarkets divided by the mean distance to the three closest convenience stores or fast food restaurants. Based on US census data, neighborhood-level economic hardship was defined by the Economic Hardship Index (EHI). Relationships were analyzed using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. SHOW residents living in neighborhoods with the highest economic hardship faced a less favorable retail food environment (WRFEI = 2.53) than residents from neighborhoods with the lowest economic hardship (WRFEI = 1.77; p-trend associations between the WRFEI and obesity and only a weak borderline-significant association between access to fast food restaurants and self-reported fast food consumption (≥ 2 times/week, OR = 0.59-0.62, p = 0.05-0.09) in urban residents. Participants reporting higher frequency of fast food consumption (≥ 2 times vs. obese (OR = 1.35, p = 0.06). This study indicates that neighborhood-level economic hardship is associated with an unfavorable retail food environment. However inconsistent or non-significant relationships between the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity were observed. More research is needed to enhance methodological approaches to assess the retail food environment and

  19. Clinical use of sensory gardens and outdoor environments in norwegian nursing homes: a cross-sectional e-mail survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Kirkevold, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Gardens and outdoor environments offer multiple therapeutic possibilities for the residents in nursing homes. Web-based questionnaires were sent to 488 nursing home leaders and 121 leaders responded. The clinical impressions of the leaders and staff regarding the benefits of sensory gardens (SGs) to the residents were consistent with previous research. SGs facilitated taking residents outdoors, offered convenient topics for communication and facilitated social privacy for relatives. For improved clinical use of SGs and outdoor environments, systematic assessment of residents' interests, performance and experiences when outdoors, implementation of seasonal clinical programmes and educational programmes for leaders and staff are recommended.

  20. Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats’ Socialization Level in the Cat’s Normal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Slater

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stray cats routinely enter animal welfare organizations each year and shelters are challenged with determining the level of human socialization these cats may possess as quickly as possible. However, there is currently no standard process to guide this determination. This study describes the development and validation of a caregiver survey designed to be filled out by a cat’s caregiver so it accurately describes a cat’s personality, background, and full range of behavior with people when in its normal environment. The results from this survey provided the basis for a socialization score that ranged from unsocialized to well socialized with people. The quality of the survey was evaluated based on inter-rater and test-retest reliability and internal consistency and estimates of construct and criterion validity. In general, our results showed moderate to high levels of inter-rater (median of 0.803, range 0.211–0.957 and test-retest agreement (median 0.92, range 0.211–0.999. Cronbach’s alpha showed high internal consistency (0.962. Estimates of validity did not highlight any major shortcomings. This survey will be used to develop and validate an effective assessment process that accurately differentiates cats by their socialization levels towards humans based on direct observation of cats’ behavior in an animal shelter.

  1. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on possibilities of environmental cooperation in relation with proliferation of environment preservation technologies and institutions in developing countries; 1999 nendo kankyo taisaku gijutsu seido nado no tojokoku fukyu ni kakawaru kankyo kyoryoku kanoseichosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Cooperation in energy and environment aspects with developing countries is considered very important in view of the following points: (1) the cooperation will help developing countries to grow economically while minimizing the damages from industrial pollution and environmental problems; (2) conservation of energies and promotion of use of new energies will contribute to solving pollution problems associated with energy production, and will result in assurance of stability of primary energy availability for Japan; (3) preservation of environments in countries exporting foods to Japan will link to maintaining health of Japanese people and increasing their welfare; and (4) Japanese industrial pollution preventing technologies and knowledge whose levels are high worldwide may be utilized to create new business chances for Japanese business entities. The present survey has discussed the importance by territories, the importance by cooperation modes, and sharing of roles by governmental and private organizations, and performed case studies. Considerations were given from the discussion results on how the environmental projects should be planned in the environment cooperation, the contents to be of win/win from the viewpoint of motivation, the project image for subjected territories being composite and comprehensive, and the cases from the viewpoint of mutual coexistence referred to as prevention of global warming and assurance of food and energy resources. (NEDO)

  2. A National Study of the Validity and Utility of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environment (CASE) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    A healthy school climate is necessary for improvement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct validity and usability of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environment (CASE) as it was purportedly realigned to the three dimensions of the Breaking Ranks Framework developed by the National Association of Secondary School…

  3. Measuring Conditions Conducive to Knowledge Development in Virtual Learning Environments: Initial Development of a Model-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nan B.; DeVaney, Thomas A.; Sawyer, Susan G.

    2009-01-01

    The design of virtual learning environments for post-secondary instruction is rapidly increasing among public and private universities. While the quantity of online courses over the past 10 years has exponentially increased, the quality of these courses has not. As universities increase their online teaching activities, real concern about the best…

  4. Computer-aided analysis of LANDSAT data for surveying Texas coastal zone environments. [Pass Cavallo and Port O'Conner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristof, S. J. (Principal Investigator); Weismiller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The study areas were Pass Cavallo and Port O'Connor. The following terrestrial and aquatic environments were discriminated: alternating beach ridges, swales, sand dunes, beach birms, deflation surfaces, land-water interface, urban, spoil areas, fresh and salt water marshes, grass and woodland, recently burned or grazed areas, submerged vegetation, and waterways.

  5. Nurse-perceived quality of care in intensive care units and associations with work environment characteristics : a multicentre survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, Dewi; Van Der Linden, Dimitri; Kaljouw, Marian J.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To examine nurse-perceived quality of care, controlling for overall job satisfaction among critical care nurses and to explore associations with work environment characteristics. Background: Nurse-perceived quality of care and job satisfaction have been positively linked to quality outcomes

  6. Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats’ Socialization Level in the Cat’s Normal Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Many animal welfare organizations accept cats with no known behavioral history. It can be difficult to differentiate between a frightened but well-socialized cat and an unsocialized cat in an animal shelter environment. Making this distinction can save lives, yet currently there is no valid tool. Here we measured the quality of a survey designed to determine socialization level using information from the cat’s caregiver about a cat’s usual behavior around people in the cat’s no...

  7. Ground-level airborne particulate matter near important Portuguese Cultural Heritage sites in high polluted (Lisbon) and low polluted (Evora) urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, N.; Wagner, F.; Candeias, A.; Kandler, K.; Tobias, L.; Mirao, J.

    2012-04-01

    As part of a wider project on aerosol composition in the Southwestern part of the Iberian peninsula, an intensive field monitoring/sampling/analytical campaign has been conducted in August and December 2011 to assess indoor and outdoor atmospheric aerosol optical and microphysical parameters (Nephelometry), number/mass/size distribution (TEOM, MAAP, OPS) and single particle minero-chemical composition on filter collected samples (VP-SEM+EDS, XRD) at several sheltered and unsheltered locations close to important Cultural Heritage monuments in Evora and Lisbon, Portugal. Sites investigated included the Igreja do S. Francisco in Evora, the Cristo Rei sanctuary, Jeronimos Monastery, and Lisbon Castle in Lisbon. At Cristo Rei measurements at sea level, around 100m and around 180m were carried out in order to determine the vertical profile of the particle size distribution. Measurements were taken at different times of day reflecting changes in atmospheric mixing and air pollution levels. Measurements were also performed near an air quality monitoring station at Avenida de Libertade (the busiest traffic artery in Lisbon city center) during traffic peak hour. One of the aims of the campaign was to determine differences in airborne particulate matter compositions and concentrations between an urban coastal high pollution (Lisbon) and a low pollution (Evora) environments and how these could affect the nature of decay patterns and processes in the building materials of the monuments under investigation. Preliminary results indicate significant differences in particle properties between the 2 cities as well as between indoor and outdoor locations. One interesting result was the detection of considerable amounts of particle of oceanic origin (such as sodium chloride) in the Evora site even at 130 km away from the coast. Despite its relatively unpolluted location, single particle analysis by SEM+EDS at the Evora site reveals the presence of significant numbers of particle of

  8. WHERE DO WET, DRY, AND MIXED GALAXY MERGERS OCCUR? A STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENTS OF CLOSE GALAXY PAIRS IN THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lihwai; Cooper, Michael C.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Jian, Hung-Yu; Chiueh, Tzihong; Koo, David C.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Patton, David R.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Croton, Darren J.; Gerke, Brian F.; Lotz, Jennifer; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the environments of wet, dry, and mixed galaxy mergers at 0.75 c ) is observed to increase with overdensity, using N-body simulations, we find that the fraction of pairs that will eventually merge decreases with the local density, predominantly because interlopers are more common in dense environments. After taking into account the merger probability of pairs as a function of local density, we find only marginal environment dependence of the galaxy merger rate for wet mergers. On the other hand, the dry and mixed merger rates increase rapidly with local density due to the increased population of red galaxies in dense environments, implying that the dry and mixed mergers are most effective in overdense regions. We also find that the environment distribution of K+A galaxies is similar to that of wet mergers alone and of wet+mixed mergers, suggesting a possible connection between K+A galaxies and wet and/or wet+mixed mergers. Based on our results, we therefore expect that the properties, including structures and masses, of red-sequence galaxies should be different between those in underdense regions and those in overdense regions since the dry mergers are significantly more important in dense environments. We conclude that, as early as z ∼ 1, high-density regions are the preferred environment in which dry mergers occur, and that present-day red-sequence galaxies in overdense environments have, on average, undergone 1.2 ± 0.3 dry mergers since this time, accounting for (38 ± 10)% of their mass accretion in the last 8 billion years. The main uncertainty in this finding is the conversion from the pair fraction to the galaxy merger rate, which is possibly as large as a factor of 2. Our findings suggest that dry mergers are crucial in the mass assembly of massive red galaxies in dense environments, such as brightest cluster galaxies in galaxy groups and clusters.

  9. Does the Regulatory Environment for E-Cigarettes Influence the Effectiveness of E-Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation?: Longitudinal Findings From the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Hitchman, Sara C; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Gravely, Shannon M L; McNeill, Ann; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2017-11-01

    To date, no studies have explored how different regulatory environments may influence the effectiveness of electronic cigarettes (ECs) as a smoking cessation aid. This study compares the real-world effectiveness of adult smokers using ECs for quitting compared with quitting unassisted or quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and/or prescription medications in two countries with restrictive policies towards ECs (ie, Canada and Australia) versus two countries with less restrictive policies (ie, United States and United Kingdom). Data were drawn from the International Tobacco Control Four Country surveys, from the United States and Canada (2 waves, n = 318 and 380, respectively), the United Kingdom (3 waves, n = 439) and Australia (4 waves, n = 662), collected 2010-2014. Smokers at baseline wave who reported making a quit attempt at follow-up were included. The primary outcome was self-reported abstinence for at least 30 days regardless of smoking status at follow-up assessment. Data across waves were combined and analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Compared to unassisted quitting (ie, no medications or ECs), smokers who used ECs for quitting from countries with less restrictive EC policy environments were more likely (OR = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.19-3.20, p cessation are likely highly dependent on the regulatory environment. What this study adds: This is the first study to examine the impact of regulatory environment for ECs on their real-world effectiveness for smoking cessation. This study shows that in a less restrictive EC regulatory environment, use of ECs during a quit attempt facilitates, but in a more restrictive environment, it inhibits, short-term sustained abstinence. The findings underscore the need for careful consideration on how best to regulate this emerging product so that EC benefits for smoking cessation are maximized and its risks to public health are minimized. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  10. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L.; Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J.

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site's retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ( 3 H, 90 Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge

  11. Parametric studies and evaluations of indoor thermal environment in wet season using a field survey and PMV-PPD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shengxian [College of Physics and Electric Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technique and Preparation for Renewable Energy Materials, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Li, Ming [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technique and Preparation for Renewable Energy Materials, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Lin, Wenxian [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technique and Preparation for Renewable Energy Materials, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); School of Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Sun, Yanlin [College of Physics and Electric Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Fanger's PMV-PPD is the most famous thermal sensation indices but it is too complex to be applied in practice. To obtain simple and applicable correlations, taking Qujing of Yunnan province, China, as example, a wet season (six-month) field measurement was conducted in a naturally ventilated residential room. Based on collected data, PMV indices were calculated by using Newton's iterative method. It is shown that the PMV values approximately vary from -1.0 to +1.0 and the indoor thermal environment is basically comfortable. Relationships of the parameters (indoor and outdoor air temperatures, mean radiant temperature, PMV and PPD) and indoor air temperature gradients (vertical and horizontal) were also studied by means of the linear regression and the quadratic polynomial fit techniques. Numerous correlations with high relativities have been developed. Moreover, the vertical and horizontal air temperature gradients range from 0.1 K/m to 0.85 K/m and from -0.208 K/m to 0.063 K/m in wet season. It is convenient to use these results to evaluate and assess the indoor thermal environment under similar climatic conditions. The results of this work enrich and develop the basic theory of the indoor thermal environment design and control. (author)

  12. Student nurses' experiences of the clinical learning environment in relation to the organization of supervision: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundler, Annelie J; Björk, Maria; Bisholt, Birgitta; Ohlsson, Ulla; Engström, Agneta Kullén; Gustafsson, Margareta

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to investigate student nurses' experiences of the clinical learning environment in relation to how the supervision was organized. The clinical environment plays an essential part in student nurses' learning. Even though different models for supervision have been previously set forth, it has been stressed that there is a need both of further empirical studies on the role of preceptorship in undergraduate nursing education and of studies comparing different models. A cross-sectional study with comparative design was carried out with a mixed method approach. Data were collected from student nurses in the final term of the nursing programme at three universities in Sweden by means of a questionnaire. In general the students had positive experiences of the clinical learning environment with respect to pedagogical atmosphere, leadership style of the ward manager, premises of nursing, supervisory relationship, and role of the nurse preceptor and nurse teacher. However, there were significant differences in their ratings of the supervisory relationship (ppedagogical atmosphere (p 0.025) depending on how the supervision was organized. Students who had the same preceptor all the time were more satisfied with the supervisory relationship than were those who had different preceptors each day. Students' comments on the supervision confirmed the significance of the preceptor and the supervisory relationship. The organization of the supervision was of significance with regard to the pedagogical atmosphere and the students' relation to preceptors. Students with the same preceptor throughout were more positive concerning the supervisory relationship and the pedagogical atmosphere. © 2013.

  13. FY 1992 Report on the survey results. Surveys on trends of research and development of advanced materials for severe environments (Intermetallic compounds); 1992 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu (kinzokukan kagobutsu) ni kakawaru kenkyu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    The trends of the ongoing researches on intermetallic compounds are surveyed through interviews and inquiries, in order to evaluate the results of the projects and research and development of the advanced materials for severe environments, and also to survey the research trends. The survey results are pigeonholed into 4 general categories; (1) research trends in the USA, UK and Germany, (2) notable topics of recent progress in intermetallic research and development, (3) evaluation of the projects, and (4) lists of the results of the researches on the Al-Ti and Al-Nb intermetallic compounds. The ongoing projects include those for intermetallic compounds of high specific strength and of high melting point, the former being represented by Al-Ti compounds and the latter by Al-Nb compounds, for aircraft and space development purposes. The projects are evaluated, viewed from materials and purposes/targets pursued by the projects, R and D organizations, and degree of attention the projects are attracting. The intermetallic compounds are extensively studied and attracting attention in various countries, but possibilities of achieving the set targets are rather pessimistic. (NEDO)

  14. A global survey of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface soils in remote and urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The heightened attention placed on perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) over the past decades has led to their detection in many environmental and biological compartments. A detailed understanding of PFAS levels in these compartments is an important step towards ...

  15. From organizational awareness to organizational competency in health care social work: the importance of formulating a "profession-in-environment" fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, William; Silverman, Ed; Allen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Today's health care environments require organizational competence as well as clinical skill. Economically driven business paradigms and the principles underlying the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 emphasize integrated, collaborative care delivered using transdisciplinary service models. Attention must be focused on achieving patient care goals while demonstrating an appreciation for the mission, priorities and operational constraints of the provider organization. The educational challenge is to cultivate the ability to negotiate "ideology" or ideal practice with the practical realities of health care provider environments without compromising professional ethics. Competently exercising such ability promotes a sound "profession-in-environment" fit and enhances the recognition of social work as a crucial patient care component.

  16. Survey of Staphylococcus isolates among hospital personnel, environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. carriage among hospital personnel and hospital environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance. A total of 205 samples from hospital personnel and environment were collected from casualty, oncology and multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal. Samples were collected using sterile cotton wool swabs and inoculated into brain heart infusion broth. Subcultures were done onto blood agar and MacConkey′s agar. Isolates were identified by standard methods up to species level. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to standardized disc diffusion Kirby-Bauer method. Each of the isolates was screened for methicillin resistance using oxacillin disc on Mueller Hinton agar plate followed by MIC for methicillin and cefoxitin susceptibility test by disc diffusion method. Sixty five out of 205 strains (31.7% were Staphylococcus spp. and all of them were coagulase negative. Most of the strains belonged to S.epidermidis 49.23%(32/65 followed by S. saprophyticus 26.15%(17/65. Maximum isolates of S.epidermidis were from anterior nares 28.12%(9/32 strains of S.epidermidis . Highest number of methicillin resistant coagulase negative strains (3/9, 33.33% were isolated from stethoscope of multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward followed by carriers in the anterior nares (2/9, 22.22%. Methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci are prevalent in anterior nares of hospital personnel and in the hospital environment thereby providing a definite source for hospital acquired infection. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and amikacin.

  17. Greening Internet of Things for Smart Everythings with A Green-Environment Life: A Survey and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Alsamhi, S. H.; Ma, Ou; Ansari, M. Samar; Meng, Qingliang

    2018-01-01

    Tremendous technology development in the field of Internet of Things (IoT) has changed the way we work and live. Although the numerous advantages of IoT are enriching our society, it should be reminded that the IoT also consumes energy, embraces toxic pollution and E-waste. These place new stress on the environments and smart world. In order to increase the benefits and reduce the harm of IoT, there is an increasing desire to move toward green IoT. Green IoT is seen as the future of IoT that ...

  18. Survey of Radiological and Chemical Contaminants in the Near-Shore Environment at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Van Verst, Scott P.; Tiller, Brett L.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Poston, Ted M.

    2003-01-01

    This updates the original report by correcting some errors and adding new information. This assessment of the 300 Area was completed to identify any contamination present and determine if it could present a risk to humans and plant and animal life. The assessment characterized the radiological and chemical conditions existing in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River at the 300 Area by collecting water, biota, and sediment samples and measuring radiation levels during a time when the effects of riverbank spring discharges and groundwater upwelling into the river was likely to be present

  19. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  20. Web-Based Surveys: Not Your Basic Survey Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys are not new to the library environment. Although such surveys began as extensions of print surveys, the Web-based environment offers a number of approaches to conducting a survey that the print environment cannot duplicate easily. Since 1994, the author and others have conducted national surveys of public library Internet…

  1. Chemical elements in the environment: multi-element geochemical datasets from continental to national scale surveys on four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caritat, Patrice de; Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David; Wang, Xueqiu

    2017-01-01

    During the last 10-20 years, Geological Surveys around the world have undertaken a major effort towards delivering fully harmonized and tightly quality-controlled low-density multi-element soil geochemical maps and datasets of vast regions including up to whole continents. Concentrations of between 45 and 60 elements commonly have been determined in a variety of different regolith types (e.g., sediment, soil). The multi-element datasets are published as complete geochemical atlases and made available to the general public. Several other geochemical datasets covering smaller areas but generally at a higher spatial density are also available. These datasets may, however, not be found by superficial internet-based searches because the elements are not mentioned individually either in the title or in the keyword lists of the original references. This publication attempts to increase the visibility and discoverability of these fundamental background datasets covering large areas up to whole continents.

  2. Validation and Application of the Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U): Identifying Factors Associated with Valuing Important Workplace Skills among Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly; Thompson, Katerina V.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel assessment tool for measuring biology students' values and experiences across their undergraduate degree program. Our Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U) assesses the extent to which students value skills needed for the workplace (e.g., ability to work in groups) and their experiences with…

  3. The Tully-Fisher relation for 25 000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies as a function of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocz, P.; Green, A.; Malacari, M.; Glazebrook, K.

    2012-09-01

    We construct Tully-Fisher relationships (TFRs) in the u, g, r, i and z bands and stellar mass TFRs for a sample of 25 698 late spiral-type galaxies (with 0.045 0.045) the fibres sample enough of the disc to obtain a linear relationship between vFWHM and vcirc, allowing us to obtain a TFR and to investigate dependence on other variables. We also develop a methodology for distinguishing between astrophysical and sample bias in the fibre TFR trends. We observe the well-known steepening of the TFR in redder bands in our sample. We divide the sample of galaxies into four equal groups using projected neighbour density (Σ) quartiles and find no significant dependence on environment, extending previous work to a wider range of environments and a much larger sample. Having demonstrated that we can construct SDSS-based TFRs is very useful for future TFR studies because of the large sample size available in the SDSS.

  4. Nepalese undergraduate nursing students' perceptions of the clinical learning environment, supervision and nurse teachers: A questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Bijeta; Taketomi, Kikuko; Ito, Yoichi M; Kohanawa, Masashi; Kawabata, Hidenobu; Tanaka, Michiko; Otaki, Junji

    2016-04-01

    Clinical practice enables nursing students to acquire essential professional skills, but little is known about nursing students' perceptions of the clinical learning environment (CLE) in Nepal. To examine Nepalese nursing students' perceptions regarding the CLE and supervision. A cross-sectional questionnaire design was used. Government and private hospitals in Nepal where the undergraduate nursing college students undertook their clinical practice. Students with clinical practice experience were recruited from years 2-4 of the B.Sc. nursing program in Nepal (n=350). The final sample comprised 263 students. A self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, latest clinical practice site, and general satisfaction was administered February-March 2014. The previously validated Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher evaluation scale was used in the questionnaire. The analytical approach used exploratory factor analysis, assessments of the scale and sub-dimension reliability, correlations of factors between scale sub-dimensions, and multiple regression analysis. Students' practicum satisfaction level at government hospitals was significantly higher than those at private hospitals (prelationship between satisfaction and pedagogical atmosphere (ppedagogical atmosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Students' Perception of Important Teaching Behaviors in Classroom and Clinical Environments of a Community College Nursing and Dental Hygiene Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough-Walls, Vickie J.

    2012-01-01

    Student success is dependent on effective instruction. Yet, effective teaching is difficult to define and described differently by students, faculty, and administrators. Nursing and dental hygiene education programs require faculty to teach in both classroom and clinical environments. However, accreditation agencies for these programs mandate…

  6. How youth-friendly are pharmacies in New Zealand? Surveying aspects of accessibility and the pharmacy environment using a youth participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfield, Emma; Kelly, Fiona; Clark, Terryann; Sheridan, Janie

    2014-01-01

    The international youth population has significant unmet health needs, and there have been many calls to increase youth health care access. Community pharmacies may be able to help address these needs, but very little research has investigated this area and it is not known whether the current community pharmacy setting is acceptable or appropriate for youth. 1) To obtain information on physical factors which could affect young people's use of community pharmacies in New Zealand, including accessibility, opening times and the physical youth-friendliness of the pharmacy environment. 2) To involve and utilize young people in the research process, in order to understand their needs and interpretation of survey data. This study applied a cross sectional survey design, informed by a sequential youth participatory approach. A questionnaire was developed in consultation with a youth advisory group (YAG). Questionnaires distributed to pharmacists at 500 randomly selected pharmacies nationwide between May and September 2011 collected information on whether the pharmacy met selected youth-friendly criteria. These included physical aspects of youth-friendliness, such as opening times and the pharmacy environment. The YAG also provided a youth perspective in the interpretation of the results. Three mail shots achieved a response rate of 50.5%. Most respondents reported the pharmacy to be accessible by public transport and many had extended opening hours. Although most pharmacies met some youth-friendly criteria with regards to the pharmacy environment (e.g. having a private consultation area), more specific criteria (such as displaying youth health information) were usually not met. Interpretive feedback from the YAG highlighted areas for improvement. Pharmacies show potential as youth-friendly health care access points and most already meet some youth-friendly criteria. Areas identified for improvement will require a greater youth focus from the profession, and should be

  7. A cross-sectional survey of the relationship between walking, biking, and the built environment for adults aged over 70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Paul Y; Baker, Mitzi A; Cha, Stephan; Targonski, Paul V

    2012-01-01

    Determine the relationship between walkability scores (using the Walk Score(®)) and activity levels (both bicycle and walking) in adults aged between 70 and 85 years in Rochester, Minnesota. This was a self-reported cross-sectional survey in adults aged over 70 years living in Rochester, Minnesota. Analysis used t-tests or chi-square analysis as appropriate. The primary endpoint was bicycle use or walking. The predictor variables were the Walk Score(®) as determined by their address, Charlson index, Duke Activity Status Index (DASI), and a 12-item short-form survey (SF-12) scores. Secondary analysis used an outcome of functional status (using the DASI) and walkability scores. Fifty-three individuals completed the surveys (48% return rate). The average age in the overall cohort was 77.02 years. Eighty-nine percent of individuals could walk at least a block and 15.1% rode their bicycles. The Walk Scores(®) did not differ between those who walked (38.9 ± 27.4) and those that did not (40.0 ± 36.08; P = 0.93). In a similar fashion, the Walk Scores(®) were not different for those who biked (36.38 ± 27.68) and those that did not (39.44 ± 28.49; P = 0.78). There was no relationship between Walk Scores(®) and DASI; however, a decreased DASI score was associated with increased age and comorbid illness (Charlson Score). In this small pilot survey, there was no difference in Walk Scores(®) between those older adults who walked or biked, compared to those that did not. The Walk Scores(®) were low in both groups, which may indicate the lack of accessibility for all older adults living in Rochester, Minnesota. The functional status seemed to be more related to age or comorbid conditions than the built environment.

  8. Functional Comparison of Bacteria from the Human Gut and Closely Related Non-Gut Bacteria Reveals the Importance of Conjugation and a Paucity of Motility and Chemotaxis Functions in the Gut Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrijevic, Dragana; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Jamet, Alexandre; Maguin, Emmanuelle; van de Guchte, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    The human GI tract is a complex and still poorly understood environment, inhabited by one of the densest microbial communities on earth. The gut microbiota is shaped by millennia of evolution to co-exist with the host in commensal or symbiotic relationships. Members of the gut microbiota perform specific molecular functions important in the human gut environment. This can be illustrated by the presence of a highly expanded repertoire of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, in phase with the large diversity of polysaccharides originating from the diet or from the host itself that can be encountered in this environment. In order to identify other bacterial functions that are important in the human gut environment, we investigated the distribution of functional groups of proteins in a group of human gut bacteria and their close non-gut relatives. Complementary to earlier global comparisons between different ecosystems, this approach should allow a closer focus on a group of functions directly related to the gut environment while avoiding functions related to taxonomically divergent microbiota composition, which may or may not be relevant for gut homeostasis. We identified several functions that are overrepresented in the human gut bacteria which had not been recognized in a global approach. The observed under-representation of certain other functions may be equally important for gut homeostasis. Together, these analyses provide us with new information about this environment so critical to our health and well-being.

  9. Functional Comparison of Bacteria from the Human Gut and Closely Related Non-Gut Bacteria Reveals the Importance of Conjugation and a Paucity of Motility and Chemotaxis Functions in the Gut Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Dobrijevic

    Full Text Available The human GI tract is a complex and still poorly understood environment, inhabited by one of the densest microbial communities on earth. The gut microbiota is shaped by millennia of evolution to co-exist with the host in commensal or symbiotic relationships. Members of the gut microbiota perform specific molecular functions important in the human gut environment. This can be illustrated by the presence of a highly expanded repertoire of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, in phase with the large diversity of polysaccharides originating from the diet or from the host itself that can be encountered in this environment. In order to identify other bacterial functions that are important in the human gut environment, we investigated the distribution of functional groups of proteins in a group of human gut bacteria and their close non-gut relatives. Complementary to earlier global comparisons between different ecosystems, this approach should allow a closer focus on a group of functions directly related to the gut environment while avoiding functions related to taxonomically divergent microbiota composition, which may or may not be relevant for gut homeostasis. We identified several functions that are overrepresented in the human gut bacteria which had not been recognized in a global approach. The observed under-representation of certain other functions may be equally important for gut homeostasis. Together, these analyses provide us with new information about this environment so critical to our health and well-being.

  10. Neighborhood environments and obesity among Afro-Caribbean, African American, and Non-Hispanic white adults in the United States: results from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Samaah M; Brashear, Meghan M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Rung, Ariane L

    2014-04-01

    To examine possible associations between perceived neighborhood environments and obesity among a U.S. nationally representative sample of Afro-Caribbean, African American, and Non-Hispanic white adults. Data was used from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). All measures including neighborhood characteristics, height, and weight were self-reported. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) based on perceived neighborhood physical and social characteristics. The odds of obesity were significantly lower for adults who reported involvement in clubs, associations, or help groups (odds ratio (OR): 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44, 0.85) and perceived that they had a park, playground, or open space in their neighborhood (odds ratio (OR): 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47, 0.98). These associations remained significant after adjusting for leisure-time physical activity. Race/ethnicity appeared to modify the association between involvement in clubs, associations, or help groups and obesity. Providing parks, playgrounds, or open space or increasing the perception of those amenities may assist in the prevention of obesity, especially in ethnically diverse neighborhoods in the United States. More research is needed to investigate how perceptions of the neighborhood environment influence obesity and whether perceptions of the neighborhood environment differ between individuals within the same neighborhoods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is the Definition of Roma an Important Matter? The Parallel Application of Self and External Classification of Ethnicity in a Population-Based Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Anna Janka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Roma population is typified by a poor and, due to difficulties in ethnicity assessment, poorly documented health status. We aimed to compare the usefulness of self-reporting and observer-reporting in Roma classification for surveys investigating differences between Roma and non-Roma populations. Both self-reporting and observer-reporting of Roma ethnicity were applied in a population-based health interview survey. A questionnaire was completed by 1849 people aged 18–64 years; this questionnaire provided information on 52 indicators (morbidity, functionality, lifestyle, social capital, accidents, healthcare use indicators. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, sex, education and employment were used to produce indicators for differences between the self-reported Roma (N = 124 and non-Roma (N = 1725 populations, as well as between observer-reported Roma (N = 179 and non-Roma populations (N = 1670. Differences between interviewer-reported and self-reported individuals of Roma ethnicity in statistical inferences were observed for only seven indicators. The self-reporting approach was more sensitive for two indicators, and the observer-reported assessment for five indicators. Based on our results, the self-reported identity can be considered as a useful approach, and the application of observer-reporting cannot considerably increase the usefulness of a survey, because the differences between Roma and non-Roma individuals are much bigger than the differences between indicators produced by self-reported or observer-reported data on individuals of Roma ethnicity.

  12. Is the Definition of Roma an Important Matter? The Parallel Application of Self and External Classification of Ethnicity in a Population-Based Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Eszter Anna; Vincze, Ferenc; Ádány, Róza; Sándor, János

    2018-02-16

    The Roma population is typified by a poor and, due to difficulties in ethnicity assessment, poorly documented health status. We aimed to compare the usefulness of self-reporting and observer-reporting in Roma classification for surveys investigating differences between Roma and non-Roma populations. Both self-reporting and observer-reporting of Roma ethnicity were applied in a population-based health interview survey. A questionnaire was completed by 1849 people aged 18-64 years; this questionnaire provided information on 52 indicators (morbidity, functionality, lifestyle, social capital, accidents, healthcare use) indicators. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, sex, education and employment were used to produce indicators for differences between the self-reported Roma ( N = 124) and non-Roma ( N = 1725) populations, as well as between observer-reported Roma ( N = 179) and non-Roma populations ( N = 1670). Differences between interviewer-reported and self-reported individuals of Roma ethnicity in statistical inferences were observed for only seven indicators. The self-reporting approach was more sensitive for two indicators, and the observer-reported assessment for five indicators. Based on our results, the self-reported identity can be considered as a useful approach, and the application of observer-reporting cannot considerably increase the usefulness of a survey, because the differences between Roma and non-Roma individuals are much bigger than the differences between indicators produced by self-reported or observer-reported data on individuals of Roma ethnicity.

  13. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. The survey on structuring institutions for energy environment policies. Part 2. Collection of information about policies in major countries for prevention of global warming; 1999 nendo energy kankyo seisaku no seido kochiku ni kansuru chosa. 2. Kakkoku ondanka boshi seisaku johoshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present survey is intended to collect and put in order the literatures and items of information related to: the current status and future directionality in the policies in advanced nations related to achieving the targets of the Kyoto Protocol, and trends of improving national institutions to respond to the Kyoto mechanisms, and the background of the conceptions thereof (including the conceptions on designing the international institutions). The survey gives considerations at the same time on possibilities of realization of the policies being implement and/or discussed. The report consists of two parts. Part 1 puts in order the trends until the most recent date in the summary of warming prevention policies in the major European and North American countries, placing the importance on the policies and measures that use economic methods (environment taxation system, national discharge quantity transaction, voluntary action plans and agreements). Part 2 (the present paper) introduces the contents of the major literatures and administrative materials in the policy trends in each nation, and puts in order the basic items of information that are considered useful for performing in the future the surveys related to the subject areas. (NEDO)

  14. Genotype by Environment Interactions in Cognitive Ability: A Survey of 14 Studies from 4 Countries covering 4 Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; van der Sluis, Sophie; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Hewitt, John K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Plomin, Robert; Wright, Margie J.; Dolan, Conor V.

    2014-01-01

    A large part of the variation in cognitive ability is known to be due to genetic factors. Researchers have tried to identify modifiers that influence the heritability of cognitive ability, indicating a genotype by environment interaction (GxE). To date, such modifiers include measured variables like income and socioeconomic status. The present paper focuses on GxE in cognitive ability where the environmental variable is an unmeasured environmental factor that is uncorrelated in family members. We examined this type of GxE in the GHCA-database (Haworth et al., 2009), which comprises data of 14 different cognition studies from 4 different countries including participants of different ages. Results indicate that for younger participants (4–13 years), the strength of E decreases across the additive genetic factor A, but that this effect reverts for older participants (17–34 years). However, a clear and general conclusion about the presence of a genuine GxE is hampered by differences between the individual studies with respect to environmental and genetic influences on cognitive ability. PMID:23397253

  15. Study on a Preliminary Survey and Analysis of HLW Management Technology Suitable for Nuclear Industrial Environment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Ka; Suh, In Suk; Ro, Seong Gy; Yoo, Kun Joong; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Cho, Sung Soo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to suggest development direction of related technologies to analyze patented technology filed as a leading technology and to identify the technology trend for developing HLW management technology suitable for atomic industrial environment in Korea. For patent analysis of HLW management technology, international patent data were collected. And international application number, patent share of applicant and nationality, annual number of applications, application trends of assignees and detail technology, and frequency of patent citations / citations-to were analyzed by statistical analysis. Technical level and competitiveness through quantitative analysis by indicators of patent analysis were confirmed. And technology developments of blank technology, similarity analysis, the point of the main patent and a range of patent rights were analyzed through in-depth analysis. Trends of the patented technology of our country and world patent technology in such results have been identified, and statistical data on patents were secured. Especially in HLW management technology, patent application in Korea compared ti United States, Japan and European Union was began much later for the '90s, and are showing the annual increase on trend of patent application. Patent trend in Korea corresponds to development generation, while declining in foreign patent. The result of this study will be usefully applied to setting a development direction and blank technology of patent technology to pursue future in Korea

  16. [Is health really the most important value? - Results of a representative survey of the German general population concerning the subjective meaning of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, A; Hübscher, U; Brähler, E; Berth, H

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which meaning is attributed to health by the general population. Furthermore, the relationship between health satisfaction and health importance was also analysed. A sample of 4,808 representatively selected subjects from the general German population judged the importance and the satisfaction with several life domains, including health, using the questions on life satisfaction FLZ (M). Moreover, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, socioeconomic status) and psychological variables (self-esteem, resilience, anxiety and depression) were collected. Health is the most important life domain. The importance of health increases with increasing age. However, there are no sex differences and SES (socio-economic status) differences concerning the importance of health. Subjective satisfaction with health and health importance are only marginally correlated (r=0.08). High degrees of self-esteem and resilience are associated with a high importance of health. Anxiety and depression show only weak relationships to the importance of health. In the German general population health has a very high subjective significance. This is not only true for handicapped or ill people, but for all subsamples of the society. Therefore, a general plea for an understanding of the importance of health is not necessary, not even for subgroups. Preventive activity can be based on the general understanding of the meaning of health, but it should pursue specific health- related goals for target groups. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Enterprise Surveys : Malaysia Country Profile 2015

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The Enterprise Surveys (ES) focus on many aspects of the business environment. These factors can be accommodating or constraining for firms and play an important role in whether an economy’s private sector will thrive or not. An accommodating business environment is one that encourages firms to operate efficiently. Such conditions strengthen incentives for firms to innovate and to increase...

  18. Rapid adaptation to a novel light environment: The importance of ontogeny and phenotypic plasticity in shaping the visual system of Nicaraguan Midas cichlid fish (Amphilophus citrinellus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härer, Andreas; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2017-10-01

    Colonization of novel habitats is typically challenging to organisms. In the initial stage after colonization, approximation to fitness optima in the new environment can occur by selection acting on standing genetic variation, modification of developmental patterns or phenotypic plasticity. Midas cichlids have recently colonized crater Lake Apoyo from great Lake Nicaragua. The photic environment of crater Lake Apoyo is shifted towards shorter wavelengths compared to great Lake Nicaragua and Midas cichlids from both lakes differ in visual sensitivity. We investigated the contribution of ontogeny and phenotypic plasticity in shaping the visual system of Midas cichlids after colonizing this novel photic environment. To this end, we measured cone opsin expression both during development and after experimental exposure to different light treatments. Midas cichlids from both lakes undergo ontogenetic changes in cone opsin expression, but visual sensitivity is consistently shifted towards shorter wavelengths in crater lake fish, which leads to a paedomorphic retention of their visual phenotype. This shift might be mediated by lower levels of thyroid hormone in crater lake Midas cichlids (measured indirectly as dio2 and dio3 gene expression). Exposing fish to different light treatments revealed that cone opsin expression is phenotypically plastic in both species during early development, with short and long wavelength light slowing or accelerating ontogenetic changes, respectively. Notably, this plastic response was maintained into adulthood only in the derived crater lake Midas cichlids. We conclude that the rapid evolution of Midas cichlids' visual system after colonizing crater Lake Apoyo was mediated by a shift in visual sensitivity during ontogeny and was further aided by phenotypic plasticity during development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Pan-STARRS1 Medium-deep Survey: Star Formation Quenching in Group and Cluster Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, Hung-Yu; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Kai-Yang; Chen, Chin-Wei [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 106, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Foucaud, Sebastien [Department of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, N.88, Tingzhou Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 11677, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Chiueh, Tzihong [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 106, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Chen, Wen-Ping [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Burgett, W. S.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C., E-mail: hyjian@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We make use of a catalog of 1600 Pan-STARRS1 groups produced by the probability friends-of-friends algorithm to explore how the galaxy properties, i.e., the specific star formation rate (SSFR) and quiescent fraction, depend on stellar mass and group-centric radius. The work is the extension of Lin et al. In this work, powered by a stacking technique plus a background subtraction for contamination removal, a finer correction and more precise results are obtained than in our previous work. We find that while the quiescent fraction increases with decreasing group-centric radius, the median SSFRs of star-forming galaxies in groups at fixed stellar mass drop slightly from the field toward the group center. This suggests that the main quenching process in groups is likely a fast mechanism. On the other hand, a reduction in SSFRs by ∼0.2 dex is seen inside clusters as opposed to the field galaxies. If the reduction is attributed to the slow quenching effect, the slow quenching process acts dominantly in clusters. In addition, we also examine the density–color relation, where the density is defined by using a sixth-nearest-neighbor approach. Comparing the quiescent fractions contributed from the density and radial effect, we find that the density effect dominates the massive group or cluster galaxies, and the radial effect becomes more effective in less massive galaxies. The results support mergers and/or starvation as the main quenching mechanisms in the group environment, while harassment and/or starvation dominate in clusters.

  20. A survey of the knowledge, use, and adoption of emerging technologies by academics in an Open Distance Learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Chimbo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The realisation of the advantages offered by e-learning accompanied by the use of various emerging information technologies has resulted in a noticeable shift by academia towards e-learning. An analysis of the use, knowledge and adoption of emerging technologies by academics in an Open Distance Learning (ODL environment at the University of South Africa (UNISA was undertaken in this study. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use, knowledge and adoption of emerging e-learning technologies by the academics from the selected schools. The academics in the Schools of Arts, Computing and Science were purposively selected in order to draw on views of academics from different teaching and educational backgrounds. Questionnaires were distributed both electronically and manually. The results showed that academics in all the Schools were competent at the use of information technology tools and applications such as emailing, word-processing, Internet, myUnisa (UNISA’s online teaching platform, and Microsoft PowerPoint and Excel. An evaluation of the awareness of different emerging technological tools showed that most academics were aware of Open Access Technologies, Social Networking Sites, Blogs, Video Games and Microblogging Platforms. While the level of awareness was high for these technologies, the use by the academics was low. At least 62.3% of the academics indicated willingness to migrate to online teaching completely and also indicated the need for further training on new technologies. A comparison of the different schools showed no statistically significant difference in the use, knowledge and willingness to adopt technology amongst the academics.

  1. A Survey of Deepwater Horizon (DWH Oil-Degrading Bacteria from the Eastern Oyster Biome and its Surrounding Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eThomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident led to the release of an estimated 794,936,474 liters of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico over an 85 day period in 2010, resulting in the contamination of the Gulf of Mexico waters, sediments, permeable beach sands, coastal wetlands and marine life. This study examines the potential response of the Eastern oyster’s microbiome to hydrocarbon contamination and compares it with the bacterial community responses observed from the overlaying water column and the oyster bed sediments. For this purpose, microcosms seeded with DWH crude oil were established and inoculated separately with oyster tissue (OT, mantle fluid (MF, overlaying water column (WC and sediments (S collected from Apalachicola Bay, FL. Shifts in the microbial community structure in the amended microcosms was monitored over a 3-month period using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer region analysis (ARISA, which showed that the microbiome of the oyster tissue and mantle fluid were more similar to the sediment communities than those present in the overlaying water column. This pattern remained largely consistent, regardless of the concentration of crude oil or the enrichment period. Additionally, 72 oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from the microcosms containing OT, MF, WC and S and identified using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequencing and compared by principal component analysis (PCA which clearly showed that the water column isolates were different to those identified from the sediment. Conversely, the oyster tissue and mantle fluid isolates clustered together; a strong indication that the oyster microbiome is uniquely structured relative to its surrounding environment. When selected isolates from the OT, MF, WC and S were assessed for their oil-degrading potential, we found that the DWH oil was biodegraded between 12%-42%, under the existing conditions.

  2. Report from the Committee for Improving the Work Environment of Japanese Surgeons: survey on effects of the fee revision for medical services provided by surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Tominaga, Ryuji; Nio, Masaki; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Okoshi, Kae; Kaneko, Koichi; Nagano, Hiroaki; Nishida, Takahiro; Nishida, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Ken; Maehara, Tadaaki; Masuda, Munetaka; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Tabayashi, Koichi; Satomi, Susumu; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve improvements in the work environment of Japanese surgeons and shortage of surgeons. Questionnaires were distributed to selected Japanese surgical Society (JSS) members. Retrospective analysis was conducted comparing the current 2011 survey with previous 2007 survey. To examine the influence of 2010 revision of the fee for medical services performed by surgeons, we distributed a second questionnaire to directors of hospitals and administrators of clerks belonging to official institutes in JSS. Collective data were analyzed retrospectively. The main potential causes for the shortage of surgeons in Japan were long hours (72.8 %), excessive emergency surgeries (69.4 %), and high risk of lawsuit (67.7 %). Mean weekly working hours of surgeons in national or public university hospitals and private university hospitals were 96.2 and 85.6, respectively. Approximately 70 % of surgeons were forced to do hardworking tasks, possibly leading to death from overwork. Of note, approximately 25 % of surgeons had over time of more than 100 h a week, coinciding to the number of hours that might lead to death from fatigue, described in the Japanese labor law. Although the total medical service fee in hospitals, especially in large-scale hospitals with more than 500 beds, increased markedly after 2010 revision of the fee for medical services performed by surgeons, few hospitals gave perquisites and/or incentives to surgeons. To prevent and avoid collapse of the surgical specialty in Japan, an improvement in the work environment of surgeons by initiation of the JSS would be required as soon as possible.

  3. The Lipopolysaccharide Lipid A Long-Chain Fatty Acid Is Important for Rhizobium leguminosarum Growth and Stress Adaptation in Free-Living and Nodule Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Dianna V; Kannenberg, Elmar L; Sherrier, D Janine; Buhr, R Jeffrey; Carlson, Russell W

    2017-02-01

    Rhizobium bacteria live in soil and plant environments, are capable of inducing symbiotic nodules on legumes, invade these nodules, and develop into bacteroids that fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Rhizobial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is anchored in the bacterial outer membrane through a specialized lipid A containing a very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA). VLCFA function for rhizobial growth in soil and plant environments is not well understood. Two genes, acpXL and lpxXL, encoding acyl carrier protein and acyltransferase, are among the six genes required for biosynthesis and transfer of VLCFA to lipid A. Rhizobium leguminosarum mutant strains acpXL, acpXL - /lpxXL - , and lpxXL - were examined for LPS structure, viability, and symbiosis. Mutations in acpXL and lpxXL abolished VLCFA attachment to lipid A. The acpXL mutant transferred a shorter acyl chain instead of VLCFA. Strains without lpxXL neither added VLCFA nor a shorter acyl chain. In all strains isolated from nodule bacteria, lipid A had longer acyl chains compared with laboratory-cultured bacteria, whereas mutant strains displayed altered membrane properties, modified cationic peptide sensitivity, and diminished levels of cyclic β-glucans. In pea nodules, mutant bacteroids were atypically formed and nitrogen fixation and senescence were affected. The role of VLCFA for rhizobial environmental fitness is discussed.

  4. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa or C. indica) agriculture and the environment: a systematic, spatially-explicit survey and potential impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Brenner, Jacob C.

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis agriculture is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States that is changing rapidly with policy liberalization. Anecdotal observations fuel speculation about associated environmental impacts, and there is an urgent need for systematic empirical research. An example from Humboldt County California, a principal cannabis-producing region, involved digitizing 4428 grow sites in 60 watersheds with Google Earth imagery. Grows were clustered, suggesting disproportionate impacts in ecologically important locales. Sixty-eight percent of grows were >500 m from developed roads, suggesting risk of landscape fragmentation. Twenty-two percent were on steep slopes, suggesting risk of erosion, sedimentation, and landslides. Five percent were cannabis agriculture documented in our study demands that it be regulated and researched on par with conventional agriculture.

  5. Public Preferences Related to Radioactive Waste Management in the United States: Methodology and Response Reference Report for the 2016 Energy and Environment Survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Silva, Carol L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Gupta, Kuhika [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report presents the questions and responses to a nationwide survey taken June 2016 to track preferences of US residents concerning the environment, energy, and radioactive waste management. A focus of the 2016 survey is public perceptions on different options for managing spent nuclear fuel, including on-site storage, interim storage, deep boreholes, general purpose geologic repositories, and geologic repositories for only defense-related waste. Highlights of the survey results include the following: (1) public attention to the 2011 accident and subsequent cleanup at the Fukushima nuclear facility continues to influence the perceived balance of risk and benefit for nuclear energy; (2) the incident at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in 2014 could influence future public support for nuclear waste management; (3) public knowledge about US nuclear waste management policies has remined higher than seen prior to the Fukushima nuclear accident and submittal of the Yucca Mountain application; (6) support for a mined disposal facility is higher than for deep borehole disposal, building one more interim storage facilities, or continued on-site storage of spent nuclear fuel; (7) support for a repository that comingles commercial and defense related waste is higher than for a repository for only defense related waste; (8) the public’s level of trust accorded to the National Academies, university scientists, and local emergency responders is the highest and the level trust accorded to advocacy organizations, public utilities, and local/national press is the lowest; and (9) the public is willing to serve on citizens panels but, in general, will only modestly engage in issues related to radioactive waste management.

  6. Validation and Application of the Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U): Identifying Factors Associated with Valuing Important Workplace Skills among Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly; Thompson, Katerina V.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel assessment tool for measuring biology students’ values and experiences across their undergraduate degree program. Our Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U) assesses the extent to which students value skills needed for the workplace (e.g., ability to work in groups) and their experiences with teaching practices purported to promote such skills (e.g., group work). The survey was validated through factor analyses in a large sample of biology seniors (n = 1389) and through response process analyses (five interviewees). The STEP-U skills items were characterized by two underlying factors: retention (e.g., memorization) and transfer (e.g., knowledge application). Multiple linear regression models were used to examine relationships between classroom experiences, values, and student characteristics (e.g., gender, cumulative grade point average [GPA], and research experience). Student demographic and experiential factors predicted the extent to which students valued particular skills. Students with lower GPAs valued retention skills more than those with higher GPAs. Students with research experience placed greater value on scientific writing and interdisciplinary understanding. Greater experience with specific teaching practices was associated with valuing the corresponding skills more highly. The STEP-U can provide feedback vital for designing curricula that better prepare students for their intended postgraduate careers. PMID:27856547

  7. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  8. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1996; 'a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies', 'survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations', 'works in radioactive data center', 'fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey', 'workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring' and 'survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure'. (M.N.)

  9. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1997; `a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies`, `survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations`, `works in radioactive data center`, `fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey`, `workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring` and `survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure`. (J.P.N.)

  10. Associations between work environment and psychological distress after a workplace terror attack: the importance of role expectations, predictability and leader support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing terrorism is associated with high levels of psychological distress among survivors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether work environmental factors such as role clarity and predictability, role conflicts, and leader support may protect against elevated levels of psychological distress after a workplace terrorist attack. Data from approximately 1800 ministerial employees were collected ten months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack which targeted the Norwegian ministries. The results show that after a traumatic event, lower role conflicts, higher role clarity, higher predictability, and higher leader support were independently associated with lower psychological distress. These findings suggest that the workplace environment may be a facilitator of employees' mental health after stressful events.

  11. Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Mai; Gale, Catharine R; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Kuh, Diana L

    2015-01-01

    Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention. Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64. Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered. Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation's mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age.

  12. Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Stafford

    Full Text Available Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention.Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64.Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered.Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation's mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age.

  13. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-05-15

    Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, 'environmental equity' indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International 'best practice benchmarks' will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. This research is highly original due to the very 'upstream' approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative

  14. Summary of United States Geological Survey investigations of fluid-rock-waste reactions in evaporite environments under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, D.B.; Jones, B.F.; Roedder, E.; Potter, R.W. II

    1980-01-01

    The interstitial and inclusion fluids contained in rock salt and anhydrite, though present in amounts less than 1 weight per cent, are chemically aggressive and may react with canisters or wastes. The three basic types of fluids are: (1) bitterns residual from saline mineral precipitation including later recrystallization reactions; (2) brines containing residual solutes from the formation of evaporite that have been extensively modified by reactions with contiguous carbonate of clastic rocks; and (3) re-solution brines resulting from secondary dehydration of evaporite minerals or solution of saline minerals by undersaturated infiltrating waters. Fluid composition can indicate that meteoric flow systems have contacted evaporites or that fluids from evaporites have migrated into other formations. The movement of fluids trapped in fluid inclusions in salt from southeast New Mexico is most sensitive to ambient temperature and to inclusion size, although several other factors such as thermal gradient and vapour/liquid ratio are also important. There is no evidence of a threshold temperature for movement of inclusions. Empirical data are given for determining the amount of brine reaching the heat source if the temperature, approximate amount of total dissolved solids, and Ca:Mg ratio in the brine are known. SrCl 2 and CsCl can reach high concentrations in saturated NaCl solutions and greatly depress the liquidus. The possibility that such fluids, if generated, could migrate from a high-level waste repository must be minimized because the fluid would contain its own radiogenic energy source in the first decades after repository closure, thus changing the thermal evolution of the repository from designed values. (author)

  15. Validation and Application of the Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U): Identifying Factors Associated with Valuing Important Workplace Skills among Biology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly; Thompson, Katerina V

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel assessment tool for measuring biology students' values and experiences across their undergraduate degree program. Our Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U) assesses the extent to which students value skills needed for the workplace (e.g., ability to work in groups) and their experiences with teaching practices purported to promote such skills (e.g., group work). The survey was validated through factor analyses in a large sample of biology seniors (n = 1389) and through response process analyses (five interviewees). The STEP-U skills items were characterized by two underlying factors: retention (e.g., memorization) and transfer (e.g., knowledge application). Multiple linear regression models were used to examine relationships between classroom experiences, values, and student characteristics (e.g., gender, cumulative grade point average [GPA], and research experience). Student demographic and experiential factors predicted the extent to which students valued particular skills. Students with lower GPAs valued retention skills more than those with higher GPAs. Students with research experience placed greater value on scientific writing and interdisciplinary understanding. Greater experience with specific teaching practices was associated with valuing the corresponding skills more highly. The STEP-U can provide feedback vital for designing curricula that better prepare students for their intended postgraduate careers. © 2016 G. Marbach-Ad et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. The importance of assessing the environment to determine the most suitable location for seniors' residences so as to adjust the supply to the needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapon, Pierre-Marie; Petit, Guillaume; Phalippon, Kévin

    2018-03-01

    Seniors' residences must be located in areas that foster the well-being of both residents and staff. This study is unprecedented in France. It uses the multi-criteria decision-making method to classify the environmental targets in priority order, according to the importance they are given by the people living or working on the premises as related to their proximity to the residence. The results are then integrated into a mapping of areas in which the targets are geolocalized, thus highlighting the most suitable zones. The data collected from interviews and from the mapping vary from one residence to another. Nevertheless they all clearly point to the importance of a territorial approach before planning the building of such residences.

  17. A cross-sectional survey of the relationship between walking, biking, and the built environment for adults aged over 70 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi1, Mitzi A Baker3, Stephan Cha2, Paul V Targonski11Primary Care Internal Medicine, 2Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, 3Planning Department, Olmsted County, Rochester, MN, USAPurpose: Determine the relationship between walkability scores (using the Walk Score® and activity levels (both bicycle and walking in adults aged between 70 and 85 years in Rochester, Minnesota.Patients and methods: This was a self-reported cross-sectional survey in adults aged over 70 years living in Rochester, Minnesota. Analysis used t-tests or chi-square analysis as appropriate. The primary endpoint was bicycle use or walking. The predictor variables were the Walk Score® as determined by their address, Charlson index, Duke Activity Status Index (DASI, and a 12-item short-form survey (SF-12 scores. Secondary analysis used an outcome of functional status (using the DASI and walkability scores.Results: Fifty-three individuals completed the surveys (48% return rate. The average age in the overall cohort was 77.02 years. Eighty-nine percent of individuals could walk at least a block and 15.1% rode their bicycles. The Walk Scores® did not differ between those who walked (38.9 ± 27.4 and those that did not (40.0 ± 36.08; P = 0.93. In a similar fashion, the Walk Scores® were not different for those who biked (36.38 ± 27.68 and those that did not (39.44 ± 28.49; P = 0.78. There was no relationship between Walk Scores® and DASI; however, a decreased DASI score was associated with increased age and comorbid illness (Charlson Score.Conclusion: In this small pilot survey, there was no difference in Walk Scores® between those older adults who walked or biked, compared to those that did not. The Walk Scores® were low in both groups, which may indicate the lack of accessibility for all older adults living in Rochester, Minnesota. The functional status seemed to be more related to age or comorbid conditions than the built environment

  18. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. A survey on long-term energy technology strategy (a survey related to arrangement of information groups and aiding means for establishing policies related to research and development of energy and environment technologies); 1998 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa. Energy kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu ni kakawaru seisaku kettei no tame no johogun no seibi narabi ni shien shuho ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper discusses aiding means for establishing the research and development strategy for maximizing greenhouse effect gas reduction for a short period (year 2010) and an ultra long period (year 2030 and on). First, the situation surrounding the existing energy and environment technologies and technological assignments (themes) were put into order. Rough calculations were made on the selected themes as to their effect of greenhouse effect gas reduction. Based on the result of these reduction amount calculations, provisionary introduction scenarios including analyses by groups and users were prepared according to each theme. On the other hand, data groups related to the energy and environment technologies were investigated and put into order. The data groups include literatures and achievements of the past researches, and are expected of utilization for estimating the introduction potential to calculate effects of future research and development. In addition, discussions were given on methods to analyze cost-effect relationship in the energy and environment technologies. Importance was placed on the case surveys inside and outside the country, and simple models suitable for themes in the New Sunshine Project were built for an attempt of case studies. (NEDO)

  19. Practice and Perceived Importance of Advance Care Planning and Difficulties in Providing Palliative Care in Geriatric Health Service Facilities in Japan: A Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoya, Shoji; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Maeno, Takami

    2018-03-01

    The provision of end-of-life (EOL) care by geriatric health service facilities (GHSFs) in Japan is increasing. Advance care planning (ACP) is one of the most important issues to provide quality EOL care. This study aimed to clarify the practice and perceived importance of ACP and the difficulties in providing palliative care in GHSFs. A self-report questionnaire was mailed to head nurses at 3437 GHSFs nationwide. We asked participants about their practices regarding ACP, their recognition of its importance, and their difficulties in providing palliative care. We also analyzed the relationship between these factors and EOL care education. Among 844 respondents (24.5% response rate), approximately 69% to 81% of head nurses confirmed that GHSF residents and their families understood disease conditions and goals of care. There was a large discrepancy between the actual practice of ACP components and the recognition of their importance (eg, asking residents about existing advance directive [AD; 27.5% practiced it, while 79.6% considered it important]; recommending completion of an AD [18.1% vs 68.4%], and asking for designation of a health-care proxy [30.4% vs 76.8%]). The EOL care education was provided at 517 facilities (61.3%). Head nurses working at EOL care education-providing GHSFs practiced ACP significantly more frequently and had significantly fewer difficulties in providing palliative care. A large discrepancy was found between GHSF nurses' practice of ACP and their recognition of its importance. Providing EOL care education in GHSFs may increase ACP practices and enhance respect for resident's preferences concerning EOL care.

  20. The importance of both workplace and private life factors in psychological distress: a large cross-sectional survey of French railway company employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Mallet, Luc; Flahault, Antoine; Cothereau, Catherine; Velazquez, Sébastien; Capron, Loïc; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2013-08-01

    The psychological well-being of employees is a priority in occupational health. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress among employees of a large French company, to calculate the associations between distress and stressors in the workplace and private life domains, and to explore confounding across stressor domains. 8,058 employees of the French national railways company completed a nation-wide survey in 2006 (94.3 % participation). Psychological distress was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and 21 potential stressors and socio-demographic factors by a self-administered questionnaire. Stressors were summarized in scores for work pressure, workplace conflict, and personal life domains. Risk ratios (RRs) between psychological distress and stressors were calculated using robust-variance Poisson regression. The prevalence of psychological distress was 32.8 % (95 % CI 31.8-33.9 %), higher among women (48.9 %, 95 % CI 46.5-51.7 %) than men (30.1 %, 95 % CI 29.0-31.2 %). Each stressor domain was associated with distress in the final model containing likely confounders and all three domains (RR highest vs. lowest level-work pressure: men 1.55, 95 % CI 1.42-1.70, women 1.42, 95 % CI 1.23-1.63; work conflict: men 2.63, 95 % CI 2.38-2.91, women 1.98, 95 % CI 1.70-2.30; life concerns: men 2.04, 95 % CI 1.86-2.23, women 1.53, 95 % CI 1.32-1.78). The mutually adjusted RRs for the stressor domains were smaller than the unadjusted RRs. Almost one-third of all employees and one-half of female employees experienced psychological distress. All three stressor domains were associated with psychological distress and adjustment reduced the association size, suggesting possible over-estimation if one or more domains are omitted from the survey.

  1. Why is seed production so variable among individuals? A ten-year study with oaks reveals the importance of soil environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Aponte, Cristina; García, Luis V; Padilla-Díaz, Carmen M; Marañón, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Mast-seeding species exhibit not only a large inter-annual variability in seed production but also considerable variability among individuals within the same year. However, very little is known about the causes and consequences for population dynamics of this potentially large between-individual variability. Here, we quantified seed production over ten consecutive years in two Mediterranean oak species - the deciduous Quercus canariensis and the evergreen Q. suber - that coexist in forests of southern Spain. First, we calibrated likelihood models to identify which abiotic and biotic variables best explain the magnitude (hereafter seed productivity) and temporal variation of seed production at the individual level (hereafter CVi), and infer whether reproductive effort results from the available soil resources for the plant or is primarily determined by selectively favoured strategies. Second, we explored the contribution of between-individual variability in seed production as a potential mechanism of satiation for predispersal seed predators. We found that Q. canariensis trees inhabiting moister and more fertile soils were more productive than those growing in more resource-limited sites. Regarding temporal variation, individuals of the two studied oak species inhabiting these resource-rich environments also exhibited larger values of CVi. Interestingly, we detected a satiating effect on granivorous insects at the tree level in Q. suber, which was evident in those years where between-individual variability in acorn production was higher. These findings suggest that individual seed production (both in terms of seed productivity and inter-annual variability) is strongly dependent on soil resource heterogeneity (at least for one of the two studied oak species) with potential repercussions for recruitment and population dynamics. However, other external factors (such as soil heterogeneity in pathogen abundance) or certain inherent characteristics of the tree might be

  2. The importance of social media for patients and families affected by congenital anomalies: A Facebook cross-sectional analysis and user survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Robyn; Boyd, Leanne; Brennan, Kirsty; Sinha, C K; Giuliani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to define characteristics and needs of Facebook users in relation to congenital anomalies. Cross-sectional analysis of Facebook related to four congenital anomalies: anorectal malformation (ARM), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), congenital heart disease (CHD) and hypospadias/epispadias (HS/ES). A keyword search was performed to identify relevant Groups/Pages. An anonymous survey was posted to obtain quantitative/qualitative data on users and their healthcare needs. 54 Groups and 24 Pages were identified (ARM: 10 Groups; CDH: 9 Groups, 7 Pages; CHD: 32 Groups, 17 Pages; HS/ES: 3 Groups), with 16,191 Group members and 48,766 Page likes. 868/1103 (79%) of respondents were parents. Male:female ratio was 1:10.9. 65% of the users were 26-40years old. Common reasons for joining these Groups/Pages included: seeking support, education, making friends, and providing support to others. 932/1103 (84%) would like healthcare professionals (HCPs) to actively participate in their Group. 31% of the respondents felt that they did not receive enough support from their healthcare system. 97% of the respondents would like to join a Group linked to their primary hospital. Facebook Groups/Pages related to congenital anomalies are highly populated and active. There is a need for HCPs and policy makers to better understand and participate in social media to support families and improve patient care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental health status and work environment among workers in small- and medium-sized enterprises in Guangdong, China-a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi; Guo, Yan; Lu, Liming; Han, Lu; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2014-11-12

    Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) generate nearly 80% of the jobs in China, but the dangerous work environment often found in these enterprises poses a major concern for public health. Psychosocial pressure and mental health problems among the workers are also common in SMEs. However, mental health of workers in SMEs is largely neglected in occupational health research and practice in China. The purpose of this study is to assess mental health of the workers and to explore the associations between physical and psychosocial work environment and workers' mental health in SMEs in South China. Data were collected in 2012 through a cross-sectional survey among 1200 workers working in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Guangdong, China. Mental health was measured by psychological well-being in the current study. Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model was used as a theoretical framework to examine the psychosocial factors associated with workers' psychological well-being. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and analysis was performed using bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. About three in ten workers (35.3%) in the sample had poor psychological well-being. Those who were men, younger in age, or migrant workers had worse psychological outcome in bivariate analyses. After controlling for individual variables (gender, age, marital status, and household registration), we found that longer weekly work hours (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13 ~ 1.50), more exposure to hazardous work environment (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10 ~ 1.44), higher job demands (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.12 ~ 1.49), and lower job autonomy (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.60 ~ 0.81) were significant associated with worse psychological well-being. The results were consistent with predictions of the JDCS model. The results indicate that the JDCS model is a useful framework in predicting psychological well-being among Chinese workers in SMEs. Future mental health promotion should focus on young

  4. Integration of three important urban spaces in the city of Patras. A design research on the relationship of characteristics of space and the enriched environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Kondyli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents a design project that focuses on three important urban spaces in the city of Patras. The contribution deals with some of the fundamental problems which depict in these particular areas. Two of the most essential issues of these abandoned and isolated places are the accessibility of pedestrians and the lack of identity. A design experiment is developed, identifying disadvantages of the space and taking into consideration groups of people that are interested in an upcoming change, This experiment is based on knowledge of neuroscience about space and it deals with human’s experience and senses. It focuses on open urban spaces and the consolidation of a cultural and historical place into daily life.

  5. Understanding the impact of the Smoke-Free Ontario Act on hospitality establishments' outdoor environments: a survey of restaurants and bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Mutti, Seema; Dubray, Jolene; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-04-01

    The Smoke-Free Ontario Act (SFOA) came into effect in May 2006 and included restrictions to outdoor hospitality areas by only permitting smoking on a patio if the area had no roof. (1) To assess the impact of the SFOA on the prevalence of smoke-free patios in Ontario and (2) to determine the proportion of venues where structural alterations were made rather than going smoke-free in order to achieve compliance with the SFOA. A telephone survey of 403 hospitality sector operators/owners in four clustered samples of Ontario, Canada. Based on completed surveys, the SFOA resulted in an increase in prevalence of smoke-free patios, from 5% (n=21) to 25% (n=99). Of the patios where smoking was permitted before the SFOA (n=382), 42% (n=161) had physical structures that would make smoking not permissible under the new act. Operators of half of these venues (n=80) made their patios smoke-free, with most indicating they had no choice given the costs or physical limitations to changing their outdoor environment. The other half (n=81) reported making physical changes, including removing roof structures to achieve compliance. The SFOA resulted in greater protection from outdoor secondhand smoke; however, most patios still permitted smoking. Half of the venues that complied with the SFOA by going smoke-free did so involuntarily because of structural and/or financial limitations. The majority of venue operators preferred to permit smoking on their patios, and only made their patios smoke-free when they were required to do so by law.

  6. Toward a panoramic perspective of the association between environmental factors and cardiovascular disease: An environment-wide association study from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaodong; Guo, Yue; Ni, Ao; Yang, Daya; Liao, Lizhen; Zhang, Shaozhao; Zhou, Huimin; Sun, Xiuting; Wang, Lichun; Wang, Xueqin; Liao, Xinxue

    2018-06-04

    An environment-wide association study (EWAS) may be useful to comprehensively test and validate associations between environmental factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an unbiased manner. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2014) were randomly 50:50 spilt into training set and testing set. CVD was ascertained by a self-reported diagnosis of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease or stroke. We performed multiple linear regression analyses associating 203 environmental factors and 132 clinical phenotypes with CVD in training set (false discovery rate multicollinearity elimination and variable importance ranking. Discriminative power of factors for CVD was calculated by area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC). Overall, 43,568 participants with 4084 (9.4%) CVD were included. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, blood pressure and socio-economic level, we identified 5 environmental variables and 19 clinical phenotypes associated with CVD in training and testing dataset. Top five factors in RF importance ranking were: waist, glucose, uric acid, and red cell distribution width and glycated hemoglobin. AUROC of the RF model was 0.816 (top 5 factors) and 0.819 (full model). Sensitivity analyses reveal no specific moderators of the associations. Our systematic evaluation provides new knowledge on the complex array of environmental correlates of CVD. These identified correlates may serve as a complementary approach to CVD risk assessment. Our findings need to be probed in further observational and interventional studies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Amy K; Salem, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Survey research is a unique methodology that can provide insight into individuals' perspectives and experiences and can be collected on a large population-based sample. Specifically, in plastic surgery, survey research can provide patients and providers with accurate and reproducible information to assist with medical decision-making. When using survey methods in research, researchers should develop a conceptual model that explains the relationships of the independent and dependent variables. The items of the survey are of primary importance. Collected data are only useful if they accurately measure the concepts of interest. In addition, administration of the survey must follow basic principles to ensure an adequate response rate and representation of the intended target sample. In this article, the authors review some general concepts important for successful survey research and discuss the many advantages this methodology has for obtaining limitless amounts of valuable information.

  8. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 10- survey of adult behaviour of Culex nigripalpus and other species of Culex (Culex in South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of adult behaviour of Culex (Culex species was carried out from August 1992 through December 1993 in a human modified (anthropic environment in the Ribeira Valley, S.Paulo State, Brazil. Culex nigripalpus dominated the catches at several sites and it's tendency to increase in the anthropic environment became quite clear. Nevertheless no high level of synanthropy was demonstrated. So it seems that the mosquito may have a restricted role in natural arbovirus cycles. Nonetheless, Cx. nigripalpus must be considered a potential vector of arboviruses, especially St. Louis encephalitis virus outside dwellings.São relatados os resultados obtidos mediante coletas regulares de adultos de Culex (Culex em ambientes antrópico do Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil, no período de agosto de 1992 a dezembro de 1993. Pôde-se evidenciar a dominancia de Culex nigripalpus nas várias coletas efetuadas. Revelou-se claramente a preferência por parte desse mosquito em aumentar sua densidade no ambiente antrópico. Todavia, sua freqüência ao domicílio mostrou-se baixa, revelando fraco grau de sinantropia. Assim sendo, seu papel vetor de arbovirus parece restringir-se à participação no ciclo natural desses agentes infecciosos. Contudo, pode-se considerá-lo como vetor potencial no meio extradomiciliar. Nesse particular, seu papel pode não ser negligenciável, especialmente no que tange à possibilidade de transmissão de encefalite de S.Luís, cujo agente já foi assinalado na região.

  9. FY 1999 survey report on the global environment international cooperation promotion project/global environment international information network project. Survey of the environmental technology transfer information network; 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo kokusai kyoryoku suishin jigyo / chikyu kankyo kokusai joho network jigyo. Kankyo gijutsu inten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    At International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer, the following were conducted for enrichment of the environmental technology information: surveys of the state of activities in international organizations and developed countries, cleaner production (CP), ISO, etc. and construction of database. As to the reinforcement of environmental preservation technology information database, enrichment of the data on environmental preservation was attempted mainly about ways of thinking of environmental preservation which brought fruitful results to international organizations overseas. The hierarchization/supplementation were conducted of CP databases which attract much attention especially among developing countries. In the survey of models for environmental preservation, autonomous bodies in Mie prefecture and the certified consultant were taken up to study the process up to the acquisition of ISO14001. The database was so made that it can be a guide for the environmental management in autonomous bodies in developing countries. In the CP survey, as to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), definition/thought were examined in terms of CP, eco-efficiency, pollution prevention, green productivity, etc. (NEDO)

  10. Importance of taste, nutrition, cost and convenience in relation to diet quality: Evidence of nutrition resilience among US adults using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Rehm, Colin D; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Concerns with taste, nutrition, cost, and convenience are said to be key influences on food choices. This study examined the importance of food-related attitudes in relation to diet quality using US national level data. Interactions by socioeconomic status (SES), gender and race/ethnicity were tested. Analyses of 8957 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2010) were conducted in 2014-15. Perceived importance of taste, nutrition, cost, and convenience in dietary choices were assessed using 4-point Likert scales. Education and family income-to-poverty ratio (FIPR) were SES indicators. Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010), a measure of adherence to 2010 dietary guidelines, was the diet quality measure. Survey-weighted regressions examined associations between attitudes and HEI, and tested for interactions. Taste was rated as "very important" by 77.0% of the US adults, followed by nutrition (59.9%), cost (39.9%), and convenience (29.8%). However, it was the perceived importance of nutrition that most strongly predicted HEI (β: +8.0 HEI scores among "very important" vs. "not at all important"). By contrast, greater importance for taste and convenience had a weak inverse relation with HEI (β: -5.1 and -1.5 respectively), adjusting for SES. Significant interactions were observed by race/ethnicity, but not SES and gender. Those who prioritized nutrition during food shopping had higher-quality diets regardless of gender, education and income in the US. Certain racial/ethnic groups managed to eat healthy despite attaching importance to cost and convenience. This is the first evidence of nutrition resilience among US adults using national data, which has huge implications for nutrition interventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. survey of mycotoxin contamination and chemical composition of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) imported from the USA into Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudabos, Alaeldein M; Al-Atiyat, Raed M; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2017-06-01

    Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a source of nutritional feedstuff for poultry farmers and industry. The DDGS is a by-product of ethanol industry and an economical feed source of energy, amino acids, crude fiber, minerals, and vitamins. The use of DDGS as a feed ingredient is a novel idea and little information is available on its dietary composition. Many factors such as the type of plants, locality, year of production, and the conditions during distillation process affect the chemical composition of DDGS. In this paper, the chemical composition and the presence of mycotoxin in DDGS imported from the USA into Saudi Arabia as a feedstuff for poultry have been documented.

  12. The Importance of Health Surveys in Workplaces, with Emphasis on the Field of Public Health, in the Target Group of Employees Who Work in Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vámosiné-Rovó Gyöngyvér

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world the economic uncertainty, the huge overload of work, the expectations related to the work performance – which are not said –, the monotone work and the risk of violence contribute to the increase of psychosocial risks, which can lead to serious consequences in a company. If we succeed in preventing the negative impact of stress originating from the workplace, then the employer can keep the productivity of the company and besides that, the company gets rid of large expenses. The occupational health and safety is an important component of the social responsibility taking. One of the most efficient tools of prevention is the psychosocial risk assessment and the changes based on this in the company’s operation and regulation.

  13. Positive attitudes and preserved high level of motor performance are important factors for return to work in younger persons after stroke: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Britta; Röding, Jenny; Sundelin, Gunnevi

    2009-09-01

    Significant numbers of younger persons with stroke should be given the opportunity to return to work. The aim of this study was to investigate factors of importance for return to work among persons after first ever stroke, in the age range 18-55 years. A questionnaire was sent to all persons who had experienced a first ever stroke, 18-55 years of age, registered in the Swedish national quality register for stroke care, Riks-Stroke. Of the 1068 who answered the questionnaire, 855 (539 men and 316 women) were in paid employment before their stroke, and were included in this study. Sixty-five percent returned to work and, of these, an equal proportion were men and women. Significant factors associated with return to work were the perceived importance of work (odds ratio (OR) 5.10), not perceiving themselves as a burden on others (OR 3.33), support from others for return to work (OR 3.66), retaining the ability to run a short distance (OR 2.77), and higher socioeconomic codes (OR 2.12). A negative association was found between those rehabilitated in wards intended for younger persons and return to work (OR 0.37). External support from others, and positive attitudes towards return to work, were factors associated with successful return to work after stroke. Contrary to what was expected, independence in personal activities of daily living and cognitive factors were not associated with return to work to the same extent as persistent higher level of physical functions, such as ability to run a short distance.

  14. Survey on problems in developing technologies for the global environment issues (Version II); Chikyu kankyo mondai gijutsu kaihatsu kadai chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes a survey on problems in developing technologies for the global environment issues. Technological development of means to reduce generation of environmental issues and substitutive means for non-generation thereof is being moved forward specifically in the Sunshine Project and the Moonlight Project. The Chemical Technology Research Institute assumes that it has a responsibility to positively contribute to developing a technological system that matches the substance circulation mechanism of the earth from the fields of chemistry. Therefore, the Institute has organized working groups that have been identifying problems from their expertise standpoints and have been extracting study assignments. Subsequent to the Version I, the Version II has been compiled. The Version II takes up the simulation of global warming mechanisms, behavior of gases dissolved in oceans, and possibility of fixing CO2 in oceans. With respect to fluorocarbons, the Version II describes development of substitutive substances, their stability, combustion method as a destruction technique, and destruction by means of super criticality. Regarding CO2, the version introduces technologies to re-use CO2 as a resource by means of membrane separation, storage, and contact hydrogenation. The volume also dwells on CO2 reduction by using photo-chemical and electrochemical reactions, CO2 reduction and photo-synthesis by using semiconductors as photo catalysts and electrodes. (NEDO)

  15. Leading survey and research report for fiscal 1999. Survey and research on ozone-aided technology for creating comfortable environment; 1999 nendo ozone riyo kaiteki kankyo sozo gijutsu no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Efforts are made to grasp the parts remaining technically unsolved of the ozone-aided technology for creating a comfortable environment, such as ozone-aided enhancement of the decomposition of nondegradable organic matters in the urban sewage and industrial wastewater. Efforts are also made to put in order and analyze data about the said technology, to isolate the current problems and the objects of technical deliberation for the future, and to examine the feasibility of the introduction of this technology. Case studies were conducted for a novel ozone-aided system and the effect is examined of the introduction of ozone-aided treatment into crowded towns, water supply systems, sewerage, and industries that handle paper and pulp, chemicals, electric power, and foods. Findings are mentioned below. The ozone utilizing technology when introduced improves the efficiency of water circulation, reduces pollutants at an excellent rate, suppresses the generation of carbon dioxide, and enhances safety of water resources and water environments. To realize such good results, however, it is important for the ozone to be high in concentration, for the accelerated oxidation and enhanced biofunction processes to be further studied, and for the system to be optimized. It is also found that a technology of appropriate ozone storage will help enhance cost reduction. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Part 2. Study on soil environment remediation system using ecological information and functions; 1994 nendo seitaikei joho to seitaikei kino ni yoru dojo kankyo fukugen system no chosa hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    A survey is conducted of the feasibility of soil environment remediation through detecting contamination of soil and changes in ecosystems caused by industrial activities, with attention paid to biological antagonists. In this fiscal year, based on the results of surveys conducted in the past, studies are continued mainly on hypersensitive biosensing technology using ecosystem functions, remote sensing technology to monitor the terrestrial vegetation and soil environment over wide areas, and soil environment remediation technology using biological antagonists and vegetation. In consideration of Europe's long experience in this field, seven organizations known for their accomplishments are visited, where interviews are held. There is a close relationship between soil environments and ecosystems, and ecosystems are provided not only with information on changes in soil environments but also with functions to remedy soil environments by minimizing secondary contamination. To put such information and functions to practical use, element technologies are indispensable, including hypersensitive soil environment biosensors and environmental remediation by identification and isolation of biological information carrying substances and by vegetation. Proposed in this report is a project for soil remediation by use of biological information and functions and for elucidation of biological antagonists. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Part 2. Study on soil environment remediation system using ecological information and functions; 1994 nendo seitaikei joho to seitaikei kino ni yoru dojo kankyo fukugen system no chosa hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    A survey is conducted of the feasibility of soil environment remediation through detecting contamination of soil and changes in ecosystems caused by industrial activities, with attention paid to biological antagonists. In this fiscal year, based on the results of surveys conducted in the past, studies are continued mainly on hypersensitive biosensing technology using ecosystem functions, remote sensing technology to monitor the terrestrial vegetation and soil environment over wide areas, and soil environment remediation technology using biological antagonists and vegetation. In consideration of Europe's long experience in this field, seven organizations known for their accomplishments are visited, where interviews are held. There is a close relationship between soil environments and ecosystems, and ecosystems are provided not only with information on changes in soil environments but also with functions to remedy soil environments by minimizing secondary contamination. To put such information and functions to practical use, element technologies are indispensable, including hypersensitive soil environment biosensors and environmental remediation by identification and isolation of biological information carrying substances and by vegetation. Proposed in this report is a project for soil remediation by use of biological information and functions and for elucidation of biological antagonists. (NEDO)

  18. THE HALO MASSES AND GALAXY ENVIRONMENTS OF HYPERLUMINOUS QSOs AT z ≅ 2.7 IN THE KECK BARYONIC STRUCTURE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainor, Ryan F.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the galaxy distribution surrounding 15 of the most luminous (∼> 10 14 L ☉ ; M 1450 ≅ –30) QSOs in the sky with z ≅ 2.7. Our data are drawn from the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey, which has been optimized to examine the small-scale interplay between galaxies and the intergalactic medium during the peak of the galaxy formation era at z ∼ 2-3. In this work, we use the positions and spectroscopic redshifts of 1558 galaxies that lie within ∼3' (4.2 h –1 comoving Mpc; cMpc) of the hyperluminous QSO (HLQSO) sight line in 1 of 15 independent survey fields, together with new measurements of the HLQSO systemic redshifts. By combining the spatial and redshift distributions, we measure the galaxy-HLQSO cross-correlation function, the galaxy-galaxy autocorrelation function, and the characteristic scale of galaxy overdensities surrounding the sites of exceedingly rare, extremely rapid, black hole accretion. On average, the HLQSOs lie within significant galaxy overdensities, characterized by a velocity dispersion σ v ≅ 200 km s –1 and a transverse angular scale of ∼25'' (∼200 physical kpc). We argue that such scales are expected for small groups with log (M h /M ☉ ) ≅ 13. The galaxy-HLQSO cross-correlation function has a best-fit correlation length r GQ 0 = (7.3 ± 1.3) h –1 cMpc, while the galaxy autocorrelation measured from the spectroscopic galaxy sample in the same fields has r GG 0 = (6.0 ± 0.5) h –1 cMpc. Based on a comparison with simulations evaluated at z ∼ 2.6, these values imply that a typical galaxy lives in a host halo with log (M h /M ☉ ) = 11.9 ± 0.1, while HLQSOs inhabit host halos of log (M h /M ☉ ) = 12.3 ± 0.5. In spite of the extremely large black hole masses implied by their observed luminosities [log (M BH /M ☉ ) ∼> 9.7], it appears that HLQSOs do not require environments very different from their much less luminous QSO counterparts. Evidently, the exceedingly low space density of

  19. Patient safety in surgical environments: Cross-countries comparison of psychometric properties and results of the Norwegian version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nortvedt Monica W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How hospital health care personnel perceive safety climate has been assessed in several countries by using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety (HSOPS. Few studies have examined safety climate factors in surgical departments per se. This study examined the psychometric properties of a Norwegian translation of the HSOPS and also compared safety climate factors from a surgical setting to hospitals in the United States, the Netherlands and Norway. Methods This survey included 575 surgical personnel in Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen, an 1100-bed tertiary hospital in western Norway: surgeons, operating theatre nurses, anaesthesiologists, nurse anaesthetists and ancillary personnel. Of these, 358 returned the HSOPS, resulting in a 62% response rate. We used factor analysis to examine the applicability of the HSOPS factor structure in operating theatre settings. We also performed psychometric analysis for internal consistency and construct validity. In addition, we compared the percent of average positive responds of the patient safety climate factors with results of the US HSOPS 2010 comparative data base report. Results The professions differed in their perception of patient safety climate, with anaesthesia personnel having the highest mean scores. Factor analysis using the original 12-factor model of the HSOPS resulted in low reliability scores (r = 0.6 for two factors: "adequate staffing" and "organizational learning and continuous improvement". For the remaining factors, reliability was ≥ 0.7. Reliability scores improved to r = 0.8 by combining the factors "organizational learning and continuous improvement" and "feedback and communication about error" into one six-item factor, supporting an 11-factor model. The inter-item correlations were found satisfactory. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the questionnaire need further investigations to be regarded as reliable in surgical environments. The operating

  20. Toxic Imports and the African Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    20 million toys have been recalled in the United States, where consumer advocacy ... and the buying power of the U.S., the rest of the world should hope for stricter regulations that ... High-Risk Behaviors and Hospitalizations Am ong G am m a.

  1. The association of household food security, household characteristics and school environment with obesity status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis children and youth in Canada: results from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Cooke, Martin J; Guo, Yanling; Wilk, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Indigenous children are twice as likely to be classified as obese and three times as likely to experience household food insecurity when compared with non- Indigenous Canadian children. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between food insecurity and weight status among Métis and off-reserve First Nations children and youth across Canada. We obtained data on children and youth aged 6 to 17 years (n = 6900) from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. We tested bivariate relationships using Pearson chi-square tests and used nested binary logistic regressions to examine the food insecurity-weight status relationship, after controlling for geography, household and school characteristics and cultural factors. Approximately 22% of Métis and First Nations children and youth were overweight, and 15% were classified as obese. Over 80% of the sample was reported as food secure, 9% experienced low food security and 7% were severely food insecure. Off-reserve Indigenous children and youth from households with very low food security were at higher risk of overweight or obese status; however, this excess risk was not independent of household socioeconomic status, and was reduced by controlling for household income, adjusted for household size. Negative school environment was also a significant predictor of obesity risk, independent of demographic, household and geographic factors. Both food insecurity and obesity were prevalent among the Indigenous groups studied, and our results suggest that a large proportion of children and youth who are food insecure are also overweight or obese. This study reinforces the importance of including social determinants of health, such as income, school environment and geography, in programs or policies targeting child obesity.

  2. Effects of individual characteristics and school environment on cigarette smoking among students ages 13-15: A multilevel analysis of the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Hai, Phan Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Quynh; Khanh, Pham Huyen; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Kinh, Ly Ngoc

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among students in Vietnam ages 13-15 and examines its relationship with compositional and contextual factors. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in nine provinces in Vietnam. A multilevel logistic regression model was applied to analyse the association between the current incidence of cigarette smoking and factors on both the individual and school level. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among students was 3.3% overall. The prevalence of smoking among male students (5.9%) was higher than that among females (1.2%). Parental smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking among the students. Having a friend who smoked was the strongest predictor of smoking status among the study subjects. We have demonstrated that school-level factors appeared to impact the prevalence of cigarette smoking among students ages 13-15. This paper highlights the importance of utilising an extensive range of actions to prevent students from using tobacco in Vietnam. These actions should include providing specific curricula for students that address both individual characteristics and the school environment. Further, prevention programmes should also target both parental- and peer-smoking issues.

  3. Survey on the present situation and future outlook of energy/environment issues mainly on coal in the APEC region; APEC ikinai no sekitan wo chushin to suru energy kankyo mondai no genjo oyobi kongo no mitoshi ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    For the purpose of studying the energy supply/demand trend and the environmental problem relating mainly to coal in the APEC region, the paper surveyed the situation from the past to the present and outlooked the beginning of the 21st century. GDP in the whole APEC region increased at an annual rate of 3.4% from 1971 to 1991 and made a rapid growth of an annual rate over 7% especially in the non-OECD region. The supply/demand balance of coal, etc. in the non-OECD region is expected to be tight, and the energy price also to be higher. This will be a major factor causing hindrance to the economic growth of resource-importing countries. It is necessary to prepare the energy infrastructure. With the increasing coal utilization, it is feared that pollutants such as SOx, NOx and CO2 will increase, and it is necessary to introduce energy utilization technology/facilities which are high-efficient and environment-friendly and to expedite introduction of non-fossil energy. The APEC region, where the worldwide growth is expected, is a priming for the world development, and a policy which is well balanced in economic growth, stabilized energy supply, and environmental protection is needed for the region to achieve its sustainable growth. 50 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. THE SPITZER SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (S{sup 4}MC): PROBING THE PHYSICAL STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A LOW-METALLICITY ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Karin M. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Universite de Strasbourg, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Draine, B. T. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ingalls, James G. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Israel, Frank P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Jackson, James M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Li, Aigen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65213 (United States); Rubio, Monica [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Smith, J. D. T. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43603 (United States); Stanimirovic, Snezana [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI 53703 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: sandstrom@mpia.de [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    We present results of mid-infrared spectroscopic mapping observations of six star-forming regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) from the Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (S{sup 4}MC). We detect the mid-IR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in all of the mapped regions, greatly increasing the range of environments where PAHs have been spectroscopically detected in the SMC. We investigate the variations of the mid-IR bands in each region and compare our results to studies of the PAH bands in the SINGS sample and in a sample of low-metallicity starburst galaxies. PAH emission in the SMC is characterized by low ratios of the 6-9 {mu}m features relative to the 11.3 {mu}m feature and weak 8.6 and 17.0 {mu}m features. Interpreting these band ratios in the light of laboratory and theoretical studies, we find that PAHs in the SMC tend to be smaller and less ionized than those in higher metallicity galaxies. Based on studies of PAH destruction, we argue that a size distribution shifted toward smaller PAHs cannot be the result of processing in the interstellar medium, but instead reflects differences in the formation of PAHs at low metallicity. Finally, we discuss the implications of our observations for our understanding of the PAH life-cycle in low-metallicity galaxies-namely that the observed deficit of PAHs may be a consequence of PAHs forming with smaller average sizes and therefore being more susceptible to destruction under typical interstellar medium conditions.

  5. THE SPITZER SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (S4MC): PROBING THE PHYSICAL STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A LOW-METALLICITY ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, Karin M.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bot, Caroline; Draine, B. T.; Ingalls, James G.; Israel, Frank P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Jackson, James M.; Leroy, Adam K.; Li, Aigen; Rubio, Mónica; Simon, Joshua D.; Smith, J. D. T.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of mid-infrared spectroscopic mapping observations of six star-forming regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) from the Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (S 4 MC). We detect the mid-IR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in all of the mapped regions, greatly increasing the range of environments where PAHs have been spectroscopically detected in the SMC. We investigate the variations of the mid-IR bands in each region and compare our results to studies of the PAH bands in the SINGS sample and in a sample of low-metallicity starburst galaxies. PAH emission in the SMC is characterized by low ratios of the 6-9 μm features relative to the 11.3 μm feature and weak 8.6 and 17.0 μm features. Interpreting these band ratios in the light of laboratory and theoretical studies, we find that PAHs in the SMC tend to be smaller and less ionized than those in higher metallicity galaxies. Based on studies of PAH destruction, we argue that a size distribution shifted toward smaller PAHs cannot be the result of processing in the interstellar medium, but instead reflects differences in the formation of PAHs at low metallicity. Finally, we discuss the implications of our observations for our understanding of the PAH life-cycle in low-metallicity galaxies—namely that the observed deficit of PAHs may be a consequence of PAHs forming with smaller average sizes and therefore being more susceptible to destruction under typical interstellar medium conditions.

  6. Fiscal 1993 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Survey of the general situation of Thai coal; 1993 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Thai sekitan sogo jijo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The paper reported the energy situation in Thailand, the present and future status of coal supply/demand, the present situation of environmental policy and air pollution prevention policy and problems concerning coal and the measures for solution, and a possibility of Japan`s cooperation. In Thailand, the total coal supply amount in 1992 is 16.079 million tons, which is 9.1% of all the primary energy supply amount. The country produces only a few amount of anthracite and subbituminous coal beside brown coal. The domestic coal equals brown coal, the production of which was 15.335 million tons in 1992, 13.9% of all the primary energy demand. Concerning brown coal, 79.7% of all the brown coal supply are for electric power use, and others for industrial use such as the cement industry. The remaining reserve in developed areas is 151.4 billion tons, and the proven reserve in undeveloped areas 756 million tons. The demand for import coal was 11.25 million tons in 1996, and is expected to be 201.73 million tons in 2000. The paper pointed out some problems arising from coal production and spread of coal utilization, and described measures to solve the problems and fields where there are possibilities of Japan`s cooperation. 36 refs., 44 figs., 73 tabs.

  7. Investigating the importance of the local food environment for fruit and vegetable intake in older men and women in 20 UK towns: a cross-sectional analysis of two national cohorts using novel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkesworth, S; Silverwood, R J; Armstrong, B; Pliakas, T; Nanchahal, K; Sartini, C; Amuzu, A; Wannamethee, G; Atkins, J; Ramsay, S E; Casas, J P; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Lock, Karen

    2017-09-18

    , this study suggests that older people are less influenced by physical characteristics of neighbourhood food environments than is suggested in the literature. The association between area income deprivation and diet may be capturing an important social aspect of neighbourhoods that influence food intake in older adults and warrants further research.

  8. Nurse Corps Training Importance Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    judgment or application of theory. Thorough Knowledge Level NEWBORN 64. Take APGAR readings X 65. Interpret APGAR scores X 66. Administer oxygen to...OCONUS) enough money" is all too popular. Staff Nurse The majority of training is OJT. I would recommend a Navy-wide (OCONUS) manual with a certification

  9. Fiscal 1997 feasibility survey of an environment friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environment friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam (case of Vietnam); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Vietnam ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the state of coal utilization by coal consumption field, the state of coal physical flow in Vietnam, etc., surveyed/studied a possibility of introducing the environment friendly type coal utilization system, and assessed the possibility. As to energy resources, the north is abundant in hydroelectric and coal (mainly anthracite) resources, and the south in oil and natural gas resources. Coal production in fiscal 1997 is planned to be 10 million tons. Coal preparation technique presently available is only grain size sieving. Accordingly, it is necessary to study for heightening efficiency of facilities and modernizing facilities in accordance with the introduction of the environment friendly type coal utilization technology. During the study, it is possible to propose improvement on coal processing technology (coal preparation technology). Assessment and study are made especially of the coal selection system, fine coal recovery system and waste water treatment system. For the plan on new coal-fired power plants (300MWtimes4), there is left much necessity of proposing studying models considered of the anthracite combustion technology and environmental improvement and of assessing/studying them. 60 figs., 117 tabs.

  10. Which Obstacles Prevent Us from Recruiting into Clinical Trials: A Survey about the Environment for Clinical Studies at a German University Hospital in a Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Straube

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundProspective clinical studies are the most important tool in modern medicine. The standard in good clinical practice in clinical trials has constantly improved leading to more sophisticated protocols. Moreover, translational questions are increasingly addressed in clinical trials. Such trials must follow elaborate rules and regulations. This is accompanied by a significant increase in documentation issues which require substantial manpower. Furthermore, university-based clinical centers are interested in increasing the amount of patients treated within clinical trials, and this number has evolved to be a key quality criterion. The present study was initiated to elucidate the obstacles that limit clinical scientists in screening and recruiting for clinical trials.MethodsA specific questionnaire with 28 questions was developed focusing on all aspects of clinical trial design as well as trial management. This included questions on organizational issues, medical topics as well as potential patients’ preferences and physician’s goals. The questionnaire was established to collect data anonymously on a web-based platform. The survey was conducted within the Klinikum rechts der Isar, Faculty of Medicine, Technical University of Munich; physicians of all levels (Department Chairs, attending physicians, residents, as well as study nurses, and other study-related staff were addressed. The answers were analyzed using the Survio analyzing tool (http://www.survio.com/de/.ResultsWe collected 42 complete sets of answers; in total 28 physicians, 11 study nurses, and 3 persons with positions in administration answered our survey. The study centers reported to participate in a range of 3–160 clinical trials with a recruitment rate of 1–80%. Main obstacles were determined: 31/42 (74% complained about limited human resources and 22/42 (52% reported to have a lack on technical resources, too. 30/42 (71% consented to the answer, that the documentation

  11. IMPORTANT NOTIFICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments

  12. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  13. Fiscal 1992 survey report. Promotion of coal importing base buildup (How ocean freight system should be in the future); 1992 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Kongo no gaiko yuso taisei no arikata ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    When a general view is taken of coal chains that connect overseas coal suppliers to Japan's end users, it is found that no survey has ever been made to sufficiently explain marine transportation of coal. It is now expected that the gap between supply of and demand for shipping tonnage will widen thanks to a sharp increase supposed to emerge in the demand for overseas coal in the future and that a scarcity of tonnage will impede stable space securing for coal and economically viable coal transportation. Such being the case, this project aims to investigate the ocean freight systems to serve between overseas coal shipping ports and Japan's coal receiving bases and the current states and problems of cargo facilities in Japan, to study how to build up a shipping space securing system which will properly deal with an increase in the import of steam coal from abroad, and to contribute to the formation of measures for enabling smooth transportation of coal from overseas. The survey conducted for this purpose covers the present conditions of Japan's ocean freight systems and of its coal receiving bases, present conditions of transportation by oceangoing ships in the Pacific basin, compilation of a list of oceangoing ships, prediction of ocean freight transportation and supply of transportation service, prediction of ocean freight cost in the future, and putting in an easy-to-review order the tasks to be accomplished for the enhancement of coal transportation by oceangoing ships. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1992 survey report. Promotion of coal importing base buildup (How ocean freight system should be in the future); 1992 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Kongo no gaiko yuso taisei no arikata ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    When a general view is taken of coal chains that connect overseas coal suppliers to Japan's end users, it is found that no survey has ever been made to sufficiently explain marine transportation of coal. It is now expected that the gap between supply of and demand for shipping tonnage will widen thanks to a sharp increase supposed to emerge in the demand for overseas coal in the future and that a scarcity of tonnage will impede stable space securing for coal and economically viable coal transportation. Such being the case, this project aims to investigate the ocean freight systems to serve between overseas coal shipping ports and Japan's coal receiving bases and the current states and problems of cargo facilities in Japan, to study how to build up a shipping space securing system which will properly deal with an increase in the import of steam coal from abroad, and to contribute to the formation of measures for enabling smooth transportation of coal from overseas. The survey conducted for this purpose covers the present conditions of Japan's ocean freight systems and of its coal receiving bases, present conditions of transportation by oceangoing ships in the Pacific basin, compilation of a list of oceangoing ships, prediction of ocean freight transportation and supply of transportation service, prediction of ocean freight cost in the future, and putting in an easy-to-review order the tasks to be accomplished for the enhancement of coal transportation by oceangoing ships. (NEDO)

  15. Is it possible to estimate the minimal clinically important treatment effect needed to change practice in preterm birth prevention? Results of an obstetrician survey used to support the design of a trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Sue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sample sizes for obstetrical trials are often based on the opinion of investigators about clinically important effect size. We surveyed Canadian obstetricians to investigate clinically important effect sizes required before introducing new treatments into practice to prevent preterm birth. Methods Questionnaires were mailed to practicing obstetricians, asking the magnitude of pregnancy prolongation required to introduce treatments into practice. The three prophylactic treatments were of increasing invasiveness: vaginal progesterone, intramuscular progesterone, and cervical cerclage. We also asked about the perceived most relevant outcome measures for obstetrical trials and current obstetrical practice in preterm birth prevention. Results 544/1293(42.1% completed questionnaires were received. The majority of respondents required one or two weeks' increase in length of gestation before introducing vaginal (372,77.1%, and intramuscular progesterone(354,67.9%. At least three weeks increase was required before introducing prophylactic cervical cerclage(326,62.8%. Clinicians who already used a treatment required a smaller difference before introducing it into practice. Decreasing neonatal morbidity was cited as the most important outcome for obstetrical trials (349,72.2%. Conclusion Obstetricians would require a larger increase in treatment effect before introducing more invasive treatments into practice. Although infant morbidity was perceived as a more important outcome, clinicians appeared willing to change practice on the basis of prolongation of pregnancy, a surrogate outcome. We found that there is not a single minimum clinically important treatment effect that will influence all practising clinicians: rather the effect size that will influence physicians is affected by the nature of the treatment, the reported outcome measure and the clinician's own current clinical practice.

  16. When "no" might not quite mean "no"; the importance of informed and meaningful non-consent: results from a survey of individuals refusing participation in a health-related research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMurdo Marion ET

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low participation rates can lead to sampling bias, delays in completion and increased costs. Strategies to improve participation rates should address reasons for non-participation. However, most empirical research has focused on participants' motives rather than the reasons why non-participants refuse to take part. In this study we investigated the reasons why older people choose not to participate in a research project. Methods Follow-up study of people living in Tayside, Scotland who had opted-out of a cross-sectional survey on activities in retirement. Eight hundred and eighty seven people aged 65–84 years were invited to take part in a home-based cross-sectional survey. Of these, 471 refused to take part. Permission was obtained to follow-up 417 of the refusers. Demographic characteristics of people who refused to take part and the reasons they gave for not taking part were collected. Results 54% of those invited to take part in the original cross-sectional survey refused to do so. However, 61% of these individuals went on to participate in the follow-up study and provided reasons for their original refusal. For the vast majority of people initial non-participation did not reflect an objection to participating in research in principle but frequently stemmed from barriers or misunderstandings about the nature or process of the project itself. Only 28% indicated that they were "not interested in research". The meaningfulness of expressions of non-consent may therefore be called into question. Hierarchical log-linear modelling showed that refusal was independently influenced by age, gender and social class. However, this response pattern was different for the follow-up study in which reasons for non-participation in the first survey were sought. This difference in pattern and response rates supports the likely importance of recruitment issues that are research and context specific. Conclusion An expression of non

  17. When "no" might not quite mean "no"; the importance of informed and meaningful non-consent: results from a survey of individuals refusing participation in a health-related research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian; Irvine, Linda; McGinnis, Alison R; McMurdo, Marion E T; Crombie, Iain K

    2007-04-26

    Low participation rates can lead to sampling bias, delays in completion and increased costs. Strategies to improve participation rates should address reasons for non-participation. However, most empirical research has focused on participants' motives rather than the reasons why non-participants refuse to take part. In this study we investigated the reasons why older people choose not to participate in a research project. Follow-up study of people living in Tayside, Scotland who had opted-out of a cross-sectional survey on activities in retirement. Eight hundred and eighty seven people aged 65-84 years were invited to take part in a home-based cross-sectional survey. Of these, 471 refused to take part. Permission was obtained to follow-up 417 of the refusers. Demographic characteristics of people who refused to take part and the reasons they gave for not taking part were collected. 54% of those invited to take part in the original cross-sectional survey refused to do so. However, 61% of these individuals went on to participate in the follow-up study and provided reasons for their original refusal. For the vast majority of people initial non-participation did not reflect an objection to participating in research in principle but frequently stemmed from barriers or misunderstandings about the nature or process of the project itself. Only 28% indicated that they were "not interested in research". The meaningfulness of expressions of non-consent may therefore be called into question. Hierarchical log-linear modelling showed that refusal was independently influenced by age, gender and social class. However, this response pattern was different for the follow-up study in which reasons for non-participation in the first survey were sought. This difference in pattern and response rates supports the likely importance of recruitment issues that are research and context specific. An expression of non-consent does not necessarily mean that a fully informed evaluation of the pros

  18. Importance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    Conventionally, the design of a nuclear reactor has been performed from a viewpoint of a safety function and the importance on earthquake-proof on the basis of not giving off the mainly included radioactivity outside. In this Niigataken-Chuetsuoki earthquake, there is almost no damage to the system, components and structure on safe also in the earthquake beyond assumption, and the validity of the design was checked. But, the situation peculiar to a big earthquake was also generated. The emergency plan room which should serve as a connection center with the exterior was not able to open a door and use at the beginning. Fire-extinguishing system piping fractured and self-defense fire fighting was not made. And so on. Discussion from the following three viewpoints was performed. 1st: The importance from a viewpoint which should maintain a function also with the disaster in case of an earthquake like an emergency plan room etc. 2nd: In the earthquake, since the safe system and un-safe system was influenced, the importance from a viewpoint which may have influence safely inquired when the un-safe system broke down. 3rd: Although it was not directly related safely, discussion from a viewpoint which influences fear of insecurity, such as taking out smoke, for example, was performed (author)

  19. Unconventional imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on bitumens and bitumen products from Canadian oil sands and explores how they will affect the Canadian oil industry and the US refining industry. The falling production of crude, the growing demand for it, and the stagnating refining capacity in the US are reported, and Canadian and Mexican exports to the US, the definition of bitumens and bitumen quality, and the position of Canada as world leader in bitumen resources are considered. Bitumen production techniques, sales of bitumens and synthetic crude, the production outlook, and the quality and refining of bitumen and synthetic crude are examined. Plots illustrating North American crude refining capacity, production and demand for 1980-2000; US crude imports from Canada and Mexico (1981-2000), world proven oil reserves (2001), world bitumen resources, and Canadian oil production (1998-2000) are provided. Details of the composition of crudes and bitumens, and recent synthetic crude production are tabulated

  20. A Survey on the status of Marine IT Industrial environment for e-navigation SQA – focusing on Korean domestic companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoseung Kim

    2016-12-01

    The questionnaire is composed of two parts. The first part mainly deals with fundamental knowledge about the scale of the company and the number of development teams s. The second part consists of three sub-parts with Quality Management, Configuration Management, and Process Management. Otherwise, several questions are surveyed with respect to engineering tools for SQA and education support. Approximately 150 cases were gathered. The outcome of the survey shows some points that both of industry and government can contemplate for the future.

  1. Literature survey 'Impact of the Cadarache Centre activity on the environment'. Survey performed by the CRIIRAD laboratory for the Cadarache's CLI; Etude documentaire -impact sur l'environnement de l'activite du centre de Cadarache-. Etude effectuee par le laboratoire de la CRIIRAD. Pour la CLI de Cadarache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    After a presentation of the Cadarache Centre installations and activities, this document reports a literature survey based on the documents provided by the Centre and related to dismissals and incidents since the beginning of the Centre activity, and to environment control during some critical periods. Several issues are discussed: the radioactive atmospheric effluents and their impact, the control of underground waters, the control of surface water environment (impact of liquid radioactive effluents and monitoring of run-off waters), soil and food chain monitoring. For each of these themes, control and monitoring data are analysed

  2. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  3. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  4. FFTF preoperational survey. Program report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitty, B.L.; Bicehouse, H.J.

    1980-12-01

    The FFTF will become operational with criticality early in 1980. This facility is composed of the test reactor, fuel examination cells, expended fuel storage systems and fuel handling systems. The reactor and storage systems are sodium-cooled with the heat load dumped to the ambient air through heat exchangers. In order to assure that the operation of the FFTF has minimal impact on the environment, a monitoring program has been established. Prior to operation of a new facility, a preoperational environmental survey is required. It is the purpose of this report to briefly describe the environmental survey program and to provide the background data obtained during the preoperational phase of the survey program. Nine stations in the program of particular importance to FFTF are discussed in detail with results of monitoring given. No unexplained trends were noted

  5. FY 1998 annual report on the survey on promotion of overseas coal importation bases. Prospects of future export prices of steam coal; 1998 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Ippantan yushutsu kakaku no kongo no tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey was conducted to analyze the future trends of export prices of steam coal and thereby to contribute to security of stable supply of coal by collecting overseas information from relevant organizations, e.g., history of coal futures transactions in USA, and backgrounds, trends and evaluation thereof; and correspondence of the Australia's government and coal industry to depressed coal prices, actual situations of the country's mining industry and coal production, and their opinions on coal transaction contracts. Australia is the most important and hence influential coal supplier for Japan, and the country's coal industry is now in shaky conditions of reorganization. Chapter 1 describes shift from benchmark transactions to individual negotiations to determine steam coal prices since FY 1998, Chapter 2 takes up trends of coal futures transactions the US markets are adopting, Chapter 3 analyzes trends of steam coal prices in Australia, and Chapter 4 prospects future trends of steam coal markets and prices in Australia. The future coal prices will fluctuate periodically, but will be generally subjected to downward pressure in the medium term. (NEDO)

  6. Survey of the energy market in Germany in 2000. Primary energy consumption - carbon dioxide emissions - mineral oil - lignite - coal - natural gas - electricity - energy prices - import bill; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2000. Primaerenergie - Treibhausgas-Emissionen - Mineraloel - Braunkohle - Steinkohle - Erdgas - Elektrizitaet - Energiepreise - Importrechnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.W. [RWE Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    Primary energy consumption in Germany in 2000 amounted to 483.6m tonnes of coal equivalent and thus decreased by 0.2%, as compared to 1999. The comprehensive survey consists of tabulated data and explanatory comments relating to the developments linked to the various energy sources, change of energy mix, generation technologies and systems, demand factors and consumer behavior, carbon dioxide emissions, renewable energies and cogeneration and the government policies, imports and prices. (orig./CB) [German] Der Primaerenergieverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland belief sich im Jahr 2000 auf 483,6 Millionen Tonnen Steinkohleneinheiten (Mio. t SKE), d.h. er war 0,2% niedriger als im Vorjahr. Hinsichtlich der Entwicklung in 2000 im Vergleich zu 1999 wurden u.a. folgende Tendenzen festgestellt: 1. Wandel im Energiemix. 2. Rueckgang der CO2-Emissionen, ausser im Verkehrssektor. 3. Gestiegenes Mineraloelaufkommen, aber veraenderte Zusammensetzung. 4. Anstieg bei Gewinnung und Einsatz von Braunkohle, Verringerung bei Steinkohle. Die Daten werden erlaeutert, wobei auch auf geaenderte rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen und die neuere Energiepolitik hingewiesen wird. (orig./CB)

  7. Female married illiteracy as the most important continual determinant of total fertility rate among districts of Empowered Action Group States of India: Evidence from Annual Health Survey 2011–12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: District level determinants of total fertility rate in Empowered Action Group states of India can help in ongoing population stabilization programs in India. Objective: Present study intends to assess the role of district level determinants in predicting total fertility rate among districts of the Empowered Action Group states of India. Material and Methods: Data from Annual Health Survey (2011-12 was analysed using STATA and R software packages. Multiple linear regression models were built and evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. For further understanding, recursive partitioning was used to prepare a regression tree. Results: Female married illiteracy positively associated with total fertility rate and explained more than half (53% of variance. Under multiple linear regression model, married illiteracy, infant mortality rate, Ante natal care registration, household size, median age of live birth and sex ratio explained 70% of total variance in total fertility rate. In regression tree, female married illiteracy was the root node and splits at 42% determined TFR = 2.7. The next left side branch was again married illiteracy with splits at 23% to determine TFR = 2.1. Conclusion: We conclude that female married illiteracy is one of the most important determinants explaining total fertility rate among the districts of an Empowered Action Group states. Focus on female literacy is required to stabilize the population growth in long run.

  8. Female married illiteracy as the most important continual determinant of total fertility rate among districts of Empowered Action Group States of India: Evidence from Annual Health Survey 2011-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Dogra, Vishal; Rani, Khushbu; Sahu, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    District level determinants of total fertility rate in Empowered Action Group states of India can help in ongoing population stabilization programs in India. Present study intends to assess the role of district level determinants in predicting total fertility rate among districts of the Empowered Action Group states of India. Data from Annual Health Survey (2011-12) was analysed using STATA and R software packages. Multiple linear regression models were built and evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. For further understanding, recursive partitioning was used to prepare a regression tree. Female married illiteracy positively associated with total fertility rate and explained more than half (53%) of variance. Under multiple linear regression model, married illiteracy, infant mortality rate, Ante natal care registration, household size, median age of live birth and sex ratio explained 70% of total variance in total fertility rate. In regression tree, female married illiteracy was the root node and splits at 42% determined TFR illiteracy with splits at 23% to determine TFR illiteracy is one of the most important determinants explaining total fertility rate among the districts of an Empowered Action Group states. Focus on female literacy is required to stabilize the population growth in long run.

  9. Female married illiteracy as the most important continual determinant of total fertility rate among districts of Empowered Action Group States of India: Evidence from Annual Health Survey 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Dogra, Vishal; Rani, Khushbu; Sahu, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Background: District level determinants of total fertility rate in Empowered Action Group states of India can help in ongoing population stabilization programs in India. Objective: Present study intends to assess the role of district level determinants in predicting total fertility rate among districts of the Empowered Action Group states of India. Material and Methods: Data from Annual Health Survey (2011-12) was analysed using STATA and R software packages. Multiple linear regression models were built and evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. For further understanding, recursive partitioning was used to prepare a regression tree. Results: Female married illiteracy positively associated with total fertility rate and explained more than half (53%) of variance. Under multiple linear regression model, married illiteracy, infant mortality rate, Ante natal care registration, household size, median age of live birth and sex ratio explained 70% of total variance in total fertility rate. In regression tree, female married illiteracy was the root node and splits at 42% determined TFR illiteracy with splits at 23% to determine TFR illiteracy is one of the most important determinants explaining total fertility rate among the districts of an Empowered Action Group states. Focus on female literacy is required to stabilize the population growth in long run. PMID:29416999

  10. Canadian family physician job satisfaction - is it changing in an evolving practice environment? An analysis of the 2013 National Physician Survey database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Jana; Wong, Eric; Thind, Amardeep

    2018-06-23

    To explore the determinants of job satisfaction and work-life balance satisfaction of family physicians in Canada. This is a secondary analysis of the Canadian 2013 National Physician's Survey using descriptive statistics and binomial logistic regression. An estimated 34,753 family physicians practicing in Canada at the time of survey administration in 2013 were eligible for the survey. The main outcome measures were respondent satisfaction with professional life and satisfaction with work-life balance. The survey had a response rate of 17%. Seventy-two percent of respondents were satisfied with their professional lives, and 49% were satisfied with their work-life balance. Male family physicians had lower odds of satisfaction with their work-life balance than their female counterparts (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.92). Family physicians using an electronic medical record had higher odds of dissatisfaction with their professional lives (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.05-1.22) and work-life balance (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.15-1.30) than those not using an EMR. Family physicians not in a focused practice had greater odds of dissatisfaction (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.50-1.72) with both their professional lives and work-life balance (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.22-1.37) compared to their colleagues who have one or more areas of clinical focus. Canadian family physicians are more satisfied with their professional lives than with their work-life balance. Novel findings that family physicians with one or more clinical areas of focus are more satisfied with their work and work-life balance satisfaction, and that family physicians using electronic health records are less satisfied with their work and their work-life balance merit further inquiry.

  11. 2012 Information Sharing Environment Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Information Sharing Environment — This is a survey of federal departments and agencies who share terrorism information and are therefore considered part of the Information Sharing Environment. The...

  12. 2013 Information Sharing Environment Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Information Sharing Environment — This is a survey of federal departments and agencies who share terrorism information and are therefore considered part of the Information Sharing Environment. The...

  13. The Impact of Ethnicity and Religious Affiliation on the Alienation of Staff from Their Work Environment in Nigerian Universities: A Comparative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnekwu, Duvie Adanma

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the comparative influence of ethnicity and religious affiliation on the alienation of Nigerian university staff from their work environment. The influence of certain moderator variables such as the location of the university, gender, age, educational qualification, staff category, official rank and staff communicative…

  14. Fiscal 1993 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Supply to Japan of subbituminous coal of the west of the U.S. (survey of the cost and a potentiality of the cost); 1993 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban sokushin chosa. Beikoku seibu arekiseitan no tainichi kyokyu (cost to yunyu chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Subbituminous coal of the Powder River coal field in the west of the U.S. is abundant, about 1/3 in the U.S. in reserve and about 1/4 in production. It is predicted that supply/demand of general coal will be tight from now up to the coming year of 2000 in the Pacific rim region including Japan as center, and therefore, if Japan imports in large quantity the subbituminous coal which exists abundantly and has a great potentiality of the expanding production quantity, Japan can contribute greatly to loosening the supply/demand of general coal in the Pacific rim region. However, there are some problems on the following: long inland transportation distance of more than 2000km, heavy burden of railroad fare, and coal quality, namely high water content, low calorific value, and low ash melting point of the coal being low in sulfur and ash. Accordingly, surveyed were on what level the cost of supply to Japan will be as compared with Australian coal, and whether there is a possibility of import of the subbituminous coal in large quantity at a competitive price. As to the potential import to Japan, the import of this coal will be 2.025 million tons/year at maximum in 2000 if the railroad price is reduced 20% and the blending of 30% at maximum can be realized at the Soma Kyodo Thermal Power Plant. 34 figs., 48 tabs.

  15. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1999. Surveys on the foundation for establishing industrial technology strategies (Foundation and environment improving strategies - an overall survey); 1999 nendo sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa hokokusho. Kiban kankyo seibi senryaku (zentai chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Surveys were performed on the foundation for technological innovation in Japan and other countries. Main findings obtained from the actual state survey were compiled from the two aspects of 'items having difference in international comparison' and 'main findings by nucleuses and functions'. In order to activate the economy stagnated in the 1980's, America has developed strong industrial technology policies under the initiative of the government to strengthen the competitive edge, and the result thereof appears linking with the briskness in the today's U.S. economy. In Japan, the non-competitive fund distributed uniformly to national universities and national research institutes accounts for the majority in the governmental research fund. In contrast, many of the research funds of the U.S. government are the competitive fund, whereas researchers perform their research works using these funds, including their own labor cost, and the competition is intense. America is regarded to have put a huge amount of national defense research expense and space development research expense into private business entities, which are playing a large role in developing advanced technologies. A great amount of governmental fund is injected concentratedly into researches of health, medical and bio-technologies. (NEDO)

  16. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1999. Surveys on the foundation for establishing industrial technology strategies (Foundation and environment improving strategies - an overall survey); 1999 nendo sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa hokokusho. Kiban kankyo seibi senryaku (zentai chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Surveys were performed on the foundation for technological innovation in Japan and other countries. Main findings obtained from the actual state survey were compiled from the two aspects of 'items having difference in international comparison' and 'main findings by nucleuses and functions'. In order to activate the economy stagnated in the 1980's, America has developed strong industrial technology policies under the initiative of the government to strengthen the competitive edge, and the result thereof appears linking with the briskness in the today's U.S. economy. In Japan, the non-competitive fund distributed uniformly to national universities and national research institutes accounts for the majority in the governmental research fund. In contrast, many of the research funds of the U.S. government are the competitive fund, whereas researchers perform their research works using these funds, including their own labor cost, and the competition is intense. America is regarded to have put a huge amount of national defense research expense and space development research expense into private business entities, which are playing a large role in developing advanced technologies. A great amount of governmental fund is injected concentratedly into researches of health, medical and bio-technologies. (NEDO)

  17. Local survey of the distribution of industrial melanic forms in the moth Biston betularia and estimates of the selective values of these in an industrial environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, C A; Sheppard, P M

    1966-01-01

    A survey has shown that there is a rapid decline in the frequency of the industrial melanic carbonaria of the moth Biston betularia from a value of about 97% in Liverpool to less than 10% 50 miles to the west in North Wales. The decline in the frequency of the intermediate phenotype insularia in this area, controlled by an allelomorph at the same locus, is from about 14% on the Wirral (no reliable frequency is available for Liverpool) to about 4% 30 miles to the west. Experiments using dead moths placed in life-like positions on tree trunks at Caldy and in Liverpool confirmed that carbonaria is better camouflaged on the blackened tree trunks of industrial areas. Estimates of the selective disadvantage of the typical form in Liverpool, using data from the survey and these experiments, together with a variety of assumptions, indicate values of the order of 60%, which is somewhat higher than previous estimates. At Caldy the typical form appears to have been at a disadvantage of about 50% prior to the introduction of the smokeless zones and is now at about a 20% disadvantage, using assumptions similar to those in the Liverpool estimates. Although these estimates are subject to considerable error, there is little doubt that they reflect the correct order of magnitude of the relative selective values. 8 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  18. FY 2000 report on the survey of effects of enhancement of energy consumption efficiency on the global environment; 2000 nendo energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Looking for effective measures for enhancement of energy consumption efficiency in the Asia Pacific region, survey was made of the state of study of measures against global warming in the 3rd IPCC report and the state of study of the incidental convenience. The survey was made in the following two fields: 1) research analysis in study of the 3rd IPCC report; 2) research analysis of the convenience incidental to measures against global warming. 1) is composed of IPCC activities and the 3rd assessment report, and the developmental state of global warming prevention technology and potential of greenhouse effect gas reduction. Subjects on the prevention technology are the technology for enhancement of energy consumption and development of non-fossil fuels. Physical/chemical CO2 fixation is also studied. 2) is composed of the introduction, economic/social/environmental effects, international flow, reasons for different conclusion in every study, and fields of further study. Considered were global warming prevention measures, for example, economic/social/environmental effects of creation of the carbon tax, reduction in subsidy in energy sector, etc. (NEDO)

  19. Clinically important deterioration in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery: a choice of evaluation methods using the Oswestry Disability Index, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and pain scales: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Jeffrey L; Glassman, Steven D; Carreon, Leah Y

    2013-11-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures have become the mainstay for outcome appraisal in spine surgery. Clinically meaningful interpretation of HRQOL improvement has centered on the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). The purpose of this study was to calculate clinically important deterioration (CIDET) thresholds and determine a CIDET value for each HRQOL measure for patients undergoing lumbar fusion. Seven hundred twenty-two patients (248 males, 127 smokers, mean age 60.8 years) were identified with complete preoperative and 1-year postoperative HRQOLs including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and numeric rating scales (0-10) for back and leg pain following primary, instrumented, posterior lumbar fusion. Anchor-based and distribution-based methods were used to calculate CIDET for each HRQOL. Anchor-based methods included change score, change difference, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The Health Transition Item, an independent item of the SF-36, was used as the external anchor. Patients who responded "somewhat worse" and "much worse" were combined and compared with patients responding "about the same." Distribution-based methods were minimum detectable change and effect size. Diagnoses included spondylolisthesis (n = 332), scoliosis (n = 54), instability (n = 37), disc pathology (n = 146), and stenosis (n = 153). There was a statistically significant change (p < 0.0001) for each HRQOL measure from preoperatively to 1-year postoperatively. Only 107 patients (15%) reported being "somewhat worse" (n = 81) or "much worse" (n = 26). Calculation methods yielded a range of CIDET values for ODI (0.17-9.06), SF-36 physical component summary (-0.32 to 4.43), back pain (0.02-1.50), and leg pain (0.02-1.50). A threshold for clinical deterioration was difficult to identify. This may be due to the small number of patients reporting being worse after surgery and the variability across

  20. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawai’i and Maui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercho, Steven [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Owens, Lara [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Walsh, Patrick [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Drakos, Peter [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Martini, Brigette [Corescan Inc., Ascot (Australia); Lewicki, Jennifer L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kennedy, Burton M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical exploration surveys were conducted to provide evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai’i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-bourne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults, while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth which may represent a potentially young source of heat. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ. This survey generally did not detect CO2 levels above background, with the exception of a weak anomalous flux signal over one young cinder cone. The general lack of observed CO2 flux signals on the HSWRZ is likely due to a combination of lower magmatic CO2 fluxes and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes which mix with the magmatic signal. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals, however aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwater here. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2 flux indicative of upflow of magmatic fluids here is likely due to effective “scrubbing” by high groundwater and a mature hydrothermal system. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values were sampled at Maui from several shallow

  1. Block survey of wall covered with plant in the city of Tokyo [Japan] and evaluation of thermal environment of wall greening system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, K.; Soh, Y.; Satoh, S.

    2007-01-01

    There were 384 (8877 square m) walls which covered with plant on 10 square km in the city of Tokyo, and the green wall rate in the city of Tokyo was 0.88%. Vines, for example Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix, were widely used. The factor of thinking better of the landscape in urban area was one of the easily management of plants. The three wall greening systems, a wall covered with hanging climbers and two types of self-contained living wall, mitigated the thermal environment. However its degree can be depended on the greening method and the greenery occupancy rate of wall

  2. Impact of participant incentives and direct and snowball sampling on survey response rate in an ethnically diverse community: results from a pilot study of physical activity and the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Daniel F; Nie, Jason X; Ardern, Chris I; Radhu, Natasha; Ritvo, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Community-wide efforts to encourage healthy behaviours must respond to the needs of existing neighbourhoods, especially those where low physical activity (PA) is associated with social, economic, and cultural challenges. This study reports on the effect of direct and snowball sampling strategies and financial incentive levels on the response rates of a built environment and PA survey in a predominately urban, low-SES new-immigrant community. Women residing in the Jane-Finch neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario were selected to participate by quasi-random sampling, yielding a response rate of 41.5%. The survey completion rate per contact attempt increased 2-fold when incentives were increased from $10 to $20 and a further threefold following the increase from $20 to $30. Snowball sampled respondents were older, less likely to have full-time employment, and had lower educational attainment than directly sampled participants. With appropriate incentives, face-to-face contact, and snowball sampling, survey-based research is feasible within a low-SES, high minority population.

  3. Analysis of innovation diffusion theory under “micro” environment - Survey analysis of application and promotion of WeChat among the youth group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since WeChat has been launched in 2011, as of the first quarter of 2015, the active users have reached 549 million per month1. WeChat has become the largest mobile instant messaging software among the user groups in Asia. Therefore, WeChat is no longer “micro”, and grabs the attention of more youth groups by virtue of the “micro” advantages in the Internet era in a way of low-priced new media. Through sorting 192 effective questionnaires recovered, this paper summarizes some transmitting tendency and suggestions of “micro” innovation diffusion from the research view of the concept of innovation diffusion theory, and development stage of WeChat in the youth group, based on the survey data and by the use of the statistics of informatics, qualitative and quantitative analysis method, so as to provide a certain theoretical basis for the future research of WeChat.

  4. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on research exchange possibility; 1999 nendo kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This survey deals with research institutions of governmental organizations, universities, and business entities for the purpose of discussing the possibility of research exchange standing on a long-term point of view to serve for solving global environment problems, and the way the exchange should be. The research exchange shall cover the areas of trends in research and development of global environment related technologies, themes for the research and development, institutions for the research and development, and exchange of researchers and information with these research organizations. In fiscal 1999, three survey missions were dispatched to cover the following three areas: (1) surveys on research possibility of catalyst development by means of combinatorial chemistry, (2) surveys on research exchange possibility for thermo-chemical solar hybrid fuel production technologies, and (3) surveys on research exchange possibility for structuring function improving technologies of the 21st century type. Each survey mission has visited research institutions of the world to survey the trends in researches related to global environment, and the possibility of exchanging researches with RITE. The visits presented the following conclusions and findings: (1) the research on the combinatorial chemistry in the U.S.A. is still in the initial stage; (2) important findings were obtained when surveys were made on methane reformation utilizing solar heat, and coal gasification technologies in Europe; and (3) surveys were made on pioneering researches on plant molecule physiology in Europe. (NEDO)

  5. Assessing systems quality in a changing health care environment: the 2009-10 national survey of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bonnie B; Jones, Jessica R; Newacheck, Paul W; Bethell, Christina D; Blumberg, Stephen J; Kogan, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    To provide a national, population-based assessment of the quality of the health care system for children and youth with special health care needs using a framework of six health care system quality indicators. 49,242 interviews with parents of children with special health care needs from the 2009-10 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) were examined to determine the extent to which CSHCN had access to six quality indicators of a well-functioning system of services. Criteria for determining access to each indicator were established and applied to the survey data to estimate the proportion of CSHCN meeting each quality indicator by socio-demographic status and functional limitations. 17.6% of CSHCN received care consistent with all six quality indicators. Results for each component of the system quality framework ranged from a high of 70.3% of parents reporting that they shared decision-making with healthcare providers to a low of 40% of parents reporting receipt of services needed for transition to adult health care. Attainment rates were lower for CSHCN of minority racial and ethnic groups, those residing in households where English was not the primary language, those in lower income households, and those most impacted by their health condition. Only a small proportion of CSHCN receive all identified attributes of a high-quality system of services. Moreover, significant disparities exist whereby those most impacted by their conditions and those in traditionally disadvantaged groups are served least well by the current system. A small proportion of CSHCN appear to remain essentially outside of the system, having met few if any of the elements studied.

  6. Assessing Systems Quality in a Changing Health Care Environment: The 2009–10 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jessica R.; Newacheck, Paul W.; Bethell, Christina D.; Blumberg, Stephen J.; Kogan, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    To provide a national, population-based assessment of the quality of the health care system for children and youth with special health care needs using a framework of six health care system quality indicators. 49,242 interviews with parents of children with special health care needs from the 2009–10 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) were examined to determine the extent to which CSHCN had access to six quality indicators of a well-functioning system of services. Criteria for determining access to each indicator were established and applied to the survey data to estimate the proportion of CSHCN meeting each quality indicator by socio-demographic status and functional limitations. 17.6 % of CSHCN received care consistent with all six quality indicators. Results for each component of the system quality framework ranged from a high of 70.3 % of parents reporting that they shared decision-making with healthcare providers to a low of 40 % of parents reporting receipt of services needed for transition to adult health care. Attainment rates were lower for CSHCN of minority racial and ethnic groups, those residing in households where English was not the primary language, those in lower income households, and those most impacted by their health condition. Only a small proportion of CSHCN receive all identified attributes of a high-quality system of services. Moreover, significant disparities exist whereby those most impacted by their conditions and those in traditionally disadvantaged groups are served least well by the current system. A small proportion of CSHCN appear to remain essentially outside of the system, having met few if any of the elements studied. PMID:24912943

  7. Measuring health care workers' perceptions of what constitutes a compassionate organisation culture and working environment: Findings from a quantitative feasibility survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Robert; Pearce, Paddy

    2018-03-01

    Health care organisation cultures and working environments are highly complex, dynamic and constantly evolving settings. They significantly influence both the delivery and outcomes of care. Phase 1 quantitative findings are presented from a larger three phase feasibility study designed to develop and test a Cultural Health Check toolkit to support health care workers, patients and organisations in the provision of safe, compassionate and dignified care. A mixed methods approach was applied. The Cultural Health Check Healthcare Workers Questionnaire was distributed across two National Health Service Hospitals in England, UK. Both hospitals allocated two wards comprising of older people and surgical specialities. The newly devised Cultural Health Check Staff Rating Scale Version 1 questionnaire was distributed to 223 health care workers. Ninety eight responses were returned giving a response rate of 44%. The Cultural Health Check Staff Rating Scale Version 1 has a significant Cronbach alpha of .775; this reliability scaling is reflected in all 16 items in the scale. Exploratory factor analysis identified two significant factors "Professional Practice and Support" and "Workforce and Service Delivery." These factors according to health care workers significantly impact on the organisation culture and quality of care delivered by staff. The Cultural Health Check Staff Rating Scale Version 1 questionnaire is a newly validated measurement tool that could be used and applied to gauge health care workers perceptions of an organisations level of compassion. Historically we have focused on identifying how caring and compassionate nurses, doctors and related allied health professionals are. This turns the attention on employers of nurses and other related organisations. The questionnaire can be used to gauge the level of compassion with a health care organisation culture and working environment. Nurse managers and leaders should focus attention regarding how these two factors

  8. Improving the information environment for analysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Nielsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    they have more information. Our results also show that intellectual capital disclosure related to employees and strategic statements are the most important disclosures for analysts. Research limitations/implications: More relevant methods, such as survey or interviews with management, may be used to improve...... the information content of intellectual capital disclosure. Analysts, probably, deduce intellectual capital of a firm from interaction with management rather than financial statements. Practical implications: Firms in biotechnology sector can improve their information environment by disclosing more information...

  9. A survey on human behavior towards energy efficiency for office worker in malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Green environment has become an important topic around the world. This campaign can be realized if everybody understands and shares similar objectives on managing energy in an efficient way. This paper will present and analyse the survey on energy usage by office workers in Malaysia. The survey will focus on the workers in government sector. In social science surveys, it is important to support the tested data for a project. For issues related to human behaviour we must compare with real situations to verify the tested data and the results in energy monitoring system. The energy monitoring system will improve energy usage efficiency for the basic human activities in different situations and environments.

  10. A survey of 137Cs in sediments of the eastern mediterranean marine environment from the pre-Chernobyl age to the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Florou, Heleny; Kritidis, Panayotis

    2014-01-01

    A survey of 137 Cs in sediments from the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Aegean and Ionian Seas) during the period from 1984 to 2007 is presented. Data have been collected and analyzed in the framework of the monitoring system of Greece performed by the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (NCSR 'Demokritos') over the past 30 years. Sediment activities reflect the impact from the Chernobyl accident one year later (1987). It is evident that sediment acts as the final receptor of 137 Cs, showing that fast depollution of the Mediterranean still remains a utopia. Radioactive 'hot spots' were observed in the northern Aegean Sea and lower values in the southern Aegean Sea and Ionian Sea. Finally, an effort to evaluate the risk of ionizing radiation (from 137 Cs) to the biota inhabiting sediments was made using ERICA. The respective dose rates for two reference organisms (benthic fish and mollusks) were estimated to be far below the screening dose, at which the radiological impact on the abundance of the population begins. (authors)

  11. Global environment assessment survey by advancing the energy demand and supply structure. 4; Energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the energy demand and supply structure in Japan, the international trend of approaches to global warming problems and the mitigation options to global warming in the energy related sectors have been