WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey water-resources investigations

  1. National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to provide the information and understanding needed for wise management of the Nation's water resources. Inherent in this mission is the responsibility to collect data that accurately describe the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of water systems. These data are used for environmental and resource assessments by the USGS, other government agenices and scientific organizations, and the general public. Reliable and quality-assured data are essential to the credibility and impartiality of the water-resources appraisals carried out by the USGS. The development and use of a National Field Manual is necessary to achieve consistency in the scientific methods and procedures used, to document those methods and procedures, and to maintain technical expertise. USGS field personnel use this manual to ensure that the data collected are of the quality required to fulfill our mission.

  2. Water-Resources Investigations in Wisconsin, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    the energy and mineral potential of land and offshore areas. • Investigating and issuing warnings of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions , landslides, and...each of the 30 lawns. Several small experiments were conducted in order to better understand what happens when the bottles overfill and how much...Forest Sulfate Addition study (Minnesota) • The New England Coastal Basins project (New England) • Yellowstone National Park Mercury Emissions

  3. 75 FR 51751 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; User Engagement Survey for Water Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request; User Engagement Survey for Water Resources Forecasts and Climate... the water resources sector. The water resources sector includes agencies and companies operating... workshops related to water resources and/or climate. This information collection will be conducted by the...

  4. Science center capabilities to monitor and investigate Michigan’s water resources, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Julia A.; Givens, Carrie E.

    2016-09-06

    Michigan faces many challenges related to water resources, including flooding, drought, water-quality degradation and impairment, varying water availability, watershed-management issues, stormwater management, aquatic-ecosystem impairment, and invasive species. Michigan’s water resources include approximately 36,000 miles of streams, over 11,000 inland lakes, 3,000 miles of shoreline along the Great Lakes (MDEQ, 2016), and groundwater aquifers throughout the State.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as tribes and universities, to provide scientific information used to manage the water resources of Michigan. To effectively assess water resources, the USGS uses standardized methods to operate streamgages, water-quality stations, and groundwater stations. The USGS also monitors water quality in lakes and reservoirs, makes periodic measurements along rivers and streams, and maintains all monitoring data in a national, quality-assured, hydrologic database.The USGS in Michigan investigates the occurrence, distribution, quantity, movement, and chemical and biological quality of surface water and groundwater statewide. Water-resource monitoring and scientific investigations are conducted statewide by USGS hydrologists, hydrologic technicians, biologists, and microbiologists who have expertise in data collection as well as various scientific specialties. A support staff consisting of computer-operations and administrative personnel provides the USGS the functionality to move science forward. Funding for USGS activities in Michigan comes from local and State agencies, other Federal agencies, direct Federal appropriations, and through the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds, which allows the USGS to partially match funding provided by local and State partners.This fact sheet provides an overview of the USGS current (2016) capabilities to monitor and study Michigan’s vast water resources. More

  5. Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Vining, Kevin C.; Amer, Saud A.; Zaheer, Mohammad F.; Medlin, Jack H.

    2014-01-01

    Safe and reliable supply of water, for irrigation and domestic consumption, is one of Afghanistan’s critical needs for the country’s growing population. Water is also needed for mining and mineral processing and the associated business and community development, all of which contribute to the country’s economic growth and stability. Beginning in 2004, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have aided efforts to rebuild Afghanistan’s capacity to monitor water resources, working largely with scientists in the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum as well as with scientists in the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water, the Afghanistan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock, and nongovernmental organizations in Afghanistan. Considerable efforts were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey to compile or recover hydrologic data on Afghanistan’s water resources. These collaborative efforts have assisted Afghan scientists in developing the data collection networks necessary for improved understanding, managing these resources, and monitoring critical changes that may affect future water supplies and conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey, together with Afghan scientists, developed a regional groundwater flow model to assist with water resource planning in the Kabul Basin. Afghan scientists are now independently developing the datasets and conducting studies needed to assess water resources in other population centers of Afghanistan.

  6. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Texas; fiscal year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alicia A.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1879, to provide a permanent Federal agency to conduct the systematic and scientific classification of the public lands and to examine the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of national domain. An integral part of that original mission includes publishing and disseminating the earth science information needed to understand, to plan the use of, and to manage the Nation's energy, land, mineral, and water resources.

  7. Bibliography of U.S. Geological Survey water-resources reports for Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ellen E.; Dragos, Stefanie L.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography contains a complete listing of reports prepared by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey from 1886 through December 31, 1993, that discuss the water resources of Utah. The reports were prepared primarily by personnel of the Water Resources Division, Utah District, in cooperation with State, other Federal, and local agencies. Several reports were prepared as a part of studies directly funded by the U.S. Geological Survey, and several were prepared by contractors for the U.S. Geological Survey.The bibliography is divided into three major parts: (1) publications of the U.S. Geological Survey; (2) publications prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with and published by agencies of the State of Utah; and (3) reports printed in other publications reports prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey but published by other agencies or by professional organizations. Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey still in print may be purchased from the U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Science Information Center, Open-File Reports Section, Box 25286, MS 517, Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225. Publications that are out of print at the time of this compilation are marked with an asterisk (*). Except for water-supply papers, most publications that are out of print and unavailable for purchase may be examined at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Science Information Center, 2222 West 2300 South, 2nd Floor, Salt Lake City, Utah 84119.Reports published by the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, are available on request from these agencies or from the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, Room 1016 Administration Building, 1745 West 1700 South, Salt Lake City, Utah 84104. Water-Resources Bulletins of the Utah Geological Survey may be purchased from that agency at 2363 Foothill Drive, Salt Lake City, Utah 84109-1491.Inquiries as to the availability of reports listed as "reports printed in

  8. From Antarctic ice cores to Australia's water resources: Investigating an alternative streamflow proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Carly; Kiem, Anthony; Vance, Tessa; Roberts, Jason; Curran, Mark; Moy, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Past research worldwide shows that streamflow reconstructions, developed from paleoclimate proxies, provide a broader view of the range of climate variability possible relative to the comparatively short instrumental flow records on which water resource management plans are currently based. Hence there is a clear need for the development of streamflow reconstructions to allow us to better manage our water resources into the future. In Australia, however, there is a dearth of local high resolution proxies, particularly in catchments of interest, from which to develop streamflow reconstructions. This has led researchers to look beyond catchment boundaries and also Australia's borders to explore the utility of remote proxies for reconstructing Australian streamflow. Here we investigate, for a case study catchment located on Australia's eastern seaboard, the development of a millennial-length, annual streamflow reconstruction based on 1013 years of summer sea salt deposition recorded in ice cores from East Antarctica. The streamflow reconstruction realistically captures interannual to decadal variability in the gauged streamflow over the 1929-2009 calibration period. For the pre-instrumental period (i.e. pre-1900), the streamflow reconstruction shows longer wet and dry epochs than those recorded in the instrumental period. Furthermore, the variation in the distribution of the duration of wet and dry epochs between centuries suggests that water resources management and planning based on the statistics of the last 100 years of data (or less) is problematic. This information can be utilised to generate more realistic flow scenarios that better capture the range of hydroclimatic variability that Australia has experienced. This work emphasises a novel combination of ice core science, paleoclimatology and catchment-scale hydrology that is now being used to develop more robust water resources planning and management. The continuing work to further develop ice core based

  9. A Survey of Indexing and Abstracting Services for Water Resources Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Hans (Hanan)

    This report provides a complete and up-to-date review of the abstracting and indexing services available in water resources engineering. Between 1955 and 1970 the number of services in this field increased from about 20 to 40. This exponential growth or doubling every 15 years suggests that by 1985 there will be 80 abstracting services in…

  10. Summary of water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Texas; fiscal years 1989-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzcategui, Kristy E.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1879, to provide a permanent Federal agency to conduct the systematic and scientific classification of the public lands and to examine the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of national domain. An integral part of that original mission includes publishing and disseminating the earth science information needed to understand, to plan the use of, and to manage the Nation's energy, land, mineral, and water resources.

  11. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Texas; fiscal years 1982-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozier, R.U.; Land, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1879, to provide a permanent Federal agency to conduct the systematic and scientific classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of national domain. An integral part of that original mission includes publishing and disseminating the earth-science information needed to understand, to plan the use of, and to manage the Nation's energy, land, mineral, and water resources.

  12. Ohio-drainage digital elevation model for use with Water Resources Investigations Report 03-4164

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage was derived from U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset (NED) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for all of Ohio and portions of Indiana,...

  13. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    projects under five functional themes. I) Streamflow and Flood Forecasting 2) Water Supply and Irrigation (includes evapotranspiration) 3) Drought 4) Water Quality 5) Climate and Water Resources. To maximize this activity NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies (e.g., the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USAID, the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA)), universities, non-profit national and international organizations, and the private sector. The NASA Water Resources program currently is funding 21 active projects under the functional themes (http://wmp.gsfc.nasa.gov & http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/applied-sciences/).

  14. Water resources scientific information center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, C. William; Campbell, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) acquires, abstracts and indexes the major water resources related literature of the world, and makes information available to the water resources community and the public. A component of the Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey, the Center maintains a searchable computerized bibliographic data base, and publishers a monthly journal of abstracts. Through its services, the Center is able to provide reliable scientific and technical information about the most recent water resources developments, as well as long-term trends and changes. WRSIC was established in 1966 by the Secretary of the Interior to further the objectives of the Water Resources Research Act of 1964--legislation that encouraged research in water resources and the prevention of needless duplication of research efforts. It was determined the WRSIC should be the national center for information on water resources, covering research reports, scientific journals, and other water resources literature of the world. WRSIC would evaluate all water resources literature, catalog selected articles, and make the information available in publications or by computer access. In this way WRSIC would increase the availability and awareness of water related scientific and technical information. (Lantz-PTT)

  15. A geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing investigation of the water resources at the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Pineda, Jose Alfredo

    This doctoral dissertation is an investigation of the underground water resources of a typical urban center in and northern Mexico, the City of Chihuahua. In the first part of the investigation I analyzed by remote sensing the urban growth and the consequent water demand and supply of the city of Chihuahua over a period of 22 years (1975--1997). A linear and a regression model was successfully fit to the data and can be used to forecast future water needs based on urban growth. The second study was a gravity survey of about 200 stations and a reprocessing of about 800 earlier gravity readings in the City of Chihuahua area to define the local geologic structures. The findings were used as a first exploration step to assess groundwater resources in the area. Landsat TM imagery, 30-m resolution, was applied in conjunction with Bouguer gravity anomalies to understand and define the lateral extension of the Chihuahua, Tabalaopa Basins, and the western side of the Aldama Basin. Depth and strata thickness of these three alluvial basins were defined by gravity modeling and constrained by exploration oil well data and published stratigraphic columns. The gravity results showed that the western side of the Chihuahua Basin could be the site of potential aquifers. Also, the gravity results suggested an structural gap between the southern side of the Tabalaopa Basin and the Horcasitas Basin, likely a former course of the Chuviscar River. This gap exposes the Horcasitas Basin as another basin with promise as future groundwater source. The last part of this research focused on the groundwater pollution generated by the discharge of sewage into the Rio Chuviscar and Sacramento for decades by the City of Chihuahua. Based on a groundwater and during three consecutive years (from 1993 to 1995) the elements derived mainly from the urban sewage were identified in the Tabalaopa Aquifer. A multivariable statistical evaluation supported by a surface water sampling and analysis, and of a

  16. Scientific Allocation of Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Nathan

    Oriented for higher education students, researchers, practicing engineers and planners, this book surveys the state of the art of water resources engineering. A broad spectrum of issues is embraced in the treatment of water resources: quantity aspects as well as quality aspects within a systems approach. Using a rational mode for water resources…

  17. Using economic valuation techniques to inform water resources management: a survey and critical appraisal of available techniques and an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, Ekin; Karousakis, Katia; Koundouri, Phoebe

    2006-07-15

    The need for economic analysis for the design and implementation of efficient water resources management policies is well documented in the economics literature. This need is also emphasised in the European Union's recent Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), and is relevant to the objectives of Euro-limpacs, an EU funded project which inter alia, aims to provide a decision-support system for valuing the effects of future global change on Europe's freshwater ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to define the role of economic valuation techniques in assisting in the design of efficient, equitable and sustainable policies for water resources management in the face of environmental problems such as pollution, intensive land use in agriculture and climate change. The paper begins with a discussion of the conceptual economic framework that can be used to inform water policy-making. An inventory of the available economic valuation methods is presented and the scope and suitability of each for studying various aspects of water resources are critically discussed. Recent studies that apply these methods to water resources are reviewed. Finally, an application of one of the economic valuation methods, namely the contingent valuation method, is presented using a case study of the Cheimaditida wetland in Greece.

  18. Water-resources activities in Florida, 1988-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Mildred E.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains summary statements of water resources activities in Florida conducted by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Federal, State , and local agencies during 1988. These activities are part of the Federal program of appraising the Nation 's water resources. Included are brief descriptions of the nature and scope of all active studies, summaries of significant results for 1988 and anticipated accomplishments during 1989. Water resources appraisals in Florida are highly diversified, ranging from hydrologic records networks to interpretive appraisals of water resources and applied research to develop investigative techniques. Thus, water-resources investigations range from basic descriptive water-availability studies for areas of low-intensity water development and management to sophisticated cause and effect studies in areas of high-intensity water development and management. The interpretive reports and records that are products of the investigations are a principal hydrologic foundation upon which the plans for development, management, and protection of Florida 's water resources may be used. Water data and information required to implement sound water-management programs in highly urbanized areas relate to the quantity and quality of storm runoff, sources of aquifer contamination, injection of wastes into deep strata, underground storage of freshwater, artificial recharge of aquifers, environmental effects of reuse of water, and effects of land development on changes in ground-and surface-water quality. In some parts of the State broad areas are largely rural. Future growth is anticipated in many of these. This report is intended to inform those agencies vitally interested in the water resources of Florida as to the current status and objectives of the U.S. Geological Survey cooperative program. The mission of this program is to collect, interpret, and publish information on water resources. Almost all of

  19. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  20. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New Mexico, fiscal year 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutilla, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    All U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic investigations in the New Mexico District in progress during fiscal year 1986 are summarized. The summaries include sections on the problem addressed, the objective and approach of the investigation, progress of the investigation and plans for 1986 fiscal year, and reports published as a result of the investigation. Water conditions in New Mexico during the 1985 water year are briefly described. Reports released during 1985 are listed. The New Mexico District office organization, cooperating agencies, and types of funding for the District operation are also summarized. (USGS)

  1. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  2. Enhancing participatory approach in water resources management: development of a survey to evaluate stakeholders needs and priorities related to software capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Rossetto, R.; Borsi, I.; Josef, S.; Boukalova, Z.; Triana, F.; Ghetta, M.; Sabbatini, T.; Bonari, E.; Cannata, M.; De Filippis, G.

    2016-12-01

    The EU H2020 FREEWAT project (FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management) aims at simplifying the application of EU-water related Directives, by developing an open source and public domain, GIS-integrated platform for planning and management of ground- and surface-water resources. The FREEWAT platform is conceived as a canvas, where several distributed and physically-based simulation codes are virtually integrated. The choice of such codes was supported by the result of a survey performed by means of questionnaires distributed to 14 case study FREEWAT project partners and several stakeholders. This was performed in the first phase of the project within the WP 6 (Enhanced science and participatory approach evidence-based decision making), Task 6.1 (Definition of a "needs/tools" evaluation grid). About 30% among all the invited entities and institutions from several EU and non-EU Countries expressed their interest in contributing to the survey. Most of them were research institutions, government and geoenvironmental companies and river basin authorities.The result of the questionnaire provided a spectrum of needs and priorities of partners/stakeholders, which were addressed during the development phase of the FREEWAT platform. The main needs identified were related to ground- and surface-water quality, sustainable water management, interaction between groundwater/surface-water bodies, and design and management of Managed Aquifer Recharge schemes. Needs and priorities were then connected to the specific EU Directives and Regulations to be addressed.One of the main goals of the questionnaires was to collect information and suggestions regarding the use of existing commercial/open-source software tools to address needs and priorities, and regarding the needs to address specific water-related processes/problems.

  3. Selected water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.

    2017-06-22

    The New England Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is headquartered in Pembroke, New Hampshire, with offices in East Hartford, Connecticut; Augusta, Maine; Northborough, Massachusetts; and Montpelier, Vermont. The areas of expertise covered by the water science center’s staff of 130 include aquatic biology, chemistry, geographic information systems, geology, hydrologic sciences and engineering, and water use.

  4. Ohio-drainage land-use/land-cover data for use with Water Resources Investigations Report 03-4164

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains land-cover information for all of Ohio and portions of Indiana, Michigan, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York. This dataset...

  5. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New Mexico; fiscal year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutilla, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    All hydrologic investigations in the New Mexico District in progress during fiscal year 1988 are summarized. The summaries include sections on the problem addressed, the objective and approach of the investigation, progress of the investigation. Reports released during 1986 and 1987 are listed. The New Mexico District office organization, cooperating agencies, and types of funding for the District operation are also summarized. (USGS)

  6. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interpreting the results of scientific and engineering research on water-resources problems. (10) Providing... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section 402.6 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM...

  7. Investigation of climate change impact on water resources for an Alpine basin in northern Italy: implications for evapotranspiration modeling complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravazzani, Giovanni; Ghilardi, Matteo; Mendlik, Thomas; Gobiet, Andreas; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the future effects of climate change on water availability requires an understanding of how precipitation and evapotranspiration rates will respond to changes in atmospheric forcing. Use of simplified hydrological models is required because of lack of meteorological forcings with the high space and time resolutions required to model hydrological processes in mountains river basins, and the necessity of reducing the computational costs. The main objective of this study was to quantify the differences between a simplified hydrological model, which uses only precipitation and temperature to compute the hydrological balance when simulating the impact of climate change, and an enhanced version of the model, which solves the energy balance to compute the actual evapotranspiration. For the meteorological forcing of future scenario, at-site bias-corrected time series based on two regional climate models were used. A quantile-based error-correction approach was used to downscale the regional climate model simulations to a point scale and to reduce its error characteristics. The study shows that a simple temperature-based approach for computing the evapotranspiration is sufficiently accurate for performing hydrological impact investigations of climate change for the Alpine river basin which was studied.

  8. Water resources assessment, irrigation and agricultural developments in Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    TODERICH, Kristina; Tsukatani, Tsuneo; Abbdusamatov, Munimjon

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a description of current state of water resources assessment in Tajikistan, their use for the agriculture development and maintenance of irrigation infrastructures. The Vakhsh and Pyandzh River Basins and its tributaries in Tajikistan were directly surveyed during an expedition within the framework of a Joint Research Project: Investigation of natural resources of Central Asia and reconstruction of agriculture in Afghanistan, that is supported by the Ministry of Education ...

  9. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  10. 30 CFR 402.7 - Water-Resources Technology Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water-Resources Technology Development Program. 402.7 Section 402.7 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Description of Water-Resources...

  11. Water resources planning and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Hussey, Karen

    2011-01-01

    .... Its case studies and 'foundation' chapters will be greatly valued by students, researchers and professionals involved in water resources, hydrology, governance and public policy, law, economics...

  12. Survey of heavy metal pollution (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron and manganese) in drinking water resources of Nurabad city, Lorestan, Iran 2013

    OpenAIRE

    GHodratolah Shams Khorramabadi; Abdolah Dargahi; Lila Tabandeh; Hatam Godini; Parvin Mostafaee

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy water passes through the pipelines from supply resources to consuming places in which passing from these stages may cause some cases of contamination like heavy metal contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese) in water resources of Nurabad city of Lorestan in 2013. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples were collected from 7 wells of drinking...

  13. Water resources. [mapping and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in applying ERTS-1 data to water resources problems, nevertheless, more time and effort still appear necessary for further quantification of results, including the specification of thematic measurement accuracies. More modeling can be done very profitably. In particular, more strategy models describing the processes wherein ERTS-1 data would be acquired, analyzed, processed, and utilized in operational situations could be profitably accomplished. It is generally observed that the ERTS-1 data applicability is evident in several areas and that the next most general and substantive steps in the implementation of the data in operational situations would be greatly encouraged by the establishment of an operational earth resources satellite organization and capability. Further encouragement of this operational capability would be facilitated by all investigators striving to document their procedures as fully as possible and by providing time and cost comparisons between ERTS-1 and conventional acquisition approaches.

  14. Interdisciplinary Methods in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosens, Barbara; Fiedler, Fritz; Boll, Jan; Higgins, Lorie; Johnson, Gary; Kennedy, Brian; Strand, Eva; Wilson, Patrick; Laflin, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the face of a myriad of complex water resource issues, traditional disciplinary separation is ineffective in developing approaches to promote a sustainable water future. As part of a new graduate program in water resources, faculty at the University of Idaho have developed a course on interdisciplinary methods designed to prepare students for…

  15. Dynamic Programming Applications in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakowitz, Sidney

    1982-08-01

    The central intention of this survey is to review dynamic programming models for water resource problems and to examine computational techniques which have been used to obtain solutions to these problems. Problem areas surveyed here include aqueduct design, irrigation system control, project development, water quality maintenance, and reservoir operations analysis. Computational considerations impose severe limitation on the scale of dynamic programming problems which can be solved. Inventive numerical techniques for implementing dynamic programming have been applied to water resource problems. Discrete dynamic programming, differential dynamic programming, state incremental dynamic programming, and Howard's policy iteration method are among the techniques reviewed. Attempts have been made to delineate the successful applications, and speculative ideas are offered toward attacking problems which have not been solved satisfactorily.

  16. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment and study plan for a regional ground-water resource investigation of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Dahlen, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    Prolonged drought, allocation of surface-water flow, and increased demands on ground-water supplies resulting from population growth are focuses for the need to evaluate ground-water resources in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces of North Carolina. Urbanization and certain aspects of agricultural production also have caused increased concerns about protecting the quality of ground water in this region. More than 75 percent of the State's population resides in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces in an area that covers 30,544 square miles and 65 counties. Between 1940 and 2000, the population in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces increased from 2.66 to 6.11 million; most of this increase occurred in the Piedmont. Of the total population, an estimated 1.97 million people, or 32.3 percent (based on the 1990 census), relied on ground water for a variety of uses, including commercial, industrial, and most importantly, potable supplies. Ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont traditionally has not been considered as a source for large supplies, primarily because of readily available and seemingly limitless surface-water supplies, and the perception that ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces occurs in a complex, generally heterogeneous geologic environment. Some reluctance to use ground water for large supplies derives from the reputation of aquifers in these provinces for producing low yields to wells, and the few high-yield wells that are drilled seem to be scattered in areas distant from where they are needed. Because the aquifers in these provinces are shallow, they also are susceptible to contamination by activities on the land surface. In response to these issues, the North Carolina Legislature supported the creation of a Resource Evaluation Program to ensure the long-term availability, sustainability, and quality of ground water in the State. As part of the Resource Evaluation Program, the North Carolina Division of Water Quality

  17. Water resources of southeastern Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jack B.; Mangan, John W.; White, Walter F.

    1951-01-01

    This report has been prepared as a contribution to the development of southeastern Bucks County, Pa. It summarizes available information on the water resources of this 90-square mile area and evaluates current supplies. Future development of the area may change both the available quantity and the quality of the water supply. The effective development of the area demands a continuing knowledge of the water used and the potential quantity and quality of water available from both underground and surface sources. The area is strategically important to a great industrial section of the Bast. Its eastern boundary is a 26-mile segment of the Delaware River along the extreme southeastern border of Bucks County, Pa. (fig. 1). The present.population of the area is about 40,000, including 24,800 in Bristol Borough and Township and 6,770 in Morrisville. The area is traversed by both the Pennsylvania and the Reading Railroads and also by U.S. Highways 1 and 13. These are main transportation routes connecting the great market outlets of Philadelphia and New York. The Delaware River'is navigable from Morrisville to the sea. The area is only a short distance upstream from the Port of Philadelphia, which ranks second only to New York as the most important seaport in the United States. The area is mostly flat, open land 10 to 60 feet above mean sea level. It contains several large Industries, concentrated chiefly in the Bristol area (pi. 1). There are also scattered industries in the Morrisville, Langhorne, and Bensalem areas. However, Bucks County retains some of the characteristics of a farming region. Truck farming and gardening are still carried on to a considerable extent. Along Delaware River below Morrisville the mining of sand and gravel is an Important industry. The facts summarized in this report have been accumulated over a period of 25 years or more by Federal, State, and local agencies in connection with Investigations for other purposes. Most of the data used in this

  18. Survey of heavy metal pollution (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron and manganese in drinking water resources of Nurabad city, Lorestan, Iran 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHodratolah Shams Khorramabadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy water passes through the pipelines from supply resources to consuming places in which passing from these stages may cause some cases of contamination like heavy metal contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese in water resources of Nurabad city of Lorestan in 2013. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples were collected from 7 wells of drinking water and 2 water storage tanks during 6 months in Nurabad. So that, heavy metal parameters such as copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese were measured using an atomic absorption device and also electrical conductivity, sulfate, chloride and total dissolved solids were also measured in accordance with standard methods. Results: Results indicated that the concentration of studied metals in water sources was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard, and in the water supply system the concentration of some metals was more than standard level. Moreover, the results showed that the concentration of studied heavy metals were more in winter than in autumn. Conclusion: Generally, in the water resources of Nurabad city the concentration of studied heavy metals was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard and there are not problems for water consumers. However, due to public health and the presence of a high concentration of these metals in the distribution supply, the heavy metal concentration in drinking water of this region should be monitored regularly by responsible organizations.

  19. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal-care products, and other organic wastewater contaminants in water resources: Recent research activities of the U.S. Geological Survey's toxic substances hydrology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent decades have brought increasing concerns for potential contamination of water resources that could inadvertently result during production, use, and disposal of the numerous chemicals offering improvements in industry, agriculture, medical treatment, and even common household products. Increasing knowledge of the environmental occurrence or toxicological behavior of these contaminants from various studies in Europe, United States, and elsewhere has resulted in increased concern for potential adverse environmental and human health effects (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). Ecologists and public health experts often have incomplete understandings of the toxicological significance of many of these contaminants, particularly long-term, low-level exposure and when they occur in mixtures with other contaminants (Daughton and Ternes, 1999; Kümmerer, 2001). In addition, these ‘emerging contaminants’ are not typically monitored or assessed in ambient water resources. The need to understand the processes controlling the transport and fate of these contaminants in the environment, and the lack of knowledge of the significance of long-term exposures have increased the need to study environmental occurrence down to trace (nanogram per liter) levels. Furthermore, the possibility that mixtures of environmental contaminants may interact synergistically or antagonistically has increased the need to characterize the types of mixtures that are found in our waters. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Toxic Substances Hydrology Program (Toxics Program) is developing information and tools on emerging water-quality issues that will be used to design and improve water-quality monitoring and assessment programs of the USGS and others, and for proactive decision-making by industry, regulators, the research community, and the public (http://toxics.usgs.gov/regional/emc.html). This research on emerging water-quality issues includes a combination of laboratory work to develop new analytical

  20. Conceptual Model of Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  1. Transborder Water Resources of Kirghizia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Alamanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geography of water bodies and water resources of Kyrgyzstan was completely observed. Studied the dynamics of water management in different countries related to the restructuring of the water sector in the new conditions of socio-economic development. Analyzed official and expert opinion about positions on using of transboundary water resources in Central Asia. In the article given recommendation for solving problems of transboundary water sharing. Proposed actions and activities among which the main role should play international legal initiatives.

  2. 75 FR 27575 - Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... encourages regional cooperation among institutes in research into areas of water management, development, and... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program... Water Resources Research Act of 1984, as amended (42 U.S.C. 10301 et seq.), authorizes a water resources...

  3. Water resources management in Tanzania: identifying research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is in four parts which address: water resources as impacted by climate change; management of water resources in Rainfed agriculture; management of water resources in irrigated agriculture and water management catchment studies. Review of water resources management in Tanzania; Global literature review ...

  4. Hydrology and water resources in Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi Moghaddam, Kourosh

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is the main driver of the water balance variability of the water over space and time, and changes in precipitation have very important implications for hydrology and water resources. Variations in precipitation over daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales influence hydrological variability over time in a catchment. Flood frequency is affected by changes in the year-to-year variability in precipitation and by changes in short-term rainfall properties. Desiccation of the Caspian Sea is one of the world's most serious ecosystem catastrophes. The Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) caught under 10 m depth using bottom trawl net by research vessel during winter 2012, summer and winter 2013 and spring 2014 in east, central and west of southern parts of Caspian Sea, then, their diets were investigated. During 136 trawling in the aimed seasons, Persian sturgeon with 1 to 2 years old and 179.67 × 0.2 g (body weight) and 29.97 ± 0.4 cm (Total length) captured. Examination of stomach contents in the sturgeon specimens revealed that the food spectrum was composed of bony fishes (Neogobius sp., Atherina sp. and Clupeonella delicatula), invertebrates belonging to the family Ampharetidae polychaeta worms including (Hypanai sp. and Nereis diversicolor), various crustaceans (Gammarus sp. and Paramysis sp.). Investigation on stomach contents of sturgeon Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth in 2012 to 2013 surveys showed that there is significant difference in the consumed food. The most food diversity have been observed in winter 2013, also Polychaeta is the primary consumed food and crustacean is the secondary one (P > 0.05), no new types of food (such as bony fishes or benthics) have been observed on food chain of Acipenser persicus and shows no significant difference (P > 0.05).

  5. Hydrology and water resources in Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haddadi Moghaddam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the main driver of the water balance variability of the water over space and time, and changes in precipitation have very important implications for hydrology and water resources. Variations in precipitation over daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales influence hydrological variability over time in a catchment. Flood frequency is affected by changes in the year-to-year variability in precipitation and by changes in short-term rainfall properties. Desiccation of the Caspian Sea is one of the world's most serious ecosystem catastrophes. The Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth using bottom trawl net by research vessel during winter 2012, summer and winter 2013 and spring 2014 in east, central and west of southern parts of Caspian Sea, then, their diets were investigated. During 136 trawling in the aimed seasons, Persian sturgeon with 1 to 2 years old and 179.67 × 0.2 g (body weight and 29.97 ± 0.4 cm (Total length captured. Examination of stomach contents in the sturgeon specimens revealed that the food spectrum was composed of bony fishes (Neogobius sp., Atherina sp. and Clupeonella delicatula, invertebrates belonging to the family Ampharetidae polychaeta worms including (Hypanai sp. and Nereis diversicolor, various crustaceans (Gammarus sp. and Paramysis sp.. Investigation on stomach contents of sturgeon Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth in 2012 to 2013 surveys showed that there is significant difference in the consumed food. The most food diversity have been observed in winter 2013, also Polychaeta is the primary consumed food and crustacean is the secondary one (P > 0.05, no new types of food (such as bony fishes or benthics have been observed on food chain of Acipenser persicus and shows no significant difference (P > 0.05.

  6. Advances in water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering is a collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. A sister volume to Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, this volume focuses on the theory and analysis of various water resources systems including watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, integrated simulation of interactive surface water and groundwater systems, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment transport, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial processes, minimum energy dissipation rate theory and applications, hydraulic modeling development and application, geophysical methods for assessment of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland areas by rainfall and overland flow, geofluvial modeling methodologies and applications, and an environmental water engineering glossary. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of...

  7. Advances in water resources management

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih; Wang, Mu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides in-depth coverage of such topics as multi-reservoir system operation theory and practice, management of aquifer systems connected to streams using semi-analytical models, one-dimensional model of water quality and aquatic ecosystem-ecotoxicology in river systems, environmental and health impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale gas, bioaugmentation for water resources protection, wastewater renovation by flotation for water pollution control, determination of receiving water’s reaeration coefficient in the presence of salinity for water quality management, sensitivity analysis for stream water quality management, river ice process, and computer-aided mathematical modeling of water properties. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of water resources systems, and scientists and researchers. The goals of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series are: (1) to cover entire environmental fields, includin...

  8. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is part of RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). RESOLVE is an ISRU ground demonstration: (1) A rover to explore a permanently shadowed crater at the south or north pole of the Moon (2) Drill core samples down to 1 meter (3) Heat the core samples to 150C (4) Analyze gases and capture water and/or hydrogen evolved (5) Use hydrogen reduction to extract oxygen from regolith

  9. Water resources of the Menominee Indian Reservation of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohelski, J.T.; Kammerer, P.A.; Conlon, Terrence D.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources of the Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, were investigated during the period October 1981 through September 1987. The report presents baseline data and some interpretation of ground- and surface-water hydrology and quality of the Reservation.

  10. AOIPS water resources data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwie, P.

    1977-01-01

    The text and computer-generated displays used to demonstrate the AOIPS (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System) water resources data management system are investigated. The system was developed to assist hydrologists in analyzing the physical processes occurring in watersheds. It was designed to alleviate some of the problems encountered while investigating the complex interrelationships of variables such as land-cover type, topography, precipitation, snow melt, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and streamflow rates. The system has an interactive image processing capability and a color video display to display results as they are obtained.

  11. Protecting water resources with smart growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Protecting Water Resources with : Smart Growth is intended for audiences already familiar with smart : growth, who now seek specific ideas : on how techniques for smarter growth : can be used to protect their water : resources. This document is one...

  12. Towards Empowered Stakeholder Participation in Water Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards Empowered Stakeholder Participation in Water Resource Management in Zimbabwe. ... Journal of Social Development in Africa ... This paper considers why stakeholder institutions mandated to manage water resources in Zimbabwe in a participatory manner, have failed to perform according to expectations.

  13. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of water resources management in Tanzania; Global literature review on water resources management; Knowledge gaps on water ... Keywords: Water resources management, Research gaps, Research agenda, Climate change, Land use change. ...... including loss of native biodiversity, and risks to ecosystems and ...

  14. Water resources assessment and prediction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water resources assessment in China, can be classified into three groups: (i comprehensive water resources assessment, (ii annual water resources assessment, and (iii industrial project water resources assessment. Comprehensive water resources assessment is the conventional assessment where the frequency distribution of water resources in basins or provincial regions are analyzed. For the annual water resources assessment, water resources of the last year in basins or provincial regions are usually assessed. For the industrial project water resources assessment, the water resources situation before the construction of industrial project has to be assessed. To address the climate and environmental changes, hydrological and statistical models are widely applied for studies on assessing water resources changes. For the water resources prediction in China usually the monthly runoff prediction is used. In most low flow seasons, the flow recession curve is commonly used as prediction method. In the humid regions, the rainfall-runoff ensemble prediction (ESP has been widely applied for the monthly runoff prediction. The conditional probability method for the monthly runoff prediction was also applied to assess next month runoff probability under a fixed initial condition.

  15. Remote sensing and water resources

    CERN Document Server

    Champollion, N; Benveniste, J; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of overview articles showing how space-based observations, combined with hydrological modeling, have considerably improved our knowledge of the continental water cycle and its sensitivity to climate change. Two main issues are highlighted: (1) the use in combination of space observations for monitoring water storage changes in river basins worldwide, and (2) the use of space data in hydrological modeling either through data assimilation or as external constraints. The water resources aspect is also addressed, as well as the impacts of direct anthropogenic forcing on land hydrology (e.g. ground water depletion, dam building on rivers, crop irrigation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, etc.). Remote sensing observations offer important new information on this important topic as well, which is highly useful for achieving water management objectives. Over the past 15 years, remote sensing techniques have increasingly demonstrated their capability to monitor components of th...

  16. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Deshan Tang; Melissa Pilgrim; Jinan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quanti...

  17. Water resources and water management in the Bahurutshe heartland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With this study a brief descriptive survey, covering the period from 1972 to the present, of the water resources in the Lehurutshe district, formerly part of Bophuthatswana and now part of the Zeerust district of the North-West Province, is given. Both surface water bodies (rivers, catchments, drainage systems, wetlands, pans, ...

  18. Water Resource Uses and Recreational Activities in Rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekoya, Adebola

    1991-01-01

    This study surveys rural Nigerian residents concerning local water resource uses and tourists' recreational activities with respect to scales of awareness, understanding, and incentive. Results indicate a public willingness to encourage and finance the rural development of water bodies for agricultural purposes exclusive of investment for tourism…

  19. Bringing ecosystem services into integrated water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Ghirmay, Hiyoba

    2013-11-15

    In this paper we propose an ecosystem service framework to support integrated water resource management and apply it to the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Water resources in the Murray-Darling Basin have been over-allocated for irrigation use with the consequent degradation of freshwater ecosystems. In line with integrated water resource management principles, Australian Government reforms are reducing the amount of water diverted for irrigation to improve ecosystem health. However, limited understanding of the broader benefits and trade-offs associated with reducing irrigation diversions has hampered the planning process supporting this reform. Ecosystem services offer an integrative framework to identify the broader benefits associated with integrated water resource management in the Murray-Darling Basin, thereby providing support for the Government to reform decision-making. We conducted a multi-criteria decision analysis for ranking regional potentials to provide ecosystem services at river basin scale. We surveyed the wider public about their understanding of, and priorities for, managing ecosystem services and then integrated the results with spatially explicit indicators of ecosystem service provision. The preliminary results of this work identified the sub-catchments with the greatest potential synergies and trade-offs of ecosystem service provision under the integrated water resources management reform process. With future development, our framework could be used as a decision support tool by those grappling with the challenge of the sustainable allocation of water between irrigation and the environment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Climate Change and Water Resources Management: A Federal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Levi D.; Kiang, Julie E.; Olsen, J. Rolf; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Raff, David A.; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Webb, Robert S.; White, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Many challenges, including climate change, face the Nation's water managers. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has provided estimates of how climate may change, but more understanding of the processes driving the changes, the sequences of the changes, and the manifestation of these global changes at different scales could be beneficial. Since the changes will likely affect fundamental drivers of the hydrological cycle, climate change may have a large impact on water resources and water resources managers. The purpose of this interagency report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating, and responding to climate change. This report describes the existing and still needed underpinning science crucial to addressing the many impacts of climate change on water resources management.

  1. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  2. Smart Markets for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John

    2017-04-01

    Commercial water users often want to trade water, but their trades can hurt other users and the environment. So government has to check every transaction. This checking process is slow and expensive. That's why "free market" water trading doesn't work, especially with trading between a single buyer and a single seller. This talk will describe a water trading mechanism designed to solve these problems. The trading mechanism is called a "smart market". A smart market allows simultaneous many-to-many trades. It can reduce the transaction costs of water trading, while improving environmental outcomes. The smart market depends on a combination of recent technologies: hydrology simulation, computer power, and the Internet. Our smart market design uses standard hydrological models, user bids from a web page, and computer optimization to maximize the economic value of water while meeting all environmental constraints. Before the smart market can be implemented, however, users and the water agency must meet six critical prerequisites. These prerequisites may be viewed as simply good water management that should be done anyway. I will describe these prerequisites, and I will briefly discuss common arguments against water markets. This talk will be an abstract of a forthcoming book, "Smart Markets for Water Resources: A Manual for Implementation," by John F. Raffensperger and Mark W. Milke, from Springer Publishing.

  3. Water-Resources Investigations in Wisconsin, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Diane E.; Fuller, Jan A.

    2001-01-01

    The statewide average precipitation of 32.82 inches for the 2000 water year was 1.14 inches greater than the normal annual precipitation of 31.68 inches for water years 1961-90. Average precipitation values affecting streamflow conditions ranged from 90 percent of normal in northwest Wisconsin to 121 percent of normal in southeast Wisconsin (summary tables provided by Lyle Anderson, State Climatology Office, University of Wisconsin, Madison, written commun., 2001). Although precipitation for the year averaged only 104 percent of normal, the 2000 water year had extremes of beginning dry, turning very wet in the spring, and ending dry again. The year began below normal the first quarter of the year in all climatic divisions of the State. Record high temperatures in February and March and below normal snowfall brought an early spring and dry conditions statewide during March and April (Wisconsin Agricultural Statistics Service, 2000). The northern part of the State was still below normal for May. May and June brought record wet weather and cool temperatures for the southern half of the State: southeast Wisconsin received over 270 percent of normal rainfall for May, and southwest Wisconsin received over 250 percent of normal rainfall for June. June was the wettest month statewide, averaging 173 percent of normal. The last quarter of the year was more variable with the northern half of the State being below normal and the remainder near normal; heavy rains exceeding 10 inches for the month occurred in localized areas during July and September.

  4. Game Theory in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George

    2015-04-01

    Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will

  5. International cooperation in water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    bewildering variety of organizations, there certainly exists, for any nation, group, or individual, a demonstrated mechanism for almost any conceivable form of international cooperation in hydrology and water resources. ?? 1979 Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft.

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the current level of understanding of environmental impact assessment of water resources development; to assess the major challenges to sustainable environmental systems from water resources development perspectives, and to identify major environmental issues that need to ...

  7. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  8. 78 FR 46597 - Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... research into areas of water management, development, and conservation that have a regional or national....S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research... Water Resources (NIWR) USGS Competitive Grant Program. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA...

  9. 78 FR 23288 - Proposed Information Collection: State Water Resources Research Institute Program; Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... research into areas of water management, development, and conservation that have a regional or national... Geological Survey Proposed Information Collection: State Water Resources Research Institute Program; Annual... collection (IC) to renew approval of the paperwork requirements for ``National Institutes for Water Resources...

  10. GIS AND GAME THEORY FOR WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ganjali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, aspects of Game theory and its application on water resources management combined with GIS techniques are detailed. First, each term is explained and the advantages and limitations of its aspect is discussed. Then, the nature of combinations between each pair and literature on the previous studies are given. Several cases were investigated and results were magnified in order to conclude with the applicability and combination of GIS- Game Theory- Water Resources Management. It is concluded that the game theory is used relatively in limited studies of water management fields such as cost/benefit allocation among users, water allocation among trans-boundary users in water resources, water quality management, groundwater management, analysis of water policies, fair allocation of water resources development cost and some other narrow fields. Also, Decision-making in environmental projects requires consideration of trade-offs between socio-political, environmental, and economic impacts and is often complicated by various stakeholder views. Most of the literature on water allocation and conflict problems uses traditional optimization models to identify the most efficient scheme while the Game Theory, as an optimization method, combined GIS are beneficial platforms for agent based models to be used in solving Water Resources Management problems in the further studies.

  11. GIS and Game Theory for Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjali, N.; Guney, C.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, aspects of Game theory and its application on water resources management combined with GIS techniques are detailed. First, each term is explained and the advantages and limitations of its aspect is discussed. Then, the nature of combinations between each pair and literature on the previous studies are given. Several cases were investigated and results were magnified in order to conclude with the applicability and combination of GIS- Game Theory- Water Resources Management. It is concluded that the game theory is used relatively in limited studies of water management fields such as cost/benefit allocation among users, water allocation among trans-boundary users in water resources, water quality management, groundwater management, analysis of water policies, fair allocation of water resources development cost and some other narrow fields. Also, Decision-making in environmental projects requires consideration of trade-offs between socio-political, environmental, and economic impacts and is often complicated by various stakeholder views. Most of the literature on water allocation and conflict problems uses traditional optimization models to identify the most efficient scheme while the Game Theory, as an optimization method, combined GIS are beneficial platforms for agent based models to be used in solving Water Resources Management problems in the further studies.

  12. Value of Landsat in urban water resources planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.; Ragan, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation had the objective to evaluate the utility of satellite multispectral remote sensing in urban water resources planning. The results are presented of a study which was conducted to determine the economic impact of Landsat data. The use of Landsat data to estimate hydrologic model parameters employed in urban water resources planning is discussed. A decision regarding an employment of the Landsat data has to consider the tradeoff between data accuracy and cost. Bayesian decision theory is used in this connection. It is concluded that computer-aided interpretation of Landsat data is a highly cost-effective method of estimating the percentage of impervious area.

  13. Water resources of Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jon P.; Miller, Kirk A.

    2004-01-01

    Sweetwater County is located in the southwestern part of Wyoming and is the largest county in the State. A study to quantify the availability and describe the chemical quality of surface-water and ground-water resources in Sweetwater County was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineers Office. Most of the county has an arid climate. For this reason a large amount of the flow in perennial streams within the county is derived from outside the county. Likewise, much of the ground-water recharge to aquifers within the county is from flows into the county, and occurs slowly. Surface-water data were not collected as part of the study. Evaluations of streamflow and stream-water quality were limited to analyses of historical data and descriptions of previous investigations. Forty-six new ground-water-quality samples were collected as part of the study and the results from an additional 782 historical ground-water-quality samples were reviewed. Available hydrogeologic characteristics for various aquifers throughout the county also are described. Flow characteristics of streams in Sweetwater County vary substantially depending on regional and local basin characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Because precipitation amounts in the county are small, most streams in the county are ephemeral, flowing only as a result of regional or local rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Flows in perennial streams in the county generally are a result of snowmelt runoff in the mountainous headwater areas to the north, west, and south of the county. Flow characteristics of most perennial streams are altered substantially by diversions and regulation. Water-quality characteristics of selected streams in and near Sweetwater County during water years 1974 through 1983 were variable. Concentrations of dissolved constituents, suspended sediment, and bacteria generally were smallest at sites on the Green River because of resistant geologic units, increased

  14. Overview of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute's "Guidelines For Integrated Water Resources Management" Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Sehlke

    2005-03-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management is a systematic approach to optimizing our understanding, control and management of water resources within a basin to meet multiple objectives. Recognition of the need for integrating water resources within basins is not unique to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute’s Integrated Water Resources Management Task Committee. Many individuals, governments and other organizations have attempted to develop holistic water resources management programs. In some cases, the results have been very effective and in other cases, valiant attempts have fallen far short of their initial goals. The intent of this Task Committee is to provide a set of guidelines that discusses the concepts, methods and tools necessary for integrating and optimizing the management of the physical resources and to optimize and integrate programs, organizations, infrastructure, and socioeconomic institutions into comprehensive water resources management programs.

  15. Water Resources Research October 1, 1979 - September 30, 1980: Summary statements of research activities by the Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Research in the WRD had its beginnings in the late 1950's when the "core research" line item was added to the Congressional budget. Since this time the Federal program has grown from a "basic sciences" program to one that includes a broad spectrum of basic and applied scientific investigations. Water resources research in WRD includes the study of water in all its phases and uses the basic sciences of mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology, geology and engineering to gain a fundamental understanding of the processes that affect the movement of water and its chemical constituents through hydrologic systems. The basic knowledge and methodologies derived from water resources research are applicable not only to the solution of current problems associated with the Nation's water resources, but also to anticipated hydrologic issues.

  16. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  17. Spirit Lake Water Resource Management NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit ND-0031101, Spirit Lake Water Resource Management is authorized to discharge to an unnamed intermittent tributary to Devils Lake which is tributary to Sheyenne River in North Dakota.

  18. Local approaches to Integrated Water Resources Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Butterworth; Jeroen Warner; Patrick Moriarty; Charles Batchelor

    2010-01-01

      Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities...

  19. Lake Victoria water resources management challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... more sustainable and equitable framework governing management measures capable of meeting the needs of riparian states and ensuring sustainability within the basin is highlighted. Keywords: biodiversity loss; East Africa; eutrophication; heavy metal pollution; international treaties; Nile Basin; shared water resources

  20. Book Review: "Water Resources Management in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Water Resources Management in Ethiopia: Implications for the Nile Basin. Edited by: Helmut Kloos and Worku Legesse (With 17 contributors) Cambria Press: Amherst: New York; 2010. Hard Cover, 415 pages (with 14 chapters and Index) ...

  1. 18 CFR 701.76 - The Water Resources Council Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Water Resources Council Staff. 701.76 Section 701.76 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.76 The Water Resources Council Staff. The Water...

  2. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quantitative representation of the sustainable development state of the water resources compound system. Four cities in China, Beijing, Fuzhou, Urumqi, and Lhasa, were selected as the study areas. The differences in the three types of mechanisms and the water quotient of the water resources compound system of each city in 2013 were compared. The results indicate that the different subsystems that comprise the compound system of a given area have different development mechanisms and resistant mechanisms. There are clear differences in the mechanisms and the water quotients for the water resources compound systems of different regions. Pertinent measures should be taken into account during integrated water resource management to improve the sustainable development status of regional water resources compound systems.

  3. Irrigation Wells from the Nevada Division of Water Resources Well Log Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set was derived from the Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources (NDWR) well log data base...

  4. Water resource management: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2012-10-01

    Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India.

  5. Impact of future energy policy on water resources in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivotti, Pedro; Karatayev, Marat; Sobral Mourão, Zenaida; Shah, Nilay; Clarke, Michèle; Konadu, D. Dennis

    2017-04-01

    As part of its commitment to become one of the top-30 developed countries in the world, Kazakhstan set out an ambitious target of increasing the share of renewables and alternative sources of energy in its power generation mix to 50% by 2050. This vision greatly contrasts with the current situation, with coal and natural gas power plants producing around 90% of total electricity in 2016. While this transition provides a unique opportunity to improve the sustainability of the national energy system, major natural resources challenges currently faced in the country should be taken into account. Particularly in the case of water resources management, the current system is characterised by significant losses, heavy reliance on irrigation for the agricultural sector, unevenly distributed surface water, vulnerability to climate change and variations in transboundary inflows, amongst other issues. In this context, this study aims to investigate the future availability of water resources to support food production and the transition to a new energy system. Given the challenges mentioned above, tackling this question requires an integrated analysis of the water-energy-food systems in Kazakhstan. This is done in three stages: (1) characterising the water supply and demand in the country; (2) establishing the linkages between water resources and activities in the power production and agricultural sectors; and (3) identifying potential conflicts at the nexus between water, energy and food, taking into account future energy policy scenarios, trends for food production and water resource use.

  6. Effects of meteorological droughts on agricultural water resources in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houquan Lu; Yihua Wu; Yijun Li; Yongqiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    With the global warming, frequencies of drought are rising in the humid area of southern China. In this study, the effects of meteorological drought on the agricultural water resource based on the agricultural water resource carrying capacity (AWRCC) in southern China were investigated. The entire study area was divided into three regions based on the...

  7. NASA's Applied Sciences for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, Bradley; Toll, David; Engman, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Systems Division within NASA has the primary responsibility for the Earth Science Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses one of the major problems facing water resources managers, that of having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA?s science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA?s Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  8. Social Learning and Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pahl-Wostl

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources management in general, and water resources management in particular, are currently undergoing a major paradigm shift. Management practices have largely been developed and implemented by experts using technical means based on designing systems that can be predicted and controlled. In recent years, stakeholder involvement has gained increasing importance. Collaborative governance is considered to be more appropriate for integrated and adaptive management regimes needed to cope with the complexity of social-ecological systems. The paper presents a concept for social learning and collaborative governance developed in the European project HarmoniCOP (Harmonizing COllaborative Planning. The concept is rooted in the more interpretive strands of the social sciences emphasizing the context dependence of knowledge. The role of frames and boundary management in processes of learning at different levels and time scales is investigated. The foundation of social learning as investigated in the HarmoniCOP project is multiparty collaboration processes that are perceived to be the nuclei of learning processes. Such processes take place in networks or "communities of practice" and are influenced by the governance structure in which they are embedded. Requirements for social learning include institutional settings that guarantee some degree of stability and certainty without being rigid and inflexible. Our analyses, which are based on conceptual considerations and empirical insights, suggest that the development of such institutional settings involves continued processes of social learning. In these processes, stakeholders at different scales are connected in flexible networks that allow them to develop the capacity and trust they need to collaborate in a wide range of formal and informal relationships ranging from formal legal structures and contracts to informal, voluntary agreements.

  9. Water resources of the Lake Erie shore region in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, John William; Van Tuyl, Donald W.; White, Walter F.

    1952-01-01

    An abundant supply of water is available to the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. Lake i£rie furnishes an almost inexhaustible supply of water of satisfactory chemical quality. Small quantities of water are available from small streams in the area and from the ground. A satisfactory water supply is one of the factors that affect the economic growth of a region. Cities and towns must have adequate amounts of pure water for human consumption. Industries must have suitable water ih sufficient quantities for all purposes. In order to assure. success and economy, the development of water resources should be based on adequate knowledge of the quantity and quality of the water. As a nation, we can not afford to run the risk of dissipating our resources, especially in times of national emergency, by building projects that are not founded on sound engineering and adequate water-resources information. The purpose of this report is to summarize and interpret all available water-resources information for the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. The report will be useful for initial guidance in the location or expansion of water facilities for defense and nondefense industries and the municipalities upon which they are dependent. It will also be useful in evaluating the adequacy of the Geological Survey's part of the basic research necessary to plan the orderly development of the water resources of the Lake Erie Shore region. Most of the data contained inthis report have been obtained'by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, the Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs, and the Pennsylvania State Planning Board, Department of Commerce. The Pennsylv~nia Department of Health furnished information on water pollution. The report was prepared in the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey b:y John W. Mangan (Surface Water). Donald W. VanTuyl (Ground Water). and Walter F. White, Jr. (Quality of

  10. Are we Utilizing our Water Resources Wisely?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 1. Are we Utilizing our Water Resources Wisely? B P Radhakrishna. Classics Volume 21 Issue 1 January 2016 pp 93-104 ... Author Affiliations. B P Radhakrishna1. Geological Society of India, P.B. No.1922, Gavipuram P.O., Bangalore, India.

  11. Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has a population of about 160 million people and an area of land covering 200,000 square kilometres. Amongst the numerous natural resources in Nigeria; water resources is most plenteous and is developing at a fast pace. Because of the lack of sound early development policy and meaningful investments, the ...

  12. GEO/SQL in water resource manegement

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Vidmar; Mitja Brilly

    1992-01-01

    The development of water resource management concepts shouis the problem of collecting, combining, and using alphanumerical and graphical spatial data. The solution of this problem lies in the use of geographic information systems - GIS. This paper describes the usefulness of GIS programming tool Geo/SQL in water resources management.

  13. Early successional forest habitats and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Vose; Chelcy Ford

    2011-01-01

    Tree harvests that create early successional habitats have direct and indirect impacts on water resources in forests of the Central Hardwood Region. Streamflow increases substantially immediately after timber harvest, but increases decline as leaf area recovers and biomass aggrades. Post-harvest increases in stormflow of 10–20%, generally do not contribute to...

  14. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. CORNEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on water resources – The most recent scientific assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC [6] concludes that, since the late 19th century, anthropogenic induced emissions of greenhouse gases have contributed to an increase in global surface temperatures of about 0.3 to 0.6o C. Based on the IPCC’s scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols a further increase of 2o C is expected by the year 2100. Plants, animals, natural and managed ecosystems, and human settlements are susceptible to variations in the storage, fluxes, and quality of water and sensitive to climate change. From urban and agricultural water supplies to flood management and aquatic ecosystem protection, global warming is affecting all aspects of water resource management. Rising temperatures, loss of snowpack, escalating size and frequency of flood events, and rising sea levels are just some of the impacts of climate change that have broad implications for the management of water resources. With robust scientific evidence showing that human-induced climate change is occurring, it is critical to understand how water quantity and quality might be affected. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the environmental risks caused by climate anomalies on water resources, to examine the negative impacts of a greenhouse warming on the supply and demand for water and the resulting socio-economic implications.

  15. Water Resource Variability and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingkui Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A significant challenge posed by changing climates is how water cycling and surficial and subsurface water availability will be affected at global and regional scales. Such alterations are critical as they often lead to increased vulnerability in ecosystems and human society. Understanding specifically how climate change affects water resource variability in different locations is of critical importance to sustainable development in different parts of the world. The papers included in this special issue focus on three broad perspectives associated with water resource variability and climate change. Six papers employ remote sensing, meteorological station-based observational data, and tree-ring records to empirically determine how water resources have been changing over historical time periods. Eight of the contributions focus on modeling approaches to determine how known processes are likely to manifest themselves as climate shifts over time. Two others focus on human perceptions and adaptation strategies in the midst of unstable or unsettled water availability. The findings and methods presented in this collection of papers provide important contributions to the increased study and awareness of climate change on water resources.

  16. GEO/SQL in water resource manegement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Vidmar

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of water resource management concepts shouis the problem of collecting, combining, and using alphanumerical and graphical spatial data. The solution of this problem lies in the use of geographic information systems - GIS. This paper describes the usefulness of GIS programming tool Geo/SQL in water resources management.

  17. Armenia : Towards Integrated Water Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the challenges in the water sector faced by Armenia today, and outline options for management and allocation of its water resources in the future, considering the need for a stable, transparent apublic sector management framework and sustainable resource use for long-term private investment and job creation, and for appropriate balances among water...

  18. Social learning and water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahl-Wostl, C.; Craps, M.; Dewulf, A.; Mostert, E.; Tabara, D.; Taillieu, T.

    2007-01-01

    Natural resources management in general, and water resources management in particular, are currently undergoing a major paradigm shift. Management practices have largely been developed and implemented by experts using technical means based on designing systems that can be predicted and controlled.

  19. Social Learning and Water Resources Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahl-Wostl, C.; Craps, M.; Dewulf, A.; Mostert, E.; Tabara, D.; Taillieu, T.

    2007-01-01

    Natural resources management in general, and water resources management in particular, are currently undergoing a major paradigm shift. Management practices have largely been developed and implemented by experts using technical means based on designing systems that can be predicted and controlled.

  20. Municipal water resources management: evaluation of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Car wash can be defined as a facility used to clean the exterior and in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles. These facilities are common in Bauchi and other cities in Nigeria. They use water as a major input thereby causing serious challenges to water resources management. Car wash facilities in Bauchi depend on ...

  1. A vision for Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Bahr, Jean A.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Cai, Ximing; Hogue, Terri S.; Luce, Charles H.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Mackay, D. Scott; van Meerveld, H. J. (Ilja); Rajaram, Harihar; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Troch, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    Water Resources Research (WRR) continues to evolve as the team of international editors begins a new 4 year term of service. In this Editorial we summarize the importance of WRR in the hydrologic sciences, the challenges ahead, and the plans for the future of the journal.

  2. Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Koch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drylands regions of the world face difficult issues in maintaining water resources to meet current demands which will intensify in the future with population increases, infrastructure development, increased agricultural water demands, and climate change impacts on the hydrologic system. New water resources evaluation and management methods will be needed to assure that water resources in drylands are optimally managed in a sustainable manner. Development of water management and conservation methods is a multi-disciplinary endeavor. Scientists and engineers must collaborate and cooperate with water managers, planners, and politicians to successfully adopt new strategies to manage water not only for humans, but to maintain all aspects of the environment. This particularly applies to drylands regions where resources are already limited and conflicts over water are occurring. Every aspect of the hydrologic cycle needs to be assessed to be able to quantify the available water resources, to monitor natural and anthropogenic changes, and to develop flexible policies and management strategies that can change as conditions dictate. Optimal, sustainable water management is achieved by cooperation and not conflict, thereby necessitating the need for high quality scientific research and input into the process.

  3. Installed water resource modelling systems for catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following international trends there are a growing number of modelling systems being installed for integrated water resource management, in Southern Africa. Such systems are likely to be installed for operational use in ongoing learning, research, strategic planning and consensus-building amongst stakeholders in the ...

  4. Water users' associations and integrated water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Users' Associations (WU As), are important component of participatory governance arrangement for sustainable management of water resources in Ghana. At present, WUAs' are not organised in their respective sectors to function effectively. However, a number of the groups exist, evidenced by their governance ...

  5. 588 Department of Water Resources and Environmental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-06-06

    Accepted: June 06, 2017. 1. Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria. 2. Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of. Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Abstract.

  6. Science to support the understanding of Ohio's water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie; Bambach, Phil; Runkle, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Ohio’s water resources support a complex web of human activities and nature—clean and abundant water is needed for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry, as well as for fish and wildlife needs. The distribution of rainfall can cause floods and droughts, which affects streamflow, groundwater, water availability, water quality, recreation, and aquatic habitats. Ohio is bordered by the Ohio River and Lake Erie and has over 44,000 miles of streams and more than 60,000 lakes and ponds (State of Ohio, 1994). Nearly all the rural population obtain drinking water from groundwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as universities, to furnish decisionmakers, policymakers, USGS scientists, and the general public with reliable scientific information and tools to assist them in management, stewardship, and use of Ohio’s natural resources. The diversity of scientific expertise among USGS personnel enables them to carry out large- and small-scale multidisciplinary studies. The USGS is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority—its sole product is reliable, impartial, credible, relevant, and timely scientific information, equally accessible and available to everyone. The USGS Ohio Water Science Center provides reliable hydrologic and water-related ecological information to aid in the understanding of use and management of the Nation’s water resources, in general, and Ohio’s water resources, in particular. This fact sheet provides an overview of current (2012) or recently completed USGS studies and data activities pertaining to water resources in Ohio. More information regarding projects of the USGS Ohio Water Science Center is available at http://oh.water.usgs.gov/.

  7. Agro-Economic Design of Cropping Pattern in Hendijan Irrigation and Drainage Network with Emphasis on Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Madeh Khaksar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, design of cropping pattern based on water resources is getting a high priority. This scheme is complicated, and affected by multiple factors. For investigation, designer must gather a huge data, and classify them. The method of processing and analyzing of the information is important. The method of linear programming based on Lingo software for Hendijan irrigation and drainage network was used. On the basis of water resources situation, physical limitations, ecology and economical parameters, hydromodule was determined. The model with initial data for crop pattern is performed by software to produce projected hydromodule. In this survey, sensitivity analysis on water cost was conducted. Result showed that by increasing water cost and rotation intensity, revenue for each consumption water unit was decreased. The maximum benefit for all available conditions of water on the case of non intensity would be 140 percent, for 3% of crops. The maximum benefit was 133346682 Rls per hectare based on water availability for 2006.

  8. Water resources protection technology: a handbook of measures to protect water resources in land development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tourbier, J. Toby; Westmacot, Richard

    1981-01-01

    This report consists of a description of measures that can be integrated into urban development to prevent, reduce, or ameliorate potential problems which would otherwise adversely affect water resources...

  9. Used water resource recovery using green microalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta

    A paradigm shift is promoted in wastewater treatment whereby wastewater is considered as a source of nutrients, water and energy, rather than waste and it is referred to as used water. Microalgae cultivation on used water resources offers the potential to recover nitrogen, phosphorus, water...... and energy. When coupling with used water treatment, microalgae is mostly considered to produce energy through biofuel production. A novel used water resource recovery approach was presented earlier, referred to as TRENS – a fully biochemical process for the removal, recovery and reuse of used water...... was lowered to a sub-optimal level diatoms proliferated in the PBR cultivating the mixed green microalgal consortium. Once the ratio was increased again, the diatoms could be washed out of the system. Model predictive accuracy deteriorated as a result of the changes in culture composition due to the possible...

  10. Editorial changes - Advances in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.; Rinaldo, A.

    2015-10-01

    Prof. Miller's longevity of service as Editor is remarkable - he started this role in August 1997. During his nearly 18 years as Editor, he provided unstinting energy, attention to detail, and commitment to the water resources community. A hallmark of his stewardship of the journal is that he "led from the front". He undertook not only to sustain a suitable venue for high quality research, but also to foster special issues, especially in emerging research topics. Prof. Miller ensured that at all times the journal's core focus of fundamental water resources science was not diluted. Indeed, a major legacy of Prof. Miller's vision is that the journal is a destination of choice for such contributions.

  11. Geospatial Data Standards for Indian Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, A.; Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2016-12-01

    Sustainable management of water resources is fundamental to the socio-economic development of any nation. There is an increasing degree of dependency on digital geographical data for monitoring, planning, managing and preserving the water resources and environmental quality. But the rising sophistication associated with the sharing of geospatial data among organizations or users, demands development of data standards for seamless information exchange among collaborators. Therefore, due to the realization that these datasets are vital for efficient use of Geographical Information Systems, there is a growing emphasis on data standards for modeling, encoding and communicating spatial data. Real world hydrologic interactions represented in a digital framework requires geospatial standards that may vary in contexts like: governance, resource inventory, cultural diversity, identifiers, role and scale. Though the prevalent standards for the hydrology data facilitate a particular need in a particular context but they lack a holistic approach. However, several worldwide initiatives such as Consortium for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences Inc. (USA), Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (Europe), Australian Water Resources Information System, etc., endeavour to address this issue of hydrology specific spatial data standards in a wholesome manner. But unfortunately there is no such provision for hydrology data exchange within the Indian community. Moreover, these standards somehow fail in providing powerful communication of the spatial hydrologic data. This study thus investigates the shortcomings of the existing industry standards for the hydrologic data models and then demonstrates a set of requirements for effective exchange of the hydrologic information in the Indian scenario.

  12. [Optimal allocation of irrigation water resources based on systematical strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuai; Zhang, Shu-qing

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the society and economy, as well as the rapid increase of population, more and more water is needed by human, which intensified the shortage of water resources. The scarcity of water resources and growing competition of water in different water use sectors reduce water availability for irrigation, so it is significant to plan and manage irrigation water resources scientifically and reasonably for improving water use efficiency (WUE) and ensuring food security. Many investigations indicate that WUE can be increased by optimization of water use. However, present studies focused primarily on a particular aspect or scale, which lack systematic analysis on the problem of irrigation water allocation. By summarizing previous related studies, especially those based on intelligent algorithms, this article proposed a multi-level, multi-scale framework for allocating irrigation water, and illustrated the basic theory of each component of the framework. Systematical strategy of optimal irrigation water allocation can not only control the total volume of irrigation water on the time scale, but also reduce water loss on the spatial scale. It could provide scientific basis and technical support for improving the irrigation water management level and ensuring the food security.

  13. Preface: Remote Sensing of Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R. Mishra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Special Issue (SI on “Remote Sensing of Water Resources” presents a diverse range of papers studying remote sensing tools, methods, and models to better monitor water resources which include inland, coastal, and open ocean waters. The SI is comprised of fifteen articles on widely ranging research topics related to water bodies. This preface summarizes each article published in the SI.

  14. Applying the WEAP Model to Water Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Li, Wei

    in assessing the effects on water resources using a case study on a Coal Industry Development Plan in an arid region in North Western China. In the case the WEAP model (Water Evaluation And Planning System) were used to simulate various scenarios using a diversity of technological instruments like irrigation...... thus providing a good basis for an SEA that can support the choice among different alternative scenarios and contribute to adjusting and optimizing the original plan....

  15. Water resources management in Rostov region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, O.

    2009-04-01

    Proper management of water resources leads to the development of the region. Nowadays there is an urgent problem - water shortage. Many European countries face this problem, Russia is not the excluding. In addition, there is a problem not only of water quantity, but quality as well. Although Rostov region is well provided with fresh water, the water resources are unevenly disturbed within region. Rostov region is heavily populated and receive moderate rainfall. Groundwater has a limited capacity for renewal. At the same time, Rostov region is industrial and agricultural one that is why pressures from agriculture, industry and domestic users affect the quantity of water resources. Both water quality and availability must be integrated in long-term planning and policy implications concerning water management. In Russia there are high standards for water quality. Effectively managed water-supply and resource protection systems generate the indispensable basis for agricultural and industrial production. Throughout the Region, urban and rural development has thrived where water sources have been effectively managed. Rostov region can be divided into three parts: northern districts, central part of the region and southern ones. Main cities in the region have not enough available drinking water. In the region ground water is used for curing and water supplying purpose.

  16. The New England Drought Study: Water Resources Planning Metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joyce, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The study has traced the water resources planning experience for the metropolitan Boston area from the 17th century to the present in order to investigate how current planning has evolved from seeking...

  17. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  18. Water Resources of Tajikistan and Water Use Issues in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Mukhabbatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the formation and use of water resources in Tajikistan. The natural and geographic conditions as well as distribution of water resources across the economic regions are analyzed. It is stressed that after breakup of the Soviet Union the water use issues in Central Asia have acquired the dimensions of the interstate economic and political problems. Demographic growth, activation of desertification, global warming make most relevant the issue of equitable redistribution of water resources as the most valuable resource for economy.

  19. Adapting water accounting for integrated water resource management. The Júcar Water Resource System (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquín; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Solera, Abel; Pedro-Monzonís, María

    2014-11-01

    An increase in water demands, exacerbated by climate change and the tightening of environmental requirements, leads to a reduction in available water resources for economic uses. This situation poses challenges for water resource planning and management. Water accounting has emerged as an appropriate tool to improve transparency and control in water management. There are multiple water accounting approaches, but they generally involve a very exhaustive list of accounted concepts. According to our findings in this research, one of the best water accounting methodologies is the Australian Water Accounting Standard. However, its implementation for integrated water resource planning and management purposes calls into questioning the amount of information and level of detail necessary for the users of water accounts. In this paper, we present a different method of applying the Australian Water Accounting Standard in relation to water resource management, which improves its utility. In order to compare the original approach and that proposed here, we present and discuss an application to the Júcar Water Resource System, in eastern Spain.

  20. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Okefenokee National Wildlife Refugesummarizes available information relevant to refuge water resources,...

  1. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, James W; Akeroyd, Michele; P. Oliver, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    .... WaterResourcesAssessmentandSeasonalPrediction Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia James W. Cox1,3, Michele Akeroyd2, and Danielle P. Oliver2,4 1South Australian...

  2. Transboundary Water Resources in Southern Africa: Conflict or cooperation?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, MJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests a linkage between internationally shared water resources and conflict potential. Anthony R. Turton, Marian J. Patrick and Frederic Julien examine transboundary water resource management in southern Africa, showing that empirical...

  3. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment: Pixley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Pixley National Wildlife Refuge describes hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water resource...

  4. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes available information relevant to refuge water resources, provides an assessment of refuge water resource needs and issues of concern, and...

  5. Increasing life expectancy of water resources literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, M.; Francke, T.; Georgi, C.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-06-01

    In a study from 2008, Larivière and colleagues showed, for the field of natural sciences and engineering, that the median age of cited references is increasing over time. This result was considered counterintuitive: with the advent of electronic search engines, online journal issues and open access publications, one could have expected that cited literature is becoming younger. That study has motivated us to take a closer look at the changes in the age distribution of references that have been cited in water resources journals since 1965. Not only could we confirm the findings of Larivière and colleagues. We were also able to show that the aging is mainly happening in the oldest 10-25% of an average reference list. This is consistent with our analysis of top-cited papers in the field of water resources. Rankings based on total citations since 1965 consistently show the dominance of old literature, including text books and research papers in equal shares. For most top-cited old-timers, citations are still growing exponentially. There is strong evidence that most citations are attracted by publications that introduced methods which meanwhile belong to the standard toolset of researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources. Although we think that this trend should not be overinterpreted as a sign of stagnancy, there might be cause for concern regarding how authors select their references. We question the increasing citation of textbook knowledge as it holds the risk that reference lists become overcrowded, and that the readability of papers deteriorates.

  6. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    T.M. CORNEA; Dima, M; Roca, D.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change impacts on water resources – The most recent scientific assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [6] concludes that, since the late 19th century, anthropogenic induced emissions of greenhouse gases have contributed to an increase in global surface temperatures of about 0.3 to 0.6o C. Based on the IPCC’s scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols a further increase of 2o C is expected by the year 2100. Plants, animals, natural and managed ...

  7. Water resources of East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2017-01-12

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information is presented on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  8. World Water Resources Assessment for 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Agata, Y.; Kanae, S.; Musiake, K.; Saruhashi, T.

    2003-04-01

    nticipated water scarcity in the first half of this century is one of the most concerned international issues to be assessed adequately. However, even though the issue has an international impact and world wide monitoring is critical, there are limited number of global estimates at present. In this study, annual water availability was derived from annual runoff estimated by land surface models using Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) with 0.5 degree by 0.5 degree longitude/latitude resolution globally. Global distribution of water withdrawal for each sector in the same horizontal spatial resolution was estimated based on country-base statistics of municipal water use, industrial water use, and agricultural intake, using global geographical information system with global distributions of population and irrigated crop land area. The total population under water stress estimated for 1995 corresponded very well with former estimates, however, the number is highly depend on how to assume the ratio how much water from upstream of the region can be considered as ``available'' water resources within the region. It suggests the importance of regional studies evaluating the the water quality deterioration in the upper stream, the real consumption of water resources in the upper stream, and the accessibility to water. The last factor should be closely related to how many large scale water withdrawal schemes are implemented in the region. Further studies by an integrated approach to improve the accuracy of future projections on both the natural and social sides of the water resources should be promoted. About the future projection of the global water resources assessment, population growth, climatic change, and the increase of water consumption per capita are considered. Population growth scenario follows the UN projection in each country. Change in annual runoff was estimated based on the climatic simulation by a general circulation model by the Center of Climate System

  9. Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities Nicole T. Carter Specialist in Natural Resources Policy...of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities Congressional Research Service Summary The U.S. Army Corps of...congressional attention because its water resource projects can have significant local and regional economic benefits and environmental effects

  10. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area...

  11. 33 CFR 209.345 - Water resource policies and authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water resource policies and... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.345 Water resource policies and authorities... other Non-Federal Entities on Authorized Water Resources Projects.” (3) Section 221, FCA of 1970 (Pub. L...

  12. Water Resources Impacts on Tribal Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minihane, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Branch of Irrigation and Power provides oversight and technical support to select irrigation projects and systems on tribal lands. The BIA provides operations and maintenance support for 16 irrigation systems. To make the best use of limited resources, the BIA must incorporate climate change impacts on hydrology and water management for these irrigation systems in the coming decades. The 16 irrigation projects discussed here are divided into three climatological regions: the Pacific Northwest Region, the Greater Rocky Mountain Region, and the Western, Southwest, & Navajo Region. Significant climate projections that impact irrigation systems in one or more of these regions include increased temperatures and evaporative demand, earlier snowmelt and runoff, an increase in floods, an increase in heavy precipitation events, an increase in the frequency and intensity of droughts, and declining water supplies. Some irrigation projects are particularly vulnerable to these climate impacts because they are in already water-stressed areas or areas in which water resources are over-allocated. Other irrigation projects will have to adjust their storage and water management strategies to accommodate changes in the timing of streamflow. Overall, though, the BIA will be better able to assist tribal nations by incorporating expected climate impacts into their water resources management practices.

  13. Policy Sciences in Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Ronald G.

    1984-07-01

    As the newly appointed Policy Sciences Editor for this journal, I would like to take this opportunity to introduce myself to WRR's readership as well as to offer a few comments concerning my views of policy sciences in water resources research. I am an economist working in the area of natural resources and environmental management. As such, I've spent a good part of my research career working with noneconomists. During 1969-1972, I worked in Mexico with hydrologists and engineers from Mexico's Water Resources Ministry in efforts to assess management/investment programs for reservoir systems and systems for interbasin water transfers. Between 1972 and 1975, while serving as Chairman of the Department of Resource Economics at the University of Rhode Island, my research involved collaborative efforts with biologists and soil scientists in studies concerning the conjunctive management of reservoirs for agricultural and lagoon systems and the control of salinity levels in soils and aquifers. Since 1975, at which time I joined the faculty at the University of New Mexico, I have worked with engineers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in developing operation/management models for hot, dry rock geothermal systems and, more recently, with legal scholars and hydrologists in analyses of water rights issues. Thus I am comfortable with and appreciative of research conducted by my colleagues in systems engineering, operations research, and hydrology, as well as those in economics, law, and other social sciences.

  14. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  15. Massachusetts Water Resources Administration Sediment Data for Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay acquired in 1993 - 1995 (MWRA shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The samples in this dataset were collected and analyzed under the direction of the Massachusetts Water Resources Administration. The data were generated to study the...

  16. Competing risks and the development of adaptive management plans for water resources: Field reconnaissance investigation of risks to fishes and other aquatic biota exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in lake mead, Nevada USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, G.; Little, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of competing risks for water resources rely on a wide spectrum of tools to evaluate hazards and risks associated with their management. For example, waters of the lower Colorado River stored in reservoirs such as Lake Mead present a wide range of competing risks related to water quantity and water quality. These risks are often interdependent and complicated by competing uses of source waters for sustaining biological resources and for supporting a range of agricultural, municipal, recreational, and industrial uses. USGS is currently conducting a series of interdisciplinary case-studies on water quality of Lake Mead and its source waters. In this case-study we examine selected constituents potentially entering the Lake Mead system, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Worldwide, a number of environmental EDCs have been identified that affect reproduction, development, and adaptive behaviors in a wide range of organisms. Many EDCs are minimally affected by current treatment technologies and occur in treated sewage effluents. Several EDCs have been detected in Lake Mead, and several substances have been identified that are of concern because of potential impacts to the aquatic biota, including the sport fishery of Lake Mead and endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) that occur in the Colorado River system. For example, altered biomarkers relevant to reproduction and thyroid function in fishes have been observed and may be predictive of impaired metabolism and development. Few studies, however, have addressed whether such EDC-induced responses observed in the field have an ecologically significant effect on the reproductive success of fishes. To identify potential linkages between EDCs and species of management concern, the risk analysis and characterization in this reconnaissance study focused on effects (and attendant uncertainties) that might be expressed by exposed populations. In addition, risk reduction

  17. Linking water resources to food security through virtual water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    The largest use of global freshwater resources is related to food production. While each day we drink about 2 liters of water, we consume (eating) about 4000 liters of ''virtual water'', which represents the freshwater used to produce crop-based and livestock-based food. Considering human water consumption as a whole, most part originates from agriculture (85.8%), and only minor parts come from industry (9.6%) or households (4.6%). These numbers shed light on the great pressure of humanity on global freshwater resources and justify the increasing interest towards this form of environmental impact, usually known as ''water footprint''. Virtual water is a key variable in establishing the nexus between water and food. In fact, water resources used for agricultural production determine local food availability, and impact the international trade of agricultural goods. Trade, in turn, makes food commodities available to nations which are not otherwise self-sufficient, in terms of water resources or food, and it establishes an equilibrium between food demand and production at the global scale. Therefore, food security strongly relies on international food trade, but also on the use of distant and foreign water resources, which need to be acknowledged and investigated. Virtual water embedded in production and international trade follows the fate of food on the trade network, generating virtual flows of great magnitude (e.g., 2800 km3 in 2010) and defining local and global virtual water balances worldwide. The resulting water-food nexus is critical for the societal and economic development, and it has several implications ranging from population dynamics to the competing use of freshwater resources, from dietary guidelines to globalization of trade, from externalization of pollution to policy making and to socio-economic wealth. All these implications represent a great challenge for future research, not only in hydrology but in the many fields related to this

  18. The Water Resources Board: England and Wales’ Venture into National Water Resources Planning, 1964-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. McCulloch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An era of technocratic national planning of water resources is examined against the views of a leading liberal economist and critics, both contemporary and retrospective. Post Second World War Labour Governments in Britain failed to nationalise either land or water. As late as 1965, the idea of public ownership of all water supplies appeared in the Labour Party manifesto and a short-lived Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, 1964-1966, had amongst its duties the development of plans for reorganising the water supply industry under full public ownership. However, instead of pursuing such a politically dangerous takeover of the industry, in July 1964, a Water Resources Board (WRB, a special interest group dominated by engineers, was set up to advise on the development of water resources. In its first Annual Report (1965 WRB claimed its role as "the master planner of the water resources of England and Wales". The WRB had a great deal of influence and justified its national planning role by promoting large-scale supply schemes such as interbasin transfers of water, large reservoirs and regulated rivers. Feasibility studies were even carried out for building innovative, large storage reservoirs in tidal estuaries. Less progress was made on demand reduction. Yet the seeds of WRB’s demise were contained in its restricted terms of reference. The lack of any remit over water quality was a fatal handicap. Quantity and quality needed to be considered together. Privatisation of the water industry in 1989 led to a shift from national strategic planning by engineers to attempts to strengthen economic instruments to fit supply more closely to demand. Engineers have now been usurped as leaders in water resources management by economists and accountants. Yet climate change may demand a return to national strategic planning of engineered water supply, with greater democratic input.

  19. Water resources of Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2017-01-12

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7P55KJN) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  20. Water resource conflicts in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, C

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the causes and sources of water resource conflict in the 3 major international river basins of the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk. The physical geography of the Middle East is arid due to descending air, northeast trade winds, the southerly location, and high evaporation rates. Only Turkey, Iran, and Lebanon have adequate rainfall for population needs. Their mountainous geography and more northerly locations intercept rain and snow bearing westerly winds in winter. Parts of every other country are vulnerable to water shortages. Rainfall is irregular. Water resource conflicts are due to growing populations, economic development, rising standards of living, technological developments, political fragmentation, and poor water management. Immigration to the Jordan-Yarmuk watershed has added to population growth in this location. Over 50% of the population in the Middle East lives in urban areas where populations consume 10-12 times more water than those in rural areas. Water is wasted in irrigation schemes and huge dams with reservoirs where increased evaporation occurs. Technology results in greater water extraction of shallow groundwater and pollution of rivers and aquifers. British colonial government control led to reduced friction in most of the Nile basin. Now all ethnic groups have become more competitive and nationalistic. The Cold War restrained some of the conflict. Israel obtains 40% of its water from aquifers beneath the West Bank and Gaza. Geopolitical factors determine the mutual goodwill in managing international water. The 3 major water basins in the Middle East pose the greatest risk of water disputes. Possible solutions include conservation, better management, prioritizing uses, technological solutions, increased cooperation among co-riparians, developing better and enforceable international water laws, and reducing population growth rates.

  1. Water Resources Data, New Mexico, Water Year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, J.P.; Ong, Kim

    1995-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1994 water year for New Mexico consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells and springs. This report contains discharge records for 184 gaging stations; stage and contents for 26 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 51 gaging stations and 72 wells; and water levels at 132 observation wells. Also included are 109 crest-stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not involved in the systematic data collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in New Mexico.

  2. Remote sensing programs and courses in engineering and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The content of typical basic and advanced remote sensing and image interpretation courses are described and typical remote sensing graduate programs of study in civil engineering and in interdisciplinary environmental remote sensing and water resources management programs are outlined. Ideally, graduate programs with an emphasis on remote sensing and image interpretation should be built around a core of five courses: (1) a basic course in fundamentals of remote sensing upon which the more specialized advanced remote sensing courses can build; (2) a course dealing with visual image interpretation; (3) a course dealing with quantitative (computer-based) image interpretation; (4) a basic photogrammetry course; and (5) a basic surveying course. These five courses comprise up to one-half of the course work required for the M.S. degree. The nature of other course work and thesis requirements vary greatly, depending on the department in which the degree is being awarded.

  3. Tlokoeng Valley Community's Conceptions of Wetlands: Prospects for More Sustainable Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokuku, Tšepo; Taylor, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This article explores prospects for community-based water resources management in Tlokoeng Valley, in the northern district of Lesotho. A qualitative survey was conducted to establish the pre-knowledge of the valley community. This provided a basis for a community education programme on wetlands conservation. Fifteen focus group interviews (FGIs)…

  4. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  5. Water Resources Data for Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolow, R.S.; Comeau, L.Y.; Zanca, J.L.; Ramsbey, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Massachusetts and Rhode Island each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the States. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data-Massachusetts and Rhode Island.' Hydrologic data are also available through the Massachusetts-Rhode Island District Home Page on the world-wide web (http://ma.water.usgs.gov). Historical data and real-time data (for sites equipped with satellite gageheight telemeter) are also available. The home page also contains a link to the U.S. Geological Survey National Home Page where streamflow data from locations throughout the United States can be retrieved. This report series includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This volume contains discharge records at 93 gaging stations; monthend contents of 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 22 gaging stations; and water levels for 139 observation wells. Locations of these sites are shown in figures 1 and 2. Miscellaneous hydrologic data were collected at various sites that were not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous discharge measurements. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. This series of annual reports for Massachusetts and Rhode Island began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water

  6. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management: Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would be interesting to evaluate how well water resources plans are adhering to the principles of IWRM, to learn and further tailor these principles to the Vietnamese situation. Practical approaches on h...

  7. Impact of remote sensing upon the planning, management, and development of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L.; Fowler, T. R.; Frech, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Principal water resources users were surveyed to determine the impact of remote data streams on hydrologic computer models. Analysis of responses demonstrated that: most water resources effort suitable to remote sensing inputs is conducted through federal agencies or through federally stimulated research; and, most hydrologic models suitable to remote sensing data are federally developed. Computer usage by major water resources users was analyzed to determine the trends of usage and costs for the principal hydrologic users/models. The laws and empirical relationships governing the growth of the data processing loads were described and applied to project the future data loads. Data loads for ERTS CCT image processing were computed and projected through the 1985 era.

  8. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carole Dalin; Huanguang Qiu; Naota Hanasaki; Denise L. Mauzerall; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe

    2015-01-01

    .... The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies...

  9. Water resources of Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2017-02-24

    IntroductionInformation concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Iberia Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. This fact sheet summarizes the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish for water managers, parish residents, and others to assist in stewardship of this vital resource. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System are the primary sources of the information presented here.In 2010, about 31.24 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Iberia Parish, Louisiana, including about 23.13 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 8.11 Mgal/d from surface-water sources. Withdrawals for public supply and industrial use each accounted for about 32 percent of the total water withdrawn. Other water-use categories included rural domestic, livestock, rice irrigation, general irrigation, and aquaculture. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010 indicated that water withdrawals in Iberia Parish peaked at about 58.57 Mgal/d in 1975.

  10. Integrated water resources management using engineering measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The management process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM consists of aspects of policies/strategies, measures (engineering measures and non-engineering measures and organizational management structures, etc., among which engineering measures such as reservoirs, dikes, canals, etc., play the backbone that enables IWRM through redistribution and reallocation of water in time and space. Engineering measures are usually adopted for different objectives of water utilization and water disaster prevention, such as flood control and drought relief. The paper discusses the planning and implementation of engineering measures in IWRM of the Changjiang River, China. Planning and implementation practices of engineering measures for flood control and water utilization, etc., are presented. Operation practices of the Three Gorges Reservoir, particularly the development and application of regulation rules for flood management, power generation, water supply, ecosystem needs and sediment issues (e.g. erosion and siltation, are also presented. The experience obtained in the implementation of engineering measures in Changjiang River show that engineering measures are vital for IWRM. However, efforts should be made to deal with changes of the river system affected by the operation of engineering measures, in addition to escalatory development of new demands associated with socio-economic development.

  11. Missouri StreamStats—A water-resources web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jarrett T.

    2018-01-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains and operates more than 8,200 continuous streamgages nationwide. Types of data that may be collected, computed, and stored for streamgages include streamgage height (water-surface elevation), streamflow, and water quality. The streamflow data allow scientists and engineers to calculate streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood (also known as the 100-year flood), the mean flow, and the 7-day, 10-year low flow, which are used by managers to make informed water resource management decisions, at each streamgage location. Researchers, regulators, and managers also commonly need physical characteristics (basin characteristics) that describe the unique properties of a basin. Common uses for streamflow statistics and basin characteristics include hydraulic design, water-supply management, water-use appropriations, and flood-plain mapping for establishing flood-insurance rates and land-use zones. The USGS periodically publishes reports that update the values of basin characteristics and streamflow statistics at selected gaged locations (locations with streamgages), but these studies usually only update a subset of streamgages, making data retrieval difficult. Additionally, streamflow statistics and basin characteristics are most often needed at ungaged locations (locations without streamgages) for which published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics do not exist. Missouri StreamStats is a web-based geographic information system that was created by the USGS in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to provide users with access to an assortment of tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain the most recent published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for streamgage locations and to automatically calculate selected basin characteristics and estimate streamflow statistics at ungaged

  12. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  13. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management : Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would

  14. The Challenges and Pitfalls of Decentralisation in Water Resources Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, S.V.; Huitema, D.

    2015-01-01

    Decentralisation is an important element of the discourse on integrated water resources management. A key assumption is that the organisation of water resources management on the level of (sub-) basins offers good possibilities to involve stakeholders and to coordinate their interests. Although

  15. The modeling of response indicators of integrated water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    category of Integrated Water Resources Management in the Saf-Safriver basin characterized by the fast growing demand of populations and economic sectors including industry and agriculture. The artificial neural networks models were used to model and predict the relationship between water resources mobilization WRM ...

  16. Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; Titus S. Seilheimer; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Peter V. Caldwell; Ge. Sun

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystem productivity and functioning depend on soil and water resources. But the reverse is also true—forest and land-use management activities can significantly alter forest soils, water quality, and associated aquatic habitats (Ice and Stednick 2004, Reid 1993, Wigmosta and Burges 2001). Soil and water resources are protected through the allocation of land...

  17. Wetlands as early warning (eco)systems for water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications for water resources management are considered, with particular attention paid to determining the Ecological Reserve for wetlands, and the potential role that wetlands could play in providing an early warning of hydrological change in a catchment. Keywords: wetland ecology, delineation, water resources ...

  18. Climate change and adaptation strategies to water resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change and adaptation strategies to water resources in some parts of Sudano-Sahellian zone of Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. Journal Home ... This study examines the impact of climate change on water resources in some parts of the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Nigeria.

  19. Summary of the water resource governance research framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resource Gove rnance Need for Equity Poverty Eradication Water Resource Constraints Drivers Required Research Programmes Desired Research Outcome Dialogue Structure s Management Paradigm s HIV/AIDS & Sustainable Livelihood s Communicatio... Desired Research Outcome Dialogue Structure s Management Paradigm s HIV/AIDS & Sustainable Livelihood s Communicatio n Monitoring & Evaluatio n Performance Measures Guidance on Governance for responsible Water Resource Management...

  20. Distribution of nitrate in the water resources of Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    Full Length Research Paper. Distribution of nitrate in the water resources of. Pakistan. Muhammad Aslam Tahir* and Hifza Rasheed. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Islamabad, Pakistan. Accepted 8 September, 2008. Water quality monitoring activities have recognized the nitrate contamination in the ...

  1. Multiple-purpose development of water resources | Worki | Zede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full and complete utilization of water resources is an economic and social advantage to all members of a society. The water resources potential of Ethiopia is practically untouched, and their systematic and wise development is of paramount importance for enjoying the maximum possible benefits. This paper indicates that, ...

  2. Integrating science, policy and stakeholder perspectives for water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Emily; Allan, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Lazzar, Attila; Lim, Michelle; Munsur Rahman, Md.

    2015-04-01

    -economic scenarios are likely to impact on water quality. This work provides the foundation for investigating the effects of different policy and management interventions in coastal Bangladesh, and exploring trade-offs between different water resource objectives, and other ecosystem, social or economic objectives.

  3. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No. 2, and UE-25c No. 3, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada; Water-resources investigations report 92-4016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldon, A.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the hydrogeology of saturated tuffaceous rocks penetrated by boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No.2, and UE-25c No. 3. These boreholes are referred to collectively in this report as the C-holes. The C-holes were drilled to perform multiwell aquifer tests and tracer tests; they comprise the only complex of closely spaced boreholes completed in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Results of lithologic and geophysical logging, fracture analyses, water-level monitoring, temperature and tracejector surveys, aquifer tests, and hydrochemical sampling completed at the C-hole complex as of 1986 are assessed with respect to the regional geologic and hydrologic setting. A conceptual hydrogeological model of the Yucca Mountain area is presented to provide a context for quantitatively evaluating hydrologic tests performed at the C-hole complex as of 1985, for planning and interpreting additional hydrologic tests at the C-hole complex, and for possibly re-evaluating hydrologic tests in boreholes other than the C-holes.

  4. Geology and underground water resources of northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, A.C.

    1906-01-01

    In the fall of 1902 arrangements were made with the Geological Survey of Louisiana for the writer to prepare a report on the geology and underground water resources of northern Louisiana. In the prosecution of this work it was found necessary, in order that the questions involved might be more thoroughly understood, to include that portion of the Coastal Plain in southern Arkansas southwest of Arkansas River, and the portion of northeastern Texas not discussed in Hill's exhaustive report on the artesian-water conditions of the Black and Grand prairies a After the Arkansas work was well in hand and before the Texas investigation had advanced beyond a few preliminary letters the writer was detailed to the Long Island, New York, investigation, which consumed the field and office time from February, 1903, to July, 1904.b The present report is thus based on the'field work of the fall and winter of 1902 and 1903, supplemented by several years' field work with the Geological Survey of Louisiana and private work in eastern Texas. It covers southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana and small portions of adjacent areas in Mississippi and Texas.

  5. Accelerated Capacity Development in Water Resources Education: the experiences of the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamirew, T.; Mekonnen, G.; Viglione, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia recently recognises that the water resources development is the major entry point in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Water in Ethiopia plays a key role in the Water-Energy-Food-nexus. Over 98% of the electricity in the country is generated using hydropower and yet about 2000 MW has been developed. Out of the 3.5 Mha potentially irrigable land, only 0.25 Mha has been developed to date. Access to drinking water supply coverage is among the lowest in the world. One of the limiting factors in harnessing the resource base is the absence of water professionals to face the fast growing demand in education, research, development in the water sector. Recognising this, in collaboration with University of Connecticut of the United States, Addis Ababa University launched the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR) by enrolling 18 PhD and 24 MSc students. The program is unique in that much of the course instructors are coming from US and European Universities, but deliver courses together with Ethiopian collaborators. This is supposed to facilitate knowledge and experience transfer from the US/EU scientist to Ethiopian counterparts. The theses/dissertations are designed to focus on Ethiopia's immediate hydrological problems on selected basins, and will be coordinated by three advisors for each PhD - one from US/EU, one from Ethiopian Universities, and one water professional from the sector. We report here the lessons learned in setting up the EIWR institute and the education program.

  6. Earth and water resources and hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Fary, R.W.; Guffanti, Marianne; Laura, Della; Lee, M.P.; Masters, C.D.; Miller, R.L.; Quinones-Marques, Ferdinand; Peebles, R.W.; Reinemund, J.A.; Russ, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Long-range economic development in Central America will depend in large part on production of indigenous mineral, energy, and water resources and on mitigation of the disastrous effects of geologic and hydrologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods. The region has six world-class metal mines at present as well as additional evidence of widespread mineralization. Systematic investigations using modern mineral exploration techniques should reveal more mineral deposits suitable for development. Widespread evidence of lignite and geothermal resources suggests that intensive studies could identify producible energy sources in most Central American countries. Water supply and water quality vary greatly from country to country. Local problems of ground- and surface-water availability and of contamination create a need for systematic programs to provide better hydrologic data, capital improvements, and management. Disastrous earthquakes have destroyed or severely damaged many cities in Central America. Volcanic eruptions, landslides, mudflows, and floods have devastated most of the Pacific side of Central America at one time or another. A regional approach to earthquake, volcano, and flood-risk analysis and monitoring, using modern technology and concepts, would provide the facilities and means for acquiring knowledge necessary to reduce future losses. All Central American countries need to strengthen institutions and programs dealing with earth and water resources and natural hazards. Some of these needs may be satisfied through existing or pending projects and technical and economic assistance from U.S. or other sources. The need for a comprehensive study of the natural resources of Central America and the requirements for their development is evident. The U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative offers both an excellent opportunity for a regional approach to these pervasive problems and an opportunity for international cooperation.

  7. Investigating the Reliability and Factor Structure of Kalichman's "Survey 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Søren; Hofmann, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    A precondition for reducing scientific misconduct is evidence about scientists' attitudes. We need reliable survey instruments, and this study investigates the reliability of Kalichman's "Survey 2: research misconduct" questionnaire. The study is a post hoc analysis of data from three surveys among...

  8. Sustainability assessment of regional water resources under the DPSIR framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Liu, Jing; Cai, Huanjie; Wu, Pute; Geng, Qingling; Xu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a scarce and critical resource in both natural and socioeconomic systems. Increasing populations combined with an increasing demand for water resources have led to water shortages worldwide. Current water management strategies may not be sustainable, and comprehensive action should be taken to minimize the water budget deficit. Sustainable water resources management is essential because it ensures the integration of social, economic, and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. This paper establishes the indicators to evaluate the sustainability of water utilization based on the Drive-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, a comprehensive assessment of changes to the sustainability of the water resource system in the city of Bayannur was conducted using these indicators. The results indicate that there is an increase in the driving force of local water consumption due to changes in society, economic development, and the consumption structure of residents. The pressure on the water system increased, whereas the status of the water resources continued to decrease over the study period due to the increasing drive indicators. The local government adopted a series of response measures to relieve the decreasing water resources and alleviate the negative effects of the increasing driver in demand. The response measures improved the efficiency of water usage to a large extent, but the large-scale expansion in demands brought a rebounding effect, known as ;Jevons paradox; At the same time, the increasing emissions of industrial and agriculture pollutants brought huge pressures to the regional water resources environment, which caused a decrease in the sustainability of regional water resources. Changing medium and short-term factors, such as regional economic pattern, technological levels, and water utilization practices, can contribute to the sustainable utilization of

  9. Multi-agent Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and emerging trends such as water trading, energy market, deregulation and democratization of water-related services are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional approach to water management design based on sector-by-sector optimization has to be reshaped to account for multiple interrelated decision-makers and many stakeholders with increasing decision power. Centralized management, though interesting from a conceptual point of view, is unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts, and often economically inefficient. Coordinated management, where different actors interact within a full open trust exchange paradigm under some institutional supervision is a promising alternative to the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. This is a significant issue in most of the Southern Alps regulated lakes, where upstream hydropower reservoirs maximize their benefit independently form downstream users; it becomes even more relevant in the case of transboundary systems, where water management upstream affects water availability downstream (e.g. the River Zambesi flowing through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique or the Red River flowing from South-Western China through Northern Vietnam. In this study we apply Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) theory to design an optimal management in a decentralized way, considering a set of multiple autonomous agents acting in the same environment and taking into account the pay-off of individual water users, which are inherently distributed along the river and need to coordinate to jointly reach their objectives. In this way each real-world actor, representing the decision-making entity (e.g. the operator of a reservoir or a diversion dam) can be represented one-to-one by a computer agent, defined as a computer system that is situated in some environment and that is capable of autonomous action in this environment in

  10. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing

  11. INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGES ON WATER RESOURCES IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Ivanov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the current state of affairs with water resources in Moldova, the challenges it faces for its national human and economic development, having in mind that the water resources are quite limited in Moldova, which encounters pollution, degradation influenced by climate change and unwise human activity to their biodiversity and ecosystems, availability and accessibility. It also attempts to highlight the relationship between climate change and water resources in Moldova, which has adverse effects on both environment and people’s health, and raise significant hurdles to the international, regional and sectoral development.

  12. China's coal-fired power plants impose pressure on water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Liu, Junguo; Tang, Yu; Zhao, Xu; Yang, Hong; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Coal is the dominant fuel for electricity generation around the world. This type of electricity generation uses large amounts of water, increasing pressure on water resources. This calls for an in-depth investigation in the water-energy nexus of coal-fired electricity generation. In China,

  13. Effects of meteorological droughts on agricultural water resources in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Houquan; Wu, Yihua; Li, Yijun; Liu, Yongqiang

    2017-05-01

    With the global warming, frequencies of drought are rising in the humid area of southern China. In this study, the effects of meteorological drought on the agricultural water resource based on the agricultural water resource carrying capacity (AWRCC) in southern China were investigated. The entire study area was divided into three regions based on the distributions of climate and agriculture. The concept of the maximum available water resources for crops was used to calculate AWRCC. Meanwhile, an agricultural drought intensity index (ADI), which was suitable for rice planting areas, was proposed based on the difference between crop water requirements and precipitation. The actual drought area and crop yield in drought years from 1961 to 2010 were analyzed. The results showed that ADI and AWRCC were significantly correlated with the actual drought occurrence area and food yield in the study area, which indicated ADI and AWRCC could be used in drought-related studies. The effects of seasonal droughts on AWRCC strongly depended on both the crop growth season and planting structure. The influence of meteorological drought on agricultural water resources was pronounced in regions with abundant water resources, especially in Southwest China, which was the most vulnerable to droughts. In Southwest China, which has dry and wet seasons, reducing the planting area of dry season crops and rice could improve AWRCC during drought years. Likewise, reducing the planting area of double-season rice could improve AWRCC during drought years in regions with a double-season rice cropping system. Our findings highlight the importance of adjusting the proportions of crop planting to improve the utilization efficiency of agricultural water resources and alleviate drought hazards in some humid areas.

  14. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Port Louisa NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Port Louisa NWR, including an inventory, assessment, and summary of water rights, water quantity, water quality,...

  15. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  16. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carole Dalin; Huanguang Qiu; Naota Hanasaki; Denise L. Mauzerall; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe

    2015-01-01

    .... We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions...

  17. Key challenges facing water resource management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses geographic reality; water availability and water security as well as the challenges and opportunities facing water resource managers and the importance of good governance...

  18. The modeling of response indicators of integrated water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    models were used to model and predict the relationship between water resources mobilization WRM and ... (WRM) and response variables were applied to ... of water management and education ... ANN models are mathematical tools,.

  19. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Austin, LM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available , Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2006 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES, WATER SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION Operational safety of urine diversion toilets in Durban, South Africa L M Austin, South Africa There are approximately 50 000...

  20. Finding Practical Approaches to Integrated Water Resources Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butterworth, J; Warner, J.F; Moriarty, P; Smits, S; Batchelor, C

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities...

  1. Finding practical approaches to integrated water resources management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butterworth, J; Warner, J.F; Moriarty, P; Smits, S; Batchelor, Ch

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities...

  2. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) describes current hydrologic information, provides...

  3. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Horicon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Horicon National Wildlife Refuges describes current hydrologic information, provides an...

  4. Draft Water Resource Inventory (WRI) Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory (WRI) Report for the Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) compiles the results of data mining from national and regional sources for...

  5. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Cape May National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Cape May National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  6. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  7. Conflict Resolution in Water Resources and Environmental Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hipel, Keith W; Fang, Liping; Cullmann, Johannes; Bristow, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The latest developments regarding the theory and practice of effectively resolving conflict in water resources and environmental management are presented in this book by respected experts from around the globe...

  8. Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) report for Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment...

  9. Water Resource References: Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reports and publications relevant to the CCNWR Water Resource Inventory and Assessment. List of references involving water quality and/or quantity data that directly...

  10. Cache River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Cache River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes available and relevant information for refuge water...

  11. Present and future water resources in India: Insights from satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Water resources; hydrology; climate change; remote sensing; Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE); dynamic global vegetation model; Land-surface Processes and eXchanges (LPX); Lund–Potsdam–Jena (LPJ); groundwater depletion; droughts; population change.

  12. MX Siting Investigation. Water Resources Program Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-13

    Carboniferous age) appears to be a major confining unit separating local carbonate aquifers from underlying regional ones in most of the areas tested. o...The carbonate well drilled in southern Coyote Spring Valley near the OB site penetrated cavernous carbonate rocks of Carboniferous age. That well had

  13. 18 CFR 701.3 - Purpose of the Water Resources Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of the Water Resources Council. 701.3 Section 701.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Introduction § 701.3 Purpose of the Water Resources Council. It is the purpose of the...

  14. Development of approaches to integrated water resources management

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Guoting

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing need to manage water resources in a sustainable way, particularly in semi arid areas, with dramatic social and economic development as well as rapid population growth. Optimising water allocation in a river basin is an important aspect ensuring equitable and efficient water use. This research develops an optimisation approach (the Integrated Water Resource Optimisation model, IWRO) to optimise the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater resources in ...

  15. Water resources by orbital remote sensing: Examples of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Selected applications of orbital remote sensing to water resources undertaken by INPE are described. General specifications of Earth application satellites and technical characteristics of LANDSAT 1, 2, 3, and 4 subsystems are described. Spatial, temporal and spectral image attributes of water as well as methods of image analysis for applications to water resources are discussed. Selected examples are referred to flood monitoring, analysis of water suspended sediments, spatial distribution of pollutants, inventory of surface water bodies and mapping of alluvial aquifers.

  16. Application and Prospect of Big Data in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Danchi; Xu, Xinyi

    2017-04-01

    Because of developed information technology and affordable data storage, we h ave entered the era of data explosion. The term "Big Data" and technology relate s to it has been created and commonly applied in many fields. However, academic studies just got attention on Big Data application in water resources recently. As a result, water resource Big Data technology has not been fully developed. This paper introduces the concept of Big Data and its key technologies, including the Hadoop system and MapReduce. In addition, this paper focuses on the significance of applying the big data in water resources and summarizing prior researches by others. Most studies in this field only set up theoretical frame, but we define the "Water Big Data" and explain its tridimensional properties which are time dimension, spatial dimension and intelligent dimension. Based on HBase, the classification system of Water Big Data is introduced: hydrology data, ecology data and socio-economic data. Then after analyzing the challenges in water resources management, a series of solutions using Big Data technologies such as data mining and web crawler, are proposed. Finally, the prospect of applying big data in water resources is discussed, it can be predicted that as Big Data technology keeps developing, "3D" (Data Driven Decision) will be utilized more in water resources management in the future.

  17. Learning about water resource sharing through game play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ewen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Games are an optimal way to teach about water resource sharing, as they allow real-world scenarios to be enacted. Both students and professionals learning about water resource management can benefit from playing games, through the process of understanding both the complexity of sharing of resources between different groups and decision outcomes. Here we address how games can be used to teach about water resource sharing, through both playing and developing water games. An evaluation of using the web-based game Irrigania in the classroom setting, supported by feedback from several educators who have used Irrigania to teach about the sustainable use of water resources, and decision making, at university and high school levels, finds Irrigania to be an effective and easy tool to incorporate into a curriculum. The development of two water games in a course for masters students in geography is also presented as a way to teach and communicate about water resource sharing. Through game development, students learned soft skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and time management, and overall the process was found to be an effective way to learn about water resource decision outcomes. This paper concludes with a discussion of learning outcomes from both playing and developing water games.

  18. Evaluation and Prediction of Water Resources Based on AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Sun, Anqi

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the shortage of water resources is a threat to us. In order to solve the problem of water resources restricted by varieties of factors, this paper establishes a water resources evaluation index model (WREI), which adopts the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP) algorithm. After considering influencing factors of water resources, we ignore secondary factors and then hierarchical approach the main factors according to the class, set up a three-layer structure. The top floor is for WREI. Using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to determine weight first, and then use fuzzy judgment to judge target, so the comprehensive use of the two algorithms reduce the subjective influence of AHP and overcome the disadvantages of multi-level evaluation. To prove the model, we choose India as a target region. On the basis of water resources evaluation index model, we use Matlab and combine grey prediction with linear prediction to discuss the ability to provide clean water in India and the trend of India’s water resources changing in the next 15 years. The model with theoretical support and practical significance will be of great help to provide reliable data support and reference for us to get plans to improve water quality.

  19. A stochastic optimization approach for integrated urban water resource planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Chen, J; Zeng, S; Sun, F; Dong, X

    2013-01-01

    Urban water is facing the challenges of both scarcity and water quality deterioration. Consideration of nonconventional water resources has increasingly become essential over the last decade in urban water resource planning. In addition, rapid urbanization and economic development has led to an increasing uncertain water demand and fragile water infrastructures. Planning of urban water resources is thus in need of not only an integrated consideration of both conventional and nonconventional urban water resources including reclaimed wastewater and harvested rainwater, but also the ability to design under gross future uncertainties for better reliability. This paper developed an integrated nonlinear stochastic optimization model for urban water resource evaluation and planning in order to optimize urban water flows. It accounted for not only water quantity but also water quality from different sources and for different uses with different costs. The model successfully applied to a case study in Beijing, which is facing a significant water shortage. The results reveal how various urban water resources could be cost-effectively allocated by different planning alternatives and how their reliabilities would change.

  20. Learning about water resource sharing through game play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Tracy; Seibert, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Games are an optimal way to teach about water resource sharing, as they allow real-world scenarios to be enacted. Both students and professionals learning about water resource management can benefit from playing games, through the process of understanding both the complexity of sharing of resources between different groups and decision outcomes. Here we address how games can be used to teach about water resource sharing, through both playing and developing water games. An evaluation of using the web-based game Irrigania in the classroom setting, supported by feedback from several educators who have used Irrigania to teach about the sustainable use of water resources, and decision making, at university and high school levels, finds Irrigania to be an effective and easy tool to incorporate into a curriculum. The development of two water games in a course for masters students in geography is also presented as a way to teach and communicate about water resource sharing. Through game development, students learned soft skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and time management, and overall the process was found to be an effective way to learn about water resource decision outcomes. This paper concludes with a discussion of learning outcomes from both playing and developing water games.

  1. Water resources thesaurus: A vocabulary for indexing and retrieving the literature of water resources research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1980-01-01

    This Water Resources Thesaurus encompasses such broad research areas as the hydrologic cycle, supply of and demand for water, conservation and best use of available supplies of water, methods of increasing supplies, and the economic, legal, social, engineering, recreational, biological, geographical, ecological, and qualitative aspects of water resources. This volume represents a major revision of the previous edition of the Thesaurus, published in 1971. The principal source of terms for this edition has been the indexing used in Selected Water Resources Abstracts (SWRA). Since its inception in 1968, SWRA has indexed tens of thousands of publications. Its indexing terminology has been developed by expert abstracters and researchers, and represents the range of disciplines related to research, development, and management of water resources.

  2. The Financial Compensation for the Use of Water Resources: The Valuation of Tribute as Social and Environmental Development of Source Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Pacheco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the Financial compensation for use of Water Resources - CFURH while sector charge and a kind of environmental tax on the generation of hydroelectric power. Is intended to investigate the potential use of funds raised by the CFURH federative bodies and local environmental development tool, regional and national. The hypothesis herein postulated is that these features represent significant values, but are not used efficiently, from the point of view of environmental investment and water resources. Therefore, it is necessary investment in environmental information and education, especially for communities of raisers municipalities, as well as the refinement of control mechanisms by the population and external oversight bodies of their loved raisers, as the Audit Courts of States and the Union.

  3. Impact of remote sensing upon the planning, management and development of water resources, appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L.; Fowler, T. R.; Frech, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Lists are presented of water resource agencies from the federal, state, Water Resources Research Institute, university, local, and private sectors. Information is provided on their water resource activities, computers, and models used. For Basic doc., see N75-25263.

  4. 78 FR 10615 - Westfield Water Resources Department; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Westfield Water Resources Department; Notice of Application Accepted for.... Date filed: January 22, 2013. d. Applicant: Westfield Water Resources Department. e. Name of Project... Darling, Water Systems Engineer, Westfield Water Resources Department, 28 Sackett Street, Westfield, MA...

  5. 78 FR 69404 - Massachusetts Water Resources Authority; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Massachusetts Water Resources Authority; Notice of Preliminary Determination... November 5, 2013, the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority filed a notice of intent to construct a... Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's Ware Disinfection Facility in Hampshire County, Massachusetts...

  6. Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a

  7. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Yuan Tsai Wen-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a comprehensive assessment model to measure the regional impact of climate change on Taiwan¡¦s water resources. Working from future rainfall data simulated by Japan¡¦s high-resolution GCM model JMA/MRI TL959L60 in a SRES-A1B scenario, we first apply climate change to an assessment model of renewable water resources to estimate the volume of renewable water resources on a regional basis. We then conduct a water resources system simulation based on estimates of future water needs, regional reservoir effective capacity and renewable water resource volume. This paper uses three water resource assessment indicators: the annual water utilization ratio indicator, the water shortage indicator and the extreme event occurrence indicator. Through fuzzy comprehensive assessment, we divide the evaluation set into five levels: very good (L1, good (L2, fair (L3, poor (L4 and very poor (L5. Results indicate that, given the effects of future climate change (2080 - 2099 and the increase in water demand, future water resources conditions in northern and eastern Taiwan will not be significantly different from historical levels (1979 - 1998 and will maintain a ¡§good¡¨ level (L2, while the conditions in southern Taiwan will visibly deteriorate from its historical ¡§fair¡¨ level (L3 to ¡§poor¡¨ (L4; and the future conditions for central Taiwan will be ¡§poor¡¨ (L4. The initiation of adaptation options for water management in southern and central Taiwan would be needed by increasing reservoir capacity and reducing overall water use.

  8. Free-living amoebae in the water resources of Iran: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburi, Ehsan; Rajaii, Toktam; Behdari, Asma; Kohansal, Mohammad Hasan; Vazini, Hossein

    2017-12-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are a group of protozoa with the capabilities of growth in the environment and invasion to the human body which have been isolated from different water sources. Acanthamoeba , Naegleria , and Balamuthia are the most important FLA. These cause a variety of severe complications of eye and central nervous system. Despite the fact that various studies have demonstrated the prevalence of FLA in different parts of Iran, there is no comprehensive evaluation and conclusion regarding the pollution of various water sources in Iran. This review was carried out to achieve the prevalence pattern of FLA in water resources across Iran to design appropriate health strategies. For this purpose, 8 online databases in English and Persian and also graduate thesis and national parasitology congresses were studied. The key words such as "free living amoebae", "Acanthamoeba", "Naegleria", "Hartmannella", "Balamuthia", "Sappinia", "Vermamoebae", "Valkampfia", "water resources", "water" and "Iran" were used to search articles between 1990 to 2017. From a total of 236 articles found, 38 reliable articles were included in the study. From the total number of investigated studies, the estimated prevalence was obtained as 36% among 2430 samples. Although Acanthamoeba prevalence has been considered as a priority, most kinds of free-living amoebae were found in all kinds of water resources. Due to the lack of free-living amoebae prevalence in more than a quarter of the Iranian provinces, more studies are recommended to achieve a better perspective to make comprehensive decisions to improve the hygiene of water resources.

  9. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    requirement in Afghanistan. (In particular, there is a conflict of interests concerning the functioning of the Toktogul reservoir: Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are interested in the irrigation regime of operations of reservoir; Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are interested in the energy conditions of its functioning.) In the national diagnostic reports the numerical parameters of the water resources use dynamics for previous years, and also estimation of water resources do not coincide, that complicates development of principles and criteria of the intergovernmental water distribution. It also indirectly influences the solution of the water cost problem. Discrepancy of the specified settlement data is explained, basically, differences of techniques and algorithms of accounts. In the principal theses of national water strategy of all Central Asian states developed in the end of 90s years, it was marked the necessity of development of the uniform methodical approaches for the strong water consumption rates. The perspective water requirements should be estimated proceeding from the national economic programs of each state. In this connection the coordination by all interested states of region both the uniform approach for estimations of the future water consumption and the uniform settlement base for the improving of models and procedures of the intergovernmental water distribution is admitted as an urgent need. One of the corner-stone tasks in the framework of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution is development of the unified method for estimation of irrigation water requirements, because one of the main consumers of water resources in the Central Asian states is irrigation. Last years authors were conducting investigations on development of new modification of the Heat and Water Balances Model (HWBM) and its adaptation to estimation of irrigation water requirements in arid an semi-arid regions in the framework of the INCO-COPERNICUS project

  10. Use of participatory modeling workshops in a water-stressed basin of northern Mexico to assess sustainable water resources management and conduct community outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivoni, E. R.; Mayer, A. S.; Halvorsen, K. E.; Robles-Morua, A.; Kossak, D.

    2016-12-01

    A series of iterative participatory modeling workshops were held in Sonora, México with the goal of developing water resources management strategies in a water-stressed basin subject to hydro-climatic variability and change. A model of the water resources system, consisting of watershed hydrology, water resources infrastructure, and groundwater models, was developed deliberatively in the workshops, along with scenarios of future climate and development. Participants used the final version of the water resources systems model to select from supply-side and demand-side water resources management strategies. The performance of the strategies was based on the reliability of meeting current and future demands at a daily time scale over a year's period. Pre- and post-workshop surveys were developed and administered. The survey questions focused on evaluation of participants' modeling capacity and the utility and accuracy of the models. The selected water resources strategies and the associated, expected reliability varied widely among participants. Most participants could be clustered into three groups with roughly equal numbers of participants that varied in terms of reliance on expanding infrastructure vs. demand modification; expectations of reliability; and perceptions of social, environmental, and economic impacts. The wide range of strategies chosen and associated reliabilities indicate that there is a substantial degree of uncertainty in how future water resources decisions could be made in the region. The pre- and post-survey results indicate that participants believed their modeling abilities increased and beliefs in the utility of models increased as a result of the workshops

  11. Water resources development and management: an experience in rural hilly area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, G K; Talkhande, A V; Andey, S P; Kelkar, P S

    2010-01-01

    The Himalayan region of Tehri Garhwal in India has scattered habitations in the villages with scanty, non-perennial and unsafe water resources like springs and streams. Poor environmental conditions arising from unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitary measures, unhygienic disposal of excreta, sullage and accumulation of solid wastes have resulted in poor public health. The experiences gained through water supply and sanitation studies carried out especially in this rural area have been shared in this paper so as to enable adoption of relevant practices and technologies developed by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI, India) in the affected areas. Environmental protection of the streams and springs for sustained water availability and safe drinking water supply was ensured with active public participation, training, and awareness programs. Various surface rainwater harvesting structures were constructed at suitable sites along with ferro-cement roofwater harvesting tanks in selected villages. The activities related to designing and commissioning of a small slow sand filtration unit were carried out at Chhati (Nakot) village for safe drinking water supply. Chlorination pots were demonstrated and installed in rainwater harvesting tanks for disinfection of water for drinking purpose. Water quality assessment and health survey (parasitic and hemoglobin investigation) in the affected villages were carried out before and after technological intervention. The training and awareness programs were organised for people of 23 villages in the study area covering water and sanitation related topics. The beneficiary's opinions, perceptions, apprehensions, as well as expectations reflected positive approach towards the achievement of anticipated benefits and impacts.

  12. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [planning and management of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.; Churchman, C. W.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, R.; Coulson, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The University of California has been conducting an investigation which seeks to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Most of the work has concentrated on California's water resources, but with some attention being given to other earth resources as well and to the interplay between them and California's water resources.

  13. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Systems Division has the primary responsibility for the Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the NASA Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses major problems facing water resources managers, including having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA's science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA's Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  14. Water resources in a changing climate: An Idaho research initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, V. P.

    2009-12-01

    A new initiative in Idaho funded by NSF EPSCoR will build state-wide research infrastructure to address how changes in future climatic conditions may impact water resources, as well as ecological and human systems. This project is supporting complementary field studies on a highly managed river system (Snake River Plain) and a relatively unmanaged system (Salmon River Basin). The project aims to fill a critical niche in hydrology by understanding the connection between surface flow and groundwater. Research capacity is being developed in three main areas: 1) hydroclimatology to improve modeling of water resources affected by climate change, 2) integration of hydrology and economic modeling in the Snake River basin, and 3) highly interdisciplinary research in the Salmon River basin involving climate, water, fire, insect infestations, geomorphology, and stream health. The project will also enhance outreach and educational experiences in climate change and water resources. A description of the new initiative and the activities associated with it will be given.

  15. How important are peatlands globally in providing drinking water resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiren; Morris, Paul; Holden, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    The potential role of peatlands as water stores and sources of downstream water resources for human use is often cited in publications setting the context for the importance of peatlands, but is rarely backed up with substantive evidence. We sought to determine the global role of peatlands in water resource provision. We developed the Peat Population Index (PPI) that combines the coverage of peat and the local population density to show focused (hotspot) areas where there is a combination of both large areas of peat and large populations who would potentially use water sourced from those peatlands. We also developed a method for estimating the proportion of river water that interacted with contributing peatlands before draining into rivers and reservoirs used as a drinking water resource. The Peat Reservoir Index (PRI) estimates the contribution of peatlands to domestic water use to be 1.64 km3 per year which is 0.35 % of the global total. The results suggest that although peatlands are widespread, the spatial distribution of the high PPI and PRI river basins is concentrated in European middle latitudes particularly around major conurbations in The Netherlands, northern England, Scotland (Glasgow) and Ireland (Dublin), although there were also some important systems in Florida, the Niger Delta and Malaysia. More detailed research into water resource provision in high PPI areas showed that they were not always also high PRI areas as often water resources were delivered to urban centres from non-peat areas, despite a large area of peat within the catchment. However, particularly in the UK and Ireland, there are some high PRI systems where peatlands directly supply water to nearby urban centres. Thus both indices are useful and can be used at a global level while more local refinement enables enhanced use which supports global and local peatland protection measures. We now intend to study the impacts of peatland degradation and climate change on water resource

  16. Water resources management and European integration of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Dragoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper points to the main elements important for understanding the obligations arising from the process of accession of the Republic of Serbia (RS to the European Union (EU as related to water resources management. The general framework is determined by the importance of water resources for contemporary international relations as well as the rules governing the process of harmonizing the national legislation with the EU legislation. This paper provides an overview of the most important regulations of the RS and the EU in the field of water resources management, including its status in international treaties. Drawing upon the rules governing the harmonization process, the paper provides indicators of the achieved level of compliance of national legislation with key EU regulations in the field of water resources management. The provided analysis is based on the premise that the process of joining the EU is the main factor that determines the current position and policy of RS in the field of water resources management. In that context, management of water resources falls into the group of EU regulations which are, within the framework of Chapter 27, most difficult to transpose and apply in the internal legal system. Although the process of harmonizing the national legislation with the EU legislation has been underway as regards a vast number of regulations, the process of reaching full compliance is likely to take a couple of years. Concurrently, it has been estimated that the full implementation of legislation harmonized with the EU legislation will take at least two decades, primarily due to the substantial financial resources to be invested in the development of water infrastructure. In terms of participation in the activities undertaken within the framework of international agreements in the field of water resources management and the state's membership in relevant international treaties, it is noted that in the last decade the RS has

  17. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The Washington State... Integrated Water Resource Management Alternative in June 2009 under SEPA. The Integrated Water Resource...

  18. 2015 Military Investigation and Justice Experience Survey (MIJES). Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    other member of the Armed Forces who reports a criminal offense. The section further requires that violation of those regulations be punishable under...2016 Military Investigation and Justice Experience Survey (MIJES) DMDC | iii Executive Summary The Department of Defense (DoD) has a strong...did not result in a criminal investigation by a Military Criminal Investigator (MCIO), whose alleged perpetrator was not a military member, and who

  19. Climate change and decline in water resources in Kikuletwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LINUS MUNISHI

    temperature in the catchment suggesting the effects of climate change on water resources at Kikuletwa ... various regions of the world which includes Australia and. East Africa (Oxfam, 2012; WMO, 2013). Climate change has become a source of uncertainty for .... groundwater from volcanic aquifers that act like artesian.

  20. Subsidiarity in Principle: Decentralization of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stoa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The subsidiarity principle of water resources management suggests that water management and service delivery should take place at the lowest appropriate governance level. The principle is attractive for several reasons, primarily because: 1 the governance level can be reduced to reflect environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological borders of a watershed that would otherwise cross administrative boundaries; 2 decentralization promotes community and stakeholder engagement when decision-making is localized; 3 inefficiencies are reduced by eliminating reliance on central government bureaucracies and budgetary constraints; and 4 laws and institutions can be adapted to reflect localized conditions at a scale where integrated natural resources management and climate change adaptation is more focused. Accordingly, the principle of subsidiarity has been welcomed by many states committed to decentralized governance, integrated water resources management, and/or civic participation. However, applications of decentralization have not been uniform, and in some cases have produced frustrating outcomes for states and water resources. Successful decentralization strategies are heavily dependent on dedicated financial resources and human resource capacity. This article explores the nexus between the principle of subsidiarity and the enabling environment, in the hope of articulating factors likely to contribute to, or detract from, the success of decentralized water resources management. Case studies from Haiti, Rwanda, and the United States’ Florida Water Management Districts provide examples of the varied stages of decentralization.

  1. Issues of governance in water resource management and spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocco de Campos Pereira, R.C.; Schweitzer, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes governance arrangements in regional spatial planning and water resources management at the regional level from a normative point of view. It discusses the need to integrate spatial planning and resources management in order to deliver socially sustainable integral territorial

  2. Water resource co-management and sustainable regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, C.L.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Given the importance of multi-stakeholder processes in managing water resources, this paper aims to shed light on various project management strategies being used in The Netherlands to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of implementing multifunctional water projects.

  3. The perceptions of research values and priorities in water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... Research has played an important role in water resource management and a consensus on research objectives would increase the efficiency of these ... The availability of water underpins the very social and eco- nomic fabric of the southern ... Council USA, 2004). Scientists and practitioners have often.

  4. Multi-criteria decision making for water resource management: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a water resource management model that facilitates indicator-based decisions, with respect to environmental, social and economic dimensions in a multiple criteria perspective, is developed for the Gediz River Basin in Turkey. The basic input of the proposed model is the quantity of surface water that is mainly ...

  5. The perceptions of research values and priorities in water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has played an important role in water resource management and a consensus on research objectives would increase the efficiency of these practices. In this paper we aimed to elicit the views of attendees of the 3rd Orange River Basin Symposium regarding water-related research, by using both quantitative and ...

  6. Overview of water resource assessment in South Africa: Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the progress made in the assessment of water resources in South Africa over the past 60 years by examining 5 major studies that were undertaken in this period. These studies illustrate how the exponential growth in computer power and the concomitant development of highly sophisticated tools have ...

  7. Resolving and Prevention of Shared Water Resources Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning from experiences from other parts of the world, it was recommended to incorporate game theory technique in water resources conflicts and cooperation in the African river basins for equitable and fair utilization and management of shared water. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.1(1) 2004: 51- ...

  8. A Public Education Program in Water Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, John R.; Armold, Anita A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a program designed to improve public awareness/understanding of major factors in managing water resources. Use is made of an interactive computer simulator to place lay people and teachers in decision-making situations involving real variables and alternatives and to project for them the probable consequences of their water management…

  9. Interpretation of Thermal Infrared Imagery for Irrigation Water Resource Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellis, M. Duane

    1985-01-01

    Water resources play a major role in the character of agricultural development in the arid western United States. This case study shows how thermal infrared imagery, which is sensitive to radiant or heat energy, can be used to interpret crop moisture content and associated stress in irrigated areas. (RM)

  10. Applications of space technology to water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology transfer is discussed in terms of applying visible and infrared remote sensing measurement to water resources management. Mapping and monitoring of snowcovered areas, hydrologic land use, and surface water areas are discussed, using information acquired from LANDSAT and NOAA satellite systems.

  11. Water resources. [monitoring and management from ERTS-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 applications in snow and ice monitoring, surface water monitoring, including monitoring of wetland areas and flood inundated area mapping, and also watershed monitoring for runoff prediction are discussed. Results also indicate that geological features can be noted which relate to ground water. ERTS-1 data can be used successfully in operational situations by water resources management agencies.

  12. Impact of gari consumption on the water resource of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... The consumption of gari (or roasted cassava granule) is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resource in the ... household level (blue water use), while water pollution impacts during processing and consumption (at households) .... water (Colombia, 2007), cannot be stored for long be- cause they ...

  13. Water Resource Management and the Changing Climate in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Water Resource Management and the Changing Climate in Angola's Coastal Settlements. Angola's civil war caused a massive movement of people from rural conflict areas to settlements in places vulnerable to climate extremes - low-lying coastal zones, floodplains, and steep ravines. Climate-related risks to the population ...

  14. Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project's main objective is to support capacity for adapting to the impacts of climate change on water resources in Canada, Morocco, and Niger. This will involve improving human health and the resilience of natural and human systems while also promoting the communication and application of knowledge about ...

  15. A new modeling approach for water resources policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovic, Slobodan P.; Fahmy, Hussam

    1999-01-01

    Water resources policy analysis deals with the protection of people from the harmful effects of water and assurance of a consistent, adequate supply of usable water. Population and regulatory pressures, political and economic instabilities, and climatic variations can all be expected to further stress water supply resources. Developing policy for managing water systems for human needs in such an environment is difficult, slow, and very costly. The approach to water resources policy analysis developed in this paper is that of the rational decision maker who lays out goals and uses logical processes to explore the best way to reach those goals. The decision maker may be an individual or a group. The emphasis in this paper is on how water resources decisions ought to be analyzed and made. In establishing this framework we are proposing integration of object-oriented modeling approach with systems analysis. Our concern here is with how the water policy analysis process should be structured to best address a policy choice, and with the object- oriented model that will aid understanding and prediction. The proposed approach is illustrated in the paper by the case study of water resources policy analysis for Egypt.

  16. Water resources issues in Tarkwa municipality, southwest Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comprehensive water resources management plan in the form of an environmental impact statement including the delineation of groundwater protection zones is recommended to address water issues in Tarkwa. Public education on environmental issues, enactment and enforcement of by-laws arising from this plan ...

  17. Sewage disinfection towards protection of drinking water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolch, A

    2000-01-01

    Wastewater applied in agriculture for irrigation could replace the use of natural drinking-water resources. With respect to high concentrations of human pathogens wastewater has to be disinfected prior to use. This paper introduces disinfection methods with emphasis on UV irradiation.

  18. The status quo of research on South Africa's water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African water resource management institutional landscape has seen some dramatic changes since the new dispensation came into power in 1994. Not only have legislation and policies changed, but there has also been a significant increase in the number of non-state actors in the policy development process.

  19. Integrated management of water resources in the valley of Oued ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study designed to analyze and evaluate the results of trend scenarios of the strategy management of water resources used in the valley of Oued-Souf, who led the region to a truly dramatic situation and almost desperate: rise of groundwater and its adverse consequences. In terms of this work, we seek a model (plan) ...

  20. Human and climate impacts on global water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Over past decades, terrestrial water fluxes have been affected by humans at an unprecedented scale and the fingerprints that humans have left on Earth’s water resources are turning up in a diverse range of records. In this thesis, a state-of-the-art global hydrological model (GHM) and global water

  1. Water resources of the Bad River Indian Reservation, northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, W.G.; Lidwin, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Water-resources data were collected in the Bad River Indian Reservation of northern Wisconsin from 1983 through 1987. Some data are interpreted to describe ground-water flow, groundwater quality, streamflow, and surface-water quality. Data also are presented in tables and appendixes for baseline reference.

  2. The perceptions of research values and priorities in water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of research values and priorities in water resource management from the 3rd Orange River Basin Symposium. ... No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader.

  3. Utilization of Water Resources and Food Security in Seka Woreda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For efficient utilization of water resources for small-scale irrigation, the households need supports such as guidance, skilled manpower, access to loan services, fertilizers, selected seeds, access to market, cooperation, water pumps. Thus governmental and non-governmental bodies found at different levels should endeavor ...

  4. Finding practical approaches to integrated water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butterworth, J.; Warner, J.F.; Moriarty, P.; Smits, S.; Batchelor, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities. While sympathetic to many of the criticisms levelled at the IWRM concept and recognising

  5. Economics research supporting water resource stewardship in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie L. Houston; Jeffrey D. Kline; Ralph J. Alig

    2002-01-01

    The use of water increasingly involves complex tradeoffs among biophysical, economic, ecological, and societal values. Knowledge about the value of water to different users and methods with which to evaluate biophysical, economic, ecological, and social tradeoffs associated with allocating limited water resources among competing uses is vital to devising appropriate...

  6. Sustainability of water resources development in the Komadugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainability of water resources development in the Komadugu Yobe River basin of Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ... Results show that about 2,619 million cubic meters (MCM) of surface water is available annually upstream of Wudil (HS 1), 658 MCM is available between Wudil and ...

  7. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  8. Summary. [California activities in remote sensing and management of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    University of California activities in the development of remote sensing techniques and their application in the study of water resources within the state are summarized. It is pointed out that the summary is very lengthy due to fact that NASA had requested a dramatic reorientation of the study. For this reason it was felt that the co-investigators and other participants, need a rather detailed and systematic tabulation of the relevant facts that have been uncovered during the period since the reorientation.

  9. Assuming too much? Participatory water resource governance in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.

  10. Managing Water Resource Challenges in the Congo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloysius, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Water resources in the tropical regions are under pressure from human appropriation and climate change. Current understanding of interactions between hydrology and climate in the tropical regions is inadequate. This is particularly true for the Congo River Basin (CRB), which also lacks hydroclimate data. Global climate models (GCM) show limited skills in simulating CRB's climate, and their future projections vary widely. Yet, GCMs provide the most credible scenarios of future climate, based upon which changes in water resources can be predicted with coupled hydrological models. The objectives of my work are to i) elucidate the spatial and temporal variability of water resources by developing a spatially explicit hydrological model suitable for describing key processes and fluxes, ii) evaluate the performance of GCMs in simulating precipitation and temperature and iii) develop a set of climate change scenarios for the basin. In addition, I also quantify the risks and reliabilities in smallholder rain-fed agriculture and demonstrates how available water resources can be utilized to increase crop yields. Key processes and fluxes of CRB's hydrological cycle are amply characterized by the hydrology model. Climate change projections are evaluated using a multi-model ensemble approach under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The near-term projections of climate and hydrological fluxes are not affected by emission scenarios. However, towards the mid-21st century, projections are emission scenario dependent. Available freshwater resources are projected to increase in the CRB, except in the semiarid southeast. These increases present new opportunities and challenges for augmenting human appropriation of water resources. By evaluating agricultural water requirements, and timing and availability of precipitation, I challenge the conventional wisdom that low agriculture productivities in the CRB are primarily attributable to nutrient limitation. Results show that

  11. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  12. Science to support the understanding of Ohio's water resources, 2016-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie P.; Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie P.

    2016-12-19

    Ohio’s water resources support a complex web of human activities and nature—clean and abundant water is needed for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry, as well as for fish and wildlife needs. Although rainfall in normal years can support these activities and needs, occasional floods and droughts can disrupt streamflow, groundwater, water availability, water quality, recreation, and aquatic habitats. Ohio is bordered by the Ohio River and Lake Erie; it has over 44,000 miles of streams and more than 60,000 lakes and ponds (State of Ohio, 1994). Nearly all of the rural population obtains drinking water from groundwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as universities, to furnish decisionmakers, policy makers, USGS scientists, and the general public with reliable scientific information and tools to assist them in management, stewardship, and use of Ohio’s natural resources. The diversity of scientific expertise among USGS personnel enables them to carry out large- and small-scale multidisciplinary studies. The USGS is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority—its sole product is impartial, credible, relevant, and timely scientific information, equally accessible and available to everyone. The USGS Ohio Water Science Center provides reliable hydrologic and water-related ecological information to aid in the understanding of the use and management of the Nation’s water resources, in general, and Ohio’s water resources, in particular. This fact sheet provides an overview of current (2016) or recently completed USGS studies and data activities pertaining to water resources in Ohio. More information regarding projects of the USGS Ohio Water Science Center is available at http://oh.water.usgs.gov/.

  13. Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Kevin Robert

    primary actors in this governance effort are government regulators, whose policies and incentives continue to drive and to shape the expansion of the bioenergy industry. However, the ability of governments to manage the impacts of biofuels is severely constrained by their obligations under international trade law. This dissertation concludes, therefore, with a detailed investigation into relevant precedents under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). I use these precedents to identify the policy tools that governments would be able to bring to bear in moderating the water resource impacts and myriad other environmental and social concerns raised by bioenergy expansion.

  14. Assessing the Water-Resources Potential of Istanbul by Using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Hydrological Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Cuceloglu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties due to climate change and population growth have created a critical situation for many megacities. Investigating spatio-temporal variability of water resources is, therefore, a critical initial step for water-resource management. This paper is a first study on the evaluation of water-budget components of water resources in Istanbul using a high-resolution hydrological model. In this work, the water resources of Istanbul and surrounding watersheds were modeled using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, which is a continuous-time, semi-distributed, process-based model. The SWAT-CUP program was used for calibration/validation of the model with uncertainty analysis using the SUFI-2 algorithm over the period 1977–2013 at 25 gauge stations. The results reveal that the annual blue-water potential of Istanbul is 3.5 billion m3, whereas the green-water flow and storage are 2.9 billion m3 and 0.7 billion m3, respectively. Watersheds located on the Asian side of the Istanbul megacity yield more blue-water resources compared to the European side, and constitute 75% of the total potential water resources. The model highlights the water potential of the city under current circumstances and gives an insight into its spatial distribution over the region. This study provides a strong basis for forthcoming studies concerning better water-resources management practices, climate change and water-quality studies, as well as other socio-economic scenario analyses in the region.

  15. Natural-derived contaminants and their resolution in transboundary water resources in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.; Weinthal, E.

    2005-12-01

    The rapidly growing population in the Middle East and the ensuing increase in exploitation have led to the degradation its renewable aquifers. In turn, countries in the Middle East have been forced to search for alternative resources like non- renewable (fossil) groundwater and to develop new technologies such as desalination. Here, we show that most of the contamination of the transboundary water resources in the Middle East is due to natural processes. We integrate hydrogeological, geochemical, and isotopic investigations to show that salinization of groundwater in the Gaza Strip, the Jordan River, and the groundwater along the Jordan and Arava valleys are natural phenomena triggered by over-exploitation and distraction of the fragile balance of the hydrological systems in the region. Recent investigations also show that fresh and brackish groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone aquifer in Israel and Jordan contains high level of natural radioactivity. Groundwater from similar basins in Egypt and Libya may also suffer from similar problems of high natural radioactivity in the groundwater. The scientific evidences that most of the contamination is natural raises new challenges for political and legal solutions for such transboundary water resources. Unlike the traditional upstream/downstream conflicts associated with transboundary water resources, the natural contamination demands a reevaluation of water resource management approaches in the Middle East. We argue that regional cooperation must be based upon political bargaining and side-payments rather than just international water law in order to not only foster cooperation, but, more important, to address the poor water quality situation in the Middle East.

  16. Evaluation of the ground-water resources of coastal Georgia; preliminary report on the data available as of July 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Richard E.; Matthews, Sharon E.; Gill, Harold E.

    1984-01-01

    A compilation of ground-water data that have been collected for nearly 100 years in the coastal area of Georgia as part of cooperative activities between the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies is presented in this report. The compilation of pertinent data indicates that information is available for use in the evaluation of the ground-water resources of the 13 counties of coastal Georgia. Included in this report is a fairly complete discussion of previous and ongoing investigations and monitoring networks, and an extensive list of references. Maps at 1:24,000, 1:100,000; and 1:1000,000 scales contain well locations and identifers for all wells in the Ground Water Site Inventory (GWSI) data base of the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE). Tabular summaries of selected site information from GWSI, including well identifiers and names , latitude-longitude location, depth of well, altitude of land surface, and use of water are presented. Water-use data from the National Water Use Data System, and water use for irrigation from the University of Georgia, Department of Agriculture survey , are tabulated. Also included are pertinent information on geophysical surveys and data obtained, and proposed project activities, particularly test-monitor well drilling.

  17. [Schistosomiasis status of staff in Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jun; Leng, Cheng-mei; Tang, Min; Yao, Wei-gang

    2014-08-01

    To understand the status of schistosomiasis of staff in the Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee and the Oncomelania hupensis snail condition of their work areas in 2013, so as to provide the evidences for the schistosomiasis control in the industry. The physical examination data about schistosomiasis of the staff from 2006 to 2013 were collected and analyzed to understand the schistosomiasis prevalence condition of the staff and the changes of their liver parenchyma. Meanwhile, the snail status in the work areas was surveyed. There were 1,393 staff involved in the physical examinations of schistosomiasis in 2003, 197 of them were schistosomiasis patients, the prevalence rate was 14.14%, and no new acute schistosomiasis case occurred. The cases whose liver parenchyma were classified as Grade 0, I , II , III occupied 28.9%, 67.0%, 3.05% and 1.02%, respectively. A total of 24 work areas were involved in the snail survey, and 71 snails were captured. Among the whole snails captured, 39 were living snails, but no schistosome infected snails were found. The prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in staff of the Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee is relatively high, so the schistosomiasis surveillance as well as the snail survey and control still should be carried out consistently.

  18. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded.......A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup...

  19. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  20. Regulation of water resources for sustaining global future socioeconomic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; SHI, H.; Sivakumar, B.

    2016-12-01

    With population projections indicating continued growth during this century, socio-economic problems (e.g., water, food, and energy shortages) will be most likely to occur, especially if proper planning, development, and management strategies are not adopted. In the present study, firstly, we explore the vital role of dams in promoting economic growth through analyzing the relationship between dams and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at both global and national scales. Secondly, we analyze the current situation of global water scarcity based on the data representing water resources availability, dam development, and the level of economic development. Third, with comprehensive consideration of population growth as the major driving force, water resources availability as the basic supporting factor, and topography as the important constraint, this study addresses the question of dam development in the future and predicts the locations of future dams around the world.

  1. Hydroeconomic modeling to support integrated water resources management in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus

    The North China Plain is a 320,000 km2 alluvial plain with a population of more than 200 million people, that stretches across the Hebei, Henan, Beijing, Tianjin and Shandong provinces. The plain is an economic hotspot and is extensively used for irrigation agriculture and heavy industries....... Population growth and rapid development of the Chinese economy have increased water scarcity and put the natural water resources and aquatic ecosystems on the North China Plain under pressure. Dry rivers, rapidly decreasing groundwater tables and heavily polluted surface water bodies are consequences...... resources. In this context, the PhD study focused on development of approaches to inform integrated water resources management to cope with multiple and coupled challenges faced in China. The proposed method is to formulate river water management as a joint hydroeconomic optimization problem that minimizes...

  2. Characterizing water resources and trends of sector wise water consumptions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhawat Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of water resources and trends of water consumptions is important to offer sustainable water resources management strategy. In this research, water resources and trends of water consumptions in Saudi Arabia were investigated. The non-renewable groundwater reserves were estimated to be 259.1–760.6 billion cubic meters (BCM with an effective annual recharge of 886 million cubic meters (MCM. The total internal renewable water was estimated to be 2.4 BCM/year. Approximately 1.4 BCM/year of runoff is collected by 302 dams. The country produces approximately 1.06 BCM desalinated water annually. The wastewater treatment plants treat approximately 0.73 BCM/year of domestic wastewater from which 0.33 BCM is recycled. The water demand in 2009 was 18.51 BCM in which 83.5% were for agriculture. From 2004 to 2009, agricultural water demand was decreased by 2.5%/year, while the domestic and industrial water demands were increased by 2.1%/year and 2.2%/year, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, domestic water subscribers were increased by 22.7%, while the annual domestic water consumption was increased from 1391 (609–2164 to 3818 (1687–7404 m3/subscriber. The industrial water demands were increased from 56 to 713 MCM/year between 1980 and 2009. Following characterization, nonlinear equations were developed to predict the domestic, industrial and agricultural water demands. The predicted water demands were within 1–10% of the historically reported values. The findings might be useful in understanding water sources, water demands and identifying new sources for sustainable water resources management.

  3. Detection of meteo-hydrological trends and water resources impacts at the basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Pianosi, Francesca; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    Trend detection is a classical topic of time series analysis and has gained renewed interest in the last years in climate change research. When dealing with hydrological time series, trend detection is made more complex by the seasonality and the interannual variability that characterize natural catchments. Furthermore, the impacts of detected hydrological trends on water resources at the catchment scale is a relatively less explored issue, although of high relevance for stakeholders and decision-makers. In this study we address such topics investigating the relation between hydro-climatic trends and their impacts on water resources at the basin scale by application to the regulated Alpine lake Maggiore, at the border between Switzerland and Italy. This case study is particularly interesting because of the relevance of the socio-economic component in the system, especially the issues of flood control and downstream irrigation supply, and the high seasonality and interannual variability of the climatic and hydrological system. We propose several graphical tools to effectively visualize the results of traditional trend detection methods like the Mann-Kendall test and the Sen method, and a novel tool, named Moving Average over Shifting Horizon (MASH), which allows to simultaneously tackle seasonality and interannual variability. We also show and discuss how these tools can be applied to quantify the impacts of the detected meteo-hydrological changes on water resources at the basin scale. In our case study, numerical results demonstrate that significant hydrological trends have occurred in the last 25 years, and that they can be reasonably ascribed to changes in the meteorological regime. The consequences of hydrological changes on water resources, namely flood protection along the lake shores and downstream irrigation supply, are less clear, possibly because of non-linearity and threshold effects.

  4. A stochastic rainfall model for the assessment of regional water resource systems under changed climatic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fowler

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic model is developed for the synthesis of daily precipitation using conditioning by weather types. Daily precipitation statistics at multiple sites within the region of Yorkshire, UK, are linked to objective Lamb weather types (LWTs and used to split the region into three distinct precipitation sub-regions. Using a variance minimisation criterion, the 27 LWTs are clustered into three physically realistic groups or ‘states'. A semi-Markov chain model is used to synthesise long sequences of weather states, maintaining the observed persistence and transition probabilities. The Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (NSRP model is then fitted for each weather state, using a defined summer and winter period. The combined model reproduces key aspects of the historic precipitation regime at temporal resolutions down to the hourly level. Long synthetic precipitation series are useful in the sensitivity analysis of water resource systems under current and changed climatic conditions. This methodology enables investigation of the impact of variations in weather type persistence or frequency. In addition, rainfall model statistics can be altered to simulate instances of increased intensity or proportion of dry days for example, for individual weather groups. The input of such data into a water resource model, simulating potential atmospheric circulation changes, will provide a valuable tool for future planning of water resource systems. The ability of the model to operate at an hourly level also allows its use in a wider range of hydrological impact studies, e.g. variations in river flows, flood risk estimation etc. Keywords: water resources; climate change; impacts; stochastic rainfall model; Lamb weather types

  5. Conflict and cooperation in managing international water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Barret, Scott; DEC

    1994-01-01

    Water is often not confined within territorial boundaries so conflicts may arise about shared water resources. When such boundaries lie within a federal state, conflicts may be peacefully and efficiently resolved under law, and if the state fail to reach an agreement, the federal government may impose one. Similar international conflicts are more difficult to resolve because no third party has the authority to enforce an agreement among national states, let alone impose one. Such internationa...

  6. Land utilization and water resource inventories over extended test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    In addition to the work on the corn blight this year, several other analysis tests were completed which resulted in significant findings. These aspects are discussed as follows: (1) field spectral measurements of soil conditions; (2) analysis of extended test site data; this discussion involves three different sets of data analysis sequences; (3) urban land use analysis, for studying water runoff potentials; and (4) thermal data quality study, as an expansion of our water resources studies involving temperature calibration techniques.

  7. The Issue Of Water Resources Diversification In Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Janusz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the methodology for determining the diversification degree of water resources in Collective Water Supply Systems (CWSS. Knowing the number of water supply sub-systems and their share in the total supply of water for CWSS, it is possible to calculate the dimensionless Pielou ratio. The paper presents the calculation of the diversification rate for 26 CWSS in Poland. The presented methodology makes it possible to compare CWSS with different water requirements.

  8. Finding practical approaches to integrated water resources management

    OpenAIRE

    John Butterworth; Jeroen Warner; Patrick Moriarty; Stef Smits; Charles Batchelor

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities. While sympathetic to many of the criticisms levelled at the IWRM concept and recognising the often disappointing levels of adoption, this paper and the series of papers it introduces identify some alternative ways forward in a developmental context that place more emphasis on the practi...

  9. Water resources of the White Earth Indian Reservation, northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources in the White Earth Indian Reservation meet the present (1988) needs for potable supply and other household uses and provide valuable ecological, recreational, and aesthetic benefits. Total annual water use in the Reservation is about 460 million gallons per year. Domestic supply from privately owned wells and municipal systems accounts for roughly three-fourths of the water use, and irrigation of croplands and nurseries accounts for approximately one-fourth, depending on rainfall.

  10. Payments for Ecosystem Services for watershed water resource allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Zang, Wenbin; Guo, Wenxian; Qian, Zhan; Liu, Laisheng; Zhao, Jinyong; Feng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Watershed water resource allocation focuses on concrete aspects of the sustainable management of Ecosystem Services (ES) that are related to water and examines the possibility of implementing Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for water ES. PES can be executed to satisfy both economic and environmental objectives and demands. Considering the importance of calculating PES schemes at the social equity and cooperative game (CG) levels, to quantitatively solve multi-objective problems, a water resources allocation model and multi-objective optimization are provided. The model consists of three modules that address the following processes: ① social equity mechanisms used to study water consumer associations, ② an optimal decision-making process based on variable intervals and CG theory, and ③ the use of Shapley values of CGs for profit maximization. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology for realizing sustainable development was examined. First, an optimization model with water allocation objective was developed based on sustainable water resources allocation framework that maximizes the net benefit of water use. Then, to meet water quality requirements, PES cost was estimated using trade-off curves among different pollution emission concentration permissions. Finally, to achieve equity and supply sufficient incentives for water resources protection, CG theory approaches were utilized to reallocate PES benefits. The potential of the developed model was examined by its application to a case study in the Yongding River watershed of China. Approximately 128 Mm3 of water flowed from the upper reach (Shanxi and Hebei Provinces) sections of the Yongding River to the lower reach (Beijing) in 2013. According to the calculated results, Beijing should pay USD6.31 M (¥39.03 M) for water-related ES to Shanxi and Hebei Provinces. The results reveal that the proposed methodology is an available tool that can be used for sustainable development with resolving PES

  11. ERTS program of the US Army Corps of Engineers. [water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers research and development efforts associated with the ERTS Program are confined to applications of investigation, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of water resource projects. Problems investigated covered: (1) resource inventory; (2) environmental impact; (3) pollution monitoring; (4) water circulation; (5) sediment transport; (6) data collection systems; (7) engineering; and (8) model verification. These problem areas were investigated in relation to bays, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, coasts, and regions. ERTS-1 imagery has been extremely valuable in developing techniques and is now being used in everyday applications.

  12. Water from (waste)water--the dependable water resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    Water reclamation and reuse provides a unique and viable opportunity to augment traditional water supplies. As a multi-disciplined and important element of water resources development and management, water reuse can help to close the loop between water supply and wastewater disposal. Effective water reuse requires integration of water and reclaimed water supply functions. The successful development of this dependable water resource depends upon close examination and synthesis of elements from infrastructure and facilities planning, wastewater treatment plant siting, treatment process reliability, economic and financial analyses, and water utility management. In this paper, fundamental concepts of water reuse are discussed including definitions, historical developments, the role of water recycling in the hydrologic cycle, categories of water reuse, water quality criteria and regulatory requirements, and technological innovations for the safe use of reclaimed water. The paper emphasizes the integration of this alternative water supply into water resources planning, and the emergence of modern water reclamation and reuse practices from wastewater to reclaimed water to repurified water.

  13. Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

  14. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  15. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km3/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  16. Hyphenated hydrology: Interdisciplinary evolution of water resource science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Kathryn L.; Jawitz, James W.

    2017-04-01

    Hydrology has advanced considerably as a scientific discipline since its recognized inception in the mid-twentieth century. Modern water resource related questions have forced adaptation from exclusively physical or engineering science viewpoints toward a deliberate interdisciplinary context. Over the past few decades, many of the eventual manifestations of this evolution were foreseen by prominent expert hydrologists. However, their narrative descriptions have lacked substantial quantification. This study addressed that gap by measuring the prevalence of and analyzing the relationships between the terms most frequently used by hydrologists to define and describe their research. We analyzed 16,591 journal article titles from 1965-2015 in Water Resources Research, through which the scientific dialogue and its time-sensitive progression emerged. Our word frequency and term cooccurrence network results revealed the dynamic timing of the lateral movement of hydrology across multiple disciplines as well as the deepening of scientific discourse with respect to traditional hydrologic questions. The conversation among water resource scientists surrounding the hydrologic subdisciplines of catchment-hydrology, hydro-meteorology, socio-hydrology, hydro-climatology, and eco-hydrology gained statistically significant momentum in the analyzed time period, while that of hydro-geology and contaminant-hydrology experienced periods of increase followed by significant decline. This study concludes that formerly exotic disciplines can potentially modify hydrology, prompting new insights and inspiring unconventional perspectives on old questions that may have otherwise become obsolete.

  17. Integrated water resources modelling for assessing sustainable water governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikaris, Charalampos; Ganoulis, Jacques; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Makropoulos, Christos; Gkatzogianni, Eleni; Michas, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    Climatic variations and resulting future uncertainties, increasing anthropogenic pressures, changes in political boundaries, ineffective or dysfunctional governance of natural resources and environmental degradation are some of the most fundamental challenges with which worldwide initiatives fostering the "think globally, act locally" concept are concerned. Different initiatives target the protection of the environment through sustainable development; Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Transboundary Water Resources Management (TWRM) in the case of internationally shared waters are frameworks that have gained wide political acceptance at international level and form part of water resources management planning and implementation on a global scale. Both concepts contribute in promoting economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability. Inspired by these holistic management approaches, the present work describes an effort that uses integrated water resources modelling for the development of an integrated, coherent and flexible water governance tool. This work in which a sequence of computer based models and tools are linked together, aims at the evaluation of the sustainable operation of projects generating renewable energy from water as well as the sustainability of agricultural demands and environmental security in terms of environmental flow under various climatic and operational conditions. More specifically, catchment hydrological modelling is coupled with dams' simulation models and thereafter with models dedicated to water resources management and planning,while the bridging of models is conducted through geographic information systems and custom programming tools. For the case of Mesta/Nestos river basin different priority rules in the dams' operational schedule (e.g. priority given to power production as opposed to irrigation needs and vice versa), as well as different irrigation demands, e.g. current water demands as opposed to

  18. Water resources of the Lake Traverse Reservation, South and North Dakota, and Roberts County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ryan F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe; Roberts County; and the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Geological Survey Program, began a 6-year investigation to describe and quantify the water resources of the area within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation and adjacent parts of Roberts County. Roberts County is located in extreme northeastern South Dakota, and the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation encompasses much of Roberts County and parts of Marshall, Day, Codington, and Grant Counties in South Dakota and parts of Richland and Sargent Counties in southeast North Dakota. This report includes descriptions of the quantity, quality, and availability of surface and ground water, the extent of the major glacial and bedrock aquifers and named outwash groups, and surface- and ground-water uses within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation and adjacent parts of Roberts County. The surface-water resources within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation and adjacent parts of Roberts County include rivers, streams, lakes, and wetlands. The Wild Rice and Bois de Sioux Rivers are tributaries of the Red River within the Souris-Red-Rainy River Basin; the Little Minnesota, Jorgenson, and North Fork Whetstone Rivers are tributaries of the Minnesota River within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, and the James and Big Sioux Rivers are tributaries within the Missouri River Basin. Several of the larger lakes within the study area have been developed for recreation, while many of the smaller lakes and wetlands are used for livestock watering or as wildlife production areas. Statistical summaries are presented for the water-quality data of six selected streams within the study area, and the dominant chemical species are listed for 17 selected lakes within the study area. The glacial history of the study area has led to a rather complex system of glacial

  19. Description of water-resource-related data compiled for Reno County, south-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Water-resource-related data for sites in Reno County, Kansas were compiled in cooperation with the Reno County Health Department as part of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment's Local Environmental Protection Program (LEPP). These data were entered into a relational data-base management system (RDBMS) to facilitate the spatial analysis required to meet the LEPP goals of developing plans for nonpoint-source management and for public- water-supply protection. The data in the RDBMS are organized into digital data sets. The data sets contain the water-resource-related data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for 958 wells; by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment for 3,936 wells; by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment for 51 wells, 18 public-water-supply distribution systems, and 7 streams; by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture for 643 wells and 23 streams or surface-water impoundments; and by well-drilling contractors and the Kansas Geological Survey for 96 wells. The data in these five data sets are available from the Reno County Health Department in Hutchinson, Kansas. (USGS)

  20. Decision Support Systems for Water Resources Management in Developing Countries: Learning from Experiences in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giupponi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision support system (DSS tools are rather popular in the literature on water resources management. The European Project “Splash” conducted a survey of the literature and of DSS implementation in developing countries with specific reference on Africa. Experts in the field were consulted through an ad hoc questionnaire and interviews. The results of the survey indicate that the exchange of experiences amongst projects with similar objectives or even the same case study is very limited, with a tendency towards restarting every time from scratch. As a consequence, it seems that DSS developments have produced only limited positive impacts. Most experts contacted shared either the frustration deriving from the limited impacts on intended end-users, who rarely used the tool after the project end, or in the case of ongoing projects, the preoccupation for future maintenance. Responses from the questionnaires indicate that priority efforts should not focus on developing the tools, but rather on improving the effectiveness and applicability of integrated water resource management legislative and planning frameworks, training and capacity building, networking and cooperation, harmonization of transnational data infrastructures and, very importantly, learning from past experiences and adopting enhanced protocols for DSS development.

  1. StreamStats: A water resources web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Guthrie, John G.; Rea, Alan H.; Steeves, Peter A.; Stewart, David W.

    2008-01-01

    . Streamflow measurements are collected systematically over a period of years at partial-record stations to estimate peak-flow or low-flow statistics. Streamflow measurements usually are collected at miscellaneous-measurement stations for specific hydrologic studies with various objectives.StreamStats is a Web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) application that was created by the USGS, in cooperation with Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI)1, to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management. StreamStats functionality is based on ESRI’s ArcHydro Data Model and Tools, described on the Web at http://resources.arcgis.com/en/communities/hydro/01vn0000000s000000.htm. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow statistics, basin characteristics, and descriptive information for USGS data-collection stations and user-selected ungaged sites. It also allows users to identify stream reaches that are upstream and downstream from user-selected sites, and to identify and obtain information for locations along the streams where activities that may affect streamflow conditions are occurring. This functionality can be accessed through a map-based user interface that appears in the user’s Web browser, or individual functions can be requested remotely as Web services by other Web or desktop computer applications. StreamStats can perform these analyses much faster than historically used manual techniques.StreamStats was designed so that each state would be implemented as a separate application, with a reliance on local partnerships to fund the individual applications, and a goal of eventual full national implementation. Idaho became the first state to implement StreamStats in 2003. By mid-2008, 14 states had applications available to the public, and 18 other states were in various stages of implementation.

  2. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  3. Marine Neotectonic Investigations Using Integrated AUV and ROV Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Sumner, E. J.; McGann, M.; Brothers, D. S.; Herguera, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed investigations of 15 sites associated with seafloor faults and/or slope failures have been conducted with MBARI's Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs). The motivation for these surveys is to better constrain neotectonic deformation of the seafloor and thus to evaluate potential seafloor geohazards. The coupled use of AUVs and ROVs has enabled marine neotectonic investigations to be achieved at similar observational detail to that previously only possible on land. The AUV surveys provide 1-m resolution bathymetric grids with vertical resolutions of ~10 cm along with chirp sub-bottom profiles that allow subtle deformation on and near the seafloor to be detected. ROV surveys enable precisely located push core and vibracore samples. Sampling strategies include taking transects of closely spaced cores across faults (comparable to trenching on land), and taking transects of horizontal push cores along the faces of scarps where reflectors in chirp profiles crop out or occur in the shallow subsurface. The timing of fault movement can then be established via radiocarbon dating of appropriate material within the sediment samples. The marine environment offers some inherent advantages for neotectonic investigations over the terrestrial environment, as the seafloor geomorphology is relatively unaffected by the deleterious effects of human development (agriculture and urbanization), has no vegetative cover, and is likely to experience continuous deposition of 14C datable materials. Examples will be shown of how AUV and ROV technologies help to constrain the extent, style, and timing of deformation associated with: the San Gregorio fault, offshore central California; the Palos Verdes and San Diego trough faults off southern California; transform faults within the Gulf of California; and young slump scars off Monterey, California. The increased resolution provided by these tools frequently leads to interpretations that differ from

  4. Best Management Practice for Understanding Learning in Sustainable Water Resource Management (WRM) for Secondary Science Teachers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunrasaksakun, Chunwadee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of training teachers to enhance their students' achievements in water resource and disaster course and to compare the effects of using the curriculum framework between training teachers or using curriculum framework in the secondary schools in Khon Kaen Province of Thailand. It was found that the…

  5. The future of water resources systems analysis: Toward a scientific framework for sustainable water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Casey M; Lund, Jay R; Cai, Ximing; Reed, Patrick M; Zagona, Edith A; Ostfeld, Avi; Hall, Jim; Characklis, Gregory W; Yu, Winston; Brekke, Levi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a short history of water resources systems analysis from its beginnings in the Harvard Water Program, through its continuing evolution toward a general field of water resources systems science...

  6. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Great River NWR and Clarence Cannon NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water resource needs and...

  7. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA): Erwin National Fish Hatchery, Unicoi County, Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Erwin National Fish Hatchery (NFH) summarizes available and relevant information for hatchery water resources...

  8. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Water resource governance systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rascher, J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available CSIR research in Water Resource Governance Systems focuses on areas of policy, governance, water resource planning and management and social-ecological systems. The objective is to ensure the equitable, efficient and sustainable deployment of water...

  9. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    China’s water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability—with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north—increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content to build China’s domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China’s domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China’s soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km3/y irrigation water savings, 41 km3/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  10. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-08

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  11. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program works within NASA Earth sciences to leverage investment of satellite and information systems to increase the benefits to society through the widest practical use of NASA research results. Such observations provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as land cover type, vegetation type and health, precipitation, snow, soil moisture, and water levels and radiation. Observations of this type combined with models and analysis enable satellite-based assessment of numerous water resources management activities. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, model results, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. Water resources is one of eight elements in the Applied Sciences Program and it addresses concerns and decision making related to water quantity and water quality. With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands requires using existing resources more efficiently. The potential crises and conflicts arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. but also in many parts of the world. In addition to water availability issues, water quality related

  12. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  13. US scientific contributions to the water resources program of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Schneider, V. R.

    2007-12-01

    It is well recognized that a better understanding of the water cycle and increased availability of hydrological information for surface and groundwater resources are key factors in the ability to sustainably manage water resources. Since its inception in 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has played a critical role in developing isotope applications for hydrology and building scientific capacity in developing countries. Through an active technical cooperation program with a funding of nearly $8M per biennium, the IAEA assists developing countries in using isotope techniques for the assessment and monitoring of water resources, in particular, groundwater resources. In addition, substantial human resources and institutional capacity are built through the provision of training and appropriate equipment for monitoring. The water resources program of the IAEA is implemented with the support of a number of experts and the United States contributes extensively to this program. Although spanning the entire 50 year history of the IAEA, the contribution of US scientists, and particularly those from the US Geological Survey, has been substantial over the past 10 years. These contributions have included assistance in technical cooperation projects in Africa, Latin America and Asia, as well as internationally coordinated research projects in vadose zone hydrology, surface water - groundwater interactions, and regional aquifer studies. In Ethiopia, a national groundwater assessment program was formulated and a computer database was provided to manage hydrological information. A robust program of capacity building in cooperation with the USGS and Argonne National Laboratory has provided training to a number of IAEA-sponsored candidates from Africa and Latin America. This paper will describe the objectives and results of some of these cooperative efforts.

  14. The value of DCIP geophysical surveys for contaminated site investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Rønde, Vinni Kampman; Maurya, Pradip Kumar

    Geophysical methods are increasingly being used in contaminant hydrogeology to map lithology, hydraulic properties, and contaminant plumes with a high ionic strength. Advances in the Direct Current resistivity and Induced Polarization (DCIP) method allow the collection of high resolution three...... dimensional (3D) data sets. The DC resistivity can describe both soil properties and the water electrical conductivity, while the IP can describe the lithology and give information on hydrogeological properties. The aim of the study was to investigate a large contaminant plume discharging to a stream from...... water and below the streambed. Surface DCIP surveys supported the characterization of the spatial variability in geology, hydraulic conductivity and contaminant concentration. Though DCIP data interpretation required additional borehole data, the DCIP survey reduced the number of boreholes required...

  15. Engaging Southwestern Tribes in Sustainable Water Resources Topics and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karletta Chief

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples in North America have a long history of understanding their societies as having an intimate relationship with their physical environments. Their cultures, traditions, and identities are based on the ecosystems and sacred places that shape their world. Their respect for their ancestors and ‘Mother Earth’ speaks of unique value and knowledge systems different than the value and knowledge systems of the dominant United States settler society. The value and knowledge systems of each indigenous and non-indigenous community are different but collide when water resources are endangered. One of the challenges that face indigenous people regarding the management of water relates to their opposition to the commodification of water for availability to select individuals. External researchers seeking to work with indigenous peoples on water research or management must learn how to design research or water management projects that respect indigenous cultural contexts, histories of interactions with settler governments and researchers, and the current socio-economic and political situations in which indigenous peoples are embedded. They should pay particular attention to the process of collaborating on water resource topics and management with and among indigenous communities while integrating Western and indigenous sciences in ways that are beneficial to both knowledge systems. The objectives of this paper are to (1 to provide an overview of the context of current indigenous water management issues, especially for the U.S. federally recognized tribes in the Southwestern United States; (2 to synthesize approaches to engage indigenous persons, communities, and governments on water resources topics and management; and (3 to compare the successes of engaging Southwestern tribes in five examples to highlight some significant activities for collaborating with tribes on water resources research and management. In discussing the engagement

  16. Water resources of West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2016-11-23

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  17. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  18. Interactive Water Resources Modeling and Model Use: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Daniel P.; Kindler, Janusz; Fedra, Kurt

    1985-02-01

    This serves as an introduction for the following sequence of five papers on interactive water resources and environmental management, policy modeling, and model use. We review some important shortcomings of many management and policy models and argue for improved human-computer-model interaction and communication. This interaction can lead to more effective model use which in turn should facilitate the exploration, analysis, and synthesis of alternative designs, plans, and policies by those directly involved in the planning, management, or policy making process. Potential advantages of interactive modeling and model use, as well as some problems and research needs, are discussed.

  19. Transboundary water resources governance: institutional fragilities in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda MELLO SANT’ANNA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the concept of governance rose to prominence in the literature regarding transboundary waters, as well as the international cooperation among riparian States. This article seeks to determine the fragilities in the governance of the major transboundary water resources in South America: the Amazon and La Plata River Basins. In spite of the current international agreements, including those regarding infrastructure development and supranational organizations, water governance presents fragilities related to institutional problems, lack of social participation and dif?culties in structuring a common project of development.

  20. 75 FR 8106 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2010 is 4.375...

  1. 76 FR 73674 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2012 is 4 percent...

  2. 78 FR 16706 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2013 is 3.75...

  3. 78 FR 67393 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2014 is 3.50...

  4. 78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources from April 30, 2013... research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. The EPA... drinking water resources and to identify the driving factors that may affect the severity and frequency of...

  5. 76 FR 8722 - California Department of Water Resources; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission California Department of Water Resources; Notice of Application Accepted for.... Applicant: California Department of Water Resources (DWR). e. Name of Project: Feather River Hydroelectric... of Water Resources, licensee for the Feather River Hydroelectric Project, has filed a request for...

  6. 76 FR 56427 - California Department of Water Resources; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission California Department of Water Resources; Notice of Application Accepted for...: California Department of Water Resources (CDWR). e. Name of Project: Feather River Hydroelectric Project. f... recommendations filed. k. Description of Request: The California Department of Water Resources (CDWR), licensee...

  7. 77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. DATES: EPA will accept data and literature in... scientific research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources... water resources, if any, and to identify the driving factors that may affect the severity and frequency...

  8. 76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National... National Park Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement (WRMP...

  9. 76 FR 71070 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Integrated Water Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The draft Programmatic... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Yakima River Basin Integrated Water Resource Management Alternative in June 2009 under SEPA. The Integrated Water Resource Management Alternative evaluated in the...

  10. Is current irrigation sustainable in the United States? An integrated assessment of climate change impact on water resources and irrigated crop yields

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc, Elodie; Caron, Justin; Fant, Charles; Monier, Erwan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract While climate change impacts on crop yields has been extensively studied, estimating the impact of water shortages on irrigated crop yields is challenging because the water resources management system is complex. To investigate this issue, we integrate a crop yield reduction module and a water resources model into the MIT Integrated Global System Modeling framework, an integrated assessment model linking a global economic model to an Earth system model. We assess the effects of clima...

  11. Quantifying the effects of climate change on water resources in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Roosmalen, Lieke Petronella G; Sonnenborg, Torben O.; Christensen, Jens H.

    2007-01-01

    in recharge, groundwater head and stream discharges in a 5263 km2 catchment in western Denmark. The model system MIKE SHE is used to simulate the hydrological response and the catchment is resolved using a horizontal discretization of 500 x 500 m2. We analyse this problem by retrieving high resolution......This study investigates how future climate change is likely to affect the water resources in Denmark. The main focus is on groundwater resources because the water supply in Denmark is entirely based on groundwater. A physically-based, distributed hydrological model is used to simulate the changes...

  12. Puerto Rico water resources planning model program description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D.W.; Maddock, Thomas; Karlinger, M.R.; Lloyd, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    Because the use of the Mathematical Programming System -Extended (MPSX) to solve large linear and mixed integer programs requires the preparation of many input data cards, a matrix generator program to produce the MPSX input data from a much more limited set of data may expedite the use of the mixed integer programming optimization technique. The Model Definition and Control Program (MODCQP) is intended to assist a planner in preparing MPSX input data for the Puerto Rico Water Resources Planning Model. The model utilizes a mixed-integer mathematical program to identify a minimum present cost set of water resources projects (diversions, reservoirs, ground-water fields, desalinization plants, water treatment plants, and inter-basin transfers of water) which will meet a set of future water demands and to determine their sequence of construction. While MODCOP was specifically written to generate MPSX input data for the planning model described in this report, the program can be easily modified to reflect changes in the model's mathematical structure.

  13. Application of dynamic programming to control khuzestan water resources system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, M.; Heidari, M.

    1977-01-01

    An approximate optimization technique based on discrete dynamic programming called discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP), is employed to obtain the near optimal operation policies of a water resources system in the Khuzestan Province of Iran. The technique makes use of an initial nominal state trajectory for each state variable, and forms corridors around the trajectories. These corridors represent a set of subdomains of the entire feasible domain. Starting with such a set of nominal state trajectories, improvements in objective function are sought within the corridors formed around them. This leads to a set of new nominal trajectories upon which more improvements may be sought. Since optimization is confined to a set of subdomains, considerable savings in memory and computer time are achieved over that of conventional dynamic programming. The Kuzestan water resources system considered in this study is located in southwest Iran, and consists of two rivers, three reservoirs, three hydropower plants, and three irrigable areas. Data and cost benefit functions for the analysis were obtained either from the historical records or from similar studies. ?? 1977.

  14. Practices and perceptions on water resource sustainability in ecovillages

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura Leite, Flavia Brunale Vilela; Bertolo, Lídia Sanches; Santos, Rozely Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    In many areas of the world, groups of people have attempted to create urban landscapes that follow the principles of environmental sustainability. To this end, groups have devised alternative models, such as ecovillages, where low-impact handling is used and a way of life different from that of large population centers is adopted. Although these villages exist, their efficiency in the conservation of natural resources has not been effectively evaluated. This study evaluated the practices used by two Brazilian ecovillages to conserve water resources to assess whether this new concept of living is indeed successful in meeting sustainability goals. We selected 25 indicators of water sustainability, and using the compromise programming method, we quantified the distance between those landscapes self-referenced as sustainable and an ideal hypothetical scenario. We also interpreted the communities perceptions using the distance between the current situations and the envisioned scenario. We concluded that both ecovillage are far from technically ideal scenario, but the communities have a strong sense of their limitations in implementing water resources conservation. The communities attributed this fact primarily to deficiencies in the shared management.

  15. North Slope Decision Support for Water Resource Planning and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, William; Brumbelow, Kelly

    2013-03-31

    The objective of this project was to enhance the water resource decision-making process with respect to oil and gas exploration/production activities on Alaska’s North Slope. To this end, a web-based software tool was developed to allow stakeholders to assemble, evaluate, and communicate relevant information between and amongst themselves. The software, termed North Slope Decision Support System (NSDSS), is a visually-referenced database that provides a platform for running complex natural system, planning, and optimization models. The NSDSS design was based upon community input garnered during a series of stakeholder workshops, and the end product software is freely available to all stakeholders via the project website. The tool now resides on servers hosted by the UAF Water and Environmental Research Center, and will remain accessible and free-of-charge for all interested stakeholders. The development of the tool fostered new advances in the area of data evaluation and decision support technologies, and the finished product is envisioned to enhance water resource planning activities on Alaska’s North Slope.

  16. Water-resources optimization model for Santa Barbara, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    A simulation-optimization model has been developed for the optimal management of the city of Santa Barbara's water resources during a drought. The model, which links groundwater simulation with linear programming, has a planning horizon of 5 years. The objective is to minimize the cost of water supply subject to: water demand constraints, hydraulic head constraints to control seawater intrusion, and water capacity constraints. The decision variables are montly water deliveries from surface water and groundwater. The state variables are hydraulic heads. The drought of 1947-51 is the city's worst drought on record, and simulated surface-water supplies for this period were used as a basis for testing optimal management of current water resources under drought conditions. The simulation-optimization model was applied using three reservoir operation rules. In addition, the model's sensitivity to demand, carry over [the storage of water in one year for use in the later year(s)], head constraints, and capacity constraints was tested.

  17. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  18. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  19. A taxonomy of chemicals of emerging concern based on observed fate at water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M; Chowdhury, Zaid K; Watts, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    As reuse of municipal water resource recovery facility (WRRF) effluent becomes vital to augment diminishing fresh drinking water resources, concern exists that conventional barriers may prove deficient, and the upcycling of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) could prove harmful to human health and aquatic species if more effective and robust treatment barriers are not in place. A multiple month survey, of both primary and secondary effluents, from three (3) WRRFs, for 95 CECs was conducted in 2014 to classify CECs by their persistence through conventional water reclamation processes. By sampling the participating WRRF process trains at their peak performance (as determined by measured bulk organics and particulates removal), a short-list of recalcitrant CECs that warrant monitoring to assess treatment performance at advanced water reclamation and production facilities. The list of identified CECs for potable water reclamation (indirect or direct potable reuse) include a herbicide and its degradants, prescription pharmaceuticals and antibiotics, a female hormone, an artificial sweetener, and chlorinated flame retardants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge Co-production Strategies for Water Resources Modeling and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gober, P.

    2016-12-01

    The limited impact of scientific information on policy making and climate adaptation in North America has raised awareness of the need for new modeling strategies and knowledge transfer processes. This paper outlines the rationale for a new paradigm in water resources modeling and management, using examples from the USA and Canada. Principles include anticipatory modeling, complex system dynamics, decision making under uncertainty, visualization, capacity to represent and manipulate critical trade-offs, stakeholder engagement, local knowledge, context-specific activities, social learning, vulnerability analysis, iterative and collaborative modeling, and the concept of a boundary organization. In this framework, scientists and stakeholders are partners in the production and dissemination of knowledge for decision making, and local knowledge is fused with scientific observation and methodology. Discussion draws from experience in building long-term collaborative boundary organizations in Phoenix, Arizona in the USA and the Saskatchewan River Basin (SRB) in Canada. Examples of boundary spanning activities include the use of visualization, the concept of a decision theater, infrastructure to support social learning, social networks, and reciprocity, simulation modeling to explore "what if" scenarios of the future, surveys to elicit how water problems are framed by scientists and stakeholders, and humanistic activities (theatrical performances, art exhibitions, etc.) to draw attention to local water issues. The social processes surrounding model development and dissemination are at least as important as modeling assumptions, procedures, and results in determining whether scientific knowledge will be used effectively for water resources decision making.

  1. Remote Sensing and GIS for Surface Water Resources in Rawa Biru – Torasi Merauke Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartono Hartono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research describe about surface water ecosystem study in Merauke Papua by using multisource and multistage remote sensing data which was splitted into two parts based on the study areas. First, it is for micro scale spatial analysis focusing on the Rawa Biru – Torasi watershed, while the second is for macro scale spatial analysis for Transfly ecoregionin the floodplain areas of Merauke. Multispectral approach was adopted for Landsat image analysis, followed by field survey on the selected areas. Auxilary data used are maps, secondary documents in order to improve understanding of the areas. Interview and discussion with related institutions (Wasur National Sanctuary, Potable Water Services, Internal Affairs Government, Forestry Service accordingly were carried out. The research result showed that remote sensing imagery are usefull for surface water resources study. Physical condition of the Rawa Biru – Torasi watershed, vegetation analysis by using multitemporal data, wetland type, hydrological process in the floodplain were presented. Rawa Biru watershed as a resource for drinking water supply environmentaly decreased considerably due to the species invasion, with successively dominated by hydrophilla, tebu rawa, rumput pisau, dan Mellaleuca and sedimentation took place in the main body of swamp. Upper part of the watershed is actually included in the Papua New Guinea, in long water resources development scheme, it need administratively belong to one recharge areas for the watershed.

  2. Coupled Interpretation of Geoelectrical Surveying Results in Environmental Site Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skold, M.; Hubbard, S. S.; Karaoulis, M.; Revil, A.; Spycher, N.; Watson, D. B.; Wu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Geoelectric methods are sensitive to material properties which can be used to investigate subsurficial processes at contaminated sites. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measures the electrical resistivity distribution in the ground; the self-potential (SP) method is based on source current densities resulting from ground water flow; and induced polarization (IP) responds to geochemical interactions between mineral surfaces and pore fluids. Ground water flow patterns and contaminant migration may be better understood if the results of these survey methods are interpreted jointly rather than separately. The purpose of this project is to jointly interpret results of geophysical surveying and laboratory characterization of soil and ground water samples to assess ground water flow patterns and contaminant migration at a site within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Historical disposal of liquid waste containing nitric acid and uranium in unlined ponds has resulted in contamination of soil and ground water. ERT, SP, and IP surveying was performed downgradient of the source area and the geophysical behavior of sediment and ground water samples was investigated in the laboratory. Measured electrical conductivity and self-potential anomalies coincided with elevated nitrate and uranium concentrations indicating preferential flow from the source area. The self-potential response can be related to ground water flow either by calculating the excess of charge in the diffuse layer surrounding mineral surfaces or by the streaming potential coupling coefficient. Geochemical reactions between pore water and minerals and their surfaces were modeled using the contaminant transport software TOUGHREACT. Surface complexation modeling using the Gouy-Chapman diffuse double layer was used to simulate charge density-surface potential relationship. Laboratory measurements of the streaming potential coupling coefficient of sediment samples at various pH and salt concentrations were

  3. Comprehensive benefit analysis of regional water resources based on multi-objective evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yixia; Xue, Lianqing; Zhang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the water resources comprehensive benefits analysis is to maximize the comprehensive benefits on the aspects of social, economic and ecological environment. Aiming at the defects of the traditional analytic hierarchy process in the evaluation of water resources, it proposed a comprehensive benefit evaluation of social, economic and environmental benefits index from the perspective of water resources comprehensive benefit in the social system, economic system and environmental system; determined the index weight by the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP), calculated the relative index of water resources comprehensive benefit and analyzed the comprehensive benefit of water resources in Xiangshui County by the multi-objective evaluation model. Based on the water resources data in Xiangshui County, 20 main comprehensive benefit assessment factors of 5 districts belonged to Xiangshui County were evaluated. The results showed that the comprehensive benefit of Xiangshui County was 0.7317, meanwhile the social economy has a further development space in the current situation of water resources.

  4. Water Resources by 2100 in Mountains with Declining Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, M.

    2015-12-01

    Future shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns, and changes in the behavior of snow and ice - and possibly the quasi-disappearance of glaciers - in many mountain regions will change the quantity, seasonality, and possibly also the quality of water originating in mountains and uplands. As a result, changing water availability will affect both upland and populated lowland areas. Economic sectors such as agriculture, tourism or hydropower may enter into rivalries if water is no longer available in sufficient quantities or at the right time of the year. The challenge is thus to estimate as accurately as possible future changes in order to prepare the way for appropriate adaptation strategies and improved water governance. The European ACQWA project, coordinated by the author, aimed to assess the vulnerability of water resources in mountain regions such as the European Alps, the Central Chilean Andes, and the mountains of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) where declining snow and ice are likely to strongly affect hydrological regimes in a warmer climate. Based on RCM (Regional Climate Model) simulations, a suite of cryosphere, biosphere and economic models were then used to quantify the environmental, economic and social impacts of changing water resources in order to assess how robust current water governance strategies are and what adaptations may be needed to alleviate the most negative impacts of climate change on water resources and water use. Hydrological systems will respond in quantity and seasonality to changing precipitation patterns and to the timing of snow-melt in the studied mountain regions, with a greater risk of flooding during the spring and droughts in summer and fall. The direct and indirect impacts of a warming climate will affect key economic sectors such as tourism, hydropower, agriculture and the insurance industry that will be confronted to more frequent natural disasters. The results from the ACQWA project suggest that there is a need for a

  5. Collaborative Research for Water Resource Management under Climate Change Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundiers, K.; Garfin, G. M.; Gober, P.; Basile, G.; Bark, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present an ongoing project to co-produce science and policy called Collaborative Planning for Climate Change: An Integrated Approach to Water-Planning, Climate Downscaling, and Robust Decision-Making. The project responds to motivations related to dealing with sustainability challenges in research and practice: (a) state and municipal water managers seek research that addresses their planning needs; (b) the scientific literature and funding agencies call for more meaningful engagement between science and policy communities, in ways that address user needs, while advancing basic research; and (c) empirical research contributes to methods for the design and implementation of collaborative projects. To understand how climate change might impact water resources and management in the Southwest US, our project convenes local, state, and federal water management practitioners with climate-, hydrology-, policy-, and decision scientists. Three areas of research inform this collaboration: (a) the role of paleo-hydrology in water resources scenario construction; (b) the types of uncertainties that impact decision-making beyond climate and modeling uncertainty; and (c) basin-scale statistical and dynamical downscaling of climate models to generate hydrologic projections for regional water resources planning. The project engages all participants in the research process, from research design to workshops that build capacity for understanding data generation and sources of uncertainty to the discussion of water management decision contexts. A team of “science-practice translators” facilitates the collaboration between academic and professional communities. In this presentation we contextualize the challenges and opportunities of use-inspired science-policy research collaborations by contrasting the initial project design with the process of implementation. We draw from two sources to derive lessons learned: literature on collaborative research, and evaluations provided by

  6. Uncertainties in climate change projections and regional downscaling in the tropical Andes: implications for water resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Buytaert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have a large impact on water resources worldwide. A major problem in assessing the potential impact of a changing climate on these resources is the difference in spatial scale between available climate change projections and water resources management. Regional climate models (RCMs are often used for the spatial disaggregation of the outputs of global circulation models. However, RCMs are time-intensive to run and typically only a small number of model runs is available for a certain region of interest. This paper investigates the value of the improved representation of local climate processes by a regional climate model for water resources management in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. This region has a complex hydrology and its water resources are under pressure. Compared to the IPCC AR4 model ensemble, the regional climate model PRECIS does indeed capture local gradients better than global models, but locally the model is prone to large discrepancies between observed and modelled precipitation. It is concluded that a further increase in resolution is necessary to represent local gradients properly. Furthermore, to assess the uncertainty in downscaling, an ensemble of regional climate models should be implemented. Finally, translating the climate variables to streamflow using a hydrological model constitutes a smaller but not negligible source of uncertainty.

  7. A review on water pricing problem for sustainable water resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hek, Tan Kim; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Iryanto

    2017-05-01

    A report that presented at the World Forum II at The Hague in March 2000, said that it would be water crisis around the world and some countries will be lack of water in 2025, as a result of global studies. Inefficient using of water and considering water as free goods which means it can be used as much as we want without any lost. Thus, it causes wasteful consumption and low public awareness in using water without effort to preserve and conserve the water resources. In addition, the excessive exploitation of ground water for industrial facilities also leads to declining of available freshwater. Therefore, this paper reviews some problems arise all over the world regarding to improper and improving management, policies and methods to determine the optimum model of freshwater price in order to avoid its wasteful thus ensuring its sustainability. In this paper, we also proposed a preliminary model of water pricing represents a case of Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia.

  8. Land Cover Monitoring for Water Resources Management in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Irina; Navarro, Ana; Rolim, Joao; Catalao, Joao; Silva, Joel; Painho, Marco; Vekerdy, Zoltan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of improved temporal resolution and multi-source satellite data (SAR and optical) on land cover mapping and monitoring for efficient water resources management. For that purpose, we developed an integrated approach based on image classification and on NDVI and SAR backscattering (VV and VH) time series for land cover mapping and crop's irrigation requirements computation. We analysed 28 SPOT-5 Take-5 images with high temporal revisiting time (5 days), 9 Sentinel-1 dual polarization GRD images and in-situ data acquired during the crop growing season. Results show that the combination of images from different sources provides the best information to map agricultural areas. The increase of the images temporal resolution allows the improvement of the estimation of the crop parameters, and then, to calculate of the crop's irrigation requirements. However, this aspect was not fully exploited due to the lack of EO data for the complete growing season.

  9. Hydroinformatics’ contribution to Amazonian water resources and ecosystem management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Manrique-Losada

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  Significant progress has been made during recent yearsin applying information technologiesto water resource management from a multidisciplinary field called hydroinformatics; this can change the focus of environmental impact assessment and decision-making according to available environmental resources. This article presents an image retrieval system which uses the Universidad de la Amazonia’s (ColombiaAquatic Ecosystem Quality and Preservation Research Group’s (CAPREA digital image collection. Automaticpicture classification (having attributes relative to water colour, edges and flow type is proposed which has beenbased onDinnertein’s classification, adapted by the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’sHydrology and Meteorology Institute and Environment Studies in 2001.  

  10. NASA Tools for Climate Impacts on Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Climate and environmental change are expected to fundamentally alter the nation's hydrological cycle and water availability. Satellites provide global or near-global coverage using instruments, allowing for consistent, well-calibrated, and equivalent-quality data of the Earth system. A major goal for NASA climate and environmental change research is to create multi-instrument data sets to span the multi-decadal time scales of climate change and to combine these data with those from modeling and surface-based observing systems to improve process understanding and predictions. NASA and Earth science data and analyses will ultimately enable more accurate climate prediction, and characterization of uncertainties. NASA's Applied Sciences Program works with other groups, including other federal agencies, to transition demonstrated observational capabilities to operational capabilities. A summary of some of NASA tools for improved water resources management will be presented.

  11. VLBI telescopes' gravitational deformations investigated with terrestrial surveying methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, P.; Abbondanza, C.; Negusini, M.; Vittuari, L.

    2008-09-01

    Large VLBI telescopes undergo gravitational deformations which affect both geodetic and astronomic observations. In order to assess the extent and magnitude of such deformations and to evaluate their effect on telescopes' performances, terrestrial surveying methods can be applied to monitor the telescopes' structure at different pointing elevations. Finite Element Model analysis, laser scanner surveying, trilateration and triangulation have been applied on the telescope in Medicina to estimate i) the deformations of the primary mirror and to monitor ii) the position of the feed horn located at the primary focus and iii) the position of the vertex of the paraboloid. If detectable, these deformations modify the position of the primary focus and the signal path length and may therefore reduce the antenna gain and bias the phase of the incoming signal. We are presenting the investigations performed on the Medicina VLBI telescope, quantifying the magnitude of the deformations of the primary dish, the quadrupode and the vertex and we are also presenting an elevation dependent model for signal path corrections.

  12. Senate working on reauthorization of water resources development bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Although the details are not even written for forthcoming legislation to reauthorize the U.S. federal Water Resources Development Act (WRDA), three broad themes emerged during a 20 September hearing by the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (EPW). First, passage of the WRDA bill, which would authorize water projects around the country, already appears to have bipartisan support, as well as support from conservation, industry, and labor groups. WRDA was last reauthorized in 2007 when the Senate voted 79-14 in broad bipartisan support to override President George W. Bush's veto of the $23 billion bill. Second, although the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers—which manages, operates, and maintains a vast water resources infrastructure including more than 600 dams, 926 harbors, and 12,000 miles of commercial inland navigation channels—received some praise for its projects, it was also criticized as being a bureaucracy in need of repair. Third, WRDA legislation is operating under different ground rules than in the past. EPW committee chair Barbara Boxer (D-Calif.) said that she has been working with Republicans on WRDA legislation and that she hopes to move forward with a bill later this year—possibly bringing it up for a markup during Congress's lame duck session following the national election in November. She said that would be a way to set a marker for leadership on both sides of the congressional aisle to move forward with the bill. Boxer said she would "get my dream bill in place" and then provide it to committee ranking member James Inhofe (R-Okla.) and other Republicans for their comments.

  13. Hydraulic modeling development and application in water resources engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Francisco J.; Yang, Chih Ted; Wang, Lawrence K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modeling has become widespread in water resources engineering and science to study rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal regions. For example, computer models are commonly used to forecast anthropogenic effects on the environment, and to help provide advanced mitigation measures against catastrophic events such as natural and dam-break floods. Linking hydraulic models to vegetation and habitat models has expanded their use in multidisciplinary applications to the riparian corridor. Implementation of these models in software packages on personal desktop computers has made them accessible to the general engineering community, and their use has been popularized by the need of minimal training due to intuitive graphical user interface front ends. Models are, however, complex and nontrivial, to the extent that even common terminology is sometimes ambiguous and often applied incorrectly. In fact, many efforts are currently under way in order to standardize terminology and offer guidelines for good practice, but none has yet reached unanimous acceptance. This chapter provides a view of the elements involved in modeling surface flows for the application in environmental water resources engineering. It presents the concepts and steps necessary for rational model development and use by starting with the exploration of the ideas involved in defining a model. Tangible form of those ideas is provided by the development of a mathematical and corresponding numerical hydraulic model, which is given with a substantial amount of detail. The issues of model deployment in a practical and productive work environment are also addressed. The chapter ends by presenting a few model applications highlighting the need for good quality control in model validation.

  14. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  15. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  16. Groundwater in Southwest Bangladesh: Possible Consequences of Climate Change and Water Resource Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasich, C. M.; Hornberger, G. M.; Goodbred, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Bangladesh serves as a case study of the possible consequences of climate change and water resource management practices on coastal regions. Significant portions of the population rely on groundwater as a primary source of freshwater. Local sea-level rise coupled with changes in surface recharge due to variations in monsoon strength have led to concerns over groundwater salinization. Over-drafting of freshwater aquifers due to population pressures and widespread installation of saline shrimp farms further exacerbate the problem. Analysis of the interconnectivity of surface water and groundwater systems can provide insight into future groundwater conditions under these circumstances. This study shows how the relationship between surface water and groundwater varies spatially and temporally in Bangladesh. The region around the city of Khulna was selected as a case study due to its large population, proximity to the coast, and prevalence of shrimp farming. The relationship between surface water and groundwater was analyzed on a seasonal, yearly, and decadal timescale. A Ghyben-Herzberg model was used to describe the freshwater-saltwater interface beneath Khulna. Spatial analyses via ArcGIS served as the primary tool for investigation. Analyses indicate groundwater amplitudes vary spatially, as a result of distance from stream and tidal channels, and temporally, as a result of seasonal weather patterns and tides. Spatial and temporal variations in groundwater elucidate possible impacts of climate change and water resource management practices within a coastal environment.

  17. Modelling the impacts of projected future climate change on water resources in north-west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the frequency of water resource drought in the UK, coupled with the more recent pan-European drought of 2003, has increased concern over changes in climate. Using the UKCIP02 Medium-High (SRES A2 scenario for 2070–2100, this study investigates the impact of climate change on the operation of the Integrated Resource Zone (IRZ, a complex conjunctive-use water supply system in north-western England. The results indicate that the contribution of individual sources to yield may change substantially but that overall yield is reduced by only 18%. Notwithstanding this significant effect on water supply, the flexibility of the system enables it to meet modelled demand for much of the time under the future climate scenario, even without a change in system management, but at significant expense for pumping additional abstraction from lake and borehole sources. This research provides a basis for the future planning and management of the complex water resource system in the north-west of England.

  18. WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT : AN ANALYSIS OF THE MUNICIPAL PLAN OF BASIC SANITATION XANGRILÁ/ RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barbosa de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyze the way how is the regionalization and management of water resources from the Municipal Plan analysis Sewerage Shangri-La (PMSBX, which in itself shows the importance of the subject, even before the outbreak of the recent water crisis in 2014 in São Paulo, at which water management has become widely discussed. The main objective is to study the legislation and documents related to water resources, especially in relation to water regionalization, participation and conflict resolution. Thus, this aims to bring the discussion laws and concepts, considering its importance, especially in times of globalization, as well as answer the question that underlies this study: "What are the interrelationships between the National Basic Sanitation Policy (Law No. 11.445, of January 5, 2007, the National Basic Sanitation Plan and Sanitation Municipal Basic Plan for Xangri-Lá/RS?". The method used in the research is based on analysis of legislation and documents created by civil society, which are important on the subject, checking how the governance, management and water regionalization are given in Brazilian context, gaucho and regional. From a preliminary analysis can point out that the legislation, as well as the documents investigated, even in the solidification phase, run through by several challenges to its effective implementation.

  19. Application of multiobjective optimization to scheduling capacity expansion of urban water resource systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, Mohammad; Kuczera, George; Cui, Lijie

    2014-06-01

    Significant population increase in urban areas is likely to result in a deterioration of drought security and level of service provided by urban water resource systems. One way to cope with this is to optimally schedule the expansion of system resources. However, the high capital costs and environmental impacts associated with expanding or building major water infrastructure warrant the investigation of scheduling system operational options such as reservoir operating rules, demand reduction policies, and drought contingency plans, as a way of delaying or avoiding the expansion of water supply infrastructure. Traditionally, minimizing cost has been considered the primary objective in scheduling capacity expansion problems. In this paper, we consider some of the drawbacks of this approach. It is shown that there is no guarantee that the social burden of coping with drought emergencies is shared equitably across planning stages. In addition, it is shown that previous approaches do not adequately exploit the benefits of joint optimization of operational and infrastructure options and do not adequately address the need for the high level of drought security expected for urban systems. To address these shortcomings, a new multiobjective optimization approach to scheduling capacity expansion in an urban water resource system is presented and illustrated in a case study involving the bulk water supply system for Canberra. The results show that the multiobjective approach can address the temporal equity issue of sharing the burden of drought emergencies and that joint optimization of operational and infrastructure options can provide solutions superior to those just involving infrastructure options.

  20. Joint-operation in water resources project in Indonesia: Integrated or non-integrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophiyandri, Taufika; Istijono, Bambang; Hidayat, Benny

    2017-11-01

    The construction of large water resources infrastructure project often involved a joint-operation (JO) project between two or more construction companies. The form of JO can be grouped into two categories - an integrated type and a non-integrated type. This paper investigates the reason of forming a JO project made by companies. The specific advantages and problems of JO project is also analysed in this paper. In order to achieve the objectives, three water resources infrastructure projects were selected as case studies. Data was gathered by conducting 11 semi-structured interviews to project owners, contractor managers, and project staffs. Data was analysed by means of content analysis. It was found that the most fundamental factor to form a JO is to win a competition or tender. An integrated model is in favour because it can reduce overhead costs and has a simple management system, while a non-integrated model is selected because it can avoid a sleeping partner and make contractor more responsible for their own job.

  1. Information Communication and Technology for Water Resource Management and Food Security in Kenya: A Case Study of Kericho and Uasin Gishu Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omboto, P. I.; Macharia, J.; Mbagaya, Grace; Standa, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports on Kenya have indicated food insecurity and destruction of water catchments as serious problems facing the country. Despite the tremendous strides in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the country has not taken advantage of the technology to improve food security by effectively managing her water resources. A survey on…

  2. Description of water-resource-related data compiled for Harvey County, south-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Site, construction, geologic, water-level, water- quality, water-withdrawal, and well-survey data for sites in Harvey County were compiled in cooper- ation with the Harvey County Health Department as part of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment's Local Environmental Protection Program (LEPP). These data were entered into a relational data-base management system (RDBMS) to facilitate the analysis required to meet the LEPP goals of developing plans for nonpoint-source management and for public-water-supply protection. The data in the RDBMS are organized into digital data sets. The data sets contain the water- resource-related data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for 668 wells; by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment for 1,636 wells, 6 public-water-supply systems, 6 streams, and 2 surface-water impoundments; by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture for 423 wells and 26 streams or impoundments; by well-drilling con- tractors and the Kansas Geological Survey for 126 wells; and by Harvey County for 89 wells. In addition, data on 761 wells and 133 sites without wells resulting from a survey of rural landowners and residents by Harvey County as a part of the LEPP are contained in another data set. The data in these 7 data sets are available from the Harvey County Health Department in Newton, Kansas. (USGS)

  3. Past and present management of water resources in karst environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Karst is a very peculiar environment, and has a number of intrinsic features that clearly distinguish it from any other natural setting. Hydrology of karst is dominated by absence or very scarce presence of surface runoff, since water rapidly infiltrates underground through the complex network of conduits and fissures that are at the origin of the development of karst caves. The limited presence of water at the surface represented the main problem to be faced by man, starting from the very first historic phases of establishing settlements in karst territories. As often happens in areas with limited natural resources, man was however able to understand the local environment through observations and direct experience, develop technique in order to collect the limited available water resources, and adapt his way of life to the need of the natural environment. In a few words, a sustainable use of the water resources was reached, that went on for many centuries, allowing development of human settlements and agriculture, and, at the same time, protecting and safeguarding the precious hydric resources. Some of the most typical rural architectures built in karst areas of the Mediterranean Basin can be described as examples of such efforts: from the dry stone walls, to many types of storage-houses or dwellings, known with different names, depending upon the different countries and regions. Dry stone walls, in particular, deserve a particular attention, since they had multiple functions: to delimit the fields and properties, to act as a barrier to soil erosion, to allow terracing the high-gradient slopes, to collect and store water. At this latter aim, dry stone walls were build in order to create a small but remarkable micro-environment, functioning as collectors of moisture and water vapour. In the last centuries, with particular regard to the last decades of XX century, the attention paid by man to the need of the natural environment has dramatically changed. This

  4. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hirsch, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    We are in the midst of a continental-scale, multi-year experiment in the United States, in which we have not defined our testable hypotheses or set the duration and scope of the experiment, which poses major water-resources challenges for the 21st century. What are we doing? We are expanding population at three times the national growth rate in our most water-scarce region, the southwestern United States, where water stress is already great and modeling predicts decreased streamflow by the middle of this century. We are expanding irrigated agriculture from the west into the east, particularly to the southeastern states, where increased competition for ground and surface water has urban, agricultural, and environmental interests at odds, and increasingly, in court. We are expanding our consumption of pharmaceutical and personal care products to historic high levels and disposing them in surface and groundwater, through sewage treatment plants and individual septic systems. These substances are now detectable at very low concentrations and we have documented significant effects on aquatic species, particularly on fish reproduction function. We don’t yet know what effects on human health may emerge, nor do we know if we need to make large investments in water treatment systems, which were not designed to remove these substances. These are a few examples of our national-scale experiment. In addition to these water resources challenges, over which we have some control, climate change models indicate that precipitation and streamflow patterns will change in coming decades, with western mid-latitude North America generally drier. We have already documented trends in more rain and less snow in western mountains. This has large implications for water supply and storage, and groundwater recharge. We have documented earlier snowmelt peak spring runoff in northeastern and northwestern States, and western montane regions. Peak runoff is now about two weeks earlier than it was

  5. The role of hydrology in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, U.

    2011-12-01

    Modern water resources management developed as a branch of science based engineering since the landmark publication of Mass et al. (1962&1967) which emerged from the Harvard Water Program. Clearly, water was managed much earlier, in fact since the early days of civilization, as evidenced by the publication of Vitruvius on architecture in the 1st Century BC, but the 1950s marked the advent of modeling enabled by computers, which transformed the field we call Water Resources Management (WRM). Since then, thousands of papers have been published and thousands of decisions and projects have been aided by WRM methodologies and model results. This presentation is not an historical review of water resources management, although it appears in a session titled The Evolution of WRM Paradigms. Instead, it is an attempt to discuss the role of hydrology as a feeder of information for the management domain. The issues faced by hydrologists who work to serve and support WRM will be discussed and elucidated by case studies. For hydrologists, some of the important points in this regard are: - Planning, design and operation are three interconnected "layers" of WRM. Planning is where the sources and consumers are identified, the overall "architecture" of a proposed system is laid out, including its topology and connectivity. Design is where sizes of facilities are fixed. Operational policy determines the operation of the system under a selected forecasted set of typical and/or critical conditions, while real-time operation means setting the operational variables for a defined time period ahead (hour, day, week, month, year). The three "layers" are inter-connected and inter-dependent, but still can be addressed differently. - Hydrological data of different types are required, according to the management issue being addressed. They range from short term now-casting/forecasting for real-time operation and response, e.g., for flood protection, to long-term time probabilistic series and

  6. Water resources during drought conditions and postfire water quality in the upper Rio Hondo Basin, Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2010-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherson, Lauren R.; Rice, Steven E.

    2015-07-16

    Stakeholders and water-resource managers in Lincoln County, New Mexico, have had long-standing concerns over the impact of population growth and groundwater withdrawals. These concerns have been exacerbated in recent years by extreme drought conditions and two major wildfires in the upper Rio Hondo Basin, located in south-central New Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Lincoln County, initiated a study in 2006 to assess and characterize water resources in the upper Rio Hondo Basin. Data collected during water years 2010–13 are presented and interpreted in this report. All data presented in this report are described in water years unless stated otherwise.

  7. Ecosystem Services Insights into Water Resources Management in China: A Case of Xi'an City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingya; Li, Jing; Gao, Ziyi; Yang, Min; Qin, Keyu; Yang, Xiaonan

    2016-11-24

    Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi'an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services. Index values for each indicator were calculated, and based on questionnaire results, each index's weight was calculated. Using the Likert method, we calculated ecosystem service supplies in every region of the city. We found that the ecosystem's service capability is closely related to water resources, providing a method for managing water resources. Using Xi'an City as an example, we apply the ecosystem services concept to water resources management, providing a method for decision makers.

  8. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (I): Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Ye, Yushi

    2015-12-01

    Due to the adaption, dynamic and multi-objective characteristics of complex water resources system, it is a considerable challenge to manage water resources in an efficient, equitable and sustainable way. An integrated optimal allocation model is proposed for complex adaptive system of water resources management. The model consists of three modules: (1) an agent-based module for revealing evolution mechanism of complex adaptive system using agent-based, system dynamic and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II methods, (2) an optimal module for deriving decision set of water resources allocation using multi-objective genetic algorithm, and (3) a multi-objective evaluation module for evaluating the efficiency of the optimal module and selecting the optimal water resources allocation scheme using project pursuit method. This study has provided a theoretical framework for adaptive allocation, dynamic allocation and multi-objective optimization for a complex adaptive system of water resources management.

  9. Ecosystem Services Insights into Water Resources Management in China: A Case of Xi’an City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi’an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services. Index values for each indicator were calculated, and based on questionnaire results, each index’s weight was calculated. Using the Likert method, we calculated ecosystem service supplies in every region of the city. We found that the ecosystem’s service capability is closely related to water resources, providing a method for managing water resources. Using Xi’an City as an example, we apply the ecosystem services concept to water resources management, providing a method for decision makers.

  10. Ecosystem Services Insights into Water Resources Management in China: A Case of Xi’an City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingya; Li, Jing; Gao, Ziyi; Yang, Min; Qin, Keyu; Yang, Xiaonan

    2016-01-01

    Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi’an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services. Index values for each indicator were calculated, and based on questionnaire results, each index’s weight was calculated. Using the Likert method, we calculated ecosystem service supplies in every region of the city. We found that the ecosystem’s service capability is closely related to water resources, providing a method for managing water resources. Using Xi’an City as an example, we apply the ecosystem services concept to water resources management, providing a method for decision makers. PMID:27886137

  11. The current state of water resources of Transcarpathia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout their existence, humans use the water of rivers, lakes and underground sources not only for water supply but also for dumping of polluted waters and wastes into it. Significant development of urbanization, concentration of urban industrial enterprises, transport, increase in mining, expansion of drainage and irrigation reclamation, plowing of the river channels, creating a large number of landfills resulted in significant, and in some regions critical, depletion and contamination of the surface and ground waters. Because of this disastrous situation, the society is getting more and more concerned about the state of the environment. The public became increasingly interested in the state of the soil cover, air, water resources, and biotic diversity. Transcarpathian region (Zakarpattya is situated in the heart of Europe, bordered by four Central European countries (Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania and two regions of Ukraine (Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk regions. Transcarpathian region (Zakarpattya is one of the richest regions of Ukraine in terms of water resources. The territory is permeated by the dense network of rivers. There are in total 9,429 rivers of 19,866 kmlength flowing in the region. Among them, the rivers Tysa, Borzhava, Latoryca, Uzh have the length of over 100 kmeach. 25 cities and urban settlements of the area are substantially provided with the centralized water intake of underground drinking water. The rural areas have virtually no centralized water supply; mainly, it is carried out due to domestic wells or water boreholes. Predicted resources of underground drinking waters in the region are equal to 1,109,300 m3/day. The use of fresh water in 2014 per capita amounted to 23,769 m3, 15% less than in 2009. The main pollutants of surface water bodies are the facilities of utility companies in the region. Analysis of studies of surface water quality in Transcarpathian region in 2014 shows that water quality meets the

  12. Protection of water resources in the municipality of Črnomelj

    OpenAIRE

    Koplan, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water supply is nowadays quite a matter of course. The nature with its natural features enables it for us. Diploma work deals with the protection of water resources, which are used for drinking water supply in the municipality of Črnomelj. Legislation in the field of water resources protection, which is one of the most important factors of water resources protection, is presented. The aim of this work is to determine the potential contaminants, identify pollutants and to demonstrate ...

  13. Managing water locally: an inquiry into community- based water resources management in fragile states

    OpenAIRE

    Day, St John

    2016-01-01

    Water resources in many parts of the world, but particularly in Africa, face multiple pressures. These growing pressures, along with rainfall variability, pose significant risks to water resources and livelihoods. Over the past two decades the concept of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has been presented as a panacea, but subscription to this model has not delivered the results expected. Despite a massive endeavour there is extensive evidence that IWRM remains d...

  14. 2016 Military Investigation and Justice Experience Survey: Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    former Director of the Defense Research, Surveys, and Statistics Center for Health and Resilience (RSSC[H& R ]) and Ms. Kristin Williams, acting...Research, Surveys, and Statistics Center (RSSC) within the Office of People Analytics (OPA) was tasked with this effort. The 2016 MIJES focuses...2014). The Defense Research, Surveys, and Statistics Center (RSSC), within the Office of People Analytics (OPA), was tasked with this effort. 7 For

  15. Evaluation of groundwater artificial recharge management scenario for sustainable water resources development in Gaza Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusteberg, Bernd; Azizur Rahman, M.; Abusaada, Muath; Rabi, Ayman; Rahman Tamimi, A.; Sauter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The water resources in Gaza Strip are currently facing extreme over-exploitation which has led to a sharp decline of the groundwater level in this Mediterranean coastal aquifer overtime. Salinity of the groundwater is very high as a result of subsequent seawater intrusion of the aquifer. The contamination of the Gaza Strip groundwater by seawater has wide-ranging effects on the regional economy as well as agricultural productivity. In order to guarantee the sustainability of regional development, which requires the access to clean water, groundwater artificial recharge (AR) is being considered as a potential solution to this current water resources problem. The objective of the present study is to analyze several strategies for the implementation and management of AR in Gaza Strip and their potential impacts on agriculture, environment, and the socio-economy. Based on the water policy on wastewater reclamation and reuse (Yr. 2005 - 2025), six AR management strategies were developed in close cooperation with the local stakeholder community. These scenarios take into consideration the development of the new North Gaza Wastewater Treatment Plant and were also judged with respect to a base-line scenario, otherwise known as the "Do Nothing Approach." Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) on ranking of the AR management scenarios was used. Twenty-one criteria ranging over a wide spectrum and four categories (Environmental, Public Health, Social, and Economical) were defined to ensure sound evaluation of each of the six AR management scenarios. A detailed geo-database was prepared to analyze all the related spatial, non-spatial, and temporal data. Socio-economic studies, field surveys, mathematical modeling, and GIS analysis were used for the criteria quantification. In the MCDA, Analytical Hierarchy Method (AHP) combined with weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Composite Programming (CP) was employed. The six AR management strategies were thus compared to the "Do

  16. The inter-relationships between urban dynamics and water resource and supply based on multitemporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Alexandru; Aldea, Mihaela

    2016-08-01

    The growth and concentration of population, housing and industry in urban and suburban areas in the continuous evolution of a city over time causes complex social, economic, and physical challenges. The population and its relationship with the use and development of the land and water is a critical issue of urban growth, and since ancient times land, water and man were directly involved in the human populations' survival. Nevertheless the current potential of study over this relationship between urban growth, water supply, drainage and water resources conditions becomes more and more attractive due to the possibility to make use of the broader variety of information sources and technologies readily available in recent years, with emphasis on the open data and on the big data as primary sources. In this regard we present some new possibilities of analyses over the demographics, land use/land cover and water supply and conservation based on a study over a Romanian region of development (Bucharest-Ilfov). As urban development usually outgrows the existing water supply systems, the resolution consists in drilling new and deeper wells, building new water distribution pipelines, building longer aqueducts and larger reservoirs, or finding new sources and constructing completely new water supply systems, water supplies may evolve this way from a result into a cause and driver of urban growth. The evolution trends of the studied area was estimated based on the open satellite time-series imagery and remote sensing techniques by land use/land cover extraction and the identification of the changes in urbanization. The survey is mainly focused on the expansion of the water network in terms of areal, total length and number of connections correlated with the amount of water produced, consumed and lost within a supply zone. Some urban human activities including the industrial ones alter water resource by pollution, over pumping of groundwater, construction of dams and reservoirs

  17. The Developing on Awareness of Water Resources Management of Grade 6 Students in Namphong Sub-Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehamat, Lumyai; Sanrattana, Unchalee; Tungkasamit, Angkana

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of water resources management is expression behavior as receive, response, valuing, and organization. Water resources is an important for everyone in the world and the recently water resources are be risky as lack of water, waste water, and blooding. The development on awareness of water resources management for grade 6 students is very…

  18. The research and development of water resources management information system based on ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiqun; Gao, Xiaoli; Li, Yuzhi; Cui, Zhencai

    According to that there are large amount of data, complexity of data type and format in the water resources management, we built the water resources calculation model and established the water resources management information system based on the advanced ArcGIS and Visual Studio.NET development platform. The system can integrate the spatial data and attribute data organically, and manage them uniformly. It can analyze spatial data, inquire by map and data bidirectionally, provide various charts and report forms automatically, link multimedia information, manage database etc. . So it can provide spatial and static synthetical information services for study, management and decision of water resources, regional geology and eco-environment etc..

  19. A Connection Entropy Approach to Water Resources Vulnerability Analysis in a Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Pan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a water resources vulnerability framework based on sensitivity, natural resilience and artificial adaptation, through the analyses of the four states of the water system and its accompanying transformation processes. Furthermore, it proposes an analysis method for water resources vulnerability based on connection entropy, which extends the concept of contact entropy. An example is given of the water resources vulnerability in Anhui Province of China, which analysis illustrates that, overall, vulnerability levels fluctuated and showed apparent improvement trends from 2001 to 2015. Some suggestions are also provided for the improvement of the level of water resources vulnerability in Anhui Province, considering the viewpoint of the vulnerability index.

  20. Policy tree optimization for adaptive management of water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jonathan; Giuliani, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Water resources systems must cope with irreducible uncertainty in supply and demand, requiring policy alternatives capable of adapting to a range of possible future scenarios. Recent studies have developed adaptive policies based on "signposts" or "tipping points" that suggest the need of updating the policy. However, there remains a need for a general method to optimize the choice of the signposts to be used and their threshold values. This work contributes a general framework and computational algorithm to design adaptive policies as a tree structure (i.e., a hierarchical set of logical rules) using a simulation-optimization approach based on genetic programming. Given a set of feature variables (e.g., reservoir level, inflow observations, inflow forecasts), the resulting policy defines both the optimal reservoir operations and the conditions under which such operations should be triggered. We demonstrate the approach using Folsom Reservoir (California) as a case study, in which operating policies must balance the risk of both floods and droughts. Numerical results show that the tree-based policies outperform the ones designed via Dynamic Programming. In addition, they display good adaptive capacity to the changing climate, successfully adapting the reservoir operations across a large set of uncertain climate scenarios.

  1. Biofuel Expansion and Water Resources in the Ivinhema Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libra, J. M.; King, C.; Xavier, A.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil produces approximately a quarter the world's yearly ethanol demand, making it a global leader in biofuel production. The repercussions for local water resources in areas of intensive biofuel expansion, however, remain uncertain. To assess the effects of various land-use change scenarios on water sustainability in Brazil, this study models a small catchment currently experiencing soybean and sugarcane expansion using the Stockholm Environment Institute's Water Evaluation and Planning software (WEAP). The catchment, the Ivinhema basin in Southern Mato Grosso do Sul, has experienced extensive sugarcane expansion since the mid-1990s - a trend that is expected to continue. The model uses climatic data, soil characteristics, and agricultural production trends in the region from 1990 - 2012 to simulate known streamflows, using the WEAP-MABIA method. The model predicts flow impacts under a number of different future climatic and land-use scenarios. The results will be used to inform the ICONE's Brazil Land Use Model (BLUM), which models the economics of land use.

  2. Colloids removal from water resources using natural coagulant: Acacia auriculiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Roslan, A.; Kamarulzaman, M. F. H.; Erat, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    All waters, especially surface waters contain dissolved, suspended particles and/or inorganic matter, as well as several biological organisms, such as bacteria, algae or viruses. This material must be removed because it can affect the water quality that can cause turbidity and colour. The objective of this study is to develop water treatment process from Seri Alam (Johor, Malaysia) lake water resources by using natural coagulant Acacia auriculiformis pods through a jar test experiment. Jar test is designed to show the effectiveness of the water treatment. This process is a laboratory procedure that will simulate coagulation/flocculation with several parameters selected namely contact time, coagulant dosage and agitation speed. The most optimum percentage of colloids removal for each parameter is determined at 0.2 g, 90 min and 80 rpm. FESEM (Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscope) observed the small structures of final floc particles for optimum parameter in this study to show that the colloids coagulated the coagulant. All result showed that the Acacia auriculiformis pods can be a very efficient coagulant in removing colloids from water.

  3. Risk analysis methods of the water resources system under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeying GUI,Chenglong ZHANG,Mo Li,Ping GUO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristic of the water resources system (WRS is its great complexity and uncertainty, which makes it highly desirable to carry out a risk analysis of the WRS. The natural environmental, social economic conditions as well as limitations of human cognitive ability are possible sources of the uncertainties that need to be taken into account in the risk analysis process. In this paper the inherent stochastic uncertainty and cognitive subjective uncertainty of the WRS are discussed first, from both objective and subjective perspectives. Then the quantitative characterization methods of risk analysis are introduced, including three criteria (reliability, resiliency and vulnerability and five basic optimization models (the expected risk value model, conditional value at risk model, chance-constrained risk model, minimizing probability of risk events model, and the multi-objective optimization model. Finally, this paper focuses on the various methods of risk analysis under uncertainty, which are summarized as random, fuzzy and mixed methods. A more comprehensive risk analysis methodology for the WRS is proposed based on the comparison of the advantages, disadvantages and applicable conditions of these three methods. This paper provides a decision support of risk analysis for researchers, policy makers and stakeholders of the WRS.

  4. Enhancing Science Teacher Training Using Water Resources and GLOBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, James W.

    2002-01-01

    Heritage College, located on the Yakama Indian Reservation in south central Washington state, serves a multicultural, underserved, rural population and trains teachers to staff the disadvantaged school districts on and surrounding the reservation. In-service teachers and pre-service teachers in the area show strength in biology but have weak backgrounds in chemistry and mathematics. We are addressing this problem by providing a 2-year core of courses for 3 groups of 25 students (15 pre-service and 10 in-service teachers) using GLOBE to teach integrated physical science and mathematics. At the conclusion of the program, the students will qualify for science certification by Washington State. Water resources are the focal point of the curriculum because it is central to life in our desert area. The lack or excess of water, its uses, quality and distribution is being studied by using GIS, remote sensing and historical records. Students are learning the methodology to incorporate scientific protocols and data into all aspects of their future teaching curriculum. In addition, in each of the three years of the project, pre-service teachers attended a seminar series during the fall semester with presentations by collaborators from industry, agriculture, education and government agencies. Students used NASA educational materials in the presentations that they gave at the conclusion of the seminar series. All pre- and in-service teachers continue to have support via a local web site for Heritage College GLOBE participants.

  5. Protecting water resources from pollution in the Lake Badovc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Islam; Tmava, Ahmet [Faculty of Geosciences and Technology, University of Prishtina, Str. Parku Industrial, 40000 Mitrovic, Republic of Kosova

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the international community has witnessed incidence of climate variability and human activities. The objective of this paper is protecting water resources from pollution in the catchments area of Lake Badovc. The catchments area of the Lake Badovc has a size of 109 km² and the active storage volume of the lake is assessed to 26.4 Mill.m3. Around 28% of the total population of Municipality of Prishtina supply with drinking water from Lake Badovc. The hydrologic modelling system used, is HEC-HMS developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Centre of the US Corps of Engineers. The model is designed to simulate the rainfall-runoff processes of catchments areas and is applicable to a wide range of geographic areas.Water samples are taken from two streams reach Lake Badovc and from the lake in three different depths (5m, 10m and 15m) at different locations. Concerning the environment impact more than 140 interviews were conducted and questionnaires filled in the period October-November for Mramor area, concentrating on the most important issues: building, water supply, wastewater disposal and west disposal.

  6. Forest Management Challenges for Sustaining Water Resources in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Earth has entered the Anthropocene epoch that is dominated by humans who demand unprecedented quantities of goods and services from forests. The science of forest hydrology and watershed management generated during the past century provides a basic understanding of relationships among forests and water and offers management principles that maximize the benefits of forests for people while sustaining watershed ecosystems. However, the rapid pace of changes in climate, disturbance regimes, invasive species, human population growth, and land use expected in the 21st century is likely to create substantial challenges for watershed management that may require new approaches, models, and best management practices. These challenges are likely to be complex and large scale, involving a combination of direct and indirect biophysical watershed responses, as well as socioeconomic impacts and feedbacks. We discuss the complex relationships between forests and water in a rapidly changing environment, examine the trade-offs and conflicts between water and other resources, and propose new management approaches for sustaining water resources in the Anthropocene.

  7. Finding Practical Approaches to Integrated Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Butterworth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities. While sympathetic to many of the criticisms levelled at the IWRM concept and recognising the often disappointing levels of adoption, this paper and the series of papers it introduces identify some alternative ways forward in a developmental context that place more emphasis on the practical in-finding solutions to water scarcity. A range of lighter, more pragmatic and context-adapted approaches, strategies and entry points are illustrated with examples from projects and initiatives in mainly 'developing' countries. The authors argue that a more service-orientated (WASH, irrigation and ecosystem services, locally rooted and balanced approach to IWRM that better matches contexts and capacities should build on such strategies, in addition to the necessary but long-term policy reforms and river basin institution-building at higher levels. Examples in this set of papers not only show that the 'lighter', more opportunistic and incremental approach has potential as well as limitations but also await wider piloting and adoption.

  8. Water resource requirements of corn-based ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, Stanley; Lant, Christopher

    2008-07-01

    Ethanol derived from fermentation of corn is a very water-intensive product with water to ethanol mass ratios of 927 to 1178 and volumetric ratios of 1174 to 1492 for the major rainfed corn-growing U.S. states of Illinois and Iowa and the leading irrigated corn-growing state of Nebraska, respectively. Over 99% of water requirements are for growing corn feed stocks, with 99% of that amount in Illinois and Iowa, occurring as evapotranspiration of rainfall in corn fields, and 60% as evapotranspiration of applied irrigation water in Nebraska. As a rough measure of water quality impacts, 65.5 g N, 23.8 g P, and 1.03 g of pesticides are applied, and 4.8 kg of soil is eroded per liter of ethanol produced. These results add to knowledge on corn-based ethanol's low net energy balance and high carbon footprint by demonstrating the high water resource intensity of corn-based ethanol production.

  9. RESOLVE Projects: Lunar Water Resource Demonstration and Regolith Volatile Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To sustain affordable human and robotic space exploration, the ability to live off the land at the exploration site will be essential. NASA calls this ability in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and is focusing on finding ways to sustain missions first on the Moon and then on Mars. The ISRU project aims to develop capabilities to technology readiness level 6 for the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program and early human missions returning to the Moon. NASA is concentrating on three primary areas of ISRU: (1) excavating, handling, and moving lunar regolith, (2) extracting oxygen from lunar regolith, and (3) finding, characterizing, extracting, separating, and storing volatile lunar resources, especially in the permanently shadowed polar craters. To meet the challenges related to technology development for these three primary focus areas, the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project was initiated in February 2005, through funding by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. RESOLVE's objectives are to develop requirements and conceptual designs and to perform breadboard concept verification testing of each experiment module. The final goal is to deliver a flight prototype unit that has been tested in a relevant lunar polar environment. Here we report progress toward the third primary area creating ways to find, characterize, extract, separate, and store volatile lunar resources. The tasks include studying thermal, chemical, and electrical ways to collect such volatile resources as hydrogen, water, nitrogen, methane, and ammonia. We approached this effort through two subtasks: lunar water resource demonstration (LWRD) and regolith volatile characterization (RVC).

  10. Application of Satellite Gravimetry for Water Resource Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The force of Earth's gravity field varies in proportion to the amount of mass near the surface. Spatial and temporal variations in the gravity field can be measured via their effects on the orbits of satellites. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is the first satellite mission dedicated to monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. The monthly gravity anomaly maps that have been delivered by GRACE since 2002 are being used to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, and snow and ice), which are the primary source of gravity variability on monthly to decadal timescales after atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects have been removed. Other remote sensing techniques are unable to detect water below the first few centimeters of the land surface. Conventional ground based techniques can be used to monitor terrestrial water storage, but groundwater, soil moisture, and snow observation networks are sparse in most of the world, and the countries that do collect such data rarely are willing to share them. Thus GRACE is unique in its ability to provide global data on variations in the availability of fresh water, which is both vital to life on land and vulnerable to climate variability and mismanagement. This chapter describes the unique and challenging aspects of GRACE terrestrial water storage data, examples of how the data have been used for research and applications related to fresh water vulnerability and change, and prospects for continued contributions of satellite gravimetry to water resources science and policy.

  11. Roadmap for sustainable water resources in southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The management of water resources in arid and semiarid areas has long been a challenge, from ancient Mesopotamia to the modern southwestern United States. As our understanding of the hydrological and climatological cycles has improved, and our ability to manipulate the hydrologic cycle has increased, so too have the challenges associated with managing a limited natural resource for a growing population. Modern civilization has made remarkable progress in water management in the past few centuries. Burgeoning cities now survive in desert regions, relying on a mix of simple and complex technologies and management systems to bring adequate water and remove wastewater. These systems have permitted agricultural production and urban concentrations to expand in regions previously thought to have inadequate moisture. However, evidence is also mounting that our current management and use of water is unsustainable. Physical, economic, and ecological limits constrain the development of new supplies and additional water withdrawals, even in regions not previously thought vulnerable to water constraints. New kinds of limits are forcing water managers and policy makers to rethink previous assumptions about population, technology, regional planning, and forms of development. In addition, new threats, especially the challenges posed by climatic changes, are now apparent. Sustainably managing and using water in arid and semiarid regions such as the southwestern United States will require new thinking about water in an interdisciplinary and integrated way. The good news is that a wide range of options suggest a roadmap for sustainable water management and use in the coming decades. PMID:21149725

  12. Proceedings of the Radionuclide Contamination in Water Resources Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J H; Duisebayev, B; Janecky, D R; Knapp, R; Rosenburg, N D; Smith, D K; Tompson, A F B; Tyupkina, O; Veselov, V V

    2001-07-26

    A workshop entitled ''Radionuclide Contamination in Water Resources'' was held in Almaty, Kazakhstan from Tuesday 29 May through Friday 1 June. This workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and three organizations from the Republic of Kazakhstan: the Institute of Nonproliferation, the Institute of Hydrogeology and Hydrophysics, and KazAtomProm. Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, three national laboratories, and 13 different organizations from the Republic of Kazakhstan attended the workshop. A complete list of attendees, the workshop program, and information on the background and motivation for this workshop are provided in this report. The objective of the workshop was to identify critical problems, discover what is known about the problems related to radionuclide contamination of groundwater resources, form collaborative teams, and produce a small number proposals that both address further characterization and assess risk via contaminant fate and transport modeling. We plan to present these proposals to U.S. government agencies and international sponsors for funding.

  13. Exploring Water Resources as a Study Abroad Experience in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulava, V. M.; Callahan, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    land use change effects on water resource availability and (2) water quality principles that focused on natural and anthropogenic changes to the chemical character of the river water, and linkages between human and environmental health. The target audience was students who have completed a sequence of introductory geology courses, but expectations and learning goals were calibrated to match students' interests and background. Readings were organized for students allowing for lectures and discussions at several locations. Hands-on activities included basic stream hydrology (estimating discharge and runoff), water quality monitoring, and informal social science surveys of residents. Water quality parameters measured included bulk parameters (pH, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, etc.) and chemical analytes (dissolved oxygen, NO3, PO4, SO4, Cu and Cr). Surveys were informally designed to gain local perspective on water issues such as sources of their drinking water, wastewater disposal practices, and perceived needs and vulnerabilities. Students collected the data, allowing them to reflect on the changing physical, chemical, and human character of the river from headwaters to the mouth. Students also gained more nuanced perspectives on the role of water on society, culture, and religion in this region.

  14. Water resources change in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the post-soviet period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    than in Belarus and Ukraine. The same picture as for general water consumption is typical for industrial water use, domestic water consumption and especially for irrigated agriculture. On the contrary, calculating per head correlation of water consumption with climatic conditions is not seen because of the considerable influence of socio-economic factors. We also tried to find out correlation of the cost-effectiveness of water use (gross domestic product per used water unit) with the annual air temperature. The result illustrates that it is necessary to take into account the climatic conditions while investigating the cost-effectiveness of water use in different countries and regions. Today the water management in all former Republics is directed towards gradual stabilization, but if adequate measures are not assumed the situation with water resources will deteriorate.

  15. Science to Help Understand and Manage Important Ground-Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Throughout California, as pressure on water resources continues to grow, water-supply agencies are looking to the state?s biggest ?reservoir? ? its ground-water basins ? for supply and storage. To better utilize that resource, the Sweetwater Authority and other local partners, including the city of San Diego and Otay Water Districts, are working with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop the first comprehensive study of the coastal ground-water resources of southern San Diego County. USGS research is providing the integrated geologic and hydrologic knowledge necessary to help effectively utilize this resource on a coordinated, regional basis. USGS scientists are building a real-time well-monitoring network and gathering information about how the aquifers respond to different pumping and recharge-management strategies. Real-time ground-water levels are recorded every hour and are viewable on a project web site (http://ca.water.usgs.gov/sandiego/index.html). Data from the wells are helping to define the geology and hydrogeology of the area, define ground-water quality, and assess ground-water levels. The wells also are strategi-cally placed and designed to be usable by the local agencies for decades to come to help manage surface-water and ground-water operations. Additionally, the knowledge gained from the USGS study will help local, state, and federal agencies; water purveyors; and USGS scientists to understand the effects of urbanization on the local surface-water, ground-water, and biological resources, and to better critique ideas and opportuni-ties for additional ground-water development in the San Diego area.

  16. Application of ERTS-1 Data to Aid in Solving Water Resources Management Problems in the State of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Investigations within the State of California have emphasized the direct utilization of the supplemental data source afforded by the Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 (ERTS-1) imagery. A user-oriented study has been underway for several years to identify and develop application methodology for remotely sensed information available from several platform levels, including low and high flights by NASA's U2 aircraft, and other manned and unmanned devices. The University of California has pursued both basic and applied research in remote sensing, through ongoing studies supported by NASA, and in cooperation with state agencies responsible for water resources and related fields. This report reviews the applications of ERTS-1 and supplementary imagery sources applicable to water resources planning, operations, and management.

  17. Seeking parsimony in hydrology and water resources technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2009-04-01

    systems to single numbers (a probability or an expected value), and statistics provides the empirical basis of summarizing data, making inference from them, and supporting decision making in water resource management. Unfortunately, the current state of the art in probability, statistics and their union, often called stochastics, is not fully satisfactory for the needs of modelling of hydrological and water resource systems. A first problem is that stochastic modelling has traditionally relied on classical statistics, which is based on the independent "coin-tossing" prototype, rather than on the study of real-world systems whose behaviour is very different from the classical prototype. A second problem is that the stochastic models (particularly the multivariate ones) are often not parsimonious themselves. Therefore, substantial advancement of stochastics is necessary in a new paradigm of parsimonious hydrological modelling. These ideas are illustrated using several examples, namely: (a) hydrological modelling of a karst system in Bosnia and Herzegovina using three different approaches ranging from parsimonious to detailed "physically-based"; (b) parsimonious modelling of a peculiar modified catchment in Greece; (c) a stochastic approach that can replace parameter-excessive ARMA-type models with a generalized algorithm that produces any shape of autocorrelation function (consistent with the accuracy provided by the data) using a couple of parameters; (d) a multivariate stochastic approach which replaces a huge number of parameters estimated from data with coefficients estimated by the principle of maximum entropy; and (e) a parsimonious approach for decision making in multi-reservoir systems using a handful of parameters instead of thousands of decision variables.

  18. Marine geophysical surveys off Kaverppattinam for archaeological investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.

    Marine geophysical surveys were carried out in Madras, 1990 in the offshore regions of Tranquebar and Kaverippattinam covering the area between 5 and 15 m water depth. In addition to several isolated objects, a continuous belt of small objects...

  19. Predictive error analysis for a water resource management model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mark; Doherty, John

    2007-02-01

    SummaryIn calibrating a model, a set of parameters is assigned to the model which will be employed for the making of all future predictions. If these parameters are estimated through solution of an inverse problem, formulated to be properly posed through either pre-calibration or mathematical regularisation, then solution of this inverse problem will, of necessity, lead to a simplified parameter set that omits the details of reality, while still fitting historical data acceptably well. Furthermore, estimates of parameters so obtained will be contaminated by measurement noise. Both of these phenomena will lead to errors in predictions made by the model, with the potential for error increasing with the hydraulic property detail on which the prediction depends. Integrity of model usage demands that model predictions be accompanied by some estimate of the possible errors associated with them. The present paper applies theory developed in a previous work to the analysis of predictive error associated with a real world, water resource management model. The analysis offers many challenges, including the fact that the model is a complex one that was partly calibrated by hand. Nevertheless, it is typical of models which are commonly employed as the basis for the making of important decisions, and for which such an analysis must be made. The potential errors associated with point-based and averaged water level and creek inflow predictions are examined, together with the dependence of these errors on the amount of averaging involved. Error variances associated with predictions made by the existing model are compared with "optimized error variances" that could have been obtained had calibration been undertaken in such a way as to minimize predictive error variance. The contributions by different parameter types to the overall error variance of selected predictions are also examined.

  20. Discovering Tradeoffs, Vulnerabilities, and Dependencies within Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition and interest in using emerging computational tools for discovering the tradeoffs that emerge across complex combinations infrastructure options, adaptive operations, and sign posts. As a field concerned with "deep uncertainties", it is logically consistent to include a more direct acknowledgement that our choices for dealing with computationally demanding simulations, advanced search algorithms, and sensitivity analysis tools are themselves subject to failures that could adversely bias our understanding of how systems' vulnerabilities change with proposed actions. Balancing simplicity versus complexity in our computational frameworks is nontrivial given that we are often exploring high impact irreversible decisions. It is not always clear that accepted models even encompass important failure modes. Moreover as they become more complex and computationally demanding the benefits and consequences of simplifications are often untested. This presentation discusses our efforts to address these challenges through our "many-objective robust decision making" (MORDM) framework for the design and management water resources systems. The MORDM framework has four core components: (1) elicited problem conception and formulation, (2) parallel many-objective search, (3) interactive visual analytics, and (4) negotiated selection of robust alternatives. Problem conception and formulation is the process of abstracting a practical design problem into a mathematical representation. We build on the emerging work in visual analytics to exploit interactive visualization of both the design space and the objective space in multiple heterogeneous linked views that permit exploration and discovery. Many-objective search produces tradeoff solutions from potentially competing problem formulations that can each consider up to ten conflicting objectives based on current computational search capabilities. Negotiated design selection uses interactive visualization

  1. Water resources of the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddow, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Existing data were used in conjunction with onsite measurements to evaluate the water resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming. The reservation is located mainly in the Wind River drainage basin. Ground water is used for public- supply, domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes, and potentially for irrigation. Deposits of Quaternary age provide water for domestic and public-supply uses. Median well yields from different types of Quaternary deposits ranged from 6 to 20 gallons per minute. The Wind River Formation of Tertiary age is a major source of water for domestic and public-supply uses; well yields ranged from 0.1 to 350 gallons per minute. For the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone of Paleozoic age, wells might yield as much as 1,000 gallons per minute. The dissolved-solids concentration of water from the Little Wind River and Popo Agie River flood-plain alluvium near mountains was generally less than 400 mg/L (milligrams per liter), but with increasing distance from mountains, the range was about 600 to about 750 mg/L. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water in the Wind River Formation ranged from 211 to 5,110 mg/L. Streams provide most water used for irrigation. Discharge records from streamflow-gaging stations indicate flow characteristics of streams on the reservation are extremely variable. Average annual runoff was 122 to 1,150 acre-feet per square mile on perennial streams with gaging stations. Near the mountains, most perennial streams had dissolved-solids concentrations less than 200 mg/L, and with increasing distance from the mountains, concentrations were about 400 to 600 mg/L.

  2. Uranium mining impacts on water resources in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Lauria, Dejanira C.; Vasconcellos, Luisa M.H.; Fernandes, Horst M.; Clain, Almir F., E-mail: flamego@ird.gov.b, E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.b, E-mail: luisa@ird.gov.b, E-mail: h.monken-fernandes@iaea.or, E-mail: almir@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Liliane F., E-mail: ferrerl2004@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2009-07-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities started operations in Brazil during the 80's. The first production Center was deployed in Pocos de Caldas (CIPC) State of Minas Gerais. The mine was exhausted in 1997, after has produced only 1200 t of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The second uranium plant began the operations in Caetite (URA), Bahia State, since 1999 and keeps operations until now with an annual U{sub 3}O{sub 8} production of up to 400 t. The company plans to double this mark in Caetite production center with the exploration of another uranium deposits and initiate underground operations of current open-pit mine. Simultaneously, they are seeking a license for a third plant in the State of Ceara that could produce the double of foreseen capacity in URA. This scenery drives to some issues related to the impact of uranium production on water resources of the respective watersheds. The CIPC plant is a closing mine site, which requires permanent treatment of the company due to the fact their sources of pollutants are subject to the occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage. The URA plant is located in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The extraction of uranium from the ore is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process, which has low water demand supplied by a network of wells and from a dam, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. An overall assessment of these impacts in national level could produce some lessons that we must take advantage for the ongoing project of Santa Quiteria or even in future sites. (author)

  3. Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Future of Alpine Water Resources : Uncertainty from Trees and Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Beria, H.; Michelon, A.; Schaefli, B.

    2016-12-01

    Alpine water resources are particularly susceptible to climate change, which presents a high risk to many of the ecologic and economic roles played by mountain environments. In Switzerland, water from glacier-fed catchments provides a large portion of hydroelectric power and water supply as well as a multitude of services including the creation and maintenance of biological communities and the physical landscape. Loss of glaciers will also pose indirect consequences, such as changing the hydrologic, biologic, and physical environment, for example opening up new surfaces for vegetation growth and forestation. Hydrologic models are a primary tool to predict these consequences. Quantifying evaporation is an on-going challenge for modeling, and changes in the partition between transpiration and evaporation from bare ground or sublimation from glaciers is a larve source of uncertainty in the alpine water balance. We just began an intensive monitoring program of hydrological processes in the Vallon de Nant, Switzerland (area of 14 km², altitude ranging from 1200 to 3051 m). This site is both a karst system and a protected area, making it a particularly interesting site to study eco-hydrologic processes. Monitoring of stable isotopes (δO18 and δD) in water combines with measurements of climate and hydrologic parameters to quantify flows through the components of the water balance and assess their certainty. Additionally, we are observing water use by trees at the upper limit of their habitat range. Our presentation will highlight the importance of in situ measurements to quantify the spatial and temporal variations in the water balance. We will discuss the innovative measurement techniques that we are deploying, the uncertainty from each component, and show the first results of our work.

  5. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.; Hirsch, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    We are in the midst of a continental-scale, multi-year experiment in the United States, in which we have not defined our testable hypotheses or set the duration and scope of the experiment, which poses major water-resources challenges for the 21st century. What are we doing? We are expanding population at three times the national growth rate in our most water-scarce region, the southwestern United States, where water stress is already great and modeling predicts decreased streamflow by the middle of this century. We are expanding irrigated agriculture from the west into the east, particularly to the southeastern states, where increased competition for ground and surface water has urban, agricultural, and environmental interests at odds, and increasingly, in court. We are expanding our consumption of pharmaceutical and personal care products to historic high levels and disposing them in surface and groundwater, through sewage treatment plants and individual septic systems. These substances are now detectable at very low concentrations and we have documented significant effects on aquatic species, particularly on fish reproduction function. We don’t yet know what effects on human health may emerge, nor do we know if we need to make large investments in water treatment systems, which were not designed to remove these substances. These are a few examples of our national-scale experiment. In addition to these water resources challenges, over which we have some control, climate change models indicate that precipitation and streamflow patterns will change in coming decades, with western mid-latitude North America generally drier. We have already documented trends in more rain and less snow in western mountains. This has large implications for water supply and storage, and groundwater recharge. We have documented earlier snowmelt peak spring runoff in northeastern and northwestern States, and western montane regions. Peak runoff is now about two weeks earlier than it was

  6. Water resources and the historic wells of Barbuda: tradition, heritage and hope for a sustainable future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Boger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The island of Barbuda has a relatively unique history, land tenure and geography. Unlike its Caribbean counterparts, the island is not suited to large-scale agriculture due to its arid climate and relatively thin soils. Instead, the enslaved and eventually free people of Barbuda developed a complex herding ecology centered on common land ownership. As a result, carefully designed historic wells are strategically located around the island. With the challenges brought about by climate change, an interdisciplinary, international team led by the Barbuda Research Complex is investigating the state of existing water and food resources and examining how the availability and quality of water resources have influenced local cultural practices. Barbudans and international scientists are working together to improve their resilience and live more sustainably in this new era of climatic adversity.

  7. Effects of climate change on water resources in Tarim River Basin, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-ning; Li, Wei-hong; Xu, Chang-chun; Hao, Xin-ming

    2007-01-01

    Based on hydrology, temperature, and precipitation data from the past 50 years, the effects of climate change on water resources in Tarim River Basin in Northwest China were investigated. The long-term trends of the hydrological time series were detected using both parametric and nonparametric techniques. The results showed that the increasing tendency of the temperature has a 5% level of significance, and the temperature increased by nearly 1 degree C over the past 50 years. The precipitation showed a significant increase in the 1980s and 1990s, and the average annual precipitation exhibited an increasing trend with a magnitude of 6.8 mm per decade. A step change occurred in both the temperature and precipitation time series around 1986. The streamflow from the headwater of the Tarim River exhibited a significant increase during the last 20 years. The increase in temperature, precipitation, and streamflow may be attributed to global climate change.

  8. Modeling the effects of climate change on water resources - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrologic models provide a framework in which to conceptualize and investigate the relationships between climate and water resources. A review of current studies that assess the impacts of climate change using hydrologic models indicates a number of problem areas common to the variety of models applied. These problem areas include parameter estimation, scale, model validation, climate scenario generation, and data. Research needs to address these problems include development of (1) a more physically based understanding of hydrologic processes and their interactions; (2) parameter measurement and estimation techniques for application over a range of spatial and temporal scales; (3) quantitative measures of uncertainty in model parameters and model results; (4) improved methodologies of climate scenario generation; (5) detailed data sets in a variety of climatic and physiographic regions; and (6) modular modeling tools to provide a framework to facilitate interdisciplinary research. Solutions to these problems would significantly improve the capability of models to assess the effects of climate change. ?? 1994 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  9. Modelling Crop Pattern Changes and Water Resources Exploitation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Zingaro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and farming worldwide are responsible for numerous environmental threats, including degradation of land and water resource depletion. Underlining the dynamic interaction between bio-physical and socio-economic drivers is the key towards a more sustainable land and water management. With regard to a highly-developed agricultural area in Southern Italy, multi-regression models were developed to provide an ex-post interpretation of the observed inter-annual variability of cropped land. The main drivers related to Common Agricultural Policy support, product market prices, crop yield, and irrigation water availability were investigated. The adopted models revealed the different weights of each driver. The findings reported the role that direct payments played in supporting the extension of irrigated crops, such as processing tomato. Likewise, the models pointed out the decoupled payment scheme as the most important driver of change in the crop pattern over the last years.

  10. Summary of West Virginia Water-Resource Data through September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaldi, R.D.; Ward, S.M.; White, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    The West Virginia Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of West Virginia each water year. A water year is the 12-month period beginning October 1 and ending September 30. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. These data are maintained in the National Water Information System (NWIS) and are available through its World-Wide Web interface, NWISWeb, at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/wv/nwis. Data can be retrieved in a variety of common formats, and a tutorial is available at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/tutorial. Location information for all continuous-record gaging stations operated in West Virginia through September 2008 is provided in this report, as well as statistical summaries of the available daily records. This report can serve as an index to the daily records data available on the World-Wide Web. Hydrologic data for nearly all of the gaging stations identified in this report are also available in the annual publication series titled Water-Resources Data - West Virginia. This series of annual reports for West Virginia began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report format was changed to include data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface water and groundwater, and groundwater levels. Prior to the introduction of the Water-Resources Data - West Virginia series and for several water years concurrent with it, water-resources data for West Virginia were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. Data on stream discharge and stage and on lake or reservoir contents and stage through September

  11. Studies on water resources carrying capacity in Tuhai river basin based on ecological footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengshuai; Xu, Lirong; Fu, Xin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the method of the water ecological footprint (WEF) was used to evaluate water resources carrying capacity and water resources sustainability of Tuhai River Basin in Shandong Province. The results show that: (1) The WEF had a downward trend in overall volatility in Tuhai River Basin from 2003 to 2011. Agricultural water occupies high proportion, which was a major contributor to the WEF, and about 86.9% of agricultural WEF was used for farmland irrigation; (2) The water resources carrying capacity had a downward trend in general, which was mostly affected by some natural factors in this basin such as hydrology and meteorology in Tuhai River Basin; (3) Based on analysis of water resources ecological deficit, it can be concluded that the water resources utilization mode was in an unhealthy pattern and it was necessary to improve the utilization efficiency of water resources in Tuhai River Basin; (4) In view of water resources utilization problems in the studied area, well irrigation should be greatly developed at the head of Yellow River Irrigation Area(YRIA), however, water from Yellow River should be utilized for irrigation as much as possible, combined with agricultural water-saving measures and controlled exploiting groundwater at the tail of YRIA. Therefore, the combined usage of surface water and ground water of YRIA is an important way to realize agricultural water saving and sustainable utilization of water resources in Tuhai River Basin.

  12. Human well-being values of environmental flows enhancing social equity in integrated water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation discusses how the importance of river flow-sustained ecosystems for local communities can be quantified for the purpose of balancing water supply and demand in Integrated Water Resources Management. Due to the development of water resources, for example through the construction of

  13. Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: considerations for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; Devendra Amatya; Mark Coleman

    2008-01-01

    Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and...

  14. Uncertainties in climate change projections and regional downscaling: implications for water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buytaert, W.; Vuille, M.; Dewulf, A.; Urrutia, R.; Karmalkar, A.; Célleri, R.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a large impact on water resources worldwide. A major problem in assessing the potential impact of a changing climate on these resources is the difference in spatial scale between available climate change projections and water resources management. Regional climate

  15. 75 FR 82066 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Doc No: 2010-32801] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water... determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2011 is 4.125 percent. Discounting is to be used to convert future...

  16. The future of water resources systems analysis: Toward a scientific framework for sustainable water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Casey M.; Lund, Jay R.; Cai, Ximing; Reed, Patrick M.; Zagona, Edith A.; Ostfeld, Avi; Hall, Jim; Characklis, Gregory W.; Yu, Winston; Brekke, Levi

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a short history of water resources systems analysis from its beginnings in the Harvard Water Program, through its continuing evolution toward a general field of water resources systems science. Current systems analysis practice is widespread and addresses the most challenging water issues of our times, including water scarcity and drought, climate change, providing water for food and energy production, decision making amid competing objectives, and bringing economic incentives to bear on water use. The emergence of public recognition and concern for the state of water resources provides an opportune moment for the field to reorient to meet the complex, interdependent, interdisciplinary, and global nature of today's water challenges. At present, water resources systems analysis is limited by low scientific and academic visibility relative to its influence in practice and bridled by localized findings that are difficult to generalize. The evident success of water resource systems analysis in practice (which is set out in this paper) needs in future to be strengthened by substantiating the field as the science of water resources that seeks to predict the water resources variables and outcomes that are important to governments, industries, and the public the world over. Doing so promotes the scientific credibility of the field, provides understanding of the state of water resources and furnishes the basis for predicting the impacts of our water choices.

  17. Argentina - Water Resources Management : Policy Elements for Sustainable Development in the 21st Century, Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The study reviews the challenges water resources management faces, and the opportunities for policy formulation towards sustainable development in Argentina, where regardless of prudent public finances management, water resources management remain disproportionately backward compared to regional, and international best practices. Hence, within a frame of reference on the country's populati...

  18. TIGER-NET – enabling an Earth Observation capacity for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walli, A.; Tøttrup, C.; Naeimi, V.

    As part of the TIGER initiative [1] the TIGER-NET project aims to support the assessment and monitoring of water resources from watershed to transboundary basin level delivering indispensable information for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa through: 1. Development of an open-source ...

  19. The Centrality of the "Mediation" Concept in the Participatory Management of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Irenilda Angela; Berlinck, Christian Niel; de Santana Araujo, Symone Christine; Steinke, Ercilia Torres; Steinke, Valdir Adilson; Pianta, Taissa Ferreira; Graebner, Ivete Teresinha; Saito, Carlos Hiroo

    2005-01-01

    This work presents questions related to the viability and the requirements for the implementation of a National Policy of Water Resources in Brazil, and identifies the means to bring about active participation by the population in the management of water resources. While social inequalities may be an impediment to the implementation of full…

  20. Analysis of the Water Resources Potential and Useful Life of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    348. ISSN 0794-5698. Analysis of the Water Resources Potential and Useful Life of the Shiroro Dam, Nigeria. D.B. Adie, A. Ismail, *M.M. Muhammad and U.B. Aliyu. Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello ...

  1. Istanbul : the challenges of integrated water resources management in Europa’s megacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Kees; Sjerps, Rosa

    Effective integrated water resources management (IWRM) and developments impacting on water resources are recognized as key components of environmentally sustainable development. Istanbul (Turkey) is a very large metropolitan city with a population of approximately 14 million. Istanbul is one of the

  2. Integration of hydrogeology and soil science for sustainable water resources-focus on water quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased biofuel production has heightened awareness of the strong linkages between crop water use and depletion of water resources. Irrigated agriculture consumed 90% of global fresh water resources during the past century. Addressing crop water use and depletion of groundwater resources requires ...

  3. Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: Considerations for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; Devendra Amatya; Mark Coleman

    2008-01-01

    Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and...

  4. 76 FR 9770 - Utah Board of Water Resources Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Utah Board of Water Resources Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit... February 1, 2011, the Utah Board of Water Resources filed an application for a successive preliminary... water intake would convey water from the Bureau of Reclamation's Lake Powell up to a high point within...

  5. 78 FR 34090 - New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Hydro Dynamics Corporation; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Hydro Dynamics Corporation; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed April 16, 2013, New Hampshire Water Resources Board co-exemptee...

  6. Water, Politics and Development: Framing a Political Sociology of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The first issue of Water Alternatives presents a set of papers that investigates the inherently political nature of water resources management. A Water, Politics and Development initiative was started at ZEF (Center for Development Research, Bonn, Germany in 2004/2005 in the context of a national-level discussion on the role of social science in global (environmental change research. In April 2005 a roundtable workshop with this title was held at ZEF, sponsored by the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/German Research Foundation and supported by the NKGCF (Nationales Komitee für Global Change Forschung/German National Committee on Global Change Research, aiming to design a research programme in the German context. In 2006 it was decided to design a publication project on a broader, European and international basis. The Irrigation and Water Engineering Group at Wageningen University, the Netherlands joined as a co-organiser and co-sponsor. The collection of papers published in this issue of Water Alternatives is one of the products of the publication project. As part of the initiative a session on Water, Politics and Development was organised at the Stockholm World Water Week in August 2007, where most of the papers in this collection were presented and discussed. Through this publication, the Water, Politics and Development initiative links up with other initiatives simultaneously ongoing, for instance the 'Water governance – challenging the consensus' project of the Bradford Centre for International Development at Bradford University, UK. At this point in time, the initiative has formulated its thrust as 'framing a political sociology of water resources management'. This, no doubt, is an ambitious project, methodologically, theoretically as well as practically. Through the compilation of this collection we have started to explore whether and how such an endeavour might make sense. The participants in the initiative think it does, are quite

  7. Global Scale Determination of "Drainable" Water Resources by GRACE and/or Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegger, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    In the context of water resources management and climate change there is an ongoing discussion on how to assess available water resources. A rate based definition for a sustainable use of water resources (given by long term recharge) (Sophocleous 1997, Bredehoeft 2002, Zhou 2009) does not help to determine the absolute volume of available resources. Thus the attempt was made to estimate the volume of the respective groundwater resources based on homogeneous assumptions for aquifers with respect to thickness, porosity and accessibility (Nace [1969] and Korzun [1978]). As ground based measurements of storage compartments like groundwater, surface water, snow water equivalent and soil moisture are point measurements the determination of total water storage is still quite inaccurate and unreliable on large spatial scales. Recent GRACE measurements allow to determine mass variations of global scale catchments. These mass variations do not directly represent the absolute storage volumes, which could be considerably larger than the mass variations themselves, yet cannot be recognized by GRACE, as they correspond to a static mass offset. In addition the mass variations comprise all storage compartments and thus do not allow to distinguish different storage compartments such as hydraulically coupled components contributing to river runoff and those which are not coupled like isolated surface water, soil moisture and snow / ice. Investigations of the Runoff - Storage relationship by GRACE and remote sensing however allow to discriminate between coupled / uncoupled storage components of a catchment (Riegger & Tourian. 2014). The linear relationship found between runoff and the coupled storage components allows to determine the respective hydraulic time constant and - based on the reasonable assumption of proportionality - to quantify the respective mass offset, which corresponds to the mean drainable water storage. Thus the total "Drainable Storage" i.e. the absolute water

  8. Fostering K-12 Inquiry-based Lesson Development on Regional Water Resource Issues in Los Angeles Urban Schools through the NSF UCLA SEE-LA GK-12 program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, T. S.; Burke, M. P.; Thulsirag, V.; Daniel, J.; Moldwin, M.; Nonacs, P.

    2010-12-01

    A National Science Foundation Graduate Teaching Fellows in K- 12 Education program at UCLA (SEE-LA; http://measure.igpp.ucla.edu/GK12-SEE-LA/ ) partners UCLA faculty and graduate students (fellows) with urban middle and high school science teachers and their students to foster programs of science and engineering exploration that bring the environment of Los Angeles into the classroom. UCLA graduate fellows serve as scientists-in-residence at four partner schools to integrate inquiry-based science lessons, facilitate advancements in science content teaching, and ultimately, to improve their own science communication skills. As part of their fellowship, graduate students are required to develop inquiry-based lessons in their partner classroom. During the first two years of the project, the SEE-LA fellows have developed a range of inquiry-based activities, from invertebrate observations in an urban stream system, to water and home energy consumption surveys, to a school biodiversity investigation, to a school-wide alternative energy fair, to engineering the cleanup of environmental disasters, such as the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Several of the current fellows have dissertation research in water resource related fields and are specifically integrating lessons specific to their research into their partner classrooms, including urban stream water quality, post-fire watershed behavior, beach water quality assessment and E. coli source tracking. This presentation will provide an overview of goals of the SEE-LA GK-12 program, development of inquiry-based water resource lessons and resulting engagement in the partner classrooms. University and local pre-college school partnerships provide an excellent opportunity to support the development of graduate student communication and teaching skills while also contributing significantly to the integration of science education into K-12 curriculum.

  9. Dynamic Coupling Analysis of Urbanization and Water Resource Utilization Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While urbanization brings economic and social benefits, it also causes water pollution and other environmental ecological problems. This paper provides a theoretical framework to quantitatively analyze the dynamic relationship between water resource utilization and the process of urbanization. Using data from Jiangsu province, we first construct indices to evaluate urbanization and water resource utilization. We then adopt an entropy model to examine the correlation between urbanization and water resource utilization. In addition, we introduce a dynamic coupling model to analyze and predict the coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization. Our analyses show that pairing with rising urbanization during 2002–2014, the overall index of water resource utilization in Jiangsu province has experienced a “decline -rise-decline” trend. Specifically, after the index of water resource utilization reached its lowest point in 2004, it gradually began to rise. Water resource utilization reached its highest value in 2010. The coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization was relatively low in 2002 and 2003 varying between −90° and 0°. It has been rising since then. Out-of-sample forecasts indicate that the coupling degree will reach its highest value of 74.799° in 2016, then will start to gradually decline. Jiangsu province was chosen as our studied area because it is one of the selected pilot provinces for China’s economic reform and social development. The analysis of the relationship between provincial water resource utilization and urbanization is essential to the understanding of the dynamic relationship between these two systems. It also serves as an important input for developing national policies for sustainable urbanization and water resource management.

  10. An integrated hydrological modeling approach for detection and attribution of climatic and human impacts on coastal water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dapeng; Zheng, Yi; Mao, Yixin; Zhang, Aijing; Wu, Bin; Li, Jinguo; Tian, Yong; Wu, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Water resources in coastal areas can be profoundly influenced by both climate change and human activities. These climatic and human impacts are usually intertwined and difficult to isolate. This study developed an integrated model-based approach for detection and attribution of climatic and human impacts and applied this approach to the Luanhe Plain, a typical coastal area in northern China. An integrated surface water-groundwater model was developed for the study area using GSFLOW (coupled groundwater and surface-water flow). Model calibration and validation were performed for background years between 1975 and 2000. The variation in water resources between the 1980s and 1990s was then quantitatively attributed to climate variability, groundwater pumping and changes in upstream inflow. Climate scenarios for future years (2075-2100) were also developed by downscaling the projections in CMIP5. Potential water resource responses to climate change, as well as their uncertainty, were then investigated through integrated modeling. The study results demonstrated the feasibility and value of the integrated modeling-based analysis for water resource management in areas with complex surface water-groundwater interaction. Specific findings for the Luanhe Plain included the following: (1) During the historical period, upstream inflow had the most significant impact on river outflow to the sea, followed by climate variability, whereas groundwater pumping was the least influential. (2) The increase in groundwater pumping had a dominant influence on the decline in groundwater change, followed by climate variability. (3) Synergetic and counteractive effects among different impacting factors, while identified, were not significant, which implied that the interaction among different factors was not very strong in this case. (4) It is highly probable that future climate change will accelerate groundwater depletion in the study area, implying that strict regulations for groundwater

  11. Using the politicized institutional analysis and development framework to analyze (adaptive comanagement: farming and water resources in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Whaley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of managing water resources in England is becoming increasingly complex and uncertain, a situation reflected in many countries around the world. Cooperative and participatory forms of governance are now seen as one way of addressing this challenge. We investigated this assertion by focusing on five farmer irrigator groups in the low-lying east of England. The groups' relationship with water resources management was interpreted through the lens of comanagement, which over the past decade has increasingly merged with the field of adaptive management and related concepts that derive from resilience thinking and complex adaptive systems theory. Working within a critical realist paradigm, our analysis was guided by the politicized institutional analysis and development (IAD framework. Two previous studies concerned with the broader context surrounding farming and water governance in lowland England revealed low levels of trust between farmers, and between farmers and water managers, as well as a power dynamic that stands in the way of farmer cooperation and participation. Within this context, our findings pointed to a number of mechanisms and structural conditions that appear to generate or facilitate comanagement. Of these, institution building through the specific group strategy of adopting a company structure and the "stationarity" of the resource group members extract from were seen to be the most crucial. These and other key findings were used to inform a discussion of farming and water resources management in England going forward. In doing so, we also reflected on the relationship between comanagement and market-based approaches to managing water resources. Beyond this, the research serves as a practical demonstration of how the politicized IAD framework can be used to analyze potential (adaptive comanagement situations and the related benefits. The analysis complements a previous submission to this journal, in which we discussed

  12. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; ,; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  13. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Suárez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources.

  14. Evaluation of water resource economics within the Pasco Basin, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaming, G F

    1981-09-30

    The Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington is being considered for possible use as a terminal repository medium for high-level nuclear waste. Such underground storage would require that the facility be contiguous to at least a portion of the ambient groundwater system of the Pasco Basin. This report attempts to evaluate the economic factors and conditions related to the water resources of the Pasco Basin and the probable economic effects associated with selected hypothetical changes in local water demand and supply as a basis for eventual selection of credible water supply alternatives and more detailed analyses of the consequences of such alternative selection. It is most likely that total demand for water for consumptive uses in the Pasco Basin will increase from nearly 2.0 million acre-feet per year in 1980 to almost 2.8 million acre-feet in 2010, with total demand slightly more than 3.6 million acre-feet per year in 2080. The Columbia River and other surface streams constitute the source of more than 99 percent of the water available each year for all uses, both consumptive and non-consumptive, in the Pasco Basin. It is estimated that pumped groundwater accounted for 3 percent of the value of all water supplied to consumers of water in the Pasco Basin in 1980. Groundwater's share of the total cost is proportionately higher than groundwater's share of total use because it is generally more costly to acquire than is surface water and the value of water is considered equivalent to its cost of acquisition. Because groundwater represents such a small part of the total water supply and demand within the Pasco Basin, it is concluded that if the development of a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Site were to result in changes in the groundwater supply during the next 100 years, the economic impact on the overall water supply picture for the entire basin would be insignificant.

  15. Geology and water resources of Winnebago County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, Perry C.

    1966-01-01

    Sources or water in Winnebago County include surface water from the Fox and Wolf Rivers and their associated lakes, and ground water from sandstone, dolomite, and sand and gravel deposits. Surface water is hard and generally requires treatment, but is then suitable for municipal and most industrial uses. Pollution is only a local problem in the lakes and rivers, but algae are present in most of the lakes. Ground water in Winnebago County is hard to very hard, and dissolved iron is a problem in a large area of the county. A saline-water zone borders the eastern edge of the county and underlies the areas of concentrated pumpage at Neenah-Menasha and Oshkosh. A thick, southeastward-dipping sandstone aquifer, yielding as much as 1,000 gallons per minute to municipal and industrial wells, underlies Winnebago County. A dolomite aquifer in the eastern and southern part of the county yields as much as 50 gallons per minute to wells. Sand and gravel layers and lenses in preglacial bedrock channels, in northwestern Winnebago County and in the upper Fox River valley, yield as much as 50 gallons per minute to wells. Present water problems in the county include algae and local pollution in the Lake Winnebago Pool, iron in water from the sandstone aquifer, and saline ground Water in the eastern part of the county. Potential problems include rapid decline of water levels because of interference between closely spaced wells, migration of saline ground water toward areas of pumping, surface-water pollution from inadequate sewage and industrial-waste process plants, and ground-water pollution in dolomite formations. Development of the water resources of the county should follow a comprehensive plan which takes into consideration all aspects of water use. Dispersal of wells, especially extending toward the west from the heavily pumped Neenah-Menasha and Oshkosh areas, is recommended to reduce water-level declines and to avoid saline water. Supplemental use of ground water is

  16. Using Case Studies to Teach Interdisciplinary Water Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Tillotson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about water resources and often emphasizes the biophysical sciences to understand highly complex hydrologic, ecologic and engineering systems, yet most impediments to improving management emerge from social processes. Challenges to more sustainable management often result from trade-offs among stakeholders (e.g., ecosystem services, energy, municipal use, and agriculture) and occur while allocating resources to competing goals of economic development, social equity, and efficient governance. Competing interests operating across multiple scales can increase tensions and prevent collaborative resolution of resource management problems. Here we discuss using specific, place-based cases to teach the interdisciplinary context of water management. Using a case approach allows instructors to first explore the geologic and hydrologic setting of a specific problem to let students understand where water comes from, then how it is used by people and ecosystems, and finally what conflicts arise from mismatches between water quality, quantity, timing, human demand, and ecosystem needs. The case approach helps students focus on specific problem to understand how the landscape influences water availability, without needing to first learn everything about the relevant fields. We look at geology, hydrology and climate in specific watersheds before addressing the human and ecosystem aspects of the broader, integrated system. This gives students the context to understand what limits water availability and how a water budget constrains possible solutions to sustainability problems. It also mimics the approach we have taken in research addressing these problems. In an example case the Spokane Coeur D'Alene basin, spanning the border between SE Washington and NW Idaho, includes a sole source aquifer system with high exchange between surface water and a highly conductive aquifer. The Spokane River does not meet water quality standards and is likely to face climate driven shifts

  17. Climate change and water resources in northern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Lucas; Törnros, Tobias; Marberg, Ines

    2014-05-01

    Mongolia is facing a large number of water-related problems, such as adverse natural conditions, increasing water withdrawals, scarce environmental information and a lack of structures which control the appropriate distribution and protection of water. Since 2010, we conduct a monitoring programme in northern Mongolia which aims at better understanding the climatic characteristics, the freshwater generating processes as well as the impact of environmental change on the water resources in a semi-arid environment. Focus is on the meso-scaled Kharaa catchment (14,500 km²) north of Ulaanbaatar which includes the transition belt between the extended steppe ecotone, the Siberian taiga as well as the alpine tundra of the Khentii Mountains which act as the major freshwater generating area of the region. Based on the information gained during our field studies, we successfully applied the hydrological HBV-D model to simulate the discharge at the outlet of the basin and for a number of sub-basins. We could show that runoff within the study region is strongly influenced by the high climate variability. For example, the observed runoff in the basin shows a sudden decrease in the middle 1990s. At the same time, precipitation is decreasing and temperature is strongly increasing. The study is based on data from only six meteorological stations. Therefore, output from Global Climate Models has been considered as another potential data source. Accordingly, the HBV-D model was driven with WATCH forcing data for the years 1901-2000. This made it possible to simulate the runoff for years where no runoff observations exist. The results show that mean annual air temperature (MAT) has been strongly rising during the last 100 years (for example, between 1940 and 2001 MAT increased by 1.7°C) while precipitation shows strong, long-term oscillations. Accordingly, simulated mean annual discharge shows a high temporal variability with high fluctuations during the first half of the 20th

  18. Sensitivity and tolerance of Riparian arthropod communities to altered water resources along a drying river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E McCluney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rivers around the world are drying with increasing frequency, but little is known about effects on terrestrial animal communities. Previous research along the San Pedro River in southeastern AZ, USA, suggests that changes in the availability of water resources associated with river drying lead to changes in predator abundance, community composition, diversity, and abundance of particular taxa of arthropods, but these observations have not yet been tested manipulatively. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we constructed artificial pools in the stream bed adjacent to a drying section of the San Pedro River and maintained them as the river dried. We compared pitfall trapped arthropods near artificial pools to adjacent control sites where surface waters temporarily dried. Assemblage composition changed differentially at multiple taxonomic levels, resulting in different assemblages at pools than at control sites, with multiple taxa and richness of carabid beetle genera increasing at pools but not at controls that dried. On the other hand, predator biomass, particularly wolf spiders, and diversity of orders and families were consistently higher at control sites that dried. These results suggest an important role for colonization dynamics of pools, as well as the ability of certain taxa, particularly burrowing wolf spiders, to withstand periods of temporary drying. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found some agreement between this manipulative study of water resources and a previous analysis of river drying that showed shifts in composition, changes in diversity, and declines in abundance of certain taxa (e.g. carabid beetles. However, colonization dynamics of pools, as well as compensatory strategies of predatory wolf spiders seem to have led to patterns that do not match previous research, with control sites maintaining high diversity, despite drying. Tolerance of river drying by some species may allow persistence of substantial diversity in the

  19. Water-resources and land-surface deformation evaluation studies at Fort Irwin National Training Center, Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore-Judy, Jill; Dishart, Justine E.; Miller, David; Buesch, David C.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Woolfenden, Linda R.; Cromwell, Geoffrey; Burgess, Matthew K.; Nawikas, Joseph; O'Leary, David; Kjos, Adam; Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Army Fort Irwin National Training Center (NTC), in the Mojave Desert, obtains all of its potable water supply from three groundwater basins (Irwin, Langford, and Bicycle) within the NTC boundaries (fig. 1; California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Because of increasing water demands at the NTC, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army, completed several studies to evaluate water resources in the developed and undeveloped groundwater basins underlying the NTC. In all of the developed basins, groundwater withdrawals exceed natural recharge, resulting in water-level declines. However, artificial recharge of treated wastewater has had some success in offsetting water-level declines in Irwin Basin. Additionally, localized water-quality changes have occurred in some parts of Irwin Basin as a result of human activities (i.e., wastewater disposal practices, landscape irrigation, and/or leaking pipes). As part of the multi-faceted NTC-wide studies, traditional datacollection methods were used and include lithological and geophysical logging at newly drilled boreholes, hydrologic data collection (i.e. water-level, water-quality, aquifer tests, wellbore flow). Because these data cover a small portion of the 1,177 square-mile (mi2 ) NTC, regional mapping, including geologic, gravity, aeromagnetic, and InSAR, also were done. In addition, ground and airborne electromagnetic surveys were completed and analyzed to provide more detailed subsurface information on a regional, base-wide scale. The traditional and regional ground and airborne data are being analyzed and will be used to help develop preliminary hydrogeologic framework and groundwater-flow models in all basins. This report is intended to provide an overview of recent water-resources and land-surface deformation studies at the NTC.

  20. Lake Tahoe Generalized California Department of Water Resources Well Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data present a ground-water inventory of existing geospatial data and other information needed to determine the extent and characteristics of the aquifers in...

  1. Water resources management in a homogenizing world: Averting the Growth and Underinvestment trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchi, Ali; Watkins, David W.; Huckins, Casey J.; Madani, Kaveh; Hjorth, Peder

    2014-09-01

    Biotic homogenization, a de facto symptom of a global biodiversity crisis, underscores the urgency of reforming water resources management to focus on the health and viability of ecosystems. Global population and economic growth, coupled with inadequate investment in maintenance of ecological systems, threaten to degrade environmental integrity and ecosystem services that support the global socioeconomic system, indicative of a system governed by the Growth and Underinvestment (G&U) archetype. Water resources management is linked to biotic homogenization and degradation of system integrity through alteration of water systems, ecosystem dynamics, and composition of the biota. Consistent with the G&U archetype, water resources planning primarily treats ecological considerations as exogenous constraints rather than integral, dynamic, and responsive parts of the system. It is essential that the ecological considerations be made objectives of water resources development plans to facilitate the analysis of feedbacks and potential trade-offs between socioeconomic gains and ecological losses. We call for expediting a shift to ecosystem-based management of water resources, which requires a better understanding of the dynamics and links between water resources management actions, ecological side-effects, and associated long-term ramifications for sustainability. To address existing knowledge gaps, models that include dynamics and estimated thresholds for regime shifts or ecosystem degradation need to be developed. Policy levers for implementation of ecosystem-based water resources management include shifting away from growth-oriented supply management, better demand management, increased public awareness, and institutional reform that promotes adaptive and transdisciplinary management approaches.

  2. A framework for unravelling the complexities of unsustainable water resource use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, Brian; Bierkens, Marc; Wassen, Martin; Dekker, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The majority of unsustainable water resource use is associated with food production, with the agricultural sector accounting for up to 70% of total freshwater use by humans. Water resource use in food production emerges as a result of dynamic interactions between humans and their environment in importing and exporting regions as well as the physical and socioeconomic trade infrastructure linking the two. Thus in order to understand unsustainable water resource use, it is essential to understand the complex socioecological food production and trade system. We present a modelling framework of the food production and trade system that facilitates an understanding of complex socioenvironmental processes that lead to unsustainable water resource use. Our framework is based on a coupling of the global hydrological model PC Raster Global Water Balance (PCR-GLOBWB) with a multi-agent socioeconomic food production and trade network. In our framework, agents perceive environmental conditions. They make food supply decisions based upon those perceptions and the heterogeneous socioeconomic conditions in which they exist. Agent decisions modify land and water resources. Those environmental changes feedback to influence decision making further. The framework presented has the potential to go beyond a diagnosis of the causes of unsustainable water resource and provide pathways towards a sustainable food system in terms of water resources.

  3. Water resources of the Marquette Iron Range area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiitala, Sulo Werner; Newport, Thomas Gwyn; Skinner, Earl L.

    1967-01-01

    Large quantities of water are needed in the beneficiation and pelletizing processes by which the ore mined from low-grade iron-formations is upgraded into an excellent raw material for the iron and steel industry. Extensive reserves of low-grade iron-formation available for development herald an intensification of the demands upon the area's water supplies. This study was designed to provide water facts for public and private agencies in planning orderly development and in guiding the management of the water resources to meet existing and new requirements. Inland lakes and streams are the best potential sources of water for immediate development. The natural flow available for 90 percent of the time in the Middle and East Branches of the Escanaba River, the Carp River, and the Michigamme River is about 190 cubic feet per second. Potential storage sites are identified, and their complete development could increase the available supply from the above streams to about 450 cubic feet per second. Outwash deposits are the best potential sources of ground water. Large supplies could be developed from extensive outwash deposits in the eastern part of the area adjacent to Goose Lake Outlet and the East Branch Escanaba River. Other areas of outwash occur in the vicinity of Humboldt, West Branch Creek, and along the stream valleys. Streamflow data were used to make rough approximations of the ground-water potential in some areas. In general, however, the available data were not sufficient to permit quantitative evaluation of the potential ground-water supplies. Chemical quality of the surface and ground waters of the area is generally acceptable for most uses. Suspended sediment in the form of mineral tailings in effluents from ore-processing plants is a potential problem. Existing plants use settling basins to effectively remove most of the suspended material. Available records indicate that suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the receiving waters have not been

  4. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Owens Valley, a long, narrow valley located along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada in east-central California, is the main source of water for the city of Los Angeles. The city diverts most of the surface water in the valley into the Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct system, which transports the water more than 200 miles south to areas of distribution and use. Additionally, ground water is pumped or flows from wells to supplement the surface-water diversions to the river-aqueduct system. Pumpage from wells needed to supplement water export has increased since 1970, when a second aqueduct was put into service, and local concerns have been expressed that the increased pumpage may have had a detrimental effect on the environment and the indigenous alkaline scrub and meadow plant communities in the valley. The scrub and meadow communities depend on soil moisture derived from precipitation and the unconfined part of a multilayered aquifer system. This report, which describes the hydrogeology of the aquifer system and the water resources of the valley, is one in a series designed to (1) evaluate the effects that groundwater pumping has on scrub and meadow communities and (2) appraise alternative strategies to mitigate any adverse effects caused by, pumping. Two principal topographic features are the surface expression of the geologic framework--the high, prominent mountains on the east and west sides of the valley and the long, narrow intermountain valley floor. The mountains are composed of sedimentary, granitic, and metamorphic rocks, mantled in part by volcanic rocks as well as by glacial, talus, and fluvial deposits. The valley floor is underlain by valley fill that consists of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated alluvial fan, transition-zone, glacial and talus, and fluvial and lacustrine deposits. The valley fill also includes interlayered recent volcanic flows and pyroclastic rocks. The bedrock surface beneath the valley fill is a narrow, steep-sided graben

  5. A versatile and interoperable network sensors for water resources monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Alberto; Brandini, Carlo; Costantini, Roberto; Costanza, Letizia; Innocenti, Lucia; Sabatini, Francesco; Gozzini, Bernardo

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems to assess water resources quantity and quality require extensive use of in-situ measurements, that have great limitations like difficulties to access and share data, and to customise and easy reconfigure sensors network to fulfil end-users needs during monitoring or crisis phases. In order to address such limitations Sensor Web Enablement technologies for sensors management have been developed and applied to different environmental context under the EU-funded OSIRIS project (Open architecture for Smart and Interoperable networks in Risk management based on In-situ Sensors, www.osiris-fp6.eu). The main objective of OSIRIS was to create a monitoring system to manage different environmental crisis situations, through an efficient data processing chain where in-situ sensors are connected via an intelligent and versatile network infrastructure (based on web technologies) that enables end-users to remotely access multi-domain sensors information. Among the project application, one was focused on underground fresh-water monitoring and management. With this aim a monitoring system to continuously and automatically check water quality and quantity has been designed and built in a pilot test, identified as a portion of the Amiata aquifer feeding the Santa Fiora springs (Grosseto, Italy). This aquifer present some characteristics that make it greatly vulnerable under some conditions. It is a volcanic aquifer with a fractured structure. The volcanic nature in Santa Fiora causes levels of arsenic concentrations that normally are very close to the threshold stated by law, but that sometimes overpass such threshold for reasons still not fully understood. The presence of fractures makes the infiltration rate very inhomogeneous from place to place and very high in correspondence of big fractures. In case of liquid-pollutant spills (typically hydrocarbons spills from tanker accidents or leakage from house tanks containing fuel for heating), these fractures can act

  6. International Virtual Observatory System for Water Resources Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenweber, Lewis; Bermudez, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Sharing, accessing, and integrating hydrologic and climatic data have been identified as a critical need for some time. The current state of data portals, standards, technologies, activities, and expertise can be leverage to develop an initial operational capability for a virtual observatory system. This system will allow to link observations data with stream networks and models, and to solve semantic inconsistencies among communities. Prototyping a virtual observatory system is an inter-disciplinary, inter-agency and international endeavor. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) within the OGC Interoperability Program provides the process and expertise to run such collaborative effort. The OGC serves as a global forum for the collaboration of developers and users of spatial data products and services, and to advance the development of international standards for geospatial interoperability. The project coordinated by OGC that is advancing an international virtual observatory system for water resources information is called Climatology-Hydrology Information Sharing Pilot, Phase 1 (CHISP-1). It includes observations and forecasts in the U.S. and Canada levering current networks and capabilities. It is designed to support the following use cases: 1) Hydrologic modeling for historical and near-future stream flow and groundwater conditions. Requires the integration of trans-boundary stream flow and groundwater well data, as well as national river networks (US NHD and Canada NHN) from multiple agencies. Emphasis will be on time series data and real-time flood monitoring. 2) Modeling and assessment of nutrient load into the lakes. Requires accessing water-quality data from multiple agencies and integrating with stream flow information for calculating loads. Emphasis on discrete sampled water quality observations, linking those to specific NHD stream reaches and catchments, and additional metadata for sampled data. The key objectives of these use cases are: 1) To link

  7. Evaluation of available saline water resources in New Mexico for the production of microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R.; Hernandez, J.; Enis, P.; Truby, D.; Mapel, C.

    1990-08-01

    Researchers evaluated saline water resources in New Mexico for their suitability as sites for large-scale microalgae production facilities. Production of microalgae could provide a renewable source of fuel, chemicals, and food. In addition, making use of the unused saline water resources would increase the economic activity in the state. After analyzing the 15 billion acre-ft of unused saline water resources in the state, scientists narrowed the locations down to six sites with the most potential. With further analysis, they chose the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico as the best-suited area for 100-hectare microalgae production facility. 34 refs., 38 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. A Survey of Preoperative Radiological Investigation Among Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-nine (60.4%) respondents do not bother about radiological investigation before surgical procedure while 19 (:39.6%) insisted on preoperative radiological investigations before surgery. Out ofthese 19 respondents, all recommend periapical x-ray while 5 (26.3%) had a cause to recommend .oblique lateral of the jaw ...

  9. Ground-Water Resources of Big Elk Creek Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2002-01-01

    Many rural areas in southeastern Pennsylvania, including the Big Elk Creek Basin, are undergoing a rapid population increase. New development and an expanding population increase consumptive water use, increase surface runoff, and have the potential to reduce ground-water recharge. The Big Elk Creek Basin is between the Delaware and Susquehanna River Basins and drains directly to the Chesapeake Bay. Both the Delaware and Susquehanna River Basins have basin commissions that regulate and oversee surface-water and ground-water withdrawals. The Big Elk Creek Basin does not have a regulatory agency to oversee withdrawal of water. Ground-water quantity and quality were evaluated for the 79.4-mi2 (square mile) study area that extends from the headwaters of Big Elk Creek in Chester County, Pa., downstream to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflowmeasurement station 01495000, Big Elk Creek at Elk Mills, Md., and to inactive USGS streamflowmeasurement station 01495500, Little Elk Creek at Childs, Md. (fig. 1). The study was done by the USGS in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority and the Chester County Health Department. The full results of the study are published in a technical report by Sloto (2002). This fact sheet summarizes the key findings presented in the technical report.

  10. How well has biophysical research served the needs of water resource management? Lessons from the Sabie-Sand catchment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, E

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available frameworks proposed for integrated water resource management. The fundamental changes in the approach to water resource management warrant a critical evaluation of the information generated by past research and of the relevance of this activity and associated...

  11. An evaluation method of the sustainability of water resource in karst region: a case study of Zunyi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Ganlu; Ding, Hanghang; Chen, Yulong

    2017-06-01

    Water resource is of great significance to the survival and development of human. However, the water resource system in karst regions is sensitive to external interference owing to the special geological processes which cause soil impoverishment, severe rocky desertification and large topographic height difference. Therefore, evaluating the sustainability of the water resource in karst regions is beneficial to reasonably use and protect water resource. This paper puts forward to evaluate the water resource from four aspects, including water resources system, water requirement system, ecosystem and social economic system. Moreover, on this basis, 18 evaluation indexes were selected to construct the sustainability evaluation index system and method. This method was used to evaluate the sustainability of the water resource in the typical karst region—Zunyi, Guizhou province, China, and was verified according to the actual situation in the research area. All these provide reference for the evaluation of the sustainability of the water resource in similar regions.

  12. Energy and water resources of Burkina Faso as catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is not available. It is therefore necessary to carry out the engineering and hydrological surveys on selected construction sites to power the refinery. The necessity of the construction of the reservoir on the river Mouhoun and the water treatment became inevitable. Key words: Burkina Faso, energy, water, Mouhoun river ...

  13. A survey of prosthetic eye wearers to investigate mucoid discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith; Sloan, Brian; Stewart, Joanna; Jacobs, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the causes and treatments of mucoid discharge associated with prosthetic eye wear by reviewing the literature and surveying anophthalmic patients. An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 429 prosthetic eye wearers who used visual analog scales to self-measure their discharge experience for four discharge characteristics: frequency, color, volume, and viscosity. These characteristics were analyzed with age, ethnicity, years wearing a prosthesis, eye loss cause, removal and cleaning regimes, hand-washing behavior, age of current prosthesis, and professional repolishing regimes as explanatory variables. Eighteen ocularists' Web sites containing comments on the cause and treatment of discharge were surveyed. Associations were found between discharge frequency and cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaning accompanying more frequent discharge. Color was associated with years of wearing and age, with more years of wearing and older people having less colored discharge. Volume was associated with cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaners having more volume. Viscosity was associated with cleaning regimes and years of wearing with more frequent cleaning and shorter wearing time accompanying more viscous discharge. No associations were found between discharge characteristics and ethnicity, eye loss cause, hand washing, age of current prosthesis, or repolishing regimes. Forty-seven percent of ocularists' Web sites advised that discharge was caused by surface deposits on the prosthesis, 29% by excessive handling of the prosthesis, and 24% by other causes. A standardized treatment protocol for managing discharge is lacking. More frequent prosthesis removal and cleaning was associated with more severe discharge, but the direction of cause and effect has not been established. Professional repolishing regimes had limited impact on discharge experience. Further research into the socket's response to prosthetic eye wear, including the

  14. Assessing the Total Economic Value of Improving Water Quality to Inform Water Resources Management: Evidence and Challenges from Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, S.; Fukushi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Population growth, high rates of economic development and rapid urbanization in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (SEA) have resulted in degradation and depletion of natural resources, including water resources and related ecosystem services. Many urban rivers in the region are highly polluted with domestic, industrial and agricultural wastes. Policymakers are often aware of the direct value of water resources for domestic and industrial consumption, but they often underestimate the indirect value of these functions, since they are not exchanged in the market and do not appear in national income accounts. Underestimation of pollution and over-exploitation of water resources result in a loss of these benefits and have adverse impacts on nearby residents, threatening the long-term sustainable development of natural resources in the region. Behind these constraints lies a lack of knowledge (ignorance) from governments that a clean water environment could bring significant economic benefits. This study has been initiated to tackle this issue and to foster a more rational approach for sustainable urban development in Metro Manila in the Philippines. We applied a Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) based on Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) technique. Results show that users are willing to pay up to PHP 102.42 (2.18) monthly to improve quality of urban waterbodies whereas nonusers are willing to pay up to PHP 366.53 (7.80) as one-time payment towards water quality improvement. The estimated monetary value of water quality improvements would be a useful variable in cost-benefit analyses of various water quality-related policies, in both public and private sectors in Metro Manila. This survey design could serve as a useful template for similar water quality studies in other SEA countries.

  15. Water resources data for California, water year 1975; Volume 4: Northern Central Valley basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake basin to Oregon state line

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1977-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1975 water year for California consist of records of streamflow and contents of reservoirs at gaging stations, partial-record stations, and miscellaneous sites; records of water quality including the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water; and records of water levels in selected observation wells. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Lee R. Peterson, district chief; Winchell Smith, assistant district chief for hydrologic data; and Leonard N. Jorgensen, chief of the basic data section. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  16. Ground-Water Resources of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Meriana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Saipan has an area of 48 mi2 and is the largest of the 14 islands in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). The island is formed by volcanic rocks overlain by younger limestones. The island is situated in the western Pacific Ocean at latitude 15?12'N and longitude 145?45'E, about 3,740 mi west-southwest of Honolulu and midway between Japan and New Guinea (fig. 1). The climate on Saipan is classified as tropical marine with an average temperature of 80?F. The natural beauty of the island and surrounding waters are the basis for a growing tourist-based economy. The resulting rapid development and increases in resident and tourist populations have added stresses to the island's limited water supplies. Freshwater resources on Saipan are not readily observable because, aside from the abundant rainfall, most freshwater occurs as ground water. Fresh ground water is found in aquifers composed mainly of fragmental limestones. About 90 percent of the municipal water supply comes from 140 shallow wells that withdraw about 11 Mgal/d. The chloride concentration of water withdrawn from production wells ranges from less than 100 mg/L for wells in the Akgak and Capital Hill well fields, to over 2,000 mg/L from wells in the Puerto Rico, Maui IV, and Marpi Quarry well fields. The chloride concentrations and rates of ground-water production are not currently adequate for providing island residents with a potable 24-hour water supply and future demands are expected to be higher. To better understand the ground-water resources of the island, and water resources on tropical islands in general, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative program with the Commonwealth Utilities Corporation (CUC). The objective of the program, initiated in 1989, is to assess the ground-water resources of Saipan and to make hydrologic information available to the CUC in support of their ongoing efforts to improve the quality and quantity of the municipal water

  17. An integrated water resources management strategy for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Al-Ain is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the third in the UAE. Currently, desalination plants are the only source of drinking water in the city with an average daily supply of 170 MIG. Recently, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC released Al-Ain 2030 Plan. Projects suggested in this plan, over and above the expected natural population growth, will certainly put additional stress on the water resources in the city. Therefore, Al-Ain city seems to be in urgent need for an integrated water resources management strategy towards achieving sustainable development. This strategy will contain three main components; namely, a Water Demand Forecasting Model (WDFM, a Water Budget Model (WBM, and a Water Resources Optimization Model (WROM. The main aim of this paper is to present the WBM that estimates all inflows and outflows to assess water resources sustainability in the city.

  18. TIGER-NET- Enabling An Earth Observation Capacity For Integrated Water Resource Management In Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walli, A.; Tøttrup, C.; Naeimi, V.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Bila, M.; Mufeti, P.; Tumbulto, J. W.; Rajah, C.; Moloele, LS.; Koetz, B.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the TIGER initiative [1] the TIGER-NET project aims to support the assessment and monitoring of water resources from watershed to transboundary basin level delivering indispensable information for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa through: 1. Development of an open-source Water Observation and Information Systems (WOIS) for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost- effective manner; 2. Capacity building and training of African water authorities and technical centers to fully exploit the increasing observation capacity offered by current and upcoming generations of satellites, including the Sentinel missions. Dedicated application case studies have been developed and demonstrated covering all EO products required by and developed with the participating African water authorities for their water resource management tasks, such as water reservoir inventory, water quality monitoring, water demand planning as well as flood forecasting and monitoring.

  19. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA)- Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information,...

  20. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment of Modoc National Wildlife Refuge near Alturas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Water Resource Inventory and Assessment Report for Modoc National Wildlife Refuge is to describe current hydrologic information, provide an...

  1. Scientific Framework for a Comprehensive Assessment of Tribal Water Resources in Western Washington

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Konrad, Christopher P

    2005-01-01

    Judicious management of water resources and protection of Tribal water rights requires information about the quantity and quality of water available in western Washington, the quantity of water needed...

  2. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment - Flow Map Poster: Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This flow map depicts the flow and control of water on Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge. It was produced as part of the Water Resource Inventory and Assessment...

  3. Rationale for an ecological risk approach for South African water resource management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, S

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle of ecosystem protection in the South African Water Act requires that water resource management tools for a multiple stressor environment be tailored to the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem. The requirements of the Act...

  4. Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes available and relevant information for refuge...

  5. Emerging pollutants in the environment: A challenge for water resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violette Geissen

    2015-03-01

    A combination of regulations and management measures with respect to use/emissions of EPs into the environment, as well as to their occurrence in the environment are fundamental to reach an efficient water resource management.

  6. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment for Kern National Wildlife Refuge and Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Kern National Wildlife Refuge and Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area describes hydrologic information,...

  7. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an...

  8. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Cypress Creek NWR (CCNWR) describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  9. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (II): Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, rapid economic development and increase of the human population are considered as the major triggers of increasing challenges for water resources management. This proposed integrated optimal allocation model (IOAM) for complex adaptive system of water resources management is applied in Dongjiang River basin located in the Guangdong Province of China. The IOAM is calibrated and validated under baseline period 2010 year and future period 2011-2030 year, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model can make a trade-off between demand and supply for sustainable development of society, economy, ecology and environment and achieve adaptive management of water resources allocation. The optimal scheme derived by multi-objective evaluation is recommended for decision-makers in order to maximize the comprehensive benefits of water resources management.

  10. Prioritization of Water Resources Inventory Assessments (WRIA) and 6 Year Plan for Region 8 Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Regional management have requested that a prioritization process be developed for Region 8 for development and completion of Water Resources Inventory and...

  11. Bridging Water Resources Policy and Environmental Engineering in the Classroom at Cornell University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. T.; Shaw, S. B.; Seifert, S.; Schwarz, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current university undergraduate students in environmental sciences and engineering are the next generation of environmental protection practitioners. Recognizing this, Cornell's Biological and Environmental Engineering department has developed a popular class, Watershed Engineering (BEE 473), specifically designed to bridge the too-common gap between water resources policy and state-of-art science and technology. Weekly homework assignments are to design real-life solutions to actual water resources problems, often with the objective of applying storm water policies to local situations. Where appropriate, usually in conjunction with recent amendments to the Federal Clean Water Act, this course introduces water resource protection tools and concepts developed in the Cornell Soil and Water Lab. Here we present several examples of how we build bridges between university classrooms and the complex world of water resources policy.

  12. Future water quality monitoring - Adapting tools to deal with mixtures of pollutants in water resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburger, R.; Ait-Aissa, S.; Antczak, P.; Backhaus, T.; Barcelo, D.; Seiler, T.; Brion, F.; Focks, A.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental quality monitoring of water resources is challenged with providing the basis for safeguarding the environment against adverse biological effects of anthropogenic chemical contamination from diffuse and point sources. While current regulatory efforts focus on monitoring and assessing a

  13. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA)- Mingo, Pilot Knob, and Ozark Cavefish National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Mingo/Pilot Knob/Ozark Cavefish National Wildlife Refuges describes current hydrologic...

  14. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an...

  15. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA)- Big Muddy National Fish & Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Big Muddy National Fish & Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information,...

  16. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Iowa Corridor Project Area (Port Louisa NWR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Iowa Corridor Project Area describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  17. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - DeSoto and Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for DeSoto and Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuges describes current hydrologic information,...

  18. Invasive alien plants and water resources in South Africa: current understanding, predictive ability and research challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gorgens, AHM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Predictions that invasive alien Plants would use significant amounts of water were a major factor in the establishment of South Africa's Working for Water programme, which aims to protect water resources by clearing these plants. The predictions...

  19. [FY 2014 progress report]: Water Resource Inventory and Assessments in Region 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report for Water Resource Inventory and Assessment documents activities occurring on Region 5 Refuges during FY2014. The goal of the WRIAs is to help...

  20. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment - Flow Map Poster: William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This flow map depicts the flow and control of water on William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge. It was produced as part of the Water Resource Inventory and...

  1. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Hamden Slough National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Hamden Slough National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) describes current hydrologic information,...

  2. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment: Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge Dixie and Levy Counties, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) report for Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information relevant to the...

  3. Balancing cost-risk in management optimization of water resource systems under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaivoronski, Alexei A.; Sechi, Giovanni M.; Zuddas, Paola

    When a scarce water resource is distributed between different users by a Water Resource Management Authority (WRMA), the replenishment of this resource as well as the meeting of users’ demand is subject to considerable uncertainty. Cost optimization and risk management models can assist the WRMA in its decision about striking the balance between the level of target delivery to the users and the level of risk that this delivery will not be met. Addressing the problem as a multi-period dynamic network optimization, the proposed approach is also based on further developments in stochastic programming for scenario optimization. This approach tries to obtain a “robust” decision policy that minimizes the risk of wrong decisions when managing scarce water resources. In the paper we also illustrate two application examples for water resources management problems.

  4. Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Strategic Research Action Plan 2016-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources (SSWR) research program is using an integrated systems approach to develop scientific and technological solutions to protect human health, and to protect and restore watersheds and aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Strategic Research Action Plan 2012-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document represents a strategic guide to EPA’s research actions, alone and in part-nership with the broader federal, industry and scientific research community, to provide the science and engineering necessary for safe and sustainable water resources.

  6. Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA), Appendices, and geoPDF

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for the Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) compiles the results of data mining from national and regional...

  7. Water resources development in Santa Clara Valley, California: insights into the human-hydrologic relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Jesse L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Groundwater irrigation is critical to food production and, in turn, to humankind's relationship with its environment. The development of groundwater in Santa Clara Valley, California during the early twentieth century is instructive because (1) responses to unsustainable resource use were largely successful; (2) the proposals for the physical management of the water, although not entirely novel, incorporated new approaches which reveal an evolving relationship between humans and the hydrologic cycle; and (3) the valley serves as a natural laboratory where natural (groundwater basin, surface watershed) and human (county, water district) boundaries generally coincide. Here, I investigate how water resources development and management in Santa Clara Valley was influenced by, and reflective of, a broad understanding of water as a natural resource, including scientific and technological innovations, new management approaches, and changing perceptions of the hydrologic cycle. Market demands and technological advances engendered reliance on groundwater. This, coupled with a series of dry years and laissez faire government policies, led to overdraft. Faith in centralized management and objective engineering offered a solution to concerns over resource depletion, and a group dominated by orchardists soon organized, fought for a water conservation district, and funded an investigation to halt the decline of well levels. Engineer Fred Tibbetts authored an elaborate water salvage and recharge plan that optimized the local water resources by integrating multiple components of the hydrologic cycle. Informed by government investigations, groundwater development in Southern California, and local water law cases, it recognized the limited surface storage possibilities, the spatial and temporal variability, the relatively closed local hydrology, the interconnection of surface and subsurface waters, and the value of the groundwater basin for its storage, transportation, and

  8. A survey of prosthetic eye wearers to investigate mucoid discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pine K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Keith Pine1, Brian Sloan2, Joanna Stewart3, Robert J Jacobs11Department of Optometry and Vision Science, 2Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, 3Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: This study aimed to better understand the causes and treatments of mucoid discharge associated with prosthetic eye wear by reviewing the literature and surveying anophthalmic patients.Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 429 prosthetic eye wearers who used visual analog scales to self-measure their discharge experience for four discharge characteristics: frequency, color, volume, and viscosity. These characteristics were analyzed with age, ethnicity, years wearing a prosthesis, eye loss cause, removal and cleaning regimes, hand-washing behavior, age of current prosthesis, and professional repolishing regimes as explanatory variables. Eighteen ocularists’ Web sites containing comments on the cause and treatment of discharge were surveyed.Results: Associations were found between discharge frequency and cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaning accompanying more frequent discharge. Color was associated with years of wearing and age, with more years of wearing and older people having less colored discharge. Volume was associated with cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaners having more volume. Viscosity was associated with cleaning regimes and years of wearing with more frequent cleaning and shorter wearing time accompanying more viscous discharge. No associations were found between discharge characteristics and ethnicity, eye loss cause, hand washing, age of current prosthesis, or repolishing regimes. Forty-seven percent of ocularists’ Web sites advised that discharge was caused by surface deposits on the prosthesis, 29% by excessive handling of the prosthesis, and 24% by other causes.Conclusions: A standardized treatment

  9. A REVIEW ON FEASIBILITY OF MAGNETIC WATER TECHNOLOGY IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Yadollahpour1, Samaneh Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Magnetic or magnetized water technology (MWT) has been recently introduced as promising approach for water resources management in agricultural, environmental, and industrial processes. Despite controversial findings of the recent studies, MWT seems one of the future technologies for efficient water management. This study aims to review the feasibility and perspectives of MWT in water resources management. Method: The databases of Web of Sciences (1980–2016), EMBASE ...

  10. Hydrologic modeling for water resource assessment in a developing country: the Rwanda case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve McNulty; Erika Cohen Mack; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell

    2016-01-01

    Accurate water resources assessment using hydrologic models can be a challenge anywhere, but particularly for developing countries with limited financial and technical resources. Developing countries could most benefit from the water resource planning capabilities that hydrologic models can provide, but these countries are least likely to have the data needed to run ...

  11. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  12. Investigation of background acoustical effect on online surveys: A case study of a farmers' market customer survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingdi

    Since the middle of 1990s, internet has become a new platform for surveys. Previous studies have discussed the visual design features of internet surveys. However, the application of acoustics as a design characteristic of online surveys has been rarely investigated. The present study aimed to fill that research gap. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of background sound on respondents' engagement and satisfaction with online surveys. Two forms of background sound were evaluated; audio recorded in studios and audio edited with convolution reverb technique. The author recruited 80 undergraduate students for the experiment. These students were assigned to one of three groups. Each of the three groups was asked to evaluate their engagement and satisfaction with a specific online survey. The content of the online survey was the same. However, the three groups was exposed to the online survey with no background sound, with background sound recorded in studios; and with background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The results showed no significant difference in engagement and satisfaction in the three groups of online surveys; without background sound, background sound recorded in studios, and background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The author suggests that background sound does not contribute to online surveys in all the contexts. The industry practitioners should be careful to evaluate the survey context to decide whether the background sound should be added. Particularly, ear-piercing noise or acoustics which may link to respondents' unpleasant experience should be avoided. Moreover, although the results did not support the advantage of the revolution reverb technique in improving respondents' engagement and satisfaction, the author suggests that the potential of the revolution reverb technique in the applications of online surveys can't be totally denied, since it may be useful for some contexts which need further

  13. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene... Land Resources, LLC; and Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC. e. Name of Project: Rio Hydroelectric... President-- Operations, Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

  14. Environmental sustainability control by water resources carrying capacity concept: application significance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwansyah, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the use of Water Resources carrying capacity concept to control environmental sustainability with the particular note for the case in Indonesia. Carrying capacity is a capability measure of an environment or an area to support human and the other lives as well as their activities in a sustainable manner. Recurrently water-related hazards and environmental problems indicate that the environments are exploited over its carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity (ECC) assessment includes Land and Water Carrying Capacity analysis of an area, suggested to always refer to the dimension of the related watershed as an incorporated hydrologic unit on the basis of resources availability estimation. Many countries use this measure to forecast the future sustainability of regional development based on water availability. Direct water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) assessment involves population number determination together with their activities could be supported by available water, whereas indirect WRCC assessment comprises the analysis of supply-demand balance status of water. Water resource limits primarily environmental carrying capacity rather than the land resource since land capability constraints are easier. WRCC is a crucial factor known to control land and water resource utilization, particularly in a growing densely populated area. Even though capability of water resources is relatively perpetual, the utilization pattern of these resources may change by socio-economic and cultural technology level of the users, because of which WRCC should be evaluated periodically to maintain usage sustainability of water resource and environment.

  15. Water resources vulnerability assessment in the Adriatic Sea region: the case of Corfu Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakoudis, Vasilis; Tsitsifli, Stavroula; Papadopoulou, Anastasia; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Karleusa, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Cross-border water resources management and protection is a complicated task to achieve, lacking a common methodological framework. Especially in the Adriatic region, water used for drinking water supply purposes pass from many different countries, turning its management into a hard task to achieve. During the DRINKADRIA project, a common methodological framework has been developed, for efficient and effective cross-border water supply and resources management, taking into consideration different resources types (surface and groundwater) emphasizing in drinking water supply intake. The common methodology for water resources management is based on four pillars: climate characteristics and climate change, water resources availability, quality, and security. The present paper assesses both present and future vulnerability of water resources in the Adriatic region, with special focus on Corfu Island, Greece. The results showed that climate change is expected to impact negatively on water resources availability while at the same time, water demand is expected to increase. Water quality problems will be intensified especially due to land use changes and salt water intrusion. The analysis identified areas where water resources are more vulnerable, allowing decision makers develop management strategies.

  16. Global water resources modeling with an integrated model of the social-economic-environmental system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Evan G. R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2011-06-01

    Awareness of increasing water scarcity has driven efforts to model global water resources for improved insight into water resources infrastructure and management strategies. Most water resources models focus explicitly on water systems and represent socio-economic and environmental change as external drivers. In contrast, the system dynamics-based integrated assessment model employed here, ANEMI, incorporates dynamic representations of these systems, so that their broader changes affect and are affected by water resources systems through feedbacks. Sectors in ANEMI therefore include the global climate system, carbon cycle, economy, population, land use and agriculture, and novel versions of the hydrological cycle, global water use and water quality. Since the model focus is on their interconnections through explicit nonlinear feedbacks, simulations with ANEMI provide insight into the nature and structure of connections between water resources and socio-economic and environmental change. Of particular interest to water resources researchers and modelers will be the simulated effects of a new water stress definition that incorporates both water quality and water quantity effects into the measurement of water scarcity. Five simulation runs demonstrate the value of wastewater treatment and reuse programs and the feedback-effects of irrigated agriculture and greater consumption of animal products.

  17. A tentative discussion on the monitoring of water resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianqing; Dai, Ning; Wu, Mengying; Wang, Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid economy development and social civilization progress, the Chinese Government also is improving ecological environmental conditions. More efforts have been made to solve water problems through the implementation of stringent water resources management, as a key government policy on water. Thus, monitoring of water resources has been strengthened, being a main component of the hydrological work in recent years. Compared with routine hydrological monitoring, water resources monitoring pays more attention to the quantity and quality variations of regional waters, to reflect the status of water in river basins and administrative regions. In this paper, the overall layout of the hydrometric network in China is presented, monitoring efforts of the natural water cycle and water consumptions are analyzed, methodologies of water resources monitoring, which are commonly applied in the country, are summed up. Taking the hydrometric network planning on interprovincial boundary waterbodies as example, a summary of the planning at interprovincial boundary river sections is presented. The planning can meet the need of water resources management of administrative divisions. It can also improve the overall water resources monitoring for the country.

  18. Assessing The Ecosystem Service Freshwater Production From An Integrated Water Resources Management Perspective. Case Study: The Tormes Water Resources System (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Solera, Abel

    2014-05-01

    The Ecosystem Services are defined as the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfil human life. A strongly related concept is the Integrated Water Resources Management. It is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximise the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. From these definitions, it is clear that in order to cover so many water management and ecosystems related aspects the use of integrative models is increasingly necessary. In this study, we propose to link a hydrologic model and a water allocation model in order to assess the Freshwater Production as an Ecosystem Service in anthropised river basins. First, the hydrological model allows determining the volume of water generated by each sub-catchment; that is, the biophysical quantification of the service. This result shows the relevance of each sub-catchment as a source of freshwater and how this could change if the land uses are modified. On the other hand, the water management model allocates the available water resources among the different water uses. Then, it is possible to provide an economic value to the water resources through the use of demand curves, or other economic concepts. With this second model, we are able to obtain the economical quantification of the Ecosystem Service. Besides, the influence of water management and infrastructures on the service provision can be analysed. The methodology is applied to the Tormes Water Resources System, in Spain. The software used are EVALHID and SIMGES, for hydrological and management aspects, respectively. Both models are included in the Decision Support System Shell AQUATOOL for water resources planning and management. A scenario approach is presented to illustrate the potential of the methodology, including the current

  19. Integration of soil moisture and geophysical datasets for improved water resource management in irrigated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenbiner, Catherine; Franz, Trenton E.; Avery, William Alexander; Heeren, Derek M.

    2016-04-01

    Global trends in consumptive water use indicate a growing and unsustainable reliance on water resources. Approximately 40% of total food production originates from irrigated agriculture. With increasing crop yield demands, water use efficiency must increase to maintain a stable food and water trade. This work aims to increase our understanding of soil hydrologic fluxes at intermediate spatial scales. Fixed and roving cosmic-ray neutron probes were combined in order to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at three study sites across an East-West precipitation gradient in the state of Nebraska, USA. A coarse scale map was generated for the entire domain (122 km2) at each study site. We used a simplistic data merging technique to produce a statistical daily soil moisture product at a range of key spatial scales in support of current irrigation technologies: the individual sprinkler (˜102m2) for variable rate irrigation, the individual wedge (˜103m2) for variable speed irrigation, and the quarter section (0.82 km2) for uniform rate irrigation. Additionally, we were able to generate a daily soil moisture product over the entire study area at various key modeling and remote sensing scales 12, 32, and 122 km2. Our soil moisture products and derived soil properties were then compared against spatial datasets (i.e. field capacity and wilting point) from the US Department of Agriculture Web Soil Survey. The results show that our "observed" field capacity was higher compared to the Web Soil Survey products. We hypothesize that our results, when provided to irrigators, will decrease water losses due to runoff and deep percolation as sprinkler managers can better estimate irrigation application depth and times in relation to soil moisture depletion below field capacity and above maximum allowable depletion. The incorporation of this non-contact and pragmatic geophysical method into current irrigation practices across the state and globe has the

  20. Monitoring temporal variations in water resources across the Arabian Peninsula and identification of their controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Othman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment, monitoring, and development of the fresh water resources in the Arabian Peninsula (AP) are critical for the sustenance of the AP's growing population and water consumption. Monthly (01/2003-12/2013) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data along with other relevant climatic, geologic, hydrogeologic, and remote sensing datasets were used to monitor the spatiotemporal variability in the AP's water resources and to investigate the causes of those variations. Four regions were selected; in our selection, we tried to cover major aquifers, follow political boundaries, and exceed GRACE footprint (~0.20×106 km2) to minimize uncertainties. The selected regions are: (1) Northern Saudi Arabia and Jordan (area: 0.53×106 km2), (2) Southern Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emiratis (area: 0.97×106 km2), (3) Yemen (area: 0.45×106 km2), and (4) Oman (area: 0.32×106 km2). Results indicate: (1) Northern Saudi Arabia and Jordan area is experiencing large depletions (-8.76±0.94 mm/yr; -4.68±0.50 km3/yr) in GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) that is largely related to groundwater extraction as well as decrease in rainfall rates throughout the investigated period compared to the preceding period (average annual rainfall [AAR]: 2003-2013: 58 mm; 1979-2002: 103 mm), (2) Southern Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emiratis area is experiencing a moderate depletion (-2.73±1.0 mm/yr; -2.63±0.96 km3/yr) in TWS that might be related to groundwater/oil extraction as well as a moderate decrease in rainfall rates (AAR: 2003-2013: 61 mm; 1979-2002: 82 mm), (3) Yemen is experiencing a slight depletion (-0.82±0.30 mm/yr; -0.36±0.13 km3/yr) in TWS that might be related groundwater extraction, and (4) Oman is experiencing slight increase (+0.78±0.30 mm/yr; +0.25±0.09 km3/yr) in TWS that might be related an increase in rainfall rates. Our preliminary results are being further examined by: (1) extracting temporal variations in groundwater storage by

  1. Characterization Investigation Study: Volume 3, Radiological survey of surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solow, A.J.; Phoenix, D.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center was constructed to produce high purity uranium metal for use at various Department of Energy facilities. The waste products from these operations include general uncontaminated scrap and refuse, contaminated and uncontaminated metal scrap, waste oils, low-level radioactive waste, co-contaminated wastes, mixed waste, toxic waste, sludges from water treatment, and fly ash from the steam plant. This material is estimated to total more than 350,000 cubic meters. Other wastes stored in this area include laboratory chemicals and other combustible materials in the burn pit; fine waste stream sediments in the clear well; fly ash and waste oils in the two fly ash areas; lime-alum sludges and boiler plant blowdown in the lime sludge ponds; and nonradioactive sanitary waste, construction rubble, and asbestos in the sanitary landfill. A systematic survey of the surface soils throughout the Waste Storage Area, associated on-site drainages, and the fly ash piles was conducted using a Field Instrument for Detecting Low-Energy Radiation (FIDLER). Uranium is the most prevalent radioactive element in surface soil; U-238 is the principal radionuclide, ranging from 2.2 to 1790 pCi/g in the general Waste Storage Area. The maximum values for the next highest activity concentrations in the same area were 972 pCi/g for Th-230 and 298 pCi/g for U-234. Elevated activity concentrations of Th-230 were found along the K-65 slurry line, the maximum at 3010 pCi/g. U-238 had the highest value of 761 pCi/g in the drainage just south of pit no. 5. The upper fly ash area had the highest radionuclide activity concentrations in the surface soils with the maximum values for U-238 at 8600 pCi/g, U-235 at 2190 pCi/g, U-234 at 11,400 pCi/g, Tc-99 at 594 pCi/g, Ra-226 at 279 pCi/g, and Th-230 at 164 pCi/g.

  2. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of water resource management in Brazil, in particular the state of Rio de Janeiro, and in the European Union, with an emphasis on member country Portugal. The study examines the primary laws, governing bodies and water resource plans. The paper describes the concerns and interests of the scientific community and other sectors of society with regard to water resource management. The paper also draws attention to challenges and opportunities concerning the main objective of water resource management, which is to ensure the availability of water of high quality and sustainable quantity. Additionally, it also mentions good and poor management practices. Among the concerns highlighted are integrated water resource management and water resource monitoring. The objective of this study was to contribute to water resource management processes. The primary reasons for this study are the growing scarcity of freshwater in the world, recurrent problems in managing this resource and a desire to contribute to the improvement of the current situation. The study of water management in different contexts allows for a greater understanding of the subject, thereby assisting the decision-making of managers and society in general with regard to environmental quality and ecological and human health. There is an increasing interest in efficient water resource management, which creates a demand for information on the subject. Both Brazil and the European Union are facing problems related to quantity and quality of water. Problems like scarcity of freshwater, contamination, salinization, and floods. This makes the realities of them quite close, despite the physical distance between them. In general, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union and Portugal have similar water resource management requirements. If these regions are to supply a consistent quantity of high-quality water to present and future generations, then they need effective laws and plans

  3. Assessment of water resources potential of Ceará state (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Angelo; Pereira, Diamantino; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    A methodological approach and results on water resources assessment in large areas are described with the case study of Ceará State (148,016 km2, northeast Brazil), where the scarceness of water resources is one of the main challenges in territorial planning and development. This work deals with the quantification and the mapping of water resources potential, being part of methodological approaches applied to the quantification of hydric diversity and geodiversity. Water resources potential is here considered as the sum of the hydric elements rainfall, groundwater specific discharge, water reservoirs, and river hierarchy. The assessment was based in a territorial organization by drainage sub-basins and in vector maps generated and treated with GIS software. Rainfall, groundwater specific discharge and hydrographical data were obtained in official institutions and allowed the construction of the annual mean rainfall map for a forty year period (1974-2014), the annual mean groundwater specific discharge map for a thirty-four year period, and the river and drainage basin hierarchy maps. These delivered rainfall, groundwater specific discharge, water reservoirs and river hierarchy partial indices expressed on quantitative maps with normalized values distributed by level 3 drainage basins. The sum of the partial indices originated the quantitative map of water resources potential index and by the Gaussian interpolation of this quantitative data a map of hydric diversity in Ceará state was created. Therefore, the water resources potential index is higher in 4 regions of the state (Noroeste Cearense, Zona Metropolitana de Fortaleza e da Zona Norte, Vale do Jaguaribe and Zonas Centro-sul e Sul Cearense). The index is low or very low in the whole region of Sertões Cearenses, confirming the important role of climatic features in hydrological diversity. Water resources management must consider technical tools for water resources assessment, in the line of other methods for

  4. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V. K.; Aslam, O.; Dale, L.; Miller, N.; Purkey, D.

    2010-12-01

    are also made in expanding wastewater treatment capacities, and/or implementing conservation strategies. Hydrologic information was missing in Kisii and Bukoba. These models were limited to demand and infrastructure management scenarios. Bukoba sources its water from several local streams as well as Lake Victoria, while Kisii extracts water from two rivers. In both towns, the key issues are high leakage losses (~50%), and a projected 4% population growth. We investigated utility performance under demand growth scenarios and management strategies- reducing leakages to 20% and doubling the waterworks capacity. These strategies result in meeting 100% demand until 2025 in Bukoba and 2028 in Kisii, at which point growing demand would outstrip supply capacities. In Masaka the integrated hydrologic simulation demonstrated impacts on return flows to the wetland and potential downstream users. Regular monitoring of local hydroclimatology by utilities in the LV region will be required in order to achieve similar goals in other LV towns. Linking of hydroclimatology to water supply operations will make scenario-based IRWM tools valuable in water utility planning as well as in securing the biophysical foundations of water resources in the LV region.

  5. Sustainable Water and Agricultural Land Use in the Guanting Watershed under Limited Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsung, F.; Möhring, J.; Otto, I. M.; Wang, X.; Guanting Project Team

    2012-04-01

    The Yongding River System is an important water source for the northeastern Chinese provinces Shanxi, Hebei, Beijing, and Tianjin. The Guanting Reservoir within this river system is one of the major water sources for Beijing, which is about 70 km away. Original planning assumed a discharge of 44 m3/s for the reservoir, but the current mean discharge rate is only about 5 m3/s; there is often hardly any discharge at all. Water scarcity is a major threat for the socio-economic development of the area. The situation is additionally aggravated by climate change impacts. Typical upstream-downstream conflicts with respect to water quantity and quality requests are mixed up with conflicts between different sectors, mainly mining, industry, and agriculture. These conflicts can be observed on different administrative levels, for example between the provinces, down to households. The German-Chinese research project "Sustainable water and agricultural land use in the Guanting Watershed under limited water resources" investigates problems and solutions related to water scarcity in the Guanting Catchment. The aim of the project is to create a vulnerability study in order to assess options for (and finally achieve) sustainable water and land use management in the Guanting region. This includes a comprehensive characterization of the current state by gap analysis and identification of pressures and impacts. The presentation gives an overview of recent project results regarding regionalization of global change scenarios and specification for water supply, evaluation of surface water quantity balances (supply-demand), evaluation of the surface water quality balances (emissions-impact thresholds), and exploration of integrative measurement planning. The first results show that climate in the area is becoming warmer and drier which leads to even more dramatically shrinking water resources. Water supply is expected to be reduced between one and two thirds. Water demand might be

  6. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2014-05-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The

  7. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2017-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. The bioregional assessment programme has modelled the impacts of coal seam gas development on surface and groundwater resources in three regions of eastern Australia, namely the Clarence-Moreton, Gloucester, and Namoi regions. This presentation will discuss the

  8. Plant water resource partitioning and isotopic fractionation during transpiration in a seasonally dry tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wispelaere, Lien; Bodé, Samuel; Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Hemp, Andreas; Verschuren, Dirk; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Lake Chala (3°19' S, 37°42' E) is a steep-sided crater lake situated in equatorial East Africa, a tropical semiarid area with a bimodal rainfall pattern. Plants in this region are exposed to a prolonged dry season, and we investigated if (1) these plants show spatial variability and temporal shifts in their water source use; (2) seasonal differences in the isotopic composition of precipitation are reflected in xylem water; and (3) plant family, growth form, leaf phenology, habitat and season influence the xylem-to-leaf water deuterium enrichment. In this study, the δ2H and δ18O of precipitation, lake water, groundwater, plant xylem water and plant leaf water were measured across different plant species, seasons and plant habitats in the vicinity of Lake Chala. We found that plants rely mostly on water from the short rains falling from October to December (northeastern monsoon), as these recharge the soil after the long dry season. This plant-available, static water pool is only slightly replenished by the long rains falling from February to May (southeastern monsoon), in agreement with the two water worlds hypothesis, according to which plants rely on a static water pool while a mobile water pool recharges the groundwater. Spatial variability in water resource use exists in the study region, with plants at the lakeshore relying on a water source admixed with lake water. Leaf phenology does not affect water resource use. According to our results, plant species and their associated leaf phenology are the primary factors influencing the enrichment in deuterium from xylem water to leaf water (ɛl/x), with deciduous species giving the highest enrichment, while growth form and season have negligible effects. Our observations have important implications for the interpretation of δ2H of plant leaf wax n-alkanes (δ2Hwax) from paleohydrological records in tropical East Africa, given that the temporal variability in the isotopic composition of precipitation is not

  9. Cost Optimization of Water Resources in Pernambuco, Brazil: Valuing Future Infrastructure and Climate Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ipsita; Josset, Laureline; Lall, Upmanu; Cavalcanti e Silva, Erik; Cordeiro Possas, José Marcelo; Cauás Asfora, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Optimal management of water resources is paramount in semi-arid regions to limit strains on the society and economy due to limited water availability. This problem is likely to become even more recurrent as droughts are projected to intensify in the coming years, causing increasing stresses to the water supply in the concerned areas. The state of Pernambuco, in the Northeast Brazil is one such case, where one of the largest reservoir, Jucazinho, has been at approximately 1% capacity throughout 2016, making infrastructural challenges in the region very real. To ease some of the infrastructural stresses and reduce vulnerabilities of the water system, a new source of water from Rio São Francisco is currently under development. Till its development, water trucks have been regularly mandated to cover water deficits, but at a much higher cost, thus endangering the financial sustainability of the region. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the sustainability of the considered water system by formulating an optimization problem and determine the optimal operations to be conducted. We start with a comparative study of the current and future infrastructures capabilities to face various climate. We show that while the Rio Sao Francisco project mitigates the problems, both implementations do not prevent failure and require the reliance on water trucks during prolonged droughts. We also study the cost associated with the provision of water to the municipalities for several streamflow forecasts. In particular, we investigate the value of climate predictions to adapt operational decisions by comparing the results with a fixed policy derived from historical data. We show that the use of climate information permits the reduction of the water deficit and reduces overall operational costs. We conclude with a discussion on the potential of the approach to evaluate future infrastructure developments. This study is funded by the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), and in

  10. Factors Influencing Water Resource Governance among Pastoral Community at Mkondoa Sub-Catchment Morogoro Region Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeremia Yohana Masifia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of proper Water Resource Management with greater emphasis on ensuring sustainability quality accountability and community participation has become imminent as water resources increasingly become scarce Harvey et al 2007. Water resources management in Tanzania is governed under the National Water Policy of 2002 and Water Resources Management Act No.11 of year 2009. Other related legislations include Environmental Management Act No. 20 of year 2004 Forest Policy and Forest Act No. 14 of year 2002 and Water Supply Act No.12 of year 2009 among others. However the mechanisms processes and institutions through which all stakeholders articulate their priorities exercise their legal rights meet their obligations and mediate their differences is still missing. This study employed descriptive exploratory research design. Data collection was done by the use of both structured and semi structured interview to respondents who were both purpose and simple randomly selected observation and focus group discussion. Review of reports from Districts and Basin offices and internet to access relevant secondary information was done. Results show that WUAs LGAs and WSSAs lack relevant understanding capacities management and law enforcement as result water management generally remains non participatory inefficient and expensive and increased water user conflicts in Kisangata and Ilonga WUAs of Mkondoa sub catchment Morogoro region. The study propose participatory approaches best practices on water resource management at local level for embracement of Community- Based Water Resource Management as the only option of managing sub catchment water resources and reduce water related conflicts among water users. Awareness creation on policy and establishment of alternative economic activities like horticulture bee keeping and poultry is significant to give relief to land.

  11. Integrating Green and Blue Water Management Tools for Land and Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, G. P. W.

    2009-04-01

    The role of land use and land use change on the hydrological cycle is well known. However, the impacts of large scale land use change are poorly considered in water resources planning, unless they require direct abstraction of water resources and associated development of infrastructure e.g. Irrigation Schemes. However, large scale deforestation for the supply of raw materials, expansion of the areas of plantation forestry, increasing areas under food production and major plans for cultivation of biofuels in many developing countries are likely to result in extensive land use change. Given the spatial extent and temporal longevity of these proposed developments, major impacts on water resources are inevitable. It is imperative that managers and planners consider the consequences for downstream ecosystems and users in such developments. However, many popular tools, such as the vitual water approach, provide only coarse scale "order of magnitude" type estimates with poor consideration of, and limited usefulness, for land use planning. In this paper, a framework for the consideration of the impacts of large scale land use change on water resources at a range of temporal and spatial scales is presented. Drawing on experiences from South Africa, where the establishment of exotic commercial forest plantations is only permitted once a water use license has been granted, the framework adopts the "green water concept" for the identification of potential high impact areas of land use change and provides for integration with traditional "blue water" water resources planning tools for more detailed planning. Appropriate tools, ranging from simple spreadsheet solutions to more sophisticated remote sensing and hydrological models are described, and the application of the framework for consideration of water resources impacts associated with the establishment of large scale tectona grandis, sugar cane and jatropha curcas plantations is illustrated through examples in Mozambique

  12. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations for research, management and policy.

    After setting the scene regarding water stress, water management capacity and scientific capacity in our case study regions, we examine the state of knowledge in water resources from a highland-lowland viewpoint, focusing on mountain areas on the one hand and the adjacent lowland areas on the other hand. Based on this review, research priorities are identified, including precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil parameters, evapotranspiration and sublimation, groundwater as well as enhanced warming and feedback mechanisms. In addition, the importance of environmental monitoring at high altitudes is highlighted. We then make recommendations how advancements in the management of mountain water resources under climate change could be achieved in the fields of research, water resources management and policy as well as through better interaction between these fields.

    We conclude that effective management of mountain water resources urgently requires more detailed regional studies and more reliable scenario projections, and that research on mountain water resources must become more integrative by linking relevant disciplines. In addition, the knowledge exchange between managers and researchers must be improved and oriented towards long-term continuous interaction.

  13. Improved water resource management for a highly complex environment using three-dimensional groundwater modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Affolter, Annette; Radny, Dirk; Dressmann, Horst; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Huggenberger, Peter; Schirmer, Mario

    2018-02-01

    A three-dimensional groundwater model was used to improve water resource management for a study area in north-west Switzerland, where drinking-water production is close to former landfills and industrial areas. To avoid drinking-water contamination, artificial groundwater recharge with surface water is used to create a hydraulic barrier between the contaminated sites and drinking-water extraction wells. The model was used for simulating existing and proposed water management strategies as a tool to ensure the utmost security for drinking water. A systematic evaluation of the flow direction between existing observation points using a developed three-point estimation method for a large number of scenarios was carried out. It is demonstrated that systematically applying the developed methodology helps to identify vulnerable locations which are sensitive to changing boundary conditions such as those arising from changes to artificial groundwater recharge rates. At these locations, additional investigations and protection are required. The presented integrated approach, using the groundwater flow direction between observation points, can be easily transferred to a variety of hydrological settings to systematically evaluate groundwater modelling scenarios.

  14. Combining Interactive Infrastructure Modeling and Evolutionary Algorithm Optimization for Sustainable Water Resources Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Population growth and climate change, combined with difficulties in building new infrastructure, motivate portfolio-based solutions to ensuring sufficient water supply. Powerful simulation models with graphical user interfaces (GUI) are often used to evaluate infrastructure portfolios; these GUI based models require manual modification of the system parameters, such as reservoir operation rules, water transfer schemes, or system capacities. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) based optimization can be employed to balance multiple objectives and automatically suggest designs for infrastructure systems, but MOEA based decision support typically uses a fixed problem formulation (i.e., a single set of objectives, decisions, and constraints). This presentation suggests a dynamic framework for linking GUI-based infrastructure models with MOEA search. The framework begins with an initial formulation which is solved using a MOEA. Then, stakeholders can interact with candidate solutions, viewing their properties in the GUI model. This is followed by changes in the formulation which represent users' evolving understanding of exigent system properties. Our case study is built using RiverWare, an object-oriented, data-centered model that facilitates the representation of a diverse array of water resources systems. Results suggest that assumptions within the initial MOEA search are violated after investigating tradeoffs and reveal how formulations should be modified to better capture stakeholders' preferences.

  15. Hypothesis-driven approach for the identification of fecal pollution sources in water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischer, G H; Kollanur, D; Vierheilig, J; Wehrspaun, C; Mach, R L; Sommer, R; Stadler, H; Farnleitner, A H

    2011-05-01

    Water resource management must strive to link catchment information with water quality monitoring. The present study attempted this for the field of microbial fecal source tracking (MST). A fecal pollution source profile based on catchment data (e.g., prevalence of fecal sources) was used to formulate a hypothesis about the dominant sources of pollution in an Austrian mountainous karst spring catchment. This allowed a statistical definition of methodical requirements necessary for an informed choice of MST methods. The hypothesis was tested in a 17-month investigation of spring water quality. The study followed a nested sampling design in order to cover the hydrological and pollution dynamics of the spring and to assess effects such as differential persistence between parameters. Genetic markers for the potential fecal sources as well as microbiological, hydrological, and chemo-physical parameters were measured. The hypothesis that ruminant animals were the dominant sources of fecal pollution in the catchment was clearly confirmed. It was also shown that the concentration of ruminant markers in feces was equally distributed in different ruminant source groups. The developed approach provides a tool for careful decision-making in MST study design and might be applied on various types of catchments and pollution situations.

  16. Integrated hydrologic modeling as a key for sustainable urban water resources planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshtawi, Tamer; Evers, Mariele; Tischbein, Bernhard; Diekkrüger, Bernd

    2016-09-15

    In this study, a coupling of surface water (SWAT), groundwater (MODFLOW) and solute transport (MT3DMS) models was performed to quantify surface-groundwater and quantity-quality interactions under urban area expansion. The responses of groundwater level, nitrate concentrations (related to human activities) and chloride concentrations (related to seawater intrusion) to urban area expansion and corresponding changes in the urban water budget were examined on a macro-scale level. The potentials of non-conventional water resources scenarios, namely desalination, stormwater harvesting and treated wastewater (TWW) reuse were investigated. In a novel analysis, groundwater improvement and deterioration under each scenario were defined in spatial-temporal approach. The quality deterioration cycle index was estimated as the ratio between the amounts of low and high quality recharge components within the Gaza Strip boundary predicted for year 2030. The improvement index for groundwater level (IIL) and the improvement index for groundwater quality (IIQ) were developed for the scenarios as measures of the effectiveness toward sustainable groundwater planning. Even though the desalination and TWW reuse scenarios reflect a noticeable improvement in the groundwater level, the desalination scenario shows a stronger tendency toward sustainable groundwater quality. The stormwater harvesting scenario shows a slight improvement in both groundwater quality and quantity. This study provides a 'corridor of options', which could facilitate future studies focusing on developing a micro-level assessment of the above scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved water resource management for a highly complex environment using three-dimensional groundwater modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Affolter, Annette; Radny, Dirk; Dressmann, Horst; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Huggenberger, Peter; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-08-01

    A three-dimensional groundwater model was used to improve water resource management for a study area in north-west Switzerland, where drinking-water production is close to former landfills and industrial areas. To avoid drinking-water contamination, artificial groundwater recharge with surface water is used to create a hydraulic barrier between the contaminated sites and drinking-water extraction wells. The model was used for simulating existing and proposed water management strategies as a tool to ensure the utmost security for drinking water. A systematic evaluation of the flow direction between existing observation points using a developed three-point estimation method for a large number of scenarios was carried out. It is demonstrated that systematically applying the developed methodology helps to identify vulnerable locations which are sensitive to changing boundary conditions such as those arising from changes to artificial groundwater recharge rates. At these locations, additional investigations and protection are required. The presented integrated approach, using the groundwater flow direction between observation points, can be easily transferred to a variety of hydrological settings to systematically evaluate groundwater modelling scenarios.

  18. The role of material engineering within the concept of an integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiner, Raphael; Müller, Harald S.

    2016-09-01

    By means of a case study, the successful implementation of a rheologically optimised cement-based mortar for the construction as well as for the rehabilitation of rain water cisterns is presented in this paper. The material was developed within the scope of a German-Indonesian joint project ["Integrated Water Resources Management" (IWRM)], funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Comprehensive rheological investigations are presented which provide the database for the optimization of the mortar with regard to its intended range of application. For the selection of the source materials, special emphasis was placed on the ready availability at low cost. The rheological properties of the fresh mortar allow an easy workability by hand while the hardened mortar shows a durable and tight appearance at the same time. The developed material can be used as a coating for walls, floors and ceilings of cisterns, for the local rehabilitation of damaged areas only or even as a construction material for complete new cisterns. The future multiplication of the IWRM project results within the region was assured by a local capacity development when the presented material concept was applied in practise in Indonesia for the construction of sustainable rain water cisterns in Gunung Kidul.

  19. On an improved sub-regional water resources management representation for integration into earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, N.; Li, H.; Ward, D.; Huang, M.; Wigmosta, M.; Leung, L. R.

    2013-09-01

    Human influence on the hydrologic cycle includes regulation and storage, consumptive use and overall redistribution of water resources in space and time. Representing these processes is essential for applications of earth system models in hydrologic and climate predictions, as well as impact studies at regional to global scales. Emerging large-scale research reservoir models use generic operating rules that are flexible for coupling with earth system models. Those generic operating rules have been successful in reproducing the overall regulated flow at large basin scales. This study investigates the uncertainties of the reservoir models from different implementations of the generic operating rules using the complex multi-objective Columbia River Regulation System in northwestern United States as an example to understand their effects on not only regulated flow but also reservoir storage and fraction of the demand that is met. Numerical experiments are designed to test new generic operating rules that combine storage and releases targets for multi-purpose reservoirs and to compare the use of reservoir usage priorities and predictors (withdrawals vs. consumptive demands, as well as natural vs. regulated mean flow) for configuring operating rules. Overall the best performing implementation is with combined priorities rules (flood control storage targets and irrigation release targets) set up with mean annual natural flow and mean monthly withdrawals. The options of not accounting for groundwater withdrawals, or on the contrary, of assuming that all remaining demand is met through groundwater extractions, are discussed.

  20. Hypothesis-Driven Approach for the Identification of Fecal Pollution Sources in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Water resource management must strive to link catchment information with water quality monitoring. The present study attempted this for the field of microbial fecal source tracking (MST). A fecal pollution source profile based on catchment data (e.g., prevalence of fecal sources) was used to formulate a hypothesis about the dominant sources of pollution in an Austrian mountainous karst spring catchment. This allowed a statistical definition of methodical requirements necessary for an informed choice of MST methods. The hypothesis was tested in a 17-month investigation of spring water quality. The study followed a nested sampling design in order to cover the hydrological and pollution dynamics of the spring and to assess effects such as differential persistence between parameters. Genetic markers for the potential fecal sources as well as microbiological, hydrological, and chemo−physical parameters were measured. The hypothesis that ruminant animals were the dominant sources of fecal pollution in the catchment was clearly confirmed. It was also shown that the concentration of ruminant markers in feces was equally distributed in different ruminant source groups. The developed approach provides a tool for careful decision-making in MST study design and might be applied on various types of catchments and pollution situations. PMID:21466151