WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey visual mark

  1. Visual implant elastomer mark retention through metamorphosis in amphibian larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Grant, Evan H.

    2008-01-01

    Questions in population ecology require the study of marked animals, and marks are assumed to be permanent and not overlooked by observers. I evaluated retention through metamorphosis of visual implant elastomer marks in larval salamanders and frogs and assessed error in observer identification of these marks. I found 1) individual marks were not retained in larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica), whereas only small marks were likely to be retained in larval salamanders (Eurycea bislineata), and 2) observers did not always correctly identify marked animals. Evaluating the assumptions of marking protocols is important in the design phase of a study so that correct inference can be made about the population processes of interest. This guidance should be generally useful to the design of mark–recapture studies, with particular application to studies of larval amphibians.

  2. The Information Literacy of Survey Mark Hunting: A Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Galas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article makes connections between the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education and the activity of survey mark hunting. After a brief review of the literature related to geographic information systems (GIS, information literacy, and gamification of learning, the authors enter into a dialogue in which they discover and describe the various ways information literacy is both required by and developed through the recreational activity of survey mark hunting. Through their dialogue they found that the activity of survey mark hunting relies on the construction of both information and its authority in ways contextualized within the communities that participate; that survey mark hunting is a conversation that builds on the past, where lived experience counts as evidence; and, that survey mark hunting is both a metaphor and embodied enactment of information literacy.

  3. Sediment contamination survey on St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey was conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess habitat quality on the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Sediment samples were...

  4. The Information Literacy of Survey Mark Hunting: A Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Galas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article makes connections between the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education and the activity of survey mark hunting. After a brief review of the literature related to geographic information systems (GIS, information literacy, and gamification of learning, the authors enter into a dialogue in which they discover and describe the...

  5. A simulation study of acoustic-assisted tracking of whales for mark-recapture surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peel

    Full Text Available Collecting enough data to obtain reasonable abundance estimates of whales is often difficult, particularly when studying rare species. Passive acoustics can be used to detect whale sounds and are increasingly used to estimate whale abundance. Much of the existing effort centres on the use of acoustics to estimate abundance directly, e.g. analysing detections in a distance sampling framework. Here, we focus on acoustics as a tool incorporated within mark-recapture surveys. In this context, acoustic tools are used to detect and track whales, which are then photographed or biopsied to provide data for mark-recapture analyses. The purpose of incorporating acoustics is to increase the encounter rate beyond using visual searching only. While this general approach is not new, its utility is rarely quantified. This paper predicts the "acoustically-assisted" encounter rate using a discrete-time individual-based simulation of whales and survey vessel. We validate the simulation framework using existing data from studies of sperm whales. We then use the framework to predict potential encounter rates in a study of Antarctic blue whales. We also investigate the effects of a number of the key parameters on encounter rate. Mean encounter rates from the simulation of sperm whales matched well with empirical data. Variance of encounter rate, however, was underestimated. The simulation of Antarctic blue whales found that passive acoustics should provide a 1.7-3.0 fold increase in encounter rate over visual-only methods. Encounter rate was most sensitive to acoustic detection range, followed by vocalisation rate. During survey planning and design, some indication of the relationship between expected sample size and effort is paramount; this simulation framework can be used to predict encounter rates and establish this relationship. For a case in point, the simulation framework indicates unequivocally that real-time acoustic tracking should be considered for

  6. Visual Survey of Infantry Troops. Part 1. Visual Acuity, Refractive Status, Interpupillary Distance and Visual Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    USAARL Report No. 89-10 0D in Visual Survey of Infantry Troops, Part I: Visual Acuity, Refractive Status, Interpupillary Distance, and Visual Skills ... librarian or other person designated to request documents from DTIC. Change of address Organizations receiving reports from the U.S. Army Aeromedical...Troops, Part I: Visual Acuity, Refractive Status, Interpupillary Distance, and Visual Skills 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) David J. Walsh 13a. TYPE OF

  7. Design of a 3-dimensional visual illusion speed reduction marking scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guohua; Qian, Guomin; Wang, Ye; Yi, Zige; Ru, Xiaolei; Ye, Wei

    2017-03-01

    To determine which graphic and color combination for a 3-dimensional visual illusion speed reduction marking scheme presents the best visual stimulus, five parameters were designed. According to the Balanced Incomplete Blocks-Law of Comparative Judgment, three schemes, which produce strong stereoscopic impressions, were screened from the 25 initial design schemes of different combinations of graphics and colors. Three-dimensional experimental simulation scenes of the three screened schemes were created to evaluate four different effects according to a semantic analysis. The following conclusions were drawn: schemes with a red color are more effective than those without; the combination of red, yellow and blue produces the best visual stimulus; a larger area from the top surface and the front surface should be colored red; and a triangular prism should be painted as the graphic of the marking according to the stereoscopic impression and the coordination of graphics with the road.

  8. Visual search, movement behaviour and boat control during the windward mark rounding in sailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluijms, Joost P; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2015-01-01

    In search of key-performance predictors in sailing, we examined to what degree visual search, movement behaviour and boat control contribute to skilled performance while rounding the windward mark. To this end, we analysed 62 windward mark roundings sailed without opponents and 40 windward mark roundings sailed with opponents while competing in small regattas. Across conditions, results revealed that better performances were related to gazing more to the tangent point during the actual rounding. More specifically, in the condition without opponents, skilled performance was associated with gazing more outside the dinghy during the actual rounding, while in the condition with opponents, superior performance was related to gazing less outside the dinghy. With respect to movement behaviour, superior performance was associated with the release of the trimming lines close to rounding the mark. In addition, better performances were related to approaching the mark with little heel, yet heeling the boat more to the windward side when being close to the mark. Potential implications for practice are suggested for each phase of the windward mark rounding.

  9. In vivo visualization of single-unit recording sites using MRI-detectable elgiloy deposit marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Kenji W; Machino, Akinori; Takeda, Masaki; Matsui, Teppei; Fujimichi, Ryoko; Ohashi, Yohei; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2011-03-01

    Precise localization of single-neuron activity has elucidated functional architectures of the primate cerebral cortex, related to vertically stacked layers and horizontally aligned columns. The traditional "gold standard" method for localizing recorded neuron is histological examination of electrolytic lesion marks at recording sites. Although this method can localize recorded neurons with fine neuroanatomy, the necessity for postmortem analysis prohibits its use in long-term chronic experiments. To localize recorded single-neuron positions in vivo, we introduced MRI-detectable elgiloy deposit marks, which can be created by electrolysis of an elgiloy microelectrode tip and visualized on highly contrasted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Histological analysis validated that the deposit mark centers could be localized relative to neuroanatomy in vivo with single-voxel accuracy, at an in-plane resolution of 200 μm. To demonstrate practical applications of the technique, we recorded single-neuron activity from a monkey performing a cognitive task and localized it in vivo using deposit marks (deposition: 2 μA for 3 min; scanning: fast-spin-echo sequence with 0.15 × 0.15 × 0.8 mm(3) resolution, 120/4,500 ms of echo-time/repetition-time and 8 echo-train-length), as is usually performed with conventional postmortem methods using electrolytic lesion marks. Two localization procedures were demonstrated: 1) deposit marks within a microelectrode track were used to reconstruct a dozen recorded neuron positions along the track directly on MR images; 2) combination with X-ray imaging allowed estimation of hundreds of neuron positions on MR images. This new in vivo method is feasible for chronic experiments with nonhuman primates, enabling analysis of the functional architecture of the cerebral cortex underlying cognitive processes.

  10. Visualization analysis of tiger-striped flow mark generation phenomena in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owada, Shigeru; Yokoi, Hidetoshi

    2016-03-01

    The generation mechanism of tiger-striped flow marks of polypropylene (PP)/rubber/talc blends in injection molding was investigated by dynamic visualization analysis in a glass-inserted mold. The analysis revealed that the behavior of the melt flow front correlates with the flow mark generation. The cloudy part in the tiger-striped flow marks corresponded to the low transcription rate area of the melt diverging near the cavity wall, while the glossy part corresponded to the high transcription rate area of the melt converging toward the cavity wall side. The melt temperature at the high transcription rate area was slightly lower than that at the low transcription rate area. These phenomena resulted due to the difference in the temperature of the melt front that was caused by the asymmetric fountain flow. These results suggest the followings; At the moment when the melt is broken near the one side of cavity wall due to piling the extensional strains up to a certain level, the melt spurts out near the broken side. It results in generating asymmetric fountain flow temporarily to relax the extensional front surface, which moves toward the opposite side to form the high transcription area.

  11. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: Implications for population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  12. A Survey of Visual Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soro, Stanislava; Heinzelman, Wendi

    2009-01-01

    ..., recent developments in sensor networking and distributed processing have encouraged the use of image sensors in these networks, which has resulted in a new ubiquitous paradigm--visual sensor networks. Visual sensor networks (VSNs) consist of tiny visual sensor nodes called camera nodes, which integrate the image sensor, embedded processor, and wireless tra...

  13. Visualization Techniques for Digital forensics: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.Sushilkumar Chavhan, Ms.S.M.Nirkhi

    2012-01-01

    Digital crimes is big problem due to large numbersof data access and insufficient attack analysistechniques so there is the need for improvements inexisting digital forensics techniques. With growingsize of storage capacity these digital forensicinvestigations are getting more difficult.Visualization allows for displaying large amounts ofdata at once. Integrated visualization of datadistribution bars and rules, visualization ofbehaviour and comprehensive analysis, maps allowuser to analyze di...

  14. The use of Visual Implant Fluorescent Elastomer (VIE for marking Phyllopezus pollicaris lizards (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ragner Silva de Freitas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the use of Visible Implant Fluorescent Elastomer (VIE and its efficiency in marking Phyllopezus pollicaris lizards from an area of caatinga in northeastern Brazil. The marking procedure of individuals was conducted from April to September 2012. Forty individuals were marked in the dorsal region with fluorescent colors (red, yellow, green and orange. Twenty lizards were recaptured and showed good retention of the elastomer. Only two specimens presented fragmented marks. The results showed that the use of VIE for tagging and recapture was efficient because of the high retention rate in the individuals recaptured and low fragmentation rate of the marks.

  15. The function of road markings in relation to driver's visual needs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The study presented here aims at discussing the fundamental aspects of road marking and their application. The objective of this report is to offer a background on which decisions regarding the development and application of road markings can be based. This background is discussed in considerable

  16. KE Basin underwater visual fuel survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1995-02-01

    Results of an underwater video fuel survey in KE Basin using a high resolution camera system are presented. Quantitative and qualitative information on fuel degradation are given, and estimates of the total fraction of ruptured fuel elements are provided. Representative photographic illustrations showing the range of fuel conditions observed in the survey are included.

  17. A survey of visual preprocessing and shape representation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshausen, Bruno A.

    1988-01-01

    Many recent theories and methods proposed for visual preprocessing and shape representation are summarized. The survey brings together research from the fields of biology, psychology, computer science, electrical engineering, and most recently, neural networks. It was motivated by the need to preprocess images for a sparse distributed memory (SDM), but the techniques presented may also prove useful for applying other associative memories to visual pattern recognition. The material of this survey is divided into three sections: an overview of biological visual processing; methods of preprocessing (extracting parts of shape, texture, motion, and depth); and shape representation and recognition (form invariance, primitives and structural descriptions, and theories of attention).

  18. Man Versus Machine: Comparing Double Data Entry and Optical Mark Recognition for Processing CAHPS Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifolt, Matthew; Blackburn, Justin; Rhodes, David J; Gillespie, Shemeka; Bennett, Aleena; Wolff, Paul; Rucks, Andrew

    Historically, double data entry (DDE) has been considered the criterion standard for minimizing data entry errors. However, previous studies considered data entry alternatives through the limited lens of data accuracy. This study supplies information regarding data accuracy, operational efficiency, and cost for DDE and Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) for processing the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems 5.0 survey. To assess data accuracy, we compared error rates for DDE and OMR by dividing the number of surveys that were arbitrated by the total number of surveys processed for each method. To assess operational efficiency, we tallied the cost of data entry for DDE and OMR after survey receipt. Costs were calculated on the basis of personnel, depreciation for capital equipment, and costs of noncapital equipment. The cost savings attributed to this method were negated by the operational efficiency of OMR. There was a statistical significance between rates of arbitration between DDE and OMR; however, this statistical significance did not create a practical significance. The potential benefits of DDE in terms of data accuracy did not outweigh the operational efficiency and thereby financial savings of OMR.

  19. Visual Survey of Apache Aviators (VISAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    injury/disease and visual disorders. Ten pilots report- ed treatment for eye disease or eye injury, but only one (with toxoplasmosis ) within the past 6...optical society of America, 41:94-97. Coren S., and Kaplan C. P. 1973. Patterns of ocular dominance. American iournal of optometry and archives of the...Instrument myopia. Journal of the optical society of America, 65:1114-1120. Kim, H. 1982. Personal communication. Morgan, M. W. 1944a. The clinical

  20. Marked reductions in visual impairment due to diabetic retinopathy achieved by efficient screening and timely treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Nina; Aikkila, Riittaliisa; Korpelainen, Juha; Keskitalo, Antti; Kurikka, Anne; Falck, Aura; Bloigu, Risto; Alanko, Hannu

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes and needs to be diagnosed early to prevent severe sight-threatening retinopathy. Digital photography with telemedicine connections is a novel way to deliver cost-effective, accessible screening to remote areas. Screening for DR in a mobile eye examination unit (EyeMo) is compared to traditional service models (i.e. local municipal services or a commercial service provider). The quality of images, delays from screening to treatment, the stage of DR, coverage of screening and the rate of visual impairment due to DR are evaluated. EyeMo utilizes telemedicine technology. The electronic databases of the hospital and information from the Finnish Register of Visual Impairment were used to determine delays and the rate of visual impairment. Fourteen thousand eight hundred and sixty-six fundus photographs were taken in EyeMo in 2007-2011. Coverage reached 78% of potential clients. No DR was detected in 43%, mild background retinopathy in 23%, moderate or severe background retinopathy in 31% and proliferative retinopathy in 3% of the evaluations. The quality of images was higher (p visual impairment due to DR decreased by 86% in the area covered by EyeMo, and the change compared favourably to the situation in the entire Finland (p visual damage. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Temporary marked impairment of visual acuity in a case of intraocular malignant lymphoma during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyao, Yoko; Tada, Rei; Koizumi, Noriko; Yamada, Hideaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2000-05-01

    A 56-year-old female was referred to us for blurring of both eyes since 2 years before. She had been diagnosed as chronic uveitis and responded poorly to systemic and topical corticosteroid. Her corrected visual acuity was 0.8 right and 0.5 left. Systemic studies, including magnetic resonance imaging and gadolinium scintigraphy, were negative. Vitreous biopsy led to the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma originating from the eye. Seven days after initiation of radiation at the daily doses of 2 Gy, massive subretinal infiltration developed in her right eye forming a niveau. Systemic prednisolone induced resolution of exudate with improved visual acuity to 1.0 13 days later. This cases illustrates that radiation may induce temporary aggravation of intraocular malignant lymphoma and that it may undergo resolution following systemic corticosteroid. (author)

  2. A Survey on Visual Programming Languages in Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Ray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual programming has transformed the art of programming in recent years. Several organizations are in race to develop novel ideas to run visual programming in multiple domains with Internet of Things. IoT, being the most emerging area of computing, needs substantial contribution from the visual programming paradigm for its technological propagation. This paper surveys visual programming languages being served for application development, especially in Internet of Things field. 13 such languages are visited from several popular research-electronic databases (e.g., IEEE Xplore, Science Direct, Springer Link, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Postscapes and compared under four key attributes such as programming environment, license, project repository, and platform supports. Grouped into two segments, open source and proprietary platform, these visual languages pertain few crucial challenges that have been elaborated in this literature. The main goal of this paper is to present existing VPLs per their parametric proforma to enable naïve developers and researchers in the field of IoT to choose appropriate variant of VPL for particular type of application. It is also worth validating the usability and adaptability of VPLs that is essential for selection of beneficiary in terms of IoT.

  3. A survey of infrared and visual image fusion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, Qian; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Dongming; Nie, Rencan; Hai, Jinjin; He, Kangjian

    2017-09-01

    Infrared (IR) and visual (VI) image fusion is designed to fuse multiple source images into a comprehensive image to boost imaging quality and reduce redundancy information, which is widely used in various imaging equipment to improve the visual ability of human and robot. The accurate, reliable and complementary descriptions of the scene in fused images make these techniques be widely used in various fields. In recent years, a large number of fusion methods for IR and VI images have been proposed due to the ever-growing demands and the progress of image representation methods; however, there has not been published an integrated survey paper about this field in last several years. Therefore, we make a survey to report the algorithmic developments of IR and VI image fusion. In this paper, we first characterize the IR and VI image fusion based applications to represent an overview of the research status. Then we present a synthesize survey of the state of the art. Thirdly, the frequently-used image fusion quality measures are introduced. Fourthly, we perform some experiments of typical methods and make corresponding analysis. At last, we summarize the corresponding tendencies and challenges in IR and VI image fusion. This survey concludes that although various IR and VI image fusion methods have been proposed, there still exist further improvements or potential research directions in different applications of IR and VI image fusion.

  4. Survey of visual impairment in an Indian tertiary eye hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herse Peter

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective survey of 4, 122 consecutive patient records was performed in a tertiary care eye hospital in Hyderabad, India. Data collected included age, gender, visual acuity after completion of treatment and diagnosis. 62.8% of the patients were male. After completion of treatment, 10.8% had low vision (best corrected visual acuity <6/18 to 3/60 in the better eye and 2.6% were blind (best correct visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye. Most cases of low vision were found in the 50 to 70 year age group (42.9%. The most common visual acuity range after treatment amongst patients with vision loss was <6/18 to 6/60 (71%. The 4 main causes of low vision were cataract (21.4% of low vision group, glaucoma (14.0%, diabetic retinopathy (13.0%, and retinitis pigmentosa (10.7%. The 4 main causes of blindness were glaucoma (16.3% of blind group, diabetic retinopathy (13.2%, corneal opacities (11.6% and retinitis pigmentosa (11.6%. It is suggested that patients with low vision at the conclusion of treatment be referred to a vision rehabilitation centre. Referral should be made in cases with a best corrected visual acuity <6/18 to 3/60 or with visual field loss to within 15° of fixation. Patients aged under 50 years of age are expected to achieve maximal rehabilitation success. Motivation and vocational requirements should be assessed in older or more complex cases before referral. The data of this study show that about 10% of patients seen at a tertiary care eye hospital in India could benefit from low vision rehabilitation.

  5. Simulator of the punctual kinetics of a TRIGA Mark III reactor with power diffuse control in a visual environment; Simulador de la cinetica puntual de un reactor nuclear TRIGA Mark III con control difuso de potencia en un ambiente visual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez M, C

    2004-07-01

    The development of a software is presented that simulates the punctual kinetics of a nuclear reactor of investigation model TRIGA Mark III, generating the answers of the reactor low different algorithms of control of power. The user requires a graphic interface that allows him easily interacting with the simulator. To achieve the proposed objective, first the system was modeled in open loop, not using a mathematical model of the consistent reactor in a system of linear ordinary differential equations. For their solution in real time the numeric method of Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg was used. As second phase, it was modeled to the system in closed loop, using for it an algorithm of control of the power based on fuzzy logic. This software has as purpose to help the investigator in the control area who will be able to prove different algorithms for the control of the power of the reactor. This is achieved using the code source in language C, C++, Visual Basic, with which a file is generated. DLL and it is inserted in the simulator. Then they will be able to visualize the results as if their controller had installed in the reactor, analyzing the behavior of all his variables that will be stored in files, for his later study. The easiness of proving these control algorithms in the reactor without necessity to make it physically has important consequences as the saving in the expense of fuel, the not generation of radioactive waste and the most important thing, one doesn't run any risk. The simulator can be used how many times it is necessary until the total purification of the algorithm. This program is the base for following investigation processes, enlarging the capacities and options of the same one. The program fulfills the time of execution satisfactorily, assisting to the necessity of visualizing the behavior in real time of the reactor, and it responds from an effective way to the petitions of changes of power on the part of the user. (Author)

  6. Visualization-based analysis of multiple response survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Anastasiia

    2017-11-01

    During the survey, the respondents are often allowed to tick more than one answer option for a question. Analysis and visualization of such data have difficulties because of the need for processing multiple response variables. With standard representation such as pie and bar charts, information about the association between different answer options is lost. The author proposes a visualization approach for multiple response variables based on Venn diagrams. For a more informative representation with a large number of overlapping groups it is suggested to use similarity and association matrices. Some aggregate indicators of dissimilarity (similarity) are proposed based on the determinant of the similarity matrix and the maximum eigenvalue of association matrix. The application of the proposed approaches is well illustrated by the example of the analysis of advertising sources. Intersection of sets indicates that the same consumer audience is covered by several advertising sources. This information is very important for the allocation of the advertising budget. The differences between target groups in advertising sources are of interest. To identify such differences the hypothesis of homogeneity and independence are tested. Recent approach to the problem are briefly reviewed and compared. An alternative procedure is suggested. It is based on partition of a consumer audience into pairwise disjoint subsets and includes hypothesis testing of the difference between the population proportions. It turned out to be more suitable for the real problem being solved.

  7. Sleep Disturbances among Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: Survey of Dog Guide Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, Massoud K.; Moseley, Merrick J.; Jones, Helen S.; Tobin, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A survey completed by 1237 adults with severe visual impairments found that 20% described the quality of their sleep as poor or very poor. Exercise was associated with better sleep and depression with poorer sleep. However, visual acuity did not predict sleep quality, casting doubt on the idea that restricted visual input (light) causes sleep…

  8. A survey of visualization systems for network security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiravi, Hadi; Shiravi, Ali; Ghorbani, Ali A

    2012-08-01

    Security Visualization is a very young term. It expresses the idea that common visualization techniques have been designed for use cases that are not supportive of security-related data, demanding novel techniques fine tuned for the purpose of thorough analysis. Significant amount of work has been published in this area, but little work has been done to study this emerging visualization discipline. We offer a comprehensive review of network security visualization and provide a taxonomy in the form of five use-case classes encompassing nearly all recent works in this area. We outline the incorporated visualization techniques and data sources and provide an informative table to display our findings. From the analysis of these systems, we examine issues and concerns regarding network security visualization and provide guidelines and directions for future researchers and visual system developers.

  9. A Survey on Sensor Coverage and Visual Data Capturing/Processing/Transmission in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence G. H. Yap

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs where camera-equipped sensor nodes can capture, process and transmit image/video information have become an important new research area. As compared to the traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs that can only transmit scalar information (e.g., temperature, the visual data in WVSNs enable much wider applications, such as visual security surveillance and visual wildlife monitoring. However, as compared to the scalar data in WSNs, visual data is much bigger and more complicated so intelligent schemes are required to capture/process/ transmit visual data in limited resources (hardware capability and bandwidth WVSNs. WVSNs introduce new multi-disciplinary research opportunities of topics that include visual sensor hardware, image and multimedia capture and processing, wireless communication and networking. In this paper, we survey existing research efforts on the visual sensor hardware, visual sensor coverage/deployment, and visual data capture/ processing/transmission issues in WVSNs. We conclude that WVSN research is still in an early age and there are still many open issues that have not been fully addressed. More new novel multi-disciplinary, cross-layered, distributed and collaborative solutions should be devised to tackle these challenging issues in WVSNs.

  10. [Epidemiological survey of visual impairment in Funing County, Jiangsu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Zhang, J F; Zhu, R R; Kang, L H; Qin, B; Guan, H J

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of visual impairment and factors associated with visual impairment among people aged 50 years and above in Funing County, Jiangsu Province. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Random cluster sampling was used in selecting individuals aged ≥50 years in 30 clusters, and 5 947 individuals received visual acuity testing and eye examination. Stata 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. Multivariate logistic regression was used to detect possible factors of visual impairment such as age, gender and education. Statistical significance was defined as Pvisual impairment classification and presenting visual acuity, 138 persons were diagnosed as blindness, and 1 405 persons were diagnosed as low vision. The prevalence of blindness and low vision was 2.32% and 23.63%, respectively. And the prevalence of visual impairment was 25.95%. Based on the criteria of WHO visual impairment classification and best-corrected visual acuity, 92 persons were diagnosed as blindness, and 383 persons were diagnosed as low vision. The prevalence of blindness and low vision was 1.55% and 6.44%, respectively. And the prevalence of visual impairment was 7.99%. Concerning presenting visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity, the prevalence of blindness and low vision was higher in old people, females and less educated persons. Cataract (46.63%) was the leading cause of blindness. Uncorrected refractive error (36.51%) was also a main cause of visual impairment. Conclusion: The prevalence of visual impairment is higher in old people, females and less educated persons in Funing County, Jiangsu Province. Cataract is still the leading cause of visual impairment. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 502-508).

  11. A survey of radial methods for information visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Geoffrey M; Livnat, Yarden; Riesenfeld, Richard F

    2009-01-01

    Radial visualization, or the practice of displaying data in a circular or elliptical pattern, is an increasingly common technique in information visualization research. In spite of its prevalence, little work has been done to study this visualization paradigm as a methodology in its own right. We provide a historical review of radial visualization, tracing it to its roots in centuries-old statistical graphics. We then identify the types of problem domains to which modern radial visualization techniques have been applied. A taxonomy for radial visualization is proposed in the form of seven design patterns encompassing nearly all recent works in this area. From an analysis of these patterns, we distill a series of design considerations that system builders can use to create new visualizations that address aspects of the design space that have not yet been explored. It is hoped that our taxonomy will provide a framework for facilitating discourse among researchers and stimulate the development of additional theories and systems involving radial visualization as a distinct design metaphor.

  12. Trends in interactive visualization state-of-the-art survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xindong

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of Interactive Visualization is to develop scientific methods to increase scientists'' abilities to explore data and to understand better the results of experiments based on extensive calculations. This book provides readers with insight in Interactive Visualization from various perspectives, representing the developments in the field.

  13. Hallucinations in visually impaired individuals: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Kingdon, David

    2009-02-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is by complex visual hallucinations and ocular pathology causing vision loss. It has been considered that CBS occurs frequently in elderly visually handicapped patients and the hallucinations are limited to the visual modality. Three hypotheses we examined were: (1) whether visual impairments are associated with visual hallucinations (2) whether visual impairments are associated with auditory hallucinations (3) whether the development of visual and auditory hallucinations in patients with visual impairments is associated with age. Data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) in the United States were used to examine whether associations between visual impairments and visual hallucinations can be found in the general population, and whether such influences of visual impairments are limited to the visual modality and to specific age groups. Prevalence of visual and auditory hallucinations in respondents with visual impairments were 12.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=3.4-22.2%) and 7.1% (95%CI=2.6-11.6%) respectively. Although the point estimates were substantive, the odds ratios between visual impairments and existence of visual hallucinations or auditory hallucinations were not statistically significant (odds ratio (OR)=2.43, 95%CI=0.92-6.44, P=0.07 and OR=2.16, 95%CI=0.87-5.33, P=0.10, respectively) in the whole sample. Association between visual impairments and visual hallucination was significant (OR=3.09, 95%CI=1.06-8.99, Phallucinations in a younger age group (age group 18-39, OR=13.25, 95%CI=2.99-58.75, Phallucinations. In patients with visual impairments, the presence of visual hallucinations was associated with an age over 60, while the existence of auditory hallucinations was associated with an age under 39.

  14. Trends in visual acuity impairment in US adults: the 1986-1995 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David J; Gómez-Marín, Orlando; Lam, Byron L; Zheng, D Diane; Jané, Dulce M

    2004-04-01

    To assess 10-year trends in reported visual impairment. The National Health Interview Survey is a continuous multistage area probability survey of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population living at addressed dwellings. Adults within randomly selected households were administered a chronic conditions list that included questions about visual impairment. Proxy information on these conditions was obtained when household members were unavailable for interview. Complete data were available on 132 860 adults 18 years or older in survey years 1986 to 1995. Prevalence rates were adjusted for age and sample survey design. Annual age-adjusted rates of some visual impairment ranged from 3.6% to 4.6%. Rates of severe bilateral visual impairment ranged from 0.2% to 0.4%. There was some evidence for increasing rates of visual impairment among younger adults 18 to 39 years of age (annual increase, 0.03%; P =.03). However, there were no significant changes in reported visual impairment rates in older adults stratified into 10-year age groups. Data from the National Health Interview Survey provide no evidence that reported visual impairment rates are declining in the US noninstitutionalized population from 1986 to 1995. Additional treatment advances, greater use of existing treatments, including correcting refractive errors, and further reductions in risk factors for disabling eye diseases may be necessary before population-level reductions in visual impairment rates can be achieved.

  15. [Survey on avoidable blindness and visual impairment in Panama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maritza; Brea, Ileana; Yee, Rita; Yi, Rodolfo; Carles, Víctor; Broce, Alberto; Limburg, Hans; Silva, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Determine prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in adults aged ≥ 50 years in Panama, identify their main causes, and characterize eye health services. Cross-sectional population study using standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology. Fifty people aged ≥ 50 years were selected from each of 84 clusters chosen through representative random sampling of the entire country. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen chart; lens and posterior pole status were assessed by direct ophthalmoscopy. Cataract surgery coverage was calculated and its quality assessed, along with causes of visual acuity Panama is in line with average prevalence found in other countries of the Region. This problem can be reduced, since 76.2% of cases of blindness and 85.0% of cases of severe visual impairment result from avoidable causes.

  16. The Nigerian national blindness and visual impairment survey: Rationale, objectives and detailed methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, Brendan; Gilbert, Clare E; Rabiu, Mansur; Kyari, Fatima; Mahdi, Abdull M; Abubakar, Tafida; Ezelum, Christian C; Gabriel, Entekume; Elhassan , Elizabeth; Abiose, Adenike; Faal, Hannah; Jiya, Jonathan Y; Ozemela, Chinenyem P; Lee, Pak Sang; Gudlavalleti, Murthy VS

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite having the largest population in Africa, Nigeria has no accurate population based data to plan and evaluate eye care services. A national survey was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and determine the major causes of blindness and low vision. This paper presents the detailed methodology used during the survey. Methods A nationally representative sample of persons aged 40 years and above was selected. Children aged 10–15 years and individuals aged measured followed by assessment of presenting visual acuity, refractokeratomery, A-scan ultrasonography, visual fields and best corrected visual acuity. Anterior and posterior segments of each eye were examined with a torch and direct ophthalmoscope. Participants with visual acuity of blindness in Nigeria. The survey would also provide information on barriers to accessing services, quality of life of visually impaired individuals and also provide normative data for Nigerian eyes. PMID:18808712

  17. Habitat Ecology Visual Surveys of Demersal Fishes and Habitats off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since 1992, the Habitat Ecology team has been conducting fishery independent, visual surveys of demersal fishes and associated habitats in deep water (20 to 900...

  18. A Survey of Visualization Tools Assessed for Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    domain to aid analysts’ tasks. The innovative tools accounted for in this survey includes Bloom Diagram, Circos , DocuBurst, NVIVO, PathFinder...screen; play animation over time. No monitoring or response capabilities. Circos http://mkweb.bcgsc.ca/template/ circos /$url_root /tableviewer...assessment for the following visualization need(s) for analysts’ tasks: • Visualization need “M2” may be accomplished by using visualization tools Circos

  19. A Survey of National Record Keeping Systems for Visually Handicapped Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert; Spungin, Susan Jay

    1977-01-01

    The American Foundation for the Blind survey on reporting systems for school-age visually handicapped children and youth concludes that there is no uniform retrieval system for educational, medical, or demographic information on blind and visually handicapped students. (Author/SBH)

  20. Stress Associated with Transportation: A Survey of Persons with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudden, Adele; Cmar, Jennifer L.; McDonnall, Michele C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluated transportation-related stress and factors predicting stress among persons with visual impairments. Methods: Participants with visual impairments completed electronic surveys rating their stress levels experienced when completing various walking and public transportation tasks. They also indicated activities they…

  1. [Evaluation of the central visual field by the Friedmann Mark I analyzer and color vision in 85 patients with multiple sclerosis. Correlation with visual evoked potentials in 50 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowicki, M; Vighetto, A

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of the visual field using Friedmann's analyser Mark I and color study in 85 multiple sclerosis patients. Static perimetry of the central visual field and test batteries (Ishihara plates, 15 Hue Standard, 15 Hue of Lanthony) for acquired color vision defects were performed in 85 multiple sclerosis patients (61 definite, 12 probable, 12 possible cases). Results in patients were compared to data obtained in 53 control subjects matched for age. 64% of the 85 patients and 52% of 48 patients with no history of optic nevritis showed visual field abnormalities and/or color vision defects. Comparison with VEP was available in 50 patients. While 10 patients had abnormal VEP and normal static perimetry and coloration tests, 5 patients had the reverse findings.

  2. Visual aids for aerial observers on forest insect surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.T. Larsen

    1957-01-01

    Aerial surveys are widely used to detect, appraise, and map damage caused to forest trees by insects. The success of these surveys largely depends upon the ability of observers to distinguish differences in foliage color and tree condition. The observers' ability is influenced by several factors.

  3. Visualization Techniques for Electrical Grid Smart Metering Data: A Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Maria; Lopez, Jose Manuel Guterrez Lopez; Andreasen, Morten Henius

    2017-01-01

    One of the considerable initiatives towards creating a smart society could be the guarantee of a smart, resilient and reliable power grid. As an attempt to improve the electricity supply service, it would be meaningful for the distributed system operators (DSOs) to be able to monitor the current...... constitute the baseline for bringing improvements to the power grid. This paper presents an approach to build an efficient visualization system so that the extracted smart meters information can be used in a meaningful manner. An overview of the use cases related to the visualization features is first...... status of the grid. The prediction of future possible critical situations would then be feasible using the available information, whereas, based on historical data, further grid expansion and reinforcement may be planned. A proper presentation and visualization of the near-real time metering data may...

  4. Extracting Semantic Information from Visual Data: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional environment maps built by mobile robots include both metric ones and topological ones. These maps are navigation-oriented and not adequate for service robots to interact with or serve human users who normally rely on the conceptual knowledge or semantic contents of the environment. Therefore, the construction of semantic maps becomes necessary for building an effective human-robot interface for service robots. This paper reviews recent research and development in the field of visual-based semantic mapping. The main focus is placed on how to extract semantic information from visual data in terms of feature extraction, object/place recognition and semantic representation methods.

  5. Use of Microsoft HoloLens to survey and visualize buried networks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Survey and positioning of buried infrastructure networks are crucial issues for their maintenance and a starting point for every new Civil Engineering project. 3DCity is a research & development project which consists in a development of software providing a method for quick underground pipe networks surveying and holographic visualization, by using Microsoft HoloLens devices.

  6. A Survey on Hardware Implementations of Visual Object Trackers

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shafie, Al-Hussein A.; Habib, S. E. D.

    2017-01-01

    Visual object tracking is an active topic in the computer vision domain with applications extending over numerous fields. The main sub-tasks required to build an object tracker (e.g. object detection, feature extraction and object tracking) are computation-intensive. In addition, real-time operation of the tracker is indispensable for almost all of its applications. Therefore, complete hardware or hardware/software co-design approaches are pursued for better tracker implementations. This pape...

  7. Development of the user interface for visualization of the auxiliary systems of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor; Desarrollo de la interface de usuario para la visualizacion de los sistemas auxiliares del reactor nuclear Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merced D, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) has a nuclear research reactor type swimming pool with movable core cooled and moderate with light water. The nominal maximum power of the reactor is 1 MW in steady-state operation and can be pulsed at a maximum power of 2,000 MW for approximately 10 milliseconds. This reactor is mainly used to study the effects of radiation on various materials and substances. In 2001 the new control console of the nuclear reactor was installed which was based on two digital computers, one computer controls the bar management mechanisms and the other the systems to the reactor operator. In 2004, the control computer was replaced and the software was updated. Within the modernization and/or updating of the TRIGA Mark III reactor of ININ, is intended (theme of this work) to develop the user interface for the visualization of the auxiliary systems, through a Man-Machine Interface module for the renewal process of the control console. The man-machine interface system to be developed will have communication with the programmable logic controllers that will be constantly monitored and controlled to obtain real-time variables of the reactor behavior. (Author)

  8. Direct visualization of endogenous Salmonella-specific B cells reveals a marked delay in clonal expansion and germinal center development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanton, Minelva R; Lee, Seung-Joo; Atif, Shaikh M; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Taylor, Justin J; Bäumler, Andreas J; Way, Sing Sing; McSorley, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    CD4(+) T cells and B cells are both essential for acquired immunity to Salmonella infection. It is well established that Salmonella inhibit host CD4(+) T-cell responses, but a corresponding inhibitory effect on B cells is less well defined. Here, we utilize an Ag tetramer and pull-down enrichment strategy to directly visualize OVA-specific B cells in mice, as they respond to infection with Salmonella-OVA. Surprisingly, OVA-specific B-cell expansion and germinal center formation was not detected until bacteria were cleared from the host. Furthermore, Salmonella infection also actively inhibited both B- and T-cell responses to the same coinjected Ag but this did not require the presence of iNOS. The Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) locus has been shown to be responsible for inhibition of Salmonella-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses, and an examination of SPI2-deficient bacteria demonstrated a recovery in B-cell expansion in infected mice. Together, these data suggest that Salmonella can simultaneously inhibit host B- and T-cell responses using SPI2-dependent mechanisms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge & the Delair Division of the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish and sediments were collected from Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge (Clarence Cannon) and the Delair Division, both of the Mark Twain National Wildlife...

  10. Analyzing Living Surveys : Visualization Beyond the Data Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buddelmeijer, H.; Noorishad, P.; Williams, D.; Ivanova, M.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.; Valentijn, E. A.; Taylor, A.R.; Rosolowski, E.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys need to provide more than periodic data releases. Science often requires data that is not captured in such releases. This mismatch between the constraints set by a fixed data release and the needs of the scientists is solved in the Astro-WISE information system by extending its

  11. Real-Time Visualization System for Deep-Sea Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote robotic exploration holds vast potential for gaining knowledge about extreme environments, which is difficult to be accessed by humans. In the last two decades, various underwater devices were developed for detecting the mines and mine-like objects in the deep-sea environment. However, there are some problems in recent equipment, like poor accuracy of mineral objects detection, without real-time processing, and low resolution of underwater video frames. Consequently, the underwater objects recognition is a difficult task, because the physical properties of the medium, the captured video frames, are distorted seriously. In this paper, we are considering use of the modern image processing methods to determine the mineral location and to recognize the mineral actually within a little computation complex. We firstly analyze the recent underwater imaging models and propose a novel underwater optical imaging model, which is much closer to the light propagation model in the underwater environment. In our imaging system, we remove the electrical noise by dual-tree complex wavelet transform. And then we solve the nonuniform illumination of artificial lights by fast guided trilateral bilateral filter and recover the image color through automatic color equalization. Finally, a shape-based mineral recognition algorithm is proposed for underwater objects detection. These methods are designed for real-time execution on limited-memory platforms. This pipeline is suitable for detecting underwater objects in practice by our experiences. The initial results are presented and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed real-time visualization system.

  12. Prevalence, Causes and Social Factors of Visual Impairment among Chinese Adults: Based on a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Wang, Zhenjie; He, Ping; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2017-09-08

    Visual impairment has become a global challenge, especially for developing countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, causes and social factors of visual impairment among Chinese adults. Data were from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional study. The study population were 1,909,199 non-institutionalized adults aged 18 years and older in mainland China. In the survey, low vision and blindness were checked by ophthalmologists according to the WHO best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) criteria. Population weighted numbers and prevalence of low vision and blindness with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the social factors of visual impairment. The weighted prevalence of visual impairment was 17.17 (95% CI, 16.84-17.50) per 1000 Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Cataract (57.35%), disorders of choroid and retina (9.80%), and disorders of cornea (6.49%) contributed more than 70 percent to the visual impairment in Chinese adults. Older age groups, young or middle-aged male adults, female elders, illiterate, rural dwellers, non-eastern residents, singles, unemployment, and from family with lower income were associated with visual impairment. More efforts are warranted to enhance treatment and rehabilitation among people with eye disorders to prevent visual impairment.

  13. Prevalence, Causes and Social Factors of Visual Impairment among Chinese Adults: Based on a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Visual impairment has become a global challenge, especially for developing countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, causes and social factors of visual impairment among Chinese adults. Data were from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional study. The study population were 1,909,199 non-institutionalized adults aged 18 years and older in mainland China. In the survey, low vision and blindness were checked by ophthalmologists according to the WHO best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA criteria. Population weighted numbers and prevalence of low vision and blindness with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the social factors of visual impairment. The weighted prevalence of visual impairment was 17.17 (95% CI, 16.84–17.50 per 1000 Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Cataract (57.35%, disorders of choroid and retina (9.80%, and disorders of cornea (6.49% contributed more than 70 percent to the visual impairment in Chinese adults. Older age groups, young or middle-aged male adults, female elders, illiterate, rural dwellers, non-eastern residents, singles, unemployment, and from family with lower income were associated with visual impairment. More efforts are warranted to enhance treatment and rehabilitation among people with eye disorders to prevent visual impairment.

  14. Prevalence, Causes and Social Factors of Visual Impairment among Chinese Adults: Based on a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; He, Ping; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    Visual impairment has become a global challenge, especially for developing countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, causes and social factors of visual impairment among Chinese adults. Data were from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional study. The study population were 1,909,199 non-institutionalized adults aged 18 years and older in mainland China. In the survey, low vision and blindness were checked by ophthalmologists according to the WHO best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) criteria. Population weighted numbers and prevalence of low vision and blindness with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the social factors of visual impairment. The weighted prevalence of visual impairment was 17.17 (95% CI, 16.84–17.50) per 1000 Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Cataract (57.35%), disorders of choroid and retina (9.80%), and disorders of cornea (6.49%) contributed more than 70 percent to the visual impairment in Chinese adults. Older age groups, young or middle-aged male adults, female elders, illiterate, rural dwellers, non-eastern residents, singles, unemployment, and from family with lower income were associated with visual impairment. More efforts are warranted to enhance treatment and rehabilitation among people with eye disorders to prevent visual impairment. PMID:28885571

  15. A visual and acoustic survey for harbour porpoises off North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in southern Europe and along the Atlantic African coast is poorly understood, with tentative assessments suggesting a discrete West African population with a northern limit around the Straits of Gibraltar. This study describes visual and acoustic surveys for porpoises ...

  16. A Survey of Successful Evaluations of Program Visualization and Algorithm Animation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Fuentes, Jaime; Velazquez-Iturbide, J. Angel

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews successful educational experiences in using program and algorithm visualizations (PAVs). First, we survey a total of 18 PAV systems that were subject to 33 evaluations. We found that half of the systems have only been tested for usability, and those were shallow inspections. The rest were evaluated with respect to their…

  17. Estimating occupancy of rare fishes using visual surveys, with a comparison to backpack electrofishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albanese, Brett; Owers, Katharine A.; Weiler, Deborah A.; Pruitt, William

    There is an ongoing need to monitor the status of imperiled fishes in the southeastern United States using effective methods. Visual surveys minimize harm to target species, but few studies have specifically examined their effectiveness compared to other methods or accounted for imperfect species

  18. The Nigerian national blindness and visual impairment survey: Rationale, objectives and detailed methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, Brendan; Gilbert, Clare E; Rabiu, Mansur; Kyari, Fatima; Mahdi, Abdull M; Abubakar, Tafida; Ezelum, Christian C; Gabriel, Entekume; Elhassan, Elizabeth; Abiose, Adenike; Faal, Hannah; Jiya, Jonathan Y; Ozemela, Chinenyem P; Lee, Pak Sang; Gudlavalleti, Murthy V S

    2008-09-22

    Despite having the largest population in Africa, Nigeria has no accurate population based data to plan and evaluate eye care services. A national survey was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and determine the major causes of blindness and low vision. This paper presents the detailed methodology used during the survey. A nationally representative sample of persons aged 40 years and above was selected. Children aged 10-15 years and individuals aged blindness in Nigeria. The survey would also provide information on barriers to accessing services, quality of life of visually impaired individuals and also provide normative data for Nigerian eyes.

  19. Building Envelope Thermal Performance Assessment Using Visual Programming and BIM, based on ETTV requirement of Green Mark and GreenRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taki Eddine Seghier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accomplishment of green building design requirements and the achievement of the targeted credit points under a specific green rating system are known to be a task that is very challenging. Building Information Modeling (BIM design process and tools have already made considerable advancements in green building design and performance analysis. However, Green building design process is still lack of tools and workflows that can provide real-time feedback of building sustainability and rating during the design stage. In this paper, a new workflow of green building design assessment and rating is proposed based on the integration of Visual Programing Language (VPL and BIM. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a BIM-VPL based tool for building envelope design and assessment support. The focus performance metric in this research is building Envelope Thermal Transfer Value (ETTV which is an Energy Efficiency (EE prerequisite requirement (up to 15 credits in both Green Mark and GreenRE rating systems. The development of the tool begins first by creating a generic integration framework between BIM-VPL functionalities and ETTV requirements. Then, data is extracted from the BIM 3D model and managed using Revit, Excel and Dynamo for visual scripting. A sample project consisting of a hypothetical residential building is run and its envelope ETTV performance and rating score are obtained for the validation of the tool. This tool will support project team in building envelope design and assessment by allowing them to select the most appropriate façade configuration according to its performance efficiency and the green rating. Furthermore, this tool serves as proof of concept that building sustainability rating and compliance checking can be automatically processed through customized workflows developed based on BIM and VPL technologies.

  20. To see or not to see: investigating detectability of Ganges River dolphins using a combined visual-acoustic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Nadia I; Gibbons, James M; Turvey, Samuel T; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ahmed, Benazir; Mahabub, Emile; Smith, Brian D; Jones, Julia P G

    2014-01-01

    Detection of animals during visual surveys is rarely perfect or constant, and failure to account for imperfect detectability affects the accuracy of abundance estimates. Freshwater cetaceans are among the most threatened group of mammals, and visual surveys are a commonly employed method for estimating population size despite concerns over imperfect and unquantified detectability. We used a combined visual-acoustic survey to estimate detectability of Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in four waterways of southern Bangladesh. The combined visual-acoustic survey resulted in consistently higher detectability than a single observer-team visual survey, thereby improving power to detect trends. Visual detectability was particularly low for dolphins close to meanders where these habitat features temporarily block the view of the preceding river surface. This systematic bias in detectability during visual-only surveys may lead researchers to underestimate the importance of heavily meandering river reaches. Although the benefits of acoustic surveys are increasingly recognised for marine cetaceans, they have not been widely used for monitoring abundance of freshwater cetaceans due to perceived costs and technical skill requirements. We show that acoustic surveys are in fact a relatively cost-effective approach for surveying freshwater cetaceans, once it is acknowledged that methods that do not account for imperfect detectability are of limited value for monitoring.

  1. Collaborative visual analytics of radio surveys in the Big Data era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohl, Dany; Fluke, Christopher J.; Hassan, Amr H.; Barnes, David G.; Kilborn, Virginia A.

    2017-06-01

    Radio survey datasets comprise an increasing number of individual observations stored as sets of multidimensional data. In large survey projects, astronomers commonly face limitations regarding: 1) interactive visual analytics of sufficiently large subsets of data; 2) synchronous and asynchronous collaboration; and 3) documentation of the discovery workflow. To support collaborative data inquiry, we present encube, a large-scale comparative visual analytics framework. encube can utilise advanced visualization environments such as the CAVE2 (a hybrid 2D and 3D virtual reality environment powered with a 100 Tflop/s GPU-based supercomputer and 84 million pixels) for collaborative analysis of large subsets of data from radio surveys. It can also run on standard desktops, providing a capable visual analytics experience across the display ecology. encube is composed of four primary units enabling compute-intensive processing, advanced visualisation, dynamic interaction, parallel data query, along with data management. Its modularity will make it simple to incorporate astronomical analysis packages and Virtual Observatory capabilities developed within our community. We discuss how encube builds a bridge between high-end display systems (such as CAVE2) and the classical desktop, preserving all traces of the work completed on either platform - allowing the research process to continue wherever you are.

  2. Stretch marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done. Tretinoin cream may help reduce stretch marks. Laser treatment may also help. In very rare cases, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  3. Feasibility and reliability of a mailed questionnaire to obtain visual analogue scale valuations for health states defined by the Health Utilities Index Mark 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raat, Hein; Bonsel, Gouke J; Hoogeveen, W Christina; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2004-01-01

    To establish the generalizability (external validity) of the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) as a single-summary score generic outcome measure in numerous countries/subgroups (including children), repeated studies of community preferences should be performed in various settings. In performing multiple HUI3 studies, a mailed questionnaire approach, if feasible and reliable, might be substituted for oral interviews. In the present study, we assessed the feasibility and reliability of a mailed questionnaire approach originally developed for the EQ-5D, for the purpose of collecting Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) valuations from parents as surrogate responders for 65 pediatric HUI3 health states and for the state of being dead. Untransformed mean VAS scores of the health states and scores converted into preliminary Standard Gamble (SG)-utilities were compared with Canadian and French multiattribute utility estimates. A random sample of 1920 parents of schoolchildren (aged 4 to 13) received a mailed questionnaire. Each parent was asked to rate 6 HUI3 health states on a 0 to 100 VAS. Response was 70%. Mean completion time was 20 minutes (SD 9). The questionnaire was rated difficult by only 9%. The current format was, however, inappropriate for valuing the state of being dead. Interrater reliability of health state valuations was.87. Spearman's rank correlations, Pearson-R correlations and intra class correlation coefficients (ICCs) between untransformed VAS valuations and Canadian/French utility estimates were > or =.87. However, preliminary SG-utilities showed diminished ICCs (.71 to.72). The data support the feasibility and reliability of mailed HUI3 valuation questionnaires to a considerable extent, but further methodological studies regarding other formats and different populations are recommended.

  4. On denture marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrman, H I; DiZinno, J A; Wasén, J; René, N

    1999-06-01

    During the last decades in Sweden dentures have been permanently marked with a stainless steel metal band incorporated into the acrylic and containing the patient's birth date, a special number, and "S" for Sweden. The last recommendation issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare states that "the patients shall always be offered denture marking and be informed about the benefit thereof. Denture marking is not permitted if the patient refuses it". Requirements for denture markers have been that they should be biologically inert (when incorporated into the denture), not be expensive, be easy to inscribe, be possible to retrieve after an accident, and survive elevated temperatures for a reasonable time under normal circumstances. Although the frequency of edentulousness has decreased in recent years due to the improvement in oral health there remains a need to address the issue of marking of complete dentures, because there is a large variation in the oral status of populations in different countries. Given that only one marked denture can reveal the identity of a deceased person when all other methods fail to do so, makes it worthwhile. Furthermore, denture marking is important in long-term care facilities. We have investigated the issue of denture marking in Europe and in the United States. The results from the European survey show that denture marking is, to our knowledge regulated by law only in Sweden and Iceland. In the US denture marking is so far mandatory in 21 states while New York State requires dentures to be marked if the patient requests it and several other states impose the obligation to mark dentures on long-term care facilities. Since there is no international consensus regarding the issue of denture marking it is important to address it. A survey from the Nordic countries has shown that if denture marking was in general use, the contribution to the establishment of identity by forensic odontology in cases of fire would increase by about 10

  5. Visual experience is not necessary for efficient survey spatial cognition: evidence from blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Carla; Adenzato, Mauro; Tamietto, Marco; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2006-07-01

    This study investigated whether the lack of visual experience affects the ability to create spatial inferential representations of the survey type. We compared the performance of persons with congenital blindness and that of blindfolded sighted persons on four survey representation-based tasks (Experiment 1). Results showed that persons with blindness performed better than blindfolded sighted controls. We repeated the same tests introducing a third group of persons with late blindness (Experiment 2). This last group performed better than blindfolded sighted participants, whereas differences between participants with late and congenital blindness were nonsignificant. The present findings are compatible with results of other studies, which found that when visual perception is lacking, skill in gathering environmental spatial information provided by nonvisual modalities may contribute to a proper spatial encoding. It is concluded that, although it cannot be asserted that total lack of visual experience incurs no cost, our findings are further evidence that visual experience is not a necessary condition for the development of spatial inferential complex representations.

  6. Visualizing the qualitative: making sense of written comments from an evaluative satisfaction survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith V. Bletzer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Satisfaction surveys are common in the field of health education, as a means of assisting organizations to improve the appropriateness of training materials and the effectiveness of facilitation-presentation. Data can be qualitative of which analysis often become specialized. This technical article aims to reveal whether qualitative survey results can be visualized by presenting them as a Word Cloud. Methods: Qualitative materials in the form of written comments on an agency-specific satisfaction survey were coded and quantified. The resulting quantitative data were used to convert comments into “input terms” to generate Word Clouds to increase comprehension and accessibility through visualization of the written responses. Results: A three-tier display incorporated a Word Cloud at the top, followed by the corresponding frequency table, and a textual summary of the qualitative data represented by the Word Cloud imagery. This mixed format adheres to recognition that people vary in what format is most effective for assimilating new information. Conclusion: The combination of visual representation through Word Clouds complemented by quantified qualitative materials is one means of increasing comprehensibility for a range of stakeholders, who might not be familiar with numerical tables or statistical analyses.

  7. Comorbid Visual and Psychiatric Disabilities Among the Chinese Elderly: A National Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Wang, Zhenjie; Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of, and association between, co-morbid visual and psychiatric disabilities among elderly (>65 years-of-age) persons in China. Random representative samples were obtained using multistage, stratified, cluster sampling, with probabilities proportional to size. Standard weighting procedures were used to construct sample weights that reflected this multistage, stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Logistic regression models were used to elucidate associations between visual and psychiatric disabilities. Among the Chinese elderly, >160,000 persons have co-morbid visual and psychiatric disabilities. The weighted prevalence among this cohort is 123.7 per 100,000 persons. A higher prevalence of co-morbid visual and psychiatric disabilities was found in the oldest-old (pvisual disability was significantly associated with a higher risk of having a psychiatric disability among persons aged ≥80 years-of-age [adjusted odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.54]. A significant number of Chinese elderly persons were living with co-morbid visual and psychiatric disabilities. To address the challenge of these co-morbid disorders among Chinese elders, it is incumbent upon the government to implement additional and more comprehensive prevention and rehabilitation strategies for health-care systems, reinforce health promotion among the elderly, and improve accessibility to health-care services.

  8. A survey of visual analytics for knowledge discovery and content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2012-06-01

    This survey paper provides a review of tools and concepts of visual analytics, and the challenges faced by researchers developing application for knowledge discovery. A comparison is made based on analytic features, its ability to categorize data, the modeling procedures, visual representation, interoperability, and its reliability and portability. The issues related to heterogeneous data, its scalability and multi-dimensionality is also explored. An efficient, intelligent, interactive and robust visual analytics system allows the discovery of information hidden in a massive and dynamic volume of data, especially in a surveillance system thus creating an effective situation awareness of the environment. While visual analytics is hugely important in knowledge discovery, it is necessary for developers to avoid information overload due to inappropriate, irrelevant and uncertain data due to random or fuzzy sensor inputs, also known as noise. The discovered knowledge is the basis for adaptive situation awareness, as it often provides information beyond the perception of human cognitive mind. The tools and concepts researched for this article includes addressing the human computer interaction aspect for intelligent, adaptive decision making from multiple information resources. An attempt is made in this paper to combine the strengths of smart search and data analysis with visual perception and interactive analysis capability of the user.

  9. Geodetic Control Points, Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level elevations have been determined., Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Control Points dataset current as of 1995. Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level...

  10. A Speckle survey of Southern Hipparcos Visual Doubles and Geneva-Copenhagen Spectroscopic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, R. A.; Tokovinin, A.; Horch, E.

    2018-01-01

    We present a speckle survey of Hipparcos visual doubles and spectroscopic binary stars identified by the Geneva-Copenhagen spectroscopic survey with the SOAR 4m telescope + HRCam. These systems represent our best chance to take advantage of Gaia parallaxes for the purpose of stellar mass determinations. Many of these systems already have mass fractions (although generally no spectroscopic orbit - an astrometric orbit will determine individual masses), metallicity information, and Hipparcos distances. They will be used to improve our knowledge of the mass-luminosity relation, particularly for lower-metallicity stars. Our survey will create the first all-sky, volume-limited, speckle archive for the two primary samples, complementing a similar effort that has been recently been completed at the WIYN 3.5-m telescope in the Northern Hemisphere. This extension to the Southern Hemisphere will fill out the picture for a wider metallicity range.

  11. A simple, fast, and repeatable survey method for underwater visual 3D benthic mapping and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Oscar; Friedman, Ariell; Bryson, Mitch; Williams, Stefan B; Madin, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    Visual 3D reconstruction techniques provide rich ecological and habitat structural information from underwater imagery. However, an unaided swimmer or diver struggles to navigate precisely over larger extents with consistent image overlap needed for visual reconstruction. While underwater robots have demonstrated systematic coverage of areas much larger than the footprint of a single image, access to suitable robotic systems is limited and requires specialized operators. Furthermore, robots are poor at navigating hydrodynamic habitats such as shallow coral reefs. We present a simple approach that constrains the motion of a swimmer using a line unwinding from a fixed central drum. The resulting motion is the involute of a circle, a spiral-like path with constant spacing between revolutions. We test this survey method at a broad range of habitats and hydrodynamic conditions encircling Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The approach generates fast, structured, repeatable, and large-extent surveys (~110 m2 in 15 min) that can be performed with two people and are superior to the commonly used "mow the lawn" method. The amount of image overlap is a design parameter, allowing for surveys that can then be reliably used in an automated processing pipeline to generate 3D reconstructions, orthographically projected mosaics, and structural complexity indices. The individual images or full mosaics can also be labeled for benthic diversity and cover estimates. The survey method we present can serve as a standard approach to repeatedly collecting underwater imagery for high-resolution 2D mosaics and 3D reconstructions covering spatial extents much larger than a single image footprint without requiring sophisticated robotic systems or lengthy deployment of visual guides. As such, it opens up cost-effective novel observations to inform studies relating habitat structure to ecological processes and biodiversity at scales and spatial resolutions not readily

  12. Depressive symptoms among the visually disabled in Wuhan: an epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenxue; Zhong, Baoliang; Liu, Xiujun; Huang, Xian'e; Dai, Xiaoyan; Hu, Qiongfang; Zhang, Huishi; Xu, Hanming

    2013-10-01

    There are no representative studies on the mental health status of persons with disabilities in China. Estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and identify the factors associated with depressive symptoms in a representative sample of individuals with serious visually disabilities in Wuhan, China. A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to identify 1200 visually disabled individuals from among the 22,000 persons with serious visual disabilities who were registered with the Wuhan Disabled Persons' Federation. Identified individuals were administered the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Short Scale for Chinese (EPQ-RSC) by trained interviewers. The adjusted prevalence of mild, moderate and severe depressive symptoms among the 1003 individuals who successfully completed the survey were 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]=5.7-11.8%), 15.6% (CI=12.8-18.5%) and 16.0% (CI=13.7-18.3%), respectively. Factors significantly associated with more severe depressive symptoms in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (in order of importance) were emotional instability (OR=5.84, CI=4.19-8.14), introverted personality (OR=2.94, CI=2.10-4.12), having religious beliefs (OR=2.03, CI=1.06-3.90), being blind (versus those who were only visually impaired) (OR=1.52, CI=1.09-1.95), being unmarried (OR=1.51, CI=1.06-2.15), and having limited education (OR=1.49, CI=1.06-2.10). Over one-third of all individuals with visual disabilities registered with the Disabled Persons' Federation in in Wuhan have clinically significant depressive symptoms. Almost none of these individuals receive treatment. Services for persons with serious visual disabilities - and for individuals with other types of serious physical or sensory disabilities - should include activities aimed at improving psychological wellbeing, periodic screening for psychological problems and, when needed, professional treatment for

  13. A Survey on Multimedia-Based Cross-Layer Optimization in Visual Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel G.; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2011-01-01

    Visual sensor networks (VSNs) comprised of battery-operated electronic devices endowed with low-resolution cameras have expanded the applicability of a series of monitoring applications. Those types of sensors are interconnected by ad hoc error-prone wireless links, imposing stringent restrictions on available bandwidth, end-to-end delay and packet error rates. In such context, multimedia coding is required for data compression and error-resilience, also ensuring energy preservation over the path(s) toward the sink and improving the end-to-end perceptual quality of the received media. Cross-layer optimization may enhance the expected efficiency of VSNs applications, disrupting the conventional information flow of the protocol layers. When the inner characteristics of the multimedia coding techniques are exploited by cross-layer protocols and architectures, higher efficiency may be obtained in visual sensor networks. This paper surveys recent research on multimedia-based cross-layer optimization, presenting the proposed strategies and mechanisms for transmission rate adjustment, congestion control, multipath selection, energy preservation and error recovery. We note that many multimedia-based cross-layer optimization solutions have been proposed in recent years, each one bringing a wealth of contributions to visual sensor networks. PMID:22163908

  14. Feasibility and reliability of a mailed questionnaire to obtain visual analogue scale valuations for health states defined by the health utilities index mark 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, H.; Bonsel, G.J.; Hoogeveen, W.C.; Essink-Bot, M.L.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Moll, H.A.; Suijlekom van-Smit, L.W.A.; Verrips, E.

    2004-01-01

    To establish the generalizability (external validity) of the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) as a single-summary score generic outcome measure in numerous countries/subgroups (including children), repeated studies of community preferences should be performed in various settings. In performing

  15. The visualization of large organized chromatin domains enriched in the H3K9me2 mark within a single chromosome in a single cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Yammine, S.; Shi, C.; Tark-Dame, M.; Göndör, A.; Ohlsson, R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts, our understanding of the organization of higher order chromatin conformations in single cells and how these relate to chromatin marks remains poor. We have earlier invented the Chromatin In Situ Proximity (ChrISP) technique to determine proximities between chromatin

  16. The Nigerian national blindness and visual impairment survey: Rationale, objectives and detailed methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiose Adenike

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having the largest population in Africa, Nigeria has no accurate population based data to plan and evaluate eye care services. A national survey was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and determine the major causes of blindness and low vision. This paper presents the detailed methodology used during the survey. Methods A nationally representative sample of persons aged 40 years and above was selected. Children aged 10–15 years and individuals aged Discussion The field work for the study was completed in 30 months over the period 2005–2007 and covered 305 clusters across the entire country. Concurrently persons 40+ years were examined to form a normative data base. Analysis of the data is currently underway. Conclusion The methodology used was robust and adequate to provide estimates on the prevalence and causes of blindness in Nigeria. The survey would also provide information on barriers to accessing services, quality of life of visually impaired individuals and also provide normative data for Nigerian eyes.

  17. Knowledge of patients’ visual experience during cataract surgery: a survey of eye doctors in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauqir Mohammad Zain

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several recent studies have recommended that ophthalmologists must be aware of the visual sensations (and their associated anxiety/fear experienced by patients undergoing cataract surgery. We assessed the knowledge of a group of eye doctors in Pakistan regarding these phenomena. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey. Eye doctors (ophthalmologists, residents and medical officers attending the Ophthalmological Society of Pakistan Annual Conference 2011, in Karachi were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to examine their knowledge of visual sensations and their associated anxiety/fear experienced by patients during cataract surgery. Simple frequencies and proportions were calculated to describe the data. Results A total of 150 ophthalmologists, residents and medical officers were invited to participate in the study. Of these, 68 (45.3% responded. The mean age (±SD of the participants was 42.9 (13.2 years. The proportion of participants who thought that patients could experience visual sensations during cataract surgery under regional anaesthesia was 89.7% and that under topical anaesthesia was 73.5%. The most frequently cited sensations included: light perception, changes in light brightness, movements, instruments and surgeon’s hands or fingers. The eye doctors estimated that 38.9% and 64.3% patients would see at least something during cataract surgery under regional anaesthesia and topical anaesthesia, respectively. They also believed that 24.2%-36.9% of patients may experience anxiety/fear as a result of visual sensations during such surgery. Approximately half of the eye doctors did not think that retained vision was a source of fear or anxiety for the patients. While most of them acknowledged the importance of preoperative counselling in helping to alleviate such fear/anxiety, the majority of them did not regularly counsel their patients on what to expect during

  18. Poverty and blindness in Pakistan: results from the Pakistan national blindness and visual impairment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Clare E; Shah, S P; Jadoon, M Z; Bourne, R; Dineen, B; Khan, M A; Johnson, G J; Khan, M D

    2008-01-05

    To explore the association between blindness and deprivation in a nationally representative sample of adults in Pakistan. Cross sectional population based survey. 221 rural and urban clusters selected randomly throughout Pakistan. Nationally representative sample of 16 507 adults aged 30 or above (95.3% response rate). Associations between visual impairment and poverty assessed by a cluster level deprivation index and a household level poverty indicator; prevalence and causes of blindness; measures of the rate of uptake and quality of eye care services. 561 blind participants (poverty in Pakistan; lower access to eye care services was one contributory factor. To reduce blindness, strategies targeting poor people will be needed. These interventions may have an impact on deprivation in Pakistan.

  19. Visual surveying platform for the automated detection of road surface distresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Thegaran; Joubert, Deon; Chiwewe, Tapiwa; Tyatyantsi, Ayanda; Rancati, Bruno; Mbizeni, Asanda

    2014-06-01

    Road distresses, such as potholes and edge cracks, are not only a source of frustration to drivers but also negatively impact the economy due to damage to motor vehicles and costly ro6ad repairs. Regular and rapid pavement inspection and maintenance is vital to preventing pothole formation and growth. To improve the efficiency of maintenance and reduce the cost thereof, the Visual Surveying Platform (VSP) is being developed that will automatically detect and analyse road distresses. The VSP consists of a vehicle mounted sensor system, consisting of a high speed camera and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, and an analysis and visualization software suite. The system extracts both a visual image and the coordinates of a detected road defect from recorded video and presents it in an interactive interface for use by technical experts and maintenance schedulers. The VSP automatically detects and classifies road distresses using a two-stage artificial neural network framework. Video frames first undergo hue, saturation and value (HSV) colour space conversion as well as a spatial frequency transformation before being used as inputs to the neural networks. A road detector neural network first classifies which section of the image contains the road, after which a distress detector neural network identifies those road regions containing defects. Although the VSP can be adapted to detect any type of road distress it has been trained to specifically detect potholes. An initial prototype of the VSP was designed and constructed. The prototype was also trained and tested on real-world data collected from provincial roads.

  20. A Survey on Visual Approaches for Analyzing Scientific Literature and Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Paolo; Heimerl, Florian; Koch, Steffen; Miksch, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    The increasingly large number of available writings describing technical and scientific progress, calls for advanced analytic tools for their efficient analysis. This is true for many application scenarios in science and industry and for different types of writings, comprising patents and scientific articles. Despite important differences between patents and scientific articles, both have a variety of common characteristics that lead to similar search and analysis tasks. However, the analysis and visualization of these documents is not a trivial task due to the complexity of the documents as well as the large number of possible relations between their multivariate attributes. In this survey, we review interactive analysis and visualization approaches of patents and scientific articles, ranging from exploration tools to sophisticated mining methods. In a bottom-up approach, we categorize them according to two aspects: (a) data type (text, citations, authors, metadata, and combinations thereof), and (b) task (finding and comparing single entities, seeking elementary relations, finding complex patterns, and in particular temporal patterns, and investigating connections between multiple behaviours). Finally, we identify challenges and research directions in this area that ask for future investigations.

  1. A survey of affect recognition methods: audio, visual, and spontaneous expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhihong; Pantic, Maja; Roisman, Glenn I; Huang, Thomas S

    2009-01-01

    Automated analysis of human affective behavior has attracted increasing attention from researchers in psychology, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, and related disciplines. However, the existing methods typically handle only deliberately displayed and exaggerated expressions of prototypical emotions despite the fact that deliberate behaviour differs in visual appearance, audio profile, and timing from spontaneously occurring behaviour. To address this problem, efforts to develop algorithms that can process naturally occurring human affective behaviour have recently emerged. Moreover, an increasing number of efforts are reported toward multimodal fusion for human affect analysis including audiovisual fusion, linguistic and paralinguistic fusion, and multi-cue visual fusion based on facial expressions, head movements, and body gestures. This paper introduces and surveys these recent advances. We first discuss human emotion perception from a psychological perspective. Next we examine available approaches to solving the problem of machine understanding of human affective behavior, and discuss important issues like the collection and availability of training and test data. We finally outline some of the scientific and engineering challenges to advancing human affect sensing technology.

  2. Vision health disparities in blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria: A review of the Nigerian National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinna F. Akano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blindness and visual impairment have become public health problems with prevalence increasing year after year. Nigeria, the most populated country in Africa, is also very diverse in terms of geographical location, ethnicity and culture. This study looks at and considers the vision health disparities in blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria using socio-demographic factors such as gender, geopolitical zones, place of residence and literacy.Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar databases from May 2014 to May 2015. The search included articles from 2001 to May 2015 as well as a review of the Nigerian National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.Results: The male dominance culture and lower literacy levels among women in Nigeria have led to a higher prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among women compared to men. In Nigeria, eye diseases that lead to blindness and visual impairment occur more in certain geopolitical zones and ecological regions than others. More Nigerians live in remote rural areas, with little or no access to health care, rather than in urban areas where there are more eye care practitioners and better facilities for care.Conclusion: Differences in gender, geopolitical zones, place of residence and literacy are responsible for existing vision health disparities in blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria.

  3. A survey of visually induced symptoms and associated factors in spectators of three dimensional stereoscopic movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, Angelo G; Mannocci, Alice; Di Thiene, Domitilla; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-09-13

    The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D) computer generated images has raised concern about image safety and possible side effects on population health.This study aims to (1) quantify the occurrence of visually induced symptoms suffered by the spectators during and after viewing a commercial 3D movie and (2) to assess individual and environmental factors associated to those symptoms. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using a paper based, self administered questionnaire. The questionnaire includes individual and movie characteristics and selected visually induced symptoms (tired eyes, double vision, headache, dizziness, nausea and palpitations). Symptoms were queried at 3 different times: during, right after and after 2 hours from the movie. We collected 953 questionnaires. In our sample, 539 (60.4%) individuals reported 1 or more symptoms during the movie, 392 (43.2%) right after and 139 (15.3%) at 2 hours from the movie. The most frequently reported symptoms were tired eyes (during the movie by 34.8%, right after by 24.0%, after 2 hours by 5.7% of individuals) and headache (during the movie by 13.7%, right after by 16.8%, after 2 hours by 8.3% of individuals). Individual history for frequent headache was associated with tired eyes (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.01-1.79), double vision (OR = 1.96; 95%CI = 1.13-3.41), headache (OR = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.41-3.10) during the movie and of headache after the movie (OR = 1.64; 95%CI = 1.16-2.32). Individual susceptibility to car sickness, dizziness, anxiety level, movie show time, animation 3D movie were also associated to several other symptoms. The high occurrence of visually induced symptoms resulting from this survey suggests the need of raising public awareness on possible discomfort that susceptible individuals may suffer during and after the vision of 3D movies.

  4. A survey of visually induced symptoms and associated factors in spectators of three dimensional stereoscopic movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimini Angelo G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D computer generated images has raised concern about image safety and possible side effects on population health. This study aims to (1 quantify the occurrence of visually induced symptoms suffered by the spectators during and after viewing a commercial 3D movie and (2 to assess individual and environmental factors associated to those symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out using a paper based, self administered questionnaire. The questionnaire includes individual and movie characteristics and selected visually induced symptoms (tired eyes, double vision, headache, dizziness, nausea and palpitations. Symptoms were queried at 3 different times: during, right after and after 2 hours from the movie. Results We collected 953 questionnaires. In our sample, 539 (60.4% individuals reported 1 or more symptoms during the movie, 392 (43.2% right after and 139 (15.3% at 2 hours from the movie. The most frequently reported symptoms were tired eyes (during the movie by 34.8%, right after by 24.0%, after 2 hours by 5.7% of individuals and headache (during the movie by 13.7%, right after by 16.8%, after 2 hours by 8.3% of individuals. Individual history for frequent headache was associated with tired eyes (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.01-1.79, double vision (OR = 1.96; 95%CI = 1.13-3.41, headache (OR = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.41-3.10 during the movie and of headache after the movie (OR = 1.64; 95%CI = 1.16-2.32. Individual susceptibility to car sickness, dizziness, anxiety level, movie show time, animation 3D movie were also associated to several other symptoms. Conclusions The high occurrence of visually induced symptoms resulting from this survey suggests the need of raising public awareness on possible discomfort that susceptible individuals may suffer during and after the vision of 3D movies.

  5. The role of visual and spatial working memory in forming mental models derived from survey and route descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Labate, Enia; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Hamilton, Colin; Gyselinck, Valérie

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the involvement of spatial and visual working memory (WM) in the construction of flexible spatial models derived from survey and route descriptions. Sixty young adults listened to environment descriptions, 30 from a survey perspective and the other 30 from a route perspective, while they performed spatial (spatial tapping [ST]) and visual (dynamic visual noise [DVN]) secondary tasks - believed to overload the spatial and visual working memory (WM) components, respectively - or no secondary task (control, C). Their mental representations of the environment were tested by free recall and a verification test with both route and survey statements. Results showed that, for both recall tasks, accuracy was worse in the ST than in the C or DVN conditions. In the verification test, the effect of both ST and DVN was a decreasing accuracy for sentences testing spatial relations from the opposite perspective to the one learnt than if the perspective was the same; only ST had a stronger interference effect than the C condition for sentences from the opposite perspective from the one learnt. Overall, these findings indicate that both visual and spatial WM, and especially the latter, are involved in the construction of perspective-flexible spatial models. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Using Route and Survey Information to Generate Cognitive Maps : Differences Between Normally Sighted and Visually Impaired Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.; Kooijman, Aart C.

    Visually impaired people (VIP) have to rely on different information to generate a cognitive map of their environment than normally sighted people. This study explored the extent to which a cognitive map could be generated by auditory information of route-type and survey-type descriptions of a

  7. Misleading population estimates: biases and consistency of visual surveys and matrix modelling in the endangered bearded vulture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Margalida

    Full Text Available Conservation strategies for long-lived vertebrates require accurate estimates of parameters relative to the populations' size, numbers of non-breeding individuals (the "cryptic" fraction of the population and the age structure. Frequently, visual survey techniques are used to make these estimates but the accuracy of these approaches is questionable, mainly because of the existence of numerous potential biases. Here we compare data on population trends and age structure in a bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus population from visual surveys performed at supplementary feeding stations with data derived from population matrix-modelling approximations. Our results suggest that visual surveys overestimate the number of immature (6 y.o. were underestimated in comparison with the predictions of a population model using a stable-age distribution. In addition, we found that visual surveys did not provide conclusive information on true variations in the size of the focal population. Our results suggest that although long-term studies (i.e. population matrix modelling based on capture-recapture procedures are a more time-consuming method, they provide more reliable and robust estimates of population parameters needed in designing and applying conservation strategies. The findings shown here are likely transferable to the management and conservation of other long-lived vertebrate populations that share similar life-history traits and ecological requirements.

  8. Laboratorial training of examiners for using a visual caries detection system in epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Moro, Bruna Lp; Lara, Juan S; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Guedes, Renata S; Haddad, Ana E; Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M

    2013-10-03

    In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). Regarding the reproducibility, the mean (range) of kappa values was 0.781 (0.529-0.927) for occlusal surfaces, 0.568 (0.191-0.881) for smooth surfaces, and 0.844 (0.698-0.971) for proximal surfaces. Considering all lesions, sensitivity and specificity mean values were respectively 0.724 and 0.844 for occlusal, 0.635 and 0.943 for smooth and 0.658 and 0.927 for proximal surfaces. For detecting advanced lesions, sensitivities and

  9. A simulation study of how simple mark-recapture methods can be combined with destructive subsampling to facilitate surveys of flying insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, G; Skovgård, H

    2012-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques are used for studies of animal populations. With only three sampling occasions, both Bailey's triple-catch (BTC) and Jolly—Seber's (J—S) stochastic method can be applied. As marking and handling of fragile organisms may harm them, and thereby affect their chances of being...... recaptured, handling should be minimized. This can be achieved by taking a subsample before the main sample at the second sampling occasion. Individuals in the main sample are marked and released, whereas those in the subsample are only used for identifying recaptures. Monte-Carlo simulation was used...

  10. Prevalence and burden of self-reported blindness, low vision, and visual impairment in the French community: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brézin, Antoine Pierre; Lafuma, Antoine; Fagnani, Francis; Mesbah, Mounir; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2005-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of self-reported visual impairment and its association with disabilities, handicaps, and socioeconomic consequences. A national survey was conducted on a random stratified sample of 359 010 French citizens living in the community; 21 760 subjects were selected at random and 16 945 persons (78%) agreed to further questioning. Four thousand ninety-one randomly selected caregivers were interviewed. Four subgroups of subjects were defined (blind or light perception only, low vision or still have form perception, other visual problems, and no visual problems). These were compared after adjustment for age, comorbidity, and household size differences. The prevalence of blindness was 0.10% and of low vision, 1.94%. Subjects with blindness needed assistance with daily activities more often than subjects with no visual problems; they also needed more house modifications. Many subjects with blindness (46.8%) and subjects with low vision (29.0%) were registered for social allowances. Subjects with blindness had fewer paid activities (4.5%) than subjects with no visual problems (20.7%). Social allowances increased considerably (by 277) between those with low vision and those with blindness. Monthly household incomes were lower (Pblindness (1587) than for subjects with no visual problems (1851). Collected data included social demography, home description, household income, handicaps, disabilities, social allowances, and daily activities. The results demonstrate associations between self-reported visual impairment and daily living.

  11. Survey of breeding birds using point count methodologies on the Gardner Division of the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge in Illinois

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study done on the Gardner Division of Mark Twain NWR to compliment ongoing neotropical migrant bird studies along the Upper Mississippi...

  12. Poverty and Blindness in Nigeria: Results from the National Survey of Blindness and Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafida, A; Kyari, F; Abdull, M M; Sivasubramaniam, S; Murthy, G V S; Kana, I; Gilbert, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Poverty can be a cause and consequence of blindness. Some causes only affect the poorest communities (e.g. trachoma), and poor individuals are less likely to access services. In low income countries, cataract blind adults have been shown to be less economically active, indicating that blindness can exacerbate poverty. This study aims to explore associations between poverty and blindness using national survey data from Nigeria. Participants ≥40 years were examined in 305 clusters (2005-2007). Sociodemographic information, including literacy and occupation, was obtained by interview. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed using a reduced tumbling E LogMAR chart. Full ocular examination was undertaken by experienced ophthalmologists on all with PVA Causes of vision loss were determined using World Health Organization guidelines. Households were categorized into three levels of poverty based on literacy and occupation at household level. A total of 569/13,591 participants were blind (PVA Cause-specific prevalences of blindness from cataract, glaucoma, uncorrected aphakia and corneal opacities were significantly higher in poorer households. Cataract surgical coverage was low (37.2%), being lowest in females in poor households (25.3%). Spectacle coverage was 3 times lower in poor than affluent households (2.4% vs. 7.5%). In Nigeria, blindness is associated with poverty, in part reflecting lower access to services. Reducing avoidable causes will not be achieved unless access to services improves, particularly for the poor and women.

  13. A study of methods to predict and measure the transmission of sound through the walls of light aircraft. A survey of techniques for visualization of noise fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S. E.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the most widely used methods for visualizing acoustic phenomena is presented. Emphasis is placed on acoustic processes in the audible frequencies. Many visual problems are analyzed on computer graphic systems. A brief description of the current technology in computer graphics is included. The visualization technique survey will serve as basis for recommending an optimum scheme for displaying acoustic fields on computer graphic systems.

  14. Comparing distances in mental images constructed from visual experience or verbal descriptions: the impact of survey versus route perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péruch, Patrick; Chabanne, Vanessa; Nesa, Marie-Pascale; Thinus-Blanc, Catherine; Denis, Michel

    2006-11-01

    Mental images constructed after visual examination of a spatial configuration or after processing a verbal description of that configuration have been shown to share similar properties, in particular the capacity to preserve metric information contained in the configuration represented. In the present study, we investigated the properties of mental images constructed under learning conditions resulting from the combination of a visual or a verbal mode of acquisition and a survey or route perspective. Participants memorized a virtual environment (a garden containing six objects) under one of four learning conditions: (a) viewing a map of the garden (visual-survey); (b) viewing a video presentation of a journey along the path around the garden (visual-route); (c) listening to a verbal description of the map of the garden (verbal-survey); and (d) listening to a verbal description of the journey around the garden (verbal-route). The participants were then invited to compare the distances separating objects in the garden mentally. Experiment 1, where the pairs of distances to be compared had a common starting point, revealed that the frequency of correct responses was higher, and response times were shorter when participants had learned about the environment visually rather than by a verbal description. The conditions involving a survey perspective resulted in a higher frequency of correct responses and shorter response times than those involving a route perspective. Lastly, a symbolic distance effect was obtained in the first three conditions, in that the greater the difference between the two distances being compared, the higher the frequency of correct responses, and the shorter the response times. Experiment 2, where the pairs of distances had different starting points, replicated these results, although longer response times revealed that the comparison process was more costly. Taken together, these findings support the view that mental spatial representations

  15. A visual survey technique for deep-water fishes: estimating anglerfish Lophius spp. abundance in closed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, F D; Collie, N; Stewart, M; Scala, L; Fernandes, P G

    2013-10-01

    A visual survey technique was employed to estimate the abundance and distribution of anglerfish Lophius spp. in areas where destructive sampling methods, such as trawling, are unacceptable. To enable visual surveying at depths of over 300 m, a deep towed vehicle was developed equipped with video, lights and other sensors and was towed at speeds of up to 1·5 m s⁻¹ and altitudes of up to 10 m (from the seabed) to survey large areas of the seabed around the Rockall Bank in the north-west Atlantic Ocean. The system allowed for areas up to 125 000 m² to be surveyed, a substantial area comparable to that surveyed by demersal-trawl sampling. Lophius spp. densities ranged from 15 to 736 fish km⁻²; these are comparable to estimated Lophius spp. densities determined by trawl surveys in adjacent areas. Estimates of Lophius spp. abundance in the closed areas ranged between 99,855 and 176,887 for the time series considered (2007-2011). © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Polar Bear Mark-Recapture Records, Alaska Portion of the Southern Beaufort Sea, 2001-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Polar Bear Research Program as part of long-term research on the southern Beaufort...

  17. Influence of coral cover and structural complexity on the accuracy of visual surveys of coral-reef fish communities

    KAUST Repository

    Coker, Darren James

    2017-04-20

    Using manipulated patch reefs with combinations of varying live-coral cover (low, medium and high) and structural complexity (low and high), common community metrics (abundance, diversity, richness and community composition) collected through standard underwater visual census techniques were compared with exhaustive collections using a fish anaesthetic (clove oil). This study showed that reef condition did not influence underwater visual census estimates at a community level, but reef condition can influence the detectability of some small and cryptic species and this may be exacerbated if surveys are conducted on a larger scale.

  18. A survey on stimuli for visual cortical function assessment in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvarfard, Farveh; Maarefi, Nasrin; Abrishami Moghaddam, Hamid; Wallois, Fabrice

    2018-01-01

    Visual processing, as a significant and complex functionality of the human brain, changes during the life span with the most developmental changes in the infancy. Different types of visual stimuli are needed for evaluating different functionalities of the infants' visual system. Selecting appropriate visual stimuli is an important issue in evaluating visual cortical functions in infants. Properties of stimulation influence responses of visual system and must be adjusted according to the age and specific function which is going to be investigated. In this review, the most commonly used stimuli to elicit visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are evaluated and characteristics of VEPs extracted by these stimulations are studied. Furthermore, various studies investigating different functionalities such as selectivity for orientation and directional motion are presented. Valuable results regarding emerging and maturation times of different functions and normative data for clinical diagnosis are provided by these studies. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of life and visual function in Nigeria: findings from the National Survey of Blindness and Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hang My; Mahdi, Abdull M; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Gudlavalleti, Murthy V S; Gilbert, Clare E; Shah, Shaheen P; Ezelum, C C; Abubakar, Tafida; Bankole, Olufunmilayo O

    2011-12-01

    To assess associations of visual function (VF) and quality of life (QOL) by visual acuity (VA), causes of blindness and types of cataract procedures in Nigeria. Multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling was used to identify a nationally representative sample of persons aged ≥ 40 years. VF/QOL questionnaires were administered to participants with VA impact on social (p<0.0001) and mobility-related activities (p<0.0001). People who were blind due to glaucoma had lower VF and QOL scores than those who were blind due to cataract. Mean VF and QOL scores were lower after couching compared with conventional cataract surgery (mean VF score=51.0 vs 63.0 and mean QOL score=71.3 vs 79.3). Finally, VF and QOL scores were lower among populations with specific characteristics. Populations with the following characteristics should be targeted to improve VF and QOL: people who are blind, older people, women, manual labourers, people living in rural areas, those living in the northern geopolitical zones, those practising Islamic and Traditionalism faith, those not currently married and those who have undergone couching.

  20. Blindness and Visual Impairment in an Urban West African Population: The Tema Eye Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenz, Donald L.; Bandi, Jagadeesh R.; Barton, Keith; Nolan, Winifred; Herndon, Leon; Whiteside-de Vos, Julia; Hay-Smith, Graham; Kim, Hanna; Tielsch, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence, etiologies, and risk factors of blindness and visual impairment among persons age 40 years and older residing in an urban West African location. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants Five thousand six hundred and three participants residing in Tema, Ghana. Methods Proportionate random cluster sampling was used to select participants age 40 and over living in the city of Tema. Presenting distance visual acuity was measured at 4 and 1 meters using a reduced Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR) tumbling E chart and then with trial frame based on autorefraction. A screening examination was performed in the field on all participants. Complete clinical examination by an ophthalmologist was performed on participants with best corrected visual acuity visual acuity in the better eye of visual impairment (visual acuity in the better eye of visual impairment was 17.1% and blindness was 1.2%. After refraction and spectacle correction, the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness decreased to 6.7% and 0.75% respectively, suggesting that refractive error is the major correctable etiology of visual impairment and blindness in this population. Of 65 subjects having visual acuity visual impairment, and one to normal. The remaining 43 (66%) had underlying pathology (19 cataract, 9 glaucoma, 3 non-glaucomatous optic neuropathy, 3 corneal opacities, 3 retinal disease, 5 undetermined) that prevented refractive correction. Increased age was a significant risk factor for blindness and visual impairment. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among those aged ≥40 years in Tema, Ghana, West Africa. Refractive error is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in this population, followed by cataract, glaucoma, and corneal disease. PMID:22677425

  1. Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part I: endoscopic and direct vision imaging - techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Khoshnam, Mahta; Najmaei, Nima; Patel, Rajni V

    2014-09-01

    Intra-operative imaging is widely used to provide visual feedback to a clinician when he/she performs a procedure. In visual servoing, surgical instruments and parts of tissue/body are tracked by processing the acquired images. This information is then used within a control loop to manoeuvre a robotic manipulator during a procedure. A comprehensive search of electronic databases was completed for the period 2000-2013 to provide a survey of the visual servoing applications in medical robotics. The focus is on medical applications where image-based tracking is used for closed-loop control of a robotic system. Detailed classification and comparative study of various contributions in visual servoing using endoscopic or direct visual images are presented and summarized in tables and diagrams. The main challenges in using visual servoing for medical robotic applications are identified and potential future directions are suggested. 'Supervised automation of medical robotics' is found to be a major trend in this field. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. An issue of blood: the healing of the woman with the haemorrhage (Mark 5.24B-34; Luke 8.42B-48; Matthew 9.19-22) in early medieval visual culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Barbara; Kusters, Liesbet; Sidgwick, Emma

    2012-09-01

    The textual and visual tradition of the story of the woman with the haemorrhage (Mark 5.24b-34parr), the so-called Haemorrhoissa, is related in a specific way to Christ's healing miracles but also to conceptions of female menstrual blood. We notice that with regard to the specific 'issue of blood' of the Haemorrhoissa, there is a visual lacuna in the specific iconography that developed around the story from early Christian times: in the transposition from text to image, there is no immediate depiction of her bleeding. However, the early medieval reception of the story also became an important catalyst for uterine taboos, menstruation and tits relation to magical healing, understood as a system of health practices. In this context, the dissemination of the motif in everyday material culture clearly points to a deep-rooted connection to uterine and menstrual issues. The paper considers both expressions and their-anthropologically framed-relation to this female 'issue of blood', which the Haemorrhoissa came to embody and epitomise literally, as well as figuratively.

  3. The Digital Social Interactions of Students with Visual Impairments: Findings from Two National Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stacy M.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the use of computers and telephones by preadolescent and adolescent students with visual impairments and those with other disabilities using data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study and the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2. It found that both groups of students with visual impairments used computers…

  4. Feasibility of a web-based survey of hallucinations and assessment of visual function in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mary Lou; Bex, Peter J; Ellison, James M; Wicks, Paul; Wallis, Jennifer

    2014-01-06

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience visual hallucinations, which may be related to decreased contrast sensitivity (ie, the ability to discern shades of grey). The objective of this study was to investigate if an online research platform can be used to survey patients with Parkinson's disease regarding visual hallucinations, and also be used to assess visual contrast perception. From the online patient community, PatientsLikeMe, 964 members were invited via email to participate in this study. Participants completed a modified version of the University of Miami Parkinson's disease hallucinations questionnaire and an online vision test. The study was completed by 27.9% (269/964) of those who were invited: 56.9% of this group had PD (153/269) and 43.1% (116/269) were non-Parkinson's controls. Hallucinations were reported by 18.3% (28/153) of the Parkinson's group. Although 10 subjects (9%) in the control group reported experiencing hallucinations, only 2 of them actually described formed hallucinations. Participants with Parkinson's disease with a mean of 1.75 (SD 0.35) and the control group with a mean of 1.85 (SD 0.36) showed relatively good contrast perception as measured with the online letter test (P=.07). People who reported hallucinations showed contrast sensitivity levels that did not differ from levels shown by people without hallucinations (P=.96), although there was a trend towards lower contrast sensitivity in hallucinators. Although more Parkinson's responders reported visual hallucinations, a significant number of non-Parkinson's control group responders also reported visual hallucinations. The online survey method may have failed to distinguish between formed hallucinations, which are typical in Parkinson's disease, and non-formed hallucinations that have less diagnostic specificity. Multiple questions outlining the nature of the hallucinations are required. In a clinical interview, the specific nature of the hallucination would be further

  5. Visualization and interpretation of the year 2004 mise-a-la- masse survey data at Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, T. [Astrock Oy, Sodankylae (Finland)

    2006-01-15

    This report concerns mise-a-la-masse surveys conducted from late autumn 2004 to early winter 2005 at the area of the underground characterisation facility (Onkalo) and surroundings. Surveys were made in 21 boreholes and at 6 ground survey areas. Suomen Malmi Oy conducted the fieldwork. Astrock Oy supervised field surveys and processed, interpreted and reported acquired data for Posiva Oy. The purpose of the study was to collect data for geological modelling with following continuity of the conducting features in bedrock from borehole to borehole and to ground surface. These conducting features in bedrock are often linked with lithologic characters or weakness zones. A basis for the current survey was the previous mine-a-la-masse measurements and their results. Current earthings were placed in 26 electrically conducting structures in 8 boreholes and in one outcrop. Current earthings were situated in boreholes KR4, KR7, KR8, KR25, KR27, KR28, KR29 and KR33. Electrical connections were probed in 22 boreholes and at 6 ground survey areas. The acquired survey data were collected to xyz-coordinate oriented databases for 3D processing, interpreting and visualization of the results. At first the data were transferred to Oasis Montaj, where the potential field profiles were drawn and studied borehole-by-borehole current earthing at a time to determine characteristics of the electrical connections. Next were constructed probable connections between boreholes and moved to SurpacVision for visualisation. They were delivered for Posiva Oy as Surpac string and DTM files. With the mise-a-la-masse data, it was possible to determine numerous low dipping electrically conducting structures. Ground surveys were hampered strongly by electrical disturbances of the infrastructure of the Olkiluoto. Results of the all surveys are also collected in the same table, where every one of connections is classified. Interpretations are merely based on mise-a-la-masse data. (orig.)

  6. Visualization and interpretation of the year 2005 mise-a-la-masse survey data at Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, T. (Astrock Oy, Sodankylae (Finland))

    2006-06-15

    This report concerns mise-a-la-masse surveys conducted autumn 2005 at the area of the underground characterisation facility (Onkalo) and surroundings. Surveys were made in 14 boreholes and at 1 ground survey area. Suomen Malmi Oy conducted the fieldwork. Astrock Oy supervised field surveys and processed, interpreted and reported acquired data for Posiva Oy. The purpose of the study was to collect data for geological modelling with following continuity of the conducting features in bedrock from borehole to borehole and to ground surface. These conducting features in bedrock are often linked with lithologic characters or weakness zones. A basis for the current survey was the previous mine-a-la-masse measurements and their results. Current earthings were placed in 15 electrically conducting structures in 8 boreholes and in one outcrop. Current earthings were situated in boreholes KR4, KR7, KR25, KR27 and KR37. Electrical connections were probed in 14 boreholes and at 1 ground survey area. The acquired survey data were collected to xyz-coordinate oriented databases for 3D processing, interpreting and visualization of the results. At first the data were transferred to Oasis Montaj, where the potential field profiles were drawn and studied borehole-by-borehole current earthing at a time to determine characteristics of the electrical connections. Next probable connections between boreholes and moved were constructed and moved to SurpacVision for visualisation. They were delivered for Posiva Oy as Surpac string and DTM files. With the mise-a-la-masse data, it was possible to determine numerous low dipping electrically conducting structures. Additionally previously detected conducting structures were updated with the observations and interpretations. Ground surveys were hampered strongly by electrical disturbances of the infrastructure of the Olkiluoto. Results of the all surveys are also collected in the same table, where every one of connections is classified

  7. Is tagging with visual implant elastomer a reliable technique for marking earthworms? A etiquetagem de minhocas com implante visual de elastômero é uma técnica confiável?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Richard Butt

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual implant elastomer (VIE has recently been employed to investigate different aspects of earthworm ecology. However, a number of fundamental questions relating to the detection and positioning of the tag, its persistence and potential effects on earthworms remain unknown. Seven earthworm species belonging to three ecological groupings, with different pigmentation and burrowing behaviour, were tagged using different coloured VIE. External inspection after two days, one week and 1, 10 and 27 months were followed by preservation, dissection and internal inspection. Tags could be seen in living specimens to 27 months, and dissection revealed that in most cases they were lodged in the coelomic cavity, held in place by septa. However, over longer time periods (more than two years, the chlorogogenous tissue tended to bind to the tags and made external observation increasingly difficult. Migration of the VIE material towards the posterior of the earthworm and potential loss of the tag were only observed on rare occasions, and a recovery rate in excess of 98% was recorded. By introducing a reasonable amount of VIE into segments, just after the clitellum, this technique can become a valuable tool in earthworm ecology and life history studies, particularly in short-medium term laboratory and field experiments.O implante visual de elastômeros (VIE tem sido recentemente utilizado para estudar diferentes aspectos da ecologia de minhocas. Entretanto, questões fundamentais relacionadas à detecção e posicionamento da etiqueta, sua persistência e efeitos potenciais nas minhocas permanecem desconhecidos. Sete espécies de minhocas, pertencentes a três grupos ecológicos, com diferentes pigmentações e comportamentos de escavação de galerias, foram etiquetadas com VIE de diferentes cores. Procedeu-se à inspeção externa depois de dois dias, uma semana e 1, 10 e 27 meses, seguida de preservação, dissecação e inspeção interna. As etiquetas

  8. A Survey of Architecture and Function of the Primary Visual Cortex (V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoping Li

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest visual area, known as the primary visual cortex or V1, has greatly contributed to the current understanding of mammalian and human visual pathways and their role in visual perception. The initial discovery of orientation-sensitive neurons in V1, arranged according to a retinotopic mapping, suggested an analogy to its function as a low-level feature analyzer. Subsequent discoveries of phase, spatial frequency, color, ocular origin, and direction-of-motion-sensitive neurons, arranged into overlapping maps, further lent support to the view that it performs a rich decomposition, similar to signal processing transforms, of the retinal output. Like the other cortical areas, V1 has a laminar organization with specialization for input from the relayed retinal afferents, output to the higher visual areas, and the segregation of the magno (motion and parvo (form pathways. Spatially lateral connections that exist between neurons of similar and varying properties have also been proposed to give rise to a computation of a bottom-up saliency map in V1. We provide a review of the selectivity of neurons in V1, laminar specialization and analogies to signal processing techniques, a model of V1 saliency computation, and higher-area feedback that may mediate perception.

  9. The discriminative power of the EuroQol visual analog scale is sensitive to survey language in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Nan; Cang Sheng-Qun; Quah Hui-Min Joanne; How Choon-How; Tay Ee Guan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Existing evidence for validity of the visual analog scale of the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire (EQ-VAS) is weak in Chinese-speaking respondents in Singapore. We therefore investigated the validity of the Chinese (Singapore) version of EQ-VAS in patients with diabetes. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, patients with type 2 diabetes seen in a primary care facility completed an identical Chinese or English questionnaire containing the EQ-5D-3L and questions assessing other health...

  10. Visual impairment attributable to uncorrected refractive error and other causes in the Ghanaian youth: The University of Cape Coast Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokyi, Samuel; Ilechie, Alex; Nsiah, Peter; Darko-Takyi, Charles; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Osei-Akoto, Yaw Jnr; Youfegan-Baanam, Mathurin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of visual impairment attributable to refractive error and other causes in a youthful Ghanaian population. A prospective survey of all consecutive visits by first-year tertiary students to the Optometry clinic between August, 2013 and April, 2014. Of the 4378 first-year students aged 16-39 years enumerated, 3437 (78.5%) underwent the eye examination. The examination protocol included presenting visual acuity (PVA), ocular motility, and slit-lamp examination of the external eye, anterior segment and media, and non-dilated fundus examination. Pinhole acuity and fundus examination were performed when the PVA≤6/12 in one or both eyes to determine the principal cause of the vision loss. The mean age of participants was 21.86 years (95% CI: 21.72-21.99). The prevalence of bilateral visual impairment (BVI; PVA in the better eye ≤6/12) and unilateral visual impairment UVI; PVA in the worse eye ≤6/12) were 3.08% (95% CI: 2.56-3.72) and 0.79% (95% CI: 0.54-1.14), respectively. Among 106 participants with BVI, refractive error (96.2%) and corneal opacity (3.8%) were the causes. Of the 27 participants with UVI, refractive error (44.4%), maculopathy (18.5%) and retinal disease (14.8%) were the major causes. There was unequal distribution of BVI in the different age groups, with those above 20 years having a lesser burden. Eye screening and provision of affordable spectacle correction to the youth could be timely to eliminate visual impairment. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual impairment in childhood: insights from a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, N M; Jackson, A J; Hill, A E

    2003-11-01

    The concept of visual impairment (VI) in childhood has changed over the last 30 years. There has been a decrease in the number of children with an isolated visual problem and an increase in the numbers with VI and coexisting neurological disability. This study aimed to produce a profile of VI in childhood with a view to informing future services and to raise awareness of the need for comprehensive assessment including developmental remediation and educational advice. Children with a VI were identified from multiple sources including hospital- and community-based paediatricians and statutory blind registers. Seventy-six children with a VI were identified giving a childhood prevalence of 1.61 per 1000. Thirty-two per cent had a normal pattern of development. Global delays/severe learning difficulty were found in 43%. Only 21% of the children had an isolated VI. Additional medical problems were present in 79% of which cerebral palsy, occurring in 33%, was the most common. Nine per cent of the children were classified as totally blind. Cortical visual impairment was diagnosed in 45%. Twenty-two per cent of the children were registered blind or partially sighted. Most cases of VI in children did not appear on the statutory blind or partially sighted registers, thus these have limited value for service development. The implications for practice highlight the need for early assessment and advice from a co-ordinated team to optimize visual potential in childhood.

  12. The results of nocturnal visual surveys are influenced by lamp properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, B.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Reed, R.N.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted standardized visual searches at night for brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) and geckos, where we alternated between spotlight and floodlight lamps. Floodlights rendered us 25% more snakes and 71% more geckos than did spotlights. We show data on searcher variability and discuss what might affect the relative benefit of different lamp types. ?? 2009 Brill Academic Publishers.

  13. A Survey on the Use of Mobile Applications for People Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Banda, Devender R.; Ajuwon, Paul M.; Cheon, Jongpil; Lee, Jaehoon; Park, Hye Ran; Lyngdoh, Sanpalei N.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The literature indicates that few studies have been conducted with persons with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) concerning mobile application or "app" usage. The current study explores the use of mobile apps with this population globally. Methods: A total of 259 participants with visual…

  14. Valiti maailma ilusaim mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Mai algul Nürnbergis toimunud filateelia maailmanäitusel valiti 1997. a. maailma kõige ilusam postmark. Konkursi võitis Ahvenamaa mark "75 aastat Ahvenamaa iseseisvust, II koht ئ Soome mark "Postmargipäev: Aino lugulaul", III ئ Saksamaal Heinrich von Stephani 100. surma-aastapäeva puhul välja antud mark.

  15. A genome-wide survey of hybrid incompatibility factors by the introgression of marked segments of Drosophila mauritiana chromosomes into Drosophila simulans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    True, J.R.; Laurie, C.C. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Weir, B.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    In hybrids between Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana, males are sterile and females are fertile, in compliance with HALDANE`s rule. The genetic basis of this phenomenon was investigated by introgression of segments of the mauritiana genome into a simulans background. A total of 87 positions throughout the mauritiana genome were marked with P-element insertions and replicate introgressions were made by repeated backcrossing to simulans for 15 generations. The fraction of hemizygous X chromosomal introgressions that are male sterile is {approximately}50% greater than the fraction of homozygous autosomal segments. This result suggests that male sterility factors have evolved at a higher rate on the X, but chromosomal differences in segment length cannot be ruled out. The fraction of homozygous autosomal introgressions that are male sterile is several times greater than the fraction that are either female sterile or inviable. This observation strongly indicates that male sterility factors have evolved more rapidly than either female sterility or inviability factors. These results, combined with previous work on these and other species, suggest that HALDANE`s rule has at least two causes: recessivity of incompatibility factors and differential accumulation of sterility factors affecting males and females. 50 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Detection rates of geckos in visual surveys: Turning confounding variables into useful knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Bjorn; Rodda, Gordon H.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Savidge, Julie A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Transect surveys without some means of estimating detection probabilities generate population size indices prone to bias because survey conditions differ in time and space. Knowing what causes such bias can help guide the collection of relevant survey covariates, correct the survey data, anticipate situations where bias might be unacceptably large, and elucidate the ecology of target species. We used negative binomial regression to evaluate confounding variables for gecko (primarily Hemidactylus frenatus and Lepidodactylus lugubris) counts on 220-m-long transects surveyed at night, primarily for snakes, on 9,475 occasions. Searchers differed in gecko detection rates by up to a factor of six. The worst and best headlamps differed by a factor of at least two. Strong winds had a negative effect potentially as large as those of searchers or headlamps. More geckos were seen during wet weather conditions, but the effect size was small. Compared with a detection nadir during waxing gibbous (nearly full) moons above the horizon, we saw 28% more geckos during waning crescent moons below the horizon. A sine function suggested that we saw 24% more geckos at the end of the wet season than at the end of the dry season. Fluctuations on a longer timescale also were verified. Disturbingly, corrected data exhibited strong short-term fluctuations that covariates apparently failed to capture. Although some biases can be addressed with measured covariates, others will be difficult to eliminate as a significant source of error in longterm monitoring programs.

  17. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  18. A Population-based survey of the prevalence and types of glaucoma in Nigeria: results from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Entekume, Gabriel; Rabiu, Mansur; Spry, Paul; Wormald, Richard; Nolan, Winifred; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Gilbert, Clare E

    2015-12-12

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. There tends to be a lower reporting of glaucoma in Africa compared to other blinding conditions in global burden data. Research findings of glaucoma in Nigeria will significantly increase our understanding of glaucoma in Nigeria, in people of the West African diaspora and similar population groups. We determined the prevalence and types of glaucoma in Nigeria from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment cross-sectional Survey of adults aged ≥40 years. Multistage stratified cluster random sampling with probability-proportional-to-size procedures were used to select a nationally representative sample of 15,027 persons aged ≥40 years. Participants had logMAR visual acuity measurement, FDT visual function testing, autorefraction, A-scan biometry and optic disc assessment. Participants with visual acuity of worse than 6/12 or suspicious optic discs had detailed examination including Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy and fundus photography. Disc images were graded by Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre. Glaucoma was defined using International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria; and classified into primary open-angle or primary angle-closure or secondary glaucoma. Diagnosis of glaucoma was based on ISGEO classification. The type of glaucoma was determined by gonioscopy. A total of 13,591 participants in 305 clusters were examined (response rate 90.4 %). Optic disc grading was available for 25,289 (93 %) eyes of 13,081 (96 %) participants. There were 682 participants with glaucoma; a prevalence of 5.02 % (95 % CI 4.60-5.47). Among those with definite primary glaucoma that had gonioscopy (n = 243), open-angle glaucoma was more common (86 %) than angle-closure glaucoma (14 %). 8 % of glaucoma was secondary with the commonest causes being couching (38 %), trauma (21 %) and uveitis (19 %). Only 5.6 % (38/682) of participants with

  19. A Speckle survey of Southern Hipparcos Visual Doubles and Geneva-Copenhagen Spectroscopic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, R. A.; Tokovinin, A.; Horch, E.

    2017-07-01

    The prospect of exquisite-precision parallaxes that will be enabled by the Gaia satellite dramatically changes the landscape of observational stellar astrophysics: If one considers the Hipparcos double stars that lie within 250 pc of the Solar system, a parallax determined by Gaia would yield an uncertainty under 1% for all these objects. In this volume, there are 591 Hipparcos double star discoveries and 160 spectroscopic binaries from the Geneva-Copenhagen spectroscopic survey in the declination range of -20° to -90°. These two samples are important as a source of new binaries from which we will derive masses, component luminosities, and effective temperatures in the coming years. The northern hemisphere counterpart of these objects have been systematically observed at the WIYN Telescope by Horch and collaborators (Horch, E. P., van Altena, W. F., Howell, S. B., Sherry, W. H., & Ciardi, D. R. 2011, AJ, 141, 180). On the other hand, Tokovinin has shown the ability of HRCam at the CTIO/SOAR 4m telescope for binary star research. In 2014 we started a speckle survey with SOAR+HRCam that will complement and significantly extend those previous efforts, allowing us to compile a unique all-sky, volume-limited speckle survey of these two primary samples. So far 12 nights (spread over 3 semesters) have been granted through the Chilean reserved time, with lots of binaries confirmed, many new binaries found, and with several multiple systems discovered (Tokovinin et al., 2015, AJ, 150, 50 and 2016, AJ, 151, 153). Our survey, when complete, will open the door to many sensitive tests of stellar evolution theory, and a large number of new points on the MLR. With this we will truly be able to investigate effects such as metallicity and age on the MLR for the first time. In cases where one component has evolved off the main sequence, age determinations will also be possible.

  20. Survey of subjects on the geothermal technology development aiming at marked improvement of economical efficiency; Keizaisei no hiyakuteki kojo to mezashita chinetsu gijutsu kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the geothermal development cost and increasing the amount of developable resource, the paper reviewed the geothermal developmental technology. Approximately 30 MW as a scale per unit is economical. The development cost is lowered by 2% if the period for development is shortened by two years, by 11% if the utilization rate is increased by 10%, and by 3% if the success rate is increased by 10%. The cost is reduced by 10% if the steam amount per 1 pit is increased to 1.5 times, and by 4% if the reduction amount is increased to 1.5 times. Improvement of survey/exploration/evaluation technology and improvement of power generation/management technology contribute largely to making the above possible. The drilling depth also corresponds with increases in the amount of steam obtained and the cost. The construction cost including the drilling cost is also an important factor, indicating a cost reduction of 15% if the unit price is reduced by 20%. If a 30% reduction of the power generation cost at a 30MW plant can be made, a 10 yen/kWh is realized, which shows that a geothermal power plant can be competitive with a thermal power plant. When thinking of it without subsidies, the geothermal power generation is most economical of all the renewable energy. In the light of the environment, the CO2 issue, etc., the geothermal power generation is much more advantageous than the thermal power generation. 7 refs., 28 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Visualization and flow surveys of the leading edge vortex structure on delta wing planforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, F. M.; Ng, T. T.; Nelson, R. C.; Schiff, L. B.

    1986-01-01

    In the present experimental investigation of thin delta wing vortex breakdown, for the cases of sweep angles of 70, 75, 80, and 85 deg, and smoke flow visualization/laser light sheet technique is used to obtain cross sectional views of the leading edge vortices as they break down. A combination of lateral and longitudinal cross sectional views furnishes data on the three-dimensional character of the vortex before, during, and after breakdown. Velocity measurements conducted with a laser Doppler anemometer on the 70 deg sweep delta, at 30 deg angle-of-attack, indicate that when breakdown occurs the core flow is transformed from a jet-like to a wake-like flow.

  2. Constructing a survey over time: Audio-visual feedback and theatre sketches in rural Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Hertrich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge dissemination is an emerging issue in population studies, both in terms of ethics and data quality. The challenge is especially important in long term follow-up surveys and it requires methodological imagination when the population is illiterate. The paper presents the dissemination project developed in a demographic surveillance system implemented in rural Mali over the last 20 years. After basic experience of document transfer, the feedback strategy was developed through audiovisual shows and theatre sketches. The advantages and drawbacks of these media are discussed, in terms of scientific communication and the construction of dialogue with the target population.

  3. Lujan Mark-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michael Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavorka, Lukas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    This is a review of Mark-IV target neutronics design. It involved the major redesign of the upper tier, offering harder neutron spectra for upper-tier FPs; a redesign of the high-resolution (HR) moderator; and a preservation of the rest of Mark-III features.

  4. Marks, Prof. Tobin J

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2011 Honorary. Marks, Prof. Tobin J. Date of birth: 25 November 1944. Address: Prof. of Materials Sci. & Engg., Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145, Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, USA Contact: Office: (+1-847) 491 5658. Email: t-marks@northwestern.edu. YouTube; Twitter ...

  5. Increased Difficulties in Managing Stairs in Visually Impaired Older Adults: A Community-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Liu, Hu; Sun, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging aspect of daily activities of living for older people. We assessed whether older adults with visual impairment (VI) have greater difficulties of managing stairs in daily lives. The study was designed as a community-based cross-sectional study based on a Chinese cohort aged 60 years and older in rural China. Visual acuity (VA) was measured in both eyes using a retro-illuminated Snellen chart with tumbling-E optotypes. VI (including blindness) was defined as presenting VA of worse than 20/60 in either eye. Having any difficulties in managing stairs was self-reported based on a question drawn from the Barthel Index. Information on participants' socioeconomic status, lifestyle-related factors, diseases histories and medication intake was collected using a questionnaire. The Barthel Index, Activities of Daily Living questionnaire was completed by 4597 (99.7%) participants including 2218 men and 2379 women. The age of the participants ranged from 60 to 93 years with a mean of 67.6 ± 6.3 years. In age and gender adjusted models, adults with VI had a higher likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.7) compared with those without. The association of VI with the likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs was stronger in older adults who lived alone (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 1.8, 4.5) compared with those who lived with other family members (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.3, 4.3). Compared with hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cognitive dysfunction, VI had the greatest impact on people's abilities of managing stairs. VI was associated with an increased likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs, especially in those who lived alone. However, whether the finding could be extrapolated to other populations warrants further studies as different environmental exposures such as illumination and types of stairs may alter the association observed in this study.

  6. Increased Difficulties in Managing Stairs in Visually Impaired Older Adults: A Community-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wei Pan

    Full Text Available Managing stairs is a challenging aspect of daily activities of living for older people. We assessed whether older adults with visual impairment (VI have greater difficulties of managing stairs in daily lives.The study was designed as a community-based cross-sectional study based on a Chinese cohort aged 60 years and older in rural China. Visual acuity (VA was measured in both eyes using a retro-illuminated Snellen chart with tumbling-E optotypes. VI (including blindness was defined as presenting VA of worse than 20/60 in either eye. Having any difficulties in managing stairs was self-reported based on a question drawn from the Barthel Index. Information on participants' socioeconomic status, lifestyle-related factors, diseases histories and medication intake was collected using a questionnaire.The Barthel Index, Activities of Daily Living questionnaire was completed by 4597 (99.7% participants including 2218 men and 2379 women. The age of the participants ranged from 60 to 93 years with a mean of 67.6 ± 6.3 years. In age and gender adjusted models, adults with VI had a higher likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.7 compared with those without. The association of VI with the likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs was stronger in older adults who lived alone (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 1.8, 4.5 compared with those who lived with other family members (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.3, 4.3. Compared with hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cognitive dysfunction, VI had the greatest impact on people's abilities of managing stairs.VI was associated with an increased likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs, especially in those who lived alone. However, whether the finding could be extrapolated to other populations warrants further studies as different environmental exposures such as illumination and types of stairs may alter the association observed in this study.

  7. [Identification from bite marks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, P

    1980-02-01

    Criteria to be considered for establishing the guilt or innocence of a possible offender on the basis of bite marks on the skin of the murder victim were presented using four analyses of bite marks on murder victims. The bite marks must be identifiable; a clear 1:1 photograph should be made which is then compared with impression of a model of the suspect's bite. These impressions are made with graphite on, for example, the surface of a balloon or modelling clay. The evidence provided by a distinct bite mark is almost as conclusive as a fingerprint. Using only the bite mark photographs, the forensic-stomatologic evaluation influenced the course of argumentation in the legal proceedings of three of the four cases discussed; the evaluation was central for the proceedings in one case.

  8. Survey and analysis of visual acuity of Kazakhs in different lighting environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C W; Xu, J H; Wang, Y L; Xu, W; Li, K

    2014-04-03

    The effect of different lighting environments on the vision and refractive error were investigated in 427 Kazakhs (828 eyes) aged from 40 to 60 years old, of which 279 were pastoral (546 eyes) and 148 were urban (282 eyes). Pastoral Kazakhs use natural illumination, whereas city Kazakhs mainly use artificial illumination. Of all cases, 19.1% (54 cases) had a vision of 0.4 to 0.5, 20.9% (59 cases) had 0.6 to 0.8, and 17.7% (50 cases) had above 1.0. However, the visual acuity distribution of the pastoral Kazakhs had a more obvious characteristic, which was mainly concentrated above 0.6. The vision of 25.1% (137) of cases was 0.6 to 0.8, whereas 58.4% (319) of cases had vision above 1.0. There were more cases with vision above 1.0 in the pastoral Kazakhs compared to the city Kazakhs (P Artificial light illuminated 70.9% (105 cases) of the city Kazakhs for more than 6 h. By contrast, natural light illuminated 75.3% (210 cases) of the pastoral Kazakhs for an outdoor activity time of more than 9 h. These results suggest that poor lighting environment is a very important factor contributing to refractive error.

  9. VIRTUAL RECONSTRUCTION OF LOST ARCHITECTURES: FROM THE TLS SURVEY TO AR VISUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Quattrini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of high quality 3D models for dissemination of archaeological heritage is currently an investigated topic, although Mobile Augmented Reality platforms for historical architecture are not available, allowing to develop low-cost pipelines for effective contents. The paper presents a virtual anastylosis, starting from historical sources and from 3D model based on TLS survey. Several efforts and outputs in augmented or immersive environments, exploiting this reconstruction, are discussed. The work demonstrates the feasibility of a 3D reconstruction approach for complex architectural shapes starting from point clouds and its AR/VR exploitation, allowing the superimposition with archaeological evidences. Major contributions consist in the presentation and the discussion of a pipeline starting from the virtual model, to its simplification showing several outcomes, comparing also the supported data qualities and advantages/disadvantages due to MAR and VR limitations.

  10. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; He, Mingguang; Zhao, Jialiang; Fang, Min; Ellwein, Leon B; He, Ning; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 531 individuals aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County from September 2006 to January 2007. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated using village registers followed by door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and thirty-one individuals were enumerated and 4 589 persons were examined, the response rate was 82.97%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.38% (109/4 589) and 9.44% (433/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.68% (123/4 589) and 18.15% (833/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 1 239.34, P visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is higher among older adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County. Cataract remains as the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.

  11. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiong; Cui, Hao; Zhao, Jialiang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Zhijian; Li, Mingsheng; Yu, Nannan; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 841 individuals aged 50 years or above in 28 basic sample units in Shuangcheng City from September to December 2006. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands four hundreds and eighty-one individuals were enumerated and 5 047 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.08%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.72% (87/5 047) and 4.69% (237/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.90% (96/5 047) and 7.23% (365/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2)=674.44, P visual impairment. The percentage of the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy was 11.31% among the eyes with blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment. Un-corrected refractive error(13.38%) also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual

  12. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  13. Marks of Metal Copenhell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet.......Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet....

  14. Bite Mark Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SK Padmakumar; VT Beena; N Salmanulfaris; Ashith B Acharya; G Indu; Sajai J Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the in...

  15. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  16. Risk factors for open-angle glaucoma in Nigeria: results from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M; Wormald, Richard; Evans, Jennifer R; Nolan, Winifred; Murthy, Gudlavelleti V S; Gilbert, Clare E

    2016-06-07

    The glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence in Nigeria (0.7 %, 95 % CI 0.6-0.9 %) among those aged ≥40 years is one of the highest ever reported. This study determined the risk factors for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in adults examined in the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey. A nationally representative sample of 13,591 people aged ≥40 years in 305 clusters in Nigeria were examined (response rate 90.4 %) between January 2005 to June 2007. Everyone had logMAR visual acuity measurement, Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) visual field testing, autorefraction, A-scan biometry and optic disc assessment. Full ocular examination (n = 6397), included Goldmann applanation tonometry. Values for defining glaucoma using International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria were derived from the study population. Disc images were graded by Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre. Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity, literacy and place of residence), ocular parameters (intraocular pressure [IOP], axial length and mean ocular perfusion pressure [MOPP]) and systemic parameters (blood pressure, blood glucose and body mass index [BMI]) were assessed for association with OAG. Thirteen thousand eighty-one (96 %) of 13,591 participants had vertical cup:disc ratio measured in at least one eye. 682 eyes of 462 participants were classified as OAG, with 12,738 controls. In univariate analyses the following were associated with OAG: increasing age, male gender, Igbo and Yoruba ethnic groups, illiteracy, longer axial length, higher IOP, lower MOPP, greater severity of hypertension and low BMI (underweight). In multivariate analysis, increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95 % CI 1.03-1.05), higher IOP (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.18-1.25) and Igbo ethnicity (OR 1.73, 95 % CI 1.18-2.56) were independent risk factors for OAG. Case detection strategies for OAG should be improved for those aged ≥40 years and for ethnic groups

  17. Description of CRIB, the GIPSY retrieval mechanism, and the interface to the General Electric MARK III Service : CRIB, the mineral resources data bank of the U.S. Geological Survey--guide for public users, 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James Alfred; Keefer, Eleanor K.; Ofsharick, Regina A.; Mason, George T.; Tracy, Patricia; Atkins, Mary

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) is being made available for public use through the computer facilities of the University of Oklahoma and the General Electric Company, U.S.A. The use of General Electric's worldwide information-services network provides access to the CRIB file to a worldwide clientele. This manual, which consists of two chapters, is intended as a guide to users who wish to interrogate the file. Chapter A contains a description of the CRIB file, information on the use of the GIPSY retrieval system, and a description of the General Electric MARK III Service. Chapter B contains a description of the individual data items in the CRIB record as well as code lists. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records on the metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources of the United States and other countries. At present, 31,645 records in the master file are being made available. The record contains information on mineral deposits and mineral commodities. Some topics covered are: deposit name, location, commodity information, description of deposit, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which maintains the data file and builds, updates, searches, and prints the records using simple yet versatile command statements. Searching and selecting records is accomplished by specifying the presence, absence, or content of any element of information in the record; these specifications can be logically linked to prepare sophisticated search strategies. Output is available in the form of the complete record, a listing of selected parts of the record, or fixed-field tabulations. The General Electric MARK III Service is a computerized information services network operating internationally by land lines, satellites, and undersea cables. The service is available by local telephone to 500 cities in North America, Western Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan

  18. PREOPERATIVE ENDOSCOPIC MARKING OF UNPALPABLE COLONIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Goncharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.

  19. A nationwide population-based survey on visual acuity, near vision, and self-reported visual function in the adult population in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Arja; Koskinen, Seppo; Härkänen, Tommi; Reunanen, Antti; Laatikainen, Leila; Aromaa, Arpo

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence rates of habitual visual acuity (VA) levels and visual impairment in Finland and to assess their correlation with self-reported visual function. Cross-sectional population-based study. Subjects were selected randomly from the Finnish population aged 30 years or older. Of 7979 eligible people, 7393 (93%) were interviewed, 6771 (85%) were examined, and 6663 (84%) had distance VA assessed. Participants underwent a home interview and a comprehensive examination including measuring binocular VA for distance and for near with the participants' current spectacles, if any. The level of VA for distance and for near with current spectacle correction. The self-reported capability to read newsprint and television text and the ability to move about without being restricted by reduced vision. The prevalence of good to moderate VA for distance (VA> or =0.5 [> or =20/40]) measured with current spectacles was 95.9%, and 87.4% had a VA level of 0.8 (20/25) or better. The prevalence of habitual visual impairment (VAblind (VAblind participants to the Finnish population (approximately 3 million aged 30 years or older), there were approximately 65000 (2.1%) visually impaired and 17000 (0.6%) blind adult persons in the country in 2000. The correlation between self-reported visual ability and measured visual function was moderate but statistically significant (r = 0.27-0.40; P<0.0001). The proportion of people with reading difficulties or who were unable to read newsprint has decreased 7% during the last 2 decades. Functional visual impairment increased with age especially in the age group of 65 to 74 years and upward and was as prevalent in women as in men. The prevalence of people with reading difficulties has decreased considerably since 1980.

  20. The discriminative power of the EuroQol visual analog scale is sensitive to survey language in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Nan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing evidence for validity of the visual analog scale of the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire (EQ-VAS is weak in Chinese-speaking respondents in Singapore. We therefore investigated the validity of the Chinese (Singapore version of EQ-VAS in patients with diabetes. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, patients with type 2 diabetes seen in a primary care facility completed an identical Chinese or English questionnaire containing the EQ-5D-3L and questions assessing other health and disease-related characteristics. Convergent and known-groups validity of the EQ-VAS was examined for Chinese- and English-speaking respondents separately. Results The EQ-VAS was correlated with the EQ-5D-3L health index and a 5-point Likert-type scale for assessing global health in both Chinese-speaking (N = 335 and English-speaking respondents (N = 298, suggesting convergent validity. The mean EQ-VAS scores differed between English-speaking patients with differing duration of diabetes ( Conclusions Chinese- and English-speaking Singaporeans respond differently to the EQ-VAS. The Chinese version of EQ-VAS appears less sensitive than its English version for measuring global health in patient populations in Singapore.

  1. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  2. Survey of nuclear parameters from the TRIGA Mark I IPR R1 Brazilian reactor with concentric configuration aiming the application of K{sub 0} neutron activation technique; Levantamento de parametros nucleares do reator TRIGA Mark I IPR R1 com configuracao concentrica visando a aplicacao da tecnica de ativacao neutronica K{sub 0}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Milton Batista

    2006-07-01

    This research intended to determine the nuclear parameters a, f, spectral index and neutron temperature in several irradiations positions of the TRIGA Mark 1 IPR-R1 reactor, for use on the parametric method K{sub 0} in the CDTN. K{sub 0} is a monostandard method of neutron activation analysis. It is, on the whole, experimentally simple, flexible and an important tool for accurate and convenient standardization in instrumental multi-element analysis. At the time the parameters were determined at the rotatory rack, lower layer and in the central thimble: alpha was calculated applying the three bare monitor method using {sup 197}Au, {sup 94}Zr and {sup 96}Zr; f determination was done according to the bare bi-isotopic method; neutron temperature was calculated through the direct method using {sup 176}Lu, {sup 94}Zr, {sup 96}Zr and {sup 197}Au and the Westcott's g(Tn) function for the {sup 176}Lu was calculated and the result was interpolated in the Grintakis and Kim (1975) Table, determining the neutron temperature. The procedure to check the parameters consisted in using standard solutions of Au (metal foil, NBS), Lu (LuO{sub 2}, Johnson Mattey Company - JMC) and Zr (ZrO{sub 2} and metal foil, Johnson Mattey Company 99,99% and Zry - 4: 98,14% of Zr, National Bureau of Standard- NBS). Several certified reference materials and two samples of intercomparisons (samples of sediment of the IAEA/ARCAL XXVI project) have been analysed by means of k{sub 0}- INAA in order to verify the efficiency of the method and the quality of the parameters. The certified reference materials were: GXR-2, GXR-5 and GXR-6 of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Soil-5, Soil-7 and SL-1 of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  3. Airbag bounce marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Looking east from the lander, the last few bounce marks as Pathfinder rolled to a stop on July 4 are visible in the soil in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The two most distant marks, identified by pointers in the image, consist of dark patches of disturbed soil. The three closest marks are clearly visible in the foreground, with one easily identifiable behind the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast, is at right. The most distant positively identified bounce mark, indicated by the pointer at right, is approximately 11.3 meters (37 feet) from the lander.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. Visual function and quality of life in patients who had undergone eye removal surgery: a patient survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Warren, Peter J; Mehta, Purnima; Ahluwalia, Harpreet S

    2013-10-01

    To measure aspects of self-reported vision-related health status and assess the impact of treatment in patients who have undergone eye removal surgery (evisceration or enucleation), using a patient administered questionnaire. In this non-randomised, questionnaire-based cohort study, patients were identified from the Artificial Eye Service referral register from 2003 to 2010. A self-administered questionnaire based upon previously published scales was completed to measure aspects of visual function and the impact of treatment. Thirty-six completed questionnaires were obtained. Mean age at surgery was 54.1 years (range 13-90), with 83% male. Indication for eye-removal was trauma in 14(39%) cases. Ten (28%) had ocular co-morbidity in the fellow-eye. The main reported difficulties were with peripheral vision or distance judgements, in 64% patients. The majority of drivers (66%) had maintained the ability to drive. Self-consciousness was reported in 28(78%) patients, and 56% were able to continue work or activities with no perceived limitations. Overall comfort and aesthetic improvement were noted by the majority. Procedure-specific information leaflets for patients were appreciated. This survey increases our knowledge of aspects of vision-related health status following ocular pathology or trauma that requires eye removal, and may enable improved pre-operative patient counselling. Effects on peripheral vision may be noted most significantly, but the majority can continue normal activities with little difficulty. Overall improvement in comfort and appearance occurs in most patients, although feelings of self-consciousness are common.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment and blindness in Korea: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Tyler H T; Nam, Jae S; Choi, Moonjung; Lee, Sung C; Lee, Christopher S

    2014-06-01

    To describe the age, gender specific prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment and blindness in Korea. From 2008 to 2010, a total 14 924 randomly selected national representative participants of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent additional ophthalmologic examinations by the Korean Ophthalmologic Society. Best Corrected Distance Visual Acuity was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale (Jin's vision chart). Independent risk factors for visual impairment were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of visual impairment (≤20/40) of adults 40 years and older was 4.1% (95% CI, 3.6-4.6) based on the better seeing eye. The overall prevalence of blindness (≤20/200) for adults 40 years and older was 0.2% (95% CI, 0.1-0.3). Risk indicators of visual impairment were increasing age, low education status, living in rural area, being unemployed, being without spouse and the absence of private health insurance. The visually impaired were more likely to have eye diseases compared with the normal subjects, and they were less likely to utilize eye care. The prevalence of visual impairment was demonstrated to be higher while that of blindness was similar to previous population studies in Asia or U.S. Sociodemographic disparities are present in the prevalence of visual impairment and more targeted efforts are needed to promote vision screening in high risk groups. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Interview with Mark Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Shaw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Watson is a British comedian and novelist. His five novels to date – 'Bullet Points' (2004, 'A Light-Hearted Look At Murder' (2007, 'Eleven' (2010, 'The Knot' (2012 and 'Hotel Alpha' (2014 – explore human relationships and communities in contemporary society. His latest novel Hotel Alpha tells the story of an extraordinary hotel in London and two mysterious disappearances that raise questions no one seems willing to answer. External to the novel, readers can also discover more about the hotel and its inhabitants in one hundred extra stories that expand the world of the novel and can be found at http://www.hotelalphastories.com. In conversation here with Dr Katy Shaw, Mark offers some reflections on his writing process, the field of contemporary literature, and the vitality of the novel form in the twenty-first century.

  7. Telicity marking in Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kardos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the encoding of telicity in Hungarian. While proposing a mereological, scalar semantic analysis, it shows that Hungarian uses a telicity-marking strategy in which it contrasts with English, where telicity is not the direct consequence of an overt marker but arises as a cumulative effect of specific, well-definable properties of various components of verbal predicates including the head verb and its argument(s. A major contribution of the analysis, which mainly addresses telicity marking in the class of non-creation/non-consumption predicates in neutral sentences, lies in the fact that it reveals important cross-linguistic differences with respect to the aspectual role of verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions and the referential properties of telic verbal predicates. As for the former, it is demonstrated that Hungarian verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions mark telicity by directly placing bounds on events by virtue of serving an event maximalizing function, whereas the English counterparts of these elements do not have such direct event-bounding effects. As for the latter, it emerges that in Hungarian quantized reference is a necessary and sufficient condition for telicity in cases where in English it is only sufficient.

  8. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment in Fundong District, North West Cameroon: Results of a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, Joseph; Mactaggart, Islay; Polack, Sarah; Schmidt, Elena; Tamo, Violet; Okwen, Marvice; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Fundong Health District, North West Cameroon. A total of 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) were sampled with probability proportionate to size and compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. An ophthalmic nurse examined people with VAimpairments were assessed using clinical examination, and self-reported visual problems using the Washington Group Short Set. In total, 4080 people were enumerated of whom 3567 were screened (response rate 87%). The overall prevalence of visual impairment was 2.3% (95% CI 1.8-3.0%) and blindness was 0.6% (0.3-1.0%). The prevalence of both blindness and visual impairment increased rapidly with age, so that the vast majority of cases of visual impairment (84%) and blindness (82%) were in people aged 50+. Posterior segment disease and cataract were the main causes of blindness and visual impairment, with refractive error also an important cause of visual impairment. Cataract surgical coverage (proportion of all cataracts that had received surgery) was relatively high (87% of people at VAvisual impairment, 22% had a physical impairment or epilepsy and 30% had a hearing impairment. Self-reported difficulties in vision were relatively closely related to clinical measures of visual impairment. Ophthalmic programmes in Cameroon need to incorporate control of posterior segment diseases while also working to improve outcomes after cataract surgery.

  9. Recognition of bite marks in child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, S A

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals must be attentive to any and all signs of child maltreatment. Bite marks are one of several visual expressions of active child abuse. The efforts of forensic odontologists, in conjunction with recent technical advancements in bite mark analysis, support the uniqueness of the human dentition and have contributed to the conviction of numerous child abusers. Through recognition, proper documentation, and reporting dentists can help the forensic community use bite marks to solve cases of child maltreatment.

  10. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  11. Visual framing of nanotechnology in newspapers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    discourse, very little research into to the visual communication of science in public has been carried out. Nanotechnology is an emerging scientific discipline that just recently has entered the public sphere. Surveys show that most Europeans and most Americans have very little knowledge about...... nanotechnology. Even so, there is a marked difference between Europeans who generally are cautious, it not skeptical about nanotechnology, and American who seem to have a much more positive attitude towards nanotechnology. Objective This paper surveys visual images used to communicate nanotechnology (and...... nanotechnology-related issues) in the printed press in Denmark from 1993 to 2006. Based on a representative sample of newspaper articles referring to nanotechnology, the survey categorizes and analyzes the images used. Studies have shown that to a high degree newspaper readers use images to navigate...

  12. Extended Essay Marking on Screen: Is Examiner Marking Accuracy Influenced by Marking Mode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin; Hopkin, Rebecca; Shiell, Hannah; Bell, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, large-scale educational assessment agencies are shifting the mode of school examination marking towards having examiners mark examination scripts on screen rather than on paper. This shift has prompted questions about whether the mode of marking might influence examiner marking accuracy, particularly in relation to…

  13. A population-based survey of visual impairment and its correlates in Mahabubnagar district, Telangana State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mactaggart, Islay; Polack, Sarah; Murthy, Gvs; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-12-27

    To estimate the prevalence and correlates of visual impairment in Mahabubnagar district, Telangana, India. Fifty-one clusters of 80 people (all ages) were sampled with probability proportionate to size. Households within clusters were selected through the compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. An Ophthalmic Assistant or Vision Technician examined people with VAvisual impairment and age-sex matched controls with normal vision were interviewed about poverty, employment and education. 4,125 people were enumerated and 3,574 screened (86.6%). The prevalence of visual impairment (VAvisual impairment, and cataract the leading cause of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage (proportion of all cataracts that had received surgery) was relatively low (41% of people at VAvisual impairment, 15% had a moderate/severe physical impairment or epilepsy and 25% had a moderate/severe hearing impairment. Self-reported difficulties in vision were relatively closely related to visual acuity. People with visual impairment were more likely to be in the poorest quartile (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.4) or unemployed (5.0, 2.2-10.0), compared to controls. Visual impairment was common in Mahabubnagar district, was mostly avoidable, and was correlated with poverty markers.

  14. Visual surveys of cetaceans conducted in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2010-08-25 to 2015-09-28 (NCEI Accession 0137906)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of several inter-agency agreements between the National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), visual surveys of...

  15. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  16. A survey of visual function in an Austrian population of school-age children with reading and writing difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClelland Julie F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe and compare visual function measures of two groups of school age children (6-14 years of age attending a specialist eyecare practice in Austria; one group referred to the practice from educational assessment centres diagnosed with reading and writing difficulties and the other, a clinical age-matched control group. Methods Retrospective clinical data from one group of subjects with reading difficulties (n = 825 and a clinical control group of subjects (n = 328 were examined. Statistical analysis was performed to determine whether any differences existed between visual function measures from each group (refractive error, visual acuity, binocular status, accommodative function and reading speed and accuracy. Results Statistical analysis using one way ANOVA demonstrated no differences between the two groups in terms of refractive error and the size or direction of heterophoria at distance (p > 0.05. Using predominately one way ANOVA and chi-square analyses, those subjects in the referred group were statistically more likely to have poorer distance visual acuity, an exophoric deviation at near, a lower amplitude of accommodation, reduced accommodative facility, reduced vergence facility, a reduced near point of convergence, a lower AC/A ratio and a slower reading speed than those in the clinical control group (p Conclusions This study highlights the high proportions of visual function anomalies in a group of children with reading difficulties in an Austrian population. It confirms the importance of a full assessment of binocular visual status in order to detect and remedy these deficits in order to prevent the visual problems continuing to impact upon educational development.

  17. Study protocol: a cross-sectional survey of seasonal affective disorder in Danish populations with and without severe visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2012-01-01

    People with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) experience recurrent seasonal fluctuations in energy, mood and appetite. Retinal light exposure is suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of SAD. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairments or blindness and to compare the results to a control group without visual impairments. Moreover, the authors wish to investigate whether SAD is correlated to the degree of impairment or to the diagnosis. 2781 persons with visual impairments ranging from total blindness to Snellen visual acuity 6/60 receive information letter and questionnaire by post. Completed questionnaires can be returned by post, email or telephone. For each respondent, all eye-related diagnoses will be obtained from national registries. Normally sighted and demographically matched control respondents will be contacted in a similar manner the subsequent winter season. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire rates seasonal variation within the six items: sleep, appetite, social activity, mood, energy and body weight. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire yields a Global Seasonal Score and a prevalence of SAD. Outcomes from the two groups will be compared. Moreover, outcomes from subgroups of the visually impaired population will be compared. The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency. Results will be published in a relevant scientific journal and be communicated to respondents and relevant institutions through cooperation with the Danish Association of the Blind.

  18. Evaluation of pavement marking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the useful life of pavement markings. The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) provides general guidelines for the application and installation of pavement markings. However, performance...

  19. The influence of visual experience on the ability to form spatial mental models based on route and survey descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Zuidhoek, Sander; Postma, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold: the first objective is to evaluate the importance of visual experience for the ability to form a spatial representation (spatial mental model) of fairly elaborate spatial descriptions. Secondly, we examine whether blind people exhibit the same preferences

  20. A survey of visual impairment and blindness in children attending seven schools for the blind in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, James; Hammerton, Michael; Aung, Yee Yee; Warrier, Sunil; Kong, Aimee; Morse, Anna; Holmes, Martin; Yapp, Michael; Hamilton, Carolyn; Selva, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    To determine the causes of visual impairment and blindness amongst children in schools for the blind in Myanmar; to identify the avoidable causes of visual impairment and blindness; and to provide spectacles, low vision aids, orientation and mobility training and ophthalmic treatment where indicated. Two hundred and eight children under 16 years of age from all 7 schools for the blind in Myanmar were examined and the data entered into the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness Examination Record for Childhood Blindness (WHO/PBL ERCB). One hundred and ninety nine children (95.7%) were blind (BL = Visual Acuity [VA] children had corneal abnormalities as the major anatomical site of SVI/BL (100, 49.5%), however the cause of SVI/BL was unknown in the majority (88, 43.6%). Measles keratitis was the commonest identifiable cause (17.4%) and 88 children had avoidable causes of SVI/BL (43.6%). Nearly 16% of children required an optical device and 24.2% required medical attention, with a potential for visual improvement through intervention in 15.8%. Nearly half of the children in schools for the blind in Myanmar had potentially avoidable causes of SVI/BL. With measles being both the commonest identifiable and commonest avoidable cause, the data supports the need for a measles immunization campaign. There is also a need for a dedicated pediatric eye care center with regular ophthalmology visits to the schools, and improved optometric, low vision and orientation and mobility services in Myanmar.

  1. Statistical methods for the forensic analysis of striated tool marks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeksema, Amy Beth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In forensics, fingerprints can be used to uniquely identify suspects in a crime. Similarly, a tool mark left at a crime scene can be used to identify the tool that was used. However, the current practice of identifying matching tool marks involves visual inspection of marks by forensic experts which can be a very subjective process. As a result, declared matches are often successfully challenged in court, so law enforcement agencies are particularly interested in encouraging research in more objective approaches. Our analysis is based on comparisons of profilometry data, essentially depth contours of a tool mark surface taken along a linear path. In current practice, for stronger support of a match or non-match, multiple marks are made in the lab under the same conditions by the suspect tool. We propose the use of a likelihood ratio test to analyze the difference between a sample of comparisons of lab tool marks to a field tool mark, against a sample of comparisons of two lab tool marks. Chumbley et al. (2010) point out that the angle of incidence between the tool and the marked surface can have a substantial impact on the tool mark and on the effectiveness of both manual and algorithmic matching procedures. To better address this problem, we describe how the analysis can be enhanced to model the effect of tool angle and allow for angle estimation for a tool mark left at a crime scene. With sufficient development, such methods may lead to more defensible forensic analyses.

  2. Normalized medical information visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.

  3. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yuli; Shin, Jeong Ah; Yang, Suk Woo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Seung; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI) using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2012) data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA) which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale. Results 28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376) were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25) group based on the better or worse seeing eye (Pimpaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality) and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective perception and better management of health condition. PMID:26192763

  4. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  5. A survey of visual impairment and blindness in children attending four schools for the blind in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, David I T; Muecke, James; Hammerton, Michael; Ngy, Meng; Kong, Aimee; Morse, Anna; Holmes, Martin; Piseth, Horm; Hamilton, Carolyn; Selva, Dinesh

    2010-08-01

    To identify the causes of blindness and severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) in children attending four schools for the blind in Cambodia and to provide spectacles, low vision aids, orientation and mobility training and ophthalmic treatment. Children blind in Cambodia. Causes of visual impairment and blindness were determined and categorized using World Health Organization methods. Of the 95 children examined, 54.7% were blind (BL) and 10.5% were severely visually impaired (SVI). The major anatomical site of BL/SVI was the lens in 27.4%, cornea in 25.8%, retina in 21% and whole globe in 17.7%. The major underlying etiologies of BL/SVI were hereditary factors (mainly cataract and retinal dystrophies) in 45.2%, undetermined/unknown (mainly microphthalmia and anterior segment dysgenesis) in 38.7% and childhood factors in 11.3%. Avoidable causes of BL/SVI accounted for 50% of the cases; 12.9% of the total were preventable with measles being the commonest cause (8.1% of the total); 37.1% were treatable with cataracts and glaucoma being the commonest causes (22.6% and 4.8% respectively). More than 35% of children required an optical device and 27.4% had potential for visual improvement with intervention. Half of the BL/SVI causes were potentially avoidable. The data support the need for increased coverage of measles immunization. There is also a need to develop specialized pediatric ophthalmic services for the management of surgically remediable conditions, to provide optometric, low vision and orientation and mobility services. Genetic risk counseling services also may be considered.

  6. Cetaceans occurrence visual monitoring during seismic survey in the North of Campos Basin; Monitoramento visual de ocorrencia de cetaceos durante o levantamento de dados sismicos no norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor, Karina C.A.; Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A. [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to present the results of the marine biota visual monitoring developed during the seismic survey in the north area of Campos Basin. The monitoring lasted five months, between 14 February and 14 July 2007, reaching, on average, eleven hours and fifty one minutes of sign effort per day. It was conducted by fourteen marine biota catch sign, three for each period of boarding, that took over during all period of the activity. Sixty two cetaceans were registered, eight belonging to suborder Odontoceti and four belonging to suborder Mysticeti. Tursiops truncatus was the predominant species in number of registers, followed by Megaptera novaeangliae. It's important to report that during all seismic activity period there wasn't any cetacean register presenting any behavior disturbance. (author)

  7. An Approach to Mark Arthropods for Mark Capture Type Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of studies were conducted to validate methods for marking a wide variety of arthropods with inexpensive proteins for mark-capture dispersal research. The markers tested included egg albumin protein in chicken egg whites and casein protein in bovine milk. The first study qualified the effec...

  8. Laser marking as environment technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotova, Lydia; Badida, Miroslav

    2017-11-01

    The contribution deals with the laser marking as one of the progressive and environment friendly technologies with utilisation in many branches of industry. Engraving and other types of laser marking of different types of materials are very actual technologies these days. Laser marking decreases the waste creation in comparison with the other classical marking technologies, which use paintings or created chips. In this experimental investigation the laser marking surface texturing of material AL99,7 according to STN 42 4003:1993-08 (STN EN 573) has been conducted. The laser marking machine TruMark 6020 and software TruTops Mark were used. Laser surface texturing after laser marking has been realised under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of engraving or annealing surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The evaluation of roughness of engraved surfaces has been realized according to STN EN ISO 4287 by using Surftest SJ 301. The aim of the contribution was to show how different laser parameters affect the surface texture and colour change of metallic materials while creating minimal waste.

  9. A survey of severe visual impairment and blindness in children attending thirteen schools for the blind in sri lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zoe; Muecke, James; Edussuriya, Kapila; Dayawansa, Ranasiri; Hammerton, Michael; Kong, Aimee; Sennanayake, Saman; Senaratne, Tissa; Marasinghe, Nirosha; Selva, Dinesh

    2011-02-01

    To identify the causes of blindness and severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) in children attending schools for the blind in Sri Lanka, and to provide optical devices and ophthalmic treatment where indicated. Two hundred and six children under 16 years from 13 schools for the blind in Sri Lanka were examined by a team of ophthalmologists and optometrists. Data were entered in the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness Eye Examination Record for Childhood Blindness (WHO/PBL ERCB). Of the 206 children, 83.5% were blind (BL = Visual acuity [VA] children required an optical device to improve their vision. Just over one third of the children in schools for the blind in Sri Lanka had potentially avoidable causes of BL/SVI. Vision could also be improved in a third of children. The data support the need to develop specialized pediatric ophthalmic services, particularly in the face of advancing neonatal life support in Sri Lanka, and the need for increased provision of optical support.

  10. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.

    2011-09-07

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  11. Accounting for the uncertainty related to building occupants with regards to visual comfort: A literature survey on drivers and models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    energy use during the design stage. Since the reaction to thermal, acoustic, or visual stimuli is not the same for every human being, monitoring the behaviour inside buildings is an essential step to assert differences in energy consumption related to different interactions. Reliable information...... conditions influence occupants' manual controlling of the system in offices and by consequence the energy consumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible drivers for light-switching to model occupant behaviour in office buildings. The probability of switching lighting systems on or off......The interactions between building occupants and control systems have a high influence on energy consumption and on indoor environmental quality. In the perspective of a future of "nearly-zero" energy buildings, it is crucial to analyse the energy-related interactions deeply to predict realistic...

  12. An innovative road marking quality assessment mechanism using computer vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic quality acceptance for road marking works has been relied on subjective visual examination. Due to a lack of quantitative operation procedures, acceptance outcome can be biased and results in great quality variation. To improve aesthetic quality acceptance procedure of road marking, we develop an innovative road marking quality assessment mechanism, utilizing machine vision technologies. Using edge smoothness as a quantitative aesthetic indicator, the proposed prototype system first receives digital images of finished road marking surface and has the images processed and analyzed to capture the geometric characteristics of the marking. The geometric characteristics are then evaluated to determine the quality level of the finished work. System is demonstrated through two real cases to show how it works. In the end, a test comparing the assessment results between the proposed system and expert inspection is conducted to enhance the accountability of the proposed mechanism.

  13. Cavernous hemangioma presenting marked hyperostosis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobata, Hitoshi; Miyake, Hiroji; Kitamura, Junji; Kajikawa, Hiroshi; Ohta, Tomio

    1988-02-01

    The authors report here a case of hemangioma of the left parietal bone which presented headache and papilledema. This patient is a 37-year-old female who had, prior to admission, complained of increasing headache for one year and blurred vision for three months. She had no history of head injury. Local physical examinations revealed a slight bulging in her left parietal region which was insensitive to palpation and not adherent to the overlying scalp. Neurological examinations revealed bilateral papilledema and an incongruous bitemporal upper quadrant defect in the visual field. All the other neurological and laboratory data were normal. A plain skull roentogenogram showed a 9 x 9 cm osteolytic and characteristic honeycomb lesion in the parietal region. Systemic bone survey revealed a similar lesion in the right tibia which was not histologically examined. A marked accumulation of isotopes was detected on the bone scintigrams at both lesions. Selective external carotid angiograms demonstrated a tumor stain fed by the superficial temporal, occipital, and middle meningial arteries. CT scans of the brain and skull clearly showed a local thickening of and structural changes in the skull bone and also a mass effect on the brain and lateral ventricle. The lesioned bone was removed en bloc and replaced by an artificial bone. It was highly vascular, but not adherent to the overlying dura. The post-operative course was uneventful, and the headache and papilledema disappeared. Hemangioma of the skull presenting marked hyperostosis, as reported above, seems to be rare. In addition, in this case, skeletal angioma without any clinical manifestation was detected. Clinical and radiological pictures of the hemangioma of the skull and other bones were briefly discussed.

  14. Attention and visual memory in visualization and computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Christopher G; Enns, James T

    2012-07-01

    A fundamental goal of visualization is to produce images of data that support visual analysis, exploration, and discovery of novel insights. An important consideration during visualization design is the role of human visual perception. How we "see" details in an image can directly impact a viewer's efficiency and effectiveness. This paper surveys research on attention and visual perception, with a specific focus on results that have direct relevance to visualization and visual analytics. We discuss theories of low-level visual perception, then show how these findings form a foundation for more recent work on visual memory and visual attention. We conclude with a brief overview of how knowledge of visual attention and visual memory is being applied in visualization and graphics. We also discuss how challenges in visualization are motivating research in psychophysics.

  15. Intensity of territorial marking predicts wolf reproduction: implications for wolf monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Llaneza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The implementation of intensive and complex approaches to monitor large carnivores is resource demanding, restricted to endangered species, small populations, or small distribution ranges. Wolf monitoring over large spatial scales is difficult, but the management of such contentious species requires regular estimations of abundance to guide decision-makers. The integration of wolf marking behaviour with simple sign counts may offer a cost-effective alternative to monitor the status of wolf populations over large spatial scales. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a multi-sampling approach, based on the collection of visual and scent wolf marks (faeces and ground scratching and the assessment of wolf reproduction using howling and observation points, to test whether the intensity of marking behaviour around the pup-rearing period (summer-autumn could reflect wolf reproduction. Between 1994 and 2007 we collected 1,964 wolf marks in a total of 1,877 km surveyed and we searched for the pups' presence (1,497 howling and 307 observations points in 42 sampling sites with a regular presence of wolves (120 sampling sites/year. The number of wolf marks was ca. 3 times higher in sites with a confirmed presence of pups (20.3 vs. 7.2 marks. We found a significant relationship between the number of wolf marks (mean and maximum relative abundance index and the probability of wolf reproduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This research establishes a real-time relationship between the intensity of wolf marking behaviour and wolf reproduction. We suggest a conservative cutting point of 0.60 for the probability of wolf reproduction to monitor wolves on a regional scale combined with the use of the mean relative abundance index of wolf marks in a given area. We show how the integration of wolf behaviour with simple sampling procedures permit rapid, real-time, and cost-effective assessments of the breeding status of wolf packs with substantial

  16. Eesti vajab riigiarhitekti / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Linnade tekkimisest Eestis, linnaehitusest ja linnaplaneerimisest. Pärnu muinsuskaitsealast ja uute korruselamute ehitamisest. Arhitektuuriameti loomise ja riigiarhitekti ametikoha vajalikkusest. Kommenteerivad Ülar Mark, Triin Ojari, Harry Liivrand, Karin Paulus

  17. THE EDUCATION OF MARK ZUCKERBERG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert Safian

    2012-01-01

    ... do?" This was before The Sodai Network, before Facebook was a global phenomenon, before Mark Zuckerberg was famous. McGirt decided against the ambush and'got her interview the next day Thus began...

  18. Mark Tompkins, Livin' is Deadly

    OpenAIRE

    Ginot, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Cet article rend compte de la longue fréquentation du spectacle " Hommages " de Mark Tompkins, composé de quatre solos hommages à quatre figures de la danse : Nijinski, Valeska Gert, Joséphine Baker et Harry Sheppard. Il est écrit sous une forme fictionnelle qui croise la parole de Mark Tompkins, celle de ses personnages et celle de l'auteure de l'article.

  19. Visualizing thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara

    2011-07-01

    Depictive expressions of thought predate written language by thousands of years. They have evolved in communities through a kind of informal user testing that has refined them. Analyzing common visual communications reveals consistencies that illuminate how people think as well as guide design; the process can be brought into the laboratory and accelerated. Like language, visual communications abstract and schematize; unlike language, they use properties of the page (e.g., proximity and place: center, horizontal/up-down, vertical/left-right) and the marks on it (e.g., dots, lines, arrows, boxes, blobs, likenesses, symbols) to convey meanings. The visual expressions of these meanings (e.g., individual, category, order, relation, correspondence, continuum, hierarchy) have analogs in language, gesture, and especially in the patterns that are created when people design the world around them, arranging things into piles and rows and hierarchies and arrays, spatial-abstraction-action interconnections termed spractions. The designed world is a diagram. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. The Levels of Visual Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Dimitrova, Daniela V.

    2011-01-01

    While framing research has centered mostly on the evaluations of media texts, visual news discourse has remained relatively unexamined. This study surveys the visual framing techniques and methods employed in previous studies and proposes a four-tiered model of identifying and analyzing visual frames: (1) visuals as denotative systems, (2) visuals…

  1. Water Column Methane Bubble Stream Data Analysis and Visualization from a Survey of the U.S. Cascadia Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, S. G.; Embley, R. W.; Raineault, N.; Johnson, H. P.; Sampaga, E.; Baumberger, T.; Lau, T. K. A.

    2016-12-01

    A major objective of cruise NA072 on the E/V Nautilus (operated by Ocean Exploration Trust Inc.), in June 2016, was to begin developing a baseline of methane bubble streams rising from the seafloor along the U. S. Cascadia continental margin (Washington, Oregon and northern California). The E/V Nautilus is equipped with a Kongsberg EM302 system (30 kHz) that collects seafloor bathymetry and backscatter data and concurrently insonifies the water column, allowing the detection and mapping of gas bubble streams rising from the seafloor. Preliminary analysis of the water column data detected more than 450 (presumptive) methane bubble streams, the large majority of which were not previously known. Newly-discovered methane bubble stream emission sites range in depth from 125 to 1640 meters. Water column data were analyzed using the QPS Fledermaus FMMidwater software using several modes. The FMMidwater method allowed for subjectively hand-picking ("geo-picking") bubble stream positions directly from the 2D display. The second method was the creation of geo-referenced 3D point cluster objects that could be loaded into the Fledermaus program and overlain on seafloor bathymetry or backscatter data. The point cluster objects were interactively created by threshold filtering based on acoustic amplitude values of the bubbles in the water column data. The third, a more automated method, used the FMMidwater Feature Detection plugin to create 3D point cluster objects that could be located in batch mode analysis. The three methods of data analysis are compared in this study. A small portion of the EM302 data collected on the E/V Nautilus will be compared to data collected in the same area with an EM710 (70 kHz) system on the NOAA ship Rainier in May 2016. That analysis examines the effect of the sonar frequency on bubble plume detection. Examples of the variety of methane bubble plumes discovered on the E/V Nautilus expedition will be presented in 2D and 3D visualizations.

  2. A Novel Marking Reader for Progressive Addition Lenses Based on Gabor Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucho, Beatriz; Picazo-Bueno, José Angel; Micó, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Progressive addition lenses (PALs) are marked with permanent engraved marks (PEMs) at standardized locations. Permanent engraved marks are very useful through the manufacturing and mounting processes, act as locator marks to re-ink the removable marks, and contain useful information about the PAL. However, PEMs are often faint and weak, obscured by scratches, partially occluded, and difficult to recognize on tinted lenses or with antireflection or scratch-resistant coatings. The aim of this article is to present a new generation of portable marking reader based on an extremely simplified concept for visualization and identification of PEMs in PALs. Permanent engraved marks on different PALs are visualized using classical Gabor holography as underlying principle. Gabor holography allows phase sample visualization with adjustable magnification and can be implemented in either classical or digital versions. Here, visual Gabor holography is used to provide a magnified defocused image of the PEMs onto a translucent visualization screen where the PEM is clearly identified. Different types of PALs (conventional, personalized, old and scratched, sunglasses, etc.) have been tested to visualize PEMs with the proposed marking reader. The PEMs are visible in every case, and variable magnification factor can be achieved simply moving up and down the PAL in the instrument. In addition, a second illumination wavelength is also tested, showing the applicability of this novel marking reader for different illuminations. A new concept of marking reader ophthalmic instrument has been presented and validated in the laboratory. The configuration involves only a commercial-grade laser diode and a visualization screen for PEM identification. The instrument is portable, economic, and easy to use, and it can be used for identifying patient's current PAL model and for marking removable PALs again or finding test points regardless of the age of the PAL, its scratches, tints, or coatings.

  3. Identifying and preserving high-water mark data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Todd A.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; O'Connor, Jim; McGee, Benton D.; Holmes, Robert R.; Hollins, Ryan; Forbes, Brandon T.; Kohn, Michael S.; Schellekens, Mathew; Martin, Zachary W.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2016-03-08

    High-water marks provide valuable data for understanding recent and historical flood events. The proper collection and recording of high-water mark data from perishable and preserved evidence informs flood assessments, research, and water resource management. Given the high cost of flooding in developed areas, experienced hydrographers, using the best available techniques, can contribute high-quality data toward efforts such as public education of flood risk, flood inundation mapping, flood frequency computations, indirect streamflow measurement, and hazard assessments.This manual presents guidance for skilled high-water mark identification, including marks left behind in natural and man-made environments by tranquil and rapid flowing water. This manual also presents pitfalls and challenges associated with various types of flood evidence that help hydrographers identify the best high-water marks and assess the uncertainty associated with a given mark. Proficient high-water mark data collection contributes to better understanding of the flooding process and reduces risk through greater ability to estimate flood probability.The U.S. Geological Survey, operating the Nation’s premier water data collection network, encourages readers of this manual to familiarize themselves with the art and science of high-water mark collection. The U.S. Geological survey maintains a national database at http://water.usgs.gov/floods/FEV/ that includes high-water mark information for many flood events, and local U.S. Geological Survey Water Science Centers can provide information to interested readers about participation in data collection and flood documentation efforts as volunteers or observers.

  4. Vastab Mark Lubotski / Mark Lubotski ; interv. Toomas Velmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lubotski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Hamburgi Muusikakõrgkooli viiuliprofessor Mark Lubotskist, kes viibis Tallinnas oktoobris 2008 ja oli IV rahvusvahelise Heino Elleri nimelise viiuldajate konkursi žürii esimeheks. Tema sidemetest Eesti muusikutega, pagemisest Läände, Heino Elleri nimelisest konkursist ja tööst žüriis

  5. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  6. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Longyao County of Hebei Province:the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jian-hua; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Shan-yu; Han, Dong; Yan, Zhong-yang; Zhang, Hong-bin; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Longyao County, Hebei Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5527 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Longyao County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and twenty-seven individuals were enumerated and 5051 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.05% (53/5051) and 3.46% (175/5051) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.48% (75/5051) and 7.94% (401/5051) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 897.27, P = 0.000) , female (χ(2) = 30.32, P = 0.000), illiterate (trend χ(2) = 83.20, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness. Un-corrected refractive error also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe

  7. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Luxi County of Yunnan Province: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ning; Yuan, Yuan-sheng; Zhao, Jia-liang; Zhong, Hua; Ellwein, Leon B; Chen, Miao-miao; Dan, Ai-hua; Sun, Peng; Luo, Ting-hao; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County of Yunnan Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5575 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and seventy-five individuals were enumerated and 5151 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 4.95% (255/5151) and 9.51% (490/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 5.40% (278/5151) and 15.84% (816/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (χ(2) = 1349.21, P = 0.000) , illiterate (χ(2) = 203.55, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is highest in China Nine-Province Survey among older adults aged ≥ 50 years

  8. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  9. [Migraine with visual aura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidot, S; Biotti, D

    2016-06-01

    Migraine with visual aura is marked by recurrent episodes of transient visual disturbance, often followed by headaches. Its pathophysiology has not been fully understood, but visual auras might be related to a self-propagating wave of cortical depolarization called "cortical spreading depression", triggering a trigemino-vascular "storm" ultimately leading to headaches. The most specific visual symptom is the "fortification spectrum" consisting of glimmering jagged lines spreading from the center to the periphery, and leaving a transient scotoma in its wake. Other visual symptoms are numerous, ranging from elementary positive or negative visual phenomena to complex and elaborate hallucinations. The diagnosis can be made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders revised in 2013. The main goal of the treatment is to relieve the patient's pain quickly and to decrease the frequency of the episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Park

    Full Text Available To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample.Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012 data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale.28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376 were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25 group based on the better or worse seeing eye (P<.0001 and P<.0001, respectively. Participants with moderate (VA 20/80-20/160 and severe VI (VA ≤20/200 had higher scores of multivariate-adjusted odd ratios (aORs for the lowest quintile than did the normal vision group which was particularly evident in the results from EQ-5D, whereas the results of the mild VI (VA 20/32-20/63 group did not identify significant differences from the normal vision group independent of classification according to the better or the worse seeing eye. Conversely, EQ-VAS revealed significantly higher score of multivariate-aORs for the lowest quintile in participants with mild VI either for the better or worse seeing eye.The severity of VI was definitely associated with impaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective

  11. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xian-zhi; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Wei, Bin; Chen, Jing; Ye, Ying; Tang, Xiao-dong; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5714 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to received visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands seven hundreds and fourteen individuals were enumerated and 5250 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.88%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 0.74% (39/5250) and 3.83% (201/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.33% (70/5250) and 8.02% (421/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 617.06, P = 0.000) , illiterate (trend χ(2) = 222.35, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract and was the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment, the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy, and diabetic retinopathy, were the

  12. A narratological analysis of Mark 12:1-12: The plot of the Gospel of Mark in a nutshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. van Eck

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is an attempt to read Mark 12: 1-12 in terms of the plot of the Gospel. Firstly a brief survey is given of the development of the term plot from Aristotle to the present, thereafter an own methodological point of departure concerning plot is formulated in order to study the plot of Mark. The conclusions made from this are used to indicate how Mark 12: 1-12 fits into the plot of the Gospel and what functional role it plays in the development of the plot. The conclusion reached is that Mark 12: 1-12 contains the plot of Mark in a nutshell.

  13. Recommendation ''geotechnical and mine surveying based investigation and evaluation of abandoned mines''; Empfehlung ''Geotechnisch-mark-scheiderische Untersuchung und Bewertung von Altbergbau''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, G. [DGGT e.V. (Germany); DMV e.V. (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    Under the roof of the working group 4.6 of the specialized section 'Engineering Geology' of the German Geotechnical Society (DGGT), specialists from educational and research institutions, authorities, engineering companies as well as mining industry and restoration companies gathered their various experiences in the field of the investigation and evaluation of abandoned mines in Germany. It was the objective of the working group to compile a recommendation which describes the present, the state of the art appropriate procedure concerning the investigation and evaluation of abandoned mines. The recommendation presented in this paper is to support above all engineering consultants and specialized companies, but also authorities, when planning, accomplishing and documenting geotechnical and mine surveying based investigations and evaluations of abandoned mines. (orig.)

  14. Spear-Marked Black Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Bruce H. Baker

    1977-01-01

    The spear-marked black moth, Rheumaptera hastata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a serious defoliator of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) in interior Alaska. Epidemic populations have occurred at 15- to 17- year intervals, persisted for 2 years, and then collapsed. Recorded outbreaks occurred in 1941, acreage unknown; from 1957 to 1958, 5 million acres (2...

  15. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  16. Prosodic focus marking in Bai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.Z.H.; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  17. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yongchuan District of Chongqing City: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zheng-qin; Zhao, Jia-liang; Li, Ping-hua; Ellwein, Leon b; Song, Sheng-fang; Li, Fu-liang; Wang, Ting-gang; Ren, Yi-ming; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yongchuan of Chongqing City, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5663 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Yongchuan District. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands six hundreds and sixty-three individuals were enumerated and 5390 persons were examined, the response rate was 95.18%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.12% (114/5390) and 5.40% (291/5390) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.49% (134/5390) and 10.71% (577/5390) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 951.32, P = 0.000) , female (χ(2) = 33.35, P = 0.000) and illiterate (trend χ(2) equals; 141.32, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.Un-corrected refractive error also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence

  18. Progress in Scientific Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N

    2004-11-15

    Visualization of observed data or simulation output is important to science and engineering. I have been particularly interested in visualizing 3-D structures, and report here my personal impressions on progress in the last 20 years in visualizing molecules, scalar fields, and vector fields and their associated flows. I have tried to keep the survey and list of references manageable, so apologize to those authors whose techniques I have not mentioned, or have described without a reference citation.

  19. Visual Checking of Spreadsheets

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ying; Chan, Hock Chuan

    2008-01-01

    The difference between surface and deep structures of a spreadsheet is a major cause of difficulty in checking spreadsheets. After a brief survey of current methods of checking (or debugging) spreadsheets, new visual methods of showing the deep structures are presented. Illustrations are given on how these visual methods can be employed in various interactive local and global debugging strategies.

  20. Automated road marking recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, R. R.; Shigabiev, R. R.; Talipov, D. N.

    2017-09-01

    Development of the automated road marking recognition systems in existing and future vehicles control systems is an urgent task. One way to implement such systems is the use of neural networks. To test the possibility of using neural network software has been developed with the use of a single-layer perceptron. The resulting system based on neural network has successfully coped with the task both when driving in the daytime and at night.

  1. Pavement Marking Types and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev 2-89) Prescr:bed by ANSI Sid 139-18 298- 102 PREFACF This project was sponsored by the Headquarters, US Army...they are the cost and performance standard used to compare all other marking types. 17. There are several methods that may be employed to classify...rubber base which is usually a chlorinated rubber, drying oil varnish or modified alkyd known as oleoresin , and water based materials (US Department

  2. [A prevalence survey of blindness and visual impairment in adults aged equal or more than 60 years in Beixinjing blocks of Shanghai, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-bo; Zou, Hai-dong; Wang, Ning; Wang, Wei-wei; Fu, Jiong; Shen, Bin-jie; Xie, Tian-hua; Chen, Yi-hui; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xi

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence rate of blindness and low vision and the leading cause of blindness in residents aged > or = 60 years in Beixinjing blocks, Shanghai. A cross-sectional study was carried out by Shanghai First People's Hospital, affiliated Shanghai Jiaotong University and Shanghai Beixinjing Community hospital from November 2007 to April 2008. Randomly cluster sampling method was used, and all the individuals aged > or = 60 years in 8 communities from Beixinjing blocks, Shanghai was enrolled in this study. The pinhole visual acuity and presenting visual acuity were measured separately in each eye. External eye, anterior segment and ocular fundus were examined by the ophthalmologist using slit lamp-microscopes, direct ophthalmoscopy and non-mydriatic digital camara. Assigned ophthalmologic doctors assured the leading blind causes of every blind person. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. 3851 individuals were examined, and the response rate was 92.73%. According to WHO diagnostic criteria: 29 persons were diagnosed as blindness, 11 male (37.93%) and 18 female (62.07%). 104 persons were diagnosed as low vision, 37 male (35.58%) and 67 female (64.42%). The prevalence rates of blindness and low vision were 0.75% and 2.70%. The leading causes of blindness were macular degeneration, cataract, corneal diseases, and retinal detachment. According to presenting vision diagnostic criteria: 61 persons were diagnosed as severe binocular blindness, 20 male (32.79%) and 41 female (67.21%). 66 persons were diagnosed as slight binocular blindness, 27 male (40.91%) and 39 female (59.09%). 276 persons were diagnosed as monocular blindness, 120 male (43.48%) and 156 female (56.52%). The prevalence of severe binocular blindness, slight binocular blindness and monocular blindness was 1.58%, 1.71% and 7.17%, respectively. The leading causes of blindness were macular degeneration

  3. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  4. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  5. Mark Twain: inocente ou pecador? = Mark Twain: innocent or sinner?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helou Doca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A leitura cuidadosa do texto do “Tratado de Paris”, em 1900, leva Mark Twain a concluir que a intenção política norte-americana era, claramente, a de subjugação. Declara-se, abertamente, antiimperialista, nesse momento, apesar das inúmeras críticasrecebidas por antagonistas políticos que defendiam o establishment dos Estados Unidos. Após viajar para a Europa e Oriente, em 1867, como correspondente do jornal Daily Alta Califórnia, Mark Twain publica, em 1869, seu relato de viagem, The Innocents Abroad or TheNew Pilgrim’s Progress. Nosso estudo demonstra que o autor, apesar das diversas máscaras usadas em seus relatos, narra histórias, culturas e tradições, tanto da Europa quanto do Oriente, já com os olhos bem abertos pelo viés antiimperialista. Faz uso da paródia, sátira, ironia e humor para dessacralizar impérios, monarcas e a Igreja que subjugavam os mais fracos, iluminando, desde então, os estudos sobre culturas. Nosso estudo, outrossim, faz uma reflexão sobre cultura, tradição e o olhar do viajante, justificando o “olhar inocente” do narrador em seu relato.After carefully reading the Treaty of Paris in 1900, Mark Twain concluded that the goal of U.S. policy was clearly one ofsubjugation. He openly declared himself an anti-imperialist at that time, in spite of the numerous criticisms he received from political opponents who supported the United States status quo. After traveling to Europe and the East in 1867 as a correspondent for The DailyAlta California newspaper, Mark Twain published his travel report, The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrim’s Progress in 1869. Our study demonstrates that the author, in spite of using different guises in his reports, narrated histories, cultures and traditions – from both Europe and the East – with a viewpoint already imbued by his anti-imperialistic ideals. Twain made use of parody, satire, irony and humor within his texts in order to desecrate empires,monarchs and

  6. Survey of Network Visualization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The Fruchterman Reingold energy model is good for producing layouts that fulfill certain esthetic criteria like uniform edge length. CCVisu stores...we demonstrate the use of our method to explore financial correlation data for the U.S. stock market in the period from 1990 to 2005. The user can...easily analyze the time-varying correlation graph of the market , uncovering information such as market sector trends, representative stocks for

  7. The Young Visual Binary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  8. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in a rural North-east China adult population: a population-based survey in Bin County, Harbin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wulian; Sun, Xian; Shao, Zhengbo; Zhou, Xinrong; Kang, Yang; Sui, Hong; Yuan, Huiping

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in a rural population in north-east China.   A population-based study was conducted within Bin County, Harbin of north-east China. Low vision and blindness were defined using the World Health Organization categories of visual impairment. The prevalence of visual impairment was estimated, and causes were identified based on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as well as presenting visual acuity (VA). Out of 5764 people, 4956 (86.01%) aged older than 40 participated in the study. The prevalence of visual impairment, low vision and blindness based on presenting VA was 9.6% (BCVA, 6.6%), 7.7% (BCVA, 4.9%) and 1.9% (BCVA, 1.7%), respectively. Taking the presenting VA, cataract (44%) was the most common cause for visual impairment followed by uncorrected refractive error (24%), treatable causes of visual impairment accounted for 68% of the total cases. Cataract (59%) and glaucoma (15%) were leading causes for blindness based on presenting VA. According to BCVA, cataract was the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness (58% and 60%, respectively), followed by glaucoma (17% and 15%, respectively). The prevalence of visual impairment was higher among women than men (pVisual impairment was a serious public health problem in this rural population, with most of it easily remedied. Results highlighted the need for visual impairment prevention programs to an increasing number of elderly people, with a special emphasis on female and those with little or no education. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  9. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... buoys. (b) Sidemarks are lateral marks which advise the mariner to stay to one side of the mark. Their.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks.... Preferred channel marks have red and green horizontal bands with the color of the topmost band indicating...

  10. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007).

  11. Population-based survey of prevalence, causes, and risk factors for blindness and visual impairment in an aging Chinese metropolitan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-Yan; Yan, Liang; Chen, Yong-Dong; Du, Xin-Hua; Li, Ting-Ting; Liu, De-An; Xu, Dong-Hong; Huang, Yi-Min; Wu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence, causes, and risk factors for blindness and visual impairment among elderly (≥60 years of age) Chinese people in a metropolitan area of Shanghai, China. Random cluster sampling was conducted to identify participants among residents ≥60 years of age living in the Xietu Block, Xuhui District, Shanghai, China. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were checked by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual chart. All eligible participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination. Blindness and visual impairment were defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. A total of 4190 persons (1688 men and 2502 women) participated in the study, and the response rate was 91.1%. Based on PVA, the prevalence of blindness was 1.1% and that of visual impairment was 7.6%. Based on BCVA, the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment decreased to 0.9% and 3.9%, respectively. Older (≥80 years of age) women, with low educational levels and smoking habits, exhibited a significantly greater chance for blindness and visual impairment than did those with high educational levels and no smoking habits (P<0.05). Based on PVA and BCVA, the main causes of blindness were cataract, myopic maculopathy, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our findings help to identify the population in need of intervention, to highlight the need for additional eye healthcare services in urban China.

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Visualization in Physics FOCUS ON VISUALIZATION IN PHYSICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barry C.; Senden, Tim; Springel, Volker

    2008-12-01

    the following features highlighting work in this collection and other novel uses of visualization techniques: 'A feast of visualization' Physics World December 2008 pp 20 23 'Seeing the quantum world' by Barry Sanders Physics World December 2008 pp 24 27 'A picture of the cosmos' by Mark SubbaRao and Miguel Aragon-Calvo Physics World December 2008 pp 29 32 'Thinking outside the cube' by César A Hidalgo Physics World December 2008 pp 34 37 Focus on Visualization in Physics Contents Visualization of spiral and scroll waves in simulated and experimental cardiac tissue E M Cherry and F H Fenton Visualization of large scale structure from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey M U SubbaRao, M A Aragón-Calvo, H W Chen, J M Quashnock, A S Szalay and D G York How computers can help us in creating an intuitive access to relativity Hanns Ruder, Daniel Weiskopf, Hans-Peter Nollert and Thomas Müller Lagrangian particle tracking in three dimensions via single-camera in-line digital holography Jiang Lu, Jacob P Fugal, Hansen Nordsiek, Ewe Wei Saw, Raymond A Shaw and Weidong Yang Quantifying spatial heterogeneity from images Andrew E Pomerantz and Yi-Qiao Song Disaggregation and scientific visualization of earthscapes considering trends and spatial dependence structures S Grunwald Strength through structure: visualization and local assessment of the trabecular bone structure C Räth, R Monetti, J Bauer, I Sidorenko, D Müller, M Matsuura, E-M Lochmüller, P Zysset and F Eckstein Thermonuclear supernovae: a multi-scale astrophysical problem challenging numerical simulations and visualization F K Röpke and R Bruckschen Visualization needs and techniques for astrophysical simulations W Kapferer and T Riser Flow visualization and field line advection in computational fluid dynamics: application to magnetic fields and turbulent flows Pablo Mininni, Ed Lee, Alan Norton and John Clyne Splotch: visualizing cosmological simulations K Dolag, M Reinecke, C Gheller and S Imboden Visualizing a silicon

  13. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Trifonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  14. AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF ROAD MARKINGS FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  15. Automatic Extraction of Road Markings from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Pei, Z.; Wei, Z.; Zhong, R.

    2017-09-01

    Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  16. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply......The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transporta- tion is essential for achieving politically agreed upon emissions re- duction targets that aim to combat global climate change. So-called eco-routing and eco-driving are able to substantially reduce GHG emissions caused by vehicular...

  17. Visual involvement in corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Rithwick; Bateman, Randall; Van Stavern, Gregory P

    2012-12-01

    Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is the clinical presentation of corticobasal degeneration (CBD), a rare neurodegenerative disorder, with features of both cerebral and basal ganglia involvement. Visual disturbance is uncommonly a predominant symptom but when present can be markedly debilitating. Visual findings primarily manifest as oculomotor apraxia, but significant cognitive impairment may result in the inability to process visuospatial information and can result in simultagnosia and visuomotor ataxia. A 60-year-old woman with a history of CBS presented with progressive visual impairment. Her symptoms were primarily due to severe oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and pronounced simultagnosia. We present the case and review the literature regarding visual dysfunction in CBS.

  18. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  19. Cooperative Shark Mark Recapture Database (MRDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shark Mark Recapture Database is a Cooperative Research Program database system used to keep multispecies mark-recapture information in a common format for...

  20. EDMS - Reaching the Million Mark

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    When Christophe Seith from the company Cegelec sat down to work on 14 May 2009 at 10:09 a.m. to create the EDMS document entitled "Rapport tournée PH semaine 20", little did he know that he would be the proud creator of the millionth EDMS document and the happy prize winner of a celebratory bottle of champagne to mark the occasion. In the run up to the creation of the millionth EDMS document the EDMS team had been closely monitoring the steady rise in the EDMS number generator, so as to ensure the switch from the six figured i.d. to seven figures would run smoothly and of course, to be able to congratulate the creator of the millionth EDMS document. From left to right: Stephan Petit (GS-ASE- EDS Section Leader), Christophe Delamare (GS- ASE Group Leader), Christophe Seith, creator of the millionth EDMS document, David Widegren, (GS-ASE- EPS Section Leader). The millionth EDMS document. For t...

  1. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval marking. 7.29 Section 7.29 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... makes such marking impractical, permanent paint or ink may be used to mark the edge with an MSHA...

  2. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking containers. 160.32 Section 160.32 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have been...

  3. 27 CFR 24.259 - Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....259 Marks. (a) Required marks. Each container larger than four liters or each case used to remove wine... marked on bulk containers of special natural wine or other wine produced under § 24.218; (4) The net contents of each container larger than four liters or each case in wine gallons, or for containers larger...

  4. Sea lamprey mark type, marking rate, and parasite-host relationships for lake trout and other species in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean V.; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examined how attack frequency by sea lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to sea lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult sea lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh sea lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of sea lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult sea lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to sea lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed sea lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing sea lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.

  5. Boundaries and Boundary Marks - Substantive Cultural Heritage of Extensive Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhaeusl, P.; Koenig, H.; Mansberger, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Austrian Society for surveying and Geoinformation (ASG) has proposed to submit "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" for the UNESCO World Heritage title. It was time that boundaries, borders and limits of all types as well as ownership rights would find the proper attention in the global public. Landmarks symbolize the real property and the associated rights and obligations, in a figurative sense, the property generally and all legal limits. A democratic state of law is impossible at today's population density without a functioning land administration system with surveying and jurisdiction. As monumental World Heritage representatives of the geodetic artwork "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" are specifically proposed: remaining monuments of the original cadastral geodetic network, the first pan-Austrian surveying headquarters in Vienna, and a specific selection of outstanding boundary monuments. Landmarks are monuments to the boundaries which separate rights and obligations, but also connect the neighbors peacefully after written agreement. "And cursed be he who does not respect the boundaries" you wrote already 3000 years ago. Boundaries and Boundary Marks are a real thing; they all belong to the tangible or material heritage of human history. In this context also the intangible heritage is discussed. This refers to oral tradition and expressions, performing arts; social practices, rituals and festive events; as well as to knowledge and practices handling nature and the universe. "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" do not belong to it, but clearly to the material cultural world heritage. "Boundary and Boundary Marks" is proposed to be listed according to the criteria (ii),(iv),(vi).

  6. The Mark 5C VLBI Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Alan; Ruszczyk, Chester; Romney, Jon; Owens, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Mark 5C disk-based VLBI data system is being developed as the third-generation Mark 5 disk-based system, increasing the sustained data-recording rate capability to 4 Gbps. It is built on the same basic platform as the Mark 5A, Mark 5B and Mark 5B+ systems and will use the same 8-disk modules as earlier Mark 5 systems, although two 8-disk modules will be necessary to support the 4 Gbps rate. Unlike its earlier brethren, which use proprietary data interfaces, the Mark 5C will accept data from a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection and be compatible with the emerging VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) standard. Data sources for the Mark 5C system will be based on new digital backends now being developed, specifically the RDBE in the U.S. and the dBBC in Europe, as well as others. The Mark 5C system is being planned for use with the VLBI2010 system and will also be used by NRAO as part of the VLBA sensitivity upgrade program; it will also be available to the global VLBI community from Conduant. Mark 5C system specification and development is supported by Haystack Observatory, NRAO, and Conduant Corporation. Prototype Mark 5C systems are expected in early 2010.

  7. A narratological analysis of Mark 12:1-12: The plot of the Gospel of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is an attempt to read Mark 12: 1-12 in terms of the plot of the Gospel. Firstly a brief survey is given of the development of the term plot from Aristotle to the present, thereafter an own methodological point of departure concerning plot is formulated in order to study the plot of Mark. The conclusions ...

  8. Visual art and visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their

  9. Visual processing in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Habekost, Thomas; Gerlach, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Whether pure alexia is a selective disorder that affects reading only, or if it reflects a more general visual disturbance, is highly debated. We have investigated the selectivity of visual deficits in a pure alexic patient (NN) using a combination of psychophysical measures, mathematical modelling...... affected. His visual apprehension span was markedly reduced for letters and digits. His reduced visual processing capacity was also evident when reporting letters from words. In an object decision task with fragmented pictures, NN's performance was abnormal. Thus, even in a pure alexic patient with intact...... recognition of line drawings, we find evidence of a general visual deficit not selective to letters or words. This finding is important because it raises the possibility that other pure alexics might have similar non-selective impairments when tested thoroughly. We argue that the general visual deficit in NN...

  10. Herpetofauna Surveys, Northern California - 2010 [ds694

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — We recorded all incidental herpetofauna encountered during visual encounter and dipnet surveys in northern California. Surveys took place from April 2, 2010 to...

  11. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  12. Cartographic visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraak, M.J.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The cartographic visualization process, based on the statement “How do I say what to whom, and is it effective?” is explained for both presenting and exploring spatiotemporal data. The visualization environment and required functionality are described

  13. Coverage of hospital-based cataract surgery and barriers to the uptake of surgery among cataract blind persons in nigeria: the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Tafida; Gudlavalleti, Murthy V S; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Gilbert, Clare E; Abdull, Mohammed M; Imam, Abdullahi U

    2012-04-01

    To determine cataract surgical coverage, and barriers to modern cataract surgery in Nigeria. Multistage stratified cluster random sampling was used to identify a nationally representative sample of 15,027 persons aged 40+ years. All underwent visual acuity testing, frequency doubling technology visual field testing, autorefraction, and measurement of best corrected vision if visually impaired or blind from unoperated cataract were asked to explain why they had not undergone surgery. A total of 13,591 participants were examined (response rate 89.9%). Prevalence of cataract surgery was 1.6% (95% confidence interval 1.4-1.8), significantly higher among those aged ≥70 years. Cataract surgical coverage (persons) in Nigeria was 38.3%. Coverage was 1.7 times higher among males than females. Coverage was only 9.1% among women in the South-South geopolitical zone. Over one third of those who were cataract blind said they could not afford surgery (36%). Cataract surgical coverage in Nigeria was among the lowest in the world. Urgent initiatives are necessary to improve surgical output and access to surgery.

  14. Visual Scripting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, John

    Visual scripting is the coordination of words with pictures in sequence. This book presents the methods and viewpoints on visual scripting of fourteen film makers, from nine countries, who are involved in animated cinema; it contains concise examples of how a storybook and preproduction script can be prepared in visual terms; and it includes a…

  15. 33 CFR 401.6 - Markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... both sides at the bow and stern. (b) In addition to the markings required by paragraph (a) of this... markings. (c) Where a vessel's bulbous bow extends forward beyond her stem head, a symbol of a bulbous bow... number indicating the total length in meters by which the bulbous bow projects beyond the stem. (68 Stat...

  16. Credit Documentation and the Mark 15 Subroutine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, J.E.

    2001-08-16

    This report documents the rewrite of the heat transfer subroutine. Part of the process of preparing the Mark 15 assembly for production operation is the development of thermal-hydraulic limits for the assembly. These limits require, among other items, the development of a Mark 15 assembly subroutine for the CREDIT code.

  17. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of the cylinder enclosure housing liquefied petroleum gas cylinders, valves and regulators shall be marked as...

  18. Chapter 9: Marking and assessing forest heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. North; J. Sherlock

    2012-01-01

    Marking guidelines commonly use stocking level, crown class, and species preferences to meet management objectives. Traditionally, these guidelines were applied across the extent of the stand. Current marking guidelines are more flexible, responding to within-stand variability with different stocking level, crown class, and species preference guidelines in...

  19. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mark. 44.184 Section 44.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every...

  20. 37 CFR 2.45 - Certification mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification mark. 2.45 Section 2.45 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.45 Certification mark. (a) In an...

  1. 37 CFR 2.44 - Collective mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collective mark. 2.44 Section 2.44 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.44 Collective mark. (a) In an...

  2. 37 CFR 2.83 - Conflicting marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflicting marks. 2.83 Section 2.83 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.83 Conflicting marks. (a...

  3. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2.43 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an...

  4. Mark formation modeling in optical rewritable recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusche, J.H.; Segal, A.; Vuik, C.; Urbach, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    In optical rewritable recording media, such as the Blu-ray Disc, amorphous marks are formed on a crystalline background of a phase-change layer, by means of short, high power laser pulses. In order to improve this data storage concept, it is of great importance to understand the mark formation

  5. Validating Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniam, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper details an investigation into onscreen marking (OSM) in Hong Kong--where paper-based marking is being phased out, being completely superseded by OSM. The study described involved 30 raters who had previously rated English language essay scripts on screen in the 2007 Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination. In the current study,…

  6. Natuurgegevens De Marke 1991-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guldemond, A.; Geerts, R.H.E.M.; Hilhorst, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Verschillende natuurelementen zijn aangelegd op De Marke, en jaarlijks is de ontwikkeling gevolgd van flora en fauna. In dit document geven we een overzicht van de resultaten (zonder toelichting) over de periode 1991-2009. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd door CLM, PRI, Proefboerderij De Marke (onderdeel

  7. Beyond δ : Tailoring marked statistics to reveal modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valogiannis, Georgios; Bean, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Models that seek to explain cosmic acceleration through modifications to general relativity (GR) evade stringent Solar System constraints through a restoring, screening mechanism. Down-weighting the high-density, screened regions in favor of the low density, unscreened ones offers the potential to enhance the amount of information carried in such modified gravity models. In this work, we assess the performance of a new "marked" transformation and perform a systematic comparison with the clipping and logarithmic transformations, in the context of Λ CDM and the symmetron and f (R ) modified gravity models. Performance is measured in terms of the fractional boost in the Fisher information and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for these models relative to the statistics derived from the standard density distribution. We find that all three statistics provide improved Fisher boosts over the basic density statistics. The model parameters for the marked and clipped transformation that best enhance signals and the Fisher boosts are determined. We also show that the mark is useful both as a Fourier and real-space transformation; a marked correlation function also enhances the SNR relative to the standard correlation function, and can on mildly nonlinear scales show a significant difference between the Λ CDM and the modified gravity models. Our results demonstrate how a series of simple analytical transformations could dramatically increase the predicted information extracted on deviations from GR, from large-scale surveys, and give the prospect for a much more feasible potential detection.

  8. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  9. Visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, R; Masjuan, J

    2016-03-01

    Visual agnosia is defined as an impairment of object recognition, in the absence of visual acuity or cognitive dysfunction that would explain this impairment. This condition is caused by lesions in the visual association cortex, sparing primary visual cortex. There are 2 main pathways that process visual information: the ventral stream, tasked with object recognition, and the dorsal stream, in charge of locating objects in space. Visual agnosia can therefore be divided into 2 major groups depending on which of the two streams is damaged. The aim of this article is to conduct a narrative review of the various visual agnosia syndromes, including recent developments in a number of these syndromes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  10. Field manual for identifying and preserving high-water mark data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Koenig, Todd A.

    2017-09-26

    This field manual provides general guidance for identifying and collecting high-water marks and is meant to be used by field personnel as a quick reference. The field manual describes purposes for collecting and documenting high-water marks along with the most common types of high-water marks. The manual provides a list of suggested field equipment, describes rules of thumb and best practices for finding high-water marks, and describes the importance of evaluating each high-water mark and assigning a numeric uncertainty value as part of the flagging process. The manual also includes an appendix of photographs of a variety of high-water marks obtained from various U.S. Geological Survey field investigations along with general comments about the logic for the assigned uncertainty values.

  11. Lecture Hall and Learning Design: A Survey of Variables, Parameters, Criteria and Interrelationships for Audio-Visual Presentation Systems and Audience Reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, J. Karl

    Variables and parameters affecting architectural planning and audiovisual systems selection for lecture halls and other learning spaces are surveyed. Interrelationships of factors are discussed, including--(1) design requirements for modern educational techniques as differentiated from cinema, theater or auditorium design, (2) general hall…

  12. A Web-Based Tool for Automatic Data Collection, Curation, and Visualization of Complex Healthcare Survey Studies including Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Benítez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great concern nowadays regarding alcohol consumption and drug abuse, especially in young people. Analyzing the social environment where these adolescents are immersed, as well as a series of measures determining the alcohol abuse risk or personal situation and perception using a number of questionnaires like AUDIT, FAS, KIDSCREEN, and others, it is possible to gain insight into the current situation of a given individual regarding his/her consumption behavior. But this analysis, in order to be achieved, requires the use of tools that can ease the process of questionnaire creation, data gathering, curation and representation, and later analysis and visualization to the user. This research presents the design and construction of a web-based platform able to facilitate each of the mentioned processes by integrating the different phases into an intuitive system with a graphical user interface that hides the complexity underlying each of the questionnaires and techniques used and presenting the results in a flexible and visual way, avoiding any manual handling of data during the process. Advantages of this approach are shown and compared to the previous situation where some of the tasks were accomplished by time consuming and error prone manipulations of data.

  13. A Web-Based Tool for Automatic Data Collection, Curation, and Visualization of Complex Healthcare Survey Studies including Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, José Alberto; Labra, José Emilio; Quiroga, Enedina; Martín, Vicente; García, Isaías; Marqués-Sánchez, Pilar; Benavides, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    There is a great concern nowadays regarding alcohol consumption and drug abuse, especially in young people. Analyzing the social environment where these adolescents are immersed, as well as a series of measures determining the alcohol abuse risk or personal situation and perception using a number of questionnaires like AUDIT, FAS, KIDSCREEN, and others, it is possible to gain insight into the current situation of a given individual regarding his/her consumption behavior. But this analysis, in order to be achieved, requires the use of tools that can ease the process of questionnaire creation, data gathering, curation and representation, and later analysis and visualization to the user. This research presents the design and construction of a web-based platform able to facilitate each of the mentioned processes by integrating the different phases into an intuitive system with a graphical user interface that hides the complexity underlying each of the questionnaires and techniques used and presenting the results in a flexible and visual way, avoiding any manual handling of data during the process. Advantages of this approach are shown and compared to the previous situation where some of the tasks were accomplished by time consuming and error prone manipulations of data.

  14. A survey of severe visual impairment in children attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, S; Subba Rao, B; Lakshmi Narasamma, K; Amit, G

    2012-08-01

    To identify the major causes of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness among students attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in South India. Children ≤ 16 years of age attending six schools for the blind in the study area were interviewed and examined in the year 2009, and causes were classified according to the World Health Organization Program for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) childhood blindness proforma. A total of 113 children underwent a detailed eye examination by an experienced ophthalmologist. The major causes of blindness were congenital eye anomalies in 46 children (41.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3-50.6), followed by retinal disorders in 21 children (18.9%; 95% CI: 11.6-26.2), cataract in 9 children (9.7%; 95% CI: 2.9-12.9), and corneal conditions (scar and Staphyloma) in 8 children (7.1%; 95% CI: 2.4-11.8). More than half the children (56.6%) were blind due to conditions that could have been treated or prevented. Congenital anomalies were found to be the most common cause of blindness. The majority of the cases were due to avoidable causes of blindness. Therefore, robust screening measures may help reduce the burden of visual impairment in children.

  15. Visual Sedimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Huron, Samuel; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We introduce Visual Sedimentation, a novel design metaphor for visualizing data streams directly inspired by the physical process of sedimentation. Visualizing data streams (e. g., Tweets, RSS, Emails) is challenging as incoming data arrive at unpredictable rates and have to remain readable. For data streams, clearly expressing chronological order while avoiding clutter, and keeping aging data visible, are important. The metaphor is drawn from the real-world sedimentat...

  16. USGS Scientific Visualization Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Scientific Visualization Laboratory at the National Center in Reston, Va., provides a central facility where USGS employees can use state-of-the-art equipment for projects ranging from presentation graphics preparation to complex visual representations of scientific data. Equipment including color printers, black-and-white and color scanners, film recorders, video equipment, and DOS, Apple Macintosh, and UNIX platforms with software are available for both technical and nontechnical users. The laboratory staff provides assistance and demonstrations in the use of the hardware and software products.

  17. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  18. Epoplex Glomarc 90 Polyurea pavement marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pavement markings provide an important means of communication for all roadway users and must be capable of : conveying information during inclement weather and evening hours when there may be little to no contribution from : overhead lighting. Recent...

  19. 49 CFR 172.304 - Marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... labels or attachments; and (4) Must be located away from any other marking (such as advertising) that could substantially reduce its effectiveness. (b) [Reserved] [Amdt. 172-29, 41 FR 15996, Apr. 15, 1976...

  20. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  1. Mark Twain, Fenimore Cooper, and Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Robert Alan

    1992-01-01

    Describes how Mark Twain's essay "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses" helped students to get interested in writing and inspired them to write a similar essay critiquing the movie "Batman." Provides excerpts from students' essays. (PRA)

  2. User's guide : pavement marking management system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pavement markings play a critical role in maintaining a safe and efficient driving environment for road users, especially during nighttime conditions. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) spends millions of dollars each year for installatio...

  3. 77 FR 4271 - Special Permit Marking Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Removal of obsolete Special Permit markings... first shopping event, whichever occurred first. This document relieves tank car owners from that...

  4. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual device for signaling an alarm, must...

  5. A Method for Distinctly Marking Honey Bees, Apis mellifera, Originating from Multiple Apiary Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R.; Deynze, Allen Van; Martin, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive and non-intrusive marking methods are essential to track natural behavior of insects for biological experiments. An inexpensive, easy to construct, and easy to install bee marking device is described in this paper. The device is mounted at the entrance of a standard honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hive and is fitted with a removable tube that dispenses a powdered marker. Marking devices were installed on 80 honey bee colonies distributed in nine separate apiaries. Each device held a tube containing one of five colored fluorescent powders, or a combination of a fluorescent powder (either green or magenta) plus one of two protein powders, resulting in nine unique marks. The powdered protein markers included egg albumin from dry chicken egg whites and casein from dry powdered milk. The efficacy of the marking procedure for each of the unique markers was assessed on honey bees exiting each apiary. Each bee was examined, first by visual inspection for the presence of colored fluorescent powder and then by egg albumin and milk casein specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Data indicated that all five of the colored fluorescent powders and both of the protein powders were effective honey bee markers. However, the fluorescent powders consistently yielded more reliable marks than the protein powders. In general, there was less than a 1% chance of obtaining a false positive colored or protein-marked bee, but the chance of obtaining a false negative marked bee was higher for “protein-marked” bees. PMID:22236037

  6. Handheld lasers allow efficient detection of fluorescent marked organisms in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin B; Fleischer, Shelby J; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C; Tooker, John F; Gish, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Marking organisms with fluorescent dyes and powders is a common technique used in ecological field studies that monitor movement of organisms to examine life history traits, behaviors, and population dynamics. External fluorescent marking is relatively inexpensive and can be readily employed to quickly mark large numbers of individuals; however, the ability to detect marked organisms in the field at night has been hampered by the limited detection distances provided by portable fluorescent ultraviolet lamps. In recent years, significant advances in LED lamp and laser technology have led to development of powerful, low-cost ultraviolet light sources. In this study, we evaluate the potential of these new technologies to improve detection of fluorescent-marked organisms in the field and to create new possibilities for tracking marked organisms in visually challenging environments such as tree canopies and aquatic habitats. Using handheld lasers, we document a method that provides a fivefold increase in detection distance over previously available technologies. This method allows easy scouting of tree canopies (from the ground), as well as shallow aquatic systems. This novel detection method for fluorescent-marked organisms thus promises to significantly enhance the use of fluorescent marking as a non-destructive technique for tracking organisms in natural environments, facilitating field studies that aim to document otherwise inaccessible aspects of the movement, behavior, and population dynamics of study organisms, including species with significant economic impacts or relevance for ecology and human health.

  7. Visual search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Bijl, P.

    2003-01-01

    Visual search, with or without the aid of optical or electro-optical instruments, plays a significant role in various types of military and civilian operations (e.g., reconnaissance, surveillance, and search and rescue). Advance knowledge of human visual search and target acquisition performance is

  8. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functi......The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... to emerge in the interlocutory space of a global visual repertoire and diverse local interpretations. The two perspectives represent challenges for future visual education which require visual competences, not only within the arts but also within the subjects of natural sciences, social sciences, languages...

  9. 78 FR 35990 - All Operating Boiling-Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I And Mark II Containments; Docket Nos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... COMMISSION All Operating Boiling-Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I And Mark II Containments; Docket Nos... Licensees operate boiling-water reactors (BWRs) with Mark I and Mark II containment designs. II. The events... Boiling Water Reactors with Mark I and Mark II Containments'' (November 26, 2012). Option 2 in SECY-12...

  10. Teach Yourself VISUALLY HTML5

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Make mark-up language more manageable with this visual guide HTML5 is the next-generation of web standard mark-up language, and among other things, it offers amazing new avenues for incorporating multimedia into your sites. What easier way to master all of HTML5's new bells and whistles than with a guide that shows you, screenshot by screenshot, just what to do? Over a hundred tasks that web designers need to know most are explained using, full-color screenshots and how-to steps. From the easy stuff like revised new header and footer elements to complex updates such as canvas and audio, this

  11. Visual processing in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Habekost, Thomas; Gerlach, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Whether pure alexia is a selective disorder that affects reading only, or if it reflects a more general visual disturbance, is highly debated. We have investigated the selectivity of visual deficits in a pure alexic patient (NN) using a combination of psychophysical measures, mathematical modelling...... affected. His visual apprehension span was markedly reduced for letters and digits. His reduced visual processing capacity was also evident when reporting letters from words. In an object decision task with fragmented pictures, NN's performance was abnormal. Thus, even in a pure alexic patient with intact...... can be accounted for in terms of inefficient build-up of sensory representations, and that this low level deficit can explain the pattern of spared and impaired abilities in this patient....

  12. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Visual cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving...

  14. The Mark II Vertex Drift Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.P.; Baggs, R.; Fujino, D.; Hayes, K.; Hoard, C.; Hower, N.; Hutchinson, D.; Jaros, J.A.; Koetke, D.; Kowalski, L.A.

    1989-03-01

    We have completed constructing and begun operating the Mark II Drift Chamber Vertex Detector. The chamber, based on a modified jet cell design, achieves 30 {mu}m spatial resolution and <1000 {mu}m track-pair resolution in pressurized CO{sub 2} gas mixtures. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling systematic errors including the use of novel construction techniques which permit accurate wire placement. Chamber performance has been studied with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber located both inside and outside the Mark II. Results on spatial resolution, average pulse shape, and some properties of CO{sub 2} mixtures are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Visual Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamassian, Pascal

    2016-10-14

    Visual confidence refers to an observer's ability to judge the accuracy of her perceptual decisions. Even though confidence judgments have been recorded since the early days of psychophysics, only recently have they been recognized as essential for a deeper understanding of visual perception. The reluctance to study visual confidence may have come in part from obtaining convincing experimental evidence in favor of metacognitive abilities rather than just perceptual sensitivity. Some effort has thus been dedicated to offer different experimental paradigms to study visual confidence in humans and nonhuman animals. To understand the origins of confidence judgments, investigators have developed two competing frameworks. The approach based on signal decision theory is popular but fails to account for response times. In contrast, the approach based on accumulation of evidence models naturally includes the dynamics of perceptual decisions. These models can explain a range of results, including the apparently paradoxical dissociation between performance and confidence that is sometimes observed.

  16. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  17. Visual deficits in anisometropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Dennis M; McKee, Suzanne P; Movshon, J Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Amblyopia is usually associated with the presence of anisometropia, strabismus or both early in life. We set out to explore quantitative relationships between the degree of anisometropia and the loss of visual function, and to examine how the presence of strabismus affects visual function in observers with anisometropia. We measured optotype acuity, Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity in 84 persons with anisometropia and compared their results with those of 27 persons with high bilateral refractive error (isoametropia) and 101 persons with both strabismus and anisometropia. All subjects participated in a large-scale study of amblyopia (McKee et al., 2003). We found no consistent visual abnormalities in the strong eye, and therefore report only on vision in the weaker, defined as the eye with lower acuity. LogMAR acuity falls off markedly with increasing anisometropia in non-strabismic anisometropes, while contrast sensitivity is much less affected. Acuity degrades rapidly with increases in both hyperopic and myopic anisometropia, but the risk of amblyopia is about twice as great in hyperopic than myopic anisometropes of comparable refractive imbalance. For a given degree of refractive imbalance, strabismic anisometropes perform considerably worse than anisometropes without strabismus--visual acuity for strabismics was on average 2.5 times worse than for non-strabismics with similar anisometropia. For observers with equal refractive error in the two eyes there is very little change in acuity or sensitivity with increasing (bilateral) refractive error except for one extreme individual (bilaterally refractive error of -15 D). Most pure anisometropes with interocular differences less than 4D retain some stereopsis, and the degree is correlated with the acuity of the weak eye. We conclude that even modest interocular differences in refractive error can influence visual function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gouge marks on deep-sea mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean: Caused by Cuvier’s beaked whales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodside, J.M.; David, L; Frantzis, A.; Hooker, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Enigmatic seafloor gouge marks at depths of 1700-2100 m have been observed from submersible during geological survey work studying mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The marks consist of a central groove (about 10 cm deep and 1-2 m long), superimposed on a broader bowl-shaped depression

  19. The Four Marks of Holistic Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    What, to borrow a theological phrase, are the marks of a truly holistic kinesiology department? "In Kinesis and the Nature of the Human Person" (2010), I examined the theoretical impact of Aristotle's definition of "kinesis" and Polanyi's theory of "tacit knowledge" on kinesiology. The intention here, however, is practical rather than theoretical.…

  20. Eesti oma idamaa kunstnik / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    1999-01-01

    8. apr.-st Pärnu Uue Kunsti Muuseumis veebruaris Soulis idamaise maalikunsti alal magistrikraadi kaitsnud Kati Kalda (sünd. 1971) maalinäitus "Elu korea moodi", Kalev Mark Kostabi maalide väljapanek ning loodusfoto konkursi parimate tööde näitus.

  1. Globaalne palavik ja Nord Stream / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2009-01-01

    Riigikogu keskkonnakomisjoni liikme Mark Soosaare sõnul peaks Eesti Taani eeskujul jõudma parlamentaarse otsuseni loobuda tuumajaamaehitusest, vähendada tuleks märgatavalt Eesti metsade raiumist. Vene-Saksa gaasitarneleppe vastu töötamise asemel tuleks otsida ühisosa nii Venemaa kui teiste Läänemeremaadega

  2. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  3. 76 FR 36983 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... particular, paragraph 33 discusses the paint pattern used to mark structures based on size and shape. Section..., poles, smokestacks and skeletal framework of storage tanks and similar structures. The METs addressed in.... Secondly, the FAA recommended spherical and/or flag markers be used in addition to the above paint pattern...

  4. Case Marking Uniformity in Developmental Pronoun Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Colleen E.; Rispoli, Matthew; Hadley, Pamela A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if children acquire grammatical case as a unified system or in a piecemeal fashion. In English language acquisition, many children make developmental errors in marking case on subject position pronouns (e.g., "Me" do it, "Him" like it). It is unknown whether children who produce…

  5. Aluminum alloy nanosecond vs femtosecond laser marking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aluminum alloy, a vastly used material base within several industry fields. For the novelty impact, femtolaser mark- ing has ... The modern industry, in order to preserve, protect, promote and enhance the value of their activities, use .... the laser beam; therefore, the freshly formed clusters of li- quid alloy microspheres have the ...

  6. NASA 3D Models: Mark III Spacesuit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both the JSC Mark III and the ARC AX-5 suit have been designed to operate at a pressure of 8.3 psi. Current space shuttle spacesuits operate at 4.3 psi and require a...

  7. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlmans, Maeike; Otte, Willem M; Van't Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans Ss; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-05-01

    To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. Literature review. All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*, med* or patient* were found anywhere in the paper's title, abstract or the journal's name. Other papers were considered controls. As a verification, clinical journals were compared to non-clinical journals in two different approaches. Also, 50 highest impact journals were explored for publisher group dependent differences. Total number of question marks in titles. A total of 368,362 papers were classified as clinical and 596,889 as controls. Clinical papers had question marks in 3.9% (95% confidence interval 3.8-4.0%) of titles and other papers in 2.3% (confidence interval 2.3-2.3%; p titles of clinical papers than in other papers. This could suggest that clinicians often have a question-driven approach to research and scientists in more fundamental research a hypothesis-driven approach. An alternative explanation is that clinicians like catchy titles. Publishing groups might have pro- and anti-question mark policies.

  8. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, Maeike; Otte, Willem M; Van't Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans Ss; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Literature review. PARTICIPANTS: All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*,

  9. 27 CFR 45.42 - Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF... chapter may be used in the mark as the name of the manufacturer.) As an alternative, where tobacco... or in the package by a means approved by the appropriate TTB officer. Before using the alternative...

  10. 27 CFR 40.212 - Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED... approved as provided in § 40.65 may be used in the mark as the name of the manufacturer.) As an alternative... using the alternative, the manufacturer shall notify the appropriate TTB officer in writing of the name...

  11. Mark Twain's Nemesis: The Paige Compositor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Corban

    Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), who had set type by hand in his youth, had believed that a mechanical composer was beyond the realm of possibility. In 1880, however, he invested $2,000 in an early typesetter invented by James W. Paige. Both Clemens and Paige dreamed of immense wealth that would be generated by selling thousands of Paige Compositors.…

  12. Marks & Spencer loob ELis maksupretsedenti / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 13. apr. lk. 6. Briti rõivakett Marks & Spencer kaebas, et Briti maksuseadused, mis ei lubanud emafirma Suurbritannias maksustavast tulust maha kanda Saksamaal, Prantsusmaal ja Belgias asunud tütarfirmade suuri kahjumeid üheksakümnendate aastate lõpus, on vastuolus EL-i ühisturu seadustega

  13. Fingerprint Analysis with Marked Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Peter G. M.; Lauritzen, Steffen; Møller, Jesper

    We present a framework for fingerprint matching based on marked point process models. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm is developed to calculate the marginal likelihood ratio for the hypothesis that two observed prints originate from the same finger against the hypothesis that they originate fr...

  14. Mark the Evangelist: His African memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mark is the author of the oldest gospel in the Christian Bible. Not much is known about him or his family except for a few references in the Bible. The general assumption, originating in the West, is that Mark was born and bred in Palestine. One of the main proponents of the Western view is Walter Bauer, a German theologian of the first half of the 20th century. His views rely heavily on the argument from silence, as Africa had – and to a great extent still has – an oral culture. Contrary to the Western view, Thomas Oden, an American theologian, did research on the oral culture and investigated the African memory of Mark. This article presents a critical discussion and a review of the book written by Oden in 2011 titled The African memory of Mark. Oden seems to be very subjective in his remarks in favour of Africa, as is also clear from his book titled How Africa shaped the Christian mind, written in 2007, and the question is if he really has enough grounds for his postulations.

  15. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for... to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or cases of wine at the time they are... the Government side of each case or Government head of each container before removal from the bonded...

  16. Primary Science Quality Mark--2016 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Back in May 2011, an article in "Primary Science" described how the idea for a quality mark for primary science was developed from an initial conversation at an Association for Science Education annual conference (Turner, Marshall and Elsmore, 2011). Its intention then, as now, was to support and champion good practice and raise the…

  17. Indian Mathematics and Astronomy: Some Land- marks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Mathematics and. Astronomy: Some Land- marks. Michio Yano*. Indian Mathematics and Astronomy: Some Landmarks··. By S Balachandra Roo. Jnana Deep Publications, Bangalore,. 1994, Pages, VIII + 234, Price Rs. 751-. On Indio). This book is 'mainly addressed to the student community and general read-.

  18. 49 CFR 178.345-14 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specification. (2) If no change of information in the specification plate is required, the letters “NC” must... other means in characters at least 3/16 inch high. The information required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of... applicable information required by the ASME Code, must be marked on the tank nameplate (parenthetical...

  19. 46 CFR 196.40-15 - Load line marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load line marks. 196.40-15 Section 196.40-15 Shipping... Markings on Vessels § 196.40-15 Load line marks. (a) Vessels assigned a load line shall have the deck line and the load line marks permanently marked or embossed as required by Subchapter E (Load Lines) of...

  20. 19 CFR 134.32 - General exceptions to marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.32 General exceptions to marking requirements. The articles described or meeting the specified conditions set forth...): (a) Articles that are incapable of being marked; (b) Articles that cannot be marked prior to shipment...

  1. 19 CFR 134.52 - Certificate of marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Found Not Legally Marked § 134.52 Certificate of marking. (a) Applicability. Port directors may accept certificates of marking supported by samples of articles required to be... provision of § 141.20 of this chapter, to certify that marking of the country of origin on imported articles...

  2. 19 CFR 11.9 - Special marking on certain articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special marking on certain articles. 11.9 Section... OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.9 Special marking on certain articles. (a... of additional U.S. Note 4, Chapter 91. If any article so required to be marked is found not to be...

  3. 19 CFR 134.43 - Methods of marking specific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of marking specific articles. 134.43...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.43 Methods of marking specific articles. (a) Marking previously required by certain provisions of the...

  4. 14 CFR 45.23 - Display of marks; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display of marks; general. 45.23 Section 45... IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.23 Display of marks; general. (a) Each operator of an aircraft shall display on that aircraft marks consisting of the Roman capital...

  5. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  6. End-User Development of Information Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Lauesen, Søren; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    such as data manipulation, but no formal training in programming. 18 visualization tools were surveyed from an enduser developer perspective. The results of this survey study show that end-user developers need better tools to create and modify custom visualizations. A closer collaboration between End......This paper investigates End-User Development of Information Visualization. More specifically, we investigated how existing visualization tools allow end-user developers to construct visualizations. End-user developers have some developing or scripting skills to perform relatively advanced tasks......-User Development and Information Visualization researchers could contribute towards the development of better tools to support custom visualizations. In addition, as empirical evaluations of these tools are lacking both research communities should focus more on this aspect. The study serves as a starting point...

  7. Theories of Visual Rhetoric: Looking at the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Considers how visuals are constructions that are products of a writer's interpretation with its own "power-laden agenda." Reviews the current approach taken by composition scholars, surveys richer interdisciplinary work on visuals, and (by using visuals connected with the Human Genome Project) models an analysis of visuals as rhetoric.…

  8. Visual stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, David

    2011-02-27

    Our vision remains stable even though the movements of our eyes, head and bodies create a motion pattern on the retina. One of the most important, yet basic, feats of the visual system is to correctly determine whether this retinal motion is owing to real movement in the world or rather our own self-movement. This problem has occupied many great thinkers, such as Descartes and Helmholtz, at least since the time of Alhazen. This theme issue brings together leading researchers from animal neurophysiology, clinical neurology, psychophysics and cognitive neuroscience to summarize the state of the art in the study of visual stability. Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding the limits of visual stability in humans and in identifying many of the brain circuits involved in maintaining a stable percept of the world. Clinical studies and new experimental methods, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, now make it possible to test the causal role of different brain regions in creating visual stability and also allow us to measure the consequences when the mechanisms of visual stability break down.

  9. Minnesota Local Agency Pavement Marking : Mining Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Pavement marking is important for safety. Maximizing pavement marking performance in terms of increased retroreflectivity, within limited budget constraints, allows agencies to make better decisions toward providing more effective pavement marking pe...

  10. Natural markings of Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Marine Science ... in order to assess the reliability of natural marks for long-term photo-identification studies. ... Results showed that Cuvier's beaked whales were extensively marked (96% of population; mean = 48 marks per ...

  11. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  12. Question mark ear deformity-revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Al-Qattan, Noha M

    2017-01-01

    We report on two unusual cases of Cosman (question mark) ear; both required modifications of the standard techniques for surgical correction. The first patient presented with a unilateral question mark ear and concurrent ear prominence and bulging of the cartilage of the anti-helix. Simultaneous correction was done using a combination of cartilage suturing/scoring (for the prominence and the cartilage bulge) as well as Al-Qattan's "v-y skin flap-cartilage graft-z-plasty" technique (for the correction of the ear cleft deformity). The second patient had aurico-condylar syndrome with bilateral ear deformity and complete separation of ear lobes from the external ear. Staged transposition followed by Al-Qattan's technique resulted in a satisfactory outcome. Level V, therapeutic study.

  13. The Bionic Clicker Mark I & II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Elliott G; Ourselin, S; Nikitichev, Daniil; Vercauteren, T; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne

    2017-08-14

    In this manuscript, we present two 'Bionic Clicker' systems, the first designed to demonstrate electromyography (EMG) based control systems for educational purposes and the second for research purposes. EMG based control systems pick up electrical signals generated by muscle activation and use these as inputs for controllers. EMG controllers are widely used in prosthetics to control limbs. The Mark I (MK I) clicker allows the wearer to change the slide of a presentation by raising their index finger. It is built around a microcontroller and a bio-signals shield. It generated a lot of interest from both the public and research community. The Mark II (MK II) device presented here was designed to be a cheaper, sleeker, and more customizable system that can be easily modified and directly transmit EMG data. It is built using a wireless capable microcontroller and a muscle sensor.

  14. Forensic odontology, part 4. Human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of bite mark analysis: its usefulness and limitations. The study and analysis of such injuries is challenging and complex. The correct protocols for collection, management, preservation, analysis and interpretation of this evidence should be employed if useful information is to be obtained for the courts. It is now possible, with advances in digital technology, to produce more accurate and reproducible comparison techniques which go some way to preventing and reducing problems such as photographic distortions. Research needs to be continued to increase our knowledge of the behaviour of skin when bitten. However, when presented with a high quality bite mark showing good dental detail, and a limited, accessible number of potential biters, it can be extremely useful in establishing a link between the bitten person and the biter or excluding the innocent.

  15. Sandia Mark II X-Ray System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, L.W.

    1979-11-01

    The Sandia Mark II X-Ray System was designed and developed to provide an intense source of mononergetic, ultra-soft x rays with energies between 0.282 and 1.486 keV. The x-ray tube design is similar to one developed by B.L. Henke and incorporates modifications made by Tom Ellsberry. An operations manual section is incorporated to help the experimenter/operator.

  16. Teaching Mark through a postcolonial optic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-16

    Jul 16, 2015 ... of the divine.' Moore (2006:196–197) argues that Mark can, and should – given all the anti-empire signals – on the one hand be read as resistance literature. But, on the other hand, one needs to 'aqua-glide over the intense ambivalence that, on an alternative reading, can be shown … to characterize and ...

  17. Is current bite mark analysis a misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J G; Blackwell, S A

    2010-09-10

    Four human-to-human bite mark cases in which forensic odontological opinion was found to be in error, or at best deeply divided between experts, are described. These are used to illustrate that there is a growing awareness on the part of the legal profession that bite mark opinions by experts may often be little more than that and that these opinions often cannot be substantiated given the paucity of rigorous scientific evaluation, and will therefore be increasingly challenged. This may not best serve justice and so it is argued that forensic odontology needs to bring more scientific rigour to the evaluation of bite marks. This may threaten to disenfranchise some of the current practitioners and there may be some resistance to change. Forensic odontology is not the only identification science facing such problems, but nevertheless a paradigm shift is predicted in the way bite mark evidence will have to be gathered and evaluated in the future. Some new scientific approaches are described that strive to unravel some of the most basic problems confronting our profession when we attempt to make morphometric comparisons between injuries and the dentition of the biter. A need to capture the actions and consequences of biting in 3D dimensions and simultaneously in real-time is proposed as a path of investigation highly likely to bring some clarity to a confused situation. There is also an urgent need for the ongoing controversy between some of our eminent peers relating to the assumed uniqueness, or otherwise, of the human anterior dentition to be resolved. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  19. Bite-marks on battered children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trube-Becker, E

    1977-01-21

    Instances of human bites are generally rare, although it does sometimes occur that people use their teeth as a means of attack of defence. When looking into cases of the ill-treatment of children we often find bite-marks in addition to other signs of abusement. Eleven cases from the Institute of Forensic Medicine at Düsseldorf University are presented out of a total of 48 cases of ill-treatment of children followed by death in which human bite-marks as well as other haematomas on the victims could be proved. In all cases the cause of death was a subdural haematoma. All but three of the offenders were female, and all were young and subject to excess stress so that the act could eventually be regarded as the result of a disintegration of emotional status. The combination of bite-marks with haematomas and other signs of ill-treatment support with sufficient certainty the conclusion that a criminal action of a third person is involved.

  20. Heat transfer burnout of Mark VIII fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernath, L.

    1956-08-01

    The operating conditions to which the special Mark VIII quatrefoils will be exposed during the proposed piloting program have been compared with the conditions required to cause burnout, using an established method of calculating these conditions. The results of this comparison permit the following conclusions to be drawn: (1) With normal flow of coolant through the special elements the heat flux to be encountered in the R-8 cycle (1400 MW) will be 70% or that required to cause burnout (30% margin from burnout). (2) With a reduction of coolant flow to 82% of normal through one tube of a special element, burnout of that fuel column is possible in the R-8 cycle. (3) In the R-6 cycle (1280 MW), the margin from burnout in the special Mark VIII quatrefoils is 42% with full flow and 20% with the above reduced coolant flow. A similar comparison of operating conditions predicted for the L-3 cycle (full Mark VIII charge) shows that, even at the highest power level (1250 MW), the margin from burnout is greater than 55% with normal flow and 40% with reduced flow.

  1. Laser treatment of stretch marks: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Leonardo; Piccinetti, A. L.; Monache, G. D.; Botta, G.; Mancini, S.

    2000-06-01

    The best treatment of these stretch mark is still unknown. Some authors proposed the treatment with flash-lamp-pumped dye laser 585 nm, with fluence over 8 J/cm2. Reviewing our experiences on no-surgical effects of lasers in the various phases of the wound healing, including the re- epithelization, we would like to apply the no-surgical laser therapy treating the stretch marks of breast, abdomen and lumbo-sacral region. The goal is to inhibit the fibrous tissue metabolism, encouraging the destruction of the collagen fibers with inflammatory mechanism, and increasing the reconstitution of the superficial dermis layers. We treated five cases of stretch marks in women 22-35 years old, since May 1999, with a cycle of applications of double lasers, 511 and 577 nm, with energy of 20 Joule for spot, respecting the maximum thermal relaxation times of the skin. We waited two weeks interval between the applications. Results obtained after five applications are very positive, and we are encouraged to continue this experimentation.

  2. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti

    2013-01-01

    techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...

  3. Visualizing inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-07-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of substantial importance, scientific and general alike. The graphic visualization of inequality is commonly conveyed by Lorenz curves. While Lorenz curves are a highly effective statistical tool for quantifying the distribution of wealth in human societies, they are less effective a tool for the visual depiction of socioeconomic inequality. This paper introduces an alternative to Lorenz curves-the hill curves. On the one hand, the hill curves are a potent scientific tool: they provide detailed scans of the rich-poor gaps in human societies under consideration, and are capable of accommodating infinitely many degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the hill curves are a powerful infographic tool: they visualize inequality in a most vivid and tangible way, with no quantitative skills that are required in order to grasp the visualization. The application of hill curves extends far beyond socioeconomic inequality. Indeed, the hill curves are highly effective 'hyperspectral' measures of statistical variability that are applicable in the context of size distributions at large. This paper establishes the notion of hill curves, analyzes them, and describes their application in the context of general size distributions.

  4. Mark Raidpere näitused Pariisis ja Napolis / Mark Raidpere ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidpere, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Mark Raidpere videod "Vekovka", "Dedication / Pühendus", "Majestoso Mystico" näitusel Pariisis Michel Reini galeriis. Osaleb koos saksa fotograafi Sven Johnega näitusel Napolis. Kreekas Thessalonikis valminud filmist "1:1:1"

  5. Contrast enhancement of bite mark images using the grayscale mixer in ACR in Photoshop®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sam; Noorbhai, Suzanne; Lawson, Zoe; Stacey-Jones, Seren; Carabott, Romina

    2013-05-01

    Enhanced images may improve bite mark edge definition, assisting forensic analysis. Current contrast enhancement involves color extraction, viewing layered images by channel. A novel technique, producing a single enhanced image using the grayscale mix panel within Adobe Camera Raw®, has been developed and assessed here, allowing adjustments of multiple color channels simultaneously. Stage 1 measured RGB values in 72 versions of a color chart image; eight sliders in Photoshop® were adjusted at 25% intervals, all corresponding colors affected. Stage 2 used a bite mark image, and found only red, orange, and yellow sliders had discernable effects. Stage 3 assessed modality preference between color, grayscale, and enhanced images; on average, the 22 survey participants chose the enhanced image as better defined for nine out of 10 bite marks. The study has shown potential benefits for this new technique. However, further research is needed before use in the analysis of bite marks. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Dietary calcein marking of shovelnose sturgeon and the effect of sunlight on mark retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Kindschi, G.A.; Bell, T.A.; Mohler, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcein, a fluorochrome dye, is a potential fish-marking agent that has not been evaluated in sturgeon. Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (average weight, 9.7 g) were fed calcein, immersed in a calcein bath, or left unmarked to determine calcein mark intensity. In the first study, six treatments were evaluated in a two-by-three factorial arrangement. Feed was formulated with 2.0 g of SE-MARK/kg either as powder or in an encapsulated form. Sturgeon were fed the test diets for 5, 10, or 15 d. They readily ate feed containing powdered or encapsulated calcein. Sturgeon fed powdered calcein had more brilliant marks than those fed encapsulated calcein (8.27 versus 4.66 lm; P comparison of the three treatment groups showed that sturgeon fed powdered calcein for 15 d (14.06 lm) were brighter (P < 0.01) than fish fed encapsulated calcein (8.46 lm) or fish immersed in calcein (9.68 lm). In the second study, previouslymarked sturgeon were exposed to sunlight for 14months to determine their retention of calcein marks. Dorsal marks were no longer visible on fish exposed to 100% sunlight after 8 weeks. Most but not all fish exposed to 20% sunlight had no discernable dorsalmarks after 8 weeks, but ventral marks at the pectoral fin girdle were present on all fish in the 0% and 20% sunlight exposure treatments. Feeding calcein for 15 d appears to have excellent potential for practical application, such as distinguishing hatchery-reared from wild fish. Ventral calcein marks remained visible after 14 months of exposure to 20% sunlight when sturgeon were reared in clear water. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  7. 14 CFR 45.31 - Marking of export aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of export aircraft. 45.31 Section 45.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.31 Marking of export aircraft. A...

  8. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plainly marked as follows: (1) Each side of each lifeboat and rescue boat bow must be marked in block... marked on the stern of the vessel to meet the requirements of subpart 67.123 of this chapter. (2) The number of persons for which the boast is equipped must be clearly marked, preferably on the bow, in...

  9. 25 CFR 304.3 - Classifying and marking of silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.3 Classifying and marking of silver. For the present the Indian Arts and Crafts Board... Government mark. All such marking of silver shall, for the present, be done by an agent of the Indian Arts...

  10. 19 CFR 134.45 - Approved markings of country name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.45 Approved markings of country name. (a) Language. (1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(2) of... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approved markings of country name. 134.45 Section...

  11. Punctuation Marks Make a Difference in Translation: Practical Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogahed, Mogahed M.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the issue of using punctuation marks correctly. The misuse of punctuation marks affects meaning; therefore, it affects translation. As a result, the writer should pay more attention to punctuation marks and not to use them randomly. Simultaneously, the reader has to take care of the punctuation marks when interpreting a…

  12. Dihydralazine induces marked cerebral vasodilation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H

    1987-01-01

    Dihydralazine is widely used for acute control of hypertension. In experimental studies it seems to dilate cerebral resistance vessels and increase intracranial pressure. However, the effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in man has been little studied. Measurements of CBF were performed with the i...... of dihydralazine was of the same order of magnitude as the effect of 5% CO2 inhalation. These results in normal subjects should be extrapolated to diseased persons only with extreme caution. Still, the very marked and long lasting vasodilation observed suggests that dihydralazine, from a theoretical point of view...

  13. 1L Mark-IV Target Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This presentation includes General Design Considerations; Current (Mark-III) Lower Tier; Mark-III Upper Tier; Performance Metrics; General Improvements for Material Science; General Improvements for Nuclear Science; Improving FOM for Nuclear Science; General Design Considerations Summary; Design Optimization Studies; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Material Science; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Nuclear Science (Disk); Mark IV Enables Much Wider Range of Nuclear-Science FOM Gains than Mark III; Mark-IV Performance Summary; Rod or Disk? Center or Real FOV?; and Project Cost and Schedule.

  14. Participatory visualization with Wordle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viégas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin; Feinberg, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the design and usage of "Wordle," a web-based tool for visualizing text. Wordle creates tag-cloud-like displays that give careful attention to typography, color, and composition. We describe the algorithms used to balance various aesthetic criteria and create the distinctive Wordle layouts. We then present the results of a study of Wordle usage, based both on spontaneous behaviour observed in the wild, and on a large-scale survey of Wordle users. The results suggest that Wordles have become a kind of medium of expression, and that a "participatory culture" has arisen around them.

  15. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    the finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore, this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart...... is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms, but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...

  16. Visualizing Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Reality Capture Technologies, Inc. is a spinoff company from Ames Research Center. Offering e-business solutions for optimizing management, design and production processes, RCT uses visual collaboration environments (VCEs) such as those used to prepare the Mars Pathfinder mission.The product, 4-D Reality Framework, allows multiple users from different locations to manage and share data. The insurance industry is one targeted commercial application for this technology.

  17. Underwater photography - A visual survey method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    are the angles between the ray and the normal to the surface in the corresponding cases. If light passes from water into glass or plastic and then from the glass or plastic into air, this equation is used successively at the two surfaces. The situation... is simplified if the glass or plastic has surfaces that are plane and parallel to each other. Then the properties of the window do not affect the final result which becomes : Sin θa = n sin θw (2) in which n is the refractive...

  18. Epigenetic changes during sepsis: on your marks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Aurélien; Galichon, Pierre; Ziliotis, Marie-Julia; Sadia, Iman; Hertig, Alexandre

    2015-10-15

    Epigenetics is the study of how cells, organs, and even individuals utilize their genes over specific periods of time, and under specific environmental constraints. Very importantly, epigenetics is now expanding into the field of medicine and hence should provide new information for the development of drugs. Bomsztyk and colleagues have detected major epigenetic changes occurring in several organs as early as 6 h after the onset of a mouse model of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome induced by Staphylococcus aureus lung injury. Decrease in mRNA of key genes involved in endothelial function was found to be associated with (and potentially explained by) a decrease in permissive histone marks, while repressive marks were unchanged. We discuss here the limitations of a whole-organ as opposed to a cell-specific approach, the nature of the controls that were chosen, and the pitfalls of histone modifications as a cause of the eventual phenotype. While the use of 'epidrugs' is definitely welcome in the clinic, how and when they will be used in sepsis-related multiple organ dysfunction will require further experimental studies.

  19. MARKS OF ETHNICITY IN PURPLE HIBISCUS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Müller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an analysis of the English – Brazilian Portuguese translation of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel, Purple Hibiscus, made by Julia Romeu. It is an attempt to analyze how traces of ethnic identities marked in the source text are reproduced in the Brazilian version Hibisco Roxo, published in 2011. Initially, is a brief biography of the writer is presented together with her history towards the construction of a new paradigm for the literature about Africa and Nigeria. Adichie challenges Western stereotypes about that continent, which tend to report poverty, war and disease scenarios. Secondly, a summary of the story was made and the main characters were described. Thirdly, a collection of recorded words and phrases in the Igbo language was compiled from the original text and an analysis of the translation of those terms into Brazilian Portuguese was performed. Afterwards, the concept of ethnicity described by the sociologist Anthony Giddens was presented. Based on that concept, it was concluded that the terms previously selected could be considered as marks of ethnicity, reflecting the presence of the Igbo ethnic group in the British colonial culture. Finally, taking Antoine Berman’s proposition for an ethical translation, which embraces the foreign and rejects ethnocentrism, the conclusion to be drawn is that the translator’s option to keep Igbo terms in her work respected the author’s manifest intention of, through her work, showing the readers from other countries a bit of Nigeria’s culture and history.

  20. Mark 3 correlator hardware and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    The Mark 3 correlator system is described in some detail. The correlator system is based on a modular philosophy. Each correlator module independently processes the data from one track pair. Therefore, 28 modules are necessary to complete a full one baseline processor and 84 modules for a full 3 baseline processor. Each correlator module has two interfaces: (1) data and clock from each of the two tracks to be correlated and (2) Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) dataway interface to the computer. The processor is organized around the IEEE CAMAC standard architecture, housing 15 correlator modules in each of 6 crates. This allows one pass processing of a full 3 baseline 28 track observation or a 6 baseline (4 station) 14 track observation. The correlator architecture allows easy expansion for up to 8 stations. The computer system is an HP 1000 system utilizing a 16 bit minicomputer with disc and tape peripherals. The processing software is also organized in a modular fashion with many independent but cooperative programs controlling the operation of the Mark 3 processor. Processing time through the correlator is normally real time or faster, with graphics displays providing real time monitor and control of the processing operation.

  1. Visual texture accurate material appearance measurement, representation and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Haindl, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This book surveys the state of the art in multidimensional, physically-correct visual texture modeling. Features: reviews the entire process of texture synthesis, including material appearance representation, measurement, analysis, compression, modeling, editing, visualization, and perceptual evaluation; explains the derivation of the most common representations of visual texture, discussing their properties, advantages, and limitations; describes a range of techniques for the measurement of visual texture, including BRDF, SVBRDF, BTF and BSSRDF; investigates the visualization of textural info

  2. Combined Application of RGB Marking and Mass Spectrometric Imaging Facilitates Detection of Tumor Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowski, Pierre; Kraus, Olga; Rohn, Sascha; Riecken, Kristoffer; Fehse, Boris; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-cell heterogeneity dramatically influences treatment success, but escapes detection by classical histology. Mass-spectrometric imaging (MSI) represents a powerful method for visualizing the spatial distribution of proteins in tissue sections. Herein we asked whether MSI also facilitates detection of tumor heterogeneity. We first transduced the human neuroendocrine-carcinoma BON cell line following the red-green-blue (RGB) marking principle. RGB marking allows for specific color-coding of individual clones. Mice transplanted with RGB-marked BON cells developed liver tumors. We identified 16 primary tumors clearly distinguishable by histology and fluorescence imaging, but also based on a common tumor-specific signal pattern detected by MSI. Importantly, this pattern was clearly confined to tumor tissue while was absent from surrounding liver tissue. At the same time, we observed protein signals differentially present in a few or even single tumors. Since these signals were independent of RGB marking, they apparently reflected unique intrinsic protein-signal patterns of individual tumors. Thus, our data propose MSI as a tool for identifying divergent tissue by 'fingerprints' of protein signals, allowing not only for differentiation of tumor from healthy tissue but also detection of tumor heterogeneity. In conclusion, by visualizing tumor heterogeneity, MSI ideally complements microscopy-based methods. This might help to better understand tumor biology and develop future treatment strategies. Copyright© 2015, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish Communities on Selected Reefs in the Bazaruto Archipelago. ... the Bazaruto reef types to provide a basis for their sound management and conservation. Keywords: Bazaruto Archipelago, Mozambique, ichthyofauna, fish surveys, underwater visual census, coral reefs.

  4. Evaluation of copper for divider subassembly in MCO Mark IA and Mark IV scrap fuel baskets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1997-09-29

    The K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) subprojection eludes the design and fabrication of a canister that will be used to confine, contain, and maintain fuel in a critically safe array to enable its removal from the K Basins, vacuum drying, transport, staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage (Goldinann 1997). Each MCO consists of a shell, shield plug, fuel baskets (Mark IA or Mark IV), and other incidental equipment. The Mark IA intact and scrap fuel baskets are a safety class item for criticality control and components necessary for criticality control will be constructed from 304L stainless steel. It is proposed that a copper divider subassembly be used in both Mark IA and Mark IV scrap baskets to increase the safety basis margin during cold vacuum drying. The use of copper would increase the heat conducted away from hot areas in the baskets out to the wall of the MCO by both radiative and conductive heat transfer means. Thus copper subassembly will likely be a safety significant component of the scrap fuel baskets. This report examines the structural, cost and corrosion consequences associated with using a copper subassembly in the stainless steel MCO scrap fuel baskets.

  5. Conversations about Visual Arts: Facilitating Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni; Cress, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Visual arts, such as drawings, are attractive to most young children. Marks left on paper by young children contain meaning. Although it is known that children's oral language could be enhanced through communication with adults, rarely is there a series of dialogues between adults and young children about their drawings. Often heard instead…

  6. The visually impaired patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eric A; Sperazza, Laura C

    2008-05-15

    Blindness or low vision affects more than 3 million Americans 40 years and older, and this number is projected to reach 5.5 million by 2020. In addition to treating a patient's vision loss and comorbid medical issues, physicians must be aware of the physical limitations and social issues associated with vision loss to optimize health and independent living for the visually impaired patient. In the United States, the four most prevalent etiologies of vision loss in persons 40 years and older are age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Exudative macular degeneration is treated with laser therapy, and progression of nonexudative macular degeneration in its advanced stages may be slowed with high-dose antioxidant and zinc regimens. The value of screening for glaucoma is uncertain; management of this condition relies on topical ocular medications. Cataract symptoms include decreased visual acuity, decreased color perception, decreased contrast sensitivity, and glare disability. Lifestyle and environmental interventions can improve function in patients with cataracts, but surgery is commonly performed if the condition worsens. Diabetic retinopathy responds to tight glucose control, and severe cases marked by macular edema are treated with laser photocoagulation. Vision-enhancing devices can help magnify objects, and nonoptical interventions include special filters and enhanced lighting.

  7. ViSIT: Visitor Survey Information Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — ViSIT is an interactive web tool created by USGS to visualize the data collected as part of the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey. The national survey was...

  8. Differential Signature of the Centrosomal MARK4 Isoforms in Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Magnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4 is a serine-threonine kinase expressed in two spliced isoforms, MARK4L and MARK4S, of which MARK4L is a candidate for a role in neoplastic transformation. Methods: We performed mutation analysis to identify sequence alterations possibly affecting MARK4 expression. We then investigated the MARK4L and MARK4S expression profile in 21 glioma cell lines and 36 tissues of different malignancy grades, glioblastoma-derived cancer stem cells (GBM CSCs and mouse neural stem cells (NSCs by real-time PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the sub-cellular localisation of MARK4 isoforms in glioma and normal cell lines by immunofluorescence. Results: Mutation analysis rules out sequence variations as the cause of the altered MARK4 expression in glioma. Expression profiling confirms that MARK4L is the predominant isoform, whereas MARK4S levels are significantly decreased in comparison and show an inverse correlation with tumour grade. A high MARK4L/MARK4S ratio also characterizes undifferentiated cells, such as GBM CSCs and NSCs. Accordingly, only MARK4L is expressed in brain neurogenic regions. Moreover, while both MARK4 isoforms are localised to the centrosome and midbody in glioma and normal cells, the L isoform exhibits an additional nucleolar localisation in tumour cells. Conclusions: The observed switch towards MARK4L suggests that the balance between the MARK4 isoforms is carefully guarded during neural differentiation but may be subverted in gliomagenesis. Moreover, the MARK4L nucleolar localisation in tumour cells features this MARK4 isoform as a nucleolus-associated tumour marker.

  9. Mark-recapture and mark-resight methods for estimating abundance with remote cameras: a carnivore case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Robert S; McClintock, Brett T; Lyren, Lisa M; Boydston, Erin E; Crooks, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Abundance estimation of carnivore populations is difficult and has prompted the use of non-invasive detection methods, such as remotely-triggered cameras, to collect data. To analyze photo data, studies focusing on carnivores with unique pelage patterns have utilized a mark-recapture framework and studies of carnivores without unique pelage patterns have used a mark-resight framework. We compared mark-resight and mark-recapture estimation methods to estimate bobcat (Lynx rufus) population sizes, which motivated the development of a new "hybrid" mark-resight model as an alternative to traditional methods. We deployed a sampling grid of 30 cameras throughout the urban southern California study area. Additionally, we physically captured and marked a subset of the bobcat population with GPS telemetry collars. Since we could identify individual bobcats with photos of unique pelage patterns and a subset of the population was physically marked, we were able to use traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight methods, as well as the new "hybrid" mark-resight model we developed to estimate bobcat abundance. We recorded 109 bobcat photos during 4,669 camera nights and physically marked 27 bobcats with GPS telemetry collars. Abundance estimates produced by the traditional mark-recapture, traditional mark-resight, and "hybrid" mark-resight methods were similar, however precision differed depending on the models used. Traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight estimates were relatively imprecise with percent confidence interval lengths exceeding 100% of point estimates. Hybrid mark-resight models produced better precision with percent confidence intervals not exceeding 57%. The increased precision of the hybrid mark-resight method stems from utilizing the complete encounter histories of physically marked individuals (including those never detected by a camera trap) and the encounter histories of naturally marked individuals detected at camera traps. This new estimator may be

  10. Social Acceptance of Adolescent Mainstreamed Students with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peavey, Katherine Owen; Leff, Debra

    2002-01-01

    Five adolescents with visual impairments participated in trust engendering activities in five separate peer focus groups. At the completion of the intervention, four of the students with visual impairments showed marked improvement in their social acceptance and had higher scores on the Social Skills Assessment Tool for Children with Visual…

  11. An interview with Mark G. Hans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Mark G; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans’ Master’s Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of “Essentials of Facial Growth”, being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans’s academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of

  12. J/psi spectroscopy from Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, U.

    1987-02-01

    The Mark III detector at the SPEAR e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring at SLAC has accumulated a data sample of 5.8 x 10/sup 6/ J/psi produced. The status of the xi(2230) observed in the radiative J/psi decay is described. The status of the glueball candidates eta(1440) (iota(1440)) and f/sub 2/(1720) (theta(1720)) are probed with a systematic comparison between the radiative and the hadronic decays of J/psi. Finally, an understanding of quark correlations is attempted from a systematic study of the J/psi decaying into Vector-Pseudoscalar, Vector-Tensor and Vector-Scalar nonets.

  13. Teaching Mark through a postcolonial optic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Punt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the potential value of a postcolonial approach for teaching Mark’s gospel. Investigating a number of texts from the gospel, it asks to what extent a postcolonial optic implies a different approach to the gospel, what it adds and where challenges exist. Teaching with a postcolonial optic entails framing the gospel in its 1st-century imperial context and focusing on the ambivalence and ambiguity of imperial rule, investigating texts with attention to hybridity and mimicry in particular. Teaching the Gospel of Mark through a postcolonial optic opens up new possibilities for interpretation and contextualisation, but at the same time poses certain challenges, pedagogically and otherwise.

  14. Visual cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    ... is unified in our mind even if not in the image. The construction of these entities is the task of visual cognition and, in almost all cases, each construct is a choice among an infinity of possibilities, chosen based on likelihood, bias, or a whim, but chosen by rejecting other valid competitors. The entities are not limited to static surfaces or structures but also include dynamic structures that only emerge over time – from dots that appear to be walking like a human or a moon orbiting a planet, to the...

  15. Empirical Studies in Information Visualization: Seven Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Heidi; Bertini, Enrico; Isenberg, Petra; Plaisant, Catherine; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2012-09-01

    We take a new, scenario-based look at evaluation in information visualization. Our seven scenarios, evaluating visual data analysis and reasoning, evaluating user performance, evaluating user experience, evaluating environments and work practices, evaluating communication through visualization, evaluating visualization algorithms, and evaluating collaborative data analysis were derived through an extensive literature review of over 800 visualization publications. These scenarios distinguish different study goals and types of research questions and are illustrated through example studies. Through this broad survey and the distillation of these scenarios, we make two contributions. One, we encapsulate the current practices in the information visualization research community and, two, we provide a different approach to reaching decisions about what might be the most effective evaluation of a given information visualization. Scenarios can be used to choose appropriate research questions and goals and the provided examples can be consulted for guidance on how to design one's own study.

  16. A case of integrative visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddoch, M J; Humphreys, G W

    1987-12-01

    A single case study of a patient with visual agnosia is presented. The patient had a marked impairment in visual object recognition along with good tactile object identification and a preserved ability to copy. Detailed investigations demonstrated impaired perceptual processes, with the patient's identification strongly affected by duration of stimulus exposure and by using overlapping figures. However, his stored knowledge of objects was shown to be intact. The results demonstrate that agnosia may be determined by a specific deficit in integrating form information; and that the input description for visual object recognition, disrupted in this patient, is functionally separate from stored object descriptions, which are intact. The implications of the results for understanding visual agnosia and for theories of normal visual object recognition are discussed.

  17. A literature review on road surface marking materials and retroreflectivity properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Mutlu Aydın

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban and rural roads are opened to service after the application of road surface markings in Turkey. However, visibility of these roads reduce or disappear caused by the disrepair in a short time after the construction. These road surface markings have a mission to be a visual guide on behavior of lane utilization of drivers. For this reason, it has crucial importance to prevent traffic accidents. Unfortunately, the necessary importance to road surface markings are not given by the authorities in urban and rural roads of Turkey. Generally, standard road marking paint are used in all roads because of its low price and it loses retroreflectivity performance after short time. As a result of this situation chaos, lane indiscipline and many traffic accidents occur in urban and rural roads. Whereas, many different road painting materials are used such as Epoxy, Methyl Methacrylate, Polyester, Thermoplastic, Polyurea etc. to obtain higher performance and resistance according to different road characteristics and environmental conditions. In the scope of this study, a general information were given about the utilization of different surface marking materials which is used in developed countries effectively. Additionally, a number of recommendations and guidance notes have been provided for road makers and decision authorities wishing to use these materials in Turkey.

  18. Laser-Marking Mechanism of Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Bi2O3 Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei; Cao, Zheng; Qiu, Pengfei; Wu, Dun; Liu, Chunlin; Li, Huili; Zhu, He

    2015-11-04

    Using bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) as a laser-marking additive and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) as the matrix, TPU/Bi2O3 composite materials were prepared by melt blending in a torque rheometer. The sheet samples prepared from the TPU/Bi2O3 composites were treated in air by scanning with a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) pulsed laser beam at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Compared with the pure TPU sample, the laser-marked composite samples exhibited differences in marking contrast as the Bi2O3 content increased from 0.1% to 1.0% based on stereomicroscope analysis. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the laser-marked surface material of the composite samples. Furthermore, a mechanism for the laser-effected darkening of the TPU/Bi2O3 composites was proposed. The results herein indicated that the addition of the Bi2O3 laser-sensitive additive to TPU resulted in laser darkening of the TPU/Bi2O3 composites. The marking contrast and visual appearance of the surface of the TPU/Bi2O3 composites after laser irradiation was due to a synergistic effect consisting of carbonization via TPU pyrolysis and reduction of Bi2O3 to black bismuth metal.

  19. Pinnuks silmas - Mark Soosaar 60 / Mark Soosaar ; interv. Jüri Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Mark Soosaare vastused olematutele küsimustele (J. Aarma küsimused vahelt ära võetud). Endast, oma uuest filmist "Vabatahtlikud" ja muust. Lisatud Sirje Niitra artikkel "Valutab südant" Soosaare muredest ja võitlustest seoses Pärnu linnaga

  20. MarkIT büroo = Offices of MarkIT

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 102C asuvas büroohoones paikneva MarkIT büroo sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Kard Männil (SAB Miu Miu Miu) ja Loreida Hein (Studio La), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Valge büroomööbel on sisearhitektide projekteeritud. Graafika on sisearhitektid ise joonistanud

  1. VISUAL3D - An EIT network on visualization of geomodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    When it comes to interpretation of data and understanding of deep geological structures and bodies at different scales then modelling tools and modelling experience is vital for deep exploration. Geomodelling provides a platform for integration of different types of data, including new kinds of information (e.g., new improved measuring methods). EIT Raw Materials, initiated by the EIT (European Institute of Innovation and Technology) and funded by the European Commission, is the largest and strongest consortium in the raw materials sector worldwide. The VISUAL3D network of infrastructure is an initiative by EIT Raw Materials and aims at bringing together partners with 3D-4D-visualisation infrastructure and 3D-4D-modelling experience. The recently formed network collaboration interlinks hardware, software and expert knowledge in modelling visualization and output. A special focus will be the linking of research, education and industry and integrating multi-disciplinary data and to visualize the data in three and four dimensions. By aiding network collaborations we aim at improving the combination of geomodels with differing file formats and data characteristics. This will create an increased competency in modelling visualization and the ability to interchange and communicate models more easily. By combining knowledge and experience in geomodelling with expertise in Virtual Reality visualization partners of EIT Raw Materials but also external parties will have the possibility to visualize, analyze and validate their geomodels in immersive VR-environments. The current network combines partners from universities, research institutes, geological surveys and industry with a strong background in geological 3D-modelling and 3D visualization and comprises: Luleå University of Technology, Geological Survey of Finland, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, TUBA Freiberg, Uppsala University, Geological Survey of France, RWTH Aachen, DMT, KGHM Cuprum, Boliden, Montan

  2. How information visualization novices construct visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Lars; Tory, Melanie; Storey, Margaret-Anne

    2010-01-01

    It remains challenging for information visualization novices to rapidly construct visualizations during exploratory data analysis. We conducted an exploratory laboratory study in which information visualization novices explored fictitious sales data by communicating visualization specifications to a human mediator, who rapidly constructed the visualizations using commercial visualization software. We found that three activities were central to the iterative visualization construction process: data attribute selection, visual template selection, and visual mapping specification. The major barriers faced by the participants were translating questions into data attributes, designing visual mappings, and interpreting the visualizations. Partial specification was common, and the participants used simple heuristics and preferred visualizations they were already familiar with, such as bar, line and pie charts. We derived abstract models from our observations that describe barriers in the data exploration process and uncovered how information visualization novices think about visualization specifications. Our findings support the need for tools that suggest potential visualizations and support iterative refinement, that provide explanations and help with learning, and that are tightly integrated into tool support for the overall visual analytics process.

  3. Comparison between visual analysis and microscope assessment of surgical instrument cleanliness from sterile service departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, I P; Sihota, A K; Keevil, C W

    2008-01-01

    Modern hospital sterile service departments (SSDs) routinely inspect instruments visually to assess the degree of contamination present after the washer/disinfector cycle. We aimed to test the effectiveness and reliability of this method. Surgical instrument sets were obtained from nine anonymous National Health Service (NHS) Primary Care Trust SSDs to investigate the efficacy of 'in-place' cleaning procedures. The instruments were first inspected visually, followed by a novel technique called episcopic differential interference contrast microscopy. This was combined with a sensitive fluorescent reagent, SYPRO Ruby, to rapidly visualise and assess contamination levels on the medical devices. The application of a Contamination Index (0-4) for both proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous deposits on the surface allowed quantitative assessment. Close correlation was seen for simple instruments between visual assessment and microscopic analysis. For more complex instruments, however, there was a marked difference between the two assessment techniques and the microscopy procedure showed areas of proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous crystalline soiling that was difficult or impossible to see by eye. Visual assessment of cleaning is fraught with possible error. This survey shows how large amounts of contamination could pass undetected using such antiquated methods. The new methodology applied in the assessment of surface contamination is rapid and generally applicable and could be used more widely for routine monitoring of instrument cleanliness.

  4. Synthesis of benefits and costs of alternative lane marking strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) currently uses snowplowable raised pavement markers (SRPMs) to supplement longitudinal pavement markings on some facilities. SRPMs are much more visible than traditional longitudinal markings under wet...

  5. 37 CFR 6.4 - Schedule for collective membership marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule for collective... Schedule for collective membership marks. All collective membership marks in applications based on sections... follows: Class Title 200 Collective Membership. ...

  6. 19 CFR 181.116 - Petition regarding adverse marking decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for NAFTA Review of Adverse Marking Decision” and shall be signed by the exporter, producer or his... other than the principal. (c) Content. The Petition for NAFTA Review of Adverse Marking Decision letter...

  7. Analysis and identification of bite marks in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of bite marks plays an important role in personal identification in forensic casework. Bite marks can be recorded in violent crimes such as sexual offences, homicides, child abuse cases, and during sports events. The arrangement, size and alignment of human teeth are individualistic to each person. Teeth, acting as tools leave recognizable marks depending on tooth arrangement, malocclusion, habits, occupation, tooth fracture, and missing or extra teeth. Bite mark identification is based on the individuality of a dentition, which is used to match a bite mark to a suspect. Bite marks are often considered as valuable alternative to fingerprinting and DNA identification in forensic examinations. The present review describes the classification, characteristics, mechanism of production, and appearance of bite mark injuries, collection of evidence, comparison techniques, and technical aids in the analysis of the bite marks.

  8. Supporting interactive visual analytics of energy behavior in buildings through affine visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Matthias; Brewer, Robert S.; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    Domain experts dealing with big data are typically not familiar with advanced data mining tools. This especially holds true for domain experts within energy management. In this paper, we introduce a visual analytics approach that empowers such users to visually analyze energy behavior based...... on consumption meters, sensors and user reported survey data. The approach is aimed at visual analysis of resource consumption data and occupant survey data (e.g. from questionnaires) from apartment buildings. We discuss the principles and architecture of the affine visualization tool, Affinity......Viz, that interactively maps data from real world buildings. It is an overview +detail inter-active visual analytics tool supporting both rapid ad hoc explorations and structured evaluation of hypotheses about patterns and anomalies in resource consumption data mixed with occupant survey data. We have evaluated...

  9. Visual analytics in scalable visualization environments

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, So

    2011-01-01

    Visual analytics is an interdisciplinary field that facilitates the analysis of the large volume of data through interactive visual interface. This dissertation focuses on the development of visual analytics techniques in scalable visualization environments. These scalable visualization environments offer a high-resolution, integrated virtual space, as well as a wide-open physical space that affords collaborative user interaction. At the same time, the sheer scale of these environments poses ...

  10. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R.K. Gorea; O.P. Jasuja; Abdulwahab Ali Abuderman; Abhinav Gorea

    2014-01-01

    Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study c...

  11. Differential Object Marking, Case and Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ormazabal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present empirical evidence showing that Differential Object Marking (DOM  in Spanish is determined by structural conditions related to Case and agreement. We also argue that semantic concepts such as specificity, definiteness, animacy, or topicality, tightly connected to the presence or absence of A, must be parasitic on the syntactic configurations where DOM is licensed. We also present some consequences of our analysis for the general theory of agreement. We argue that the same structural relation is involved in all cases of DOM, as well as in Dative Clitic Constructions, where the presence of the particle A preceding clitic-doubled datives is syntactically unified with DOM phenomena. The accusative/dative distinction traditionally attributed to the Spanish pronominal system does not correspond, in synchronic terms, to different case relations, but distinguishes between agreeing and non-agreeing arguments. Similarly, the distribution of DOM corresponds to a Case-checked/Caseless difference. We extend the analysis to account for well-known restrictions on the co-appearance of two DOM arguments, which  are analyzed as the consequence of a competition between two arguments for a single target.

  12. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart.

  13. Precision markedly attenuates repetitive lift capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Brooke R; Holland, Laura; McGhee, Deirdre; Sampson, John A; Bell, Alison; Stapley, Paul J; Groeller, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of precision on time to task failure in a repetitive whole-body manual handling task. Twelve participants were required to repetitively lift a box weighing 65% of their single repetition maximum to shoulder height using either precise or unconstrained box placement. Muscle activity, forces exerted at the ground, 2D body kinematics, box acceleration and psychophysical measures of performance were recorded until task failure was reached. With precision, time to task failure for repetitive lifting was reduced by 72%, whereas the duration taken to complete a single lift and anterior deltoid muscle activation increased by 39% and 25%, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in ratings of perceived exertion or heart rate at task failure. In conclusion, our results suggest that when accuracy is a characteristic of a repetitive manual handling task, physical work capacity will decline markedly. The capacity to lift repetitively to shoulder height was reduced by 72% when increased accuracy was required to place a box upon a shelf. Lifting strategy and muscle activity were also modified, confirming practitioners should take into consideration movement precision when evaluating the demands of repetitive manual handling tasks.

  14. The Mark 3 data base handler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Schupler, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    A data base handler which would act to tie Mark 3 system programs together is discussed. The data base handler is written in FORTRAN and is implemented on the Hewlett-Packard 21MX and the IBM 360/91. The system design objectives were to (1) provide for an easily specified method of data interchange among programs, (2) provide for a high level of data integrity, (3) accommodate changing requirments, (4) promote program accountability, (5) provide a single source of program constants, and (6) provide a central point for data archiving. The system consists of two distinct parts: a set of files existing on disk packs and tapes; and a set of utility subroutines which allow users to access the information in these files. Users never directly read or write the files and need not know the details of how the data are formatted in the files. To the users, the storage medium is format free. A user does need to know something about the sequencing of his data in the files but nothing about data in which he has no interest.

  15. The History of Punctuation Marks in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анастасия Александровна Борзенкова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the history of the evolution of punctuation marks in the Spanish language. Punctuation is one of the fundamental tools for the organization of written language. At the same time this system causes many difficulties in learning both in the mother tongue and in foreign language. Moreover, this aspect of the language system is often omitted in Russia. The authors of this article have the objective to show the stages in the development of punctuation, which emerged from the Greek interpunction and punctuation system in Latin, in the Spanish language. Basing its arguments on this assumption, the article also names the background of these changes (including extra-linguistic factors. The key moment in the history of the punctuation was the foundation of the Royal Spanish Academy that went into the codification of Spanish (Castilian language. As a result, the punctuation norm was for the first time ever fixed and described for the whole Spanish country. For the same reason a lot of attention in the article is paid to the detailed analysis of the Orthography of the Spanish language starting with the edition of 1741 and finishing with the edition of 2010. The authors are confident that this article will be interesting for language experts, translators, teachers and for those who want to take an exam of DELE of C1 and C2 levels.

  16. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE

  17. Visual Rhetoric in the Curriculum: Pedagogy for a Multimodal Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberger, Eva R.

    2005-01-01

    A survey of BizCom listserv subscribers suggests that visual rhetoric receives relatively little attention within business communication curricula. Results indicate that programs typically do not require a course in visual rhetoric, and on average, 20% or less of teaching in undergraduate courses is dedicated to visual communication. The findings…

  18. 14 CFR 101.17 - Lighting and marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lighting and marking requirements. 101.17... BALLOONS Moored Balloons and Kites § 101.17 Lighting and marking requirements. (a) No person may operate a... FAA publication “Obstruction Marking and Lighting”. (b) No person may operate a moored balloon or kite...

  19. 47 CFR 73.1213 - Antenna structure, marking and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure, marking and lighting. 73..., marking and lighting. (a) The provisions of part 17 of this chapter (Construction, Marking, and Lighting... structure complies with applicable painting and lighting requirements. ...

  20. 14 CFR 139.311 - Marking, signs, and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking, signs, and lighting. 139.311... OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.311 Marking, signs, and lighting. (a) Marking. Each certificate holder...) and (b)(1)(iii) of this section must be internally illuminated at each Class III airport. (c) Lighting...

  1. 47 CFR 74.30 - Antenna structure, marking and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure, marking and lighting. 74.30... Applicable to All Services in Part 74 § 74.30 Antenna structure, marking and lighting. The provisions of part 17 of the FCC rules (Construction, Marking, and Lighting of Antenna Structures) require certain...

  2. 9 CFR 316.13 - Marking of outside containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in § 325.7(b) of this subchapter. (f) The outside containers of glands and organs which are not used... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of outside containers. 316.13... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.13 Marking of outside containers. (a...

  3. 78 FR 20295 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...- marking Paint Committee, Forest Service, USDA, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, 444 East...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in...

  4. 77 FR 20612 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ..., National Tree-marking Paint Committee, Forest Service, USDA, San Dimas Technology and Development Center... Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in Flagstaff, Arizona on May...

  5. 33 CFR 401.14 - Anchor marking buoys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchor marking buoys. 401.14... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.14 Anchor marking buoys. A highly visible anchor marking buoy of a type approved by the Manager and the Corporation...

  6. 19 CFR 134.41 - Methods and manner of marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.41... example, it is suggested that the country of origin on metal articles be die sunk, molded in or etched; on... amended (19 U.S.C. 1304), requires that the marking of the country of origin be legible, indelible, and...

  7. 19 CFR 134.11 - Country of origin marking required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.11 Country of origin... English name of the country of origin of the article, at the time of importation into the Customs... of the country of origin of the article unless the container is also excepted from marking. ...

  8. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall: (a) Observe and respect original...

  9. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: an extremely rare trace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2001-01-01

    Tooth-marked dinosaur bones provide insight into feeding behaviours and biting strategies of theropod dinosaurs. The majority of theropod tooth marks reported to date have been found on herbivorous dinosaur bones, although some tyrannosaurid bones with tooth marks have also been reported. In 1988...

  10. The Nature of Object Marking in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokgoz, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the nature of object marking in American Sign Language (ASL). I investigate object marking by means of directionality (the movement of the verb towards a certain location in signing space) and by means of handling classifiers (certain handshapes accompanying the verb). I propose that object marking in ASL is…

  11. Survival and reproduction of radio-marked adult spotted owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.C. Foster; E.D. Forsman; E.C. Meslow; G.S. Miller; J.A. Reid; F.F. Wagner; A.B. Carey; J.B. Lint

    1992-01-01

    We compared survival, reproduction, and body mass of radio-marked and non radio-marked spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) to determine if backpack radios influenced reproduction or survival. In most study areas and years, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in survival of males and females or in survival of radio-marked versus banded owls. There...

  12. Marking for Structure using Boolean Feedback | Louw | Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents evidence that marking student texts with well considered checklists is more effective than marking by hand. An experiment conducted on first-year students illustrated that the checklists developed to mark introductions, conclusions and paragraphs yielded better revision results than handwritten ...

  13. Mark Leonard : EL ei peakski olema suurvõim / Mark Leonard ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leonard, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevdirektoriga, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA ja Euroopa suhteid, Euroopa Liidu välispoliitikat, Venemaa ja Euroopa Liidu suhteid pärast Gruusia konflikti. Ta peab murettekitavaks, et Venemaa üritab takistada euroopalike väärtuste levitamist oma naaberriikides. Vt. samas: Mark Leonard. Ilmunud ka Sirp : Diplomaatia 14. nov. nr. 11 lk. 13-14

  14. Students with Low Vision Describe Their Visual Impairments and Visual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerette, Amy R.; Lewis, Sandra; Mattingly, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    In the study reported here, the responses to a survey that was designed to determine the knowledge of their visual impairment of 51 students with low vision were analyzed. Although the students described their visual weaknesses and strengths, they had limited knowledge of, and difficulty communicating about, the medical aspects of their…

  15. Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge Pelican Survey, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — June 10, 2014 marks the first use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Chase Lake Wildlife Refuge for pelican surveys. The U.S. Geological Survey teamed up with the...

  16. 9 CFR 317.10 - Reuse of official inspection marks; reuse of containers bearing official marks, labels, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reuse of official inspection marks; reuse of containers bearing official marks, labels, etc. 317.10 Section 317.10 Animals and Animal... DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.10 Reuse of official inspection marks; reuse of containers bearing...

  17. Hidden Markov model for dependent mark loss and survival estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laake, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Devin S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Ternent, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Mark-recapture estimators assume no loss of marks to provide unbiased estimates of population parameters. We describe a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework that integrates a mark loss model with a Cormack–Jolly–Seber model for survival estimation. Mark loss can be estimated with single-marked animals as long as a sub-sample of animals has a permanent mark. Double-marking provides an estimate of mark loss assuming independence but dependence can be modeled with a permanently marked sub-sample. We use a log-linear approach to include covariates for mark loss and dependence which is more flexible than existing published methods for integrated models. The HMM approach is demonstrated with a dataset of black bears (Ursus americanus) with two ear tags and a subset of which were permanently marked with tattoos. The data were analyzed with and without the tattoo. Dropping the tattoos resulted in estimates of survival that were reduced by 0.005–0.035 due to tag loss dependence that could not be modeled. We also analyzed the data with and without the tattoo using a single tag. By not using.

  18. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  19. Visualizing Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    1999-10-01

    This report describes two classroom activities that help students visualize the abstract concept of entropy and apply the second law of thermodynamics to real situations. (i) A sealed "rainbow tube" contains six smaller vessels, each filled with a different brightly colored solution (low entropy). When the tube is inverted, the solutions mix together and react to form an amorphous precipitate (high entropy). The change from low entropy to high entropy is irreversible as long as the tube remains sealed. (ii) When U.S. currency is withdrawn from circulation, intact bills (low entropy) are shredded into small fragments (high entropy). Shredding is quick and easy; the reverse process is clearly nonspontaneous. It is theoretically possible, but it is time-consuming and energy-intensive, to reassemble one bill from a pile that contains fragments of hundreds of bills. We calculate the probability P of drawing pieces of only one specific bill from a mixture containing one pound of bills, each shredded into n fragments. This result can be related to Boltzmann's entropy formula S?=klnW.

  20. Visual Analytics for MOOC Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Huamin; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of massive open online courses (MOOCs), tens of millions of learners can now enroll in more than 1,000 courses via MOOC platforms such as Coursera and edX. As a result, a huge amount of data has been collected. Compared with traditional education records, the data from MOOCs has much finer granularity and also contains new pieces of information. It is the first time in history that such comprehensive data related to learning behavior has become available for analysis. What roles can visual analytics play in this MOOC movement? The authors survey the current practice and argue that MOOCs provide an opportunity for visualization researchers and that visual analytics systems for MOOCs can benefit a range of end users such as course instructors, education researchers, students, university administrators, and MOOC providers.

  1. Determination of the quality of stripe-marked and cracked eggs during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chi Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Stripe marks, which occasionally occur on the shell, do not cause breakage to the shell and shell membranes of eggs. This study investigated the quality of intact eggs (IEs, minor stripe-marked eggs (MEs, severe stripe-marked eggs (SEs, and cracked eggs (CEs during 3-week storage at 25°C. Methods Shell eggs were collected the day after being laid and were washed. Among them, eggs without any visual cracks or stripe marks on the shells were evaluated as IEs by the plant employees using candling in a darkened egg storage room; the remaining eggs exhibited some eggshell defects. At day 3, the eggs were further categorized into IEs, MEs, SEs, CEs, and broken eggs (BEs on the basis of the description given. Except BEs, which were discarded, the remaining eggs were stored at 25°C (approximate relative humidity 50% and then analyzed. Results Stripe marks were observed primarily within the first 3 days after washing. At day 3, CEs had significantly (p<0.05 lower Haugh unit values, but all eggs had grades AA or A, according to the United States Department of Agriculture standard. As storage time increased, differences in egg quality between groups were more obvious. IEs had the highest eggshell breaking strength. During storage, the total plate counts and pathogens, namely Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp., were not detectable in the internal content of IEs and SEs. Conclusion In conclusion, cracks degraded egg quality severely and minor stripe marks only slightly influenced the egg quality.

  2. Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) Capture, Banding, and Mark-Resight Records; Kigigak Island, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 1992-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing body morphometric measurement and location data for captured Spectacled Eiders, and resight data for marked Spectacled Eiders on Kigigak Island,...

  3. Remaining visual field and preserved subjective visual functioning prevent mental distress in patients with visual field defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin eGall

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with visual field defects after visual pathway lesion may experience reduced vision-related quality of life (vrQoL. It has not been clarified how vrQoL impairments contribute to vision-related mental distress.Methods: 108 subjects with visual field defects caused by optic neuropathies (age M=57.6; SD=13.7 years answered the National Eye Institute Visual-Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ for vrQoL and the SF-12 Short Form Health Survey for health-related quality of life (hrQoL. A ten item composite of NEI-VFQ visual functioning and five items of mental health symptoms due to vision problems were subjected to Rasch analysis. The test battery comprised static and High Resolution Perimetry (HRP. Regression and path analysis were used to investigate associations between QoL, mental distress and perimetry results.Results: A higher level of visual functioning was associated with monocular impairment and a larger remaining visual field compared to binocular impairment. Subjective visual functioning but not visual field parameters predicted mental health symptoms due to vision problems which was the only variable associated with the SF-12 mental component score. The SF-12 physical component score was less strongly associated with mental health symptoms due to vision problems. Here, reaction time in HRP and mean threshold in perimetry were additional significant variables. Path analysis revealed a significant path of remaining visual field via visual functioning on mental health. Conclusions: Subjective consequences of visual impairments in everyday life impact mental health rather than objective visual function loss as measured by perimetry. Since a higher extent of vrQoL was related to lower levels of mental distress, the maintenance of vrQoL could reduce and prevent mental distress due to vision problems. Patients with persisting visual field defects may benefit from neuropsychological rehabilitation and supportive therapies.

  4. Teacher Correction versus Peer-Marking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourente Miguel Mariana Correia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Written language is undoubtedly more often used than oral language in a variety of contexts, including both the professional and academic life. Consequently, developing strategies for correcting compositions and improving students’ written production is of vital importance. This article describes an experiment aimed at assessing the two most widely used methods of correction for compositions –traditional teacher correction and peer marking and their effect on the frequency of errors. Data was collected by asking students to write and revise a text. Statistical tests were performed to analyse it. At the end of the experiment, it was found that no significant difference in efficiency existed between the two methods, contradicting expectations (cf. Davies, 2002; Levine et al., 2002 and Ward, 2001. Key words: English-Teaching, Foreign Language-Teaching Writing, Evaluation, Assessment El lenguaje escrito es sin duda usado con más frecuencia que el lenguaje oral en una variedad de situaciones o contextos, incluyendo tanto la vida profesional como la académica. En consecuencia, el desarrollo de estrategias para corregir composiciones y mejorar la producción escrita de los estudiantes es de suma importancia. Este artículo describe un experimento cuyo objetivo es evaluar los dos métodos más usados para la corrección de composiciones, la corrección tradicional por el maestro y la corrección por revisión de pares, con respecto a su efecto en la frecuencia de errores. Se recogió información haciendo que estudiantes escribieran y revisaran un texto y sobre esos textos se aplicaron pruebas estadísticas para analizar los errores. Contrario a lo esperado, al final del experimento, no se encontró ninguna diferencia significativa entre los resultados encontrados por los dos métodos, (cfr. Davies, 2002; Levine et al., 2002 y Ward, 2001. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza, Idioma Extranjero-Enseñanza, Composición, Evaluación

  5. The use of heterospecific scent marks by the sweat bee Halictus aerarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Goulson, Dave; Fujisaki, Kenji

    2007-12-01

    To forage effectively amongst flowers, some bee species utilize olfactory cues left by previous visitors in addition to direct assessment of visual cues to identify rewarding flowers. This ability can be more advantageous if the bees can recognize and use scent marks left by heterospecifics, not just marks left by members of their own species. We conducted field experiments to investigate whether the sweat bee Halictus aerarius avoids visiting flowers of trailing water willow Justicia procumbens emptied by other bee species. We found that H. aerarius rejected the flowers visited by both heterospecifics and conspecifics. They also rejected visited flowers artificially replenished with nectar. Our results demonstrate that social bees outside the Apidae can detect marks left on flowers by heterospecifics but that (on this plant species) they are unable to discriminate against flowers by directly detecting nectar volume. H. aerarius exhibited different rejection rates according to the identity of the previous bee species. We suggest that the frequency of rejection responses may depend on the amount of chemical substances left by the previous bee. In general, the use of scent marks left by previous visitors is almost certainly advantageous, enabling foragers to avoid flowers with depleted nectar levels and thereby improving their foraging efficiency.

  6. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...

  7. The visual divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Alfons

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is a playground for visualization. Yet research and technological innovations in visual communication and data visualization do not account for a substantial part of the world's population: vulnerable audiences with low levels of literacy.

  8. A comparison of three different corneal marking methods used to determine cyclotorsion in the horizontal meridian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin HY

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hung-Yuan Lin,1–3 Yi-Ting Fang,4 Ya-Jung Chuang,5 Justin N Karlin,6 Hsin-Yang Chen,7 Szu-Yuan Lin,8 Pi-Jung Lin,9 Ming Chen10 1Universal Eye Center, Zhong-Li, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Department of Optometry, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Fu-Jian Medical University, People’s Republic of China; 4Universal Eye Center, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 5Universal Eye Center, Long-Tan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Department of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 7Department of Ophthalmology, Ningbo First Hospital, People’s Republic of China; 8Department of Ophthalmology, Cathay General Hospital, 9Universal Eye Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 10Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA Abstract: During toric intraocular lens (IOL implantation, surgeons must take particular care to ensure that inaccurate preoperative measurement and intraoperative misalignment do not cause unexpected postoperative residual astigmatism. This retrospective, comparative case series study aimed to analyze the rotational deviation, or cyclotorsion, of three corneal marking methods: VERION digital marker (VDM; reference, horizontal slit beam marking (HSBM, and subjective direct visual marking (SDVM on the table (using a bevel knife tip. Subjects included 81 eyes of 61 patients (mean age: 65.70±13.14 years; range: 32–91 years undergoing scheduled cataract surgery. A preoperative reference image was taken of each eye. Subsequently, a slit lamp with the light beam turned to the horizontal meridian was used to align the seated patient’s head, and two reference marks were placed at the 3- and 9-o’clock positions of the corneal limbus using a 27-gauge needle and marking pen (HSBM. Upon transfer to the surgical table, the VDM was used to display a real

  9. A mark that is no mark? Queer women and violence in HIV discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Gibson, Margaret F

    2013-01-01

    Lesbian, bisexual and queer women are invisible and ignored in HIV discourse, as epidemiological classifications result in their institutionalised exclusion from risk categories. Simultaneously, these women live with HIV, often in situations of societal exclusion and under threat of violence. In this paper, we consider the connections between discourse and violence to examine how both are reproduced through, applied to and dependent upon people. The ways lesbian, bisexual and queer women do (or do not) appear in HIV discourse tells us much about how people and categories operate in the global pandemic. The fault-lines of lesbian, bisexual and queer women's constrained visibility in HIV discourse can be seen in situations where they are exposed to HIV transmission through homophobic sexual assault. In dominant HIV discursive practices, such homophobic assault leaves Judith Butler's 'mark that is no mark', recording neither its violence nor its 'non-heterosexuality'. Structural violence theory offers a means to understand direct and indirect violence as it pertains to HIV and lesbian, bisexual and queer women. We call for forms of modified structural violence theory that better attend to the ways in which discourse connects with material realities. Our theoretical and epidemiological lens must be broadened to examine how anti-lesbian, bisexual and queer-women bias affects transnational understandings of human worth.

  10. Pavement Marking Visibility Requirements During Wet Night Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Ronald B. (Ronald Bruce)

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of pavement markings in wet night conditions. Typically, performance will decrease in wet conditions. The degradation is a result of flooding of the marking optics and a change in the optical media, thereby reducing retroreflectivity and the visibility distance. Several technologies are available to improve the visibility of markings under wet conditions. This study used four technologies and evaluated them in a dynamic situation. In the experiment, veh...

  11. 46 CFR 78.50-15 - Load line marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load line marks. 78.50-15 Section 78.50-15 Shipping... Vessels § 78.50-15 Load line marks. (a) Vessels assigned a load line shall have the deck line and the load line marks permanently scribed or embossed as required by subchapter E (Load Lines) of this chapter. (b) ...

  12. A general review of bite-mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, J

    1981-03-01

    Bite-mark evidence has been used as an aid in the identification of criminals in many instances. The author, a forensic odontologist in Liverpool, England, during his lifetime, personally investigated the cases presented which include instances of rape and battery. It is shown how perpetrators of violent injuries were detected from bite marks on the victim or the perpetrator, or on foodstuffs found at the scene of the crime, when the marks were compared to dental impressions taken subsequently.

  13. Research on laser marking speed optimization by using genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongyun; Yu, Qiwei; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Laser Marking Machine is the most common coding equipment on product packaging lines. However, the speed of laser marking has become a bottleneck of production. In order to remove this bottleneck, a new method based on a genetic algorithm is designed. On the basis of this algorithm, a controller was designed and simulations and experiments were performed. The results show that using this algorithm could effectively improve laser marking efficiency by 25%.

  14. Computer systems and methods for the query and visualization multidimensional databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Chris; Tang, Diane L.; Hanrahan, Patrick

    2017-04-25

    A method of generating a data visualization is performed at a computer having a display, one or more processors, and memory. The memory stores one or more programs for execution by the one or more processors. The process receives user specification of a plurality of characteristics of a data visualization. The data visualization is based on data from a multidimensional database. The characteristics specify at least x-position and y-position of data marks corresponding to tuples of data retrieved from the database. The process generates a data visualization according to the specified plurality of characteristics. The data visualization has an x-axis defined based on data for one or more first fields from the database that specify x-position of the data marks and the data visualization has a y-axis defined based on data for one or more second fields from the database that specify y-position of the data marks.

  15. Moves for standard skeleta of 3-manifolds with marked boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Amendola, Gennaro

    2008-01-01

    We prove that the classical set of moves for standard spines of 3-manifolds (i.e. the MP-move and the V-move) does not suffice to relate to each other any two standard skeleta of a 3-manifold with marked boundary. We also describe a condition on the 3-manifold with marked boundary that tells whether the generalised set of moves, made up of the MP-move and the L-move, suffices to relate to each other any two standard skeleta of the 3-manifold with marked boundary. For the 3-manifolds with mark...

  16. Acquired body marks: A mode of identification in Forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Monika; Mondal, P R

    2017-11-01

    Each individual regardless of sex, age and caste has a particular identification mark present on their body. This study is mainly an attempt to understand the distribution pattern of different types of acquired body marks present on the body which can be used as a marker for individual identification in Forensics. Data was collected by means of observation, interview schedule and interviews from 160 individuals of 6 multi-caste villages of Udaipur in Rajasthan, India. A wide variation was observed in the distribution patterns of various acquired body marks. Scars were the most prevalent (87.5%) followed by body piercing (66%), occupational marks (38.5%), tattoo marks (27.5%) and body deformity (5%). There is a strong association between sex of an individual and presence of tattoo and occupational marks. Type of occupation is associated with the presence of scar and occupational marks. Age also has its influence on the presence and type of - tattoo and occupational marks. This wide variation in the distribution of acquired body marks based on sex, age, educational status, occupation, religion etc. of an individual need to be considered and included as a method of identification of unknown in Forensic Science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Feature extraction of the wafer probe marks in IC packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chia-Te; Kao, Chen-Ting; Wang, Chau-Shing

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an image processing approach to extract six features of the probe mark on semiconductor wafer pads. The electrical characteristics of the chip pad must be tested using a probing needle before wire-bonding to the wafer. However, this test leaves probe marks on the pad. A large probe mark area results in poor adhesion forces at the bond ball of the pad, thus leading to undesirable products. In this paper, we present a method to extract six features of the wafer probe marks in IC packaging for further digital image processing.

  18. Acquaintance of bite mark identification procedures in Forensic Odontology

    OpenAIRE

    Yuti Malinda; Dewi Zakiawati

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Bite mark analysis casework strives to connect a biter to the teeth pattern present on the object linked in some way to crime or event. This analysis requiring an immediate response by the forensic odontologist since the marks fade rapidly in the living and the dead in a matter of hours. The aim of this article is to help the dentist to know and understand the procedures of bite mark identification in forensic odontology field. Literature review: Bite marks may be present th...

  19. Interactive Visualization of Healthcare Data Using Tableau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Inseok; Chang, Hyejung

    2017-10-01

    Big data analysis is receiving increasing attention in many industries, including healthcare. Visualization plays an important role not only in intuitively showing the results of data analysis but also in the whole process of collecting, cleaning, analyzing, and sharing data. This paper presents a procedure for the interactive visualization and analysis of healthcare data using Tableau as a business intelligence tool. Starting with installation of the Tableau Desktop Personal version 10.3, this paper describes the process of understanding and visualizing healthcare data using an example. The example data of colon cancer patients were obtained from health insurance claims in years 2012 and 2013, provided by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To explore the visualization of healthcare data using Tableau for beginners, this paper describes the creation of a simple view for the average length of stay of colon cancer patients. Since Tableau provides various visualizations and customizations, the level of analysis can be increased with small multiples, view filtering, mark cards, and Tableau charts. Tableau is a software that can help users explore and understand their data by creating interactive visualizations. The software has the advantages that it can be used in conjunction with almost any database, and it is easy to use by dragging and dropping to create an interactive visualization expressing the desired format.

  20. Adaptive pulvinar circuitry supports visual cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bridge, Holly; Leopold, David A.; Bourne, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The pulvinar is the largest thalamic nucleus in primates, and one of the most mysterious. Endeavors to understand its role in vision have focused on its abundant connections with the visual cortex. While its connectivity mapping in the cortex displays a broad topographic organization, its projections are also marked by considerable convergence and divergence. As a result, the pulvinar is often regarded as a central forebrain hub. Moreover, new evidence suggests that its comparatively modest i...

  1. [Selective visual attention and simultanagnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K

    2001-12-01

    The parietal lobe is an important key station in the network for selective attention. We found that spontaneous shift of visual attention, depending on task requirement, was impaired by parietal lobe lesions and confirmed the relationship between parietal lobes and visual attention with cortical electric stimulation. Patient 1. A 52-year-old, right-handed carpenter with a diagnosis of 'visual form' of Alzheimer disease showed marked kanji (logogram) agraphia and constructional impairment. Cerebral atrophy and hypoperfusion were observed in bilateral parietal lobes. He showed preserved form and color perception and an ability to describe spatial relationship among several items. In contrast, he could not copy or match them. He seemed to look at only the site he was drawing. Patient 2. A 77-year-old man with cerebral infarction in bilateral parietal lobes and right frontotemporal areas, demonstrated simultanagnosia and visuomotor ataxia. He readily named an object but could not describe a scene. Furthermore he noticed a line between sentences when they were written in English, but could not notice a line when sentences were written in Japanese. Cortical electric mapping, in two patients with subdural electrodes on the left or right parietal lobe, revealed circumscribed regions related to global/local attention shift or line bisection tasks.

  2. The neural basis of mark making: a functional MRI study of drawing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yuan

    Full Text Available Compared to most other forms of visually-guided motor activity, drawing is unique in that it "leaves a trail behind" in the form of the emanating image. We took advantage of an MRI-compatible drawing tablet in order to examine both the motor production and perceptual emanation of images. Subjects participated in a series of mark making tasks in which they were cued to draw geometric patterns on the tablet's surface. The critical comparison was between when visual feedback was displayed (image generation versus when it was not (no image generation. This contrast revealed an occipito-parietal stream involved in motion-based perception of the emerging image, including areas V5/MT+, LO, V3A, and the posterior part of the intraparietal sulcus. Interestingly, when subjects passively viewed animations of visual patterns emerging on the projected surface, all of the sensorimotor network involved in drawing was strongly activated, with the exception of the primary motor cortex. These results argue that the origin of the human capacity to draw and write involves not only motor skills for tool use but also motor-sensory links between drawing movements and the visual images that emanate from them in real time.

  3. The Neural Basis of Mark Making: A Functional MRI Study of Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Brown, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Compared to most other forms of visually-guided motor activity, drawing is unique in that it “leaves a trail behind” in the form of the emanating image. We took advantage of an MRI-compatible drawing tablet in order to examine both the motor production and perceptual emanation of images. Subjects participated in a series of mark making tasks in which they were cued to draw geometric patterns on the tablet's surface. The critical comparison was between when visual feedback was displayed (image generation) versus when it was not (no image generation). This contrast revealed an occipito-parietal stream involved in motion-based perception of the emerging image, including areas V5/MT+, LO, V3A, and the posterior part of the intraparietal sulcus. Interestingly, when subjects passively viewed animations of visual patterns emerging on the projected surface, all of the sensorimotor network involved in drawing was strongly activated, with the exception of the primary motor cortex. These results argue that the origin of the human capacity to draw and write involves not only motor skills for tool use but also motor-sensory links between drawing movements and the visual images that emanate from them in real time. PMID:25271440

  4. Ülar Mark: loome uut ja iga loomisega lammutame midagi / Ülar Mark ; intervjueerinud Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektuurikeskuse juhatuse esimees, arhitekt Ülar Mark Tallinna arhitektuurist ja linna arengust, demokraatlikust linnaruumist. Pikemalt Solarise keskusest, vabadussambast, väikepoodide asemele suurte kaubanduskeskuste tulekust

  5. Recruitment in Swarm-Founding Wasps: Polybia occidentalis Does not Actively Scent-Mark Carbohydrate Food Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scent marking food resources is expected to enhance foraging efficiency reducing search time. Many social bees exhibit this behavior, but scent-marking is absent in social wasps, except for Vespa mandarinia. We tested for scent marking in the swarm-founding wasp, Polybia occidentalis. This wasp has moderately large colonies and utilizes resources that are concentrated in time and space, making scent marking profitable. Also, this wasp uses chemical markings to lead nestmates to a new nest site during swarm emigration, making it possible that it could use the same behavior to recruit nestmates to a food source. Foragers from 11 colonies were given a choice between a previously visited feeder and an unvisited one, both containing a rich, unscented sucrose solution. There was no difference in the number of visits to the two treatments. However, some individuals chose the feeder on one side more often. We conclude that foragers of this species of wasp do not use odor marks left behind by nestmates to find food, but they do exhibit the tendency, when returning to a food source that has not been depleted, to choose a resource based on its relative position, presumably by using visual cues.

  6. Maaväline lind Mark Raidpere / Fagira D. Morti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fagira D. Morti, pseud., 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Soome Vabariigi president Tarja Halonen andis 28. veebruaril 2009. aastal Kumu Kunstimuuseumis videokunstnik Mark Raidperele üle Ars Fennica kunstipreemia. Meenutusi kunstniku EHI-s õppimise ajast, esimese näituse "Ilo" avamisest Vaal galeriis. Mark Raidpere loomingu mõistmisest

  7. Infrared technique for decoding of invisible laser markings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Jaeschke, Peter; Stein, Johannes; Goede, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Counterfeiting and product piracy continues to be an important issue not only for the Western industry, but also for the society in general. Due to the drastic increase in product imitation and the request for plagiarism protection as well as for reducing thefts there is a high interest in new protection methods providing new security features. The method presented here consists of security markings which are included below paint layers. These markings are invisible for the human eye due to the non-transparency of the upper layers in the visible spectral range. However, the markings can be detected by an infrared technique taking advantage on the partial transparency of the upper paint layers in the IR-region. Metal sheets are marked using laser radiation. The beam of a Nd:YAG-laser provides a modification of the surface structure, resulting in dark markings due to the annealing effect. After coating of the laser-marked material, the markings are invisible for the bare eye. In order to read out the invisible information below the coating, an infrared reflection technique is used. The samples are illuminated with halogen lamps or infrared radiators. Many coating materials (i. e. paints) show a certain transparency in the mid-infrared region, especially between 3 - 5 micrometers . The reflected radiation is detected using an IR-camera with a sensitivity range from 3.4 - 5 micrometers . Due to the different reflection properties between the markings and their surrounding, the information can be detected.

  8. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark Adapted from the NCI Cancer ... this page included, e.g., “For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark was originally published by the ...

  9. 15 CFR 16.10 - The Department of Commerce Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Department of Commerce Mark. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.10 The Department of Commerce Mark. The Department of...

  10. Mark's story as oral traditional literature: Rethinking the transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interpretation of Mark's gospel is inextricably linked to a conception of the gospel's genesis. By basing his argument on an aspect of the 'oral formulaic theory' the author of this paper argues that Mark's gospel can be seen as an example of oral traditional composition. The primary asset of this perspective is that it ...

  11. Differential Object Marking in Child and Adult Spanish Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; Sanchez-Walker, Noelia

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of two studies that investigate the factors contributing to non-native-like ability in child and adult heritage speakers by focusing on oral production of Differential Object Marking (DOM), the overt morphological marking of animate direct objects in Spanish. In study 1, 39 school-age bilingual children (ages 6-17) from the…

  12. 7 CFR 319.37-10 - Marking and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and identity. 319.37-10 Section 319.37-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-10 Marking and identity. (a) Any restricted article for...

  13. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All...

  14. The Ambiguity of Musical Expression Marks and the Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ambiguity of Musical Expression Marks and the Challenges of Teaching and Learning Keyboard Instruments: The Nnamdi Azikiwe University Experience. ... the fact that some of the performance marks demand subjective expressions from the performer such as, 'furiously', 'fiercely' 'with agitation' 'brightly', tenderly, etc.

  15. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. Optimal setting up of injection molding process variables plays a very important role in controlling the quality of the injection molded products. It is all the most important to control attribute defects like sink marks. Sink marks are basically a “designed in” problem and hence it is to be attended during designs stages.

  16. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial number...

  17. Multi-Disciplinary Peer-Mark Moderation of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmot, Peter; Pond, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Self and peer assessment offers benefits for enhancing student learning. Peer moderation provides a convenient solution for awarding individual marks in group assignments. This paper provides a significant review of peer-mark moderation, and describes an award winning, web-based tool that was developed in the UK and is now spreading across the…

  18. 37 CFR 2.37 - Description of mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of mark. 2.37 Section 2.37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.37 Description of mark. A...

  19. Otolith marking of juvenile shortnose gar by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Richard A.; Long, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been used to mark a variety of fish species at multiple developmental stages; however, there is little information on batch-marking Lepisosteidae. Juvenile Shortnose Gar Lepisosteus platostomus (53 ± 3 mm TL) were seined from an Oklahoma State University research pond and transported to the Oklahoma Fishery Research Lab. Juvenile Shortnose Gar were exposed to a range of OTC concentrations—0, 500, 600, and 700 mg/L—for 4, 5, or 6 h. Lapillus and sagitta otoliths were examined 14 d postexposure for mark presence and evaluation using fluorescent microscopy. Overall, 93.3% of otoliths exposed to OTC exhibited a mark. Concentration of OTC affected the mean mark quality, whereas duration and otolith type examined did not. However, as concentration increased, so did mortality, suggesting a balance is needed to achieve marking goals. Based on our findings, batch marking of Shortnose Gar can be successful at OTC concentrations from 500 to 700 mg/L for 4–6 h, although mark quality may vary and mortality rates increase at the higher concentrations and longer durations.

  20. 32 CFR 2400.16 - Derivative classification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification markings. 2400.16... SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 2400.16 Derivative classification markings. (a) Documents..., as described in § 2400.12 of this part, the information may not be used as a basis for derivative...

  1. The Evidentiary Value of Bite Mark Analysis in Criminal Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail H. Al-Amad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the comparison between a bite mark injury and a suspect’s teeth was considered evidence linking the suspect to the victim. However, in recent years, many convictions were re-assessed by a legal initiative in the United States called the “Innocence Project”. The outcome of this project was the exoneration of many wrongfully convicted inmates. Some of those exonerations were of prisoners who had been convicted based on bite mark evidence. Consequently, the admissibility and evidentiary value of bite mark evidence came under profound scrutiny. On the other hand, proponents of bite mark evidence advocate the use of bite mark evidence in courts as an evidence of approximation, rather than conclusion. This paper will discuss the genesis and history of bite mark evidence, as well as the modern analysis of bite marks that is based on metric and non-metric digital assessment. The evidentiary value of bite  marks and the weight they should carry in today’s courts will be discussed.

  2. 27 CFR 19.612 - Authorized abbreviations to identify marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks... which are authorized in this part for use in marking containers, the following abbreviations may be used... Stamps DSS Gallon or Wine Gallon WG Gross Weight G Proof P Specially Denatured: Alcohol SDA Rum SDR Tare...

  3. Examining Negative Attitudes toward Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniam, David

    2009-01-01

    This article details an investigation into onscreen marking (OSM) in Hong Kong--where paper-based marking (PBM) is being phased out, to be completely superseded by OSM. It is a specific follow-up to a larger study (Coniam, 2009a) involving 30 raters who had previously rated English language essay scripts on screen in the 2007 Hong Kong Certificate…

  4. 19 CFR 10.58 - Bolting cloths; marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolting cloths; marking. 10.58 Section 10.58... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Bolting Cloths § 10.58 Bolting cloths; marking. (a) As a prerequisite to the free entry of bolting cloth for milling...

  5. 77 FR 10533 - Stephen L. Marks: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Stephen L. Marks from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application. We... relating to the regulation of a drug product under the FD&C Act. Mr. Marks was given notice of the proposed...

  6. Tone sandhi, prosodic phrasing, and focus marking in Wenzhou Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    In most languages, focus (i.e. highlighting information) is marked by modifying the melody of the sentence. But how is focus marked in a Chinese dialect with eight different citation tones and a complex tonal phonology? This thesis investigates the connection between tonal realization and tone

  7. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  8. 49 CFR 221.13 - Marking device display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking device display. 221.13 Section 221.13... § 221.13 Marking device display. (a) During the periods prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section... with, (2) display on the trailing end of the rear car of that train, and (3) continuously illuminate or...

  9. Designing an effective mark-recapture study of Antarctic blue whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, David; Bravington, Mark; Kelly, Natalie; Double, Michael C

    2015-06-01

    To properly conserve and manage wild populations, it is important to have information on abundance and population dynamics. In the case of rare and cryptic species, especially in remote locations, surveys can be difficult and expensive, and run the risk of not producing sample sizes large enough to produce precise estimates. Therefore, it is crucial to conduct preliminary analysis to determine if the study will produce useable estimates. The focus of this paper is a proposed mark-recapture study of Antarctic blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia). Antarctic blue whales were hunted to near extinction up until the mid- 1960s, when commercial exploitation of this species ended. Current abundance estimates are a decade old. Furthermore, at present, there are no formal circumpolar-level cetacean surveys operating in Antarctic waters and, specifically, there is no strategy to monitor the potential recovery of Antarctic blue whales. Hence the work in this paper was motivated by the need to inform decisions on strategies for future monitoring of Antarctic blue whale population. The paper describes a model to predict the precision and bias of estimates from a proposed survey program. The analysis showed that mark-recapture is indeed a suitable method to provide a circumpolar abundance estimate of Antarctic blue whales, with precision of the abundance, at the midpoint of the program, predicted to be between 0.2 and 0.3. However, this was only if passive acoustic tracking was utilized to increase the encounter rate. The analysis also provided guidance on general design for an Antarctic blue whale program, showing that it requires a 12-year duration; although surveys do not necessarily need to be run every year if multiple vessels are available to clump effort. Mark-recapture is based on a number of assumptions; it was evident from the analysis that ongoing analysis and monitoring of the data would be required to check such assumptions hold (e.g., test for

  10. Lane marking detection based on waveform analysis and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang Yang; Chen, Hou Jin; Hao, Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Lane markings detection is a very important part of the ADAS to avoid traffic accidents. In order to obtain accurate lane markings, in this work, a novel and efficient algorithm is proposed, which analyses the waveform generated from the road image after inverse perspective mapping (IPM). The algorithm includes two main stages: the first stage uses an image preprocessing including a CNN to reduce the background and enhance the lane markings. The second stage obtains the waveform of the road image and analyzes the waveform to get lanes. The contribution of this work is that we introduce local and global features of the waveform to detect the lane markings. The results indicate the proposed method is robust in detecting and fitting the lane markings.

  11. Evaluation and treatment of patients with human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, M H; Roenigk, H H; Smith, E S; Pierce, L J

    1989-06-01

    Physicians and other health care workers who care for patients who have sustained human bite marks need a working protocol to ensure that these patients receive proper care. This protocol involves taking a thorough history and performing a physical examination, approximately determining the bite mark age, and administering proper therapy. The history will help to determine whether a criminal act has been committed and which agencies need to be notified. The American Board of Forensic Odontology published criteria for bite mark analysis in 1984 that included a description of the bite mark including its size, shape, and color, along with techniques for collection of evidence from both the victim and suspect. To determine bite mark age, tissue response to injury (inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and matrix formation and remodeling) is reviewed. Finally, the bacteria that are found in these wounds and the proper use of antimicrobial agents are expanded upon.

  12. A useful marking method for free living mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available A paint-spraying device was employed for marking wild African mammals without capture. This relatively inexpensive marking technique, which had originally been used for the marking of American desert bighorn sheep at drinking places, was also successfully applied in the marking of impala, Aepyceros melampus, blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, Burchell's zebra, Equus burchellii antiquorum aud the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. The apparatus used differs in some respects from that originally described by Hanson (1964. It was also used for the marking of animals from a mobile unit and away from fixed drinking places. This paper is based on a part of a thesis, submitted to the University of Pretoria in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of D.Sc. (Wildlife Management.

  13. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  14. Methods for the Analysis of Human Bite Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naru, A S

    1997-12-01

    The comparison of features within a bite mark injury with the dentition of a suspect may be required during the course of a criminal investigation. A review of the literature regarding bite mark analysis has been undertaken to determine the value of this evidence. Bite marks in skin are complex injuries consisting of abrasions, lacerations, and contusions, caused by the crushing action of the teeth and related structures. Front-line investigators need to recognize and interpret these features, but no standard method of information collection or comparison has been agreed. Many classifications of bite mark types have been proposed, but do not appear to aid mark analysis. Investigations of bite strengths and sucking forces have been inconclusive. Insufficient information exists as to the accuracy and reproducibility of the representation of the dentition by tissue pathology. Histological analysis and collagen staining techniques have attempted to define the area of injury in detail, but have limited application. The quality of the mark is determined by numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Distortion and shrinkage of the tissues introduce dimensional disturbances that require elimination before a comparison can be undertaken. No method exists to quantify and correct these distortions. The investigator must be aware that self-inflicted marks often occur among children and that other events may replicate bite mark injuries. The most common bite mark comparison methods employ an intermediate template produced from the suspect dentition that, when overlaid onto a scale photograph of the injury, demonstrates correspondence. No agreement exists regarding the individuality of human dentition, minimum level of correspondence required to positively identify the assailant, and the accuracy to which tissue pathology can represent these details. It is concluded that bite mark comparison can only exclude a suspect and should not be used for positive identification. Copyright

  15. Age-related eye diseases and visual impairment among U.S. adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Cotch, Mary Frances; Vitale, Susan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Klein, Ronald; Friedman, David S; Klein, Barbara E K; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2013-01-01

    Visual impairment is a common health-related disability in the U.S. The association between clinical measurements of age-related eye diseases and visual impairment in data from a national survey has not been...

  16. Custom Visualization without Real Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas

    Information Visualization tools have simplified visualization development. Some tools help simple users construct standard visualizations; others help programmers develop custom visualizations. This thesis contributes to the field of Information Visualization and End-User Development. The first c...

  17. Visual hemispatial inattention: stimulus parameters and exploratory strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, S; Mesulam, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with unilateral hemispheric lesions were given visual target cancellation tasks. As expected, marked contralateral and less severe ipsilateral visual inattention were observed in patients with right-sided cerebral lesions whereas those with left-sided lesions showed only mild contralateral neglect. Stimulus material (shapes vs letters) and array (random vs structured) interacted in a complex manner to influence target detection only in patients with right-sided lesions. Furthermore, ...

  18. Extrastriate cortical areas activated during visual discrimination in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, PE

    1981-01-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 254 different regions of the human extrastriate cerebral cortex during rest and during visual shape discrimination. Visual shape discrimination increased the rCBF markedly in the frontal eye fields, the upper part of the prefrontal cortex......, the lateral occipital cortex and the superior parietal cortex. Moderate increases of rCBF appeared in the inferotemporal cortex, the parietotemporo-occipital region and scattered in the lateral part of the prefrontal cortex....

  19. Mister Sandman, bring me good marks! On the relationship between sleep quality and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Stijn; Omey, Eddy; Verhaest, Dieter; Vermeir, Aurélie

    2015-04-01

    There is growing evidence that health factors affect tertiary education success in a causal way. This study assesses the effect of sleep quality on academic achievement at university. To this end, we surveyed 804 students about their sleep quality by means of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) before the start of their first exam period in December 2013 at Ghent University. PSQI scores were merged with course marks in this exam period. Instrumenting PSQI scores by sleep quality during secondary education, we find that increasing total sleep quality with one standard deviation leads to 4.85 percentage point higher course marks. Based on this finding, we suggest that higher education providers might be incentivised to invest part of their resources for social facilities in professional support for students with sleep and other health problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validity of photo-identification technique to analyze natural markings in Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Elgue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Individual identification is useful for answering a variety of biological questions about animal life histories. Most of the techniques used to mark amphibians are invasive and can cause negative effects, compromising individual survivorship and biasing studies. Photo-identification consists in the identification of specimens based on photographic records of unique color-design patterns. This technique has been used with success in several amphibian species. Melanophryniscus montevidensis is an endangered anuran species inhabiting the Uruguayan Atlantic coast. The general pattern of coloration is black with red and yellow blotches on the belly. In this study, we validated the technique of photo-identification assisted by software for individual recognition in M. montevidensis using natural markings. Field trips were performed over 16 months during which, the ventral color pattern of specimens was photographed. The photos were edited and analyzed with the Wild-ID 1.0 software for photographic reconnaissance. An efficiency of 100% was obtained in the visual recognition and 90% in the detection of recaptures using the software. The use of photo-identification using natural marks is an effective technique in this species, because the color pattern of the belly was highly variable among individuals and remained unchanged in individuals over the 16 month period. In this evaluation the use of software for photo-identification was necessary for the treatment of large databases.

  1. DGW: an exploratory data analysis tool for clustering and visualisation of epigenomic marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukauskas, Saulius; Visintainer, Roberto; Sanguinetti, Guido; Schweikert, Gabriele B

    2016-12-13

    Functional genomic and epigenomic research relies fundamentally on sequencing based methods like ChIP-seq for the detection of DNA-protein interactions. These techniques return large, high dimensional data sets with visually complex structures, such as multi-modal peaks extended over large genomic regions. Current tools for visualisation and data exploration represent and leverage these complex features only to a limited extent. We present DGW, an open source software package for simultaneous alignment and clustering of multiple epigenomic marks. DGW uses Dynamic Time Warping to adaptively rescale and align genomic distances which allows to group regions of interest with similar shapes, thereby capturing the structure of epigenomic marks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in a simulation study and on a real epigenomic data set from the ENCODE project. Our results show that DGW automatically recognises and aligns important genomic features such as transcription start sites and splicing sites from histone marks. DGW is available as an open source Python package.

  2. Adaptive Pulvinar Circuitry Supports Visual Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Holly; Leopold, David A; Bourne, James A

    2016-02-01

    The pulvinar is the largest thalamic nucleus in primates and one of the most mysterious. Endeavors to understand its role in vision have focused on its abundant connections with the visual cortex. While its connectivity mapping in the cortex displays a broad topographic organization, its projections are also marked by considerable convergence and divergence. As a result, the pulvinar is often regarded as a central forebrain hub. Moreover, new evidence suggests that its comparatively modest input from structures such as the retina and superior colliculus may critically shape the functional organization of the visual cortex, particularly during early development. Here we review recent studies that cast fresh light on how the many convergent pathways through the pulvinar contribute to visual cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Declarative Visualization Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In an ideal interaction with machines, scientists may prefer to write declarative queries saying "what" they want from a machine than to write code stating "how" the machine is going to address the user request. For example, in relational database, users have long relied on specifying queries using Structured Query Language (SQL), a declarative language to request data results from a database management system. In the context of visualizations, we see that users are still writing code based on complex visualization toolkit APIs. With the goal of improving the scientists' experience of using visualization technology, we have applied this query-answering pattern to a visualization setting, where scientists specify what visualizations they want generated using a declarative SQL-like notation. A knowledge enhanced management system ingests the query and knows the following: (1) know how to translate the query into visualization pipelines; and (2) how to execute the visualization pipelines to generate the requested visualization. We define visualization queries as declarative requests for visualizations specified in an SQL like language. Visualization queries specify what category of visualization to generate (e.g., volumes, contours, surfaces) as well as associated display attributes (e.g., color and opacity), without any regards for implementation, thus allowing scientists to remain partially unaware of a wide range of visualization toolkit (e.g., Generic Mapping Tools and Visualization Toolkit) specific implementation details. Implementation details are only a concern for our knowledge-based visualization management system, which uses both the information specified in the query and knowledge about visualization toolkit functions to construct visualization pipelines. Knowledge about the use of visualization toolkits includes what data formats the toolkit operates on, what formats they output, and what views they can generate. Visualization knowledge, which is not

  4. Visualization analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Munzner, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Visualization Analysis and Design provides a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about visualization in terms of principles and design choices. The book features a unified approach encompassing information visualization techniques for abstract data, scientific visualization techniques for spatial data, and visual analytics techniques for interweaving data transformation and analysis with interactive visual exploration. It emphasizes the careful validation of effectiveness and the consideration of function before form. The book breaks down visualization design according to three questions: what data users need to see, why users need to carry out their tasks, and how the visual representations proposed can be constructed and manipulated. It walks readers through the use of space and color to visually encode data in a view, the trade-offs between changing a single view and using multiple linked views, and the ways to reduce the amount of data shown in each view. The book concludes with six case stu...

  5. Thermal spectra of the TRIGA Mark III reactor; El espectro termico del reactor TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R.; Palacios G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    The diffraction phenomenon is gave in observance of the well known Bragg law in crystalline materials and this can be performance by mean of X-rays, electrons and neutrons among others, which allows to do inside the field of each one of these techniques the obtaining of measurements focussed at each one of them. For the present work, it will be mentioned only the referring to X-ray and neutron techniques. The X-ray diffraction due to its properties just it does measurements which are known in general as superficial measurements of the sample material but for the properties of the neutrons, this diffraction it explores in volumetric form the sample material. Since the neutron diffraction process depends lots of its intensity, then it is important to know the neutron source spectra that in this case is supplied by the TRIGA Mark III reactor. Within of diffraction techniques a great number of them can be found, however some of the traditional will be mentioned such as the identification of crystalline samples, phases identification and the textures measurement. At present this last technique is founded on the dot of a minimum error and the technique of phases identification performs but not compete with that which is obtained by mean of X-rays due to this last one has a major resolution. (Author)

  6. [An epidemiological study of visual disability and visual rehabilitation in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan-hong; Ding, Ji-yuan; Peng, Hong; Shi, Ji-liang; Qu, Cheng-yi; Liu, Xi-pu

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the status of visual disability and the demands for visual rehabilitation services in Beijing. Five hundred and fifty-five persons with visual disability in Beijing from the Second National Survey on Disability of China were involved in this study. Their visual disability and demands for rehabilitation were evaluated. About three fourth of the visual disabled persons were over 60 years of age. Cataract, retinal and choroidal diseases, and glaucoma were the three leading causes of the visual impairment. Medical service was the number one (82.0%) demand for the persons with visual disability, although 89.4% of them had previously received some kinds of medial services. People who had received visual aid devices or rehabilitation training were 26.7% and 5.8%, respectively, while more people showed their demand for these service (36.6% and 11.9%, respectively). The demand for visual rehabilitation varied in different groups of age and severity of disability. Accessibility of high quality medical services for preventable blindness diseases should be further promoted. Public health education on visual rehabilitation is also needed.

  7. No double-dissociation between optic ataxia and visual agnosia: Multiple sub-streams for multiple visuo-manual integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisella, L.; Binkofski, F.; Lasek, K.; Toni, I.; Rossetti, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The current dominant view of the visual system is marked by the functional and anatomical dissociation between a ventral stream specialised for perception and a dorsal stream specialised for action. The "double-dissociation" between visual agnosia (VA), a deficit of visual recognition, and optic

  8. The Visual Analysis of Visual Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Dennis M.; Roberts, Brian

    This paper presents an approach to understanding visual metaphor which uses metaphoric analysis and comprehension by graphic and pictorial means. The perceptible qualities of shape, line, form, color, and texture, that make up the visual structure characteristic of any particular shape, configuration, or scene, are called physiognomic properties;…

  9. Interaction for visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Tominski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  10. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...... networks that include several regions outside the visual system. The two visual capacity parameters are functionally separable, but seem to rely on largely overlapping brain areas....

  11. GoM Coastal and Estuarine Biopsy Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small vessel surveys are conducted within estuarine and nearshore coastal waters to collect tissue biopsy samples from bottlenose dolphins. Visual surveys are...

  12. NASA Planetary Visualization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, P.; Kim, R.

    2004-12-01

    NASA World Wind allows one to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging the combination of high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D, just as if they were really there. NASA World Wind combines LandSat 7 imagery with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data, for a dramatic view of the Earth at eye level. Users can literally fly across the world's terrain from any location in any direction. Particular focus was put into the ease of usability so people of all ages can enjoy World Wind. All one needs to control World Wind is a two button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed though a simplified menu. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse as well as the ability to type in any location and automatically zoom to it. NASA World Wind was designed to run on recent PC hardware with the same technology used by today's 3D video games. NASA World Wind delivers the NASA Blue Marble, spectacular true-color imagery of the entire Earth at 1-kilometer-per-pixel. Using NASA World Wind, you can continue to zoom past Blue Marble resolution to seamlessly experience the extremely detailed mosaic of LandSat 7 data at an impressive 15-meters-per-pixel resolution. NASA World Wind also delivers other color bands such as the infrared spectrum. The NASA Scientific Visualization Studio at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has produced a set of visually intense animations that demonstrate a variety of subjects such as hurricane dynamics and seasonal changes across the globe. NASA World Wind takes these animations and plays them directly on the world. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) produces a set of time relevant planetary imagery that's updated every day. MODIS catalogs fires, floods, dust, smoke, storms and volcanic activity. NASA World Wind produces an easily customized view of this information and marks them directly on the globe. When one

  13. Rapid progressive visual decline and visual field defects in two patients with the Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Janine; Engellandt, Kay; Terai, Naim; Bottesi, Antonia; Matthé, Egbert

    2018-02-08

    Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (HvCJD) is a rare disease, patients presenting with loss of visual acuity and a decline in visual fields. Two patients with rapid loss of visual acuity and declining visual fields presented with homonymic hemianopsia over several weeks. Cranial MRI showed neither stroke nor other morphological changes explaining the severe visual field defects. Neurological examination revealed no pathologies. However, lumbar puncture showed an increase in total protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Visual field testing revealed further deterioration during follow-up. Several weeks later, patients' behaviour changed markedly, exhibiting aggression, declining memory function and physical degeneration. The suspected diagnosis was the Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (HvCJD). CSF analysis showed evidence of PrP Sc and 14-3-3 protein. Both patients died within 8 weeks of the CJD diagnosis. Loss of visual acuity and a decline in visual fields without corresponding MRI findings and marked changes in behaviour should lead to a diagnosis of HvCJD. Corresponding diagnostic tests should be performed for confirmation. The prognosis for survival is poor and should be immediately communicated to affected patients and their relatives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gilbert Lake: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Gilbert Lake District of Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1983 calendar year. The...

  15. Fur Management Plan: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR Furbearer Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the environmental...

  16. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR (including Clarence Cannon, Louisa, and Calhoun NWRs) Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to...

  17. 47 CFR 78.63 - Antenna structure marking and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure marking and lighting. 78.63... lighting. The owner of each antenna structure is responsible for ensuring that the structure, if required... painting and lighting requirements. ...

  18. 51. Veneetsia kunstibiennaalil esindab Eestit kunstnik Mark Raidpere...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Mark Raidpere ekspositsiooni "Varjupaik" on koostanud Hanno Soans. 12. VI-6. XI avatud biennaalil on kaks peakuraatorit ja kaks teemanäitust: Maria de Corrali kureeritud "Kunsti kogemus" ja Rosa Martinezi kureeritud "Alati pisut eespool"

  19. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. Wildlife- including migratory...

  20. St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on St. Marks NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  1. Trapping Plan : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Brussels District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR- Brussels District trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  2. Viktor Misiano kureerib Mark Raidperet ning Jaan Toomikut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    27.05-26.08.2007 esitatakse Itaalia kunstikeskuses Pratos näitusel "Progressive Nostalgia" Jaan Toomiku videot "Merikajakas" (2004) ja Mark Raidpere videot "Andrei/Andris" (2006). Loetletud osalejad teistest maadest

  3. Meet EPA Chemist Mark Strynar, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Mark Strynar is a physical scientist in EPA's Office of Research and Development. His research interests include developing methods to measure and analyze the movement of PFCs and other xenobiotic compounds in biological and environmental media

  4. Continuous assessment and matriculation examination marks – An empirical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servaas van der Berg

    2015-12-01

    This study compares CASS data to the externally assessed matric exam marks for a number of subjects. There are two signalling dimensions to inaccurate assessments: (i Inflated CASS marks can give students a false sense of security and lead to diminished exam effort. (ii A weak correlation between CASS and the exam marks could mean poor signalling in another dimension: Relatively good students may get relatively low CASS marks. Such low correlations indicate poor assessment reliability, as the examination and continuous assessment should both be testing mastery of the same national curriculum. The paper analyses the extent of each of these dimensions of weak signalling in South African schools and draws disturbing conclusions for a large part of the school system.

  5. The cognitive benefits of movement reduction: evidence from dance marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Edward C; Wilson, Margaret; Lynch, Molly; Cuykendall, Shannon

    2013-09-01

    In a number of domains, humans adopt a strategy of systematically reducing and minimizing a codified system of movement. One particularly interesting case is "marking" in dance, wherein the dancer performs an attenuated version of the choreography during rehearsal. This is ostensibly to save the dancer's physical energy, but a number of considerations suggest that it may serve a cognitive function as well. In this study, we tested this embodied-cognitive-load hypothesis by manipulating whether dancers rehearsed by marking or by dancing "full out" and found that performance was superior in the dancers who had marked. This finding indicates that marking confers cognitive benefits during the rehearsal process, and it raises questions regarding the cognitive functions of other movement-reduction systems, such as whispering, gesturing, and subvocalizing. In addition, it has implications for a variety of topics in cognitive science, including embodied cognition and the nascent fields of dance and music cognition.

  6. Narrative Report : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year for the Complex Headquarters, the...

  7. Campus lecture marks Conflict Resolution Day Oct. 21

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Conflict Resolution Program will sponsor a video conference presentation by Craig Runde and Tim Flanagan, co-authors of three books on conflict in the workplace, as the university marks International Conflict Resolution Day Thursday, Oct. 21.

  8. Narrative report: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Skype'i kaasasutajad investeerivad MarkIT-isse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Nelja eestlasest Skype'i kaasasutaja loodud Ambient Sound Investments (ASI) investeerib 2 miljonit eurot, et aidata kaasa MarkIT e-hankekeskkonna arendamisele ning ettevõtte laienemisele viide Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riiki

  10. Safety performance evaluation of converging chevron pavement markings : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to perform a detailed safety analysis of converging chevron : pavement markings, quantifying the potential safety benefits and developing an understanding of the : incident types addressed by the treatment, and (...

  11. Acquaintance of bite mark identification procedures in Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuti Malinda

    2017-08-01

    Conclution: Dentist should carefully determine the conclusion among these possibilities , the mark is “possible biter”, “probable biter”, or “with a high level of confidence, is the biter”

  12. Effects of skin elasticity on bite mark distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cheri; Marroquin, Leonor A

    2015-12-01

    Bite marks have been reported to have an evidentiary value similar to fingerprints. We believed bite mark distortion would impact the accuracy and reliability of bite mark interpretation. Inked denture-stamps were substituted for actual bite marks and were placed onto 40 participating volunteers' shoulders. Four changes in arm position were photographed using an ABFO #2 reference scale. The measurements of individual tooth widths and intercanine distances in each position were compared. The maximum tooth width distortion observed was 53.8%, whereas the maximum intercanine distance distortion was 41.9%. Distortion was found to increase with age and weight and was non-uniform across a dental arch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis: durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project examined the life cycle and economic efficiency of two pavement marking : materials inlaid tape and thermoplastic to find the most economical product for specific : traffic and weather conditions. Six locations in the state of Ma...

  14. Gilbert Lake: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  15. 76 FR 13192 - Mark E. Van Wormer: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Mark E. Van Wormer, MD... Imaging and Laser Surgery Center, PC, and the Physicians GreatSkin Clinic. From on or about January 13...

  16. An integrated technique for the analysis of skin bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, Herman; Owen, Johanna H; van Heerden, Willie F P; Solheim, Tore

    2008-01-01

    The high number of murder, rape, and child abuse cases in South Africa has led to increased numbers of bite mark cases being heard in high courts. Objective analysis to match perpetrators to bite marks at crime scenes must be able to withstand vigorous cross-examination to be of value in conviction of perpetrators. An analysis technique is described in four stages, namely determination of the mark to be a human bite mark, pattern association analysis, metric analysis and comparison with the population data, and illustrated by a real case study. New and accepted techniques are combined to determine the likelihood ratio of guilt expressed as one of a range of conclusions described in the paper. Each stage of the analysis adds to the confirmation (or rejection) of concordance between the dental features present on the victim and the dentition of the suspect. The results illustrate identification to a high degree of certainty.

  17. Inland Waters - Navigation Distance Mark - Minnesota River (Non-Navigable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A distance mark indicates the distance measured from an origin and consists of a distinct location without special installation, used to serve as a reference along...

  18. The gender-marking effect in spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, F; Dommergues, J Y; Cornu, E; Guillelmon, D; Besson, C

    1994-11-01

    In this paper we examine whether the recognition of a spoken noun is affected by the gender marking--masculine or feminine--that is carried by a preceding word. In the first of two experiments, the gating paradigm was used to study the access of French nouns that were preceded by an appropriate gender marking, carried by an article, or preceded by no gender marking. In the second experiment, subjects were asked to make a lexical decision on the same material. A very strong facilitatory effect was found in both cases. The origin of the gender-marking effect is discussed, as well as the level of processing involved--lexical or syntactic.

  19. Comparative tag retention, clip quality, and injuries of juvenile spring Chinook salmon marked by an automated marking trailer and manual marking trailer at Warm Springs NFH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In an attempt to address the concerns raised as a result of the marking of the 2004 brood at Warm Springs NFH, a study plan was developed to evaluate the use of an...

  20. VISUAL ART TEACHERS AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles

    affect their competence in using assessment strategies in their classroom. The study employs a qualitative research design; an aspect of descriptive survey research aiming at depicting the situation of visual art classroom assessment practices. .... Encourage further the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers;. 3. Provide ...