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Sample records for survey uncompahgre uplift

  1. Streamflow Characteristics for Selected Stations In and Near the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests, Southwestern Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuhn, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests, began a study in 2000 to develop selected streamflow characteristics for 60 streamflow-gaging...

  2. Ancestral Rocky Mountian Tectonics: A Sedimentary Record of Ancestral Front Range and Uncompahgre Exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. M.; Saylor, J. E.; Lapen, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Ancestral Rocky Mountains (ARM) encompass multiple crustal provinces with characteristic crystallization ages across the central and western US. Two driving mechanisms have been proposed to explain ARM deformation. (1) Ouachita-Marathon collision SE of the ARM uplifts has been linked to an E-to-W sequence of uplift and is consistent with proposed disruption of a larger Paradox-Central Colorado Trough Basin by exhumation of the Uncompahgre Uplift. Initial exhumation of the Amarillo-Wichita Uplift to the east would provide a unique ~530 Ma signal absent from source areas to the SW, and result in initial exhumation of the Ancestral Front Range. (2) Alternatively, deformation due to flat slab subduction along a hypothesized plate boundary to the SW suggests a SW-to-NE younging of exhumation. This hypothesis suggests a SW-derived Grenville signature, and would trigger uplift of the Uncompahgre first. We analyzed depositional environments, sediment dispersal patterns, and sediment and basement zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He ages in 3 locations in the Paradox Basin and Central Colorado Trough (CCT). The Paradox Basin exhibits an up-section transition in fluvial style that suggests a decrease in overbank stability and increased lateral migration. Similarly, the CCT records a long-term progradation of depositional environments from marginal marine to fluvial, indicating that sediment supply in both basins outpaced accommodation. Preliminary provenance results indicate little to no input from the Amarillo-Wichita uplift in either basin despite uniformly westward sediment dispersal systems in both basins. Results also show that the Uncompahgre Uplift was the source for sediment throughout Paradox Basin deposition. These observations are inconsistent with the predictions of scenario 1 above. Rather, they suggest either a synchronous response to tectonic stress across the ARM provinces or an SW-to-NE pattern of deformation.

  3. Geology and Ore Deposits of the Uncompahgre (Ouray) Mining District, Southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Wilbur Swett; Luedke, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Formation, are chiefly tuff breccias of intermediate composition, which were deposited as extensive volcaniclastic aprons around volcanic centers to the east and south of the area. The Ouray area, in general, exhibits the typical effects of a minimum of three major uplifts of the ancestral San Juan Mountains. The earliest of these uplifts, with accompanying deformation and erosion, occurred within the Proterozoic, and the other two occurred at the close, respectively, of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The last event, known as the Laramide orogeny, locally was accompanied by extensive intrusion of igneous rocks of dominantly intermediate composition. Domal uplifts of the ancestral mountains resulted in peripheral monoclinal folds, plunging anticlines radial to the central core of the mountain mass, faults, and minor folds. The principal ore deposits of the Uncompahgre district were associated with crosscutting and laccolithic intrusions of porphyritic granodiorite formed during the Laramide (Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary) orogeny. The ores were deposited chiefly in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary strata having an aggregate thickness of about 4,500 feet (ft) and occur beneath the early Tertiary unconformity, which in places truncated some of the uppermost deposits. A few ore deposits of late Tertiary age occur also in the sedimentary rocks near the southern margin of the district, but are restricted mostly to the overlying volcanic rocks. Ore deposits in the Uncompahgre district range from low-grade, contact-metamorphic through pyritic base-metal bodies containing silver and gold tellurides and native gold to silver-bearing lead-zinc deposits, and are zoned about the center of intrusive activity, a stock in an area referred to as The Blowout. Ore deposition within the Uncompahgre district was largely controlled by structural trends and axes of uplift established mainly in the late Paleozoic phase of deformation, but also in part by structural lin

  4. Installation of a groundwater monitoring-well network on the east side of the Uncompahgre River in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2015-10-07

    The east side of the Uncompahgre River Basin has been a known contributor of dissolved selenium to recipient streams. Discharge of groundwater containing dissolved selenium contributes to surface-water selenium concentrations and loads; however, the groundwater system on the east side of the Uncompahgre River Basin is not well characterized. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and the Bureau of Reclamation, has established a groundwater-monitoring network on the east side of the Uncompahgre River Basin. Thirty wells total were installed for this project: 10 in 2012 (DS 923, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds923), and 20 monitoring wells were installed during April and June 2014 which are presented in this report. This report presents location data, lithologic logs, well-construction diagrams, and well-development information. Understanding the groundwater system can provide managers with an additional metric for evaluating the effectiveness of salinity and selenium control projects.

  5. Uplifting Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy; Boyle, Alan

    2015-01-01

    To find out how organizations turn failure into success, Andrew Hargreaves and his colleagues studied more than 15 business, sports, and education organizations. They found that the secret to these organizations' success came down to just two words: uplifting leadership. Uplifting leadership, write Hargreaves and Boyle in this article, raises the…

  6. A Literature Survey and Experimental Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art in Uplift Modeling: A Stepping Stone Toward the Development of Prescriptive Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Floris; Moldovan, Darie; Verbeke, Wouter

    2018-03-01

    Prescriptive analytics extends on predictive analytics by allowing to estimate an outcome in function of control variables, allowing as such to establish the required level of control variables for realizing a desired outcome. Uplift modeling is at the heart of prescriptive analytics and aims at estimating the net difference in an outcome resulting from a specific action or treatment that is applied. In this article, a structured and detailed literature survey on uplift modeling is provided by identifying and contrasting various groups of approaches. In addition, evaluation metrics for assessing the performance of uplift models are reviewed. An experimental evaluation on four real-world data sets provides further insight into their use. Uplift random forests are found to be consistently among the best performing techniques in terms of the Qini and Gini measures, although considerable variability in performance across the various data sets of the experiments is observed. In addition, uplift models are frequently observed to be unstable and display a strong variability in terms of performance across different folds in the cross-validation experimental setup. This potentially threatens their actual use for business applications. Moreover, it is found that the available evaluation metrics do not provide an intuitively understandable indication of the actual use and performance of a model. Specifically, existing evaluation metrics do not facilitate a comparison of uplift models and predictive models and evaluate performance either at an arbitrary cutoff or over the full spectrum of potential cutoffs. In conclusion, we highlight the instability of uplift models and the need for an application-oriented approach to assess uplift models as prime topics for further research.

  7. 75 FR 8739 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Uncompahgre Field Office and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Management Act (FLPMA) of 1976, as amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Uncompahgre Field Office (UFO... Impact Statement (EIS) for the UFO and by this notice is announcing the beginning of the scoping process..., a newsletter and the BLM Web site at: http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/fo/ufo/uncompahgre_rmp.html...

  8. Uplifting the Iwasawa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, A.; Kaura, P.; Ray, R.; Misra, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Iwasawa manifold is uplifted to seven-folds of either G 2 holonomy or SU(3) structure, explicit new metrics for the same having been constructed in this work. We uplift the Iwasawa manifold to a G 2 manifold through ''size'' deformation (of the Iwasawa metric), via Hitchin's Flow equations, showing also the impossibility of the uplift for ''shape'' and ''size'' deformations (of the Iwasawa metric). Using results of Dall'Agata and Prezas, Phys. Rev. D 69, 066004 (2004) [arXiv:hep-th/0311146] [1], we also uplift the Iwasawa manifold to a 7-fold with SU(3) structure through ''size'' and ''shape'' deformations via generalisation of Hitchin's Flow equations. For seven-folds with SU(3)-structure, the result could be interpreted as M5-branes wrapping two-cycles embedded in the seven-fold (as in [1]) - a warped product of either a special hermitian six-fold or a balanced six-fold with the unit interval. There can be no uplift to seven-folds of SU(3) structure involving non-trivial ''size'' and ''shape'' deformations (of the Iwasawa metric) retaining the ''standard complex structure'' - the uplift generically makes one move in the space of almost complex structures such that one is neither at the standard complex structure point nor at the ''edge''. Using the results of Konopelchenko and Landolfi, J. Geom. Phys. 29, 319 (1999) [arXiv:math.DG/9804144] [2], we show that given two ''shape deformation'' functions, and the dilaton, one can construct a Riemann surface obtained via Weierstrass representation for the conformal immersion of a surface in R l , for a suitable l, with the condition of having conformal immersion being a quadric in CP l-1 . (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Constraints on Dbar uplifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwis, S.P. de

    2016-01-01

    We discuss constraints on KKLT/KKLMMT and LVS scenarios that use anti-branes to get an uplift to a deSitter vacuum, coming from requiring the validity of an effective field theory description of the physics. We find these are not always satisfied or are hard to satisfy.

  10. Mobilization of selenium from the Mancos Shale and associated soils in the lower Uncompahgre River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa; Mills, Taylor J.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Keith, Gabrielle; Linard, Joshua I.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates processes controlling mobilization of selenium in the lower part of the Uncompahgre River Basin in western Colorado. Selenium occurs naturally in the underlying Mancos Shale and is leached to groundwater and surface water by limited natural runoff, agricultural and domestic irrigation, and leakage from irrigation canals. Soil and sediment samples from the study area were tested using sequential extractions to identify the forms of selenium present in solid phases. Selenium speciation was characterized for nonirrigated and irrigated soils from an agricultural site and sediments from a wetland formed by a leaking canal. In nonirrigated areas, selenium was present in highly soluble sodium salts and gypsum. In irrigated soils, soluble forms of selenium were depleted and most selenium was associated with organic matter that was stable under near-surface weathering conditions. Laboratory leaching experiments and geochemical modeling confirm that selenium primarily is released to groundwater and surface water by dissolution of highly soluble selenium-bearing salts and gypsum present in soils and bedrock. Rates of selenium dissolution determined from column leachate experiments indicate that selenium is released most rapidly when water is applied to previously nonirrigated soils and sediment. High concentrations of extractable nitrate also were found in nonirrigated soils and bedrock that appear to be partially derived from weathered organic matter from the shale rather than from agricultural sources. Once selenium is mobilized, dissolved nitrate derived from natural sources appears to inhibit the reduction of dissolved selenium leading to elevated concentrations of selenium in groundwater. A conceptual model of selenium weathering is presented and used to explain seasonal variations in the surface-water chemistry of Loutzenhizer Arroyo, a major tributary contributor of selenium to the lower Uncompahgre River.

  11. Continuous uplift near the seaward edge of the Prince William Sound megathrust: Middleton Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, James C.; Plafker, George; Svarc, Jerry L.; Lisowski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Middleton Island, located at the seaward edge of the continental shelf 50 km from the base of the inner wall of the Aleutian Trench, affords an opportunity to make land-based measurements of uplift near the toe of the Prince William Sound megathrust, site of the 1964, M = 9.2, Alaska earthquake. Leveling surveys (1973–1993) on Middleton Island indicate roughly uniform tilting (~1 µrad/a down to the northwest) of the island, and GPS surveys (1993–2012) show an uplift rate of 14 mm/a of the island relative to fixed North America. The data are consistent with a combined (coseismic and postseismic) uplift (in meters) due to the 1964 earthquake as a function of time τ (years after the earthquake) u(τ) = (3.5 + 1.21 log10 [1 + 1.67 τ]) H(τ) where 3.5 is the coseismic uplift and H(τ) is 0 for τ < 0 and 1 otherwise. The current uplift on Middleton Island is attributed to continuous slip on a fault splaying off from the megathrust, and the long-term uplift is the superposition of the effects of past earthquakes, each earthquake being similar to the 1964 event. Then, the predicted uplift at time t due to a sequence of earthquakes at times tiwould be . From studies of strandlines associated with the uplifted terraces on Middleton Island, Plafker et al. (1992) estimated the occurrence times of the last six earthquakes and measured the present-day elevations of those strandlines. The predicted uplift is in rough agreement with those measurements. About half of the predicted uplift is due to postseismic relaxation from previous earthquakes.

  12. Accidental inflation from Kaehler uplifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens; Jing, Shenglin; Toronto Univ., ON

    2013-09-01

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Kaehler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ''left-rolling'' ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ''inflation by deflation'' (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running α -5 . The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  13. Glacial isostatic uplift of the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Jürgen; Scherler, Dirk; Wickert, Andrew D.; Egholm, David L.; Tesauro, Magdala; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-01-01

    Following the last glacial maximum (LGM), the demise of continental ice sheets induced crustal rebound in tectonically stable regions of North America and Scandinavia that is still ongoing. Unlike the ice sheets, the Alpine ice cap developed in an orogen where the measured uplift is potentially attributed to tectonic shortening, lithospheric delamination and unloading due to deglaciation and erosion. Here we show that ∼90% of the geodetically measured rock uplift in the Alps can be explained by the Earth’s viscoelastic response to LGM deglaciation. We modelled rock uplift by reconstructing the Alpine ice cap, while accounting for postglacial erosion, sediment deposition and spatial variations in lithospheric rigidity. Clusters of excessive uplift in the Rhône Valley and in the Eastern Alps delineate regions potentially affected by mantle processes, crustal heterogeneity and active tectonics. Our study shows that even small LGM ice caps can dominate present-day rock uplift in tectonically active regions. PMID:27830704

  14. Continuous uplift near the seaward edge of the Prince William Sound megathrust: Middleton Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J. C.; Plafker, G.; Svarc, J. L.; Lisowski, M.

    2014-07-01

    Middleton Island, located at the seaward edge of the continental shelf 50 km from the base of the inner wall of the Aleutian Trench, affords an opportunity to make land-based measurements of uplift near the toe of the Prince William Sound megathrust, site of the 1964, M = 9.2, Alaska earthquake. Leveling surveys (1973-1993) on Middleton Island indicate roughly uniform tilting ( 1 µrad/a down to the northwest) of the island, and GPS surveys (1993-2012) show an uplift rate of 14 mm/a of the island relative to fixed North America. The data are consistent with a combined (coseismic and postseismic) uplift (in meters) due to the 1964 earthquake as a function of time τ (years after the earthquake) u(τ) = (3.5 + 1.21 log10 [1 + 1.67 τ]) H(τ) where 3.5 is the coseismic uplift and H(τ) is 0 for τ ∑iut-ti. From studies of strandlines associated with the uplifted terraces on Middleton Island, Plafker et al. (1992) estimated the occurrence times of the last six earthquakes and measured the present-day elevations of those strandlines. The predicted uplift is in rough agreement with those measurements. About half of the predicted uplift is due to postseismic relaxation from previous earthquakes.

  15. Accidental inflation from Kaehler uplifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Jing, Shenglin [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Canadian Inst. for Theoretical Astrophysics; Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics

    2013-09-15

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Kaehler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ''left-rolling'' ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ''inflation by deflation'' (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running {alpha}<{proportional_to}0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r{proportional_to}10{sup -5}. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  16. Uplifting behavior of shallow buried pipe in liquefiable soil by dynamic centrifuge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Liu, Jingwen; Lin, Peng; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure.

  17. Uplifting Behavior of Shallow Buried Pipe in Liquefiable Soil by Dynamic Centrifuge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure.

  18. Uplifting Behavior of Shallow Buried Pipe in Liquefiable Soil by Dynamic Centrifuge Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwen; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure. PMID:25121140

  19. F-theory uplifts and GUTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Jurke, Benjamin; Grimm, Thomas W.; Weigand, Timo

    2009-01-01

    We study the F-theory uplift of Type IIB orientifold models on compact Calabi-Yau threefolds containing divisors which are del Pezzo surfaces. We consider two examples defined via del Pezzo transitions of the quintic. The first model has an orientifold projection leading to two disjoint O7-planes and the second involution acts via an exchange of two del Pezzo surfaces. The two uplifted fourfolds are generically singular with minimal gauge enhancements over a divisor and, respectively, a curve in the non-Fano base. We study possible further degenerations of the elliptic fiber leading to F-theory GUT models based on subgroups of E 8 .

  20. Investigation on dynamic response with foundation uplift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtomo, Keizo; Iwatate, Hisahiro

    1987-01-01

    In order to rationalize the aseismatic design of nuclear power stations, it is necessary to elucidate the characteristics of effective input when the earthquake motion for the design is inputted in the foundations of nuclear power stations. In this study, among the research subjects concerning the reduction of effective earthquake input, regarding the uplift of foundations, its response characteristics and the method of the rational evaluation of earth contact ratio were experimentally examined, and the method of analysis which can evaluate the damping effect due to the uplift was proposed. The experimental method is reported. It was found that accompanying the uplift of foundations, vertical motion was induced, and horizontal motion showed nonlinear response. It was confirmed that the nonlinear response accompanying the uplift can be approximately evaluated by the conventional analysis technique using the S-R model. The current equation for evaluating earth contact ratio is adequate for a soft ground model, and tends to undervaluate for a hard ground model. The S-R analysis model introducing the experimentally obtained characteristics in the dampling coefficient of a nonlinear rocking spring was newly made. (Kako, I.)

  1. Rapid Crustal Uplift at Birch Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Kelsey, H. M.; Blakely, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Geomorphology and coastal marsh stratigraphy suggest late Holocene uplift of the shoreline at Birch Bay, located northwest of Bellingham, Washington, during an earthquake on a shallow fault. LiDAR images show a raised, late Holocene shoreline along Birch Bay, with ~1 m of elevation difference between the modern shoreline and the inferred paleoshoreline. Commercial seismic reflection images reveal an anticline in Tertiary and possibly Quaternary deposits underlying Birch Bay. NW-trending magnetic anomalies are likely associated with the Birch Bay anticline and other nearby structures. Taken together, the geophysical data and lidar images suggest uplift of young deposits along a NW-trending blind reverse fault. Stratigraphy from Terrell Creek marsh, located just south of Birch Bay, shows freshwater peat buried by lower intertidal muds, indicating local submergence ~1300 yr BP. Stratigraphy of a 70-cm sediment core from Birch Bay marsh, sitting astride the anticline imaged with seismic reflection data, shows mud buried by detrital peat. One radiocarbon age from the core places the abrupt change from mud to peat prior to 1520-1700 yr BP. We divide fossil diatom assemblages straddling the mud-peat contact at Birch Bay into three zones. The oldest zone consists primarily of intertidal and marine diatoms, dominated by Paralia sulcata, Scoleoneis tumida, Grammataphora oceanica, and Gyrosigma balticum. An intermediate zone, beginning at the sharp contact between mud and overlying peat, consists of a mixture of brackish marsh and freshwater species, dominated by Diploneis interrupta, with lesser amounts of Aulacoseira sp., Pinnularia viridis, Eunotia pectinalis, and Paralia sulcata. A third and youngest zone lies in the upper half of the peat and is dominated by poorly preserved freshwater diatoms, mostly Aulacoseira cf. crassapuntata, Pinnularia viridis, P. maior, Eunotia pectinalis, and E. praerupta. Paleoecological inferences, based on distributions of modern diatoms

  2. Detailed study of selenium and other constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, alfalfa, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Stewart, K.C.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.; Crabtree, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Department of the Interior began a program to study the effects of irrigation drainage in the Western United States. These studies were done to determine whether irrigation drainage was causing problems related to human health, water quality, and fish and wildlife resources. Results of a study in 1991-93 of irrigation drainage associated with the Uncompahgre Project area, located in the lower Gunnison River Basin, and of the Grand Valley, located along the Colorado River, are described in this report. The focus of the report is on the sources, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in the hydrologic and biological systems and the effects on biota. Generally, other trace- constituent concentrations in water and biota were not elevated or were not at levels of concern. Soils in the Uncompahgre Project area that primarily were derived from Mancos Shale contained the highest concentrations of total and watrer-extractable selenium. Only 5 of 128\\x11alfalfa samples had selenium concentrations that exceeded a recommended dietary limit for livestock. Selenium data for soil and alfalfa indicate that irrigation might be mobilizing and redistributing selenium in the Uncompahgre Project area. Distribution of dissolved selenium in ground water is affected by the aqueous geochemical environment of the shallow ground- water system. Selenium concentrations were as high as 1,300\\x11micrograms per liter in water from shallow wells. The highest concentrations of dissolved selenium were in water from wells completed in alluvium overlying the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age; selenium concentrations were lower in water from wells completed in Mancos Shale residuum. Selenium in the study area could be mobilized by oxidation of reduced selenium, desorption from aquifer sediments, ion exchange, and dissolution. Infiltration of irrigation water and, perhaps nitrate, provide oxidizing conditions for mobilization of selenium from alluvium and shale residuum and for

  3. Respite Care, Stress, Uplifts, and Marital Quality in Parents of Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Michelle; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Harper, James M.; Roper, Susanne Olsen; Caldarella, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with disabilities are at risk for high stress and low marital quality; therefore, this study surveyed couples (n = 112) of children with Down syndrome (n = 120), assessing whether respite hours, stress, and uplifts were related to marital quality. Structural equation modeling indicated that respite hours were negatively related…

  4. Seismic response of uplifting concrete gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, P.; Sauve, G.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    1992-01-01

    The foundation interaction effects on the seismic response of dam-foundation systems have generally been studied using the linear elastic finite element models. In reality, the foundation can not develop effective tensile stresses to a significant degree along the interface. A two-dimensional finite element model, in which nonlinear gap elements are used at the dam-foundation interface to determine the uplift response of concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic loads, is presented. Time domain analyses were performed for a wide range of modelling assumptions such as dam height, interface uplift pressure, interface mesh density, and earthquake input motions, that were systematically varied to find their influence on the seismic response. The nonlinear interface behavior generally reduces the seismic response of dam-foundation systems acting as a seismic isolation mechanism, and may increase the safety against sliding by reducing the base shear transmitted to the foundation. 4 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  5. D-term uplifted racetrack inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, P. [Unite de Recherche associee au CNRS, Gif sur Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/DSM/SPhT; Davis, A.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences; Davis, S.C. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies; Jeannerot, R. [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden (Netherlands); Postma, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-10-15

    It is shown that racetrack inflation can be implemented in a moduli stabilisation scenario with a supersymmetric uplifting D-term. The resulting model is completely described by an effective supergravity theory, in contrast to the original racetrack models. We study the inflationary dynamics and show that the gaugino condensates vary during inflation. The resulting spectral index is n{sub s} {approx}0.95 as in the original racetrack inflation model. Hence extra fields do not appear to alter the predictions of the model. An equivalent, simplified model with just a single field is presented. (orig.)

  6. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2015-01-01

    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  7. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2015-05-01

    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  8. Study on the estimation method of uplift during the late Quaternary by using river terraces (3). Tectonic movement described by last 100,000 years uplift distribution in an inland area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hataya, Ryuta

    2006-01-01

    Uplift for the last 100,000 years, which is estimated in both side of the Ayashi fault in Miyagi prefecture and the Sekiya fault in Tochigi Prefecture by using the relative height of river terraces is almost equal to vertical displacements of these faults for the last 100,000 years. Hence, the method using fluvial terraces is available for estimating the uplift for the last 100,000 years in an inland area quantatively. Furthermore, significance of the uplift obtained by the proposed methodology in this study is emphasized. It is possible to find the geotectonic feature that were so far overlooked as deformed zones along active fault, tectonic style of uplift and subsidence by obtaining the 3-dimensional distribution of uplift in last 100,000 years. Methodology and concept proposed in this study give practical survey method of late Quaternary 3-dimensional uplift characteristics for the long-term safety of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. By applying this method to Quaternary research, new insights on the Quaternary tectonic movement may be given. (author)

  9. Controls on selenium distribution and mobilization in an irrigated shallow groundwater system underlain by Mancos Shale, Uncompahgre River Basin, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Taylor J.; Mast, M. Alisa; Thomas, Judith C.; Keith, Gabrielle L.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water and groundwater have become a concern in areas of the Western United States due to the deleterious effects of Se on aquatic ecosystems. Elevated Se concentrations are most prevalent in irrigated alluvial valleys underlain by Se-bearing marine shales where Se can be leached from geologic materials into the shallow groundwater and surface water systems. This study presents groundwater chemistry and solid-phase geochemical data from the Uncompahgre River Basin in Western Colorado, an irrigated alluvial landscape underlain by Se-rich Cretaceous marine shale. We analyzed Se species, major and trace elements, and stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate in groundwater and aquifer sediments to examine processes governing selenium release and transport in the shallow groundwater system. Groundwater Se concentrations ranged from below detection limit (groundwater nitrate concentrations that maintain oxidizing conditions in the aquifer despite low dissolved oxygen concentrations. High nitrate concentrations in non-irrigated soils and nitrate isotopes indicate nitrate is largely derived from natural sources in the Mancos Shale and alluvial material. Thus, in contrast to areas that receive substantial NO3 inputs through inorganic fertilizer application, Se mitigation efforts that involve limiting NO3 application might have little impact on groundwater Se concentrations in the study area. Soluble salts are the primary source of Se to the groundwater system in the study area at-present, but they constitute a small percentage of the total Se content of core material. Sequential extraction results indicate insoluble Se is likely composed of reduced Se in recalcitrant organic matter or discrete selenide phases. Oxidation of reduced Se species that constitute the majority of the Se pool in the study area could be a potential source of Se in the future as soluble salts are progressively depleted.

  10. Uplifting model of the Longmenshan mountain in the eastern margin of Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Ding, R.; Mao, C.

    2010-12-01

    Longmenshan mountain is a vivid manifestation of the Cenozoic orogenesis in the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, and a key to understand the geodynamics of eastward extending of the plateau. Thus the uplift mechanism of Longmenshan mountain became a hot spot issue of geosciences about the Tibetan plateau. Two entirely different hypotheses, i.e., crustal shortening and lower crustal channel flow, were put forward, but the solution is open. Further discussion need our deeper understanding about the uplifting features of the Longmenshan mountain. Fortunately, the uplifting processes were recorded objectively by peneplains and river landforms. We first analysed the peneplains and pediplanes of Longmenshan mountain and its surrounding areas, and surveyed the terraces of Dadu river running across the mountain. Then we studied the uplifting features of the study areas in late Cenozoic time on the basis of landform geometries. Finaly we discussed the possible mechanisms for the uplifting. There are two levels of peneplains whose peneplanations may begin in early Cenozoic time and end at late Miocene when the final fluctuations of elevations were possibly less than one kilometers. The valley of Dadu river is incised into the peneplains and has a staircase of no less than ten levels of terraces. The highest terrace is a strath which was contemporary with the pediplane in the piedmont formed in late Pliocene or in early Pleistocene. Due to their originally flat features, the peneplains and the strath terraces were used as datum planes for judging neotectonic deformations. Since late Miocene, the southeastern side of Longmenshan mountain has been dominated by thrust-faulting with a total vertical displacement of about 4500 m against the Sichuan basin, meantime the northwest side has been maintained flexural uplift with syncline hinge approximately following the Longriba fault. As a landform barrier between Tibetan plateau and Sichuan basin, the crest lines of the

  11. Accidental inflation from Kähler uplifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Theory Group, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Jing, Shenglin, E-mail: ido.bendayan@desy.de, E-mail: shenglin.jing@utoronto.ca, E-mail: alexander.westphal@desy.de, E-mail: clemens.wieck@desy.de [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St.George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Käahler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ''left-rolling'' ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ''inflation by deflation'' (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running α ∼ 0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r ∼ 10{sup −5}. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  12. Impact of livestock in uplifting rural livelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, J.; Ashraf, I.; Mehmood, K.; Iftikhar, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global population is increasing by creating high demand for food and improved livestock and crop farming initiatives. The livestock sector plays a key role in boosting the national economy and improving the citizens' livelihoods. The study focused on the potential contribution of the livestock sector in uplifting livelihoods. Data were collected through face to face interview using interview schedule from 120 randomly selected livestock producers in Sub- District Jaranwala of District Faisalabad. Data showed that, livestock farming on small level was found widely adopted for income generation. More than 22 percentage respondents earned a maximum income of more than Rs.15000. Livestock have dominant effect on domestic needs fulfillment. Farmers were spending income on family chores, education, health and other aspects of life. Informal discussions and observation dictated the lower productivity than the potential and inadequate awareness and adoption of precise dairy farming practices. Livestock keepers demanded provision of location specific best management practices, training on livestock management and market aspects. Essential veterinary services enabling the livestock extension should be disseminated on the door step to boost productivity. (author)

  13. Analytical solutions for peak and residual uplift resistance of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Oswell, J.M. [Naviq Consulting Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Frost heave can occur on cold pipelines that traverse unfrozen, non permafrost terrain. The stresses experienced by the pipeline are partly a function of the strength of the soil on the non heaving side of the frozen-unfrozen interface. This paper proposed three analytical solutions to estimate the soil uplift resistance by considering the pipeline and soil to act similar to a strip footing, a punching shear failure, and by considering the formation of horizontal crack emanating from the spring line of the pipe. Peak uplift resistance and residual uplift resistance were discussed. Results for full scale pipe and for laboratory scale model pipes were presented, with particular reference to cover depth, temperature and crack width; and limits to residual uplift resistance. It was concluded that the peak uplift resistance and the residual uplift resistance are generally independent and controlled by different factors. The peak resistance is related directly to pipe diameter, and less strongly dependent on springline depth. It is also strongly dependent on soil temperature. However, the residual uplift resistance is strongly dependent on burial depth, weakly dependent on pipe displacement rate and also on soil temperature. 15 refs., 19 figs.

  14. Competition between uplift and transverse sedimentation in an experimental delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Paola, Chris; Ellis, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Mass is commonly injected into alluvial systems either laterally by transport from source regions or vertically from below via local uplift. We report results on the competition between these two fundamental processes, using an experimental basin with a deformable substrate. The lateral supply is via two alluvial fans on orthogonal walls of the basin; the uplifting region is downstream of one of the fans (axial) and opposite to the other (transverse). We show that the presence of a transverse sediment input increases the erosion rate of the uplifting region by pushing the mixing zone between the two alluvial sources against the uplifting mass. However, increase in sediment delivery to the transverse fan does not cause a proportional increase in erosion rate of the uplifting region. Instead, the system reaches a steady state balance between uplift and erosion induced by the transverse fan, such that there is no change in the total mass above the active alluvial surface—a lateral analog of the classical steady state between vertical erosion and uplift. We also show that the mixing zone is instrumental in limiting upstream aggradation and funneling sediments to the shore, resulting in limited river lateral mobility and increased shoreline progradation. Hence, the interaction between alluvial sources buffers river erosion and leads to consistent deviations from predictions of the area of influence of each fan based on simple mass-balance arguments. In the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, we suggest that similar dynamics help stabilize the Brahmaputra River course in the Jamuna Valley during Holocene time.

  15. Zonation of uplifted pleistocene coral reefs on barbados, west indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesolella, K J

    1967-05-05

    The coral species composition of uplifted Pleistocene reefs on Barbados is very similar to Recent West Indian reefs. Acropora palmata, Acropora cervicornis, and Montastrea annularis are qtuantitatively the most important of the coral species.

  16. Controls on selenium distribution and mobilization in an irrigated shallow groundwater system underlain by Mancos Shale, Uncompahgre River Basin, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Taylor J.; Mast, M. Alisa; Thomas, Judith; Keith, Gabrielle

    2016-10-01

    Elevated selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water and groundwater have become a concern in areas of the Western United States due to the deleterious effects of Se on aquatic ecosystems. Elevated Se concentrations are most prevalent in irrigated alluvial valleys underlain by Se-bearing marine shales where Se can be leached from geologic materials into the shallow groundwater and surface water systems. This study presents groundwater chemistry and solid-phase geochemical data from the Uncompahgre River Basin in Western Colorado, an irrigated alluvial landscape underlain by Se-rich Cretaceous marine shale. We analyzed Se species, major and trace elements, and stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate in groundwater and aquifer sediments to examine processes governing selenium release and transport in the shallow groundwater system. Groundwater Se concentrations ranged from below detection limit (< 0.5 μg L{sup −1}) to 4070 μg L{sup −1}, and primarily are controlled by high groundwater nitrate concentrations that maintain oxidizing conditions in the aquifer despite low dissolved oxygen concentrations. High nitrate concentrations in non-irrigated soils and nitrate isotopes indicate nitrate is largely derived from natural sources in the Mancos Shale and alluvial material. Thus, in contrast to areas that receive substantial NO{sub 3} inputs through inorganic fertilizer application, Se mitigation efforts that involve limiting NO{sub 3} application might have little impact on groundwater Se concentrations in the study area. Soluble salts are the primary source of Se to the groundwater system in the study area at-present, but they constitute a small percentage of the total Se content of core material. Sequential extraction results indicate insoluble Se is likely composed of reduced Se in recalcitrant organic matter or discrete selenide phases. Oxidation of reduced Se species that constitute the majority of the Se pool in the study area could be a potential

  17. Control of paleoshorelines by trench forebulge uplift, Loyalty Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2013-07-01

    Unlike most tropical Pacific islands, which lie along island arcs or hotspot chains, the Loyalty Islands between New Caledonia and Vanuatu owe their existence and morphology to the uplift of pre-existing atolls on the flexural forebulge of the New Hebrides Trench. The configuration and topography of each island is a function of distance from the crest of the uplifted forebulge. Both Maré and Lifou are fully emergent paleoatolls upon which ancient barrier reefs form highstanding annular ridges that enclose interior plateaus representing paleolagoon floors, whereas the partially emergent Ouvea paleoatoll rim flanks a drowned remnant lagoon. Emergent paleoshoreline features exposed by island uplift include paleoreef flats constructed as ancient fringing reefs built to past low tide levels and emergent tidal notches incised at past high tide levels. Present paleoshoreline elevations record uplift rates of the islands since last-interglacial and mid-Holocene highstands in global and regional sea levels, respectively, and paleoreef stratigraphy reflects net Quaternary island emergence. The empirical uplift rates vary in harmony with theoretical uplift rates inferred from the different positions of the islands in transit across the trench forebulge at the trench subduction rate. The Loyalty Islands provide a case study of island environments controlled primarily by neotectonics.

  18. Uplift of quaternary shorelines in eastern Patagonia: Darwin revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, Kevin; Regard, Vincent; Husson, Laurent; Martinod, Joseph; Guillaume, Benjamin; Fucks, Enrique; Iglesias, Maximiliano; Weill, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    During his journey on the Beagle, Darwin observed the uniformity in the elevation of coastal Eastern Patagonia along more than 2000 km. More than one century later, the sequences of Quaternary shorelines of eastern Patagonia have been described and their deposits dated but not yet interpreted in terms of geodynamics. Consequently, we i) mapped the repartition of the Quaternary coastal sequences in Argentinean Patagonia, ii) secured accurate altitudes of shoreline angles associated with erosional morphologies (i.e. marine terraces and notches), iii) took into account previous chrono-stratigraphical interpretations in order to calculate mean uplift rates since ~ 440 ka (MIS 11) and proposed age ranges for the higher and older features (up to ~ 180 m), and iv) focused on the Last Interglacial Maximum terrace (MIS 5e) as the best constrained marine terrace (in terms of age and altitude) in order to use it as a tectonic benchmark to quantify uplift rates along the entire passive margin of Eastern South America. Our results show that the eastern Patagonia uplift is constant through time and twice the uplift of the rest of the South American margin. We suggest that the enhanced uplift along the eastern Patagonian coast that interested Darwin during his journey around South America on the Beagle could originate from the subduction of the Chile ridge and the associated dynamic uplift.

  19. LiDAR Mapping of Earthquake Uplifted Paleo-shorelines, Southern Wairarapa Coast, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, J.; Angenent, J.; Marshall, J. S.; Clark, K.; Litchfield, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin along the east coast of the North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific Plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Pronounced forearc uplift occurs at the southern end of the margin along the Wairarapa coast, onshore of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. Along a narrow coastal lowland, a series of uplifted Holocene marine terraces and beach ridges preserve a geologic record of prehistoric coseismic uplift events. In January 2017, we participated in the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program of the NSF SHIRE Project (Subduction at Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment). We visited multiple coastal sites for reconnaissance fieldwork to select locations for future in-depth study. For the coastline between Flat Point and Te Kaukau Point, we used airborne LiDAR data provided by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) to create ArcGIS digital terrain models for mapping and correlating uplifted paleo-shorelines. Terrace elevations derived from the LiDAR data were calibrated through the use of Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS surveying at one field site (Glenburn Station). Prior field mapping and radiocarbon dating results (Berryman et al., 2001; Litchfield and Clark, 2015) were used to guide our LiDAR mapping efforts. The resultant maps show between four and seven uplifted terraces and associated beach ridges along this coastal segment. At some sites, terrace mapping and lateral correlation are impeded by discontinuous exposures and the presence of landslide debris, alluvial fan deposits, and sand dunes. Tectonic uplift along the southern Hikurangi margin is generated by a complex interaction between deep megathrust slip and shallow upper-plate faulting. Each uplifted Holocene paleo-shoreline is interpreted to represent a single coseismic uplift event. Continued mapping, surveying, and age dating may help differentiate between very large margin-wide megathrust earthquakes (M8.0-9.0+) and

  20. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  1. Raised marine terraces in the Northern Calabrian Arc (Southern Italy: a ~ 600 kyr-long geological record of regional uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cucci

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sibari Plain in the Northeastern Calabrian Arc displays a well-developed suite of marine terraces. This paper deals with i the identification and correlation of the terraces; ii their age assignment and a tentative reconstruction of the uplift history of the area; iii the relationships between terraces and major faults in the study area and between uplift in the Plain and pattern of Quaternary uplift throughout the Calabrian Arc. Identifying wavecut platforms and inner-edge fragments over a linear extent of ~ 100 km was achieved by photo interpretation, 1:25 000 scale map analyses and field survey. Morphological evidence led to the correlation of the identified fragments into five complete strandlines (numbered #1 to #5 lowest to highest, at elevations ranging from 60 m to ~ 650 m. Analysis of two parameters of the emerged platform-cliff systems, namely the platform-cliff ratio and the dissection percentage, further testifies that the two lowest terraces are strongly correlative. A 130 kyr AAR age of in situ fossil samples of Glycymeris collected at 114 m elevation within the deposit of Terrace #2 indicates a key correlation of T#2 with MIS 5.5 (the peak of the last interglacial, 124 kyr, i.e. an uplift rate of ~ 0.98 mm/yr for this strandline. The other four terraces have been tentatively associated with MIS 5.3, 7, 9 and 15. Geological observations independent of geochronological evidence provide consistent lower age boundaries for the terraces and supply further constraints to this interpretation. Investigating the relations between setting of the terraces and location of major tectonic structures in the region is suggestive of no recent activity of two previously recognized faults, the «Sangineto Line» and the «Corigliano-Rossano Line». Instead, some limited anomalies that affect the terraces are tentatively associated with the activity of the Castrovillari Fault. Therefore, sustained uplift has been the long-term dominant

  2. Experimental studies of pipeline uplift resistance in frozen ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.; Crooks, J. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Zhou, J. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Gas pipelines buried in permafrost are subjected to the mechanisms of frost heave and thaw settlement which induce movement in the pipe. The magnitude of loads depend on the relative displacement and the load-displacement characteristics of the surrounding soils. This paper presented the results of laboratory tests that investigated the geomechanical properties and uplift resistance of frozen Calgary silt. Compacted soil was frozen 24 hours prior to the uplift testing. A thick-wall steel pipe was laid down and more soil was subsequently placed and compacted around and above the pipe until the desired burial depth was achieved. The temperature of the frozen soil was monitored along with deformations of the soil surface in order to determine the impact of loading rate, ice content and freezing direction. The geomechanical tests included triaxial compression tests as well as tensile and creep tests. The stiffness, tensile strain limits and time dependent behaviour of the frozen soil were also defined. The issue of crack development in the frozen soil was addressed and a numerical model was developed based on measured load-displacement relationships and geomechanical properties of the frozen soil. Bilinear stress-strain relationships were consistently noted for the frozen samples under triaxial compression. The stress-strain behaviour was found to be independent of the confining stress. The measured tensile limits were found to be in good agreement with published literature. Peak uplift resistance and post-peak decreases were consistently noted in the uplift resistance. Tensile fractures were observed vertically above the crown of the pipe. Uplift resistance was highly affected by the loading rate, but the load-displacement curve prior to the peak was not affected by radial freezing or ice lenses. A new peak uplift resistance was reached following the freeze/thaw cycle, suggesting the healing of the tensile fractures. 9 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  3. An estimation method for basemat uplift behavior of NPP buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ino, S.; Kurimoto, O.; Miake, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is important to accurately estimate the effects of strong earthquake motions on the basemat uplift behavior and structural responses for the seismic design of nuclear power plant buildings. In this paper, an analysis model which describes the soil part using the 3 dimensional FEM was proposed to be used when the ground contact ratio is low, and the validity of this model was confirmed. Furthermore, investigations using the model were carried out where the attaching force under the basemat was taken into account, in order to more realistically estimate the basemat uplift behavior. The effects in the case of the building being embedded were also investigated. (authors)

  4. Cenozoic uplift and subsidence in the North Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    and the surrounding areas. (2) A regional increase in subsidence in the offshore marginal areas of Norway, the northern North Sea, the northern British Isles and west Greenland took place in the Eocene (ca 57-35 Ma). (3) The Oligocene and Miocene (35-5 Ma) were characterized by regional tectonic quiescence, with only...... localised uplift, probably related to changes in plate dynamics. (4) The second major phase of regional uplift that affected all marginal areas of the North Atlantic occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene (5-0 Ma). Its amplitude was enhanced by erosion-driven glacio-isostatic compensation. Despite inconclusive...

  5. Interferograms showing land subsidence and uplift in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, 1992-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Michael T.; Hoffmann, Jörn; Damar, Nancy A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources-Division of Water Resources and the Las Vegas Valley Water District, compiled 44 individual interferograms and 1 stacked interferogram comprising 29 satellite synthetic aperture radar acquisitions of Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, from 1992 to 1999. The interferograms, which depict short-term, seasonal, and long-term trends in land subsidence and uplift, are viewable with an interactive map. The interferograms show that land subsidence and uplift generally occur in localized areas, are responsive to ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge, and, in part, are fault controlled. Information from these interferograms can be used by water and land managers to mitigate land subsidence and associated damage. Land subsidence attributed to ground-water pumpage has been documented in Las Vegas Valley since the 1940s. Damage to roads, buildings, and other engineered structures has been associated with this land subsidence. Land uplift attributed to artificial recharge and reduced pumping has been documented since the 1990s. Measuring these land-surface changes with traditional benchmark and Global Positioning System surveys can be costly and time consuming, and results typically are spatially and temporally sparse. Interferograms are relatively inexpensive and provide temporal and spatial resolutions previously not achievable. The interferograms are viewable with an interactive map. Landsat images from 1993 and 2000 are viewable for frames of reference to locate areas of interest and help determine land use. A stacked interferogram for 1992-99 is viewable to visualize the cumulative vertical displacement for the period represented by the individual interferograms. The interactive map enables users to identify and estimate the magnitude of vertical displacement, visually analyze deformation trends, and view interferograms and Landsat images side by side. The

  6. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  7. Alpine glacial topography and the rate of rock column uplift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Vivi Kathrine; Egholm, D.L.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of alpine glacial erosion on the morphology and relief distribution of mountain regions associated with varying rock column uplift rates. We take a global approach and analyse the surface area distribution of all mountain regions affected by glacial er...

  8. Enhancing rates of erosion and uplift through glacial perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Kevin; Schlunegger, Fritz; Abbühl, Luca

    2010-05-01

    Research over the past decade has shown that the pattern of modern rock uplift in the Swiss Alps correlates with both long-term (thermochronometers) and short-term (cosmogenic nuclide-derived denudation rates, sediment loads, lake fills) measures of erosion. This correlation has been attributed alternately to isostatic causes (compensation to erosion and/or glacial unloading) and tectonic forces (ongoing collision and partial delamination). Of these potential driving forces, only isostatic compensation to erosion fits all available structural, geodetic, and flexural models. We explore this uplift-erosion relationship by analyzing river channel steepness for Alpine rivers. Zones of oversteepening, and hence enhanced stream power, are associated with glacial erosion and deposition during LGM and earlier glaciations, resulting in the focusing of erosion into the inner gorges which connect hanging tributary valleys to the main glacial trunk valley. These inner gorges are transient zones in which fluvial and hillslope processes are in the process of re-adjusting this glacially perturbed landscape. Bedrock properties also play a major role in the response time of these adjustments. Glacially generated knickzones are located within 5 km of the trunk stream in the Rhone valley where resistant lithologies dominate (gneiss), whereas the knickzones have migrated as much as 10 km or further in the less resistant rocks (buendnerschists) of the Rhine valley. We suggest that the rock uplift pattern is controlled by surface denudation as set by the glacial-interglacial history of the Alps. Rapid, focused erosion results in rapid rock uplift rates in the Central Swiss Alps, where glaciers were most active. An interesting ramification of this reasoning is that in the absence of glacial perturbation, both rock uplift rates and denudation rates would be substantially lower in this isostatically compensated mountain belt.

  9. Large-Scale Deformation and Uplift Associated with Serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.; Smith, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Geologic and geophysical data suggest that partially serpentinized peridotites and serpentinites are a significant part of the oceanic lithosphere. All serpentinization reactions are exothermic and result in volume expansion as high as 40%. Volume expansion beneath the seafloor will lead to surface uplift and elevated stresses in the neighborhood of the region undergoing serpentinization. The serpentinization-induced stresses are likely to result in faulting or tensile fracturing that promote the serpentinization process by creating new permeability and allowing fluid access to fresh peridotite. To explore these issues, we developed a first-order model of crustal deformation by considering an inclusion undergoing transformation strain in an elastic half-space. Using solutions for inclusions of different shapes, orientations, and depths, we calculate the surface uplift and mechanical stresses generated by the serpentinization processes. We discuss the topographic features at the TAG hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 26°N), uplift of the Miyazaki Plain (Southwestern Japan), and tectonic history of the Atlantic Massif (inside corner high of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N, and the Atlantis Transform Fault). Our analysis suggests that an anomalous salient of 3 km in diameter and 100 m high at TAG may have resulted from approximately 20% transformational strain in a region beneath the footwall of the TAG detachment fault. This serpentinization process tends to promote slip along some overlying normal faults, which may then enhance fluid pathways to the deeper crust to continue the serpentinization process. The serpentinization also favors slip and seismicity along the antithetic faults identified below the TAG detachment fault. Our solution for the Miyazaki Plain above the Kyushu-Palau subduction zone explains the observed uplift of 120 m, but the transformational strain needs only be 3%. Transformational strains associated with serpentinization in this region may

  10. Harmonic Structure Predicts the Enjoyment of Uplifting Trance Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agres, Kat; Herremans, Dorien; Bigo, Louis; Conklin, Darrell

    2016-01-01

    An empirical investigation of how local harmonic structures (e.g., chord progressions) contribute to the experience and enjoyment of uplifting trance (UT) music is presented. The connection between rhythmic and percussive elements and resulting trance-like states has been highlighted by musicologists, but no research, to our knowledge, has explored whether repeated harmonic elements influence affective responses in listeners of trance music. Two alternative hypotheses are discussed, the first highlighting the direct relationship between repetition/complexity and enjoyment, and the second based on the theoretical inverted-U relationship described by the Wundt curve. We investigate the connection between harmonic structure and subjective enjoyment through interdisciplinary behavioral and computational methods: First we discuss an experiment in which listeners provided enjoyment ratings for computer-generated UT anthems with varying levels of harmonic repetition and complexity. The anthems were generated using a statistical model trained on a corpus of 100 uplifting trance anthems created for this purpose, and harmonic structure was constrained by imposing particular repetition structures (semiotic patterns defining the order of chords in the sequence) on a professional UT music production template. Second, the relationship between harmonic structure and enjoyment is further explored using two computational approaches, one based on average Information Content, and another that measures average tonal tension between chords. The results of the listening experiment indicate that harmonic repetition does in fact contribute to the enjoyment of uplifting trance music. More compelling evidence was found for the second hypothesis discussed above, however some maximally repetitive structures were also preferred. Both computational models provide evidence for a Wundt-type relationship between complexity and enjoyment. By systematically manipulating the structure of chord

  11. Effects of perceived stress and uplifts on inflammation and coagulability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shamini; Mills, Paul J; von Känel, Roland; Hong, Suzi; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether depressed mood and chronic hassles and uplifts predicted levels of hemostasis markers D-Dimer and type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), as well as the proinflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in 108 healthy individuals. One hundred eight African-American and Euro-American men and women were studied (58 men, 50 women; mean age = 36.5 +/- 8 years). D-Dimer, PAI-1, IL-6, and sICAM-1 plasma levels were analyzed from fasting venous blood samples. Data were analyzed via hierarchical linear regression and followed with partial correlation analysis. Regression analyses combined with partial correlation analyses suggested that increases in hassle frequency predicted elevated levels of sICAM-1 (p= .034), and increases in hassle severity predicted elevated levels of D-Dimer (p= .017). Increases in uplift intensity predicted lower levels of PAI-1 (p= .004) as well as showed a trend for decreased IL-6 (p= .069). Depressed mood did not significantly predict any dependent variable. These results were independent of sociodemographic, biological, and other related mood variables. The findings suggest that for even relatively healthy persons, increased perceptions of hassles are independently associated with greater inflammation and hypercoagulability, whereas increased perceptions of uplifts are independently associated with decreased hypercoagulability.

  12. Seismicity and neotectonic uplift in the Augrabies Falls National Park, Namaqualand, Northern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Kakaba

    2016-10-01

    Gneissic rocks in the Augrabies Falls National Park are part of the Proterozoic Namaqua-Natal mobile belt. Finding neotectonic evidence in old terranes is always not an easy task. In South Africa, the mid-Miocene is believed to be the beginning of neotectonics. This study investigated the occurrence and recurrence of earthquake activity, occurrence of faulting, jointing, uplift, and potholes in the gneisses cropping out around the Augrabies Falls area that may account for neotectonics. A historic seismic event obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and seismic epicenters downloaded in October 2015 from IRIS earthquake browser and overlaid on a satellite image with digitised faults and lineaments, indicates that the area is seismically active and is a zone of seismic risk. Potholes occurring today on a dry surface at approximately 613 m above sea level are a direct consequence of the Griqualand-Transvaal neotectonic uplift, which generated a major fault along which water flows continuously. It is concluded that the Augrabies Falls National Park area is a zone of neotectonics. This zone should not be considered for the storage of nuclear wastes.

  13. The interaction of prehistoric human settlement, sea level change and tectonic uplift of the Coastal Range, eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Chen, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The late Cenozoic mountain belt of Taiwan, resulting from the collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates, is known for its rapid tectonic uplift. As postglacial sea level rose ca. 15,000 yr ago, the eastern coast of Taiwan, due to the rapid tectonic uplift rate, displayed a totally different scenario comparing with most of the coastal plains around the world. At the beginning of postglacial era, the sea level rising rate was greater than the tectonic uplift rate which induced the original piedmont alluvial fan or coastal plain to be overwhelmed by sea water rapidly. Around 13.5 ka, the tectonic uplift rate caught up with the sea level rising and broad wave-cut platform formed. The approximation of tectonic uplift and sea level rising rates was lasting from 13.5 to 5ka, but shoreline progradation may have been enhanced by increased slope erosion which resulted in the alluvial fan forming at the later time of this period. As soon as the eustasy stabilized, the landmass continued to uplift which might have enhanced the river incising and wave erosion rapidly. Therefore the topographic expression along the eastern fringing of Coastal Range forms extended alluvial-fan, stream, and marine terraces and are covered by late Holocene colluvium and marine deposits. 88 archaeological sites were chosen in this study based on surface survey where the archaeological chronology of cultural stage is established primarily through examining pottery series and associated manual excavation. It is interesting that most of the archaeological sites were located on the alluvial fan although the Holocene marine terraces have formed after 5ka. There are no clear evidences to support a shore-oriented settlement, but the abundant alluvial depositional structures observed from the overlaying formation reveals the stream depositional system was still active at this time. If the Neolithic people wanted to come to the "new born" coastal region for the abundant ocean resources, they

  14. Uplift characterization in an inland area based on information of terrace distribution. Case study in the Mid Niigata region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hataya, Ryuta; Hamada, Takaomi

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the correlation and chronology of fluvial terraces, and characteristics of terrace distribution around active structures, in the Mid Niigata region. Making much of geomorphologic and geologic information, such as morphology and continuity of terrace plains, weathering of terrace gravels, gives to appropriately interpretation of tephra data. Then, at both sides of the active structure, characteristics of terrace distribution are quite different. It indicates that terrace distribution is useful information to evaluate fault activity. Furthermore, uplift estimation for the last 100,000 years is given by terrace distribution information and relative heights of fluvial terraces, and can be applied to evaluation the fault activity. For example, using the uplift index of the values of relative height between terraces, we estimated that the uplift difference on the both side of the Muikamachi fault during late Quaternary was more than 40m. It suggests that the slip rate of the Muikamachi fault is more than 0.4m/10 3 year. The viewpoint and method shown in this paper reflected to the upgrade of the air-photo interpretation for active fault survey. (author)

  15. Terreneuvian stratigraphy and faunas from the Anabar Uplift, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Kouchinsky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Assemblages of mineralized skeletal fossils are described from limestone rocks of the lower Cambrian Nemakit-Daldyn, Medvezhya, Kugda-Yuryakh, Manykay, and lower Emyaksin formations exposed on the western and eastern flanks of the Anabar Uplift of the northern Siberian Platform. The skeletal fossil assemblages consist mainly of anabaritids, molluscs, and hyoliths, and also contain other taxa such as Blastulospongia, Chancelloria, Fomitchella, Hyolithellus, Platysolenites, Protohertzina, and Tianzhushanella. The first tianzhushanellids from Siberia, including Tianzhushanella tolli sp. nov., are described. The morphological variation of Protohertzina anabarica and Anabarites trisulcatus from their type locality is documented. Prominent longitudinal keels in the anabaritid Selindeochrea tripartita are demonstrated. Among the earliest molluscs from the Nemakit-Daldyn Formation, Purella and Yunnanopleura are interpreted as shelly parts of the same species. Fibrous microstructure of the outer layer and a wrinkled inner layer of mineralised cuticle in the organophosphatic sclerites of Fomitchella are reported. A siliceous composition of the globular fossil Blastulospongia is reported herein and a possible protistan affinity similar to Platysolenites is discussed. New carbon isotope data facilitate correlation both across the Anabar Uplift and with the Terreneuvian Series of the IUGS chronostratigraphical scheme for the Cambrian System. The base of Cambrian Stage 2 is provisionally placed herein within the Fortunian‒Cambrian Stage 2 transitional interval bracketed by the lowest appearance of Watsonella crosbyi and by a slightly higher horizon at the peak of carbon isotope excursion Iʹ from western flank of the Anabar Uplift. Correlation across the Siberian Platform of the fossiliferous Medvezhya and lower Emyaksin formations showing δ13Ccarb excursion Iʹ with the upper Sukharikha Formation containing excursion 5p and upper Ust’-Yudoma Formation

  16. Transpressive mantle uplift at large offset oceanic transform faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M.; Briais, A.; Brunelli, D.; Ligi, M.; Sichel, S. E.; Campos, T.

    2017-12-01

    Large-offset transform faults deform due to changes in plate motions and local processes. At the St. Paul transform, in the Equatorial Atlantic, a large body of ultramafic rocks composed of variably serpentinized and mylonitized peridotites is presently being tectonically uplifted. We recently discovered that the origin of the regional mantle uplift is linked to long-standing compressive stresses along the transform fault (1). A positive flower structure, mainly made of mylonitized mantle rocks, can be recognized on the 200 km large push-up ridge. Compressive earthquakes mechanisms reveal seismically active thrust faults on the southern flank of the ridge . The regional transpressive stress field affects a large portion of the ridge segment south of the transform, as revealed by the presence of faults and dykes striking obliquely to the direction of the central ridge axis. A smaller thrust, affecting recent sediments, was mapped south of this segment, suggesting a regional active compressive stress field. The transpressive stress field is interpreted to derive from the propagation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) segment into the transform domain as a response to the enhanced melt supply at the ridge axis. The propagation forced the migration and segmentation of the transform fault southward and the formation of restraining step-overs. The process started after a counterclockwise change in plate motion at 11 Ma initially resulting in extensive stress of the transform domain. A flexural transverse ridge formed in response. Shortly after plate reorganization, the MAR segment started to propagate southwards due to the interaction of the ridge and the Sierra Leone thermal anomaly. 1- Maia et al., 2016. Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault Nat. Geo. doi:10.1038/ngeo2759

  17. Colluvial deposits as a possible weathering reservoir in uplifting mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carretier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of mountain uplift in the evolution of the global climate over geological times is controversial. At the heart of this debate is the capacity of rapid denudation to drive silicate weathering, which consumes CO2. Here we present the results of a 3-D model that couples erosion and weathering during mountain uplift, in which, for the first time, the weathered material is traced during its stochastic transport from the hillslopes to the mountain outlet. To explore the response of weathering fluxes to progressively cooler and drier climatic conditions, we run model simulations accounting for a decrease in temperature with or without modifications in the rainfall pattern based on a simple orographic model. At this stage, the model does not simulate the deep water circulation, the precipitation of secondary minerals, variations in the pH, below-ground pCO2, and the chemical affinity of the water in contact with minerals. Consequently, the predicted silicate weathering fluxes probably represent a maximum, although the predicted silicate weathering rates are within the range of silicate and total weathering rates estimated from field data. In all cases, the erosion rate increases during mountain uplift, which thins the regolith and produces a hump in the weathering rate evolution. This model thus predicts that the weathering outflux reaches a peak and then falls, consistent with predictions of previous 1-D models. By tracking the pathways of particles, the model can also consider how lateral river erosion drives mass wasting and the temporary storage of colluvial deposits on the valley sides. This reservoir is comprised of fresh material that has a residence time ranging from several years up to several thousand years. During this period, the weathering of colluvium appears to sustain the mountain weathering flux. The relative weathering contribution of colluvium depends on the area covered by regolith on the hillslopes. For mountains

  18. Colluvial deposits as a possible weathering reservoir in uplifting mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretier, Sébastien; Goddéris, Yves; Martinez, Javier; Reich, Martin; Martinod, Pierre

    2018-03-01

    The role of mountain uplift in the evolution of the global climate over geological times is controversial. At the heart of this debate is the capacity of rapid denudation to drive silicate weathering, which consumes CO2. Here we present the results of a 3-D model that couples erosion and weathering during mountain uplift, in which, for the first time, the weathered material is traced during its stochastic transport from the hillslopes to the mountain outlet. To explore the response of weathering fluxes to progressively cooler and drier climatic conditions, we run model simulations accounting for a decrease in temperature with or without modifications in the rainfall pattern based on a simple orographic model. At this stage, the model does not simulate the deep water circulation, the precipitation of secondary minerals, variations in the pH, below-ground pCO2, and the chemical affinity of the water in contact with minerals. Consequently, the predicted silicate weathering fluxes probably represent a maximum, although the predicted silicate weathering rates are within the range of silicate and total weathering rates estimated from field data. In all cases, the erosion rate increases during mountain uplift, which thins the regolith and produces a hump in the weathering rate evolution. This model thus predicts that the weathering outflux reaches a peak and then falls, consistent with predictions of previous 1-D models. By tracking the pathways of particles, the model can also consider how lateral river erosion drives mass wasting and the temporary storage of colluvial deposits on the valley sides. This reservoir is comprised of fresh material that has a residence time ranging from several years up to several thousand years. During this period, the weathering of colluvium appears to sustain the mountain weathering flux. The relative weathering contribution of colluvium depends on the area covered by regolith on the hillslopes. For mountains sparsely covered by regolith

  19. Moduli stabilization and uplifting with dynamically generated F-terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudas, Emilian; Papineau, Chloe; Pokorski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    We use the F-term dynamical supersymmetry breaking models with metastable vacua in order to uplift the vacuum energy in the KKLT moduli stabilization scenario. The main advantage compared to earlier proposals is the manifest supersymmetric treatment and the natural coexistence of a TeV gravitino mass with a zero cosmological constant. We argue that it is generically difficult to avoid anti de-Sitter supersymmetric minima, however the tunneling rate from the metastable vacuum with zero vacuum energy towards them can be very suppressed. We briefly comment on the properties of the induced soft terms in the observable sector

  20. Moduli stabilization and uplifting with dynamically generated F-terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudas, Emilian [CERN Theory Division, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Papineau, Chloe [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Univ. of Warsaw, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-02-15

    We use the F-term dynamical supersymmetry breaking models with metastable vacua in order to uplift the vacuum energy in the KKLT moduli stabilization scenario. The main advantage compared to earlier proposals is the manifest supersymmetric treatment and the natural coexistence of a TeV gravitino mass with a zero cosmological constant. We argue that it is generically difficult to avoid anti de-Sitter supersymmetric minima, however the tunneling rate from the metastable vacuum with zero vacuum energy towards them can be very suppressed. We briefly comment on the properties of the induced soft terms in the observable sector.

  1. SCANLIPS - A Study of Epirogenic Uplift of Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, R. W.; Ebbing, J.

    2007-12-01

    Thermochronology data and geomorphological interpretation indicate that parts of the Scandinavian mountains have risen by over 1 km since the Miocene. This permanent uplift, the cause of which is still disputed, varies across Norway, being greatest in southern and northern areas and least in the central region. To investigate this the SCANLIPS project employs passive seismology, coupled with modelling of potential field data to determine variations in crustal properties and structure across Norway and Sweden. Initially we intend to test whether lateral variations in crustal structure and properties are correlated with the uplift pattern. This would suggest that the cause of the differential uplift lies in a modification of the crust. If the test of this hypothesis is null we will use the data to investigate the present day upper mantle structure for the cause. Between April and October 2006 28 seismometers were deployed at sites along a c. 600 km long profile between Trondheim in Norway and Harnosand in Sweden to record teleseismic arrivals. Receiver Functions have been calculated for teleseismic events recorded at these stations and then modelled to determine crustal velocity structure, estimate Vp/Vs and depth to Moho. Preliminary results suggest that crustal thickness increases eastward beneath Norway and then remains deep beneath the lower topography of central Sweden. Along the profile a gradual eastward increase in seismic velocity, including a very high velocity lower crust beneath Sweden explains the compensation of shallow topography by thick crust. Forward density and isostatic modelling shows that the introduction of the high-density lower crust adjusts both the gravity field and the isostatic compensation. Beneath Norway the crust thins rapidly toward the continental margin at a rate that is faster than the topography decreases. This suggests that at least part of the topography is supported by the flexural strength of the crust in the footwall of the

  2. Direct gauge mediation of uplifted metastable supersymmetry breaking in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maru, Nobuhito

    2010-01-01

    We propose a direct gauge mediation model based on an uplifted metastable supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking coupled to supergravity. A constant superpotential plays an essential role to fix the moduli as well as breaking SUSY and R symmetry and the cancellation of the cosmological constant. Gaugino masses are generated at leading order of SUSY breaking scale, and comparable to the sfermion masses as in the ordinary gauge mediation. The Landau pole problem for QCD coupling can be easily solved since more than half of messengers become superheavy, which are heavier than the grand unified theory (GUT) scale.

  3. Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Charles W; Thatcher, Wayne; Dzurisin, Daniel; Svarc, Jerry

    2006-03-02

    The Yellowstone caldera, in the western United States, formed approximately 640,000 years ago when an explosive eruption ejected approximately 1,000 km3 of material. It is the youngest of a series of large calderas that formed during sequential cataclysmic eruptions that began approximately 16 million years ago in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. The Yellowstone caldera was largely buried by rhyolite lava flows during eruptions that occurred from approximately 150,000 to approximately 70,000 years ago. Since the last eruption, Yellowstone has remained restless, with high seismicity, continuing uplift/subsidence episodes with movements of approximately 70 cm historically to several metres since the Pleistocene epoch, and intense hydrothermal activity. Here we present observations of a new mode of surface deformation in Yellowstone, based on radar interferometry observations from the European Space Agency ERS-2 satellite. We infer that the observed pattern of uplift and subsidence results from variations in the movement of molten basalt into and out of the Yellowstone volcanic system.

  4. Flexurally-resisted uplift of the Tharsis Province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.J.; Sleep, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    The tectonic style of Mars is dominated by vertical motion, perhaps more than any of the terrestrial planets. The imprint of this tectonic activity has left a surface widely faulted even though younger volcanism has masked the expression of tectonism in many places. Geological activity associated with the Tharsis and, to a lesser extent, Elysium provinces is responsible for a significant portion of this faulting, while the origins of the remaining features are enigmatic in many cases. The origin and evolution of the Tharsis and Elysium provinces, in terms of their great elevation, volcanic activity, and tectonic style, has sparked intense debate over the last fifteen years. Central to these discussions are the relative roles of structural uplift and volcanic construction in the creation of immense topographic relief. For example, it is argued that the presence of very old and cratered terrain high on the Tharsis rise, in the vicinity of Claritas Fossae, points to structural uplift of an ancient crust. Others have pointed out, however, that there is no reason that this terrain could not be of volcanic origin and thus part of the constructional mechanism

  5. Tectonic and erosion-driven uplift for the Gamburtsev Mountains: a preliminary combined landscape analyses and flexural modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Anderson, Lester; Jamieson, Stewart; Bell, Robin; Rose, Kathryn; Jordan, Tom; Finn, Carol; Damaske, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    Mountain building processes in intraplate settings remain relatively poorly understood when compared to ranges formed along plate margins. The most enigmatic intraplate mountain range on Earth is located in the middle of the East Antarctic Craton and is known from geophysical surveys as the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM). During the IPY, the AGAP project acquired 120,000 line km of airborne geophysical data (Bell et al., 2011, Science) and seismological observations (Hansen et al., 2010, EPSL) across central East Antarctica that provide new perspectives on crustal architecture and uplift mechanisms for the enigmatic GSM (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long Paleozoic-Mesozoic rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the GSM. A thick high-density lower crustal root is in parts preserved beneath the range and has been interpreted as having formed during Proterozoic assembly of a mosaic of originally separate East Antarctic provinces. Rifting could have triggered phase/density changes at deep crustal levels, effectively restoring some of the latent root buoyancy, as well as causing more classical flexural rift-flank uplift. Permian rifting was followed by Cretaceous strike-slip faulting and transtension associated with Gondwana break-up and this phase may have provided a more recent tectonic trigger for initial uplift of the modern GSM. The Cretaceous rift-flank uplift model for the Gamburtsevs is appealing because it relates the initiation of intraplate mountain-building to larger-scale geodynamic processes and is consistent with several geological and geophysical interpretations in the adjacent Lambert Rift (Ferraccioli et al., 2011). However, a more recent interpretation predicts that major Cretaceous rift-related exhumation in interior East Antarctica is not required to explain detrital thermochrology results from Oligocene-Quaternary sediments in Prydz Bay (Tochlin et al., 2012, G3). This raises the question of

  6. Is It Safe to Uplift This Patch? An Empirical Study on Mozilla Firefox

    OpenAIRE

    Castelluccio, Marco; An, Le; Khomh, Foutse

    2017-01-01

    In rapid release development processes, patches that fix critical issues, or implement high-value features are often promoted directly from the development channel to a stabilization channel, potentially skipping one or more stabilization channels. This practice is called patch uplift. Patch uplift is risky, because patches that are rushed through the stabilization phase can end up introducing regressions in the code. This paper examines patch uplift operations at Mozilla, with the aim to ide...

  7. Coseismic Coastal Uplift from the 2012 Mw7.6 Nicoya Earthquake, Costa Rica: Implications of Megathrust Rupture for Fore Arc Morphotectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Morrish, S.; Newman, A. V.; Protti, M.

    2013-05-01

    The 2012 Mw7.6 Nicoya Earthquake ruptured the subduction megathrust beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Local network data place the hypocenter 10 km offshore at 15 km depth. Within 5 days, >1500 aftershocks outlined a principal rupture zone of 1500 km2 beneath the central Nicoya coast. Despite its large magnitude and proximity to populated areas, the Nicoya Earthquake produced only moderate damage ( $45 million) and few casualties (≤200 injured, 0 deaths) localized in areas of strong ground motion (MM=VII) on the Nicoya Peninsula and Central Volcanic Cordillera. Rapid response geomorphic and geodetic fieldwork was conducted 5-15 days after the earthquake to constrain patterns of coseismic deformation across the Nicoya Peninsula. Geomorphic data include: 1) pre/post earthquake coastal monument surveys, 2) reoccupied coastal survey lines, 3) pre/post earthquake high-tide debris lines, 4) displaced high tide notches and rock staining, 5) vertical extent of mortality (VEM) for sessile intertidal organisms, 6) coastal stream incision and mangrove root exposure. Measurements at 22 field sites record recognizable coseismic uplift along 80 km of coastline between Playa Avellanas and Punta Coyote. Pronounced uplift (≥0.5 m) occurred along 30 km of coast from Nosara to Islita, with maximum uplift (≥0.8 m) near Puerto Carrillo onshore of the epicenter. The observed geomorphic uplift pattern is consistent with that recorded by continuous GPS stations (although GPS values are systematically lower), and with seismic and geodetic inversions for primary slip centered beneath the Nicoya coast. The Nicoya Peninsula forms a prominent morphologic high along the Middle America fore arc. This emergent coastal landmass overlies a strongly coupled seismogenic zone that produced major earthquakes in 1853, 1900, 1950, and 2012. The 2012 coseismic uplift pattern coincides with the area of GPS-modeled pre-event locking (Feng et al., 2012), the estimated rupture area for the prior

  8. Finite temperature behaviour of the ISS-uplifted KKLT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papineau, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    We study the static phase structure of the ISS-KKLT model for moduli stabilisation and uplifting to a zero cosmological constant. Since the supersymmetry breaking sector and the moduli sector are only gravitationally coupled, we expect negligible quantum effects of the modulus upon the ISS sector, and the other way around. Under this assumption, we show that the ISS fields end up in the metastable vacua. The reason is not only that it is thermally favoured (second order phase transition) compared to the phase transition towards the supersymmetric vacua, but rather that the metastable vacua form before the supersymmetric ones. This nice feature is exclusively due to the presence of the KKLT sector. We also show that supergravity effects are negligible around the origin of the field space. Finally, we turn to the modulus sector and show that there is no destabilisation effect coming from the ISS sector.

  9. Dynamically sequestered F-term uplifting in extra dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Higaki, Tetsutaro; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Omura, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    We study moduli stabilization, the dynamical supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking, the uplifting of SUSY anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum and the sequestering of hidden sector in a five-dimensional supergravity model, where all modes of the visible sector and the hidden sector are originated from bulk fields. We clarify couplings between the visible and hidden sectors. The expressions for the visible sector soft SUSY breaking terms as well as the hidden sector potential are shown explicitly in our model. The sequestering is achieved dynamically by a wavefunction localization in extra dimension. We find that the tree-level soft scalar mass and the A-term can be suppressed at a SUSY breaking Minkowski minimum where the radius modulus is stabilized, while gaugino masses would be a mirage type

  10. East Antarctic rifting triggers uplift of the Gamburtsev Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, Carol A.; Jordan, Tom A.; Bell, Robin E.; Anderson, Lester M.; Damaske, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are the least understood tectonic feature on Earth, because they are completely hidden beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Their high elevation and youthful Alpine topography, combined with their location on the East Antarctic craton, creates a paradox that has puzzled researchers since the mountains were discovered in 1958. The preservation of Alpine topography in the Gamburtsevs may reflect extremely low long-term erosion rates beneath the ice sheet, but the mountains’ origin remains problematic. Here we present the first comprehensive view of the crustal architecture and uplift mechanisms for the Gamburtsevs, derived from radar, gravity and magnetic data. The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the Gamburtsevs, and a thick crustal root beneath the range. We propose that the root formed during the Proterozoic assembly of interior East Antarctica (possibly about 1 Gyr ago), was preserved as in some old orogens and was rejuvenated during much later Permian (roughly 250 Myr ago) and Cretaceous (roughly 100 Myr ago) rifting. Much like East Africa, the interior of East Antarctica is a mosaic of Precambrian provinces affected by rifting processes. Our models show that the combination of rift-flank uplift, root buoyancy and the isostatic response to fluvial and glacial erosion explains the high elevation and relief of the Gamburtsevs. The evolution of the Gamburtsevs demonstrates that rifting and preserved orogenic roots can produce broad regions of high topography in continental interiors without significantly modifying the underlying Precambrian lithosphere.

  11. Uplift and Subsidence Associated with the Great Aceh-Andaman Earthquake of 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The magnitude 9.2 Indian Ocean earthquake of December 26, 2004, produced broad regions of uplift and subsidence. In order to define the lateral extent and the downdip limit of rupture, scientists from Caltech, Pasadena, Calif.; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; the U.S. Geological Survey, Pasadena, Calif.; and the Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bandung, Indonesia; first needed to define the pivot line separating those regions. Interpretation of satellite imagery and a tidal model were one of the key tools used to do this. These pre-Sumatra earthquake (a) and post-Sumatra earthquake (b) images of North Sentinel Island in the Indian Ocean, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, show emergence of the coral reef surrounding the island following the earthquake. The tide was 30 plus or minus 14 centimeters lower in the pre-earthquake image (acquired November 21, 2000) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 20, 2005), requiring a minimum of 30 centimeters of uplift at this locality. Observations from an Indian Coast Guard helicopter on the northwest coast of the island suggest that the actual uplift is on the order of 1 to 2 meters at this site. In figures (c) and (d), pre-earthquake and post-earthquake ASTER images of a small island off the northwest coast of Rutland Island, 38 kilometers east of North Sentinel Island, show submergence of the coral reef surrounding the island. The tide was higher in the pre-earthquake image (acquired January 1, 2004) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 4, 2005), requiring subsidence at this locality. The pivot line must run between North Sentinel and Rutland islands. Note that the scale for the North Sentinel Island images differs from that for the Rutland Island images. The tidal model used for this study was

  12. Can footwall unloading explain late Cenozoic uplift of the Sierra Nevada crest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G.A.; Parsons, T.

    2009-01-01

    Globally, normal-fault displacement bends and warps rift flanks upwards, as adjoining basins drop downwards. Perhaps the most evident manifestations are the flanks of the East African Rift, which cuts across the otherwise minimally deformed continent. Flank uplift was explained by Vening Meinesz (1950, Institut Royal Colonial Belge, Bulletin des Seances, v. 21, p. 539-552), who recognized that isostasy should cause uplift of a normal-faulted footwall and subsidence of its hanging wall. Uplift occurs because slip on a dipping normal fault creates a broader root of less-dense material beneath the footwall, and a narrowed one beneath the hanging wall. In this paper, we investigate the potential influence of this process on the latest stages of Sierra Nevada uplift. Through theoretical calculations and 3D finite element modelling, we find that cumulative slip of about 4km on range-front faults would have produced about 1.3km peak isostatic uplift at the ridge crest. Numerical models suggest that the zone of uplift is narrow, with the width controlled by bending resistance of the seismogenic crust. We conclude that footwall unloading cannot account for the entire elevation of the Sierran crest above sea level, but if range-front faulting initiated in an already elevated plateau like the adjacent Basin and Range Province, then a hybrid model of pre-existing regional uplift and localized footwall unloading can account for the older and newer uplift phases suggested by the geologic record.

  13. Episodic swell growth inferred from variable uplift of the Cape Verde hotspot islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, R.; Helffrich, G.; Cosca, M.; Vance, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Schmidt, D.N.

    2010-01-01

    On the Beagle voyage, Charles Darwin first noted the creation and subsidence of ocean islands, establishing in geology's infancy that island freeboard changes with time. Hotspot ocean islands have an obvious mechanism for freeboard change through the growth of the bathymetric anomaly, or swell, on which the islands rest. Models for swell development indicate that flexural, thermal or dynamic pressure contributions, as well as spreading of melt residue from the hotspot, can all contribute to island uplift. Here we test various models for swell development using the uplift histories for the islands of the Cape Verde hotspot, derived from isotopic dating of marine terraces and subaerial to submarine lava-flow morphologies. The island uplift histories, in conjunction with inter-island spacing, uplift rate and timing differences, rule out flexural, thermal or dynamic pressure contributions. We also find that uplift cannot be reconciled with models that advocate the spreading of melt residue in swell development unless swell growth is episodic. Instead, we infer from the uplift histories that two processes have acted to raise the islands during the past 6 Myr. During an initial phase, mantle processes acted to build the swell. Subsequently, magmatic intrusions at the island edifice caused 350 m of local uplift at the scale of individual islands. Finally, swell-wide uplift contributed a further 100 m of surface rise.

  14. Numerical modelling study on the flexural uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamasaki, T.; Miura, H.; Nogi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, based on a 2-D thermomechanical finite element model, the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) is discussed in relation to the flexural uplift of a rheologically layered lithosphere, which is described by Vening-Meinesz's cantilever kinematics. The general model behaviour

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of tectonic uplift in the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau from morphotectonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Alemu, Tadesse; Gani, Nahid D.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2018-05-01

    We use morphotectonic analysis to study the tectonic uplift history of the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau (SEEP). Based on studies conducted on the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau, steady-state and pulsed tectonic uplift models were proposed to explain the growth of the plateau since 30 Ma. We test these two models for the largely unknown SEEP. We present the first quantitative morphotectonic study of the SEEP. First, in order to infer the spatial distribution of the tectonic uplift rates, we extract geomorphic proxies including normalized steepness index ksn, hypsometric integral HI, and chi integral χ from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model (DEM). Second, we compare these rates with the thickness of flood basalt that we estimated from geological maps. Third, to constrain the timing of regional tectonic uplift, we develop a knickpoint celerity model. Fourth, we compare our results to those from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau to suggest a possible mechanism to explain regional tectonic uplift of the entire Ethiopian Plateau. We find an increase in tectonic uplift rates from the southeastern escarpments of the Afar Depression in the northeast to that of the Main Ethiopian Rift to the southwest. We identify three regional tectonic uplift events at 11.7, 6.5, and 4.5 Ma recorded by the development of regionally distributed knickpoints. This is in good agreement with ages of tectonic uplift events reported from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau.

  16. Modeling the uplift in the Ardennes-Rhenish Massif: Mechanical weakening under the Eifel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; van Balen, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Middle Pleistocene uplift in the Eifel has been interpreted as the isostatic response of the lithosphere to a deep buoyant hot body. The spatial and temporal distribution of the uplift in the Ardennes-Rhenish Massif Region has recently been constrained by new data of river incision that have been

  17. Ratings uplifts and bank characteristics in the Eurozone 2002-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores which characteristics define banks that are too-big-to-fail in the Eurozone over the period 2002-2011. These banks are identified through ratings uplift data from Moody’s. Higher ratings uplifts are associated with higher degrees of interest income and lower degrees of commission

  18. Quantification of Net Erosion and Uplift Experienced by the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan Using Sonic Log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, K.; Schulz, S.; Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Barmer Basin of Rajasthan, Western India is a hydrocarbon rich sedimentary basin currently being explored by Cairn India Limited. The hydrocarbon bearing Fatehgarh Formation is being found at different depths in different oil fields (e.g. From south to north: Guda, Vijaya & Vandana, Air field High) of the basin. The net uplift and erosion in the Barmer Basin has been quantified using compaction methodology. The sonic log, which is strongly controlled by porosity, is an appropriate indicator of compaction, and hence used for quantification of net uplift and erosion from compaction. The compaction methodology has been applied to the shale rich Dharvi Dungar Formation of Barmer Basin of Late Paleocene age. The net uplift and erosion is also being checked with the help of AFTA-VR and seismic sections. The results show relatively no uplift in the southernmost part of the basin and a Guda field well is thus taken to be the reference well with respect to which the uplifts in different parts of the basin have been calculated. The northern part of the basin i.e. Air Field High wells experienced maximum uplift (~2150m). Interestingly, a few wells further south of the reference well show evidence for uplift. The study was able to point out errors in the report produced with the help of AFTA-VR which found out less uplift in Vijaya & Vandana oil fields as opposed to sonic log data. The process of finding out uplift using sonic log has a standard deviation of 200m as compared to about 500m error in AFTA-VR method. This study has major implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Maturation of source rock will be higher for any given geothermal history if net uplift and erosion is incorporated in maturation modeling. They can also be used for porosity predictions of reservoir units in undrilled targets.

  19. Uplift rates of marine terraces as a constraint on fault-propagation fold kinematics: Examples from the Hawkswood and Kate anticlines, North Canterbury, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David O. S.; Fisher, Donald M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Stewart, Mary Kate

    2018-01-01

    Marine terraces on growing fault-propagation folds provide valuable insight into the relationship between fold kinematics and uplift rates, providing a means to distinguish among otherwise non-unique kinematic model solutions. Here, we investigate this relationship at two locations in North Canterbury, New Zealand: the Kate anticline and Haumuri Bluff, at the northern end of the Hawkswood anticline. At both locations, we calculate uplift rates of previously dated marine terraces, using DGPS surveys to estimate terrace inner edge elevations. We then use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to fit fault-propagation fold kinematic models to structural geologic data, and we incorporate marine terrace uplift into the models as an additional constraint. At Haumuri Bluff, we find that marine terraces, when restored to originally horizontal surfaces, can help to eliminate certain trishear models that would fit the geologic data alone. At Kate anticline, we compare uplift rates at different structural positions and find that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is more consistent with trishear than with a parallel-fault propagation fold kink-band model. Finally, we use our model results to compute new estimates for fault slip rates ( 1-2 m/ka at Kate anticline and 1-4 m/ka at Haumuri Bluff) and ages of the folds ( 1 Ma), which are consistent with previous estimates for the onset of folding in this region. These results are consistent with previous work on the age of onset of folding in this region, provide revised estimates of fault slip rates necessary to understand the seismic hazard posed by these faults, and demonstrate the value of incorporating marine terraces in inverse fold kinematic models as a means to distinguish among non-unique solutions.

  20. Internal circle uplifts, transversality and stratified G-structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babalic, Elena Mirela [Department of Theoretical Physics, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering,Str. Reactorului no.30, P.O.BOX MG-6, Postcode 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Department of Physics, University of Craiova,13 Al. I. Cuza Str., Craiova 200585 (Romania); Lazaroiu, Calin Iuliu [Center for Geometry and Physics, Institute for Basic Science,Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-24

    We study stratified G-structures in N=2 compactifications of M-theory on eight-manifolds M using the uplift to the auxiliary nine-manifold M̂=M×S{sup 1}. We show that the cosmooth generalized distribution D̂ on M̂ which arises in this formalism may have pointwise transverse or non-transverse intersection with the pull-back of the tangent bundle of M, a fact which is responsible for the subtle relation between the spinor stabilizers arising on M and M̂ and for the complicated stratified G-structure on M which we uncovered in previous work. We give a direct explanation of the latter in terms of the former and relate explicitly the defining forms of the SU(2) structure which exists on the generic locus U of M to the defining forms of the SU(3) structure which exists on an open subset Û of M̂, thus providing a dictionary between the eight- and nine-dimensional formalisms.

  1. Do hassles and uplifts change with age? Longitudinal findings from the VA normative aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwin, Carolyn M; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2014-03-01

    To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed 3 scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Group-based modeling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative nonlinear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Regional cenozoic uplift and subsidence events in the southeastern North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordt, H.

    1995-12-31

    The Paleocene topography of the Fennoscandian Shield is indicated by outbuilding towards the Central Trough and the Ringkoebing-Fyn High. From Eocene until Pliocene time three events of relative vertical movements are indicated by changes in outbuilding directions and reflection termination patterns in the central North Sea. The firs event of uplift was in the Eocene and resulted in relative uplift of the Mid North Sea High and contemporary subsidence east of it, indicated by a change in outbuilding from north to west. A second event of uplift is indicated to the north of the study area at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary by renewed southward outbuilding in the Norwegian-Danish Basin. In Miocene until Early Pliocene time a relatively stationary, almost east-west striking, basin margin was probably located to the north along the Tornquist Zone as indicated by the continued outbuilding towards the Ringkoebing-Fyn High. A third event of relative uplift is indicated east of the study area by changes in the Pliocene outbuilding pattern. After the first event of uplift it appears that the deepest parts of the Eocene North Sea Basin was located more easterly than the deepest part are today. Apparently the two latest uplift events north and east of the study area were related to movements of, or along the Tornquist Zone or to regional uplift of the Fennoscandian Shield finally resulting in the present-day configuration of the North Sea. (au) 11 refs.

  3. Centrifuge Testing and Seismic Response Analysis for Uplift Behavior of Spread Foundation Structures on Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Suzuki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The uplift behavior of structures subjected to severe seismic motion has not been clarified. This paper presents experimental and analytical studies conducted for clarifying this problem of spread foundation structures on rock. First, centrifugal loading tests are conducted to determine the uplift behavior of these structures, and the uplift behavior of these structures is confirmed. Then, simulation analyses are performed using a three-dimensional FE model and the accuracy of these analyses is confirmed. A comparison between test and analyses results clarified the important analytical conditions required for maintaining analysis precision and the limit of analysis precision.

  4. Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Van dam, Tonie; Hamilton, Gordon S.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid unloading of ice from the southeastern sector of the Greenland ice sheet between 2001 and 2006 caused an elastic uplift of 35 mm at a GPS site in Kulusuk. Most of the uplift results from ice dynamic-induced volume losses on two nearby outlet glaciers. Volume loss from Helheim Glacier...... between 62N and 66N. Citation: Khan, S. A., J. Wahr, L. A. Stearns, G. S. Hamilton, T. van Dam, K. M. Larson, and O. Francis (2007), Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss....

  5. Wind uplift of radioactive dust from the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhon'ko, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Near nuclear power plants the recontamination of the atmosphere near the ground becomes dangerous, if a radioactive zone has formed at the site. Wind can easily carry toxic dust from the polluted territory of neighboring industrial enterprises. Moreover, wind erosion of the soil during the summer or transport of radioactive snow by a snowstorm during the winter can displace the boundaries of the contaminated radioactive zone. In Russia the investigation of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground began after a radiation accident occurred at a storage facility in the Southern Urals in 1957, as a result of which a contaminated zone formed in the area. Since the direct mechanism of detachment of dust particles from the ground is not important in studying the results of the raising of radioactive dust into the atmosphere by wind, the authors do not distinguish between wind pickup and wind erosion, and the entire process wind pickup of radioactivity from the ground. After the radiation accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant a new generation of investigators began to study wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground, and the process under consideration was sometimes referred to as wind uplift. The intensity of the process of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground is characterized by the wind pickup coefficient α, which is the coefficient of proportionality between the upward flux Q of radioactivity from the ground and the density A of radioactive contamination of the ground: α = Q/A. Physically, the coefficient α is the upward flux of the impurity from the ground with unit contamination density, i.e., the intensity of dust contamination or the fraction of radioactivity picked up by the wind from the ground per unit time. The greatest difficulty in determining α experimentally under dusty conditions is measuring correctly the upward radioactivity flux Q. The author discusses three methods for determining this quantity

  6. Abrupt uplift within the past 1700 years at Southern Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknam, R.C.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Leopold, E.B.

    1992-01-01

    Shorelines rose as much as 7 meters along southern Puget Sound and Hood Canal between 500 and 1700 years ago. Evidence for this uplift consists of elevated wave-cut shore platforms near Seattle and emerged, peat-covered tidal flats as much as 60 kilometers to the southwest. The uplift was too rapid for waves to leave intermediate shorelines on even the best preserved platform. The tidal flats also emerged abruptly; they changed into freshwater swamps and meadows without first becoming tidal marshes. Where uplift was greatest, it adjoined an inferred fault that crosses Puget Sound at Seattle and it probably accompanied reverse slip on that fault 1000 to 1100 years ago. The uplift and probable fault slip show that the crust of the North America plate contains potential sources of damaging earthquakes in the Puget Sound region.

  7. A late Eocene palynological record of climate change and Tibetan Plateau uplift (Xining Basin, China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Straathof, J.; Abels, H.A.; Xu, Y.; Utescher, T.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models suggest that Asian paleoenvironments, monsoons and continental aridification were primarily governed by tectonic uplift and sea retreat since the Eocene with potential contribution of global climate changes. However, the cause and timing of these paleoenvironmental changes remain

  8. Segmented Coastal Uplift Along an Erosional Subduction Margin, Northern Hikurangi Fore Arc, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. S.; Litchfield, N. J.; Berryman, K. R.; Clark, K.; Cochran, U. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin along North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Along the southern margin, frontal accretion and pronounced forearc uplift occur inboard of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. In the north, subduction erosion and segmented uplift occur inboard of subducting seamounts along the plateau flank. Prior workers have established a robust foundation for coastal terrace studies along the northern Hikurangi margin (e.g., Berryman et al., 1989; Ota et al., 1992; Berryman, 1993; Wilson et al., 2006, 2007; Clark et al., 2010; Litchfield et al, 2007, 2010). New field observations presented here provide additional constraints on terrace uplift along this erosional subduction margin. Along Raukumara Peninsula (north of Poverty Bay), multiple Holocene to late Pleistocene marine and fluvial terraces occur at varying elevations, recording differential uplift across six coastal segments from Gisborne to East Cape (Ota et al., 1992; Wilson et al., 2007). In this study, two to three late Pleistocene terraces were observed on rocky headlands within the first segment (Gisborne to Whangara) at elevations of 80-185 m above msl. Preliminary correlation with OIS 5a-e sea level high stands (80-125 ka) indicates net uplift at 1.2-1.5 m/ky. Uplifted Holocene wavecut platforms occur in steps along the seaward edge of these terraces, consistent with coseismic uplift. At Makorori Point, an uplifted bench occurs along the modern seacliff at 2.3 m above the cliff base. A fossil gastropod shell from paleo-beach gravels on the platform inner edge yielded a calibrated radiocarbon age of 1680 ×110 ybp. At Turihaua Point, a ≥1 m thick deposit of Holocene beach sands overlies an uplifted wavecut platform at ≥1.5 m above mean sea level. Carbonate-cemented beachrock at the base of the sand deposit yields a calibrated radiocarbon age of 2990 ×70 ybp. At Mahia Peninsula (between Poverty

  9. Greenland uplift and regional sea level changes from ICESat observations and GIA modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spada, G.; Ruggieri, G.; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    2012-01-01

    ‐resolution GrIS mass balance, we study the time‐variations of various geophysical quantities in response to the current mass loss. They include vertical uplift and subsidence, geoid height variations, global patterns of sea level change (or fingerprints), and regional sea level variations along the coasts...... of Greenland. Long‐wavelength uplifts and gravity variations in response to current or past ice thickness variations are obtained solving the sea level equation, which accounts for both the elastic and the viscoelastic components of deformation. To capture the short‐wavelength components of vertical uplift...... in response to current ice mass loss, which is not resolved by satellite gravity observations, we have specifically developed a high‐resolution regional elastic rebound (ER) model. The elastic component of vertical uplift is combined with estimates of the viscoelastic displacement fields associated...

  10. GPS Imaging of vertical land motion in California and Nevada: Implications for Sierra Nevada uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We introduce Global Positioning System (GPS) Imaging, a new technique for robust estimation of the vertical velocity field of the Earth's surface, and apply it to the Sierra Nevada Mountain range in the western United States. Starting with vertical position time series from Global Positioning System (GPS) stations, we first estimate vertical velocities using the MIDAS robust trend estimator, which is insensitive to undocumented steps, outliers, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity. Using the Delaunay triangulation of station locations, we then apply a weighted median spatial filter to remove velocity outliers and enhance signals common to multiple stations. Finally, we interpolate the data using weighted median estimation on a grid. The resulting velocity field is temporally and spatially robust and edges in the field remain sharp. Results from data spanning 5–20 years show that the Sierra Nevada is the most rapid and extensive uplift feature in the western United States, rising up to 2 mm/yr along most of the range. The uplift is juxtaposed against domains of subsidence attributable to groundwater withdrawal in California's Central Valley. The uplift boundary is consistently stationary, although uplift is faster over the 2011–2016 period of drought. Uplift patterns are consistent with groundwater extraction and concomitant elastic bedrock uplift, plus slower background tectonic uplift. A discontinuity in the velocity field across the southeastern edge of the Sierra Nevada reveals a contrast in lithospheric strength, suggesting a relationship between late Cenozoic uplift of the southern Sierra Nevada and evolution of the southern Walker Lane. PMID:27917328

  11. Oroclinal Bending and Mountain Uplift in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpodozis, C.; Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.

    2007-05-01

    The large paleomagnetic database now available for the Central Andes permits a good understanding of the overall spatial and temporal variations of rotations. Mesozoic to Early Paleogene rocks along the forearc of northern Chile (23°-28°S) record significant clockwise rotations (>25°) [Arriagada et al., 2006, Tectonics, doi:10.1029/2005TC001923]. Along the forearc of southern Peru, counterclockwise rotations recorded within flat lying red-beds (Moquegua Formation) increase from about -30° at 17.5°S to - 45° at15.5°S and decrease through time from the late Eocene to the late Oligocene-early Miocene [Roperch et al., 2006, Tectonics, doi:10.1029/2005TC001882]. Recently published thermo-chronological studies show evidence for strong exhumation within Bolivian Eastern Cordillera and the Puna plateau starting in the Eocene while structural studies indicate that the majority of crustal shortening in the Eastern Cordillera occurred during the Eocene-Oligocene, although the final stages of deformation may have continued through the Early Miocene. Rotations in the Peruvian and north Chilean forearc thus occurred at the same time than deformation and exhumation/uplift within the Eastern Cordillera. In contrast Neogene forearc rocks in southern Peru and northern Chile do not show evidences of rotation but low magnitude (10°) counterclockwise rotations are usually found in mid to late Miocene rocks from the northern Altiplano. These Neogene rotations are concomitant with shortening in the Sub-Andean zone and sinistral strike-slip faulting along the eastern edge of the northern Altiplano. We interpret the rotation pattern along the southern Peru and north Chile forearc as a result of strong late Eocene- late Oligocene oroclinal bending of the Central Andes associated with shortening gradients along the Eastern Cordillera associated both with the Abancay deflection and the Arica bend. The amount and spatial distribution of pre-Neogene shortening needed to account for

  12. Observations and modeling of post-midnight uplifts near the magnetic equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Nicolls

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We report here on post-midnight uplifts near the magnetic equator. We present observational evidence from digital ionosondes in Brazil, a digisonde in Peru, and other measurements at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory that show that these uplifts occur fairly regularly in the post-midnight period, raising the ionosphere by tens of kilometers in the most mild events and by over a hundred kilometers in the most severe events. We show that in general the uplifts are not the result of a zonal electric field reversal, and demonstrate instead that the uplifts occur as the ionospheric response to a decreasing westward electric field in conjunction with sufficient recombination and plasma flux. The decreasing westward electric field may be caused by a change in the wind system related to the midnight pressure bulge, which is associated with the midnight temperature maximum. In order to agree with observations from Jicamarca and Palmas, Brazil, it is shown that there must exist sufficient horizontal plasma flux associated with the pressure bulge. In addition, we show that the uplifts may be correlated with a secondary maximum in the spread-F occurrence rate in the post-midnight period. The uplifts are strongly seasonally dependent, presumably according to the seasonal dependence of the midnight pressure bulge, which leads to the necessary small westward field in the post-midnight period during certain seasons. We also discuss the enhancement of the uplifts associated with increased geomagnetic activity, which may be related to disturbance dynamo winds. Finally, we show that it is possible using simple numerical techniques to estimate the horizontal plasma flux and the vertical drift velocity from electron density measurements in the post-midnight period.

  13. Observations and modeling of post-midnight uplifts near the magnetic equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Nicolls

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We report here on post-midnight uplifts near the magnetic equator. We present observational evidence from digital ionosondes in Brazil, a digisonde in Peru, and other measurements at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory that show that these uplifts occur fairly regularly in the post-midnight period, raising the ionosphere by tens of kilometers in the most mild events and by over a hundred kilometers in the most severe events. We show that in general the uplifts are not the result of a zonal electric field reversal, and demonstrate instead that the uplifts occur as the ionospheric response to a decreasing westward electric field in conjunction with sufficient recombination and plasma flux. The decreasing westward electric field may be caused by a change in the wind system related to the midnight pressure bulge, which is associated with the midnight temperature maximum. In order to agree with observations from Jicamarca and Palmas, Brazil, it is shown that there must exist sufficient horizontal plasma flux associated with the pressure bulge. In addition, we show that the uplifts may be correlated with a secondary maximum in the spread-F occurrence rate in the post-midnight period. The uplifts are strongly seasonally dependent, presumably according to the seasonal dependence of the midnight pressure bulge, which leads to the necessary small westward field in the post-midnight period during certain seasons. We also discuss the enhancement of the uplifts associated with increased geomagnetic activity, which may be related to disturbance dynamo winds. Finally, we show that it is possible using simple numerical techniques to estimate the horizontal plasma flux and the vertical drift velocity from electron density measurements in the post-midnight period.

  14. The Sedimentary History of Southern Central Crete: Implications for Neogene Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, K.; Brachert, T. C.; Reuter, M.

    2003-04-01

    The tectonic setting of Crete was largely extensional since Lower Miocene uplift and exhumation of HP/LT rocks. Erosion of uplifted areas resulted in the deposition of terrestrial to marine sediments in the Messara and Iraclion Basins. There are several concurring models that discuss Late Neogene uplift of the basinal margins. Neogene near shore sediments in the south of the Messara Basin record fault movements contemporaneous to sedimentation and sedimentary input from the hinterland. Therefore they provide information on the paleogeographic situation and the resulting amount of subsidence and uplift of mountain areas since the Upper Miocene. The studied sediments consist of terrestrial to shallow marine, floodplain related sediments of the Upper Miocene Ambelouzos Formation that are overlain by platform limestones of the Upper Miocene Varvara Formation. In the Messara Basin these units are overlain by the Pliocene Kourtes Formation. The stratigraphic architecture of these deposits indicates fragmentation of the basinal margin. Proximal boulder conglomerates and reworked blocks of the Ambelouzos formation indicate fault activity during the deposition of the Varvara Formation. Contents of terrigenous clastics, provided by rivers and distributed by longshore currents, are high in the Ambelouzos and the lower Varvara Formations but decrease rapidly upsection within the Varvara Formation. This indicates drowning of the fault bounded blocks and little topography of the hinterland (Asteroussia Mountains) at that time. The Pliocene marls at the southern margin of the Messara Basin contain lithoclasts of the Upper Miocene limestones and thus indicate uplift of the carbonate platform. The modern topographic elevation of formerly drowned fault bounded blocks requires a minimum uplift of 400m. Main uplift occurred at approximately orthogonal NW-SE and SW-NE striking normal to oblique faults. The present elevation of the Asteroussia Mountains indicates net uplift of at least

  15. Thermal history of the Kunlun batholith, N. Tibet, and implications for uplift of the Tibetan plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary Rb-Sr and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar biotite ages combined with zircon and apatite fission track dates from the Hunlun batholith in northern Tibet allow for comparison with the previously established uplift history of southern Tibet, and inferences to be made about uplift of the plateau as a whole. Across a major divide at the Golmud Fault, apatite ages decrease from 100 Ma in the north to 20 Ma in the south. This is believed to be as a result of a thrusting event at 120 Ma which uplifted the Northern block and overthrust the Southern block to the south. Subsequent to this event, surface approach rates of less than 70 m Ma -1 from biotite closure at 120 Ma to apatite cooling at 20 Ma in the Southern block, indicate a long uninterrupted period of thermal equilibration in an essentially static continental block. Mean confined track lengths of 12.5-13.5 μm in apatites suggest that samples exposed at the surface today resided in the fission track partial annealing zone prior to the onset of uplift which must have occurred subsequent to 20 Ma. This indicates that at least 3-4 km have been uplifted since this time and that the onset of this phase could have been as recent as 8 Ma. (author)

  16. A Methodology to Detect and Characterize Uplift Phenomena in Urban Areas Using Sentinel-1 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bonì

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to exploit the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI time series acquired by Sentinel-1 sensors for the detection and characterization of uplift phenomena in urban areas. The methodology has been applied to the Tower Hamlets Council area of London (United Kingdom using Sentinel-1 data covering the period 2015–2017. The test area is a representative high-urbanized site affected by geohazards due to natural processes such as compaction of recent deposits, and also anthropogenic causes due to groundwater management and engineering works. The methodology has allowed the detection and characterization of a 5 km2 area recording average uplift rates of 7 mm/year and a maximum rate of 18 mm/year in the period May 2015–March 2017. Furthermore, the analysis of the Sentinel-1 time series highlights that starting from August 2016 uplift rates began to decrease. A comparison between the uplift rates and urban developments as well as geological, geotechnical, and hydrogeological factors suggests that the ground displacements occur in a particular geological context and are mainly attributed to the swelling of clayey soils. The detected uplift could be attributed to a transient effect of the groundwater rebound after completion of dewatering works for the recent underground constructions.

  17. Spatial and temporal uplift history of South America from calibrated drainage analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, V.; White, N. J.; Roberts, G. G.; Hoggard, M. J.

    2017-06-01

    A multidisciplinary approach is used to analyze the Cenozoic uplift history of South America. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic crust abutting this continent help to determine the pattern of present-day dynamic topography. Admittance analysis and crustal thickness measurements indicate that the elastic thickness of the Borborema and Altiplano regions is ≤10 km with evidence for sub-plate support at longer wavelengths. A drainage inventory of 1827 river profiles is assembled and used to investigate landscape development. Linear inverse modeling enables river profiles to be fitted as a function of the spatial and temporal history of regional uplift. Erosional parameters are calibrated using observations from the Borborema Plateau and tested against continent-wide stratigraphic and thermochronologic constraints. Our results predict that two phases of regional uplift of the Altiplano plateau occurred in Neogene times. Regional uplift of the southern Patagonian Andes also appears to have occurred in Early Miocene times. The consistency between observed and predicted histories for the Borborema, Altiplano, and Patagonian plateaux implies that drainage networks record coherent signals that are amenable to simple modeling strategies. Finally, the predicted pattern of incision across the Amazon catchment constrains solid sedimentary flux at the Foz do Amazonas. Observed and calculated flux estimates match, suggesting that erosion and deposition were triggered by regional Andean uplift during Miocene times.

  18. Geomorphic indices and relative tectonic uplift in the Guerrero sector of the Mexican forearc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gaidzik

    2017-07-01

    The results of the applied landscape analysis reveal considerable variations in relief, topography and geomorphic indices values along the Guerrero sector of the Mexican subduction zone. We argue that the reported differences are indicative of tectonic deformation and of variations in relative tectonic uplift along the studied forearc. A significant drop from central and eastern parts of the study area towards the west in values of RVA (from ∼500 to ∼300, SL (from ∼500 to ca. 400, maximum SL (from ∼1500–2500 to ∼1000 and ksn (from ∼150 to ∼100 denotes a decrease in relative tectonic uplift in the same direction. We suggest that applied geomorphic indices values and forearc topography are independent of climate and lithology. Actual mechanisms responsible for the observed variations and inferred changes in relative forearc tectonic uplift call for further studies that explain the physical processes that control the forearc along strike uplift variations and that determine the rates of uplift. The proposed methodology and results obtained through this study could prove useful to scientists who study the geomorphology of forearc regions and active subduction zones.

  19. Land uplift in the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi area, southwestern Finland, during the last 8000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eronen, M.; Glueckert, G.; Rantala, P.; Plassche, O. van de; Plicht, J. van der

    1995-12-01

    Land is rising in relation to sea level several millimetres per year on the coast of southwestern Finland. The aim of the study was to gather information about the land uplift process. Sediment samples were collected from 14 lakes lying at different altitudes in the area between Olkiluoto and Lake Pyhaejaervi in southwestern Finland to study the relative sea-level changes and land uplift. The present-day lakes had once been below the waters of the Baltic, but due to uplift they had been isolated from the sea one after another. The isolation points in the sediments were determined by preliminary diatom analyses. They show the change from brackish to fresh-water conditions, and these horizons were then dated by two radiocarbon assays. (37 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.)

  20. Satellite drag effects due to uplifted oxygen neutrals during super magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    2017-12-01

    During intense magnetic storms, prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) through E × B forces near the magnetic equator uplift the dayside ionosphere. This effect has been called the dayside super-fountain effect. Ion-neutral drag forces between the upward moving O+ (oxygen ions) and oxygen neutrals will elevate the oxygen atoms to higher altitudes. This paper gives a linear calculation indicating how serious the effect may be during an 1859-type (Carrington) superstorm. It is concluded that the oxygen neutral densities produced at low-Earth-orbiting (LEO) satellite altitudes may be sufficiently high to present severe satellite drag. It is estimated that with a prompt penetrating electric field of ˜ 20 mV m-1 turned on for 20 min, the O atoms and O+ ions are uplifted to 850 km where they produce about 40-times-greater satellite drag per unit mass than normal. Stronger electric fields will presumably lead to greater uplifted mass.

  1. Surface uplift in the Central Andes driven by growth of the Altiplano Puna Magma Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan P; Ward, Kevin M; de Silva, Shanaka L; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan L; Finnegan, Noah J

    2016-10-25

    The Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) in the Central Andes is the largest imaged magma reservoir on Earth, and is located within the second highest orogenic plateau on Earth, the Altiplano-Puna. Although the APMB is a first-order geologic feature similar to the Sierra Nevada batholith, its role in the surface uplift history of the Central Andes remains uncertain. Here we show that a long-wavelength topographic dome overlies the seismically measured extent of the APMB, and gravity data suggest that the uplift is isostatically compensated. Isostatic modelling of the magmatic contribution to dome growth yields melt volumes comparable to those estimated from tomography, and suggests that the APMB growth rate exceeds the peak Cretaceous magmatic flare-up in the Sierran batholith. Our analysis reveals that magmatic addition may provide a contribution to surface uplift on par with lithospheric removal, and illustrates that surface topography may help constrain the magnitude of pluton-scale melt production.

  2. The flux-scaling scenario. De Sitter uplift and axion inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Damian, Cesar; Herschmann, Daniela; Sun, Rui [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Font, Anamaria [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Non-geometric flux-scaling vacua provide promising starting points to realize axion monodromy inflation via the F-term scalar potential. We show that these vacua can be uplifted to Minkowski and de Sitter by adding an D3-brane or a D-term containing geometric and non-geometric fluxes. These uplifted non-supersymmetric models are analyzed with respect to their potential to realize axion monodromy inflation self-consistently. Admitting rational values of the fluxes, we construct examples with the required hierarchy of mass scales. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Neogene Uplift and Magmatism of Anatolia: New Insights from Drainage Analysis and Basalt Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, F.; Ball, P.; Hoggard, M.; White, N.

    2017-12-01

    The origin of Anatolia's high elevation and low relief plateaux has been the subject of much recent debate. Marine sedimentary rocks distributed across Central and Eastern Anatolia require significant regional uplift in Neogene times. This uplift cannot be explained by the present-day pattern of crustal deformation which, particularly across Central and Western Anatolia, is dominanted by strike-slip and extensional faulting. Positive long wavelength free-air gravity anomalies combined with slow upper mantle seismic wave speeds suggest that the sub-lithospheric mantle provides substantial topographic support. A range of geodynamic processes have been invoked, including complex slab fragmentation and lithospheric delamination. The temporal and spatial evolution of the Anatolian landscape should be recorded by drainage networks. Indeed, major catchments contain prominent knickzones with heights of hundreds of meters and length scales of several hundred kilometers. The stream power formulation for fluvial erosion permits these knickzones to be interpreted in terms of uplift history along a river's length. Here, we jointly invert an inventory of 1,844 river profiles to determine a spatial and temporal uplift rate history. When calibrated against independent observations of uplift rate, the resultant history provides significant new constraints for the evolution of Anatolian topography. In our model, the bulk of this topography appears to grow in Neogene times. Uplift initiates in Eastern Anatolia and propagates westward at uplift rates of up to 0.5 mm/yr. Coeval with this phase of uplift, abundant basaltic magmatism has occurred throughout Anatolia. We have compiled an extensive database of published geochemical analyses. Using this database, we analyse spatial and temporal patterns of basaltic compositions to discriminate between different modes of melt generation. Two independent techniques for estimating asthenospheric potential temperatures from the compositions of

  4. The flux-scaling scenario. De Sitter uplift and axion inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Damian, Cesar; Herschmann, Daniela; Sun, Rui; Font, Anamaria

    2016-01-01

    Non-geometric flux-scaling vacua provide promising starting points to realize axion monodromy inflation via the F-term scalar potential. We show that these vacua can be uplifted to Minkowski and de Sitter by adding an D3-brane or a D-term containing geometric and non-geometric fluxes. These uplifted non-supersymmetric models are analyzed with respect to their potential to realize axion monodromy inflation self-consistently. Admitting rational values of the fluxes, we construct examples with the required hierarchy of mass scales. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Trolley Seismic Uplift Constraint Design Loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    The MCO Handling Machine (MHM) trolley moves along the top of the MHM bridge girders on east-west oriented rails. To prevent trolley wheel uplift during a seismic event, passive uplift constraints are provided as shown in Figure 1-1. North-south trolley wheel movement is prevented by flanges on the trolley wheels. When the MHM is positioned over a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) storage tube, east-west seismic restraints are activated to prevent trolley movement during MCO handling. The active seismic constraints consist of a plunger, which is inserted into slots positioned along the tracks as shown in Figure 1-1. When the MHM trolley is moving between storage tube positions, the active seismic restraints are not engaged. The MHM has been designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis (Reference 3) reported seismic uplift restraint loading and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed with the east-west seismic restraints activated and the uplift restraints experiencing only vertical loading. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the east-west trolley restraints are not engaged. For this case, the associated trolley movements would result in east-west lateral loads on the uplift constraints due to friction, as shown in Figure 1-2. During preliminary evaluations, questions were raised as to whether the EDERER calculations considered the latest ALSTHOM seismic analysis loads (See NCR No. 00-SNFP-0008, Reference 5). Further evaluation led to the conclusion that the EDERER calculations used appropriate vertical loading, but the uplift restraints would need to be re-analyzed and modified to account for lateral loading. The disposition of NCR 00-SNFP-0008 will track the redesign and modification effort. The purpose of this calculation is to establish bounding seismic

  6. Advancement Staff and Alumni Advocates: Cultivating LGBTQ Alumni by Promoting Individual and Community Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Jason C.; Drezner, Noah D.

    2013-01-01

    Using a constructivist case-study analysis, we explore philanthropy toward higher education among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) alumni, examining the role of advancement staff and alumni advocates in engaging LGBTQ alumni to promote individual and community uplift. Data come from focus groups with 37 advancement staff and…

  7. The role of tectonic uplift, climate, and vegetation in the long-term terrestrial phosphorous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buendía

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is a crucial element for life and therefore for maintaining ecosystem productivity. Its local availability to the terrestrial biosphere results from the interaction between climate, tectonic uplift, atmospheric transport, and biotic cycling. Here we present a mathematical model that describes the terrestrial P-cycle in a simple but comprehensive way. The resulting dynamical system can be solved analytically for steady-state conditions, allowing us to test the sensitivity of the P-availability to the key parameters and processes. Given constant inputs, we find that humid ecosystems exhibit lower P availability due to higher runoff and losses, and that tectonic uplift is a fundamental constraint. In particular, we find that in humid ecosystems the biotic cycling seem essential to maintain long-term P-availability. The time-dependent P dynamics for the Franz Josef and Hawaii chronosequences show how tectonic uplift is an important constraint on ecosystem productivity, while hydroclimatic conditions control the P-losses and speed towards steady-state. The model also helps describe how, with limited uplift and atmospheric input, as in the case of the Amazon Basin, ecosystems must rely on mechanisms that enhance P-availability and retention. Our novel model has a limited number of parameters and can be easily integrated into global climate models to provide a representation of the response of the terrestrial biosphere to global change.

  8. Variable uplift rate through time: Holocene coral reef and neotectonics of Lutao, eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wu, Chung-Che; Dai, Chang-Feng; Gong, Shou-Yeh

    2018-05-01

    Significant discrepancies have existed regarding rate and timing of the uplift of Lutao (Green Island), located at the border of the ongoing collision between the Eurasia continental plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. To document its neotectonic history, two cores were drilled into Holocene coral reefs exposed at the southeastern coast of Lutao. Twelve pristine fossil corals, nine taken from cores and three on the surface, were 230Th dated. The results show that the coral reefs started to develop at 8,736 ± 56 yr BP (before 1950 CE) with uplift rate varying from 3.6 mm/yr during 8.7-6.0 kyr BP to 1.2 mm/yr in the past six thousand years. Our study strongly suggests that the uplift rate can vary significantly on millennial time scale. Caution should be used when extrapolating uplift rate estimates based on Mid-late Holocene corals to early times for tectonic active locations, such as Lutao.

  9. Societal Uplift and Productive Efficiency: Corporate Use of Vocational Education in Ellsworth, Pennsylvania, 1900-1915.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyser, Raymond M.

    About 1900, James W. Ellsworth created the educational system of Ellsworth, Pennsylvania. His aim was to have the system serve a dual purpose: the societal uplift of foreign miners to make them better citizens and the improvement of the company's productive efficiency. Ellsworth's school offered traditional courses along with training in English…

  10. Tiotropium as a first maintenance drug in COPD: secondary analysis of the UPLIFT trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troosters, T; Celli, B; Lystig, T

    2010-01-01

    -term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) was conducted. Analysis focused on the effect of tiotropium versus matching placebo in the 810 (13.5%) COPD patients not on other maintenance treatment (long-acting beta-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, theophyllines or anticholinergics) at randomisation...

  11. Modelling the impact of regional uplift and local tectonics on fluvial terrace preservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Balen, van R.T.

    2014-01-01

    A terrace formation model (TERRACE) combined with a longitudinal river profile model (FLUVER) was used to simulate fluvial terrace formation and preservation in the northwest Iberian lower Miño River basin under the influence of three tectonic conditions; namely regional vertical uplift, local basin

  12. 230Th/234U dating of coral limestones and vertical uplift at Djibouti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Hugues; Hoang, C.T.; Lalou, Claude

    1980-01-01

    Coral limestones sampled from marine terraces along the Afar coast have been dated by the 230 Th/ 234 U method. The ages confirm the stratigraphic unity of these formations and the existence of the paleo sea level dated 124 000 years ago in this region. These results permit to deduce the uplift rates of this littoral [fr

  13. Family Caregiver Uplift and Burden: Associations with Aggressive Behavior in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Gemma; Deb, Shoumitro

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of family caregivers caring for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display aggressive behavior in terms of associations with caregiver burden and uplift. The family caregivers of 44 people with ID and aggressive behavior were interviewed using a suite of questionnaires and…

  14. Uplift along the western margin of the Deccan Basalt Province: Is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Planetary Change 58 310–334. Powar K B 1981 Lineament fabric and dyke pattern in the western part of the Deccan Volcanic Province; Geol. Soc. India Memoir 3 45–57. Powar K B 1993 Geomorphological evolution of Konkan coastal belt and adjoining Sahyadri uplands with refer- ence to Quaternary uplift; Curr. Sci.

  15. Middel Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terrace development and uplift-driven valley incision in the SE Carpathians, Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Necea, D.; Fielitz, W.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Dinu, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals that in the SE Carpathians terrace development and fluvial incision during the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene are predominantly controlled by tectonic uplift as shown by terrace distributions and uplift amounts and rates. The work focuses on a transect from the internal nappes and

  16. Modelling the Middle Pleistocene uplift in the Ardennes-Rhenish Massif: Thermo-mechanical weakening under the Eifel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; van Balen, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Middle Pleistocene uplift in the Eifel has been interpreted as the isostatic response of the lithosphere to a deep buoyant hot body. The spatial and temporal distribution of the uplift in the Ardennes-Rhenish Massif Region has recently been constrained by new data of river incision that have been

  17. Quantification of surface uplift by using paleo beach deposits (Oman, Northern Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gösta; Schneider, Bastian; Monschau, Martin; Mechernich, Silke

    2017-04-01

    The study focusses on a coastal area along the Arabian Sea in Oman. Here, a staircase of marine terraces is seen as geomorphological evidence suggesting sub-recent uplift of a crustal block in the northeast of the Arabian Peninsula. The erosional terraces are cut into Paleocene to Early Eocene limestone formations. These limestone formations are underlain by allochtonous ophiolites. We mapped the terraces over a distance of 60 km and identified at least 8 terrace levels in elevations up to 350 m above present sea level. The uppermost terraces are erosional, whereas the lower ones are depositional in style. Mollusc and coral remains as well as beach-rock are encountered on the terrace surfaces. The formations are dissected by NW-SE trending faults. Some of the terraces are very pronounced features in the landscape and easy to trace, others are partly eroded and preserved as remnants only. The deposit along the shoreline angle act as a datum making use of the fact that the rocks formed in a defined horizontal level which is the paleo-sea level. Hence, any offset from the primary depositional level is evidence for neotectonic movements. We utilise differential GPS to map the elevation of beachrock deposits. Age constraints on terrace formation is derived by sampling the beachrock deposits and dating using cosmogenic nuclii. The results indicate ongoing uplift in the range of less than a millimetre per year. The uplift is differential as the terraces are tilted. We mapped oblique normal and strike-slip faults in the younger terraces. We hypothesise that the mechanism responsible for the uplift is not tectonics but driven by the serpentinisation of the ophiolite that underlie the limestone formations. One process during the serpentinisation is the hydration of the mantle rocks which is responsible for a decrease in density. The resulting buoyancy and significant solid volume increase lead to the observed deformation including uplift.

  18. Precise leveling determination of surface uplift patterns at the New Hydraulic Fracturing Facility, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.

    1988-05-01

    Surface uplift patterns were determined for five grout injections at the New Hydrofracture Facility (NHF) during the period July 1983 through January 1984. The uplift patterns are complex. In plan view, they are elliptical to almost circular and exhibit varying degrees of cross-sectional asymmetry with one side steeper than the other. The long axis of the ellipse is more or less parallel to geological strike. The uplift patterns vary in size, shape and asymmetry from injection to injection. The region of maximum uplift is typically offset with respect to the injection point, suggesting that most hydrofracture injections dip to the south-southeast. Approximately 40 to 60% of the uplift measured 5 days after an injection subsided within 30 to 45 days. In one case, all of the uplift subsided within 70 days of injection. Modeling of the uplift patterns by simple models, based on homogeneous, isotropic subsurface conditions, suggests that hydrofractures produced by the injections are either horizontal or have shallow dips to the south-southeast. Such orientations are consistent with the hydrofracture orientations determined by gamma-ray logging in observation wells surrounding the NHF site. 19 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  19. Role of erosion and isostasy in the Cordillera Blanca uplift: Insights from landscape evolution modeling (northern Peru, Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margirier, Audrey; Braun, Jean; Robert, Xavier; Audin, Laurence

    2018-03-01

    The processes driving uplift and exhumation of the highest Peruvian peaks (the Cordillera Blanca) are not well understood. Uplift and exhumation seem closely linked to the formation and movement on the Cordillera Blanca normal fault (CBNF) that delimits and shapes the western flank of the Cordillera Blanca. Several models have been proposed to explain the presence of this major normal fault in a compressional setting, but the CBNF and the Cordillera Blanca recent rapid uplift remain enigmatic. Whereas the Cordillera Blanca morphology demonstrates important erosion and thus a significant mass of rocks removal, the impact of erosion and isostasy on the evolution of the Cordillera Blanca uplift rates has never been explored. We address the role of erosion and associated flexural rebound in the uplift and exhumation of the Cordillera Blanca with numerical modeling of landscape evolution. We perform inversions of the broad features of the present-day topography, total exhumation and thermochronological data using a landscape evolution model (FastScape) to provide constraints on the erosion efficiency factor, the uplift rate and the temperature gradient. Our results evidence the not negligible contribution of erosion and associated flexural rebound to the uplift of the Cordillera Blanca and allow us to question the models previously proposed for the formation of the CBNF.

  20. Observations of mesoscale and boundary-layer scale circulations affecting dust transport and uplift over the Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Marsham

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the Saharan boundary layer, made during the GERBILS field campaign, show that mesoscale land surface temperature variations (which were related to albedo variations induced mesoscale circulations. With weak winds along the aircraft track, land surface temperature anomalies with scales of greater than 10 km are shown to significantly affect boundary-layer temperatures and winds. Such anomalies are expected to affect the vertical mixing of the dusty and weakly stratified Saharan Residual Layer (SRL. Mesoscale variations in winds are also shown to affect dust loadings in the boundary layer.

    Using the aircraft observations and data from the COSMO model, a region of local dust uplift, with strong along-track winds, was identified in one low-level flight. Large eddy model (LEM simulations based on this location showed linearly organised boundary-layer convection. Calculating dust uplift rates from the LEM wind field showed that the boundary-layer convection increased uplift by approximately 30%, compared with the uplift rate calculated neglecting the convection. The modelled effects of boundary-layer convection on uplift are shown to be larger when the boundary-layer wind is decreased, and most significant when the mean wind is below the threshold for dust uplift and the boundary-layer convection leads to uplift which would not otherwise occur.

    Both the coupling of albedo features to the atmosphere on the mesoscale, and the enhancement of dust uplift by boundary-layer convection are unrepresented in many climate models, but may have significant impacts on the vertical transport and uplift of desert dust. Mesoscale effects in particular tend to be difficult to parametrise.

  1. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Hallot, E.

    2009-09-01

    A good evaluation of the Quaternary uplift of the Rhenish shield is a key element for the understanding of the Cenozoic geodynamics of the western European platform in front of the alpine arc. Previous maps of the massif uplift relied on fluvial incision data since the time of the rivers' Younger Main Terrace to infer a maximum post-0.73 Ma uplift of ~ 290 m in the SE Eifel. Here, we propose a new interpretation of the incision data of the intra-massif streams, where anomalies in the terrace profiles would result from knickpoint retreat in the tributaries of the main rivers rather than from tectonic deformation. We also use additional geomorphological data referring to (1) deformed Tertiary planation surfaces, (2) the history of stream piracy that severely affected the Meuse basin in the last 1 Ma, and (3) incision data outside the Rhenish shield. A new map of the post-0.73 Ma uplift of the Rhenish shield is drawn on the basis of this enlarged dataset. It reduces the maximum amount of tectonic uplift in the SE Eifel to ~ 140 m and modifies the general shape of the uplift, namely straightening its E-W profile. It is also suggested that an uplift wave migrated across the massif, starting from its southern margin in the early Pleistocene and currently showing the highest intensity of uplift in the northern Ardennes and Eifel. These features seem to favour an uplift mechanism chiefly related to lithospheric folding and minimize the impact on the topography of a more local Eifel plume.

  2. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements

  3. Sombrero uplift above the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body: evidence of a ballooning mid-crustal diapir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialko, Yuri; Pearse, Jill

    2012-10-12

    The Altiplano-Puna ultralow-velocity zone in the central Andes, South America, is the largest active magma body in Earth's continental crust. Space geodetic observations reported an uplift in the Altiplano-Puna proper at a rate of ~10 mm/year; however, the nature of the inferred inflation source has been uncertain. We present data showing that the uplift has persisted at a nearly constant rate over the past two decades, and is surrounded by a broad zone of subsidence. We show that the ongoing uplift and peripheral subsidence may result from a large mid-crustal diapir fed by partial melt from the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body.

  4. Tectonic and erosion-driven uplift in the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jordan, Tom; Watts, Tony; Bell, Robin; Jamieson, Stewart; Finn, Carol; Damaske, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms leading to intraplate mountain building remains a significant challenge in Earth Sciences compared to ranges formed along plate margins. The most enigmatic intraplate mountain range on Earth is the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) located in the middle of the Precambrian East Antarctic Craton. During the International Polar Year, the AGAP project acquired 120,000 line km of new airborne geophysical data (Bell et al., 2011, Science) and seismological observations (Hansen et al., 2010, EPSL) across central East Antarctica. Models derived from these datasets provide new geophysical perspectives on crustal architecture and possible uplift mechanisms for the enigmatic GSM (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long Paleozoic to Mesozoic rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the GSM. A thick high-density lower crustal root is partially preserved beneath the range and has been interpreted as formed during the Proterozoic assembly of East Antarctica. Rifting could have triggered phase/density changes at deep crustal levels, perhaps restoring some of the latent root buoyancy, as well as causing rift-flank uplift. Permian rifting is well-established in the adjacent Lambert Rift, and was followed by Cretaceous strike-slip faulting and transtension associated with Gondwana break-up; this phase may have provided a more recent tectonic trigger for the initial uplift of the modern GSM. The Cretaceous rift-flank uplift model for the Gamburtsevs is appealing because it relates the initiation of intraplate mountain-building to large-scale geodynamic processes that led to the separation of Greater India from East Antarctica. It is also consistent with several geological and geophysical interpretations within the Lambert Rift. However, recent detrital thermochrology results from Oligocene-Quaternary sediments in Prydz Bay (Tochlin et al., 2012, G3) argue against the requirement for major Cretaceous rift

  5. Glacial erosion, rock, and peak uplift within the central Transantarctic Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, T.A.; Baxter, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    About 1500 m of peak elevation can be ascribed to the isostatic response of valley incision within the central Transantarctic Mountains. This estimate, based on a 3D analysis of topography, and on rock uplift history, represents c. 33% of the maximum peak elevation within the Transantarctic Mountains. Input to the calculation includes a previoulsy published estimate for the variation of flexural rigidity across the western margin of East Antarctica, and a lithospheric free-edge at the Transantarctic Mountains Front. The rebound response is a complex function of lithospheric rigidity, wavelength or erosion, and lithospheric boundary conditions. We also calculate a maximum 4000 m of total rebound due to both valley incision and erosion of mountain tops. This represents 60% of the maximum rock uplift inferred for the mountain front on the bases of fission track data and flexure analysis. (author). 34 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Rapid bedrock uplift in the Antarctic Peninsula explained by viscoelastic response to recent ice unloading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nield, Grace A.; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Bordoni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995 several ice shelves in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula have collapsed and triggered ice-mass unloading, invoking a solid Earth response that has been recorded at continuous GPS (cGPS) stations. A previous attempt to model the observation of rapid uplift following the 2002 breakup...... of the Palmer cGPS station since 2002 cannot be explained by elastic deformation alone. We apply a viscoelastic model with linear Maxwell rheology to predict uplift since 1995 and test the fit to the Palmer cGPS time series, finding a well constrained upper mantle viscosity but less sensitivity to lithospheric...... thickness. We further constrain the best fitting Earth model by including six cGPS stations deployed after 2009 (the LARISSA network), with vertical velocities in the range 1.7 to 14.9 mm/yr. This results in a best fitting Earth model with lithospheric thickness of 100–140 km and upper mantle viscosity of 6...

  7. Burial, Uplift and Exhumation History of the Atlantic Margin of NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Bonow, Johan M.; Green, Paul F.; Cobbold, Peter R.; Chiossi, Dario; Lilletveit, Ragnhild

    2010-05-01

    We have undertaken a regional study of landscape development and thermo-tectonic evo-lution of NE Brazil. Our results reveal a long history of post-Devonian burial and exhuma-tion across NE Brazil. Uplift movements just prior to and during Early Cretaceous rifting led to further regional denudation, to filling of rift basins and finally to formation of the Atlantic margin. The rifted margin was buried by a km-thick post-rift section, but exhumation began in the Late Cretaceous as a result of plate-scale forces. The Cretaceous cover probably extended over much of NE Brazil where it is still preserved over extensive areas. The Late Cretaceous exhumation event was followed by events in the Paleogene and Neogene. The results of these events of uplift and exhumation are two regional peneplains that form steps in the landscape. The plateaux in the interior highlands are defined by the Higher Surface at c. 1 km above sea level. This surface formed by fluvial erosion after the Late Cretaceous event - and most likely after the Paleogene event - and thus formed as a Paleogene pene-plain near sea level. This surface was reburied prior to the Neogene event, in the interior by continental deposits and along the Atlantic margin by marine and coastal deposits. Neo-gene uplift led to reexposure of the Palaeogene peneplain and to formation of the Lower Surface by incision along rivers below the uplifted Higher Surface that characterise the pre-sent landscape. Our results show that the elevated landscapes along the Brazilian margin formed during the Neogene, c. 100 Myr after break-up. Studies in West Greenland have demonstrated that similar landscapes formed during the late Neogene, c. 50 Myr after break-up. Many passive continental margins around the world are characterised by such elevated plateaus and it thus seems possible, even likely, that they may also post-date rifting and continental separation by many Myr.

  8. 10D massive type IIA supergravities as the uplift of parabolic M2-brane torus bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia del Moral, Maria Pilar [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Restuccia, Alvaro [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Dept. de Fisica

    2016-04-15

    We remark that the two 10D massive deformations of the N = 2 maximal type IIA supergravity (Romans and HLW supergravity) are associated to the low energy limit of the uplift to 10D of M2-brane torus bundles with parabolic monodromy linearly and non-linearly realized respectively. Romans supergravity corresponds to M2-brane compactified on a twice-punctured torus bundle. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Uplift, Emergence, and Subsidence of the Gorda Escarpment Basement Ridge Offshore Cape Mendocino, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Susan M.; Tréhu, Anne M.

    2017-12-01

    The Gorda Escarpment is a topographic step that characterizes the south side of the Mendocino Transform Fault east of 126oW and forms the northern edge of the Vizcaino Block. Seismic reflection data suggest that the basement beneath the northern edge of the Vizcaino is composed of east-west trending slivers of oceanic crust that form a 15 km wide band of buried ridges we call the Gorda Escarpment Basement Ridge (GEBR) to distinguish it from the northwest-trending basement structure that characterizes most of the Vizcaino Block. The history of uplift and subsidence of the GEBR is reconstructed by combining the seismic reflection profiles with age and lithological constraints from ODP Site 1022, gravity cores, and grab samples from the northern face of the Escarpment recovered using a remotely operated vehicle. Uplift of the GEBR began prior to 6 Ma, and it was above sea level 3.7-2.5 Ma. GEBR uplift and emergence coincided with sediment deposition on the southern flank of the GEBR that we interpret as indicative of strong upwelling and turbulence in the lee of a shallow ridge and island chain. A bright reflection, interpreted to be a sill, is observed south of the shallowest part of the GEBR. We speculate that this sill may reflect a larger, hidden intrusion at depth and that thermal expansion of the crust combined with tectonic forces to drive enhanced uplift of this segment of the plate boundary. The GEBR has been subsiding since 2.7 Ma, and its shallowest point is now 1,400 m below sea level.

  10. THE VITALITY AND ROLE OF SELF HELP GROUPS (SHGS) IN WOMEN UPLIFTMENT: SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KASHMIR

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad Ahmad Irshad; Altaf Ahmad Bhat

    2017-01-01

    The prosperity and the stability of a family incomplete until a woman are not empowered. Empowerment means the raising of spiritual, political, social, gender or economic strength of individuals and communities, if a women is educated she can then rightly participate, organize, make others aware of the various programmes which is necessary for the upliftment of women. The women can understand and better coordinate with other women. The women folk especially belonging to rural areas had develo...

  11. Repair Works for Uplift and Seepage Control in Existing Concrete Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    weathered and therefore where the presence of soil mterials is likely to occur in joints and fractures. Fig.5 - Varosa dam. Main results of mechanical...situations are associated with: emptying of reservoir by hot summer; water effects due to hydrostatic pressure and uplift; winter, spring and autumn...design stage were supported by tests of three-dimensional plaster- diatomite models, carried out at LNEC (1971c). The models were built in a scale of 1

  12. Development of FEP database for geological and climatic disruptive events. Uplift, subsidence, earthquake activity, and climate change (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo; Matsuba, Hisashi

    2011-06-01

    In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of radioactive waste such as high-level radioactive waste, it is necessary to estimate the hydrological environmental changes affected by external factors such as long-termed earthquake activity and volcanic activity. Therefore it is important to perform the informations including a wide range of future processes and conditions of engineered barriers and geosphere in a systematic manner and to construct scenarios considering external factors. Generation of geological and climatic disruptive events such as earthquake activity, volcanic activity, uplift, subsidence, climatic change and sea-level change and propagation process of their impacts and their types are needed to be clarified in order to understand the phenomena of their influence on a disposal system in case of our country. Japan Atomic Energy Agency started to develop FEP database including the correlation of FEPs and FEP data sheet. This paper presents the FEP data base of upheaval, submergence, earthquake activity and climate change in this study and also presents the results of the questionnaire survey to external experts to update the technical reliability and to keep the objective view in selecting the critical safety correlations. (author)

  13. Litho-structural and geophysics features of the Alto Paranaiba Uplift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasui, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Alto Paranaiba Uplift (APU) is an almost elliptical tectonic feature of the Western Minas Gerais/Southern Goias region, which was active mostly during the Cretaceous. It separated the Parana Basin, during the formation of the Sao Bento, Uberaba and Bauru sequences, from the Alto-Sanfranciscana Basin, at the time of formation of the Areado, Patos, Capacete and Urucuia sequences. The Bouguer anomaly data indicate that the APU developed at the southwestern border of the ancient Brasilia crustal block and is represented by an almost elliptical gravity high of 15 mgal, locally disturbed by positive and negative the presence of important lineaments of a NW-SE set, mostly crossing the southwestern half of the APU. The APU development, the magmatism and the lateral basin formation involved reactivation of preexisting discontinuities and are related to a mantle plume. The tectonic development was aborted at the uplift stage during Cretaceous, after the deposition of the Bauru and Urucuia sequences, as is indicated by the Pratinha peneplane, now elevated at about 1.100 m altitude, which sculpture ended at the beginning of the Tertiary. The APU is one tectonic feature like other similar anomalies also aborted in the uplift stage or in the rift stage, which developed in Southern Brazil during the time of Atlantic Ocean opening. (author)

  14. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of seismic uplift pressure variations in cracked concrete dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javanmardi, F.; Leger, P. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil, Mining and Geological Engineering; Tinawi, R. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Concrete dams could sustain cracking and damage during maximum design earthquakes (MDE). Dam safety guidelines are established so that dams maintain a stable condition following MDE oscillatory motions. In this study, a theoretical model was developed to calculate the uplift pressure variations along concrete cracks with moving walls. The proposed model was verified using experimental crack test data. The model was applied in a finite element computer program for dynamic analysis of gravity dams considering hydro-mechanical water-crack coupling. An analysis of a typical 90 metre dam subjected to low and high frequency sinusoidal accelerations demonstrated that water can penetrate into part of a seismically initiated crack. Pressure tends to develop in a region close to the crack mouth, therefore detrimental effects for the global dam stability are unlikely to occur. The study showed that the seismic uplift force during the heel crack opening mode is small compared to the dam weight. This preliminary study suggests that the critical sliding safety factors (SSF) of the dam against downstream sliding could be computed by considering zero uplift pressure in the crack region subjected to tensile opening. 14 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  15. The effect of vertical earthquake component on the uplift of the nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    During a strong earthquake, the base mat of a nuclear reactor building may be lifted partially by the response overturning moment. And it causes geometrical nonlinear interaction between the base mat and rock foundation beneath it. In order to avoid this uplift phenomena, the base mat and/or plan of the building is enlarged in some cases. These special design need more cost and/or time in construction. In the evaluation of the uplift phenomena, a parameter ''η'' named ''contact ratio'' is used defined as the ratio of compression stress zone area of base mat for total area of base mat. Usually this contact ratio is calculated under the combination of the maximum overturning moment obtained by the linear earthquake response analysis and the normal force by the gravity considering the effect of the vertical earthquake component. In this report, the effect of vertical earthquake component for the uplift phenomena is studied and it concludes that the vertical earthquake component gives little influence on the contact ratio. In order to obtain more reasonable contact retio, the nonlinear rocking analysis subjected to horizontal and vertical earthquake motions simultaneously is proposed in this report. As the second best method, the combination of the maximum overturning moment obtained by linear analysis and the normal force by only the gravity without the vertical earthquake effect is proposed. (author)

  16. Warm-cold colonization: response of oaks to uplift of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hong-Hu; Su, Tao; Gao, Xiao-Yang; Li, Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Long; Sun, Hang; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2017-06-01

    Clarifying the relationship between distribution patterns of organisms and geological events is critical to understanding the impact of environmental changes on organismal evolution. Quercus sect. Heterobalanus is now distributed across the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) and warm lowland in East China, yet how the distribution patterns of this group changed in response to the HHM uplift remains largely unknown. This study examines the effect of tectonic events in the HHM region on the oaks, providing a biological perspective on the geological history of this region. Fifty-six populations of Quercus sect. Heterobalanus were genotyped using four chloroplast DNA regions and nine nuclear simple sequence repeat loci to assess population structure and diversity, supplemented by molecular dating and ancestral area reconstructions. The underlying demographic dynamics were compared using ecological niche models of the species distributions during the last glacial maximum and the present. These analyses illustrate that Quercus sect. Heterobalanus diversified as the HHM uplifted and climatic cooling during the mid-Miocene, colonizing the cold habitats from warm broadleaf mixed forests. Lineages in cold highlands and warm lowlands have diverged as a consequence of local adaptation to diverging climates since the late Miocene. Our results suggest that continuous uplift of the HHM in the late Miocene to early Pliocene accompanied by simultaneous cooling triggered the differentiation of oaks. The biogeography of Quercus sect. Heterobalanus illuminates the geological events responsible for the modern-day HHM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Satellite drag effects due to uplifted oxygen neutrals during super magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Lakhina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During intense magnetic storms, prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs through E  ×  B forces near the magnetic equator uplift the dayside ionosphere. This effect has been called the dayside super-fountain effect. Ion-neutral drag forces between the upward moving O+ (oxygen ions and oxygen neutrals will elevate the oxygen atoms to higher altitudes. This paper gives a linear calculation indicating how serious the effect may be during an 1859-type (Carrington superstorm. It is concluded that the oxygen neutral densities produced at low-Earth-orbiting (LEO satellite altitudes may be sufficiently high to present severe satellite drag. It is estimated that with a prompt penetrating electric field of ∼ 20 mV m−1 turned on for 20 min, the O atoms and O+ ions are uplifted to 850 km where they produce about 40-times-greater satellite drag per unit mass than normal. Stronger electric fields will presumably lead to greater uplifted mass.

  18. Uplift-driven diversification in the Hengduan Mountains, a temperate biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yaowu; Ree, Richard H

    2017-04-25

    A common hypothesis for the rich biodiversity found in mountains is uplift-driven diversification-that orogeny creates conditions favoring rapid in situ speciation of resident lineages. We tested this hypothesis in the context of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjoining mountain ranges, using the phylogenetic and geographic histories of multiple groups of plants to infer the tempo (rate) and mode (colonization versus in situ diversification) of biotic assembly through time and across regions. We focused on the Hengduan Mountains region, which in comparison with the QTP and Himalayas was uplifted more recently (since the late Miocene) and is smaller in area and richer in species. Time-calibrated phylogenetic analyses show that about 8 million y ago the rate of in situ diversification increased in the Hengduan Mountains, significantly exceeding that in the geologically older QTP and Himalayas. By contrast, in the QTP and Himalayas during the same period the rate of in situ diversification remained relatively flat, with colonization dominating lineage accumulation. The Hengduan Mountains flora was thus assembled disproportionately by recent in situ diversification, temporally congruent with independent estimates of orogeny. This study shows quantitative evidence for uplift-driven diversification in this region, and more generally, tests the hypothesis by comparing the rate and mode of biotic assembly jointly across time and space. It thus complements the more prevalent method of examining endemic radiations individually and could be used as a template to augment such studies in other biodiversity hotspots.

  19. The topographic signature of Quaternary tectonic uplift in the Ardennes massif (Western Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sougnez, N.; Vanacker, V.

    2011-04-01

    Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 y. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This study aims to analyze the link between tectonic uplift rates and landscape morphology based on slope and channel morphometric indexes. To achieve this objective, we selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif (a Palaeozoic massif of NW Europe, principally located in Belgium) that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm yr-1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our analysis indicates that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronic, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  20. Seismic Performance of CAP1400 Nuclear Power Station considering Foundation Uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Peng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Under earthquake action, the reinforced concrete structure at the edge of the CAP1400 nuclear power plant foundation slab will be uplifted. In order to determine the seismic performance of this structure, a 1 : 12 scale shaking table test model was fabricated using gypsum as simulated concrete in order to meet scaled design requirements. By testing this model, the seismic response of the structure with consideration of the foundation uplift was obtained. Numerical analyses of the test model and the prototype structure were conducted to gain a better understanding of the structural seismic performance. When subjected to earthquakes, the foundation slab of the nuclear power plant experiences a slight degree of uplift but remains in the elastic stage due to the weight of the structure above, which provides an antioverturning moment. The numerical simulation is in general agreement with the test results, suggesting numerical simulations could be accurately employed in place of physical tests. The superstructure displacement response was found not to affect the safety of adjacent structures, and the seismic performance of the structure was shown to meet the relevant design requirements, demonstrating that this approach to modelling can serve as a design basis for the CAP1400 nuclear power demonstration project.

  1. Seismic influence in the Quaternary uplift of the Central Chile coastal margin, preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, D.; del Valle, F.; Marquardt, C.; Elgueta, S.

    2017-12-01

    In order to quantify the influence of NW striking potentially seismogenic normal faults over the longitudinal variation of the Central Chile Coastal margin uplift, we measured Quaternary marine terraces, which represent the tectonic uplift of the coastal margin. Movement in margin oblique normal faults occurs by co-seismic extension of major subduction earthquakes and has occurred in the Pichilemu fault, generating a 7.0 Mw earthquake after the 2010 8.8 Mw Maule earthquake.The coastal area between 32° and 34° S was selected due to the presence of a well-preserved sequence of 2 to 5 Quaternary marine terraces. In particular, the margin oblique normal NW-trending, SW-dipping Laguna Verde fault, south of Valparaiso (33° S) puts in contact contrasting morphologies: to the south, a flat coast with wide marine terraces is carved in both, Jurassic plutonic rocks and Neogene semi-consolidated marine sediments; to the north, a steeper scarp with narrower marine terraces, over 120 m above the corresponding ones in the southern coast, is carved in Jurassic plutonic rocks.We have collected over 6 months microseimic data, providing information on seismic activity and underground geometry of the Laguna Verde fault. We collected ca. 100 systematic measurements of fringes at the base of paleo coastal scarps through field mapping and a 5 m digital elevation model. These fringes mark the maximum sea level during the terrace's carving.The heights of these fringes range between 0 and 250 masl. We estimate a 0.7 mm/yr slip rate for the Laguna Verde fault based on the height difference between corresponding terraces north- and southward, with an average uplift rate of 0.3 mm/yr for the whole area.NW striking normal faults, besides representing a potential seismic threat to the near population on one of the most densely populated areas of Chile, heavily controls the spatial variation of the coastal margin uplift. In Laguna Verde, the uplift rate differs more than three times northward

  2. Sedimentary tectonic evolution and reservoir-forming conditions of the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Great breakthrough recently achieved in the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas exploration in the Leshan–Longnüsi paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin, has also made a common view reached, i.e., large-scale paleo-uplifts will be the most potential gas exploration target in the deep strata of this basin. Apart from the above-mentioned one, the other huge paleo-uplifts are all considered to be the ones formed in the post-Caledonian period, the impact of which, however, has rarely ever been discussed on the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic oil and gas reservoir formation. In view of this, based on outcrops, drilling and geophysical data, we analyzed the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic tectonic setting and sedimentary background in the East Sichuan Basin, studied the distribution rules of reservoirs and source rocks under the control of paleo-uplifts, and finally discussed, on the basis of structural evolution analysis, the conditions for the formation of Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas reservoirs in this study area. The following findings were achieved. (1 The Dazhou–Kaijiang inherited uplift in NE Sichuan Basin which was developed before the Middle Cambrian controlled a large area of Sinian and Cambrian beach-facies development. (2 Beach-facies reservoirs were developed in the upper part of the paleo-uplift, while in the peripheral depression belts thick source rocks were developed like the Upper Sinian Doushantuo Fm and Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm, so there is a good source–reservoir assemblage. (3 Since the Permian epoch, the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift had gradually become elevated from the slope zone, where the Permian oil generation peak occurred in the slope or lower and gentle uplift belts, while the Triassic gas generation peak occurred in the higher uplift belts, both with a favorable condition for hydrocarbon accumulation. (4 The lower structural layers, including the Lower Cambrian and its underlying strata, in the East Sichuan Basin, are now equipped with a

  3. A possible cause of the Miocene uplift and volcanism in the central Anatolian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R. M.; Wortel, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    During the middle and late Miocene (13-5Ma) several seemingly unrelated events occurred in central Anatolia, Turkey; (1) a new epoch of widespread volcanic activity with a mantle signature, (2) sudden uplift and disruption of a Oligocene-lower Miocene palaeo drainage system in the Western Taurus (southwest Turkey) and (3) a regional regression across southern Turkey (Antalya, Adana, Mut) coeval with volcanic activity. These observations suggest an uplift (>1000 meters) of the central Anatolian plateau by a mechanism which also triggered widespread volcanic activity. In eastern Anatolia, similar events are attributed to delamination of the lithospheric mantle [e.g. Keskin et al., 2003]. Results from tomography [W.Spakman, pers. com]) suggest that the (deeper) Bitlis slab was laterally continuous below the eastern and central Anatolian plateau. We therefore propose that the scenario developed for eastern Anatolian plateau also applies to the central Anatolian plateau. In this scenario, delamination started along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone and was possibly induced by remnants of a northern Neotethys slab or continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. As the lithospheric mantle separated from the crust it sank into the asthenosphere and was replaced by hot mantle material. If true, delamination is expected to have had a thermal and isostatic imprint. Using a three-dimensional thermal-flexural model and taking changes of the effective elastic thickness due to thermal perturbation into account, we aim to quantify the possible imprints in the geological record of the central and eastern Anatolian plateau. Our model results show that delamination of the lithospheric mantle can explain the present day elevation (1500 m) of the central Anatolian plateau. For the eastern Anatolian plateau, however, delamination of the lithospheric mantle alone can only explain half (1000 m) of the present day elevation. Thickening of the eastern Anatolia crust by 1-5 km (β=1

  4. The estimation of future surface water bodies at Olkiluoto area based on statistical terrain and land uplift models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Ikonen, A.

    2014-03-15

    In this working report the modelling effort of future landscape development and surface water body formation at the modelling area in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island is presented. Estimation of the features of future surface water bodies is based on probabilistic terrain and land uplift models presented in previous working reports. The estimation is done using a GIS-based toolbox called UNTAMO. The future surface water bodies are estimated in 10 000 years' time span with 1000 years' intervals for the safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site. In the report a brief overview on the techniques used for probabilistic terrain modelling, land uplift modelling and hydrological modelling are presented first. The latter part of the report describes the results of the modelling effort. The main features of the future landscape - the four lakes forming in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island - are identified and the probabilistic model of the shoreline displacement is presented. The area and volume of the four lakes is modelled in a probabilistic manner. All the simulations have been performed for three scenarios two of which are based on 10 realizations of the probabilistic digital terrain model (DTM) and 10 realizations of the probabilistic land uplift model. These two scenarios differ from each other by the eustatic curve used in the land uplift model. The third scenario employs 50 realizations of the probabilistic DTM while a deterministic land uplift model, derived solely from the current land uplift rate, is used. The results indicate that the two scenarios based on the probabilistic land uplift model behave in a similar manner while the third model overestimates past and future land uplift rates. The main features of the landscape are nevertheless similar also for the third scenario. Prediction results for the volumes of the future lakes indicate that a couple of highly probably lake formation scenarios can be identified

  5. The estimation of future surface water bodies at Olkiluoto area based on statistical terrain and land uplift models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T.; Ikonen, A.

    2014-03-01

    In this working report the modelling effort of future landscape development and surface water body formation at the modelling area in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island is presented. Estimation of the features of future surface water bodies is based on probabilistic terrain and land uplift models presented in previous working reports. The estimation is done using a GIS-based toolbox called UNTAMO. The future surface water bodies are estimated in 10 000 years' time span with 1000 years' intervals for the safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site. In the report a brief overview on the techniques used for probabilistic terrain modelling, land uplift modelling and hydrological modelling are presented first. The latter part of the report describes the results of the modelling effort. The main features of the future landscape - the four lakes forming in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island - are identified and the probabilistic model of the shoreline displacement is presented. The area and volume of the four lakes is modelled in a probabilistic manner. All the simulations have been performed for three scenarios two of which are based on 10 realizations of the probabilistic digital terrain model (DTM) and 10 realizations of the probabilistic land uplift model. These two scenarios differ from each other by the eustatic curve used in the land uplift model. The third scenario employs 50 realizations of the probabilistic DTM while a deterministic land uplift model, derived solely from the current land uplift rate, is used. The results indicate that the two scenarios based on the probabilistic land uplift model behave in a similar manner while the third model overestimates past and future land uplift rates. The main features of the landscape are nevertheless similar also for the third scenario. Prediction results for the volumes of the future lakes indicate that a couple of highly probably lake formation scenarios can be identified with other

  6. Geomorphic Response to Spatial and Temporal Tectonic uplift on the Kenya Rift of East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L.; Abdelsalam, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic uplifts of the shoulders of the East Africa Rift System (EARS) have significant impact on the geological record by reorganizing drainage systems, increasing sediment supply, and changing climate and biogeography. Recent studies in geochronology, geomorphology and geophysics have provided some understanding of the timing of tectonic uplift and its distribution pattern of the (EARS). We do not know how the vertical motion is localized along the rift axis and the relative roles of upwelling of magma and rift extensional processes play in tectonic uplift history. This work presents detailed morphometric study of the fluvial landscape response to the tectonic uplift and climate shifting of the Kenya Rift shoulders in order to reconstruct their incision history, with special attention to timing, location, and intensity of uplift episodes. This work compiles the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Sentinel-2A data, summarized previous 39Ar-40Ar and thermochronology data, and calculates long-term incision rate and geomorphic proxies (normalized steepness and chi-integral) along the Kenya Rift. It also models the age of tectonic/climatic events by using knickpoint celerity model and R/SR integrative approach. It found that the maximum long-term incision rates of 300 mm/kyr to be at the central Kenya Rift, possibly related to the mantle-driven process and rapid tectonic uplift. The geomorphic proxies indicate southward decreasing pattern of the short-term incision rate, possibly related to the migration of the mantle plume.

  7. Surface Uplift Rate Constrained by Multiple Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclides: Theory and Application from the Central Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, D. F.; Hoke, G. D.; Niedermann, S.; Wittmann, H.

    2015-12-01

    There is widespread interest in quantifying the growth and decay of topography. However, prominent methods for quantitative determinations of paleoelevation rely on assumptions that are often difficult to test. For example, stable isotope paleoaltimetry relies on the knowledge of past lapse rates and moisture sources. Here, we demonstrate how cosmogenic 10Be - 21Ne and/or 10Be - 26Al sample pairs can be applied to provide independent estimates of surface uplift rate using both published data and new data from the Atacama Desert. Our approach requires a priori knowledge of the maximum age of exposure of the sampled surface. Ignimbrite surfaces provide practical sampling targets. When erosion is very slow (roughly, ≤1 m/Ma), it is often possible to constrain paleo surface uplift rate with precision comparable to that of stable isotopic methods (approximately ±50%). The likelihood of a successful measurement is increased by taking n samples from a landscape surface and solving for one regional paleo surface uplift rate and n local erosion rates. In northern Chile, we solve for surface uplift and erosion rates using three sample groups from the literature (Kober et al., 2007). In the two lower elevation groups, we calculate surface uplift rates of 110 (+60/-12) m/Myr and 160 (+120/-6) m/Myr and estimate uncertainties with a bootstrap approach. The rates agree with independent estimates derived from stream profile analyses nearby (Hoke et al., 2007). Our calculated uplift rates correspond to total uplift of 1200 and 850 m, respectively, when integrated over appropriate timescales. Erosion rates were too high to reliably calculate the uplift rate in the third, high elevation group. New cosmogenic nuclide analyses from the Atacama Desert are in progress, and preliminary results are encouraging. In particular, a replicate sample in the vicinity of the first Kober et al. (2007) group independently yields a surface uplift rate of 110 m/Myr. Compared to stable isotope

  8. Ca isotopes reveal weak control of tectonic uplift on long-term climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.; Jacobson, A. D.; Holmden, C. E.; Craw, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ca-Mg silicate weathering consumes atmospheric CO2 over geological timescales (≥106 yr) whereas carbonate weathering has no effect. High Ca fluxes from active orogens have been used to argue that mountain uplift is a disproportionately large CO2 sink. To test this hypothesis, it is essential to determine proportions of Ca from silicate versus carbonate weathering. High precision measurement of Ca isotopes (δ44/40Ca) provides a novel method to directly quantify Ca sources. To this end, we examined δ44/40Ca in rivers draining the Southern Alps of New Zealand. The Southern Alps have large tectonic and climatic gradients but nearly constant bedrock chemistry. West of the main topographic divide, uplift and precipitation rates are high, and steep, fast-flowing rivers drain schist. East of the divide, uplift and precipitation rates are low, and low-gradient, braided rivers drain either schist or greywacke. Both schist and greywacke contain up to 3% hydrothermal and metamorphic calcite. Glaciers feed several schist and greywacke catchments. Examined as δ44/40Ca versus Sr/Ca, values measured for carbonate and silicate end-members define two-component mixing envelopes. Rivers west of the divide plot within the envelope, ruling out isotopic fractionation as a factor for these streams. Several rivers east of the divide are 40Ca enriched relative to the envelope. In-situ fractionation of stream water Ca cannot explain this pattern because fractionation is expected to preferentially remove 40Ca. We measured δ42/44Ca ratios to test if chemical weathering preferentially releases 40Ca. When examined as δ40/44Ca versus δ42/44Ca, the data only display mass-dependent isotope effects. Ca in grass and the exchangeable pool of shallow soils is enriched in 40Ca relative to waters and bedrock. This Ca defines a third mixing end-member that contributes 15-30% of the Ca in rivers east of the divide. Evidence of the plant-fractionated signal likely reflects water residence times

  9. Rock Uplift above the Yakutat Megathrust on Montague Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, K.; Armstrong, P. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Arkle, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Yakutat microplate is subducting shallowly (~6°) beneath the North American Plate at a rate of approximately 53 mm/yr to the northwest. Deformation from this flat- slab subduction extends >600 km inland and has resulted in regions of focused rock uplift and exhumation in the Alaska Range, central Chugach Mountains, and St. Elias Mountains. Many questions still remain about how strain is partitioned between these regions of focused uplift, particularly in the Prince William Sound (southern Chugach Mountains) on Montague Island. Montague Island (and adjacent Hinchinbrook Island) are ~20 km above the megathrust where there is a large degree of coupling between the subducting Yakutat microplate and overriding North American Plate. Montague Island is of particular interest because it lies between two areas of rapid rock uplift focused in the St. Elias/eastern Chugach Mountains and the western Chugach Mountains. In the St. Elias/eastern Chugach Mountains, faulting related to collisional processes and bending of fault systems causes rapid rock uplift. About 200 km farther northwest in the western Chugach Mountains, recent rock uplift is caused by underplating along the megathrust that is focused within a syntaxial bend of major fault systems and mountain ranges. Montague Island bounds the southern margin of Prince William Sound, and is steep, narrow, and elongate (81 km long and ~15 km wide). The maximum relief is 914 m, making for very steep, mountainous topography considering the narrow width of the island. During the Mw 9.2 earthquake in 1964, the Patton Bay and Hanning Bay reverse faults were reactivated, with 7 and 5 m of vertical offset, respectively. Both faults dip ~60° NW and strike NE-SW parallel to the long-axis of the island and parallel to geomorphic features including lineaments, elongate valleys, and escarpments. Prominent ~450 m high escarpments are present along the SE-facing side of the island, which suggests rapid and sustained uplift. New apatite

  10. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the bedrock beneath the East Antarctic ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Hackney, R.I.; Bannister, S.; Stern, T.A.; Makovsky, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), the largest noncontractional mountain belt in the world, have become the focus of modelers who explained their uplift by a variety of isostatic and thermal mechanisms. A problem with these models is a lack of available data to compare with model predictions. We report here the results of a 312-km-long geophysical traverse conducted in 1993/1994 in the hinterland of the TAM. Using detailed subglacial topography and gravity measurements, we confirm the origin of the TAM as a flexural uplift of the edge of East Antarctica. Using an elastic model with a free edge, we can jointly fit the topography and the gravity with a plate having an elastic thickness of 85 ?? 15 km and a preuplift elevation of 700 ?? 50 m for East Antarctica. Using a variety of evidence, we argue that the uplift is coincident with a relatively minor tectonic event of transtensional motion between East and West Antarctica during the Eocene rather than the Late Cretaceous rifting event that created the Ross Embayment. We suggest that this transtensional motion caused the continuous plate to break, which created an escarpment that significantly increased the rates of erosion and exhumation. Results from the geophysical traverse also extend our knowledge of the bedrock geology from the exposures within the TAM to the ice covered interior. Our interpretation suggests that the Ferrar flood basalts extend at least 100 km westward under the ice. The Beacon Supergroup of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments thins gradually under the ice and its reconstructed thickness is reminiscent of profiles of foreland basins. Finally, there is no indication in the gravity field for an incomplete rebound due to significant melting of the East Antarctic ice sheet since the last glacial period.

  11. The topographic signature of Quaternary tectonic uplift in the Ardennes massif (Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sougnez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 y. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This study aims to analyze the link between tectonic uplift rates and landscape morphology based on slope and channel morphometric indexes. To achieve this objective, we selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif (a Palaeozoic massif of NW Europe, principally located in Belgium that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm yr−1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our analysis indicates that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronic, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  12. Seafloor Uplift in Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge: New High-Resolution Pressure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inderbitzen, K. E.; Becker, K.; Davis, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, in-situ seafloor and basement pressures are continuously monitored and recorded by an ODP subseafloor hydrogeological observatory (CORK) located in Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Hole 857D was drilled in 1991 in thickly sedimented crust to a depth of 936 mbsf and instrumented with an original CORK that was replaced in 1996. A large hydrothermal field (Dead Dog) lies roughly 1.7 km north of the hole, and two isolated chimneys and several diffuse flow sites are located ~800 meters northeast. The borehole and the vent fields have been visited periodically by submersible/ROV since 1999. Recent results from the CORK at 857D have shown apparent seafloor uplift, supported by depth records from the submersible Alvin. A constant rate of pressure change of ~6 kPa/yr, from its initiation in 2005 to the visit in 2010, has reduced mean seafloor pressure by ~28 kPa, equivalent to nearly 3 meters of head. This uplift rate is several times the typical pre-eruption inflation rates observed at Axial Seamount further south along the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Initially, the apparent uplift at 857D did not seem to have any effect on local high-temperature hydrothermal venting, however recent operations in Middle Valley revealed distinct changes at not only the hydrothermal field to the northeast, but also a shutdown of high-temperature venting to the north of 857D. We will present new data from Middle Valley, including the first year of data collected by a high-resolution pressure data logger deployed at 857D in June, 2010.

  13. Deformation and failure mechanism of excavation in clay subjected to hydraulic uplift

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest experimental and numerical analysis work in the field of ground deformation and base instability of deep excavations in soft clay subjected to hydraulic uplift. The authors’ latest research findings, based on dimensional analyses, well-instrumented full-scale field tests, systematic coupled-consolidation finite element analyses and centrifuge tests are reported. This book shows how to systematically approach a complex geotechnical problem, from identifying existing problems, reviewing literature, to dimensional and numerical analyses, validation through full-scale testing and centrifuge model testing. The methodologies are also introduced as major tools adopted in geotechnical research.

  14. Phanerozoic burial, uplift and denudation of the Equatorial Atlantic margin of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Bonow, Johan M.; Green, Paul F.; dall'Asta, Massimo; Roig, Jean-Yves; Theveniaut, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    We have initiated a study aimed at understanding the history of burial, uplift and denudation of the South American Equatorial Atlantic Margin (SAEAM Uplift) including the Guiana Shield to provide a framework for investigating the hydrocarbon prospectivity of the offshore region. We report first results including observations from fieldwork at the northern and southern flank of the Guiana Shield. The study combines apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) and vitrinite reflectance data from samples of outcrops and drillcores, sonic velocity data from drill holes and stratigraphic landscape analysis (mapping of peneplains) - all constrained by geological evidence, following the methods of Green et al. (2013). The study will thus combine the thermal history from AFTA data with the denudation history from stratigraphic landscape analysis to provide magnitudes and timing of vertical movements (Japsen et al. 2012, 2016). Along the Atlantic margin of Suriname and French Guiana, tilted and truncated Lower Cretaceous strata rest on Precambrian basement (Sapin et al. 2016). Our AFTA data show that the basement underwent Mesozoic exhumation prior to deposition of the Lower Cretaceous cover. Sub-horizontal peneplains define the landscape of the Guiana Shield at elevations up to 500 m a.s.l. As these sub-horizontal peneplains truncate the tilted, sub-Cretaceous surface along the Atlantic margin, these peneplains were therefore formed and uplifted in post-Cretaceous time. This interpretation is in good agreement with our AFTA data that define Paleogene exhumation along the margin and with the results of Theveniaut and Freyssinet (2002) who used palaeomagnetic data to conclude that bauxitic surfaces across basement at up to 400 m a.s.l. on the Guiana Shield formed during the Palaeogene. Integration of the results from AFTA with stratigraphic landscape analysis (currently in progress) and geological evidence will provide a robust reconstruction of the tectonic development of the

  15. Land uplift and relative sea-level changes in the Loviisa area, southeastern Finland, during the last 8000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, A.; Eronen, M.; Hyvaerinen, H.

    1999-09-01

    Southeastern Finland belongs to the area covered by the Weichselian ice sheet, where the release of the ice load caused a rapid isostatic rebound during the postglacial time. While the mean overall apparent uplift is of the order of 2 mm/yr today, in the early Holocene time it was several times higher. A marked decrease in the rebound rate occurred around 8500 BP, however, since then the uplift rate has remained high until today, with a slightly decreasing trend towards the present time. According to current understanding there have neither been temporary increases nor decreases in the rate of uplift during the postglacial time. Even so, it is not known for sure whether there are regional irregularities on the rebound in Finland. Concurrently with land uplift, relative sea-level changes in the Baltic basin were also strongly affected by the global eustatic rise of sea-level. During the early Litorina Sea stage on the southern coast of Finland around 7000 BP, the rise in sea-level exceeded the rate of land uplift, and resulted in a short-lived transgression. The most accurate information on relative sea-level changes in an uplifting area may be obtained from radiocarbon dated events of isolation in small lake basins, as they were cut off from larger bodies of water. The isolations of such basins from the sea may be reliably determined by the recorded changes in the diatom flora in the sediment sequences, at horizons which may be radiometrically dated. In the present study, the isolation-horizons of 13 basins were dated by 26 conventional and 2 AMS radiocarbon dates. According to the available sets of dates, the time span of emergence extends from 8300 BP to the past few hundred years, for lakes from c. 30 m to 1.1 m above the present sea-level. Due to the global rise in sea-level, during the period of 7500-6500 BP, the sea-level rise clearly exceeded the rate of uplift, and resulted in the Litorina transgression, which had an amplitude of around one metre. The

  16. Land uplift and relative sea-level changes in the Loviisa area, southeastern Finland, during the last 8000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, A.; Eronen, M.; Hyvaerinen, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Geology

    1999-09-01

    Southeastern Finland belongs to the area covered by the Weichselian ice sheet, where the release of the ice load caused a rapid isostatic rebound during the postglacial time. While the mean overall apparent uplift is of the order of 2 mm/yr today, in the early Holocene time it was several times higher. A marked decrease in the rebound rate occurred around 8500 BP, however, since then the uplift rate has remained high until today, with a slightly decreasing trend towards the present time. According to current understanding there have neither been temporary increases nor decreases in the rate of uplift during the postglacial time. Even so, it is not known for sure whether there are regional irregularities on the rebound in Finland. Concurrently with land uplift, relative sea-level changes in the Baltic basin were also strongly affected by the global eustatic rise of sea-level. During the early Litorina Sea stage on the southern coast of Finland around 7000 BP, the rise in sea-level exceeded the rate of land uplift, and resulted in a short-lived transgression. The most accurate information on relative sea-level changes in an uplifting area may be obtained from radiocarbon dated events of isolation in small lake basins, as they were cut off from larger bodies of water. The isolations of such basins from the sea may be reliably determined by the recorded changes in the diatom flora in the sediment sequences, at horizons which may be radiometrically dated. In the present study, the isolation-horizons of 13 basins were dated by 26 conventional and 2 AMS radiocarbon dates. According to the available sets of dates, the time span of emergence extends from 8300 BP to the past few hundred years, for lakes from c. 30 m to 1.1 m above the present sea-level. Due to the global rise in sea-level, during the period of 7500-6500 BP, the sea-level rise clearly exceeded the rate of uplift, and resulted in the Litorina transgression, which had an amplitude of around one metre. The

  17. Evidence for Late Pleistocene uplift at the Somma-Vesuvius apron near Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano, Aldo; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana

    2011-05-01

    Detailed stratigraphic and micropalaeontological analyses of samples from boreholes at the Somma-Vesuvius apron, between Pompeii and the sea, allowed reconstruction of Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Sarno coastal plain. In all, 116 samples were recovered from seven boreholes drilled from 2-10 m a.s.l. to 16.5-26 m b.s.l. Microfossil assemblages, with special regard to benthic foraminifers and ostracods, were used to reconstruct the depositional palaeoenvironment. Fossil remains show that all the pre-79 AD fossiliferous sediments from 2 to - 24 m a.s.l. were deposited in shallow marine waters for a long time despite an appreciable sea level rise. The data indicate alternation of both shallow marine and subaerial conditions during the last ~ 15 kyr, evidencing ground uplift of the area of about 75 m at a rate of ~ 5 mm/year. Marine sediment accumulation (~ 6 m/kyr) and tectonic uplift long offset the sea level rise, and as a consequence, submerged areas remained the same as well.

  18. Researches on tectonic uplift and denudation with relation to geological disposal of HLW in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Osamu; Sanga, Tomoji; Moriya, Toshifumi

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the present state of researches on tectonic uplift and denudation, and shows perspective goals and direction of future researches from the viewpoint of geological disposal of HLW in Japan. Detailed history of tectonics and denudation in geologic time scale, including the rates, temporal and spatial distributions and processes, reconstructed from geologic and geomorphologic evidences will enable us to make the geological predictions. Improvements of the analytic methods for the geological histories, e.g. identification of the tectonic and denudational imprints and age determinations, are indispensable for the accurate prediction. Developments of the tools and methodologies for assessments of the degree and extension of influences by the tectonic uplift, subsidence and denudation on the geological environments such as ground water flows are also fundamental problem in the study field of the geological disposal of HLW. Collaboration of scientific researches using the geological and geomorphological methods and applied technology, such as numerical simulations of ground water flows, is important in improving the safety and accuracy of the geological disposal of HLW. (author)

  19. Numerical Study on the Seismic Response of Structure with Consideration of the Behavior of Base Mat Uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Bo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation might be separated from the supporting soil if the earthquake is big enough, which is known as base mat uplift. This paper proposed a simplified calculation model in which spring element is adopted to simulate the interaction between soil and structure. The load-deformation curve (F-D curve of the spring element can be designated to represent the base mat uplift, in which the pressure can be applied while tensile forces are not allowed. Key factors, such as seismic wave types, seismic wave excitation directions, seismic wave amplitudes, soil shear velocities, structure stiffness, and the ratio of structure height to width (H/B, were considered in the analysis. It is shown that (1 seismic wave type has significant influence on structure response due to different frequency components it contained; (2 the vertical input of seismic wave greatly affected structure response in vertical direction, while it has little impacts in horizontal direction; (3 base mat uplift is easier to take place in soil with higher shear velocity; (4 structure H/B value has complicated influence on base mat uplift. The outcome of this research is assumed to provide some references for the seismic design of the structure due to base mat uplift.

  20. Phased uplift of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau inferred from a pollen record from Yinchuan Basin, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinling; Hao, Qingzhen; Wei, Mingjian; Andreev, Andrei A; Wang, Junping; Tian, Yanyan; Li, Xiaolei; Cai, Maotang; Hu, Jianmin; Shi, Wei

    2017-12-21

    The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) significantly affected both regional and global climates. Although there is evidence that the Tibetan Plateau experienced uplift during the Quaternary, the timing and amplitude are poorly constrained. However, the increased availability of long sedimentary records of vegetation change provides an opportunity to reconstruct the timing of the uplift. Here, we present a well-dated, high-resolution pollen record for the last 2.6 Ma from the Yinchuan Basin, which was incised by the Yellow River with its source in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Variations in the Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratio of the reveal changes in moisture conditions in the Yinchuan Basin during glacial-interglacial cycles, as well as a gradual long-term aridification trend which is consistent with progressive global cooling. However, fluctuations in the percentages of Picea and Abies differ from those of the A/C ratio and we propose that they reflect changes in the vegetation and environment of high elevation areas. The Picea and Abies records reveal two phases of increased representation, at 2.1 and 1.2 Ma, which may indicate phases in the uplift of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Thus, they provide independent evidence for the timing of the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau during the Quaternary.

  1. Understanding the uplift pattern in Mesozoic and Cenozoic,, eastern Dabie area, China using fission track dating of apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qianhong; Liu Shunsheng

    2002-01-01

    By using the fission track dating technique, a preliminary study was carried out on the fission track ages (FTA) of apatite, their distribution patterns and hints over the tectonics activities during Mesozoic and Cenozoic in the east Dabie area. Attempts were also made to improve the conventional statistical method for the tracks. Ranging from 59.4 +- 3.4 Ma to 105.6 +- 9.8 Ma, the FTA results of apatite spread in the wide range and increased rapidly from the east to the west area. Sine 95 Ma, the uplift rate has been quite slow and asymmetry. The FTA value in the middle area of Xiaotian-Mozitan Fault may imply its uplift in Cretaceous. The faulting should be the main control factor for the uplift of this area

  2. Review of Bothnian Sea shore-level displacement data and use of a GIS tool to estimate isostatic uplift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, A.; Penttinen, T.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2009-02-01

    The aim and approach of the study were to produce source data estimates necessary for modelling the future biosphere. The study updated the list of 14 C datings of sea-level index points, which show when lakes and mires were isolated from the Baltic Sea due to isostatic uplift. The study concentrated on the Bothnian Sea, especially the Olkiluoto area. The older Finnish datings (a list of 260 sea-level index points determined in 1995) were checked and revised as needed. New data was available for 56 Finnish and 41 Swedish index points. State-of-the-art 14 C calibration methods were applied. Various available data were used to estimate the parameters of the glacio-isostatic uplift model's slow component. The component describes the uplift in relation to time using parameters B s , which is related to the uplift's total duration, and A s , which is half of the total uplift possible in the period lasting from the Last Glacial Maximum to the distant future. The B s values were estimated by means of 1) crustal thickness and 2) shoreline displacement curves. In applying method 1, this study revised the function describing the relationship between crustal thickness and B s and created a new derivative-based method that also estimates the parameter A s without radiocarbon datings and using only crustal thickness and current uplift maps. In method 2, sea-level index point subsets along the Finnish and Swedish coasts of the Bothnian Sea were selected from the revised database, and their datings and elevations were used to determine the corresponding land uplift parameters. The parameter value distributions were used to produce maps. The values of the inertia factor B s are on average 6% higher than those calculated in 2001 but they are 10% lower in the Olkiluoto region. According to the interpolations of the new and old data, the estimated uplift at Olkiluoto for AD 12000 is 2.8 m (7%) less than calculated previously. The derivative-based method predicts an uplift for AD

  3. Proceedings of a seminar on sea level displacement and bedrock uplift, 10-11 June 2010, Pori, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipping, T.; Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2011-01-01

    This working report is the proceedings of a seminar on Sea level displacement and bedrock uplift held on 10-11 June 2010 in Pori, Finland. The seminar included invited oral presentations, as well as poster presentations, addressing the causes and mechanisms, observations, modelling and implications of the sea level change and crustal uplift still continuing after the last glaciation in the Baltic Sea region. In the proceedings, a total of 14 papers are included, in addition to foreword and a summary of seminar discussions. (orig.)

  4. Rapid ice unloading in the Fleming Glacier region, southern Antarctic Peninsula, and its effect on bedrock uplift rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chen; King, Matt A.; Watson, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    deformation. We subtract modeled elastic deformation rates, and a suite of modeled viscous rates, from GPS-derived three-dimensional bedrock velocities at sites to the south of Fleming Glacier to infer properties of Earth rheology. Assuming the pre-breakup bedrock uplift was positive due to post-Last Glacial...... Maximum (LGM) ice retreat, our viscoelastic-corrected GPS uplift rates suggest upper mantle viscosities are >2×1019 Pas and likely >1×1020 Pas in this region, 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than previously found for the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Horizontal velocities at the GPS site nearest...

  5. Test on the splitting failure capacity of the bottom rail due to uplift in partially anchored shear walls

    OpenAIRE

    Caprolu, Giuseppe; Girhammar, Ulf Arne; Källsner, Bo; Johnsson, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Källsner and Girhammar have developed a new plastic design method for wood-frame shear walls at ultimate limit state. The method is capable of calculating the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls, where the leading stud is not necessarily anchored against uplift. In fully anchored shear walls, the leading stud needs to be anchored using some kind of hold-downs to resist uplift and the bottom rail needs to be fixed by anchor bolts to resist horizontal shear forces. In parti...

  6. The Higgs vacuum uplifted. Revisiting the electroweak phase transition with a second Higgs doublet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsch, G.C. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Huber, S.J. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Mimasu, K. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Louvain Univ. Catholique, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Center for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology; No, J.M. [King' s College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2017-05-25

    The existence of a second Higgs doublet in Nature could lead to a cosmological first order electroweak phase transition and explain the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe. We explore the parameter space of such a two-Higgs-doublet-model and show that a first order electroweak phase transition strongly correlates with a significant uplifting of the Higgs vacuum w.r.t. its Standard Model value. We then obtain the spectrum and properties of the new scalars H{sub 0}, A{sub 0} and H{sup ±} that signal such a phase transition, showing that the decay A{sub 0}→H{sub 0}Z at the LHC and a sizable deviation in the Higgs self-coupling λ{sub hhh} from its SM value are sensitive indicators of a strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the 2HDM.

  7. A resposta broncodilatadora em doentes com DPOC (dados do estudo UPLIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tashkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: No início do estudo, foi realizada espirometria antes e depois de 80 μg de ipratrópio e 400 μg de salbutamol, administrados 90 e 30 minutos antes, respectivamente. A administração de dois broncodilatadores e a sua temporalidade teve como objectivo atingir a broncodilatação máxima ou quase máxima. O FEV1 basal após esta broncodilatação, no estudo UPLIFT, permitiu: - examinar a resposta broncodilatadora aguda numa grande coorte de doentes com DPOC moderada a muito grave; - determinar o que pode ser considerado critério de resposta usando vários critérios de reversibilidade; - avaliar as características dos doentes com e sem reversibilidade.

  8. Analysis of uplift loads of precast-concrete piles in porous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stélio Maia Menezes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of uplift load tests in three precast-concrete piles carried out in a collapsible sandy soil. The piles with 12 meters (m length and 0.17 x 0.17 square meter (m2 cross section were instrumented with strain gauges, in order to know the load transfer in depth. Three tests performed in a slow maintained load way were conducted in a natural condition of moisture content soil. A fourth test was carried out after the previous soaking of the soil around the pile head. The tests were performed in the experimental research site at the Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (Unesp. The results obtained were evaluated by analytical and empirical methods.

  9. Apatite fission track evidence on the uplifting of eastern Kunlun mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuang Wanming; Dong Jinquan; Tang Yunhui; Wang Shicheng

    2004-01-01

    A series of samples were collected from about south-north section through Buqingshan and Dulan, eastern Kunlun mountains, China. The 41 apatite fission track ages (FTA) of these samples lie between 25.2 and 130.4 Ma, all of the apatite fission track ages are significantly younger than the host rocks. There are similar evolution trends for Middle-Kunlun zone and North-Kunlun zone, i.e. the FTA becomes less with slow increase of elevations and their uplifting rates are about 2.22 m/Ma. Differently, the FTA in South-Kunlun zone positively correlates to elevation, decreasing 11 m/Ma. It may be shown that South-Kunlun fault play a different and/or more important role on incontinent evolution than Middle-Kunlun fault. (author)

  10. Oxygen ion uplift and satellite drag effects during the 30 October 2003 daytime superfountain event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The prompt penetration of interplanetary electric fields (IEFs to the dayside low-latitude ionosphere during the first ~2 h of a superstorm is estimated and applied to a modified NRL SAMI2 code for the 30 October 2003 event. In our simulations, the dayside ionospheric O+ is convected to higher altitudes (~600 km and higher latitudes (~±25° to 30°, forming highly displaced equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA peaks. This feature plus others are consistent with previously published CHAMP electron (TEC measurements and with the dayside superfountain model. The rapid upward motion of the O+ ions causes neutral oxygen (O uplift due to ion-neutral drag. It is estimated that above ~400 km altitude the O densities within the displaced EIAs can be increased substantially over quiet time values. The latter feature will cause increased drag for low-altitude satellites. This newly predicted phenomenon is expected to be typical for superstorm/IEF events.

  11. Tiotropium as a first maintenance drug in COPD: secondary analysis of the UPLIFT trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troosters, T; Celli, B; Lystig, T

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was investigate the long-term effect of tiotropium as first maintenance respiratory medication in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A 4-yr, randomised, multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial (Understanding Potential Long......-term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) was conducted. Analysis focused on the effect of tiotropium versus matching placebo in the 810 (13.5%) COPD patients not on other maintenance treatment (long-acting beta-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, theophyllines or anticholinergics) at randomisation....... Spirometry, health-related quality of life (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score), exacerbations of COPD and mortality were also analysed. 403 patients (mean+/-sd age 63+/-8 yrs, post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) 53+/-12% predicted) received tiotropium and 407 (64...

  12. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    The main part of Jiamusi Block, named as Huanan-Uplift, is located in the northeastern Heilongjiang, China. The Huanan-Uplift is surrounded by many relatively small Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins, e.g. Sanjiang Basin, Hulin Basin, Boli Basin, Jixi Basin, Shuangyashan Basin and Shuanghua Basin. However previous research works were mainly focused on stratigraphy and palaeontology of the basins, therefore, the coupling relation between the uplift and the surrounding basins have not been clear. Based on the field investigations, conglomerate provenance studies of the Houshigou Formation in Boli Basin, geochronology of the Huanan-Uplift basement, we have been studied the relationships between Huanan-Uplift and the surrounding basins. The regional stratigraphic correlations indicates that the isolated basins in the area experienced the same evolution during the period of the Chengzihe and the Muling Formations (the Early Cretaceous). The paleogeography reconstructions suggest that the area had been a large-scale basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. The Huanan-Uplift did not exist. The paleocurrent directions, sandstone and conglomerate provenance analyses show that the Huanan-Uplift started to be the source area of the surrounding basins during the period of Houshigou Formation (early Late Cretaceous), therefore, it suggests that the Jiamusi Block commenced uplift in the early Late Cretaceous. The granitic gneisses in Huanan-Uplift give 494-415 Ma monazite U-Th-total Pb ages, 262-259 Ma biotite and 246-241 Ma K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages. The cooling rates of 1-2 ℃/Ma from 500-260 Ma and 10-11 ℃/Ma from 260-240 Ma have been calculated based on the ages. This suggests that the Jiamusi Block had a rapid exhumation during late Permian, which should be related to the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the Siberian and North China continents. It is concluded that during the late Paleozoic the Jiamusi Block was stable with a very slow uplifting. With the closure of

  13. Miocene block uplift and basin formation in the Patagonian foreland: The Gastre Basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmes, A.; D'Elia, L.; Franzese, J. R.; Veiga, G. D.; Hernández, M.

    2013-08-01

    The intraplate fault-block mountains and intermontane deposits of the Gastre Basin, which are recorded more than 550 km east of the Andean trench in central Patagonia, Argentina, are analyzed. The Gastre Basin is one of the largest Patagonian intermontane basins, limited by uplifted blocks strongly oblique to the Andean chain. It was originated by reverse faulting and inversion of pre-existing normal faults associated with a Mesozoic rift basin and defined by older crustal heterogeneities. The deformational event occurred during the middle Miocene, related to a short contractional episode (16.1-14.86 Ma), probably in response to an eastward migration of the Andean fold and thrust belt. During Pliocene to Quaternary times, neither younger fault-block uplifts nor reconfigurations of the basin occurred. Similarities between the study area and other parts of the Patagonian foreland - such as the presence of Miocene reverse or inversion tectonics, as well as the accommodation of the Miocene sedimentary successions - suggest that the Gastre Basin is part of a major late early to middle Miocene broken foreland system (i.e. the Patagonian broken foreland) that exhumed discrete fault-block mountains and generated contemporary basins along more than 950 km parallel to the Andean trench (i.e. between 40°00' and 48°00' south latitude). Based on recent studies on the southern Andean Margin, this continental-scale contractional episode may be the result of a flat-slab subduction segment. Nevertheless, such a hypothesis is very difficult to support when analyzing such a large flat subduction segment along the entire Patagonian trench. This suggests the need to consider alternative flat-slab trigger mechanisms or other factors in the generation of broken foreland systems.

  14. Ordovician gas exploration breakthrough in the Gucheng lower uplift of the Tarim Basin and its enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhaoming

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A steady high yield natural gas flow was tapped in the Ordovician strata of Well Gucheng 6 drilled in the Gucheng lower uplift in the Tarim Basin in 2012, marking the discovery of another carbonate gas exploration field after the other two fields in the middle and northern Tarim Basin (the so called Tazhong and Tabei in the industry. The exploration in the Gucheng lower uplift has experienced three stages: the first stage, marine facies clastic exploration from 1995 to 2003, focusing on the Devonian Donghe sandstone lithologic traps, the Silurian overlapping lithologic traps, and the Upper Ordovician shelf slope turbidites; the second stage focusing on the reef shoal carbonate reservoirs from 2003 to 2006, during which oil and gas were first discovered in Well Gucheng 4; the third stage can be divided into two periods, in the first period, deeper insight into interbed karstification reservoir exploration, intense research on tricky seismic issues, selection of favorable zones, and 3D seismic deployment in advance laid a robust foundation for breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration; and during 2009–2012, through an in-depth investigation, Well Gucheng 6 was drilled, bringing about the major breakthrough in oil and gas exploration in this study area. This success proves that the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Gucheng area have good geological conditions and broad prospect for oil and gas exploration, which give us enlightenment in three aspects: a. new insight into geologic understanding is the prerequisite of exploration breakthrough; b. addressing bottleneck technologies, and acquiring 3D seismic data are the guarantees of exploration breakthrough; and c. emancipation of mind and persistent exploration are key to the findings in new domains.

  15. Rock uplift above the subduction megathrust at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly M.

    Deformation related to the transition from strike-slip to convergent slip during flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate has resulted in regions of focused rock uplift and exhumation. In the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains, faulting related to transpressional processes and bending of fault systems coupled with enhanced glacial erosion causes rapid exhumation. Underplating below the syntaxial bend farther west in the Chugach Mountains and central Prince William Sound causes focused, but less rapid, exhumation. Farther south in the Prince William Sound, plate boundary deformation transitions from strike-slip to nearly full convergence in the Montague Island and Hinchinbrook Island region, which is ˜20 km above the megathrust between the Yakutat microplate and overriding North American Plate. Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands are narrow, elongate, and steep, with a structural grain formed by several megathrust fault splays, some of which slipped during the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Presented here are 32 new apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 28 new apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island regions. Most AHe ages are Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ˜5 Ma to ˜20 Ma and are also younger at the SW end of Montague Island. These ages and corresponding exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island region is a narrow zone of intense deformation probably related to duplex thrusting along one or more megathrust fault splays. I interpret the rates of rock uplift and exhumation to have increased in the last ˜5 My, especially at the southwest end of the island system and farthest from the region dominated by strike-slip and transpressional deformation to the northeast. The narrow band of deformation along these islands likely represents the northwestern edge of a broader swath of plate boundary deformation between the Montague-Hinchinbrook Island region and the Kayak Island

  16. Intense uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau triggered rapid diversification of Phyllolobium (Leguminosae) in the Late Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Yun Kang; Yang Zhong; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    Phyllolobium, a recently established genus from subgenus Pogonophace of Astragalus, contains about 20 species and four sections, mostly endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The uplift of the QTP undoubtedly affected organismic evolution in the region, but further molecular dating in a phylogenetic context is required to test whether diversification is linked...

  17. Paleokarst on the top of the Maokou Formation: Further evidence for domal crustal uplift prior to the Emeishan flood volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Xu, Yi-Gang; Guan, Jun-Peng; Zhong, Yu-Ting

    2010-09-01

    The ~ 260 Ma Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) in southwest China has previously been demonstrated to provide compelling evidence for pre-volcanic crustal doming in support of the mantle plume hypothesis. However this has been questioned by Ukstins-Peate and Bryan (2008) by showing hydrothermal magmatic activity at the Daqiao section. To solve this argument, a detailed characterization of the contact between the Emeishan basalts and the Maokou Formation was carried out. The contact is shown to be an unconformity, which is characterized by paleokarst on top of the Maokou Formation, including paleokarst relief, sinkholes, caves, tower karst and its corresponding rocks (such as kaolinite, bauxite and ferruginous duricrust and collapsed breccias, etc.). This paleokarst unconformity was in turn covered or infilled by the Emeishan basalts and tuffs, suggesting that uplift and erosion occurred prior to the eruption of the ELIP. The extent of erosion of the Maokou Formation indicates the ELIP can be divided into three roughly concentric zones: the inner, intermediate, and outer zones. The paleokarst features on the top of Maokou Formation vary across the ELIP. In the inner zone, a likely sinkhole and an incision valley with 450 m relief in height are found. In the intermediate zone, various paleokarst landforms such as karst relief, sinkholes and tower karsts are well developed. Some sinkholes that developed in the Qixia Formation below the Maokou Formation imply that the paleorelief is more than 350 m in height. In the outer zone, the paleokarstic surface is a paleo-weathering layer with minor karstification and development of caves at 10-50 m. This spatial variation of the paleokarst reflects variation of uplift height across the ELIP. The extent of minimal uplift is estimated to be at least 450 m in the inner zone, 350 m in the intermediate zone, whereas uplift is minor (tens-50 m) in the outer zone. The magnitude and shape of the uplift is roughly consistent with

  18. The Characteristics on the Terrace and Uplift around the South-eastern part of Korean Peninsula for a Suitability of High level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hoon

    2009-08-01

    The result of existing studies on the uplift in Korean peninsula would be regarded as high variety and rough uplifting range because of different approach method and various geologic formation with some location. As the results of this studies, the uplift around the southern part of Korean peninsula was estimated as the range from 0.0096mm to 1.4mm/year according to a geologic formation and location. It could be For the applying to HLW disposal project, the study on the uplift characteristics should be conducted according to the following guidelines: - should be a master program for the characterization of uplift in Korean peninsula considering long-term and systematic - should be applied scientific and quantitative approach methods and made subjective results - should be required an effective approach focused on limited area such as eastern, southern and western part of peninsula

  19. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction due to base slab uplift on the seismic response of an HTGR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; Wesley, D.A.; Lee, T.H.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of the nonlinear soil-structure interaction effects resulting from substantial base slab uplift occurring during a seismic excitation are evaluated. The structure considered consisted of the containment building and prestressed concrete reactor vessel for a typical HTGR plant. A simplified dynamic mathematical model was utilized consisting of a conventional lumped mass structure with soil-structure interaction accounted for by translational and rotational springs whose properties are determined by elastic half space theory. Three different site soil conditions (a rock site, a moderately stiff soil and a soft soil site) and two levels of horizontal ground motion (0.3g and 0.5g earthquakes) were considered. It may be concluded that linear analysis can be used to conservatively estimate the important behavior of the base slab, even under conditions of substantial base slab uplift. For all cases investigated, linear analysis resulted in higher base overturning moments, greater toe pressures, and greater heel uplift distances than nonlinear analyses. It may also be concluded that the nonlinear effect of uplift does not result in any significant lengthening of the fundamental period of the structure. Also, except in the short period region only negligible differences exist between instructure response spectra based on linear analysis and those based on nonlinear analysis. Finally, for sites in which soil-structure interaction is not significant, as for the rock site, the peak structural response at all locations above the base mat are not significantly influenced by the nonlinear effects of base slab uplift. However, for the two soil sites, the peak shears and moments are, in a few instances, significantly different between linear and nonlinear analyses

  20. Late Quaternary uplift rate inferred from marine terraces, Muroto Peninsula, southwest Japan: Forearc deformation in an oblique subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsu'ura, Tabito

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic uplift rates across the Muroto Peninsula, in the southwest Japan forearc (the overriding plate in the southwest Japan oblique subduction zone), were estimated by mapping the elevations of the inner edges of marine terrace surfaces. The uplift rates inferred from marine terraces M1 and M2, which were correlated by tephrochronology with marine isotope stages (MIS) 5e and 5c, respectively, include some vertical offset by local faults but generally decrease northwestward from 1.2-1.6 m ky- 1 on Cape Muroto to 0.3-0.7 m ky- 1 in the Kochi Plain. The vertical deformation of the Muroto Peninsula since MIS 5e and 5c was interpreted as a combination of regional uplift and folding related to the arc-normal offshore Muroto-Misaki fault. A regional uplift rate of 0.46 m ky- 1 was estimated from terraces on the Muroto Peninsula, and the residual deformation of these terraces was attributed to fault-related folding. A mass-balance calculation yielded a shortening rate of 0.71-0.77 m ky- 1 for the Muroto Peninsula, with the Muroto-Misaki fault accounting for 0.60-0.71 m ky- 1, but these rates may be overestimated by as much as 10% given variations of several meters in the elevation difference between the buried shoreline angles and terrace inner edges in the study area. A thrust fault model with flat (5-10° dip) and ramp (60° dip) components is proposed to explain the shortening rate and uplift rate of the Muroto-Misaki fault since MIS 5e. Bedrock deformation also indicates that the northern extension of this fault corresponds to the older Muroto Flexure.

  1. Modulation of the erosion rate of an uplifting landscape by long-term climate change: An experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussirou, Bérangé; Bonnet, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    Whether or not climatic variations play a major role in setting the erosion rate of continental landscapes is a key factor in demonstrating the influence of climate on the tectonic evolution of mountain belts and understanding how clastic deposits preserved in sedimentary basins may record climatic variations. Here, we investigate how a change in precipitation influences the erosional dynamics of laboratory-scale landscapes that evolved under a combination of uplift and rainfall forcings. We consider here the impact of a decrease in the precipitation rate of finite duration on the erosive response of a landscape forced by a constant uplift and initially at a steady state (SS1). We performed several experiments with the same amplitude but different durations of precipitation decrease (Tp). We observe that the decrease in precipitation induces a phase of surface uplift of landscapes to a new steady state condition (SS2); however, the details of the uplift histories (timing, rate) differ between the experiments according to Tp. We also observe a decrease in the erosion rate induced by the precipitation change; however, the timing and amplitude of this decrease vary according to Tp, defining a delayed and damped erosion signal. Our data show that the landscape response to precipitation change is dictated by a critical water-to-rock ratio (ratio of precipitation over uplift) that likely corresponds to a geomorphic threshold. Our study suggests that variations in precipitation that occur at a geological time scale (> 106 years) may have a weak impact on the erosion of landscapes and on the delivery of siliciclastic material to large rivers and sedimentary basins.

  2. Surface Evolution and Uplift History of the Central Apennines, Italy: New Constraints from Thermochronology and Paleoaltimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José, M.; Faccenna, C.; Fellin, M. G.; Willett, S.; Funiciello, F.; Caves Rugenstein, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The topography of mountain belts results from interactions between surface processes, lithospheric thickening, and mantle dynamics. However, the contributions of each mechanism have yet to be clearly quantified. The Apennines (Italy) provide a study area where all of these processes are at play. The central part of the Apennines is an orogenic wedge formed by the westward subducting Adriatic microplate during Miocene-Pliocene, and overlies an area of local slab detachment. Recent studies indicate anomalously high uplift rates in this area (Faccenna et al., 2015), as well as a simultaneous onset of post-orogenic extension across the Central Apennines at ̴ 2 Ma (Cosentino et al., 2017). These observations have been interpreted as an expression of dynamic topography due to the slab break-off and inherent mantle upwelling. In order to test this hypothesis and further constrain the topographic evolution of the orogen, we use low-temperature thermochronology to date the exhumation, and stable isotope paleoaltimetry (18O/16O on carbonates) to reconstruct paleoelevations. We couple this paleotopographic dataset with geomorphological analysis of the present day topography. Here we present a set of 30 new (U-Th)/He cooling ages on apatites (AHe) sampled from widespread syn-orogenic flysch basin deposits (including one high-resolution vertical profile), as well as preliminary isotopic measurements. Initial results show mean AHe ages ranging from 1.62 (± 0.38 ) Ma to 2.6 (±0.02) Ma, suggesting a regionally uniform exhumation during Pleistocene. Denudation rates inferred from our vertical profile are extremely high (>1 mm/year from 2 to 1 Ma). Some samples have not been thermally reset due to insufficient burial, and yield exhumation ages older than stratigraphic depositional ages (generally > 5 Ma). These results support the hypothesis that exhumation is mainly controlled by rapid regional scale uplift related to the opening of the Adriatic slab window at the end of the

  3. Episodes of subsidence and uplift of the conjugate margins of Greenland and Norway after opening of the NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Chalmers, James A.

    2015-04-01

    We have undertaken a regional study of the thermo-­tectonic development of East Greenland (68-75°N) and of southern Norway (58-64°N). We take advantage of the general observation that that the effects of uplift often are reflected more clearly onshore than offshore, and of the specific condition that the mountains of southern East Greenland expose thick basalts that were extruded onto a largely horizontal lava plain near sea level during breakup of the NE Atlantic at the Paleocene-Eocene transition. It is thus clear that the present-­day elevation of these basalts up to 3.7 km a.s.l. were reached after breakup. Our results based on apatite fission-­track analysis (AFTA) data from East Greenland reveal a long history of post-­Palaeozoic burial and exhumation across the region and show that the terrains of Palaeozoic and older rocks were buried below a 2-3 km­-thick cover prior to a series of Mesozoic events of uplift and exhumation. The AFTA results from southern Norway reveal events of Mesozoic uplift and exhumation that are broadly simultaneous with those in Greenland. Volcanic and sedimentary rocks accumulated on the subsiding, East Greenland margin during and following breakup and then began to be exhumed during late Eocene uplift that preceded a major, early Oligocene plate reorganization in the NE Atlantic. The Norwegian margin also experienced Eocene subsidence and burial. Our AFTA data from southern Norway show evidence of an event of mid­Cenozoic uplift and exhumation that overlap with the early Oligocene onset of progradation of clastic wedges towards the south and with the formation of a major, late Eocene unconformity along the NW European margin. The uplift event at the Eocene-Oligocene transition that affected wide areas in the NE Atlantic domain was followed by two regional events of uplift and incision of the East Greenland margin in the late Miocene and Pliocene whereas the Neogene uplift of southern Norway began in the early Miocene and was

  4. Revisiting the evolutionary events in Allium subgenus Cyathophora (Amaryllidaceae): Insights into the effect of the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift and Quaternary climatic fluctuations to the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-Jie; Tan, Jin-Bo; Xie, Deng-Feng; Huang, De-Qing; Gao, Yun-Dong; He, Xing-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The respective roles that the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift around 4-3 Ma and Quaternary climatic oscillations played in causing the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) remain unknown. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two varieties of Allium cyathophorum and A. spicatum of subgenus Cyathophora, restricted to the HMR and the western QTP, respectively. Forty-five populations were surveyed for chloroplast and nuclear sequence variation to evaluate phylogenetic relationships, dates of divergence and ancestral area/inflorescence reconstructions. In addition, analyses were conducted on discernable micromorphologies, cytotypes and seed size variation. Our results indicated that two varieties of A. cyathophorum are separate species, i.e. A. farreri and A. cyathophorum, and the initial split of Cyathophora was triggered by the HMR uplift around 4-3 Ma. Subsequently, A. spicatum originated through the strengthened aridification in the western QTP induced vicariance of the ancestral populations in the HMR during the early Pleistocene. A self-sustaining allotetraploid species from A. farreri and A. cyathophorum was established during an interglacial period of penultimate glaciation of the QTP. Seed size variation also supports these by the colonization-competition tradeoff among small and large seeds. Our findings appear to suggest that the HMR uplift could have strengthened the development of the Asian monsoon regimes in this region and aridification in the western QTP, while the Quaternary climatic oscillations spurred the allopatric species' range shifts and created new open microhabitat for the alloploid species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mega-tsunami deposits or evidence of uplift within the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    For several years there has been a controversy over the origin of coral-bearing deposits on the island of Lanai (Hawaii). Studies underway have expanded the study of marine deposits from Lanai to adjacent islands. Coral-bearing deposits are present at elevations up to 190 m on Lanai, 90 m on Maui, 90 m on Molokai, 30 m Oahu, 30 m on Niihau, roughly 75 m on Kauai (as well as a few m above sea level on the Kohala Volcano on the island of Hawaii). The deposits show a persistent pattern of increased weathering, color change, increasing age and increase in the number of fossils now extinct in Hawaiian waters, with elevation above modern sea level. Changes in slope are also observed reflecting changing relative sea level. A review of radiometric ages suggests in-situ corals as well as marine conglomerates were deposited near sea level and were contemporaneous. The distribution, stratigraphy and age of marine sediments around the islands are consistent with a history of uplift combined with changing sea level. We document the age, rock and fossil characteristics and distribution of sub-aerially exposed marine sediments, in the Hawaiian Island chain. We suggest that the Hawaiian Islands have experienced lithospheric adjustments during the last 500,000 years that have left marine deposits exposed above sea level.

  6. Piecewise Delamination Drives Uplift in the Atlas Mountains Region of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E.; Martin Davila, J.; mimoun, H.; Josep, G.; Palomeras, I.

    2013-12-01

    The elevation of the intra-continental Atlas Mountains of Morocco and surrounding regions requires a mantle component of buoyancy, and there is consensus that this buoyancy results from an abnormally thin lithosphere. Lithospheric delamination under the Atlas Mountains and thermal erosion caused by upwelling mantle have each been suggested as thinning mechanisms. We use seismic tomography to image the upper mantle of Morocco by inverting teleseimic p-wave delay times, complemented with local delays, recorded on a dense array of stations in the Iberian peninsula and Morocco. A surface wave model provides constraint on the shallower layers. We determine the geometry of lithospheric cavities and mantle upwelling beneath the Middle Atlas and central High Atlas, and image delaminated lithosphere at ~400 km beneath the Middle Atlas. We propose discontinuous delamination of an intrinsically unstable Atlas lithosphere, enabled by the presence of anomalously hot mantle, as a mechanism for producing the imaged structures. The Atlas lithosphere was made unstable by a combination of tectonic shortening and eclogite loading during Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic magmatism. The presence of hot mantle, sourced from regional upwellings in northern Africa or the Canary Islands, enabled the mobilization of this lithosphere. Flow around the retreating Alboran slab focused upwelling mantle under the Middle Atlas, where we image the most recent delamination. The Atlas Mountains of Morocco stand as an example of mantle-generated uplift and large-scale lithospheric loss in a mildly contractional orogen.

  7. A resposta broncodilatadora em doentes com DPOC (dados do estudo UPLIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tashkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: No início do estudo, foi realizada espirometria antes e depois de 80 μg de ipratrópio e 400 μg de salbutamol, administrados 90 e 30 minutos antes, respectivamente. A administração de dois broncodilatadores e a sua temporalidade teve como objectivo atingir a broncodilatação máxima ou quase máxima. O FEV1 basal após esta broncodilatação, no estudo UPLIFT, permitiu: – examinar a resposta broncodilatadora aguda numa grande coorte de doentes com DPOC moderada a muito grave; – determinar o que pode ser considerado critério de resposta usando vários critérios de reversibilidade; – avaliar as características dos doentes com e sem reversibilidade.

  8. Applicability of Various Load Test Interpretation Criteria in Measuring Driven Precast Concrete Pile Uplift Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia M. Marcos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a comprehensive analysis of load test interpretation criteria to determine their suitability to driven precast concrete (PC pile uplift capacity. A database was developed containing static pile load tests and utilized for the evaluation. The piles were round and square cross-sections under drained and undrained loading. To explore and compare their behavior, the stored data were categorized into four groups. In general, the trends of every criterion for the four groups were notably the same. In both drained and undrained loading, slightly larger interpreted capacities were demonstrated by square piles than by round piles. Moreover, round piles demonstrated more ductile load-displacement response than square piles especially in undrained loading. Statistical analyses presented that smaller values of displacements exhibited higher coefficient of variation. The drained and undrained tests were compared and results showed less variability in drained than undrained loading and capacity ratios (Qx/QCHIN in drained loading were slightly higher than in undrained loading. The interrelationship and applicability of these criteria as well as the design recommendations in terms of normalized capacity and displacement were given based on the analyses.

  9. Time of uplift and thermal history of the Papuan Fold-belt -implications for hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Apatite fission track analysis of 35 Mesozoic sandstone and basement samples from outcrop, core and cuttings from the Papuan Fold-Belt(PFB) has demonstrated that the rocks throughout the fold-belt were uplifted close to 4.0±0.5 Ma. With increasing temperature, fission tracks in apatite crystals are progressively annealed, becoming shorter and less abundant, therefore giving a reduced apparent age. At temperatures of 100 deg.C. - 130 deg.C. the track damage is repaired (complete annealing). A typical partial annealing zone is illustrated. By comparing the annealing curves of the various stratigraphic sections with the idealized partial annealing zone curve, it is possible to determine the thermal maturity of each section, shown by the relative depths of burial of the Toro sandstone, the main hydrocarbon reservoir. Determining depth of burial assumes a consistent temperature gradient throughout the PFB, but increased thermal maturity could also be caused by higher local heat flow. From this analysis it is inferred that in the western PFB the rocks were more deeply buried, so would have generated gas-condensate, whilst shallower burial to the east allowed oil generation. This concurs with the gas-condensate at Juha, in the west, and oil at Iagifu, in the east. 4 refs

  10. Oxygen ion uplift and satellite drag effects during the 30 October 2003 daytime superfountain event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The prompt penetration of interplanetary electric fields (IEFs to the dayside low-latitude ionosphere during the first ~2 h of a superstorm is estimated and applied to a modified NRL SAMI2 code for the 30 October 2003 event. In our simulations, the dayside ionospheric O+ is convected to higher altitudes (~600 km and higher latitudes (~±25° to 30°, forming highly displaced equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA peaks. This feature plus others are consistent with previously published CHAMP electron (TEC measurements and with the dayside superfountain model. The rapid upward motion of the O+ ions causes neutral oxygen (O uplift due to ion-neutral drag. It is estimated that above ~400 km altitude the O densities within the displaced EIAs can be increased substantially over quiet time values. The latter feature will cause increased drag for low-altitude satellites. This newly predicted phenomenon is expected to be typical for superstorm/IEF events.

  11. Orogen-scale uplift in the central Italian Apennines drives episodic behaviour of earthquake faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, P A; Phillips, R J; Roberts, G P; McCaffrey, K; Zijerveld, L J J; Gregory, L C; Faure Walker, J; Wedmore, L N J; Dunai, T J; Binnie, S A; Freeman, S P H T; Wilcken, K; Shanks, R P; Huismans, R S; Papanikolaou, I; Michetti, A M; Wilkinson, M

    2017-03-21

    Many areas of the Earth's crust deform by distributed extensional faulting and complex fault interactions are often observed. Geodetic data generally indicate a simpler picture of continuum deformation over decades but relating this behaviour to earthquake occurrence over centuries, given numerous potentially active faults, remains a global problem in hazard assessment. We address this challenge for an array of seismogenic faults in the central Italian Apennines, where crustal extension and devastating earthquakes occur in response to regional surface uplift. We constrain fault slip-rates since ~18 ka using variations in cosmogenic 36 Cl measured on bedrock scarps, mapped using LiDAR and ground penetrating radar, and compare these rates to those inferred from geodesy. The 36 Cl data reveal that individual faults typically accumulate meters of displacement relatively rapidly over several thousand years, separated by similar length time intervals when slip-rates are much lower, and activity shifts between faults across strike. Our rates agree with continuum deformation rates when averaged over long spatial or temporal scales (10 4  yr; 10 2  km) but over shorter timescales most of the deformation may be accommodated by fault array. We attribute the shifts in activity to temporal variations in the mechanical work of faulting.

  12. A tectonically uplifted marine shoreline deposit, Knights Point, Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, A.F.; Kostro, F.

    2006-01-01

    An 11 m thick subhorizontal beach deposit rests on steeply dipping Cretaceous bedrock. Sediments, ranging from a basal boulder bed to upper sands, are poorly sorted and negatively skewed, indicating pronounced winnowing of fine material. Impact features on quartz grain surfaces attest to high-energy turbulent environments, and are similar to those found on clasts from modern nearby beaches. The Haast River was source to some of the sand and gravel. Heavy minerals from the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt were transported 85 km by fluvial/glacial and longshore drift processes, necessitating caution when using apparent lateral separation of source material for estimating strike-slip displacement rates on the Alpine Fault. An optical luminescence age estimate of 123 ± 7 ka for Knights Point beach sands dates to the last interglacial (MIS 5e). A shore-platform altitude of 113 m a.s.l. requires tectonic uplift of the Australian plate of 0.86 mm/yr, an order of magnitude less than the nearby Pacific plate. (author). 66 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Stratigraphy and structure of the northern and western flanks of the Black Hills Uplift, Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.S.; Mapel, W.J.; Bergendahl, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the stratigraphy and structure of an area of about 5000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming and adjacent parts of Montana and South Dakota. The area includes the northern end and part of the western side of the Black Hills Uplift and the adjoining part of the Powder River Basin. About 11,000 ft of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Mississippian to Early Tertiary are exposed in the area, not including surficial deposits of Tertiary (.) and Quaternary age. Oil is produced from several fields on the wet side of the Black Hills Uplift in Wyoming. Bentonite is mined at many places. The Fort Union and Wasatch Formations contain large reserves of sub-bituminous coal, and Lakota Formation contains some bituminous coal

  14. Simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change in southwest Scandinavia from inversion of sea level data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Hansen, Jens Morten; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2014-01-01

    the relative sea level data. Similar independent data do not exist for ancient times. The purpose of this study is to test two simple inversion approaches for simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change rates for ancient times in areas where a dense coverage of relative...... sea level data exists and well-constrained average lithospheric movement values are known from, for example glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. The inversion approaches are tested and used for simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change rates in southwest...... Scandinavia from modern relative sea level data series that cover the period from 1900 to 2000. In both approaches, a priori information is required to solve the inverse problem. A priori information about the average vertical lithospheric movement in the area of interest is critical for the quality...

  15. Exhumation of Basement-cored Uplifts: Example of the Kyrgyz Range Quantified with Apatite Fission-track Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Edward R.; Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Douglas; Mikolaichuk, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The Kyrgyz Range, the northernmost portion of the Kyrgyzstan Tien Shan, displays topographic evidence for lateral propagation of surface uplift and exhumation. The highest and most deeply dissected segment lies in the center of the range. To the east, topography and relief decrease, and preserved remnants of a Cretaceous regional erosion surface imply minimal amounts of bedrock exhumation. The timing of exhumation of range segments defines the lateral propagation rate of the range-bounding reverse fault and quantifies the time and erosion depth needed to transform a mountain range from a juvenile to a mature morphology. New apatite fission-track (AFT) data from three transects from the eastern Kyrgyz Range, combined with published AFT data, demonstrate that the range has propagated over 110 km eastwards over the last 7-11 Myr. Based on the thermal and topographic evolutionary history, we present a model for a time-varying exhumation rate driven by rock uplift and changes in erodability and the time scale of geomorphic adjustment to surface uplift. Easily eroded, Cenozoic sedimentary rocks overlying resistant basement control early, rapid exhumation and slow surface upliftrates. As increasing amounts of resistant basement are exposed, exhumation rates decrease while surface uplift rates are sustained or increase, thereby growing topography. As the range becomes high enough to cause ice accumulation and develop steep river valleys, fluvial and glacial erosion become more powerful and exhumation rates once again increase. Independently determined range-noma1 shortening rates have also varied over time, suggesting a feedback between erosional efficiency and shortening rate.

  16. Daily uplifts and coping as a buffer against everyday hassles: Relationship with stress reactions over time in military personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Ulf Gerry; Ohlsson, Alicia; Berglund, Anna Karin; Nilsson, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of how daily hassles and uplifts interact with each other and with stress reactions over time in military personnel. Interviews were conducted with 15 Swedish veterans five years after an international peace enforcement mission. The grounded theory method was used and result patterns were generated for six specific time periods distributed before, during, and after the mission. A theoretical model was developed showing that everyday ...

  17. Receiver function and gravity constraints on crustal structure and vertical movements of the Upper Mississippi Embayment and Ozark Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.; Mickus, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    The Upper Mississippi Embayment (UME), where the seismically active New Madrid Seismic Zone resides, experienced two phases of subsidence commencing in the Late Precambrian and Cretaceous, respectively. To provide new constraints on models proposed for the mechanisms responsible for the subsidence, we computed and stacked P-to-S receiver functions recorded by 49 USArray and other seismic stations located in the UME and the adjacent Ozark Uplift and modeled Bouguer gravity anomaly data. The inferred thickness, density, and Vp/Vs of the upper and lower crustal layers suggest that the UME is characterized by a mafic and high-density upper crustal layer of ˜30 km thickness, which is underlain by a higher-density lower crustal layer of up to ˜15 km. Those measurements, in the background of previously published geological observations on the subsidence and uplift history of the UME, are in agreement with the model that the Cretaceous subsidence, which was suggested to be preceded by an approximately 2 km uplift, was the consequence of the passage of a previously proposed thermal plume. The thermoelastic effects of the plume would have induced wide-spread intrusion of mafic mantle material into the weak UME crust fractured by Precambrian rifting and increased its density, resulting in renewed subsidence after the thermal source was removed. In contrast, the Ozark Uplift has crustal density, thickness, and Vp/Vs measurements that are comparable to those observed on cratonic areas, suggesting an overall normal crust without significant modification by the proposed plume, probably owing to the relatively strong and thick lithosphere.

  18. Long-Term Uplift in the Altiplano-Puna Neovolcanic Zone: Evidence of an Active Magmatic Diapir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialko, Y.; Pearse, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present InSAR observations of a long-term uplift in the Altiplano-Puna neovolcanic zone (central Andes, South America). Previous observations revealed a a massive Ultra Low Velocity Zone (ULVZ) at depth of 17-19 km (Zandt et al., 2003), and surface deformation that was attributed to Uturuncu, a dormant volcano in the middle of the Altiplano-Puna neovolcanic zone (Pritchard and Simons, 2002). Our time series analysis of combined data from different sensors (ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT), satellite tracks, and observation modes (fine beam and ScanSAR) reveals that the central uplift has persisted at a nearly constant rate of ~1 cm/yr over the last two decades, and is surrounded by a broad zone of subsidence. We use the satellite line-of-sight velocities from different look directions to constrain the depth and geometry of the inferred sources of magmatic unrest. Inversions based on elastic half-space models indicate that the inflation source is located well below the brittle-ductile transition, and likely resides at the depth of the seismically imaged ULVZ. We investigated the effects of inelastic deformation in the ambient crust using finite element models. The models incorporated laboratory-derived rheologies of the ambient crust, and geotherms appropriate for an active neo-volcanic zone such as the one in the Altiplano-Puna province. Based on a large number of numerical simulations constrained by the observed surface velocities, we conclude that the ongoing uplift and peripheral subsidence result from a large mid-crustal diapir fed by a partially molten source region in the middle crust. The observed pattern of surface deformation due to the Altiplano-Puna ULVZ is remarkably similar to that due to the Socorro Magma Body (SMB) in central New Mexico, USA (Pearse and Fialko, 2010), suggesting a common process. mosaic of the mean LOS velocity showing uplift and peripheral subsidence due to the inferred mid-crustal diapir.

  19. Late Eocene Uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains, Oman, Supported by Stratigraphy and Low-Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Reuben J.; Ring, Uwe; Thomson, Stuart N.; den Brok, Bas; Stübner, Konstanze

    2017-12-01

    Uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains in Oman has been related to either Late Cretaceous ophiolite obduction or the Neogene Zagros collision. To test these hypotheses, the cooling of the central Al Hajar Mountains is constrained by 10 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe), 15 fission track (AFT), and four zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) sample ages. These data show differential cooling between the two major structural culminations of the mountains. In the 3 km high Jabal Akhdar culmination AHe single-grain ages range between 39 ± 2 Ma and 10 ± 1 Ma (2σ errors), AFT ages range from 51 ± 8 Ma to 32 ± 4 Ma, and ZHe single-grain ages range from 62 ± 3 Ma to 39 ± 2 Ma. In the 2 km high Saih Hatat culmination AHe ages range from 26 ± 4 to 12 ± 4 Ma, AFT ages from 73 ± 19 Ma to 57 ± 8 Ma, and ZHe single-grain ages from 81 ± 4 Ma to 58 ± 3 Ma. Thermal modeling demonstrates that cooling associated with uplift and erosion initiated at 40 Ma, indicating that uplift occurred 30 Myr after ophiolite obduction and at least 10 Myr before the Zagros collision. Therefore, this uplift cannot be related to either event. We propose that crustal thickening supporting the topography of the Al Hajar Mountains was caused by a slowdown of Makran subduction and that north Oman took up the residual fraction of N-S convergence between Arabia and Eurasia.

  20. Post-Palaeozoic uplift history of southeastern Australia revisited: results from a process-based mode of landscape evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Beek, P.A.; Braun, J.; Lambeck, K.

    1999-01-01

    Developments over the last decade in the debate concerning the geomorphic evolution of the south-eastern Australian highlands are reviewed, taking as a starting point the model of passive denudation and isostatic rebound of a Palaeozoic mountain belt presented by Lambeck and Stephenson (1986). This model has been popular in the geomorphological community because it provides a quantitative framework to explain the very low rates of landscape evolution inferred from most geomorphological studies. The model has, however, also been criticised for its treatment of erosion as being linearly dependent on elevation, as well as for its predictions of regional uplift and denudation patterns that are not in accord with inferences from fission-track thermochronological data. Part of controversy stems from conceptual misunderstandings on the interpretation of data and from insufficient consideration of questions of spatial and temporal scale. First results of a new physical process-based model for large-scale long-term landscape evolution in the south-eastern highlands are presented. These show that the denudation history and drainage development of south-eastern Australia can be explained to a first order without invoking large-scale mid-Cretaceous or Tertiary uplift events. The model predicts drainage patterns in southeastern Australia to have evolved by rearrangement of an initially north-westerly directed drainage net, caused by drops in base-level during Mesozoic rifting along the southern and eastern margins of the study region. The geomorphology and available fission-track data in the Snowy Mountains region (and possibly also in the Bathurst - Blue Mountains region) do require renewed (mid Cretaceous?) uplift to have taken place. The model results are discussed in the light of recent controversies surrounding the southeastern highlands-their uplift history, denudation rates, depth of denudation of the coastal strip and inferred Mesozoic drainage patterns. Copyright (1999

  1. Evaluation of Extended Wall OSB Sheathing Connection under Combined Uplift and Shear Loading for 24-inch Heel Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kochkin; Andrew DeRenzis; Xiping Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the extended wall structural panel connection in resisting combined uplift and shear forces at the roof-to-wall interface with a focus on a truss heel height of 24 in. to address the expected increases in the depth of attic insulation used in Climate Zones 5 and higher. Five full-size roof-wall assemblies were...

  2. Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Raton Basin - Sierra Grande Uplift Province, Colorado and New Mexico - USGS Province 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province of southeastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico (USGS Province 41). The Cretaceous Vermejo Formation and Cretaceous-Tertiary Raton Formation have production and undiscovered resources of coalbed methane. Other formations in the province exhibit potential for gas resources and limited production. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define two total petroleum systems and five assessment units. All five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered gas resources. Oil resources were not assessed because of the limited potential due to levels of thermal maturity of petroleum source rocks.

  3. Erosion in southern Tibet shut down at ∼10 Ma due to enhanced rock uplift within the Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marissa M; Fox, Matthew; Schmidt, Jennifer L; Tripathy-Lang, Alka; Wielicki, Matthew M; Harrison, T Mark; Zeitler, Peter K; Shuster, David L

    2015-09-29

    Exhumation of the southern Tibetan plateau margin reflects interplay between surface and lithospheric dynamics within the Himalaya-Tibet orogen. We report thermochronometric data from a 1.2-km elevation transect within granitoids of the eastern Lhasa terrane, southern Tibet, which indicate rapid exhumation exceeding 1 km/Ma from 17-16 to 12-11 Ma followed by very slow exhumation to the present. We hypothesize that these changes in exhumation occurred in response to changes in the loci and rate of rock uplift and the resulting southward shift of the main topographic and drainage divides from within the Lhasa terrane to their current positions within the Himalaya. At ∼17 Ma, steep erosive drainage networks would have flowed across the Himalaya and greater amounts of moisture would have advected into the Lhasa terrane to drive large-scale erosional exhumation. As convergence thickened and widened the Himalaya, the orographic barrier to precipitation in southern Tibet terrane would have strengthened. Previously documented midcrustal duplexing around 10 Ma generated a zone of high rock uplift within the Himalaya. We use numerical simulations as a conceptual tool to highlight how a zone of high rock uplift could have defeated transverse drainage networks, resulting in substantial drainage reorganization. When combined with a strengthening orographic barrier to precipitation, this drainage reorganization would have driven the sharp reduction in exhumation rate we observe in southern Tibet.

  4. Everyday hassles and uplifts among women on long-term sick-leave due to stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gun; Eklund, Mona; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2012-05-01

    A balance between different experiences of occupations in everyday life is important for well-being. The study aim was to describe hassles and uplifts in everyday occupations among women on long-term sick-leave due to stress-related disorders. The sample consisted of 77 women and experiences were collected by the THU-5 instrument. The statements were analysed using quantitative content analysis. Data were categorized into three domains of hassles concerning oneself, doings, and social and physical context. The same domains occurred among the uplifts. Hassles were mostly generated by disturbing people around the women and by their limited body functions. The women were uplifted by supportive social relationships and by performing relaxing and calming occupations. The study illuminates the strong need for social support among women on sick-leave, as well as their low level of energy, which was an obvious obstacle for performing occupations. It is suggested that, in order to increase well-being in the target group, the occupational therapist should meet their need for occupations that match their current level of energy. The challenge for the client is to avoid remaining in a pattern of low-demand occupations without exceeding her/his capacity and returning to an unhealthy pattern of occupations.

  5. New approach to resolve the amount of Quaternary uplift and associated denudation of the mountain ranges in the Japanese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Sueoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature thermochronology is a widely used tool for revealing denudation histories of mountain ranges. Although this technique has been applied mainly to continental orogens, such as the European Alps, Himalayas, and Andes, recent technological development of low-temperature thermochronology has made it applicable to a wider variety of mountain ranges with various sizes and tectonic histories. The Japanese Islands comprise young and active island arcs, where an early stage of mountain range formation is observed. Numerous attempts have been made to constrain the uplift and denudation histories of the mountains in the Japanese Islands using geologic, geomorphologic, or geodetic methods. However, the number of thermochronometric attempts has been limited primarily due to the small amount of total denudation since the initiation of the uplift. In this review paper, we introduce the tectonic and geomorphic settings of the mountain ranges in the Japanese Islands, and discuss previous attempts to estimate uplift or denudation of the Japanese mountains using methods other than thermochronology. Furthermore, we discuss problems of the thermochronometric applications in revealing denudation histories of the Japanese mountains. Finally, we present a case study of the Kiso Range in central Japan and discuss the current effectiveness and applicability of low-temperature thermochronology to the Japanese mountainous areas.

  6. Analyzing the effect of large rotations on the seismic response of structures subjected to foundation local uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Abbas N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with seismic analysis of structures by taking into account soil-structure interaction where the structure is modeled by an equivalent flexible beam mounted on a rigid foundation that is supported by a Winkler like soil. The foundation is assumed to undergo local uplift and the rotations are considered to be large. The coupling of the system is represented by a series of springs and damping elements that are distributed over the entire width of the foundation. The non-linear equations of motion of the system were derived by taking into account the equilibrium of the coupled foundation-structure system where the structure was idealized as a single-degree-of-freedom. The seismic response of the structure was calculated under the occurrence of foundation uplift for both large and small rotations. The non-linear differential system of equations was integrated by using the Matlab command ode15s. The maximum response has been determined as function of the intensity of the earthquake, the slenderness of the structure and the damping ratio. It was found that considering local uplift with small rotations of foundation under seismic loading leads to unfavorable structural response in comparison with the case of large rotations.

  7. Postglacial uplift of the eastern Gulf of Finland-Lake Ladoga region: models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amantov, Aleksey; Fjeldskaar, Willy; Amantova, Marina

    2015-04-01

    The eastern Gulf of Finland - Lake Ladoga region - is at the peripheral part of the Fennoscandian post-glacial uplift. We compared different modeling results for this region with observations, including our revision of geomorphological traces of paleo shorelevel. As in many parts of the general Baltic-White Sea bedrock lowland at the margin of the Fennoscandian Shield, the bedrock landscape was modified by glaciers, but it was also the major controlling factor for the history of glacial grows and decays. First-order landforms of this segment are: Lake Ladoga-Lake Ilmen lowland, Lembolovo High of the Karelic Isthmus and Neva-Gulf of Finland lowland. The range of the bedrock topography is close to 350 m. The landforms reflect different glacial behavior during stadials, with fast movement and strong erosion in northern Ladoga, but passive motion and accumulation around Lembolovo High. The differences influenced the ice sheet and deglaciation history. The shore level displacements in this area are slightly different than westwards in the Baltic area; the shoreline tilts are usually lower in southern-central part of the eastern Gulf of Finland-lake Ladoga region. For example, the shoreline tilts at 11 600 BP in the Baltic Ice Lake in the south-east range from 0.55 to 0.31 m/km. The slope of the Ancylus shoreline varies from 0.12 to 0.18 m/km, increasing to almost the double in the north-western area. Similarly, the Littorina shore level is tilted only 0.08 m/km, rising to 0.14 m/km in the north-west. We have used this data in our high resolution modeling involving glacial isostasy, hydro isostasy, sediment isostasy, and gravity field changes. The mopdeling is based on Earth rheology model with a low-viscosity asthenosphere of thickness less than 150 km and viscosity less than 7.0x10**19 Pa s above a mantle of viscosity 10**21 Pa s, and an effective elastic lithosphere thickness of 30-40 km (flexural rigidity 10**24 Nm). The specific uplift features in the area are

  8. Neogene Uplift and Exhumation of Plutonic Bodies in the Beni Bou Ifrour Massif (Nador, northeastern Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Noëmie; Jolivet, Laurent; Branquet, Yannick; Bourdier, Jean-Louis; Jolivet, Marc; Marcoux, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In Neogene times, the whole Mediterranean Sea was the center of an intense magmatic activity. This post-collisional magmatism produced a large amount of volcanic edifices through the Alpine belts, together with some intrusives. These plutonic bodies can be associated with skarn-type mineralization, well-known in Elba Island or Serifos Island (Cyclades), where they are generally exhumed by detachment faults. In Morocco, the plutons hosted by the Beni Bou Ifrour massif are connected to the biggest skarn-type iron concentrations of the country (production > 60 Mt, reserves ≈ 25 Mt). The purpose of this work is to explain the late uplift of this massif and subsequent exhumation of the intrusives. As a final product of the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence since ca. 70 Ma, the Rif Mountains constitute the westernmost segment of the Mediterranean Alpine belts. In the oriental part of this range, volcanic summits and Paleozoic to Mesozoic massifs outcrop in the surrounding Mio-Pliocene plains. The Beni Bou Ifrour massif, in the Nador province, consists in a dome-shaped folded Mesozoic series (Domerian to Barremian) affected by a slight epizonal regional metamorphism (ca. 14-12 Ma), dislocated by Neogene NE-SW faults and eventually sealed by upper Miocene transgressive sediments. The hosted intrusives (7.58 ± 0.03 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005) are the plutonic equivalents to the potassic calc-alkaline lavas (andesites mainly) from the surrounding "satellite" volcanic massifs. They turn out to stand in higher topographic position than the younger shoshonitic lavas of the neighboring Gourougou stratovolcano (6.12 ± 0.01 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005). Previous studies have attributed this uplift to the action of normal faults (pull-apart basins; Guillemin & Houzay, 1982), thrusting (Kerchaoui, 1985; 1995) or even of a caldeira resurgence (El Bakkali, 1995). To discriminate against those exhumation mechanisms, field work has been performed, coming along with new cross-sections to

  9. Application of the CO2-PENS risk analysis tool to the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, P.H.; Pawar, R.J.; Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.; Deng, H.; Lettelier, B.C.; Viswanathan, H.S.; Sanzo, D.L.; Keating, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    We describe preliminary application of the CO2-PENS performance and risk analysis tool to a planned geologic CO2 sequestration demonstration project in the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU), located in south western Wyoming. We use data from the RSU to populate CO2-PENS, an evolving system-level modeling tool developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This tool has been designed to generate performance and risk assessment calculations for the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Our approach follows Systems Analysis logic and includes estimates of uncertainty in model parameters and Monte-Carlo simulations that lead to probabilistic results. Probabilistic results provide decision makers with a range in the likelihood of different outcomes. Herein we present results from a newly implemented approach in CO 2-PENS that captures site-specific spatially coherent details such as topography on the reservoir/cap-rock interface, changes in saturation and pressure during injection, and dip on overlying aquifers that may be impacted by leakage upward through wellbores and faults. We present simulations of CO 2 injection under different uncertainty distributions for hypothetical leaking wells and faults. Although results are preliminary and to be used only for demonstration of the approach, future results of the risk analysis will form the basis for a discussion on methods to reduce uncertainty in the risk calculations. Additionally, we present ideas on using the model to help locate monitoring equipment to detect potential leaks. By maintaining site-specific details in the CO2-PENS analysis we provide a tool that allows more logical presentations to stakeholders in the region. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Earthquakes and Uplift At Somma-vesuvius Before The 79 A.d. Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano, A.

    In the morning of 24 August of the year 79 A. D. the famous eruption of Pompei be- gan with a phreatomagmatic manifestation. For several years a number of earthquakes are likely to have occurred at Vesuvius together with unrest episodes. The event of 5 February 62 A.D., which is the best known and the strongest earthquake ever gener- ated by the Vesuvius, and that of 64, are the only events that can be historiographically dated. However, a number of historical epigraphical and archeological evidences ad- vocate the view that several seismic crisis occurred, characterized by strong enough earthquakes to damage the building structures. At Pompei, plenty of evidence of gener- alized, sometimes hasty, reconstructions (even of refined buildings), had erroneously validated the view of a decaying town; more likely, people were only suspiciously waiting for more imminent dangers to come. In 79 A.D. several restoration works were under way to repair the damage caused by an earthquake which had occurred shorty time before. Probably the seismicity was particularly intense in the early years of sixth decad, as well as in the early and in the end of the seventh, just before the erup- tion. At this same time the civic aqueduct of Pompei was out of use. Deep trenches ran along most of the streets for the layng of new tubes. From the 43 fountains of the town didnSt gush a drop of water, and the Castellum aquae was not supplied by regional aqueduct coming from near Apennines crossing the Campanian Plain from North to South. Two different chemical calcareous deposits in the roman water main attest two sources and two water supply stops at least. This phenomenon is interpreted with a relative uplift of the volcano respect to the external areas begun several years before 79 eruption in according with the sensible seismic precursors observed for long a time.

  11. Extensive Holocene ice sheet grounding line retreat and uplift-driven readvance in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingslake, J.; Scherer, R. P.; Albrecht, T.; Coenen, J. J.; Powell, R. D.; Reese, R.; Stansell, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Whitehouse, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) reached its Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) extent 29-14 kyr before present. Numerical models used to project future ice-sheet contributions to sea-level rise exploit reconstructions of post-LGM ice mass loss to tune model parameterizations. Ice-sheet reconstructions are poorly constrained in areas where floating ice shelves or a lack of exposed geology obstruct conventional glacial-geological techniques. In the Weddell and Ross Sea sectors, ice-sheet reconstructions have traditionally assumed progressive grounding line (GL) retreat throughout the Holocene. Contrasting this view, using three distinct lines of evidence, we show that the GL retreated hundreds of kilometers inland of its present position, before glacial isostatic rebound during the Mid to Late Holocene caused the GL to readvance to its current position. Evidence for retreat and readvance during the last glacial termination includes (1) widespread radiocarbon in sediment cores recovered from beneath ice streams along the Siple and Gould Coasts, indicating marine exposure at least 200 km inland of the current GL, (2) ice-penetrating radar observations of relic crevasses and other englacial structures preserved in slow-moving grounded ice, indicating ice-shelf grounding and (3) an ensemble of new ice-sheet simulations showing widespread post-LGM retreat of the GL inland of its current location and later readvance. The model indicates that GL readvance across low slope ice-stream troughs requires uplift-driven grounding of the ice shelf on topographic highs (ice rises). Our findings highlight ice-shelf pinning points and lithospheric response to unloading as drivers of major ice-sheet fluctuations. Full WAIS collapse likely requires GL retreat well beyond its current position in the Ronne and Ross Sectors and linkage via Amundsen Sea sector glaciers.

  12. Geochronologic constraints of the uplift and metamorphism along the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, C.P.; Zeitler, P.K.; Cooper, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Geochronological studies of pegmatites and Alpine Schist exposed east of the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, reveal a complex history beginning with magmatism and metamorphism at c. 68 m.y. ago and ending with rapid uplift and exhumation in the last 5 m.y. Pegmatites exposed in the Mataketake Range give conventional U-Pb monazite and SHRIMP ion-probe zircon ages of 68 ± 2.6 Ma and 67.9 ± 2.5 Ma, respectively. Inasmuch as petrologic and isotopic data indicate that the Alpine pegmatites are melts derived from the Alpine Schist, the age of the pegmatites suggests that, at least locally, the high-grade metamorphism is considerably younger than previously assumed. We tentatively suggest that metamorphism, in at least some areas of the Alpine Schist, may be associated with Late Cretaceous transtension rather than resulting from the consequences of collision during the Rangitata Orogeny. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar studies of hornblendes from the Alpine Schist, collected from the Haast River to the Franz Josef Glacier area, reveal highly disturbed spectra. Despite this complexity, these analyses define a systematic decrease in ages both across-strike toward the Alpine Fault (Haast River traverse) and northwards along-strike towards Mt Cook. This pattern of decreasing 40 Ar/ 39 Ar hornblende ages is also observed in lower closure temperature systems such as zircon and apatite fission-track ages. We interpret the decrease in ages toward the fault to be the result of deeper exhumation in the immediate vicinity of the Alpine Fault, whereas we interpret the northward younging of fault-proximal samples to be a result of both more recent and possibly more extensive exhumation than occurred in areas to the south. (author). 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Cenozoic Uplift and Climate Change of the Northeast Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from Leaf Wax Stable Isotopic Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, M.; Zhuang, G.; Wu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Topics about the deformation history and uplift mechanism of Tibetan Plateau have been largely debated in the past few decades. Different geodynamic models present different predictions on the mountain building processes and hence the surface uplift history. For example, one tectonic model suggests a rapid uplift (>1.0 to 2.0 km) of the Tibetan Plateau in the period of ca. 10 to 8 Ma as result of isostatic rebound due to the removal of over-thickened mental lithosphere beneath. Whilst the stepwise uplift model infers that the high topography was growing progressively from south to north with the Northeast Tibetan Plateau being built in the Pliocene to present. In this case, the timing of Cenozoic uplift of Northeast Tibetan Plateau would provide information for distinguishing competing geodynamic processes. The stable isotope based paleoaltimetry holds the key to answering when the high topography was built. Additionally, the evolution of Cenozoic Asian climate was argued to be closely related to the high topography built up on the Tibetan Plateau since the India-Asian collision and/or impacted by the global change. To understand when the high topography was built and how the growth of Tibetan Plateau impacted the climate, we reconstructed the long-term histories of paleohydrology from hinterland and foreland basins in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. We applied the compound-specific isotope hydrogen analysis to leaf wax n-alkanes (δ2Hn-alk) that are preserved in well-dated stratigraphic series (ca. 24 Ma to the present) in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. The newly reconstructed δ2Hn-alk supports the inference of high topography on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau was built during the middle to late Miocene. Our inference is consistent with sedimentary and basement rock studies that show fundamental changes in facies and provenance and exhumation history. The new δ2Hn-alk record also reveals that the regional climate became drier since the middle Miocene following the

  14. Does slab-window opening cause uplift of the overriding plate? A case study from the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Chris; Chew, David; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2017-11-01

    Complete subduction of an oceanic plate results in slab-window opening. A key uncertainty in this process is whether the higher heat flux and asthenospheric upwelling conventionally associated with slab-window opening generate a detectable topographic signature in the overriding plate. We focus on the Baja California Peninsula, which incorporates the western margin of the Gulf of California rift. The topography and tectonics of the rift flank along the peninsula are strongly bimodal. North of the Puertecitos accommodation zone, the primary drainage divide attains a mean elevation of ca. 1600 m above sea level (asl), above an asthenospheric slab-window opened by Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge subduction along this section of the trench at ca. 17-15 Ma. To the south, mean topography decreases abruptly to ca. 800 m asl (excluding the structurally distinct Los Cabos block at the southern tip of the peninsula), above fragments of the oceanic Farallon slab which stalled following slab tear-off at ca. 15-14 Ma. Along the peninsula, a low-relief surface established atop Miocene subduction-related volcaniclastic units has been incised by a west-draining canyon network in response to uplift. These canyons exhibit cut-and-fill relationships with widespread post-subduction lavas. Here, we utilise LANDSAT and digital elevation model (DEM) data, integrated with previously published K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar lava crystallisation ages, to constrain the onset of rift flank uplift to ca. 9-5 Ma later than slab-window formation in the north and ca. 11-10 Ma later in the south. These greatly exceed response time estimates of ca. 2 Ma or less for uplift triggered by slab-window opening. Instead, uplift timing of the high-elevation northern region is consistent with lower-lithospheric erosion driven by rift-related convective upwelling. To the south, stalled slab fragments likely inhibited convective return flow, preventing lithospheric erosion and limiting uplift to the isostatic response

  15. Integrating river incision rates over timescales in the Ecuadorian Andes: from uplift history to current erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; Tenorio, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    River profile development is studied at different timescales, from the response to uplift over millions of years over steady state erosion rates over millennia to the response to a single event, such as a major landslide. At present, few attempts have been made to compare data obtained over various timescales. Therefore we do not know to what extent data and model results are compatible: do long-term river profile development models yield erosion rates that are compatible with information obtained over shorter time spans, both in terms of absolute rates and spatial patterns or not? Such comparisons could provide crucial insights into the nature of river development and allow us to assess the confidence we may have when predicting river response at different timescales (e.g. Kirchner et al., 2001). A major issue hampering such comparison is the uncertainty involved in the calibration of long-term river profile development models. Furthermore, calibration data on different timescales are rarely available for a specific region. In this research, we set up a river profile development model similar to the one used by Roberts & White (2010) and successfully calibrated it for the northern Ecuadorian Andes using detailed uplift and sedimentological data. Subsequently we used the calibrated model to simulate river profile development in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. The calibrated model allows to reconstruct the Andean uplift history in southern Ecuador, which is characterized by a very strong uplift phase during the last 5 My. Erosion rates derived from the modeled river incision rates were then compared with 10Be derived basin-wide erosion rates for a series of basins within the study area. We found that the model-inferred erosion rates for the last millennia are broadly compatible with the cosmogenic derived denudation rates, both in terms of absolute erosion rates as well as in terms of their spatial distribution. Hence, a relatively simple river profile development

  16. Origins of the Asian-Australian monsoons related to Cenozoic plate movement and Tibetan Plateau uplift - A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Dong, B.; Yin, Z. Y.; Smith, R. S.; Guo, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The origin of monsoon is a subject that has attracted much attention in the scientific community and even today it is still controversial. According to geological records, there is conflicting evidence regarding the timings of establishment of the monsoon climates in South Asia, East Asia, and northern Australia. Additionally, different explanations for the monsoon origins have been derived from various numerical simulations. To further investigate the origin and evolution of the Asian and Australian monsoons, we designed a series of numerical experiments using a coupled atmospheric-oceanic general circulation model. Since the Indian-Australian plate has shifted its position significantly during the Cenozoic, together with the large-scale uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in these experiments we considered the configurations of ocean-land masses and large topographic features based on geological evidence of plate motion and TP uplift in 5 typical Cenozoic geological periods: mid-Paleocene ( 60Ma), late-Eocene ( 40Ma), late-Oligocene ( 25Ma), late-Miocene ( 10Ma), and present day. These experiments allowed us to examine the combined effects of the changes in the land-ocean configuration due to plate movement and TP uplift, they also provided insight into the effects of the high CO2 levels during the Eocene. The simulations revealed that during the Paleocene, the Indian Subcontinent was still positioned in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and, therefore, its climate behaved as the SH tropical monsoon. By the late Eocene, it moved into the tropical Northern Hemisphere, which allowed the establishment of the South Asian monsoon. In contrast, the East Asian and Australian monsoon did not exist in the late Oligocene. These monsoon systems were established in the Miocene and then enhanced thereafter. Establishments of the low-latitude monsoons in South Asia and Australia were entirely determined by the position of the Indian-Australian plate and not related to the TP uplift

  17. Monitoring tectonic uplift and paleo-environmental reconstruction for marine terraces near Magaracik and Samandag, Hatay Province, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florentin, Jonathan A.; Blackwell, Bonnie A.B.; Blickstein, Joel I.B.; Skinner, Anne R.; Tueysuez, Okan; Tari, Ufuk; Can Genc, S.; Imren, Caner; Mo, Shirley; Huang, Yiwen E.W.; Kim, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Near Hatay, the Antakya-Samandag-Cyprus Fault (ASCF), East Anatolian and Dead Sea Fault Zones, the large faults that form the edges of the African, Anatolian, Cyprus and Arabian Plates, all produce large earthquakes, which have decimated Hatay repeatedly. Near Samandag, Hatay, differential vertical displacement on the ASCF has uplifted the southeastern side relative to northwestern side, producing large fault scarps that parallel the Asi (Orontes) River. Tectonic uplift coupled with Quaternary sea level fluctuations has produced several stacked marine terraces stranded above current sea level. This study dated 24 mollusc samples from 10 outcrops on six marine terraces near Samandag electron spin resonance (ESR). Ages were calculated using time-averaged and volumetrically averaged external dose rates, modelled by assuming typical water depths for the individual species and sediment thicknesses estimated from geological criteria. Uplift rates were then calculated for each fault block. At all the Magaracik terraces, the dates suggest that many shells were likely reworked. On the 30 m terrace at Magaracik IV (UTM 766588-3999880), Lithophagus burrows with in situ shells cross the unconformity. One such shell dated to 62 ± 6 ka, setting the minimum possible age for the terrace. For all the Magaracik terraces at ∼30 m above mean sea level (amsl), the youngest ages for the reworked shells, which averaged 60 ± 3 ka for six separate analyses, sets the maximum possible age for this unit. Thus, the terrace must date to 60-62 ± 3 ka, at the MIS 3/4 boundary when temperatures and sea levels were fluctuating rapidly. Older units dating to MIS 7, 6, and 5 likely were being eroded to supply some fossils found in this terrace. At Magaracik Dump (UTM 765391-4001048), ∼103 m amsl, Ostrea and other shells were found cemented in growth position to the limestone boulders outcropping there -1 , since MIS 5c. At Samandag Kurt Stream at 38 m amsl, molluscs were deposited fine sandy

  18. The central uplift of Elorza Crater: Insights into its geology and possible relationships to the Valles Marineris and Tharsis regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. T.; Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.

    2017-03-01

    The majority of hydrated silicate occurrences on Mars are associated with impact craters (Ehlmann et al., 2011; Carter et al., 2013). Three formation mechanisms have been suggested to account for this correlation: (1) aqueous alteration occurred pre-impact, and was subsequently exposed via the impact (pre-impact; Bibring et al., 2006; Ehlmann et al., 2011), (2) heat generated from the impact facilitated the formation of a hydrothermal system, leading to alteration products (syn-impact; e.g. Marzo et al., 2010; Osinski et al., 2013), and/or (3) altered materials were deposited after crater formation, or formed within the crater well after the impact had taken place (post-impact). In this study, we analyze the central uplift of Elorza Crater, a ∼40 km diameter impact crater located ∼300 km north of Valles Marineris. To determine whether hydrated minerals found within the uplift were generated pre-, syn-, or post-impact, we used a data synthesis approach, utilizing High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), Context Camera (CTX), and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) imagery. Opaline silica is observed in two locations on the southwestern side of the uplift and is interpreted to have been pre-existing or formed via hydrothermal alteration due to stratigraphic relationships with the overlying impact melt unit. Both Fe/Mg smectite and low-calcium pyroxene (LCP) are found throughout the uplift. Bedrock exposures on the northern wall of Coprates Chasma containing Fe/Mg smectite and LCP suggest an uplifted origin for these units. In all cases, although a pre-existing origin is probable, it is difficult to rule out the possibility of an impact-generated hydrothermal origin. Using the observed stratigraphy exposed in Coprates Chasma and bedrock exposures analyzed in nearby craters, we were able to constrain the pre-impact stratigraphy around Elorza. The near-subsurface consists of Hesperian

  19. Cenozoic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from the tectonic–sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geologists agree that the collision of the Indian and Asian plates caused uplift of the Tibet Plateau. However, controversy still exists regarding the modes and mechanisms of the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Geology has recorded this uplift well in the Qaidam Basin. This paper analyzes the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin using sub-surface seismic and drill data. The Cenozoic intensity and history of deformation in the Qaidam Basin have been reconstructed based on the tectonic developments, faults growth index, sedimentary facies variations, and the migration of the depositional depressions. The changes in the sedimentary facies show that lakes in the western Qaidam Basin had gone from inflow to still water deposition to withdrawal. Tectonic movements controlled deposition in various depressions, and the depressions gradually shifted southeastward. In addition, the morphology of the surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin shows that the Cenozoic tectonic movements controlled the evolution of the Basin and divided it into (a the southern fault terrace zone, (b a central Yingxiongling orogenic belt, and (c the northern fold-thrust belt; divided by the XI fault (Youshi fault and Youbei fault, respectively. The field data indicate that the western Qaidam Basin formed in a Cenozoic compressive tectonic environment caused by the India–Asia plate collision. Further, the Basin experienced two phases of intensive tectonic deformation. The first phase occurred during the Middle Eocene–Early Miocene (Xia Ganchaigou Fm. and Shang Ganchaigou Fm., 43.8–22 Ma, and peaked in the Early Oligocene (Upper Xia Ganchaigou Fm., 31.5 Ma. The second phase occurred between the Middle Miocene and the Present (Shang Youshashan Fm. and Qigequan Fm., 14.9–0 Ma, and was stronger than the first phase. The tectonic–sedimentary evolution and the orientation of surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin resulted from the Tibetan

  20. From ocean depths to mountain tops: uplift of the Troodos Massif (Cyprus) constrained by (U-Th)/He thermochronology and geomorphic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morag, N.; Haviv, I.; Katzir, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Troodos Massif of Cyprus, rising to nearly 2000 meters above sea level, encompasses one of the world's classic ophiolites. Following its formation at a seafloor spreading center in Late Cretaceous times, this slice of the NeoTethyan oceanic lithosphere was uplifted and eventually exposed on mountain tops during the Neogene. The final uplift and exhumation of the Troodos was previously assigned to Pleistocene age by observations in the circum-Troodos sedimentary strata. However, quantitative thermochronological and geomorphological data from the Massif itself were not available. Here we use apatite (U-Th)/He low-temperature thermochronology complemented by zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track data, and combined with geomorphic analysis to constrain the exhumation and uplift history of the Troodos ophiolite. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages vary with depth from ~ 22 Ma at the top of the Gabbro sequence to ~ 6 Ma at the bottom of the sequence. The deepest sample from a Gabbro pegmatitic dyke intruding the ultramafic sequence yielded an age of ~ 3 Ma. Thermal modeling of apatite (U-Th)/He and fission track data delineates Plio - Pleistocene initiation of rapid uplift and exhumation of the Troodos ophiolite. The estimated cumulative exhumation since its initiation is 2-3 km. No evidence was found for significant uplift of the central Troodos area prior to that time. The geomorphic analysis delineates a bull's-eye zone at the center of the Troodos Massif, where local relief and channel steepness index are highest. The boundaries of this zone roughly correspond with the Mt. Olympus mantle outcrop and suggest recent, differential uplift of this zone relative to its surroundings. The most likely mechanism, which could drive such a focused bull's-eye uplift pattern is hydration of ultramafic rocks (serpentinization) leading to a decrease in rock density and subsequent diapiric uplift of the serpentinized lithospheric mantle.

  1. Cyprininae phylogeny revealed independent origins of the Tibetan Plateau endemic polyploid cyprinids and their diversifications related to the Neogene uplift of the plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Gan, Xiaoni; Li, Junbing; Chen, Yiyu; He, Shunping

    2016-11-01

    Origin and diversification of the Tibetan polyploid cyprinids (schizothoracins) may help us to explore relationships between diversification of the cyprinids and the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Cyprininae phylogeny was analyzed using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to trace origins of polyploidy and diversifications of schizothoracins. Ancestral states reconstruction for ploidy levels indicated that the Cyprininae was diploid origin and the schizothoracin clades tetraploid origins. There were two diversification rate shifts along with diversification of the cyprinine fishes in response to the Tibetan uplift. The unusual diversification shifts were located to branches subtending the clades of Tibetan polyploid cyprinids. Our analyses suggested that (i) phylogeny of Cyprininae recovered two independent origins of the Tibetan polyploidy schizothoracins; (ii) diversifications of the schizothoracins were closely related to the Neogene uplift of the Tibetan plateau in the following ways: the relatively ancient Late Oligocene-Middle Miocene adaptive radiation may be associated with the uplift of the southern Tibet and Himalaya; the Middle Miocene-Early Pleistocene lineage-specific diversification broadly coincident with major phase of the Neogene Tibetan uplift; and the most recent Pleistocene diversification shift in Schizothorax closely coincident with the successive Kunlun-Huanghe and Gonghe movements of the Tibetan uplift and the glaciation-induced climate oscillations on the plateau.

  2. Landing on empty: estimating the benefits from reducing fuel uplift in US Civil Aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, Megan S; Hansen, Mark; Hao, Lu; Seelhorst, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Airlines and Air Navigation Service Providers are united in their goal to reduce fuel consumption. While changes to flight operations and technology investments are the focus of a number of studies, our study is among the first to investigate an untapped source of aviation fuel consumption: excess contingency fuel loading. Given the downside risk of fuel exhaustion of diverting to an alternate airport, airline dispatchers may load excess fuel onto an aircraft. Such conservatism comes at a cost of consuming excess fuel, as fuel consumed is a function of, among other factors, aircraft weight. The aim of this paper is to quantify, on a per-flight basis, the fuel burned due to carrying fuel beyond what is needed for foreseeable contingencies, and thereby motivate research, federal guidance, and investments that allow airline dispatchers to reduce fuel uplift while maintaining near zero risks of fuel exhaustion. We merge large publicly available aviation and weather databases with a detailed dataset from a major US airline. Upon estimating factors that capture the quantity fuel consumed due to carrying a pound of weight for a range of aircraft types, we calculate the cost and greenhouse gas emissions from carrying unused fuel on arrival and additional contingency fuel above a conservative buffer for foreseeable contingencies. We establish that the major US carrier does indeed load fuel conservatively. We find that 4.48% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying unused fuel and 1.04% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying additional contingency fuel above a reasonable buffer. We find that simple changes in flight dispatching that maintain a statistically minimal risk of fuel exhaustion could result in yearly savings of 338 million lbs of CO 2 , the equivalent to the fuel consumed from 4760 flights on midsized commercial aircraft. Moreover, policy changes regarding maximum fuel loads or investments that reduce uncertainty or

  3. Factors of knickpoint migration on the moderately uplifted Ardennes Plateau, Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, A.; Bovy, B.; Demoulin, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the last two decades, much research has been devoted to the development and refinement of numerical models of river incision. In settings of prevailing bedrock channel erosion, numerous studies used field data, notably knickpoint data, to calibrate the widely acknowledged stream power model of incision and to discuss the specific impact of various variables (e.g., sediment load, channel width) not appearing explicitly in the model's simplest form. However, most of these studies were conducted in areas of very active tectonics and high relief, thus displaying an exacerbated geomorphic response to the tectonic signal. Here, we analyze the traces left in the drainage network 0.7 My after the NE Ardennes region (western Europe) underwent a moderate 100-150 m uplift. We identify a set of knickpoints that have travelled far upstream in the Ourthe catchment. Because time becomes a more sensitive variable than distance near the headwaters, we fit the stream power model to the data by minimizing time residuals (i.e., the differences between 0.7 My and the modelled times for the knickpoints to reach their actual location) rather than distance residuals. Our best fit of the stream power model parameters yields m/n = 0.75 and K = 4.63 10-8 m-0.5y-1. We suggest that the discrepancy with the m/n value of ~0.5 obtained from field and long profile data of the currently graded downstream part of the catchment's streams points to a narrowing of the bedrock channel at the passage of a knickpoint. Then, the time residuals of the model fit are regressed against quantitative expressions of bedrock resistance to erosion and junction crossing, showing that both variables significantly affect knickpoint migration. In particular, most of the small tributaries with highly delayed knickpoints display all features characteristic of hanging valleys. However, not all such small streams have developed hanging valleys, and further research is needed to unravel how other controls, e.g., amount

  4. Regional earthquakes followed by delayed ground uplifts at Campi Flegrei Caldera, Italy: Arguments for a causal link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Matteo; Frehner, Marcel; Weis, Philipp; Skelton, Alasdair; Saenger, Erik H.; Tisato, Nicola; Geiger, Sebastian; Chiodini, Giovanni; Driesner, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Earthquake-triggered volcanic activity promoted by dynamic and static stresses are considered rare and difficult-to-capture geological processes. Calderas are ideal natural laboratories to investigate earthquake-volcano interactions due to their sensitivity to incoming seismic energy. The Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, is one of the most monitored volcanic systems worldwide. We compare ground elevation time series at Campi Flegrei with earthquake catalogues showing that uplift events at Campi Flegrei are associated with large regional earthquakes. Such association is supported by (yet non-definitive) binomial tests. Over a 70-year time window we identify 14 uplift events, 12 of them were preceded by an earthquake, and for 8 of them the earthquake-to-uplift timespan ranges from immediate responses to 1.2 yr. Such variability in the response delay may be due to the preparedness of the system with faster responses probably occurring in periods during which the Campi Flegrei system was already in a critical state. To investigate the process that may be responsible for the proposed association we simulate the propagation of elastic waves and show that passing body waves impose high dynamic strains at the roof of the magmatic reservoir of the Campi Flegrei at about 7 km depth. This may promote a short-lived embrittlement of the magma reservoir's carapace otherwise marked by a ductile behaviour. Such failure allows magma and exsolved volatiles to be released from the magmatic reservoir. The fluids, namely exsolved volatiles and/or melts, ascend through a nominally plastic zone above the magmatic reservoir. This mechanism and the associated inherent uncertainties require further investigations but the new concept already implies that geological processes triggered by passing seismic waves may become apparent several months after passage of the seismic waves.

  5. Mesozoic and Cenozoic uplift and exhumation of the Bogda Mountain, NW China: Evidence from apatite fission track analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Apatite fission track (AFT analysis on samples collected from a Paleozoic series is used to constrain the cooling history of the Bogda Mountain, northwest China. AFT ages range from 136.2 to 85.6 Ma and are younger than rock depositional ages and the mean confined track lengths (11.0–13.2 μm mostly showing unimodal distribution are shorten, indicating significant track-annealing. Thermal histories modeling based on the distribution of fission-track lengths combined with the regional geological data show that two rapid cooling phases occurred in the latest Jurassic–early Cretaceous and the Oligocene–Miocene. Those new data together with previous published data show that the AFT ages become younger from the southwest to northeast in the western Bogda Mountain and its adjacent areas. The fission-track ages of the southwest area are relatively older (>100 Ma, recording the earlier rapid uplift phase during the late Jurassic–Cretaceous, while the ages in the north piedmont of the Bogda Mountain (namely the northeast part are younger (<60 Ma, mainly reflecting the later rapid uplift phase in the Oligocene–Miocene. The trend of younger AFT ages towards the northeast might be explained by post-Cretaceous large-scale crustal tilting towards the southwest. In the thrust fault-dominated northern limbs of the Bogda Mountain, AFT ages reveal a discontinuous pattern with age-jumps across the major fault zones, showing a possible strata tilting across each thrust faults due to the thrust ramps during the Cenozoic. The two rapid uplift stages might be related to the accretion and collision in the southern margin of the Asian continent during the late Jurassic and late Cenozoic, respectively.

  6. Upper Paleogene shallow-water events in the Sandino Forearc Basin, Nicaragua-Costa Rica - response to tectonic uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjic, Goran; Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Cretaceous-Neogene Sandino Forearc Basin is exposed in the southeastern Nicaraguan Isthmus and in the northwestern corner of Costa Rica. It consists of an elongated, slightly folded belt (160 km long/30 km wide). During Campanian to Oligocene, the predominantly deep-water pelagic, hemipelagic and turbiditic sequences were successively replaced by shelf siliciclastics and carbonates at different steps of the basin evolution. We have made an inventory of Tertiary shallow-water limestones in several areas of Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica. They always appear as isolated rock bodies, generally having an unconformable stratigraphic contact with the underlying detrital sequences. The presence of these short-lived carbonate shoals can be attributed to local or regional tectonic uplift in the forearc area. The best-preserved exposure of such a carbonate buildup is located on the small Isla Juanilla (0.15 km2, Junquillal Bay, NW Costa Rica). The whole island is made of reef carbonates, displaying corals in growth position, associated with coralline red algae (Juanilla Formation). Beds rich in Larger Benthic Foraminifera such as Lepidocyclina undosa -favosa group permit to date this reef as late Oligocene. A first uplift event affected the Nicaraguan Isthmus, that rose from deep-water to shelfal settings in the latest Eocene-earliest Oligocene. The upper Oligocene Juanilla Formation formed on an anticline that developed during the early Oligocene, contemporaneously with other folds observed in the offshore Sandino Forearc Basin. During the early Oligocene, a period of global sea-level fall, the folded tectonic high underwent deep erosion. During the late Oligocene, a time of overall stable eustatic sea level, tectonic uplift gave way to moderate subsidence, creating accommodation space for reef growth. A 4th or 5th order (Milankovic-type) glacio-eustatic sea level rise, could also have triggered reef growth, but its preservation implies at least moderate

  7. Focused rock uplift above the subduction décollement at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly M; Armstrong, Phillip A; Arkle Jeanette C,; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Megathrust splay fault systems in accretionary prisms have been identified as conduits for long-term plate motion and significant coseismic slip during subduction earthquakes. These fault systems are important because of their role in generating tsunamis, but rarely are emergent above sea level where their long-term (million year) history can be studied. We present 32 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 27 apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from rocks along an emergent megathrust splay fault system in the Prince William Sound region of Alaska above the shallowly subducting Yakutat microplate. The data show focused exhumation along the Patton Bay megathrust splay fault system since 3–2 Ma. Most AHe ages are younger than 5 Ma; some are as young as 1.1 Ma. AHe ages are youngest at the southwest end of Montague Island, where maximum fault displacement occurred on the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults and the highest shoreline uplift occurred during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ca. 20 to 5 Ma. Age changes across the Montague Strait fault, north of Montague Island, suggest that this fault may be a major structural boundary that acts as backstop to deformation and may be the westward mechanical continuation of the Bagley fault system backstop in the Saint Elias orogen. The regional pattern of ages and corresponding cooling and exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island splay faults, though separated by only a few kilometers, accommodate kilometer-scale exhumation above a shallowly subducting plate at million year time scales. This long-term pattern of exhumation also reflects short-term seismogenic uplift patterns formed during the 1964 earthquake. The increase in rock uplift and exhumation rate ca. 3–2 Ma is coincident with increased glacial erosion that, in combination with the fault-bounded, narrow width of the islands, has limited topographic development. Increased exhumation starting ca. 3–2 Ma is interpreted to be due to rock uplift

  8. Impact of hydrogeological and geomechanical properties on surface uplift at a CO2 injection site: Parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.; Bishop, J. E.; Arnold, B. W.; Bryant, S.

    2013-12-01

    It is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict a consequence of geological storage of CO2. In this study, we estimate key hydrogeologic features to govern the geomechanical response (i.e., surface uplift) at a large-scale CO2 injection project at In Salah, Algeria using the Sierra Toolkit - a multi-physics simulation code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Importantly, a jointed rock model is used to study the effect of postulated fractures in the injection zone on the surface uplift. The In Salah Gas Project includes an industrial-scale demonstration of CO2 storage in an active gas field where CO2 from natural gas production is being re-injected into a brine-filled portion of the structure downdip of the gas accumulation. The observed data include millimeter scale surface deformations (e.g., uplift) reported in the literature and injection well locations and rate histories provided by the operators. Our preliminary results show that the intrinsic permeability and Biot coefficient of the injection zone are important. Moreover pre-existing fractures within the injection zone affect the uplift significantly. Estimation of additional (i.e., anisotropy ratio) and coupled parameters will help us to develop models, which account for the complex relationship between mechanical integrity and CO2 injection-induced pressure changes. Uncertainty quantification of model predictions will be also performed using various algorithms including null-space Monte Carlo and polynomial-chaos expansion methods. This work will highlight that our coupled reservoir and geomechanical simulations associated with parameter estimation can provide a practical solution for designing operating conditions and understanding subsurface processes associated with the CO2 injection. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office

  9. Effects of Mountain Uplift and Climatic Oscillations on Phylogeography and Species Divergence in Four Endangered Notopterygium Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram Shahzad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain uplift and climatic fluctuations are important driving forces that have affected the geographic distribution and population dynamics history of organisms. However, it is unclear how geological and climatic events might have affected the phylogeographic history and species divergence in high-alpine herbal plants. In this study, we analyzed the population demographic history and species differentiation of four endangered Notopterygium herbs on the high-altitude Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP and adjacent areas. We combined phylogeographic analysis with species distribution modeling to detect the genetic variations in four Notopterygium species (N. incisum, N. franchetii, N. oviforme, and N. forrestii. In total, 559 individuals from 74 populations of the four species were analyzed based on three maternally inherited chloroplast fragments (matK, rbcL, and trnS-trnG and one nuclear DNA region (internal transcribed spacer, ITS. Fifty-five chloroplast DNA (cpDNA and 48 ITS haplotypes were identified in the four species. All of the cpDNA and ITS haplotypes were species-specific, except N. franchetii and N. oviforme shared one cpDNA haplotype, H32. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that all four species formed a monophyletic clade with high bootstrap support, where N. franchetii and N. oviforme were sisters. In addition, each Notopterygium species generated an individual clade that corresponded to their respective species in the ITS tree. Population dynamics analyses and species distribution modeling showed that the two widely distributed herbs N. incisum and N. franchetii exhibited obvious demographic expansions during the Pleistocene ice ages. Molecular dating suggested that the divergence of the four Notopterygium species occurred approximately between 3.6 and 1.2 Mya, and it was significantly associated with recent extensive uplifts of the QTP. Our results support the hypothesis that mountain uplift and Quaternary climatic oscillations

  10. The relationship between Holocene cultural site distribution and marine terrace uplift on the coast fringing Coastal Range, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiaochin; Chen, Wenshan

    2013-04-01

    According to the collision of Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia plate, a series of left-lateral active faults with reverse sense exists in the Longitudinal Valley of east Taiwan. The Holocene marine terraces along the east coast of the Coastal Range in Taiwan are well known for their very rapid uplift and record tectonic history of this active collision boundary. The Holocene marine terrace sequence resulting from successive sea level change and tectonic activation is subdivided into several steps where the highest and oldest terrace, back to ca 13,000yr BP, reaches up to ca 80 m above sea level, and the lower terraces are mostly erosional ones, overlain by less than 1m thick coral beds in situ. The uplift of the coast is very high, ranging from 5 to 10 m/ka. According to the fabrics of potsherds and geochronological data, the prehistoric cultures in eastern Taiwan could be classified into three stages: Fushan (ca 5000-3500yr BP), Peinan/Chilin (ca3500-2000yr BP), Kweishan (ca2000-1000 yr BP) and Jinpu (ca 1000-400yr BP) cultural assemblages respectively. A great difference exists between the various cultural stage, not only the pottery making techniques, but also the distributions of archaeological sites. Combined with the dynamic geomorphic evolution of marine terraces and the distribution of prehistoric culture sites on the east coast of the Coastal Range, a coastal migration trend could be established.

  11. Role of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift in the Northern Hemisphere disjunction: evidence from two herbaceous genera of Rubiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Meng, Ying; Volis, Sergei; Sun, Hang; Nie, Ze-Long

    2017-10-17

    To assess the role of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift in shaping the intercontinental disjunction in Northern Hemisphere, we analyzed the origin and diversification within a geological timeframe for two relict herbaceous genera, Theligonum and Kelloggia (Rubiaceae). Phylogenetic relationships within and between Theligonum and Kelloggia as well as their relatives were inferred using five chloroplast markers with parsimony, Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches. Migration routes and evolution of these taxa were reconstructed using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock and ancestral area reconstruction. Our results suggest the monophyly of each Theligonum and Kelloggia. Eastern Asian and North American species of Kelloggia diverged at ca.18.52 Mya and the Mediterranean species of Theligonum diverged from eastern Asian taxa at ca.13.73 Mya. Both Kelloggia and Theligonum are Tethyan flora relicts, and their ancestors might have been occurred in warm tropical to subtropical environments along the Tethys coast. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau separated the eastern and western Tethyan area may contribute significantly to the disjunct distributions of Theligonum, and the North Atlantic migration appears to be the most likely pathway of expansion of Kelloggia to North America. Our results highlight the importance role of the QTP uplift together with corresponding geological and climatic events in shaping biodiversity and biogeographic distribution in the Northern Hemisphere.

  12. Tectonic setting and uplift analysis of the Pangani rift basin in northern Tanzania using apatite fission track thermochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbede, E.I.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty four new Apatite Fission Track (AFT) ages and 32 track length distributions from samples of basement rocks flanking the Pangani rift, East African Rift System (EARS) are presented, in an attempt to elucidate the uplift and erosion of the rift flanks. The ages fall in the range of 207±15 to 48±4 Ma, spanning from Early Jurassic to Early Tertiary. These ages are much younger than the last thermal event in the Mozambique belt that form the basement complex and are interpreted to represent the most recent tectonic events. Track length (TL) distributions suggest that uplift and erosion of the rift flanks are related to three different tectonic events, which are also recorded by the sedimentary units within the adjacent coastal basins. These included the Triassic/Early Jurassic, Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary tectonic events. Erosion and isostatic rebound have modified the tectonically induced topographic patterns and the highly elevated plateaus flanking the Pangani rift represent an erosional surface referred to as the 'Gondwana surface' of eastern and central Africa. T he present AFT data suggest that initial exhumation of the 'Gondwana surface' from temperatures above 383.15 K to temperatures less than 333.15 K, in this area, took place during Early Jurassic times, but the final sub-aerial exposure of the surface did not take place until Early Tertiary. (author)

  13. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Land Subsidence and Uplift (2009–2010 over Wuhan in Central China Revealed by TerraSAR-X InSAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Bai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ground deformation pose a significant geo-hazard to the environment and infrastructure in Wuhan, the most populous city in Central China, in the eastern Jianghan Plain at the intersection of the Yangtze and Han rivers. Prior to this study, however, rates and patterns of region-wide ground deformation in Wuhan were little known. Here we employ multi-temporal SAR interferometry to detect and characterize spatiotemporal variations of ground deformation in major metropolitan areas in Wuhan. A total of twelve TerraSAR-X images acquired during 2009–2010 are used in the InSAR time series analysis. InSAR-derived results are validated by levelling survey measurements and reveal a distinct subsidence pattern within six zones in major commercial and industrial areas, with a maximum subsidence rate up to −67.3 mm/year. A comparison analysis between subsiding patterns and urban developments as well as geological conditions suggests that land subsidence in Wuhan is mainly attributed to anthropogenic activities, natural compaction of soft soil, and karst dissolution of subsurface carbonate rocks. However, anthropogenic activities related to intensive municipal construction and industrial production have more significant impacts on the measured subsidence than natural factors. Moreover, remarkable signals of secular land uplift are found along both banks of the Yangtze River, especially along the southern bank, with deformation rates ranging mostly from +5 mm/year to +17.5 mm/year. A strong temporal correlation is highlighted between the detected displacement evolutions and the water level records of the Yangtze River, inferring that this previously unknown deformation phenomenon is likely related to seasonal fluctuations in water levels of the Yangtze River.

  14. Fine sediment sources in coastal watersheds with uplifted marine terraces in northwest Humboldt County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Sungnome Madrone; Andrew P. Stubblefield

    2012-01-01

    Erosion in the Mill and Luffenholtz Creek watersheds in Humboldt County, California, with their extensive clay soils, can lead to high turbidity levels in receiving bodies of water, increasing the costs of treating water for domestic water supplies. Detailed road and erosion surveys and monitoring of suspended sediment, discharge, and turbidity levels in Mill Creek (3....

  15. Role of erosion and isostasy in the Cordillera Blanca uplift: insights from Low-T thermochronology and landscape evolution modeling (northern Peru, Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margirier, A.; Robert, X.; Braun, J.; Laurence, A.

    2017-12-01

    The uplift and exhumation of the highest Peruvian peaks seems closely linked to the Cordillera Blanca normal fault that delimits and shape the western flank of the Cordillera Blanca. Two models have been previously proposed to explain the occurrence of extension and the presence of this active normal fault in a compression setting but the Cordillera Blanca normal fault and the uplift and exhumation of the Cordillera Blanca remain enigmatic. Recent studies suggested an increase of exhumation rates during the Quaternary in the Cordillera Blanca and related this increase to a change in climate and erosion process (glacial erosion vs. fluvial erosion). The Cordillera Blanca granite has been significantly eroded since its emplacement (12-5 Ma) indicating a significant mass of rocks removal. Whereas it has been demonstrated recently that the effect of eroding denser rocks can contribute to an increase of uplift rate, the impact of erosion and isostasy on the increase of the Cordillera Blanca uplift rates has never been explored. Based on numerical modeling of landscape evolution we address the role of erosion and isostasy in the uplift and exhumation of the Cordillera Blanca. We performed inversions of the present-day topography, total exhumation and thermochronological data using a landscape evolution model (FastScape). Our results evidence the contribution of erosion and associated flexural rebound to the uplift of the Cordillera Blanca. Our models suggest that the erosion of the Cordillera Blanca dense intrusion since 3 Ma could also explain the Quaternary exhumation rate increase in this area. Finally, our results allow to question the previous models proposed for the formation of the Cordillera Blanca normal fault.

  16. Caregiving burden and uplifts: a contradiction or a protective partnership for the quality of life of parents and their children with asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neuza; Carona, Carlos; Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Parental caregiving in the context of pediatric chronic conditions is a multifaceted experience that encompasses negative (burdens) and positive dimensions (uplifts), which may support risk and protective processes that influence family adaptation. This study aimed to examine the caregiving experience of parents caring for a child with asthma and the moderating role of caregiving uplifts on the associations between caregiving burden and quality of life (QoL) of parents and their children. Participants were 180 dyads of children/adolescents with asthma between 8 and 18 years of age and one of their parents. The parents reported on caregiving burden and uplifts and on their QoL, and the children/adolescents completed a self-report measure of generic QoL. Results showed that although parents of children with intermittent asthma and parents of younger children presented higher levels of caregiving burden, noncontrolled asthma was the only clinical variable representing a significant risk factor for decreased QoL in children. Significant negative and positive associations were found between burden dimensions and QoL and between caregiving uplifts and QoL, respectively, in parents and children. Additionally, caregiving uplifts moderated the negative link between relationship burden and parents' QoL. These results suggest that, far from being contradictory, caregiving uplifts may co-occur with high levels of burden and may constitute a protective factor against the deleterious effect of the caregiving burden on parents' QoL and a resource that directly contributes to children's QoL. This risk-resistance approach to family caregiving may contribute to operationalizing strength-based interventions in the context of pediatric asthma. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The effects of subduction termination on the continental lithosphere: Linking volcanism, deformation, surface uplift, and slab tearing in central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delph, Jonathan R.; Abgarmi, Bijan; Ward, Kevin M.; Beck, Susan L.; Arda Ozacar, A.; Zandt, George; Sandvol, Eric; Turkelli, Niyazi; Kalafat, Dogan

    2017-04-01

    The lithospheric evolution of Anatolia is largely defined by processes associated with the terminal stages of subduction along its southern margin. Central Anatolia represents the transition from the subduction of oceanic lithosphere at the Aegean trench in the west to the Arabian - Eurasian continental collision in the east. In the overriding plate, this complicated transition is contemporaneous with uplift along the southern margin of central Anatolia (2 km in 6 Myr), voluminous felsic-intermediate ignimbrite eruptions (>1000 km3), extension, and tectonic deformation reflected by abundant low-magnitude seismic activity. The addition of 72 seismic stations as part of the Continental Dynamics - Central Anatolian Tectonics project, along with development of a new approach to the joint inversion of receiver functions and dispersion data, enables us obtain a high-resolution 3D shear wave velocity model of central Anatolia down to 150 km. This new velocity model has important implications for the complex interactions between the downgoing, segmenting African lithosphere and the overriding Anatolian Plate. These results reveal that the lithosphere of central Anatolia and the northern Arabian Plate is thin (4.5 km/s), indicating the presence of the Cyprean slab beneath central Anatolia. Thus, uplift of the Central Taurus Mountains may be due to slab rebound after the detachment of the oceanic portion of the Cyprean slab beneath Anatolia rather than the presence of shallow asthenospheric material. These fast velocities extend to the northern margin of the Central Taurus Mountains, giving way to a NE-SW trend of very slow upper mantle shear wave velocities (interpreted to be shallow, warm asthenosphere in which melt is present. The combination of a shallow asthenosphere and lithospheric-scale weaknesses associated with relict tectonic structures formed during the assembly of Anatolia are responsible for the spatial distribution of volcanism in the Central Anatolian

  18. Post-rift uplift, paleorelief and sedimentary fluxes: the case example of the African margin of the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillocheau, F.; Dauteuil, O.

    2012-04-01

    Several attempts have been made to identify different paleosurfaces since the classical works of Lester King (1942, 1949) at the scale of Africa. Thermochronologists and river geomorphologists criticized this approach. This criticism mainly concerned the age of the surfaces, that were (1) poorly constraints and (2) a king of catechism on which all studies must refer. Nevertheless, those planation surfaces exist and are key features of the present-day morphology of Africa. In details, real planation surfaces are (1) no more than two or three and (2) can be deformed and then merged together. Those surfaces are incised by large smooth valleys, called pediments or glacis (with some semantic differences between English and French-speaking geomorphologists). Those pediments formed a pre-network of rivers, later re-incised by the present-day incised narrow valleys. Those different morphological structures can be dated using (1) their merge with sedimentary basins, (2) their relationship with the different types of dated weathering periods and (3) their relationships with volcanism. They also can be used as a proxy of the deformation based on the differences of elevation of the planations surfaces or on the shape of the pediments. From the Orange River to the Cameroon Volcanic Line, including the Congo Cuvette, two planations surfaces were identified (the Bauxitic or African surface, the intermediate surface), at least two generations of pediment valleys and the present-day incised valley network. The African surface is of Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene age with a climax during this last period and two major periods of uplift can be identified and mapped (1) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene and (2) Lower Miocene. Most of the relief is fossil since that period, excepted in the Angola Mountains were deformations are active during Plio-Pleistocene times. Those uplifts of smoother, most of the time weathered, relief than today, had important consequences on the petrology and the

  19. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  20. Evidence of Himalayan uplift as seen in Neogene records of Indian monsoon variability from ODP Hole 722B, NW Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Prakasam; Gupta, Anil K.; Saini, Naresh K.

    2013-04-01

    The Indian monsoon is one of the most interesting climatic features on Earth impacting most populous countries of South and East Asia. It is marked by seasonal reversals of wind direction with southwesterly winds in summer (June-September) and northeasterly winds in winter (December-February). The monsoon not only impacts socioeconomic conditions of Asia but also brings important changes in fauna and flora, ocean upwelling and primary productivity in the Arabian Sea. The Himalaya has undergone several phases of rapid uplift and exhumation since the early Miocene which led to major intensification of the Indian monsoon. The monsoon is driven by the thermal contrast between land and sea, and is intimately linked with the latitudinal movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The effect of Indian monsoon variability and the Himalayan uplift can be seen in numerous proxy records across the region. In this study we discussed about the Indian monsoon intensification and the Himalayan uplift since the early Miocene based on multi proxy records such as planktic foraminiferal relative abundances (Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata and mixed layer species), total organic carbon (TOC), CaCO3 and elemental data from ODP Hole 722B (2028 mbsf), northwestern Arabian Sea. The TOC, CaCO3 and elemental variations of the ODP Hole 722B suggest multi phase of monsoonal intensification and Himalayan uplifts. Our results suggest that in the early Miocene (23.03 Ma) to ~15Ma, the wind strength and productivity were low. A major change is observed at ~15 Ma, during which time numerous proxies show abrupt changes. TOC, CaCO3 and Elemental analyses results reveal that a major change in the productivity, wind strength and chemical weathering starts around 15 Ma and extends up to 10 Ma. This suggests that a major Himalayan uplift occurred during ~15-10 Ma that drove Indian monsoon intensification. A similar change is also observed during 5 to 1 Ma. These long

  1. Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Jane; Ding, Aijun; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Tianliang; Shi, Jiancheng; Han, Yong; Wang, Hengmao; Jiang, Fei

    2016-04-01

    East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing carbon monoxide (CO) emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality around the world. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases.

  2. Post-tectonic landscape evolution in NE Iberia using staircase terraces: Combined effects of uplift and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Claudia J.; Sancho, Carlos; McDonald, Eric V.; Peña-Monné, José Luis; Pueyo, Emilio L.; Rhodes, Edward; Calle, Mikel; Soto, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    River incision into bedrock resulting from the combined effects of tectonic uplift and climate governs long-term regional landscape evolution. We determined spatial and temporal patterns of post-orogenic stream incision from a sequence of well-preserved staircase terraces developed over the last 1 Ma in the Central Pyrenees and its southern foreland Ebro basin (NE Spain). Extensive remnants of ten vertically separated terraces (Qt1 to Qt10, from oldest to youngest) were mapped along 170 km of the Cinca River valley, transverse to the Pyrenean mountain belt. Multiple outcrops appear in the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa sector, 50 km from headwaters) as well as in the lower reach (Albalate sector, 125 km from headwaters). Fluvial incision into bedrock was calculated using (i) differentially corrected GPS measurements of the altitude of straths and (ii) numerical dating of alluvial sediments from the lower terraces (Qt5 to Qt9) by Optically Stimulated Luminescence, previously reported by Lewis et al. (2009), and supplemented with new dates for the upper terraces (Qt1, Qt2 and Qt3) based on paleomagnetism and supported by soil development. Considering altitude differences and the elapsed time between successive well preserved terrace couples (Qt3-Qt7, Qt7-Qt9 and Qt9-Active channel), mean bedrock incision rates ranged from 0.76 to 0.38 m ka- 1, at the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa section), and from 0.61 to 0.20 m ka- 1, at the lower reach (Albalate section). River incision along the valley produced vertically separated, near-parallel longitudinal terrace profiles evidencing a rapid near-uniform regional uplift as response to (i) the tectonic lithospheric thickening in NE Iberia and (ii) the erosional download rebound related to the Ebro basin exorheism. Moreover, a subtle upstream divergence of strath profiles may have been a consequence of an increase in uplift rate toward the head of the valley. Additionally, incision rates changed over time as indicate

  3. Fracture Mechanics Models for Brittle Failure of Bottom Rails due to Uplift in Timber Frame Shear Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joergen L. Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In partially anchored timber frame shear walls, hold-down devices are not provided; hence the uplift forces are transferred by the fasteners of the sheathing-to-framing joints into the bottom rail and via anchor bolts from the bottom rail into the foundation. Since the force in the anchor bolts and the sheathing-to-framing joints do not act in the same vertical plane, the bottom rail is subjected to tensile stresses perpendicular to the grain and splitting of the bottom rail may occur. This paper presents simple analytical models based on fracture mechanics for the analysis of such bottom rails. An existing model is reviewed and several alternative models are derived and compared qualitatively and with experimental data. It is concluded that several of the fracture mechanics models lead to failure load predictions which seem in sufficiently good agreement with the experimental results to justify their application in practical design.

  4. Simulation of CO2 Sequestration at Rock Spring Uplift, Wyoming: Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Storage Capacity, Injectivity and Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hailin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dai, Zhenxue [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jiao, Zunsheng [Wyoming State Geological Survey; Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Surdam, Ronald C. [Wyoming State Geological Survey

    2011-01-01

    Many geological, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological factors control CO{sub 2} storage in subsurface. Among them heterogeneity in saline aquifer can seriously influence design of injection wells, CO{sub 2} injection rate, CO{sub 2} plume migration, storage capacity, and potential leakage and risk assessment. This study applies indicator geostatistics, transition probability and Markov chain model at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming generating facies-based heterogeneous fields for porosity and permeability in target saline aquifer (Pennsylvanian Weber sandstone) and surrounding rocks (Phosphoria, Madison and cap-rock Chugwater). A multiphase flow simulator FEHM is then used to model injection of CO{sub 2} into the target saline aquifer involving field-scale heterogeneity. The results reveal that (1) CO{sub 2} injection rates in different injection wells significantly change with local permeability distributions; (2) brine production rates in different pumping wells are also significantly impacted by the spatial heterogeneity in permeability; (3) liquid pressure evolution during and after CO{sub 2} injection in saline aquifer varies greatly for different realizations of random permeability fields, and this has potential important effects on hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock, reactivation of pre-existing faults and the integrity of the cap-rock; (4) CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimate for Rock Springs Uplift is 6614 {+-} 256 Mt at 95% confidence interval, which is about 36% of previous estimate based on homogeneous and isotropic storage formation; (5) density profiles show that the density of injected CO{sub 2} below 3 km is close to that of the ambient brine with given geothermal gradient and brine concentration, which indicates CO{sub 2} plume can sink to the deep before reaching thermal equilibrium with brine. Finally, we present uncertainty analysis of CO{sub 2} leakage into overlying formations due to heterogeneity in both the target saline

  5. Luminescence characteristics of quartz and feldspar from tectonically uplifted terraces in Kashmir Basin, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, Manoj K.; Bhat, M.I.; Bali, B.S.; Ahmad, Shabir; Chen, Y.G.

    2009-01-01

    The Kashmir Valley or the Jhelum basin is an intermontane-basin in NW Himalaya bounded by the Pir Panjal Range in the south and southwest and the Great Himalayan Range in the north and northeast. The valley is marked by active major thrust boundaries in its south and southwestern parts. Remote sensing studies and morphometric analysis suggest neo-tectonic activities and the formation of tectonic terraces due to uplift on the major thrust boundaries in NW Himalayas. The quartz from freshly eroded mountain belts is usually found to show very poor luminescence sensitivity and thus not suitable for optical dating. Similar problems occurred with the quartz from the Srinagar Basin. Due to this, feldspar was selected as a natural dose meter for dating tectonically uplifted terraces in an active and dynamic belt of the NW Himalayas. We report here for the first time the luminescence characteristics of quartz and feldspar minerals from the study area. However, feldspar also shows poor luminescence sensitivity, although enough to perform optical dating. Athermal fading was observed in all the feldspar samples, which was corrected using 'g' values; a large scatter was found in the g values, probably due to intermixing of feldspar grains from varying source rock types and also due to poor luminescence sensitivity. An average g value correction to the mean paleodose was found to agree if compared with the thermo-luminescence date of loess deposit dated earlier. The ages show that the terrace formation started taking place at ∼100 ka in the southwestern part of the Jhelum basin and continued with pulses at 50 ka and 11 ka towards the northwestern part.

  6. The role of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for the evolution of Tibetan biotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Adrien; Päckert, Martin; Pauls, Steffen U; Jähnig, Sonja C; Uhl, Dieter; Michalak, Ingo; Muellner-Riehl, Alexandra N

    2015-02-01

    Biodiversity is unevenly distributed on Earth and hotspots of biodiversity are often associated with areas that have undergone orogenic activity during recent geological history (i.e. tens of millions of years). Understanding the underlying processes that have driven the accumulation of species in some areas and not in others may help guide prioritization in conservation and may facilitate forecasts on ecosystem services under future climate conditions. Consequently, the study of the origin and evolution of biodiversity in mountain systems has motivated growing scientific interest. Despite an increasing number of studies, the origin and evolution of diversity hotspots associated with the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) remains poorly understood. We review literature related to the diversification of organisms linked to the uplift of the QTP. To promote hypothesis-based research, we provide a geological and palaeoclimatic scenario for the region of the QTP and argue that further studies would benefit from providing a complete set of complementary analyses (molecular dating, biogeographic, and diversification rates analyses) to test for a link between organismic diversification and past geological and climatic changes in this region. In general, we found that the contribution of biological interchange between the QTP and other hotspots of biodiversity has not been sufficiently studied to date. Finally, we suggest that the biological consequences of the uplift of the QTP would be best understood using a meta-analysis approach, encompassing studies on a variety of organisms (plants and animals) from diverse habitats (forests, meadows, rivers), and thermal belts (montane, subalpine, alpine, nival). Since the species diversity in the QTP region is better documented for some organismic groups than for others, we suggest that baseline taxonomic work should be promoted. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge

  7. Asphalt features and gas accumulation mechanism of Sinian reservoirs in the Tongwan Palaeo-uplift, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Breakthroughs have been made in natural gas exploration in Sinian reservoirs in the Tongwan Palaeo-uplift, Sichuan Basin, recently. However, there are disputes with regard to the genetic mechanisms of natural gas reservoirs. The development law of asphalts in the Sinian reservoirs may play an extremely important role in the study of the relationships between palaeo oil and gas reservoirs. Accordingly, researches were conducted on the features and development patterns of asphalts in the Sinian reservoirs in this area. The following research results were obtained. (1 Asphalts in the Sinian reservoirs were developed after the important hydrothermal event in the Sichuan Basin, namely the well-known Emei Taphrogeny in the mid-late Permian Period. (2 Distribution of asphalts is related to palaeo oil reservoirs under the control of palaeo-structures of Indosinian-Yanshanian Period, when the palaeo-structures contained high content of asphalts in the high positions of the palaeo-uplift. (3 Large-scale oil and gas accumulations in the Sinian reservoirs occurred in the Indosinian-Yanshanian Period to generate the Leshan-Ziyang and Gaoshiti-Moxi-Guang'an palaeo oil reservoirs. Cracking of crude oil in the major parts of these palaeo oil reservoirs controlled the development of the present natural gas reservoirs. (4 The development of asphalts in the Sinian reservoirs indicates that hydrocarbons in the Dengying Formation originated from Cambrian source rocks and natural gas accumulated in the Sinian reservoirs are products of late-stage cracking of the Sinian reservoirs. (5 The Sinian palaeo-structures of Indosinian-Yanshanian Period in the Sichuan Basin are favorable regions for the development of the Sinian reservoirs, where discoveries and exploration practices will play an important role in the era of Sinian natural gas development in China.

  8. Climate-dependent fluvial architecture and processes on a suborbital timescale in areas of rapid tectonic uplift: an example from the NE Tibetan Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Vandenberghe, J.F.; Yi, S; van Balen, R.T.; Lu, H.

    2015-01-01

    The substantial tectonic uplift (1000-2500. m in a few million years) of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP), together with the major climatic changes during the Quaternary, provides an opportunity to study the impact of tectonic and climatic changes on the morphological development and

  9. Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes along the Arakan subduction belt recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on northern Ramree Island, western Myanmar (Burma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Sze-Chieh; Min, Soe; Aung, Lin Thu; Than, Oo; Tun, Soe Thura

    2018-02-01

    Upper-plate structures that splay out from the megathrusts are common features along major convergent plate boundaries. However, their earthquake and tsunami hazard potentials have not yet received significant attention. In this study, we identified at least one earthquake event that may have been produced by an upper-plate splay fault offshore western Myanmar, based on U-Th ages of uplifted coral microatolls. This event is likely an earthquake that was documented historically in C.E. 1848, with an estimated magnitude between 6.8 and 7.2 based on regional structural characteristics. Such magnitude is consistent with the observed co-seismic uplift amount of ∼0.5 m. Although these events are smaller in magnitude than events produced by megathrusts, they may produce higher earthquake and tsunami hazards for local coastal communities due to their proximity. Our results also indicate that earthquake events with co-seismic uplift along the coast may not necessarily produce a flight of marine terraces. Therefore, using only records of uplifted marine terraces as megathrust earthquake proxies may overlook the importance of upper-plate splay fault ruptures, and underestimate the overall earthquake frequency for future seismic and tsunami hazards along major subduction zones of the world.

  10. Simulating the Evolution of Fluid Underpressures in the Great Plains, by Incorporation of Tectonic Uplift and Tilting, with a Groundwater Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad M. J. Umari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Underpressures (subhydrostatic heads in the Paleozoic units underlying the Great Plains of North America are a consequence of Cenozoic uplift of the area. Based on tectonostratigraphic data, we have developed a cumulative uplift history with superimposed periods of deposition and erosion for the Great Plains for the period from 40 Ma to the present. Uplift, deposition, and erosion on an 800 km geologic cross-section extending from northeast Colorado to eastern Kansas is represented in nine time-stepped geohydrologic models. Sequential solution of the two-dimensional diffusion equation reveals the evolution of hydraulic head and underpressure in a changing structural environment after 40 Ma, culminating in an approximate match with the measured present-day values. The modeled and measured hydraulic head values indicate that underpressures increase to the west. The 2 to 0 Ma model indicates that the present-day hydraulic head values of the Paleozoic units have not reached steady state. This result is significant because it indicates that present-day hydraulic heads are not at equilibrium, and underpressures will increase in the future. The pattern uncovered by the series of nine MODFLOW models is of increased underpressures with time. Overall, the models indicate that tectonic uplift explains the development of underpressures in the Great Plains.

  11. Geomorphic evidence for post-10 Ma uplift of the western flank of the central Andes 18°30'-22°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Gregory D.; Isacks, Bryan L.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Blanco, NicoláS.; Tomlinson, Andrew J.; Ramezani, Jahandar

    2007-10-01

    The western Andean mountain front forms the western edge of the central Andean Plateau. Between 18.5° and 22°S latitude, the mountain front has ˜3000 m of relief over ˜50 km horizontal distance that has developed in the absence of major local Neogene deformation. Models of the evolution of the plateau, as well as paleoaltimetry estimates, all call for continued large-magnitude uplift of the plateau surface into the late Miocene (i.e., younger than 10 Ma). Longitudinal river profiles from 20 catchments that drain the western Andean mountain front contain several streams with knickpoint-bounded segments that we use to reconstruct the history of post-10 Ma surface uplift of the western flank of the central Andean Plateau. The generation of knickpoints is attributed to tectonic processes and is not a consequence of base level change related to Pacific Ocean capture, eustatic change, or climate change as causes for creating the knickpoint-bounded stream segments observed. Minor valley-filling alluvial gravels intercalated with the 5.4 Ma Carcote ignimbrite suggest uplift related river incision was well under way by 5.4 Ma. The maximum age of river incision is provided by the regionally extensive, approximately 10 Ma El Diablo-Altos de Pica paleosurface. The river profiles reveal that relative surface uplift of at least1 km occurred after 10 Ma.

  12. Geomorphic Evidence of a Complex late-Cenozoic Uplift and Lateral Displacement History Along the 2013 M7.7 Baluchistan, Pakistan Strike-slip Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbor, D. J.; Barnhart, W. D.

    2017-12-01

    The 2013 M7.7 Baluchistan earthquake in southern Pakistan ruptured 200 km of the north-dipping Hoshab reverse fault with dominantly lateral motion, clearly at odds with the regional topography created by previous reverse fault offsets. The kinematics of this earthquake led to the hypotheses that the Hoshab fault may alternatively slip in a reverse and lateral sense (bi-modal slip), and that the southeast Makran rotates as a uniform block around the fault (ball-and-socket rotation). Here, we use river profiles, regional relief, fault locations, and detailed geomorphic maps derived from optical imagery and DEMs to evaluate the recent uplift history of this region. We find that late Cenozoic fault zone geomorphology supports a spatially complex transition from lateral-dominated offsets in the NE to reverse-dominated offsets in the SW. Additionally, fault zone geomorphology suggests that the location of the Hoshab fault itself may change through time, leading to active incision of footwall alluvial fans and pediments. Stream profiles likewise record incision patterns that vary along the Hoshab fault. Incision and deposition in the SW are illustrative of relative footwall subsidence, consistent with recent uplift on the Hoshab fault; whereas incision and deposition in the NE are illustrative of relative footwall uplift consistent with ongoing regional uplift due to ball-and-socket rotations and dominantly lateral offsets along the northern Hoshab fault. The largest streams also record multiple, discrete, base-level drops, including the presence of convex-up river profiles in the hanging wall of the Hoshab fault. These profiles along hanging wall streams highlight a complex spatial and temporal history of reverse offset, lateral channel offset, and base-level resetting in regional streams that are altogether inconsistent with the kinematics of the 2013 earthquake alone, but that are consistent with the bi-modal slip model. Additionally, the evidence of footwall uplift in

  13. Effect on non-linear soil-structure interaction due to base slab uplift on the seismic response of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    In high seismic regions it has often been the practice to use oversized base slabs for the major nuclear power plant structures in order to prevent, or at least minimize the amount of dynamic base slab uplift which will result from the overturning moments developed during seismic ground motion. Two major reasons have been expressed as to why dynamic base slab uplift should be minimized: (1) As nuclear power plants are normally designed for seismic loadings based upon linear analysis, and since soil-structure interaction becomes nonlinear when only a portion of the base slab is in contact with the soil, linear elasticity analysis may be acceptable if base slab uplift occurs (as the resultant design loads may be incorrect), and (2) substantial uplift could cause excessive toe pressures in the supporting soil and significant impact forces when the slab recontacts the soil. The primary purpose of this paper is to evaluate the importance of the nonlinear soil-structure interaction effects resulting from substantial base slab uplift occurring during a seismic excitation. The structure for this investigation consisted of the containment building and prestressed reactor vessel (PCRV) for a typical HTGR plant. A simplified dynamic mathematical model was utilized consisting of a conventional lumped mass structure with soil-structure interaction accounted for by translational and rotational springs whose properties are determined by elastic half space theory. Three different site soil conditions (a rock site, a moderately stiff soil, and a soft soil) and two levels of horizontal ground motion (0.3 and 0.5 g earthquakes) were considered. (Auth.)

  14. Neogene-Quaternary slow coastal uplift of Western Europe through the perspective of sequences of strandlines from the Cotentin Peninsula (Normandy, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, K.; Jara-Muñoz, J.; De Gelder, G.; Robertson, J.; Meschis, M.; Fernandez-Blanco, D.; Nexer, M.; Poprawski, Y.; Dugué, O.; Delcaillau, B.; Bessin, P.; Benabdelouahed, M.; Authemayou, C.; Husson, L.; Regard, V.; Menier, D.; Pinel, B.

    2018-02-01

    The Cotentin Peninsula (Normandy, France) displays sequences of marine terraces and rasas, the latter being wide Late Cenozoic coastal erosion surfaces, that are typical of Western European coasts in Portugal, Spain, France and southern England. Remote sensing imagery and field mapping enabled reappraisal of the Cotentin coastal sequences. From bottom to top, the N Cotentin sequence includes four previously recognized Pleistocene marine terraces (T1 to T4) at elevations 5e), sequential morphostratigraphy and modelling, we have reappraised uplift rates and derived: (i) mean Upper Pleistocene (i.e. since MIS 5e 122 +/- 6 ka, i.e. kilo annum) apparent uplift rates of 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/yr, (ii) mean Middle Pleistocene eustasy-corrected uplift rates of 0.09 ± 0.03 mm/yr, and (iii) low mean Pleistocene uplift rates of 0.01 mm/yr. Extrapolations of these slow rates combined with geological evidence implies that the formation of the sequences from the Cotentin Peninsula occurred between 3 Ma (Pliocene) and 15 Ma (Miocene), which cannot be narrowed down further without additional research. Along the coasts of Western Europe, sequences of marine terraces and rasas are widespread (169 preserve the MIS 5e benchmark). In Spain, Portugal, S England and other parts of western France, the sequences morphostratigraphy is very similar to that of Cotentin. The onset of such Western European sequences occurred during the Miocene (e.g. Spain) or Pliocene (e.g. Portugal). We interpret this Neogene-Quaternary coastal uplift as a symptom of the increasing lithospheric compression that accompanies Cenozoic orogenies.

  15. Uplift history of a transform continental margin revealed by the stratigraphic record: The case of the Agulhas transform margin along the Southern African Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Guillaume; Guillocheau, François; Boulogne, Carl; Robin, Cécile; Dall'Asta, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    The south and southeast coast of southern Africa (from 28°S to 33°S) forms a high-elevated transform passive margin bounded to the east by the Agulhas-Falkland Fracture Zone (AFFZ). We analysed the stratigraphic record of the Outeniqua and Durban (Thekwini) Basins, located on the African side of the AFFZ, to determine the evolution of these margins from the rifting stage to present-day. The goal was to reconstruct the strike-slip evolution of the Agulhas Margin and the uplift of the inland high-elevation South African Plateau. The Agulhas transform passive margin results from four successive stages: Rifting stage, from Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous ( 200?-134 Ma), punctuated by three successive rifting episodes related to the Gondwana breakup; Wrench stage (134-131 Ma), evidenced by strike- and dip-slip deformations increasing toward the AFFZ; Active transform margin stage (131-92 Ma), during which the Falkland/Malvinas Plateau drifts away along the AFFZ, with an uplift of the northeastern part of the Outeniqua Basin progressively migrating toward the west; Thermal subsidence stage (92-0 Ma), marked by a major change in the configuration of the margin (onset of the shelf-break passive margin morphology). Two main periods of uplift were documented during the thermal subsidence stage of the Agulhas Margin: (1) a 92 Ma short-lived margin-scale uplift, followed by a second one at 76 Ma located along the Outeniqua Basin and; (2) a long-lasting uplift from 40 to 15 Ma limited to the Durban (Thekwini) Basin. This suggests that the South African Plateau is an old Upper Cretaceous relief (90-70 Ma) reactivated during Late Eocene to Early Miocene times (40-15 Ma).

  16. Late Quaternary uplift along the North America-Caribbean plate boundary: Evidence from the sea level record of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Schweig, Eugene S.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Halley, Robert B.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic setting of the North America-Caribbean plate boundary has been studied intensively, but some aspects are still poorly understood, particularly along the Oriente fault zone. Guantanamo Bay, southern Cuba, is considered to be on a coastline that is under a transpressive tectonic regime along this zone, and is hypothesized to have a low uplift rate. We tested this by studying emergent reef terrace deposits around the bay. Reef elevations in the protected, inner part of the bay are ∼11-12 m and outer-coast, wave-cut benches are as high as ∼14 m. Uranium-series analyses of corals yield ages ranging from ∼133 ka to ∼119 ka, correlating this reef to the peak of the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5. Assuming a span of possible paleo-sea levels at the time of the last interglacial period yields long-term tectonic uplift rates of 0.02-0.11 m/ka, supporting the hypothesis that the tectonic uplift rate is low. Nevertheless, on the eastern and southern coasts of Cuba, east and west of Guantanamo Bay, there are flights of multiple marine terraces, at higher elevations, that could record a higher rate of uplift, implying that Guantanamo Bay may be anomalous. Southern Cuba is considered to have experienced a measurable but modest effect from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) processes. Thus, with a low uplift rate, Guantanamo Bay should show no evidence of emergent marine terraces dating to the ∼100 ka (MIS 5.3) or ∼80 ka (MIS 5.1) sea stands and results of the present study support this.

  17. Rapid uplift in Laguna del Maule volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (Chile) measured by satellite radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, K.; Ali, T.; Singer, B. S.; Pesicek, J. D.; Thurber, C. H.; Jicha, B. R.; Lara, L. E.; Hildreth, E. W.; Fierstein, J.; Williams-Jones, G.; Unsworth, M. J.; Keranen, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone extends over 500 square kilometers and comprises more than 130 individual vents. As described by Hildreth et al. (2010), the history has been defined from sixty-eight Ar/Ar and K-Ar dates. Silicic eruptions have occurred throughout the past 3.7 Ma, including welded ignimbrite associated with caldera formation at 950 ka, small rhyolitic eruptions between 336 and 38 ka, and a culminating ring of 36 post-glacial rhyodacite and rhyolite coulees and domes that encircle the lake. Dating of five post-glacial flows implies that these silicic eruptions occurred within the last 25 kyr. Field relations indicate that initial eruptions comprised modest volumes of mafic rhyodacite magma that were followed by larger volumes of high silica rhyolite. The post-glacial flare-up of silicic magmatism from vents distributed around the lake, is unprecedented in the history of this volcanic field. Using satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), Fournier et al. (2010) measured uplift at a rate of more than 180 mm/year between 2007 and 2008 in a round pattern centered on the west side of LdM. More recent InSAR observations suggest that rapid uplift has continued from 2008 through early 2011. In contrast, Fournier et al. found no measurable deformation in an interferogram spanning 2003 through 2004. In this study, we model the deformation field using the General Inversion of Phase Technique (GIPhT), as described by Feigl and Thurber (2009). Two different models fit the data. The first model assumes a sill at ~5 km depth has been inflating at a rate of more than 20 million cubic meters per year since 2007. The second model assumes that the water level in the lake dropped at a rate of 20 m/yr from January 2007 through February 2010, thus reducing the load on an elastic simulation of the crust. The rate of intrusion inferred from InSAR is an order of magnitude higher than the average rate derived from well-dated arc

  18. Chemical weathering in response to tectonic uplift and denudation rate in a semi-arid environment, southeast Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Schoonejans, Jérôme; Vanacker, Veerle; Sonnet, Philippe; Delmelle, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Soil thickness reflects the balance between soil production and denudation by chemical weathering and physical erosion. At topographic steady state, the soil weathering intensity is expected to be higher at low denudation rate (transport-limited) than at high denudation rate (weathering-limited). We tested this hypothesis for the first time in a semi-arid environment where chemical weathering processes are generally slow. The study site is the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera in Southeast Spain, Almeria province. The lithology is mainly mica-schist and quartzite with local presence of phyllite. Three catchments (EST, FIL, CAB) were selected upstream local faults along a gradient of increasing uplift rates (10-170 mm/kyr) and increasing denudation rates (20-250 mm/kyr), following the sequence EST

  19. Thermodynamic model for uplift and deflation episodes (bradyseism) associated with magmatic-hydrothermal activity at the Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto; Spera, Fran J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Milia, Alfonsa; Nunziata, Concettina; Belkin, Harvey E.; Cannatelli, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Campi Flegrei (CF) is a large volcanic complex located west of the city of Naples, Italy. Repeated episodes of bradyseism (slow vertical ground movement) near the town of Pozzuoli have been documented since Roman times. Bradyseismic events are interpreted as the consequence of aqueous fluid exsolution during magma solidification on a slow timescale (103–104 yr) superimposed upon a shorter (1–10 yr) timescale for the episodic expulsion of fluid from a deep (~ 3–5 km) lithostatically-pressured low-permeability reservoir to an overlying hydrostatic reservoir. Cycles of inflation and deflation occur during short duration transient events when connectivity is established between deep and shallow hydrothermal reservoirs. The total seismic energy released (4 × 1013 J) during the 1983–1984 bradyseismic crisis is consistent with the observed volume change (uplift) and consistent with the notion that seismic failure occurs in response to the shear stress release induced by volume change. Fluid transport and concomitant propagation of hydrofractures as fluid expands from lithostatic to hydrostatic pressure during decompression leads to ground surface displacement. Fluid decompression occurs along the fluid isenthalp (Joule–Thompson expansion) during transient periods of reservoir connectivity and leads to mineral precipitation. Each kilogram of fluid precipitates about 3 × 10− 3 kg of silica along a typical decompression path along the isenthalp. Mineral precipitation modifies the permeability and acts to reseal connection paths thereby isolating lithostatic and hydrostatic reservoirs ending one bradyseism phase and beginning another. Crystallization and exsolution of the magmatic fluid generates ≈ 7 × 1015 J of mechanical (PΔV) energy, and this is sufficient to accomplish the observed uplift at CF. Although magma emplacement is the ultimate origin of bradyseism, fresh recharge of magma is not a prerequisite. Instead, short to intermediate

  20. Crustal seismicity associated to rpid surface uplift at Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Carlos; Tassara, Andrés; Gil-Cruz, Fernando; Lara, Luis; Morales, Sergio; Kohler, Paulina; Franco, Luis

    2018-03-01

    Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex (LMVC, Southern Andes of Chile) has been experiencing large rates (ca. 30 cm/yr) of surface uplift as detected since 2008 by satellite geodetic measurements. Previous works have modeled the source of this deformation as an inflating rectangular sub-horizontal sill underlying LMVC at 5 km depth, which is supposedly related to an active process of magmatic replenishment of a shallow silicic reservoir. However little is known about the tectonic context on which this activity is taking place, particularly its relation with crustal seismicity that could help understanding and monitoring the current deformation process. Here we present the first detailed characterization of the seismic activity taking place at LMVC and integrate it with structural data acquired in the field in order to illuminate the possible connection between the ongoing process of surface uplift and the activation of crustal faults. Our main finding is the recognition of repetitive volcano-tectonic (VT) seismic swarms that occur periodically between 2011 and 2014 near the SW corner of the sill modeled by InSAR studies. A cross-correlation analysis of the waveforms recorded for these VT events allows identifying three different seismic families. Families F1 and F3 share some common features in the stacked waveform and its locations, which markedly differ from those of family F2. Swarms belonging to this later family are more energetic and its energy was increasing since 2011 to a peak in January 2013, which coincide with maximum vertical velocities detected by local GPS stations. This points to a common process relating both phenomena. The location of VT seismic swarms roughly coincides with the intersection of a NE-SW lineament with a WNW-ESE lineament. The former shows clear field evidences of dextral strike-slip that are fully consistent with one nodal plane of focal mechanism for well-recorded F2 events. The conjugate nodal plane of these focal mechanisms could

  1. Constraints on early Cenozoic underplating-driven uplift and denudation of western Scotland from low temperature thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persano, Cristina; Barfod, Dan N.; Stuart, Finlay M.; Bishop, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Apatite (U-Th)/He and fission track data from profiles in western Scotland constrain the timing and magnitude of denudation during the early Cenozoic when the north Atlantic region was the site of intense magmatic activity related to the proto-Icelandic plume. Apatite helium ages vary from 77 ± 8 to 265 ± 27 Ma (± 2 σ) at Sgorr Dhonuill, Ballachulish, and from 104 ± 10 Ma to 166 ± 17 Ma at Clisham, Outer Hebrides. At both locations apatite fission track (AFT) ages are older than the corresponding He ages; at Clisham they vary from 189 ± 28 Ma to 242 ± 26 Ma, and from 186 ± 6 Ma to 257 ± 12 Ma at Sgorr Dhonuill. Apatite He ages increase linearly with elevation suggesting that the cooling rate remained constant in the late Mesozoic. However, the apatite He age profile requires a period of rapid cooling after ˜ 100 Ma. Apatite He ages predicted from the AFT-derived thermal histories are indistinguishable from measured He ages for a rapid cooling event of 1 to 10 Myr duration between 61 and 47 Ma at Sgorr Dhonuill and 65 to 49 Ma at Clisham. The combined apatite FT- and He-derived thermal histories constrain the early Cenozoic geothermal gradient at 39 ± 9 °C/km at Sgorr Dhonuill and 19 ± 6 °C/km at Clisham. Amounts of denudation related to the rapid cooling event vary from 1330 ± 230 m at Sgorr Dhonuill to 2250 ± 750 m at Clisham, in agreement with models that predict greater amounts of denudation where magmatic underplating is thicker. However, the direct correlation between underplating-driven surface uplift and denudation may only be apparent and a more complex link between spatial variation of surface uplift and denudation is suggested. The integration of results from multiple low-temperature thermochronometers, combined with inverse and forward modelling, provides a convincing and quantitative method to deduce onshore erosional histories, and provides critical information about the spatial distribution of erosion that cannot be derived from the

  2. Evidence of Past Large Storms or Tsunamis from an Uplifted Section of the Southern Hikurangi Margin, Wairarapa Coast, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S. P.; Jessica, P.; Clark, K.; Kosciuch, T. J.; Reinhardt, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    Evidence of past large storms or tsunamis from an uplifted section of the southern Hikurangi margin, Wairarapa coast, New Zealand Stephen Mitchell1, Jessica Pilarczyk1, Kate Clark2, Thomas Kosciuch1, Eduard Reinhardt31University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Marine Science 2GNS Science, New Zealand 3McMaster University The Hikurangi margin, located along the east coast of New Zealand, has generated multiple tsunamigenic-earthquakes in the historic times that have impacted coastlines of the North Island. Knowledge of the possible magnitudes and recurrence intervals associated with Hikurangi earthquakes and tsunamis is necessary to understand and mitigate hazards facing New Zealand's coasts. Events such as the 1931 Napier earthquake, which caused severe ground shaking, and the Gisborne tsunami of 1947 that reached 10 meters high, demonstrate the earthquake and tsunami hazards associated with the Hikurangi margin. To better understand these hazards, longer-term geologic records are needed. Along the Wairarapa coast of the North Island of New Zealand, marine terraces provide evidence for multiple Hikurangi earthquakes over the past 7,000 years. Evidence for possible tsunami inundation in this area has also been discovered, but the record is patchy in spatial and temporal extent. We found three anomalous sand layers preserved within an uplifted beach exposure along the Wairarapa coast. The sand layers, consisting of very fine to coarse sand (3.5-0.8 Φ), sharply overlie paleosols containing fine to medium sized silt (6.1-7.1 Φ) in a sequence that extends for approximately 400 meters along shore. We assign a marine origin to the sand layers because they contain relatively high elemental concentrations of calcium and barium. By contrast, the paleosols contained relatively high elemental concentrations of iron. The marine sands contain evidence in support of tsunami inundation; rip-up clasts, coarse pulses, fining upward sequences, and erosive contacts were

  3. The Quaternary uplift history of central southern England: evidence from the terraces of the Solent River system and nearby raised beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, Rob; Bridgland, David; White, Mark

    2006-09-01

    We have used fluvial (Solent River system) and marine terraces to reconstruct the uplift history of central southern England. In the case of the former, we make the assumption that fluvial incision has been a direct response to surface uplift, with its precise timing controlled by climatic forcing of fluvial activity, such that height of terrace gravel above modern river is a consequence of uplift since deposition. In the case of the marine sequence, we take the height of interglacial raised beaches above a calculated contemporaneous sea-level as a measure of uplift, the calculation involving an adjustment from modern sea-level using the deep oceanic oxygen isotope signal as an indication of global ice volume at the time of deposition. This exercise requires some degree of dating constraint, which is problematic for both environments. The Solent terraces have yielded little biostratigraphical evidence, whereas the south coast raised beaches have either been poorly exposed in recent years or their ages have been controversial because of disputes between biostratigraphy and geochronological data. We have supplemented the evidence available from these sources by using key aspects of the archaeological record as dating constraints, in particular the first appearances of Levallois technique (a marker for MIS 9-8) and of bout coupé handaxes (MIS 3). The first of these has been particularly useful in modelling of the Middle Pleistocene parts of the river terrace staircases of the Solent system. In undertaking this reappraisal, we have noted several inconsistencies and disagreements between past correlation schemes for the terraces of the Solent and its various tributaries. We find that versions involving shallower downstream gradients in the main Solent River are most likely to be correct and that revisions on this basis solve a number of problems in interpretation encountered previously. Our results show that most of this region has uplifted by ˜70 m since the late

  4. Differential cooling and uplift of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Central Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenken, A; Martino, R.; Wemmer, K.; Siegesmund, S.; Drobe, M.; Lopez de Luchi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampean as are constituted by the Neo proterozoic to early Cambrian basement of the Sierras de Cordoba, San Luis and eastern La Rioja (29grades 00seconds - 33grades 30seconds, 64grades 00seconds - 6 00W) outcropping in the east of the Chaco-Parana basin. High-grade metamorphic gneisses and schists dominate the basement. The intrusion of magmatic rocks took place during the Pampean, Famatinian and Achalian cycles. The basement is divided in different lithological and structural domains by N-S trending ductile shear-zones. The east-dipping compressive Los Tuneles and Guacha Corral shear-zones at the western limit of the Sierras de Cordoba are the most important with respect to the exhumation history of the Sierras. An extensive survey on the cooling history by K/Ar biotite and muscovite dating of the basement rocks of the Sierras de Cordoba and San Luis was carried out and interpreted in terms of a differential exhumation history of the different blocks. Beginning of cooling in the Sierra de San Luis is documented by large muscovite booklets from pegmatites yielding ages between 438 Ma and 448 Ma. Slow cooling rates (3grades/Ma) led to a systematic reset of the K/Ar ages in the fine-grained muscovites forming two groups between 430 Ma and 410 Ma and 410 Ma and 380 Ma resulting from the Achalian deformation in the upper Silurian-Upper Devonian. In contrast to the Upper Ordovician/-Llandoverian cooling onset in the Sierra de San Luis, large pegmatitic muscovites from the Sierras de Cordoba record late Cambrian to Early Ordovician ages between 493 Ma and 474 Ma. The limit between those age domains is marked by the Los Tuneles and Guacha Corral shear-zones accommodating the vertical displacement responsible for the different ages. Cooling ages from the shear-zone rocks at 430 Ma define the upper limit for the contraction that is related to the collision with the Cuyania Terrane to the western outboard of Gondwana

  5. Coupling erosion and topographic development in the rainiest place on Earth: Reconstructing the Shillong Plateau uplift history with in-situ cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Ruben; Schildgen, Taylor; Wittmann, Hella; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2018-02-01

    The uplift of the Shillong Plateau, in northeast India between the Bengal floodplain and the Himalaya Mountains, has had a significant impact on regional precipitation patterns, strain partitioning, and the path of the Brahmaputra River. Today, the plateau receives the highest measured yearly rainfall in the world and is tectonically active, having hosted one of the strongest intra-plate earthquakes ever recorded. Despite the unique tectonic and climatic setting of this prominent landscape feature, its exhumation and surface uplift history are poorly constrained. We collected 14 detrital river sand and 3 bedrock samples from the southern margin of the Shillong Plateau to measure erosion rates using the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide 10Be. The calculated bedrock erosion rates range from 2.0 to 5.6 m My-1, whereas catchment average erosion rates from detrital river sands range from 48 to 214 m My-1. These rates are surprisingly low in the context of steep, tectonically active slopes and extreme rainfall. Moreover, the highest among these rates, which occur on the low-relief plateau surface, appear to have been affected by anthropogenic land-use change. To determine the onset of surface uplift, we coupled the catchment averaged erosion rates with topographic analyses of the plateau's southern margin. We interpolated an inclined, pre-incision surface from minimally eroded remnants along the valley interfluves and calculated the eroded volume of the valleys carved beneath the surface. The missing volume was then divided by the volume flux derived from the erosion rates to obtain the onset of uplift. The results of this calculation, ranging from 3.0 to 5.0 Ma for individual valleys, are in agreement with several lines of stratigraphic evidence from the Brahmaputra and Bengal basin that constrain the onset of topographic uplift, specifically the onset of flexural loading and the transgression from deltaic to marine deposition. Ultimately, our data corroborate the

  6. Late quaternary uplift and subsidence of the west coast of Tanna, south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific: U-Th ages of raised coral reefs in the Median Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, G.; Zhao, J.X.; Collerson, K.D.; Zhang, F.S.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve Late Quaternary TIMS U-Th ages are reported here from 10 coral samples collected in situ from five transgressive coral/algal raised reefs (height: max. 113m, min. 8m) and two raised lagoonal deposits (height: max. 18 m, min. 8 m) along and near the west coast of Tanna, which lies in the Median Sedimentary Basin of South Vanuatu, southwest Pacific. These reefs and raised lagoonal deposits represent several age groups: (i) 215ka (marine oxygen-isotope stage 7) penultimate interglacial (highest elevation and oldest); (ii) one lagoonal deposit of ca 127 ka (marine oxygen-isotope stage 5e); (iii) three last interglacial reefs with ages 102, 89 and 81 ka (representing marine oxygen-isotope stages 5c, 5b and 5a, respectively, of the latter part of the last interglacial); (iv) a lagoonal deposit with a 92 ka age (5b); and (v) a Holocene reef (age >5.7-5.0 ka) (lowest elevation and youngest). A ca 4.9 ka regressive reef (at elevation of 1.5 m above sea-level) is consistent with an island-wide 6.5m uplift (probably largely coseismic), and a probable further island-wide uplift-occurred in the late Holocene. The U-series ages taken together with the heights of transgressive reefs show that uplift since 215 ka was, on average, at -0.52 mm/y, although since 5 ka the uplift rate was, on average, ∼1.6 mm/y (the assumption being that a 1.5 m above sea-level reef has a coseismic origin) Elevation of transgressive reefs 5a, 5b and 5c and their ages indicates an island-wide subsidence during the period ?124-89 ka (i.e. Late Quaternary uplift/subsidence was jerky). Late Quaternary uplift/subsidence on the northwest coast of Tanna is considered to be due to irregular thickness of crust being subducted beneath Tanna. Copyright (2003) Geological Society of Australia

  7. InSAR Time Series Analysis and Geophysical Modeling of City Uplift Associated with Geothermal Drillings in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motagh, M.; Lubitz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Geothermal energy is of increasing importance as alternative, environmentally friendly technology for heat management. Direct interaction with the subsurface requires careful implementation, in particular in geological complex regions. The historical city Staufen im Breisgau, SW Germany, has attracted national attention as a case of implementation failure with severe consequences, causing debates on the applicability and security of this sustainable technique. Located at the eastern transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif, the geothermal potential is high at Staufen due to strong temperature gradients. In September 2007, seven boreholes for geothermal probes were drilled up to a depth of 140 m to provide a new heat management for the city hall. Within five years an uplift phenomenon has been observed in Staufen reaching more than 40 cm in places and 269 buildings were damaged. Hydro-chemical driven anhydrite-gypsum transformation in the subsurface was identified as the cause leading to volume increase that is observable as surface uplift. This process is associated with the geothermal drilling activities that have crossed several groundwater levels. In this work, we summarize and present the findings of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) analysis of the uplift in Staufen over the last five years from July 2008 through July 2013. By applying the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) method, we find a localized elliptical-shaped deformation field in NE-SW orientation. Area of maximum uplift is located 50 m NNE of the drilling zone. At this location, we observe a cumulative uplift of approx. 13.7 cm ± 0.34 cm (mean value within an area of 30 m by 30 m) from July 2008 to July 2009, which reduced to cumulative uplift of 3 cm ± 0.25 cm from July 2012 to July 2013. The deceleration can be related to applied countermeasures as borehole sealing and groundwater pumping. The observed ground surface response was compared to

  8. Munroa argentina, a Grass of the South American Transition Zone, Survived the Andean Uplift, Aridification and Glaciations of the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarilla, Leonardo D.; Anton, Ana M.; Chiapella, Jorge O.; Manifesto, María M.; Angulo, Diego F.; Sosa, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The South American Transition Zone (SATZ) is a biogeographic area in which not only orogeny (Andes uplift) and climate events (aridification) since the mid-Miocene, but also Quaternary glaciation cycles had an important impact on the evolutionary history of the local flora. To study this effect, we selected Munroa argentina, an annual grass distributed in the biogeographic provinces of Puna, Prepuna and Monte. We collected 152 individuals from 20 localities throughout the species’ range, ran genetic and demographic analyses, and applied ecological niche modeling. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses based on cpDNA and AFLP data identified three phylogroups that correspond to the previously identified subregions within the SATZ. Molecular dating suggests that M. argentina has inhabited the SATZ since approximately 3.4 (4.2–1.2) Ma and paleomodels predict suitable climate in these areas during the Interglacial period and the Last Glacial Maximum. We conclude that the current distribution of M. argentina resulted from the fragmentation of its once continuous range and that climate oscillations promoted ecological differences that favored isolation by creating habitat discontinuity. PMID:26110533

  9. Nemaha Uplift seismotectonic study: regional tectonics and seismicity of eastern Kansas. Technical progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.W.

    1979-11-01

    Progress and results of all work on this project to the end of its second year, or September 30, 1978, were reported in NUREG/CR-0666, published March 1979. Project third-year activites and results include the following: continued operation of a regional microearthquake monitoring network which detected and located 26 regional events between October 1, 1978, and August 2, 1979; designing and building a triggering system to allow digitized recording of microearthquakes by a modified exploration seismography; continued surface and subsurface studies of selected areas along the Nemaha Uplift-Keweenanan Mafic belt trend; continued study of Precambrian rock types from recently drilled wells; beginning compilation of a fault catalog; terrain analysis and lineament studies which indicate that the alignment of stream drainages and divides are strongly controlled by basement and subsurface structure; continued reduction of gravity data for northeastern Kansas (a Bouguer gravity map probably will be available late Fall 1979); modification of the exploration seismograph system to a more efficient 12-channel Mini-Sosie system and completion of several line-miles of reflection profiling; and beginning integration of data from Oklahoma, Nebraska, and Iowa co-investigators. All major goals for FY 1979 were accomplished. 2 figures

  10. Munroa argentina, a Grass of the South American Transition Zone, Survived the Andean Uplift, Aridification and Glaciations of the Quaternary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo D Amarilla

    Full Text Available The South American Transition Zone (SATZ is a biogeographic area in which not only orogeny (Andes uplift and climate events (aridification since the mid-Miocene, but also Quaternary glaciation cycles had an important impact on the evolutionary history of the local flora. To study this effect, we selected Munroa argentina, an annual grass distributed in the biogeographic provinces of Puna, Prepuna and Monte. We collected 152 individuals from 20 localities throughout the species' range, ran genetic and demographic analyses, and applied ecological niche modeling. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses based on cpDNA and AFLP data identified three phylogroups that correspond to the previously identified subregions within the SATZ. Molecular dating suggests that M. argentina has inhabited the SATZ since approximately 3.4 (4.2-1.2 Ma and paleomodels predict suitable climate in these areas during the Interglacial period and the Last Glacial Maximum. We conclude that the current distribution of M. argentina resulted from the fragmentation of its once continuous range and that climate oscillations promoted ecological differences that favored isolation by creating habitat discontinuity.

  11. Development of the reed bed in Matsalu wetland, Estonia: responses to neotectonic land uplift, sea level changes and human influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Meriste

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied reed bed development in Matsalu wetland and the Kasari River delta, Estonia, since the late 18th century using historical schemes, topographical maps and aerial photographs. Our aim was to understand the mechanisms controlling reed distribution in Matsalu wetland, the largest coastal wetland of the eastern Baltic Sea occupying an area of about 25 km2. Natural development of the reed bed in Matsalu Bay and the Kasari delta is mainly controlled by shoreline displacement due to post-glacial neotectonic land uplift. The dredging of the Kasari delta in the 1920s–1930s caused a rapid seaward migration of reed bed communities due to the dispersal of fragmented rhizomes on the shallow sea bottom and along the canal banks reaching Matsalu Bay, while the landward parts of the former wetland were occupied by meadow communities. The expansion of the reed bed started in between the 1951s and 1970s and a maximum extent of 27 km2 was gained by the late 1970s at the peak of eutrophication. In the last decades the reed bed development has been influenced by sea level rise and increased intensity of cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea, which has caused the deterioration of the reed bed that was weakened by eutrophication due to nutrient inflow from agricultural landscapes mainly in the 1960s–1980s.

  12. Late Permian rivers draining the uplifted Cape Fold Belt: magnetostratigraphy and detrital thermochronology of Karoo Basin sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohver, E.; Schmieder, M.; Arosio, R.; Lanci, L.; Jourdan, F.; Wilson, A.; Ratcliffe, K.; Payenberg, T.; Flint, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Cape Fold Belt and Karoo Basin of southern Africa formed during the Permian orogeny that affected the 13,000 km southern margin of the Gondwanan continent. In this report, we synthesize new and recent magnetostratigraphic and geochronologic data to establish a chronostratigraphic framework for Karoo Basin sedimentation for comparison with the thermal/exhumation history of the Cape Fold Belt. The source-sink model is evaluated using new data from detrital muscovite and zircon from 2 km composite section of fluvial sandstone and mudstones deposited at ca.275 - 260 Ma. Coherent age populations of detrital zircon grains indicate rapid incorporation of contemporary volcanic ashbeds into the sedimentary record. In contrast, cooling age distributions of detrital muscovite are typically ca. 5 - 10 Ma older than the age of deposition; similar lag times are observed from modern sediments in active mountain belts. Trace element geochemical signatures demonstrate a clear shift towards crustal recycling via headland erosion in the Beaufort Group relative to the underlying Ecca Group. These observations pinpoint the age of uplift for the Cape Fold Belt, which began to function as the major sediment source for the foreland Karoo Basin with the deposition of the uppermost Ecca Group and basal Beaufort Group.

  13. Subaqueous volcanism in the Etnean area: evidence for hydromagmatic activity and regional uplift inferred from the Castle Rock of Acicastello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, R. A.; Cristofolini, R.

    2000-01-01

    The subalkaline rocks outcropping at the Acicastello Castle Rock, Catania, Sicily, and on its abrasion platforms, are related to the oldest Etnean volcanism (500-300 ka; [Gillot, P.Y., Kieffer, G., Romano, R., 1994. The evolution of Mount Etna in the light of potassium-argon dating. Acta Vulcanol. 5, 81-87.]). Here, submarine lavas with pillows closely packed onto each other are associated with heterogeneous and poorly sorted volcaniclastic breccia levels with sub-vertical sharp boundaries. The present-day attitude was previously interpreted as due to a local tilt [Di Re, M., 1963. Hyaloclastites and pillow-lavas of Acicastello (Mt. Etna). Bull. Volcanol. 25, 281-284.; Kieffer, G., 1985. Evolution structurale et dynamique d'un grand volcan polygenique: stades d'edification et activitè actuelle de l'Etna (Sicile). Clermont Ferrand IIDoctorat Etat Tesi, Clermont Ferrand II.], or to the seaward sliding of the entire eastern Etnean flank [Borgia, A., Ferrari, L., Pasquarè, G., 1992. Importance of gravitational spreading in the tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mount Etna. Nature 357, 231-235.], on the assumption of originally horizontal boundaries. On the contrary, our observations do not match the hypothesis of a significantly tilted succession and lead us to conclude that, apart from the strong regional uplift, the present Castle Rock exposure did not suffer any substantial change of its attitude.

  14. Munroa argentina, a Grass of the South American Transition Zone, Survived the Andean Uplift, Aridification and Glaciations of the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarilla, Leonardo D; Anton, Ana M; Chiapella, Jorge O; Manifesto, María M; Angulo, Diego F; Sosa, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The South American Transition Zone (SATZ) is a biogeographic area in which not only orogeny (Andes uplift) and climate events (aridification) since the mid-Miocene, but also Quaternary glaciation cycles had an important impact on the evolutionary history of the local flora. To study this effect, we selected Munroa argentina, an annual grass distributed in the biogeographic provinces of Puna, Prepuna and Monte. We collected 152 individuals from 20 localities throughout the species' range, ran genetic and demographic analyses, and applied ecological niche modeling. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses based on cpDNA and AFLP data identified three phylogroups that correspond to the previously identified subregions within the SATZ. Molecular dating suggests that M. argentina has inhabited the SATZ since approximately 3.4 (4.2-1.2) Ma and paleomodels predict suitable climate in these areas during the Interglacial period and the Last Glacial Maximum. We conclude that the current distribution of M. argentina resulted from the fragmentation of its once continuous range and that climate oscillations promoted ecological differences that favored isolation by creating habitat discontinuity.

  15. Developing methodology for description of biosphere evolution at Olkiluoto disposal site utilising forest studies at other land uplift sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikondn, A.T.K.; Afo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In Finland, Olkiluoto Island has been selected as the site for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in addition to the existing repository for low and intermediate level waste. When creating biosphere models for safety assessments, local main features and processes need to be taken into account. A special characteristic of the site, as well as the coastal area of the Gulf of Bothnia in general, is the land uplift (6-9 mm/a). This continuously exposes new land to soil-formation processes and provides surfaces for colonization by plant communities. The forest vegetation succession on stony, fine-grained till soils starts from deciduous shoreline vegetation and ends in almost pure Norway spruce forests. This has enabled to study ecological and microbiological processes in soils and forests of different developmental stages, to monitor forest condition and the factors affecting it in sites locating close to each other. It has also made possible gradient studies of the succession of boreal mire ecosystems without a need to wait thousands of years. Applying a methodology described in the full paper, a descriptive model on the evolution of the biosphere will be established to indicate possible ecosystem distributions and main characteristics on the area on the basis of above-mentioned studies carried out by Finnish Forest Research Institute, and of results of the site investigations at Olkiluoto. In future, the evolution description will be used as a basis for selection of appropriate ecosystem modules and parameter values in the subsequent coupled assessment model systems. (author)

  16. Late Paleozoic-Middle Mesozoic uplift rate, cooling rate and geothermal gradient for south-central New York state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Apatite and zircon crystals were recovered from the Tioga metabentonite (Middle Devonian) at Cherry Valley, New York and from a metabentonite at the top of the Black River Group (Middle Ordovician) at Middleville, New York. Fission-track ages obtained from these minerals are younger than the stratigraphic ages of the units, indicating total or partial resetting of the mineral ages due to thermal annealing of fission-tracks. The age data allow for calculation of a mean uplift rate of 0.019 +- 0.009 mm/yr for the interval 193 to 155 Myr, and a mean cooling rate of 0.38 +- 0.11 0 C/Myr for the interval 354 to 155 Myr. An average geothermal gradient for the interval 354 to 155 Myr is 20 +- 11 C/km. The partially reset zircon age from the Black River metabentonite indicates that the Middle Ordovician rocks of south-central New York have been exposed to temperatures approaching approx. 175 C. This temperature, in conjunction with the calculated geothermal gradient, implies burial of these units to depths approaching 8 km. Such burial suggests that extensive Carboniferous sediments once covered southern New York, and that the Alleghenian Orogeny had a stronger sedimentalogical influence in the northern portion of the Appalachian Basin than has been previously recognized. (author)

  17. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-06-29

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent.

  18. "Broadband" Bioinformatics Skills Transfer with the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP): Educational Model for Upliftment and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimusa, Emile R; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Masilela, Velaphi; Kumuthini, Judit

    2015-11-01

    A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The "omics" fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP). Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection.

  19. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing Andreasen, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony B.

    2016-01-01

    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to ...... by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.......Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses...... backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf...

  20. Steady incision of Grand Canyon at the million year timeframe: a case for mantle-driven differential uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Ryan S.; Karl Karlstrom,; Laura Crossey,; Richard Young,; Michael Ort,; Yemane Asmerom,; Victor Polyak,; Andrew Darling,

    2014-01-01

    The Grand Canyon region provides an excellent laboratory to examine the interplay between river incision, magmatism, and the geomorphic and tectonic processes that shape landscapes. Here we apply U-series, Ar–Ar, and cosmogenic burial dating of river terraces to examine spatial variations in incision rates along the 445 km length of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon. We also analyze strath terrace sequences that extend to heights of several hundred meters above the river, and integrate these with speleothem constrained maximum incision rates in several reaches to examine any temporal incision variations at the million-year time frame. This new high-resolution geochronology shows temporally steady long-term incision in any given reach of Grand Canyon but significant variations along its length from 160 m/Ma in the east to 101 m/Ma in the west. Spatial and temporal patterns of incision, and the long timescale of steady incision rule out models where geomorphic controls such as climate oscillations, bedrock strength, sediment load effects, or isostatic response to differential denudation are the first order drivers of canyon incision. The incision pattern is best explained by a model of Neogene and ongoing epeirogenic uplift due to an eastward propagating zone of increased upper mantle buoyancy that we infer from propagation of Neogene basaltic volcanism and a strong lateral gradient in modern upper mantle seismic structure.

  1. A potential archive of Pleistocene uplift and erosion in the eastern Nete basin, Campine area, north-eastern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    From a geodynamic point of view, the Campine area is situated on the crossroads between distinctive tectonic settings: the subsiding North Sea basin and Roer Valley Graben in the north, and the uplifting Brabant Massif and Ardennes in the south. In general, this has led to overall Cenozoic subsidence of the area and sedimentation of unconsolidated marine sands. However, the morphology of the present-day Nete basin, which is situated in the central and eastern part of the Campine area, is a clear example of an erosional feature and shows evidence of up to 30 m of Quaternary erosion. However, the drivers, timing and rate of landscape development in the Nete basin are poorly constrained. Here, we present and describe geological and geomorphological remnants testifying to past landscape development in the Nete basin, that will help understanding the Quaternary geodynamic evolution (uplift) of the Campine area. The Nete basin is located in northern Belgium and is drained by two small rivers, the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete, that merge into the larger Nete river several km before entering the Lower Scheldt basin. The Nete basin can clearly be identified on topographical maps as a depression, ca. 40 km x 40 km, with valley floors ranging between 10-20 m above sea level (a.s.l.). It is bounded in the north, east and south by erosion resistant geological formations at altitudes between 30 m (north) and 60 m (south). The major direction of drainage is from ENE to WSW and the basin thus opens towards the west. The start of basin development is situated after deposition of Rhine sediments (~ 1 Ma) which form the erosion resistant eastern watershed with the Meuse basin at an altitude of ~ 50 m a.s.l. on top of the Campine Plateau. GIS-based landscape analysis of the topography and the contour map of the Quaternary base confirm the observation that the lowering of the relief from the Campine Plateau down to the floodplain of the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete shows a stepwise

  2. Study of horizontal-vertical interactive Sway Rocking (SR) model for basemat uplift. Part 2: non-linear response analysis and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momma, T.; Shirahama, K.; Suzuki, K.; Ogihara, M.

    1995-01-01

    Non-linear earthquake response analyses of a BWR MARK-II type nuclear reactor building are conducted by using a Sway Rocking model (SR model) proposed in Part 1 considering the interaction between horizontal and vertical motion. The results are compared with those of accurate mathematical model using the Green Function method. Horizontal response of the SR model agrees very well with that of the Green Function model. The floor response spectra of induced vertical motions by both methods are also corresponding well in periodic characteristics as well as peak-levels. From these results, it is confirmed that the horizontal-vertical interactive SR model is applicable to non-linear response analyses considering basemat uplift. Based on the comparison of the induced vertical motions due to basemat uplift by both methods, an application limit of the horizontal-vertical interactive SR model is set up at the ground contact ratio of about 50%. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  3. Inverse modeling of ground surface uplift and pressure with iTOUGH-PEST and TOUGH-FLAC: The case of CO2 injection at In Salah, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Rutqvist, Jonny; Finsterle, Stefan; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2017-11-01

    Ground deformation, commonly observed in storage projects, carries useful information about processes occurring in the injection formation. The Krechba gas field at In Salah (Algeria) is one of the best-known sites for studying ground surface deformation during geological carbon storage. At this first industrial-scale on-shore CO2 demonstration project, satellite-based ground-deformation monitoring data of high quality are available and used to study the large-scale hydrological and geomechanical response of the system to injection. In this work, we carry out coupled fluid flow and geomechanical simulations to understand the uplift at three different CO2 injection wells (KB-501, KB-502, KB-503). Previous numerical studies focused on the KB-502 injection well, where a double-lobe uplift pattern has been observed in the ground-deformation data. The observed uplift patterns at KB-501 and KB-503 have single-lobe patterns, but they can also indicate a deep fracture zone mechanical response to the injection. The current study improves the previous modeling approach by introducing an injection reservoir and a fracture zone, both responding to a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. In addition, we model a stress-dependent permeability and bulk modulus, according to a dual continuum model. Mechanical and hydraulic properties are determined through inverse modeling by matching the simulated spatial and temporal evolution of uplift to InSAR observations as well as by matching simulated and measured pressures. The numerical simulations are in agreement with both spatial and temporal observations. The estimated values for the parameterized mechanical and hydraulic properties are in good agreement with previous numerical results. In addition, the formal joint inversion of hydrogeological and geomechanical data provides measures of the estimation uncertainty.

  4. The last interglacial period at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba and an estimate of late Quaternary tectonic uplift rate in a strike-slip regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweig, E. S.; Muhs, D. R.; Simmons, K. R.; Halley, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is an area dominated by a strike-slip tectonic regime and is therefore expected to have very low Quaternary uplift rates. We tested this hypothesis by study of an unusually well preserved emergent reef terrace around the bay. Up to 12 m of unaltered, growth-position reef corals are exposed at about 40 sections examined around ˜40 km of coastline. Maximum reef elevations in the protected, inner part of the bay are ˜11-12 m, whereas outer-coast shoreline angles of wave-cut benches are as high as ˜14 m. Fifty uranium-series analyses of unrecrystallized corals from six localities yield ages ranging from ˜134 ka to ˜115 ka, when adjusted for small biases due to slightly elevated initial 234U/238U values. Thus, ages of corals correlate this reef to the peak of the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5. Previously, we dated the Key Largo Limestone to the same high-sea stand in the tectonically stable Florida Keys. Estimates of paleo-sea level during MIS 5.5 in the Florida Keys are ~6.6 to 8.3 m above present. Assuming a similar paleo-sea level in Cuba, this yields a long-term tectonic uplift rate of 0.04-0.06 m/ka over the past ~120 ka. This estimate supports the hypothesis that the tectonic uplift rate should be low in this strike-slip regime. Nevertheless, on the southeast coast of Cuba, east of our study area, we have observed flights of multiple marine terraces, suggesting either (1) a higher uplift rate or (2) an unusually well-preserved record of pre-MIS 5.5 terraces not observed at Guantanamo Bay.

  5. Evolution of salt diapir and karst morphology during the last glacial cycle: Effects of sea-level oscillation, diapir and regional uplift, and erosion (Persian Gulf, Iran)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal; Zare, M.; Churáčková, Z.; Asadi, N.; Fuchs, M.; Adamovič, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 121, 3/4 (2010), s. 291-304 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB315040801; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt karst * salt diapir * salt cave * uplift rate * Persian Gulf Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.352, year: 2010

  6. Uplift mechanism for a shallow-buried structure in liquefiable sand subjected to seismic load: centrifuge model test and DEM modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Wang, Zihan; Chen, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Jiao

    2014-06-01

    Based on a centrifuge model test and distinct element method (DEM), this study provides new insights into the uplift response of a shallow-buried structure and the liquefaction mechanism for saturated sand around the structure under seismic action. In the centrifuge test, a high-speed microscopic camera was installed in the structure model, by which the movements of particles around the structure were monitored. Then, a two-dimensional digital image processing technology was used to analyze the microstructure of saturated sand during the shaking event. Herein, a numerical simulation of the centrifuge experiment was conducted using a two-phase (solid and fluid) fully coupled distinct element code. This code incorporates a particle-fluid coupling model by means of a "fixed coarse-grid" fluid scheme in PFC3D (Particle Flow Code in Three Dimensions), with the modeling parameters partially calibrated based on earlier studies. The physical and numerical models both indicate the uplifts of the shallow-buried structure and the sharp rise in excess pore pressure. The corresponding micro-scale responses and explanations are provided. Overall, the uplift response of an underground structure and the occurrence of liquefaction in saturated sand are predicted successfully by DEM modeling. However, the dynamic responses during the shaking cannot be modeled accurately due to the restricted computer power.

  7. Gravity study of the Central African Rift system: a model of continental disruption 2. The Darfur domal uplift and associated Cainozoic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, P. M.; Fairhead, J. D.; Stuart, G. W.

    1983-05-01

    Gravity studies of the Darfur uplift, Western Sudan, show it to be associated with a circular negative Bouguer anomaly, 50 mGal in amplitude and 700 km across. A three-dimensional model interpretation of the Darfur anomaly, using constraints deduced from geophysical studies of similar but more evolved Kenya and Ethiopia domes, suggests either a low-density laccolithic body at mid-lithospheric depth (~ 60 km) or a thinned lithosphere with emplacement at high level of low-density asthenospheric material. The regional setting of the Darfur uplift is described in terms of it being an integral part of the Central African Rift System which is shown to be broadly equivalent to the early to middle Miocene stage in the development of the Afro-Arabian Rift System. Comparisons between these rift systems suggest that extensional tectonics and passive rifting, resulting in the subsiding sedimentary rift basins associated with the Ngaoundere, Abu Gabra, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, are more typical of the early stage development of passive continental margins than the active domal uplift and development of rifted features associated with the Darfur, Kenya and Ethiopia domes.

  8. Uplift rates of the marine terraces in the south coast of Japan deduced from in situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Nagano, G.; Nakamura, A.; Maemoku, H.; Miyairi, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2015-12-01

    Marine terraces are low-relief platforms located along coastal areas. They are formed by waves action with the changes in the relative sea level (RSL) that is affected by combined effects of the eustatic sea level (ESL) and the tectonic movements (e.g. uplift, subsidence and isostatic effect). Therefore, determining the ages and the elevations of the marine terraces allows us to reconstruct the ESL and/or the tectonic history of the study area. The Kii Peninsula and the southern coast of the Shikoku Island are located along the Nankai Trough where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the Eurasian plate. There exist relatively well-preserved marine terraces along the coastal line with the elevation of ca. 50 -100 m. Because of this unique tectonic setting, the terraces are regarded as the suitable counterparts to reconstruct uplift history of the south coast of Japan. However, the ages of these terraces are poorly understood due to the lack of the ash layers that is suitable for the tephrochronology. In this study, we determine the age of the marine terraces using terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic radionuclides (TCN), 10Be and 26Al. This is the first age estimation of the marine terraces in Japan using TCN, allowing us to determine the uplift rates and the seismic history of the region.

  9. Uplift sequence of the Andes at 30°S: Insights from sedimentology and U/Pb dating of synorogenic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, J.; Mardonez, D.; Mahoney, J. B.; Mescua, J. F.; Giambiagi, L. B.; Kimbrough, D.; Lossada, A.

    2017-04-01

    The South Central Andes at 30°S represent a key area to understand the Andes geodynamics as it is in the middle of the flat slab segment and all the morphotectonic units of the Central Andes are well developed. This work is focused in the proximal synorogenic deposits of the Western Precordillera, in the La Tranca valley, in order to unravel the uplift sequence of this belt. Nine facies associations were recognized; most of them represent piedmont facies with local provenance from Precordillera and were deposited in the wedge-top depozone, as is expected for proximal sinorogenic deposits. However there are intercalations of transference fluvial systems, which show mixed provenance indicating that Permo-Triassic igneous rocks were already exposed to the west (Frontal Cordillera). There are also lacustrine deposits which are interpreted as the result of damming by fault activity at east of the studied basin. Finally, two maximum depositional ages at ca. 11 Ma and 8 Ma of these deposits indicate that the onset of uplift of the Precordillera at 30°S is little older than 11 Ma. These data change two previous ideas about the evolution of the Precordillera: its uplift at 30° S is younger than proposed by previous works and it is nearly synchronous along strike.

  10. Deformation of Tibetan Crust and Mantle and the Uplift of the Plateau: Insights from Broadband Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, M. R.; Lebedev, S.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic deployments over the last two decades have produced dense broadband data coverage across the Tibetan Plateau. Yet, the lithospheric dynamics of Tibet is still debated, with very different end-member models advocated to this day. Uncertainties over the anomalies in seismic tomography models contribute to the uncertainty of their interpretations, ranging from the subduction of India as far as northern Tibet to subduction of Asia there and to extreme viscous thickening of the entire Tibetan lithosphere. Within the lithosphere itself, a low-viscosity layer in the mid-lower crust is evidenced by many observations. It is still unclear, however, whether this layer accommodates a large-scale channel flow (which may have uplifted northern and eastern Tibet, according to one model) or if, instead, deformation within it is similar to that observed at the surface (which implies different uplift mechanisms). Broad-band surface waves provide resolving power from the upper crust down to the asthenosphere, for both isotropic-average shear-wave speeds (proxies for composition and temperature) and the radial and azimuthal shear-wave anisotropy (indicative of the patterns of deformation and flow). We measured highly accurate Love- and Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity curves in broad period ranges (up to 5-200 s) for a few tens of pairs and groups of stations across Tibet, combining, in each case, hundreds to thousands of inter-station measurements, made with cross-correlation and waveform-inversion methods. Robust shear-velocity profiles were then determined by series of non-linear inversions, yielding depth-dependent ranges of shear speeds and radial anisotropy consistent with the data. Temperature anomalies in the upper mantle were estimated from shear-velocity ones using accurate petro-physical relationships. Azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle was determined by surface-wave tomography and, also, by sub-array analysis targeting the anisotropy amplitude. Our

  11. "Broadband" Bioinformatics Skills Transfer with the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP: Educational Model for Upliftment and Sustainable Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile R Chimusa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The "omics" fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP. Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection.

  12. Biogeographical divergence of the flora of Yunnan, southwestern China initiated by the uplift of Himalaya and extrusion of Indochina block.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hua

    Full Text Available The floral composition of Yunnan is conspicuously linked to the biogeographical history of this extremely species-rich province in southwestern China. The floristic compositions of three representative regions in Yunnan were compared to reveal their variation with geography. From southern Yunnan, 4150 native species (including subspecies and varieties from 1240 genera and 183 families of seed plants were recognized. From central Yunnan 3389 native species from 1095 genera and 167 families of seed plants were recognized. From northwestern Yunnan 6807 native species from 1296 genera and 166 families of seed plants were recognized. Although these three floras across Yunnan are similar in familial composition, similarities between the floras of southern and northwestern Yunnan are low at the generic and specific levels. The flora of northwestern Yunnan is dominated by families and genera with cosmopolitan and north temperate distributions, while the flora of southern Yunnan is dominated by tropical families and genera. Northwestern Yunnan is composed largely of temperate genera, of which the highest proportion has a north temperate distribution. In contrast, southern Yunnan has mainly tropical genera, of which most have a tropical Asian distribution. The flora of central Yunnan is a combination of southern and northwestern Yunnan. These three floras might be derived from a common Tertiary tropical or subtropical East Asian flora, but the geological history of each region has influenced its flora, and they have remained divergent since the late Tertiary. The flora of northwestern Yunnan has evolved with the uplift of the Himalayas and by gradual proliferation of mainly cosmopolitan and north temperate floristic elements, while the flora of southern Yunnan has evolved with extrusion of the Indochina block and the influence of mainly tropical Asian elements.

  13. Multiscale heterogeneity characterization of tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies, Almond Formation outcrops, Rock Springs uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, R.A.; Tomutsa, L. [BDM Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In order to accurately predict fluid flow within a reservoir, variability in the rock properties at all scales relevant to the specific depositional environment needs to be taken into account. The present work describes rock variability at scales from hundreds of meters (facies level) to millimeters (laminae) based on outcrop studies of the Almond Formation. Tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies were sampled on the eastern flank of the Rock Springs uplift, southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The Almond Fm. was deposited as part of a mesotidal Upper Cretaceous transgressive systems tract within the greater Green River Basin. Bedding style, lithology, lateral extent of beds of bedsets, bed thickness, amount and distribution of depositional clay matrix, bioturbation and grain sorting provide controls on sandstone properties that may vary more than an order of magnitude within and between depositional facies in outcrops of the Almond Formation. These features can be mapped on the scale of an outcrop. The products of diagenesis such as the relative timing of carbonate cement, scale of cemented zones, continuity of cemented zones, selectively leached framework grains, lateral variability of compaction of sedimentary rock fragments, and the resultant pore structure play an equally important, although less predictable role in determining rock property heterogeneity. A knowledge of the spatial distribution of the products of diagenesis such as calcite cement or compaction is critical to modeling variation even within a single facies in the Almond Fin. because diagenesis can enhance or reduce primary (depositional) rock property heterogeneity. Application of outcrop heterogeneity models to the subsurface is greatly hindered by differences in diagenesis between the two settings. The measurements upon which this study is based were performed both on drilled outcrop plugs and on blocks.

  14. Double-difference tomography velocity structure in Northern Oklahoma: Evidence for reduced basement velocity in the Nemaha Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. T.; Keranen, K. M.; Lambert, C.

    2016-12-01

    Induced seismicity in northern Oklahoma presents risk for infrastructure, but also an opportunity to gain new insights to earthquake processes [Petersen et al., 2016]. Here we present a double-difference tomographic study using TomoDD [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] in northern Oklahoma utilizing records from a dense broadband network over a 1-year period, constituting a catalog of over 10,000 local seismic events. We image a shallow (depth 4 km). We suggest that this low velocity anomaly stems from enhanced fracturing and/or weathering of the basement in the Nemaha uplift in northern Oklahoma. This velocity anomaly is not observed in basement off the shoulders of the structure, particularly to the southeast of the Nemaha bounding fault. Enhanced fracturing, and related increases to permeability, would ease pressure migration from injection wells linked to increased seismicity in the region, and may explain the relative absence of seismicity coincident with this structure compared to it periphery. References Gay, S. Parker, J. (2003), The Nemaha Trend-A System of Compressional Thrust-Fold, Strike-Slilp Structural Features in Kansas and Oklahoma, Part 1, Shale Shak., 9-49. Petersen, M. D., C. S. Mueller, M. P. Moschetti, S. M. Hoover, A. L. Llenos, W. L. Ellsworth, A. J. Michael, J. L. Rubinstein, A. F. McGarr, and K. S. Rukstales (2016), 2016 One-Year Seismic Hazard Forecast for the Central and Eastern United States from Induced and Natural Earthquakes, Open-File Rep., doi:10.3133/OFR20161035. Zhang, H., and C. H. Thurber (2003), Double-difference tomography: The method and its application to the Hayward Fault, California, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 93(5), 1875-1889, doi:10.1785/0120020190.

  15. Biogeographical divergence of the flora of Yunnan, southwestern China initiated by the uplift of Himalaya and extrusion of Indochina block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The floral composition of Yunnan is conspicuously linked to the biogeographical history of this extremely species-rich province in southwestern China. The floristic compositions of three representative regions in Yunnan were compared to reveal their variation with geography. From southern Yunnan, 4150 native species (including subspecies and varieties) from 1240 genera and 183 families of seed plants were recognized. From central Yunnan 3389 native species from 1095 genera and 167 families of seed plants were recognized. From northwestern Yunnan 6807 native species from 1296 genera and 166 families of seed plants were recognized. Although these three floras across Yunnan are similar in familial composition, similarities between the floras of southern and northwestern Yunnan are low at the generic and specific levels. The flora of northwestern Yunnan is dominated by families and genera with cosmopolitan and north temperate distributions, while the flora of southern Yunnan is dominated by tropical families and genera. Northwestern Yunnan is composed largely of temperate genera, of which the highest proportion has a north temperate distribution. In contrast, southern Yunnan has mainly tropical genera, of which most have a tropical Asian distribution. The flora of central Yunnan is a combination of southern and northwestern Yunnan. These three floras might be derived from a common Tertiary tropical or subtropical East Asian flora, but the geological history of each region has influenced its flora, and they have remained divergent since the late Tertiary. The flora of northwestern Yunnan has evolved with the uplift of the Himalayas and by gradual proliferation of mainly cosmopolitan and north temperate floristic elements, while the flora of southern Yunnan has evolved with extrusion of the Indochina block and the influence of mainly tropical Asian elements.

  16. Quaternary river incision in the uplifted Rhenish massif (Ardennes, Belgium) - Insights from 10Be/26Al dating of river terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; Siame, Lionel; Bovy, Benoît.; Demoulin, Alain

    2010-05-01

    Although it constitutes the main tool to unravel the regional recent tectonics, the chronology of the Pleistocene river incision is still poorly constrained within the uplifted Rhenish-Ardennes massif (Belgium, western Europe). Here, we measure cosmogenic nuclides concentrations (10Be and 26Al) in terrace quartz or quartzite sediments of several Ardennian rivers (Meuse, Ourthe and Amblève) in order to date the so-called Younger Main Terrace (YMT), a key-level in the network evolution. Though these dating methods are successfully used to determine ages of superficial (e.g., glacial) deposits, dating of fluvial terraces remains difficult. Possible predepositional exposures of the sampled material (inherited 10Be and 26Al) may indeed bias the measurements towards higher nuclide concentrations while several postdepositional processes (burial, erosion) may cause a lowering of the 10Be and 26Al concentrations. In an attempt to overcome these difficulties, the selected fluvial deposits (five locations) were sampled using a profiling technique on as thick as possible sections (more than 3 m). We present the first absolute dating of the YMT in the lower Meuse valley (nearby the Dutch boundary), where we obtained an age of 630 ka for a terrace deposit buried beneath 3 m of Weichselian loess. This age is consistent with some previously published estimates based on paleomagnetic data and MIS correlations. However, our ages for the same terrace level within the Ardennes are significantly younger: >400 ka in the lower Ourthe, and only ~220 ka still farther upstream, in the lower Amblève. We thus demonstrate that the post-YMT incision occurred diachronically in NE Ardennes. The ~0.5 Ma timespan needed by the erosion wave to propagate from the lower Meuse towards the Ardennian headwaters contradicts the long-held statement of a climatically driven incision that would have been synchronous throughout the catchment.

  17. History of surface displacements at the Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming, from leveling surveys and InSAR observations, 1923-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Modern geodetic studies of the Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming, and its extraordinary tectonic, magmatic, and hydrothermal systems date from an initial leveling survey done throughout Yellowstone National Park in 1923 by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. A repeat park-wide survey by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of Utah during 1975-77 revealed that the central part of the caldera floor had risen more than 700 mm since 1923, at an average rate of 14±1 mm/yr. From 1983 to 2007, the USGS conducted 15 smaller surveys of a single level line that crosses the northeast part of the caldera, including the area where the greatest uplift had occurred from 1923 to 1975-77. The 1983 and 1984 surveys showed that uplift had continued at an average rate of 22±1 mm/yr since 1975-77, but no additional uplift occurred during 1984-85 (-2±5 mm/yr), and during 1985-95 the area subsided at an average rate of 19±1 mm/yr. The change from uplift to subsidence was accompanied by an earthquake swarm, the largest ever recorded in the Yellowstone area (as of March 2012), starting in October 1985 and located near the northwest rim of the caldera. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images showed that the area of greatest subsidence migrated from the northeast part of the caldera (including the Sour Creek resurgent dome) during 1992-93 to the southwest part (including the Mallard Lake resurgent dome) during 1993-95. Thereafter, uplift resumed in the northeast part of the caldera during 1995-96, while subsidence continued in the southwest part. The onset of uplift migrated southwestward, and by mid-1997, uplift was occurring throughout the entire caldera (essentially rim to rim, including both domes). Consistent with these InSAR observations, leveling surveys indicated 24±3 mm of uplift in the northeast part of the caldera during 1995-98. The beginning of uplift was coincident with or followed shortly after an earthquake swarm near the north caldera rim

  18. Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons in land-uplift succession: The relative importance of local and regional environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snickars, Martin; Sandström, Alfred; Lappalainen, Antti; Mattila, Johanna; Rosqvist, Kajsa; Urho, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    The assemblages of young-of-the-year fish were studied in coastal lagoons in an archipelago with post-glacial land-uplift, which affects environmental gradients at local and regional scale, i.e. lagoon habitat isolation and archipelago position, respectively. The categorisation of 40 undisturbed lagoons into nine habitat types based on habitat isolation and archipelago position was supported by clear relationships with spring temperature and total fish abundance. Rutilus rutilus, breams ( Abramis/Blicca sp.) and Perca fluviatilis were the most abundant and frequently occurring species. The fish assemblage differed among the nine habitat types. Rutilus rutilus, P. fluviatilis and breams were discriminating species in the majority of habitat types with low physical harshness, whereas Alburnus alburnus and Gasterosteus aculeatus increased their contributions in habitat types with high physical harshness. Rutilus rutilus and breams were thus common in lagoons with high habitat isolation situated in the inner archipelago. These lagoons were characterised by warm water and high vegetation coverage. Gasterosteus aculeatus was restricted to lagoons with low habitat isolation and exposure and low vegetation coverage, situated in the outer archipelago. Perca fluviatilis had the widest distribution of all species. The coverage of two macrophytes, Potamogeton perfoliatus and Zannichellia palustris, and salinity matched best the distance among habitat types. These habitat characteristics, as well as the fish abundances and assemblages differed most across the habitat types in the outer and mid archipelago zones and in the lowest habitat isolation. These patterns suggest that the structuring effect of habitat isolation increases along the archipelago gradient as differences between local and regional conditions increase. In the inner archipelago, overall low physical harshness induces homogeneous conditions and the habitat isolation is less important here than in the other zones

  19. Mire succession and balance of key elements in relation to crustal uplift and spent nuclear fuel disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aro, L. [Finnish Forest Research Institute (Finland); Ikonen, A.T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase Ltd (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. Olkiluoto is subjected to post-glacial crustal uplift, 6-8 mm/year. This changes landscape and creates new ecosystems, e.g. mires, to be developed further due to changes in groundwater table, site properties and prevailing vegetation in future. The biosphere assessment demonstrating the long-term safety of the repository is developed into more and more site specific. In the biosphere assessment, terrestrial ecosystems are divided into upland forests (three biotopes) and mires. Mires are not well represented at the site at present. However, over the assessment timeframe, 10,000 years, there will be a succession of mire development stages that need to be considered. There are various stages ranging from brackish marshes through minerotrophic treed and treeless mires to ombrotrophic bogs that can ultimately be overgrown by terrestrial plants. At this final stage of development there are no connections to ground or surface waters so the only source of water is from precipitation. Hence, there are very different properties between the different mires. The properties of the future mire ecosystems surrounding Olkiluoto Island can be projected from the past and radionuclide transport models applied based on the properties of present mires, both on Olkiluoto Island and in a reference area. A set of reference mires have therefore been selected on the basis that they are as similar as possible to the types that are expected to develop during the next 10,000 years. The most important radionuclides in transport models are long-lived C-14, Cl-36, I-129, Mo-93, Se-79, Cs-135, Ni-59 and Nb-94. Due to low or non-existent concentrations of many of these nuclides in the environment, stable isotopes are used as analogues in certain cases, e.g. Ni instead of Ni-59. In this presentation we demonstrate the subject by estimating distribution of stable Ni in mires at

  20. Upper mantle structure under western Saudi Arabia from Rayleigh wave tomography and the origin of Cenozoic uplift and volcanism on the Arabian Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-11-09

    The shear velocity structure of the shallow upper mantle beneath the Arabian Shield has been modeled by inverting new Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements between 45 and 140 s together with previously published Rayleigh wave group velocity measurement between 10 and 45 s. For measuring phase velocities, we applied a modified array method that minimizes the distortion of raypaths by lateral heterogeneity. The new shear velocity model shows a broad low velocity region in the lithospheric mantle across the Shield and a low velocity region at depths {ge} 150 km localized along the Red Sea coast and Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. The velocity reduction in the upper mantle corresponds to a temperature anomaly of {approx}250-330 K. These finding, in particular the region of continuous low velocities along the Red Sea and MMN volcanic line, do not support interpretations for the origin of the Cenozoic plateau uplift and volcanism on the Shield invoking two separate plumes. When combined with images of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities beneath the southern part of the Arabian Shield, body wave tomographic models, a S-wave polarization analysis, and SKS splitting results, our new model supports an interpretation invoking a thermal upwelling of warm mantle rock originating in the lower mantle under Africa that crosses through the transition zone beneath Ethiopia and moves to the north and northwest under the eastern margin of the Red Sea and the Arabian Shield. In this interpretation, the difference in mean elevation between the Platform and Shield can be attributed to isostatic uplift caused by heating of the lithospheric mantle under the Shield, with significantly higher region along the Red Sea possibly resulting from a combination of lithosphere thinning and dynamic uplift.

  1. Canyon incision chronology based on ignimbrite stratigraphy and cut-and-fill sediment sequences in SW Peru documents intermittent uplift of the western Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gunnell, Yanni; Jicha, Brian R.; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Braucher, Régis

    2017-12-01

    Based on an 40Ar/39Ar- and U/Pb-based chronostratigraphy of ignimbrite sheets and the geomorphological features of watersheds, river profiles and slope deposits in the Ocoña-Cotahuasi-Marán (OCM) and Colca valleys of southwest Peru, we reconstruct the valley incision history of the western Central Andes over the last c. 25 Myr. We further document the Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of deep valleys on the basis of 14 10Be surface-exposure ages obtained on debris-avalanche deposits and river straths. The data suggest that uplift was gradual over the past 25 Myr, but accelerated after c. 9 Ma. Valley incision started around 11-9 Ma and accelerated between 5 and 4 Ma. Incision was followed by several pulses of valley cut-and-fill after 2.3 Ma. Evidence presented suggest that the post-5 Ma sequence of accelerated canyon incision probably resulted from a combination of drainage piracy from the Cordilleran drainage divide towards the Altiplano, accentuated flexural tilting of the Western Cordillera towards the SE, and increased rainfall on the Altiplano after late Miocene uplift of the Eastern Cordillera. The valley deepening and slope steepening driven by tectonic uplift gave rise to large occurrences of rockslope failure. The collapsed rock masses periodically obstructed the canyons, thus causing abrupt changes in local base levels and interfering with the steadiness of fluvial incision. As a result, channel aggradation has prevailed in the lower-gradient, U-shaped Pacific-rim canyons, whereas re-incision through landslide deposits has occurred more rapidly across the steeper V-shaped, upper valleys. Existing canyon knickpoints are currently arrested at the boundary between the plutonic bedrock and widespread outcrops of middle Miocene ignimbritic caprock, where groundwater sapping favouring rock collapse may be the dominant process driving headward erosion.

  2. Sr isotope evidence for a lacustrine origin for the upper Miocene to Pliocene Bouse Formation, lower Colorado River trough, and implications for timing of Colorado Plateau uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.; Patchett, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    The upper Miocene to Pliocene Bouse Formation in the lower Colorado River trough, which consists largely of siltstone with basal tufa and marl, has been interpreted as estuarine on the basis of paleontology. This interpretation requires abrupt marine inundation that has been linked to early rifting in the Gulf of California and Salton trough. New strontium isotope measurements reported here from carbonates and invertebrate shells in the Bouse Formation reveal no evidence of marine water, but are consistent with deposition in a lake or chain of lakes fed by the Colorado River. Furthermore, the absence of a southward decrease in 87Sr/86Sr within the Bouse Formation does not support the estuarine model in which low 87Sr/86Sr marine Sr would have dominated the mouth of the hypothetical Bouse estuary. Elevation of originally marine 87Sr/86Sr in the Bouse Formation to its present level, due to postdepositional interaction with ground water, is unlikely because Sr from secondary calcite above, below, and within the Bouse Formation is consistently less radiogenic, not more, than Bouse marl and shells. In contrast to Bouse Sr, strontium from mollusks in tidal-flat and delta-front paleoenvironments in the contemporaneous Imperial Formation in the Salton trough and from the subsurface south of Yuma was derived from sea water and confirms the dominance of marine strontium near or at the mouth of the late Miocene to early Pliocene Colorado River. Inferred post-early Pliocene uplift of the Bouse Formation from below sea level to modern elevations of up to 550 m has been used to support a late Cenozoic uplift age for the nearby Colorado Plateau. This constraint on uplift timing is eliminated if the Bouse Formation is lacustrine.

  3. Complex Channel Avulsion in the Meghna River Foodplain During the Mid to Late Holocene: The Potential Effect of Tectonic and Co-Seismic Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, A.; Grall, C.; Mondal, D. R.; Steckler, M. S.; Rajapara, H.; Kumar, B.; Philibosian, B.; Akhter, S. H.; Singhvi, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Channel migrations and river avulsions in deltaic river systems are mainly driven by differential changes of surface topography, such as the superelevation of channels due to sedimentation. In addition to such autocyclic processes, tectonic events, such as earthquakes, may also lead to avulsions from sudden uplift. The eastern part of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD) is underlain by the blind megathrust of the IndoBurma subduction zone. In this region we investigate a 100 km long sinuous abandoned channel of the Meghna River. Immediately south of the channel, it has been previously shown that the topography is slightly higher than on the rest of the Delta and there is an oxidized Holocene exposure surface. Part of the Titas River flows northward from this area into the abandoned channel belt, opposite of the southward flowing rivers of the delta. We provide results from a detailed investigation of this abandoned channel of the Meghna River using stratigraphic logs of hand-drilled wells, resistivity profiles, sediment analyses and OSL and C14 dating, The OSL ages to be presented constrain the possible date of the event. We employ numerical modeling to evaluate the hypothesis that the co-seismic uplift associated to an earthquake can trigger the channel migration. Our modeling approach aims to estimate the co-seismic uplift associated with potential seismic events using an elastic Coulomb's dislocation model. The geometry fault in our model is estimated using geologic and GPS constraints with standard elastic parameters (Young's modulus = 80 GPa; Poisson's ratio = 0.3). We explored different potential earthquakes geometries that involve the megathrust, a splay fault, or the megathrust terminating in the splay. The magnitude and distribution of co-seismic slip are also varied between a rupture length of 112.5km and 180km along a 225km long fault. We show that any class of models can produce the amount of uplift (1-2 m) necessary for triggering the river

  4. Ice Shell Thickness and Endogenic Processes on Europa from Mapping and Topographic Analyses of Pits, Uplifts and Small Chaos Features (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, K. N.; McKinnon, W. B.; Schenk, P.

    2013-12-01

    Constraining the thickness of the ice shell on Europa and the geological processes occurring in it are keys to understanding this icy world and its potential habitability. We focus on circular-to-subcircular features generally agreed to have been created by endogenic processes in Europa's ice shell or ocean: pits, uplifts, and subcircular chaos. Pits and uplifts are defined by their negative or positive topographic expression, respectively. Pits and uplifts generally retain pre-existing surface structures such as ridges, while chaos specifically refers to areas where the surface is broken up, in some cases to the point of destroying all original surface topography. We have mapped all features plausibly created by upwellings or other endogenic processes in the size range of 1 to 50 km in diameter, and incorporated previously unavailable topographic data as an aid to mapping and characterization of features. Topography was derived from albedo-controlled photoclinometry and crosschecked with stereo data where possible. Mapping was carried out over the medium-resolution Galileo regional maps (RegMaps) covering approximately 9% of Europa's surface, as well as over available high-resolution regions. While limited in extent, the latter are extremely valuable for detecting smaller features and for overall geomorphological analysis. Results of this new mapping show decreasing numbers of small features, and a peak in the size distribution for all features at approximately 5-6 km in diameter. No pits smaller than 3.3 km in diameter were found in high resolution imagery. Topography was used to find the depths and heights of pits and uplifts in the mapped regions. A general trend of increasing pit depth with increasing pit size was found, a correlation more easily understood in the context of a diapiric hypothesis for feature formation (as opposed to purely non-diapiric, melt-through models). Based on isostasy, maximum pit depths of ~0.3-to-0.48 km imply a minimum shell

  5. Tectonic uplift and denudation rate influence soil chemical weathering intensity in a semi-arid environment, southeast Spain: physico-chemical and mineralogical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Schoonejans, Jérôme; Vanacker, Veerle; Sonnet, Philippe; Delmelle, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic uplift is known to influence denudation rates. Denudation, including chemical weathering and physical erosion, affects soil production rates and weathering intensities. At topographic steady state, weathering can be transport- or weathering-limited. In the transport-limited regime, low denudation rates should lead to comparatively high weathering intensities, while in the weathering-limited case high denudation rates are associated with lower weathering intensities. Here, we test if this relationship applies to semi-arid environments where chemical weathering is generally slow. Three catchments (EST, FIL and CAB) were studied in the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera in southeast Spain, spanning a range of increasing uplift rates (10-170 mm/kyr) and increasing denudation rates (20-250 mm/kyr) from EST to CAB. In each catchment, two ridgetop soil profiles were sampled down to the bedrock. The three catchments have similar vegetation and climatic conditions, with precipitation of 250- 315 mm/yr and mean annual temperature of 15-17 °C. The mineralogy of the bedrock, as determined by XRD, is similar across the three catchments and is characterized by the presence of quartz, muscovite, clinochlore, biotite and plagioclase. This primary mineral assemblage is also found in the catchment soils, indicating that the soils studied derive from the same parent material. The soil clay-size fraction is dominated by kaolinite, vermiculite and illite. However, the proportions of the soil primary and secondary minerals vary between the catchment sites. The abundance of biotite decreases from CAB (14%) to EST (4%), whereas the quartz and clay contents show an opposite tendency (from 30 to 69% and 9.9 to 14.3%, respectively). Further, the abundance of vermiculite increases from CAB to EST. The results are interpreted in terms of increasing weathering intensity from CAB to EST by weathering of biotite into vermiculite and enrichment of soils on more weathering resistant

  6. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  7. Gravimetric structure for the abyssal mantle massif of Saint Peter and Saint Paul peridotite ridge, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, and its relation to active uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KENJI F. MOTOKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents gravimetric and morphologic analyses based on the satellite-derived data set of EGM2008 and TOPEX for the area of the oceanic mantle massif of the Saint Peter and Saint Paul peridotite ridge, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The free-air anomaly indicates that the present plate boundary is not situated along the longitudinal graben which cuts peridotite ridge, but about 20 km to the north of it. The high Bouguer anomaly of the peridotite ridge suggests that it is constituted mainly by unserpentinised ultramafic rocks. The absence of isostatic compensation and low-degree serpentinisation of the ultramafic rocks indicate that the peridotite ridge is sustained mainly by active tectonic uplift. The unparallel relation between the transform fault and the relative plate motion generates near north-south compression and the consequent tectonic uplift. In this sense, the peridotite massif is a pressure ridge due to the strike-slip displacement of the Saint Paul Transform Fault.

  8. Geological and geochronological evidence for the effect of Paleogene and Miocene uplift of the Northern Ordos Basin on the formation of the Dongsheng uranium district, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yi, Chao; Dong, Qian; Cai, Yu-Qi; Liu, Hong-Xu

    2018-02-01

    The Dongsheng uranium district, located in the northern part of the Ordos Basin, contains the largest known sandstone-hosted uranium deposit in China. This district contains (from west to east) the Daying, Nalinggou, and Dongsheng uranium deposits that host tens of thousands of metric tonnes of estimated recoverable uranium resources at an average grade of 0.05% U. These uranium orebodies are generally hosted by the lower member of the Zhiluo Formation and are dominantly roll or tabular in shape. The uranium deposits in this district formed during two stages of mineralization (as evidenced by U-Pb dating) that occurred at 65-60 and 25 Ma. Both stages generated coffinite, pitchblende, anatase, pyrite, and quartz, with or without sericite, chlorite, calcite, fluorite, and hematite. The post-Late Cretaceous uplift of the Northern Ordos Basin exposed the northern margins of the Zhiluo Formation within the Hetao depression at 65-60 Ma, introducing groundwater into the formation and generating the first stage of uranium mineralization. The Oligocene (∼25 Ma) uplift of this northern margin exposed either the entirety of the southern flank of the Hetao depression or only the clastic sedimentary part of this region, causing a second gravitational influx of groundwater into the Zhiluo Formation and forming the second stage of uranium mineralization.

  9. Study on the estimation method of uplift during the late Quaternary by using river terraces (2). Stratigraphy of fluvial terraces along the Naka Rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hataya, Ryuta

    2006-01-01

    To develop the reliable method of terrace correlation and chronology, which is a key technique for uplift characterization in an inland area, verification of terrace correlation and chronology is examined along the Naka and Hoki rivers, Ibaraki and Tochigi Prefectures. The results obtained indicate that the basic concept of terrace correlation and chronology proposed by Hataya (2005). Also, weathering grade of terrace gravels is classified into 4 levels and shows a good agreement with the terrace chronology. It shows that weathering grade of terrace gravels is a good stratigraphic index. Therefore, it is stressed that it is very important to combine the information of geomorphologic stratigraphy, geomorphologic analysis, geologic stratigraphy, tephra chronology and numerical dating data comprehensively, in particular, is of great importance to obtain the detailed geomorphologic information. Furthermore, it is pointed out that it is probable to redefine the general idea of 'higher, middle, lower terraces' by tephra chronology and numerical dating data. For instance, MIS6 fluvial terrace that is important for uplift estimation is probably considered as 'a middle terrace in an inland area'. (author)

  10. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango A, B, C, and D, Colorado. Volume I. Detail area. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    An airborne combined radiometric and magnetic survey was performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) over the Durango A, Durango B, Durango C, and Durango D Detail Areas of southwestern Colorado. The Durango A Detail Area is within the coverage of the Needle Mountains and Silverton 15' map sheets, and the Pole Creek Mountain, Rio Grande Pyramid, Emerald Lake, Granite Peak, Vallecito Reservoir, and Lemon Reservoir 7.5' map sheets of the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS). The Durango B Detail Area is within the coverage of the Silverton 15' map sheet and the Wetterhorn Peak, Uncompahgre Peak, Lake City, Redcloud Peak, Lake San Cristobal, Pole Creek Mountain, and Finger Mesa 7.5' map sheets of the NTMS. The Durango C Detail Area is within the coverage of the Platoro and Wolf Creek Pass 15' map sheets of the NTMS. The Durango D Detail Area is within the coverage of the Granite Lake, Cimarrona Peak, Bear Mountain, and Oakbrush Ridge 7.5' map sheets of the NTMS. Radiometric data were corrected for live time, aircraft and equipment background, cosmic background, atmospheric radon, Compton scatter, and altitude dependence. The corrected data were statistically evaluated, gridded, and contoured to produce maps of the radiometric variables, uranium, potassium, and thorium; their ratios; and the residual magnetic field. These maps have been analyzed in order to produce a multi-variant analysis contour map based on the radiometric response of the individual geological units. A geochemical analysis has been performed, using the radiometric and magnetic contour maps, the multi-variant analysis map, and factor analysis techniques, to produce a geochemical analysis map for the area

  11. Late Miocene to present-day exhumation and uplift of the Internal Zone of the Rif chain: Insights from low temperature thermochronometry and basin analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagny, A.; Ph. Münch; Cornée, J.-J.; Corsini, M.; Azdimousa, A.; Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C.; Drinia, H.; Bonno, M.; Arnaud, N.; Monié, P.; Quillévéré, F.; Ben Moussa, A.

    2014-07-01

    Located on the margin of the west Alboran basin, the Gibraltar Arc (Betic-Rif mountain belt) displays post-Pliocene vertical movements evidenced by uplifted marine sedimentary basins and marine terraces. Quantification of vertical movements is an important clue to understand the origin of present-day relief generation in the Betic-Rif mountain chain together with the causes of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. In this paper, we present the results of a pluridisciplinary study combining an analysis of low temperature thermochronology and Pliocene basins evolution to constrain the exhumation history and surface uplift of internals units of the Rif belt (Northern Morocco). The mean (U-Th)/He apatite ages obtained from 11 samples are comprised between 14.1 and 17.8 Ma and display a wide dispersion, which could be explained by a great variability of apatite chemistries in the analyzed samples. No correlations between altitude and age have been found along altitudinal profile suggesting a rapid exhumation during this period. Thermal modeling using our (U-Th)/He apatite ages and geochronological data previously obtained in the same area (40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar data on biotite, zircon and apatite fission track) allow us to propose a cooling history. The rocks suffered a rapid cooling at 60-100 °C/Ma between 22.5 and 19 Ma, then cooled to temperatures around 40 °C between 19 and 18 Ma. They were re-heated at around 110 °C between 18 and 15 Ma then rapidly cooled and exhumed to reach the surface temperature at around 13 Ma. The re-heating could be related to a renewal in thrusting and burying of the inner zones. Between 15 and 13 Ma the cooling resumed at a rate of 50 °C/Ma indicating an exhumation rate of 0.8 mm/y considering an average 40 °C/km geothermal gradient. This exhumation may be linked to the extension in the Alboran Sea. Otherwise biostratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of Pliocene basins of the internal Rif provided informations on the more recent events

  12. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Amy K; Salem, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Survey research is a unique methodology that can provide insight into individuals' perspectives and experiences and can be collected on a large population-based sample. Specifically, in plastic surgery, survey research can provide patients and providers with accurate and reproducible information to assist with medical decision-making. When using survey methods in research, researchers should develop a conceptual model that explains the relationships of the independent and dependent variables. The items of the survey are of primary importance. Collected data are only useful if they accurately measure the concepts of interest. In addition, administration of the survey must follow basic principles to ensure an adequate response rate and representation of the intended target sample. In this article, the authors review some general concepts important for successful survey research and discuss the many advantages this methodology has for obtaining limitless amounts of valuable information.

  13. The Eastern delta-fan deposits on the Granada Basin as tectonic indicators of the Sierra Nevada uplift (Betic Cordillera, South Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Francisco Javier; Azañon, Jose Miguel; Mateos, Rosa Maria

    2014-05-01

    A geological mapping in detail of the Eastern sector of the Granada Basin (South Spain) reveals two different groups of Gilbert delta-fans related to the Sierra Nevada uplift. The first group, in the southern part and with a surface of 6 km2, has three major coarsening-upward sequences. They are composed of very coarse deposits, those of conglomerates, sands and silts. Progradational strata units to the basin have been observed. The dominantly fluvial facies association has locally developed shallow marine foreset deposits (partially with reef colonization) as well as topset red soils (Dabrio, et al., 1978; Braga et a., 1990; García-García, et al., 1999) . All the sequences are discordant over marine facies (calcarenites) dated over 8,26 Ma (Late Tortonian). The second group, in the northern part and with an extension of 12 km2, has similar characteristics, but some of the boulders have ostreids and lamellibranchs species which reveal their former position in a previous marine environment. The Sierra Nevada uplift caused the remobilization of these boulders, being transported by debris-flow inside the delta-fan bodies (García-García, et al., 2006). The dating of ostreids shells with Sr techniques reveals ages over 7,13, 6,61 and 5,45 Ma, from the lower to the upper delta-fan deposits, which are related to the three main sequences observed and with three major tectonic pulses during the Late Miocene. These interpretations are in agreement with apatite fision-track studies carried out in some boulders of these coarse delta-fan deposits (Clark and Dempster, 2013). They reveal a detailed record of Neogene denudation from the Sierra Nevada basement and with uplift periods between 5,45Ma- 2 Ma. The latest pulses affected the delta-fan sediments given rise to new fan systems in the Granada Basin (Alhambra Formation). The thoroughly study of the Miocene delta-fan sediments allows us to conclude that they were related to a sin-sedimentary tectonic activity linked to the

  14. Rb-Sr and K-Ar age of globular phyllosilicates and biostratigraphy of the Riphean deposits of the Olenek Uplift (North Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, T. S.; Gorokhov, I. M.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Ivanovskaya, T. A.; Kuznetsov, A. B.; Dorzhieva, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents results of the complex mineralogical, geochemical, and isotope-geochronological investigation of globular dioctahedral 2: 1 phyllosilicates (GPS) of the illite-glauconite series from the Riphean sequences of the Olenek Uplift. It is established that GPS (glauconite, Al-glauconite, Fe-illite) in deposits of the Arymass, Debengda, and Khaipakh formations are represented by mixed-layer varieties of two types: (1) with relatively low (cell of minerals varies from 9.18 to 9.72 Å. The Rb-Sr age dating of GPS was first carried out in combination with the calculation of theoretical pattern of the cation distribution in the mineral structure and comparison of the calculation results obtained with the Mössbauer and IR spectroscopy data. This approach is based on the assumption that development and evolution of isotope systems in GPS are synchronous with the evolution of the crystalline structure of the mineral at various stages of the geological and geochemical history of the development of sedimentary units. Analysis of the obtained data allows us to state that the structural features of the Riphean GPS from the Olenek section reflect the early diagenetic stages of the formation of the minerals studied. The 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios in the studied sediments are consistent with the range of variations in this ratio in the Middle Riphean Ocean (0.7049-0.7061). The Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages of the GPS of the Arymass (1305 ± 8 and 1302 Ma, respectively), Debengda (1265 ± 12 and 1284 ± 22 Ma), and Khaipakh (1172 ± 18 and 1112 ± 24 Ma) formations in the Olenek Uplift section are close to the accumulation time of corresponding deposits and, correspondingly, have significance for stratigraphic correlations.

  15. Phylogeny and biogeography of Primula sect. Armerina: implications for plant evolution under climate change and the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guangpeng; Conti, Elena; Salamin, Nicolas

    2015-08-16

    The historical orogenesis and associated climatic changes of mountain areas have been suggested to partly account for the occurrence of high levels of biodiversity and endemism. However, their effects on dispersal, differentiation and evolution of many groups of plants are still unknown. In this study, we examined the detailed diversification history of Primula sect. Armerina, and used biogeographic analysis and macro-evolutionary modeling to investigate a series of different questions concerning the evolution of the geographical and ecological distribution of the species in this section. We sequenced five chloroplast and one nuclear genes for species of Primula sect. Armerina. Neither chloroplast nor nuclear trees support the monophyly of the section. The major incongruences between the two trees occur among closely related species and may be explained by hybridization. Our dating analyses based on the chloroplast dataset suggest that this section began to diverge from its relatives around 3.55 million years ago, largely coinciding with the last major uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Biogeographic analysis supports the origin of the section in the Himalayan Mountains and dispersal from the Himalayas to Northeastern QTP, Western QTP and Hengduan Mountains. Furthermore, evolutionary models of ecological niches show that the two P. fasciculata clades have significantly different climatic niche optima and rates of niche evolution, indicating niche evolution under climatic changes and further providing evidence for explaining their biogeographic patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that geologic and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms in the QTP area. The Pliocene uplift of the QTP and following climatic changes most likely promoted both the inter- and intraspecific divergence of Primula sect. Armerina. This study also illustrates how niche evolution under climatic changes influences biogeographic

  16. Tilting of Lake Pielinen, eastern Finland – an example of extreme transgressions and regressions caused by differential post-glacial isostatic uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Seppä

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tilting of large lakes due to differential isostatic uplift in the glaciated regions of the Northern Hemisphere is a well-documented process. With the help of accurate digital elevation models and spatial GIS analysis techniques, the resulting hydro­logical changes, including shifts in the outlets and changes in the size and configuration of lakes, can now be mapped and calculated more precisely than before. As a case study to highlight the magnitude of such changes in Fennoscandia, we investigated and reinterpreted the Holocene palaeogeography and palaeohydrology of Lake Pielinen in eastern Finland. This lake is currently 99 km long and located parallel to the direction of land uplift, being thus particularly sensitive to the impacts of tilting. Our results show that the lake was formed at the end of the regional deglaciation, following drainage of a local ice-dammed lake. In its initial stage until 10 200 cal yr BP, the outlet of the newly-formed lake was located in its northwestern end, but the tilting led to a major water level transgression in the basin, eventually causing formation of a new outlet over the southeastern threshold. The lake area was 143 km long and its area was 1998 km2 at the time of formation of the southeastern outlet at 10 200 cal yr BP. The lake level has been regressive throughout the basin during the last 10 200 years. This regression will continue for approximately another 10 000 years until all the glacial isostatic adjustment has occurred, after which Lake Pielinen will be only 89 km long and 565 km2 in area.

  17. New insight on the recent tectonic evolution and uplift of the southern Ecuadorian Andes from gravity and structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary intramontane basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamay, J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Ruano, P.; Soto, J.; Lamas, F.; Azañón, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    The sedimentary basins of Loja, Malacatos-Vilcabamba and Catamayo belong to the Neogene-Quaternary synorogenic intramontane basins of South Ecuador. They were formed during uplift of the Andes since Middle-Late Miocene as a result of the Nazca plate subduction beneath the South American continental margin. This E-W compressional tectonic event allowed for the development of NNE-SSW oriented folds and faults, determining the pattern and thickness of sedimentary infill. New gravity measurements in the sedimentary basins indicate negative Bouguer anomalies reaching up to -292 mGal related to thick continental crust and sedimentary infill. 2D gravity models along profiles orthogonal to N-S elongated basins determine their deep structure. Loja Basin is asymmetrical, with a thickness of sedimentary infill reaching more than 1200 m in the eastern part, which coincides with a zone of most intense compressive deformation. The tectonic structures include N-S, NW-SE and NE-SW oriented folds and associated east-facing reverse faults. The presence of liquefaction structures strongly suggests the occurrence of large earthquakes just after the sedimentation. The basin of Malacatos-Vilcabamba has some folds with N-S orientation. However, both Catamayo and Malacatos-Vilcabamba basins are essentially dominated by N-S to NW-SE normal faults, producing a strong asymmetry in the Catamayo Basin area. The initial stages of compression developed folds, reverse faults and the relief uplift determining the high altitude of the Loja Basin. As a consequence of the crustal thickening and in association with the dismantling of the top of the Andes Cordillera, extensional events favored the development of normal faults that mainly affect the basins of Catamayo and Malacatos-Vilcabamba. Gravity research helps to constrain the geometry of the Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary infill, shedding some light on its relationship with tectonic events and geodynamic processes during intramontane basin

  18. Remarkable Urban Uplift in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany: Observations from TerraSAR-X InSAR and Leveling from 2008 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Kaufmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As geothermal energy is of increasing importance as a renewable energy source, there is a high demand for comprehensive studies to prevent failure during implementation, as is the case in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany. The drilling of seven wells for the geothermal heating of the city hall in 2007 is thought to have disturbed the existing hydro-geological system in the complex structured transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif. This event has led to uplift, related to the transformation of anhydrite to gypsum, which affects the infrastructure of the city centre via the generation of large cracks. This study focuses on the application of the InSAR Small Baseline Subset (SBAS approach using 50 X-band radar images from the German TerraSAR-X satellite (TSX to map the spatial and temporal patterns of the deformation field in detail. X-band InSAR time series analysis for the three-year time period from July 2008 through May 2011 indicates maximum velocities of ~12 cm/yr in the line of sight (LOS direction, from the ground to the satellite, approximately 50 m northeast of the drilling field. In comparison with leveling data for the same time period, TSX data analysis better delineates the border of the deformation area, and it is able to map the amount of deformation associated with different parts of the city. Moreover, this comparison indicates contributions of horizontal motion, as is expected for uplift patterns.

  19. Surveys & Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My residential construction. Business Dynamics Statistics (BDS) Provides measures of openings and closings, job

  20. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  1. Field demonstration of an active reservoir pressure management through fluid injection and displaced fluid extractions at the Rock Springs Uplift, a priority geologic CO2 storage site for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This report provides the results from the project entitled Field Demonstration of Reservoir Pressure Management through Fluid Injection and Displaced Fluid Extraction at the Rock Springs Uplift, a Priority Geologic CO2 Storage Site for Wyoming (DE-FE0026159 for both original performance period (September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016) and no-cost extension (September 1, 2016 to January 6, 2017)).

  2. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  3. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state......Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...

  4. Beyond the angle of repose: A review and synthesis of landslide processes in response to rapid uplift, Eel River, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roering, Joshua J.; Mackey, Benjamin H.; Handwerger, Alexander L.; Booth, Adam M.; Schmidt, David A.; Bennett, Georgina L.; Cerovski-Darriau, Corina

    2015-05-01

    In mountainous settings, increases in rock uplift are often followed by a commensurate uptick in denudation as rivers incise and steepen hillslopes, making them increasingly prone to landsliding as slope angles approach a limiting value. For decades, the threshold slope model has been invoked to account for landslide-driven increases in sediment flux that limit topographic relief, but the manner by which slope failures organize themselves spatially and temporally in order for erosion to keep pace with rock uplift has not been well documented. Here, we review past work and present new findings from remote sensing, cosmogenic radionuclides, suspended sediment records, and airborne lidar data, to decipher patterns of landslide activity and geomorphic processes related to rapid uplift along the northward-migrating Mendocino Triple Junction in Northern California. From historical air photos and airborne lidar, we estimated the velocity and sediment flux associated with active, slow-moving landslides (or earthflows) in the mélange- and argillite-dominated Eel River watershed using the downslope displacement of surface markers such as trees and shrubs. Although active landslides that directly convey sediment into the channel network account for only 7% of the landscape surface, their sediment flux amounts to more than 50% of the suspended load recorded at downstream sediment gaging stations. These active slides tend to exhibit seasonal variations in velocity as satellite-based interferometry has demonstrated that rapid acceleration commences within 1 to 2 months of the onset of autumn rainfall events before slower deceleration ensues in the spring and summer months. Curiously, this seasonal velocity pattern does not appear to vary with landslide size, suggesting that complex hydrologic-mechanical feedbacks (rather than 1-D pore pressure diffusion) may govern slide dynamics. A new analysis of 14 yrs of discharge and sediment concentration data for the Eel River indicates

  5. Analysis of Knickzones over a Coastal Mountain Range of the Korean Peninsula Implies Intensive Uplifts during the Opening of the East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, J.; Paik, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula jutting out from the Eurasia Continent is bordered to the east by the East Sea (or Sea of Japan), a back-arc sea behind the Japan Islands Arc. Along the eastern margin of the peninsula, a coastal mountain range over 800 km long including peaks reaching up to ca 2,500 m develops with great escarpments facing the East Sea. Compared to the substantial studies related to drifting of the Japanese Islands from the peninsula and consequent the opening of the East Sea as back-arc basin (23 12 Ma), the development of the coastal mountain range assumed to be associated with the East Sea opening is poorly understood. In particular, no consensus has been made regarding the timing of the coastal mountain range: Continuous uplift from the Early Tertiary over the Pliocene versus intensive uplift during the Early Miocene near ca 22 Ma. Addressing this problem could help reveal the relation between the formation of the coastal mountain range and the East Sea opening. In this study, to figure out the timing of the formation of the coastal mountain range, we extracted quantitatively the knickzones in a drainage basin over the coastal mountain range and attempted to analyze the spatial distribution of potential transient knickzones which were induced by the development of the coastal mountain range and then would migrate upstream. According to our analysis, all the identified knickzones (n=19) are revealed as steady-state responses to 1) different lithologies, 2) coarse bed material inputs from tributaries, and 3) more resistant rock patch or local faults. Non-existence of the potential transient knickzones suggests that the transient knickzones due to the coastal mountain range building had already propagated up to each watershed boundary. Sequent analysis on the time spent for knickzone migration up to the boundary reveals that the time when the coastal mountain range had formed back to at least 6 8 Ma. Therefore, it becomes evident that the development of the

  6. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  7. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice....

  8. The ICE hypothesis stands: How the dogma of late Cenozoic tectonic uplift can no longer be sustained in the light of data and physical laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. B.; Clausen, O. R.; Jacobsen, B. H.; Thomsen, E.; Huuse, M.; Gallagher, K.; Balling, N.; Egholm, D.

    2010-08-01

    In this reply, we address the issues raised by the comment of Chalmers et al. (2010) regarding our ICE hypothesis for the evolution of western Scandinavia. We reject their conjectures as based, uncritically and without consideration of physical mechanisms, on the long-standing dogma of late Cenozoic tectonic uplift. Our hypothesis, in contrast, honours well-documented physical laws and the present wealth of actual data constraints (as opposed to dogma-biased inferences). After careful consideration of the points raised by Chalmers et al. (2010) we maintain our simple explanation for the evolution of Scandinavian topography, as it honours well-documented actual data constraints, such as crustal structure (including its spatio-temporal variability), thermal history in the eastern North Sea, global and regional climatic change (including eustacy) and sedimentation in the adjacent basins. The inevitable conclusion is that, although more data constraints are desirable, the current best fit hypothesis, is that the Scandinavian topography is of Caledonide origin, and has been shaped by fluvial and glacial buzzsaw and periglacial processes, and most recently (last few Myr) been re-invigorated by extensive glacial erosion in the fjords and on the shelf.

  9. Restoration of the Cretaceous uplift of the Harz Mountains, North Germany: evidence for the geometry of a thick-skinned thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, David C.; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Reverse movement on the Harz Northern Boundary Fault was responsible for the Late Cretaceous uplift of the Harz Mountains in northern Germany. Using the known geometry of the surface position and dip of the fault, and a published cross section of the Base Permian horizon, we show that it is possible to predict the probable shape of the fault at depth, down to a detachment level. We use the `inclined-shear' method with constant heave and argue that a shear angle of 30° was most likely. In this case, the detachment level is at a depth of ca. 25 km. Kinematic restoration of the Harz Mountains using this fault geometry does not produce a flat horizon, rather it results in a ca. 4 km depression. Airy-Heiskanen isostatic equilibrium adjustment of the Harz Mountains restores the Base Permian horizon to the horizontal, as well as raising the Moho to a depth of 32 km, a typical value for northern Germany. Restoration also causes a rotation of tectonic fabrics within the Harz Mountains of about 11° clockwise. We show that this model geometry is very good fit to the interpreted DEKORP BASIN 9601 deep seismic profile.

  10. Plio-Pleistocene paleo-erosion rates as a recorder of orographic barrier uplift in the NW-Argentine Andes (Humahuaca Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, Heiko; Schildgen, Taylor; Wittmann, Hella

    2017-04-01

    As an integral part of the Eastern Cordillera, the intermontane Humahuaca Basin in the NW Argentine Andes is located in transition between the arid and internally drained Puna Plateau to the west and the humid broken foreland to the east. In combination with moisture-bearing air masses sourced in the Atlantic Ocean and the Amazon Basin, the present-day topographic gradient of the eastern Andean margin comprises an efficient orographic barrier that results in a strong precipitation gradient, with rainfall of more than 2,000 mm/a along the eastern flanks and history of the basin highlights important changes of the depositional system, apparently associated with the transformation from a humid foreland to a fluvially restricted and semi-arid intermontane basin. Similarly, our terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide-derived data indicate an order-of-magnitude decrease in erosion rates at ca. 3 Ma, which suggests a causal link between the onset of uplift-induced semi-arid conditions and decreasing sediment flux into the basin. Ultimately, this dataset may enable a systematic investigation of the long-term causes and consequences of orogenic growth and hydrological changes on spatio-temporal erosion patterns in active mountain areas.

  11. Redox front formation in an uplifting sedimentary rock sequence: An analogue for redox-controlling processes in the geosphere around deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Metcalfe, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Murakami, Y.; Hoshii, D.; Kanekiyo, A.; Naganuma, T.; Hayashi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Subsurface redox fronts control the mobilization and fixation of many trace elements, including potential pollutants such as certain radionuclides. Any safety assessment for a deep geological repository for radioactive wastes needs to take into account adequately the long-term redox processes in the geosphere surrounding the repository. To build confidence in understanding these processes, a redox front in a reduced siliceous sedimentary rock distributed in an uplifting area in Japan has been studied in detail. Geochemical analyses show increased concentrations of Fe and trace elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), at the redox front, even though concentrations of reduced rock matrix constituents show little change. Detailed SEM observations revealed that fossilized microorganisms composed of amorphous granules made exclusively of Fe and Si occur in the rock's pore space. Microbial 16S rDNA analysis suggests that there is presently a zonation of different bacterial groups within the redox band, and bacterial zonation played an important role in the concentration of Fe-oxyhydroxides at the redox front. These water-rock-microbe interactions can be considered analogous to the processes occurring in the redox fronts that would develop around geological repositories for radioactive waste. Once formed, the Fe-oxyhydroxides within such a front would be preserved even after reducing conditions resume following repository closure

  12. Redox front formation in an uplifting sedimentary rock sequence: An analogue for redox-controlling processes in the geosphere around deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, H. [Nagoya University Museum, Material Research Section, Furocho, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)], E-mail: dora@num.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Metcalfe, R. [Quintessa Japan, Queen' s Tower A7-707, Minatomirai, Yokohama 220-6007 (Japan); Yamamoto, K. [Nagoya University Museum, Material Research Section, Furocho, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Murakami, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tono Geoscience Centre (Japan); Hoshii, D.; Kanekiyo, A.; Naganuma, T. [Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima, Kagamiyama 1-4-4 (Japan); Hayashi, T. [Asahi University, Department of Dental Pharmacology, Hozumi, Gifu (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    Subsurface redox fronts control the mobilization and fixation of many trace elements, including potential pollutants such as certain radionuclides. Any safety assessment for a deep geological repository for radioactive wastes needs to take into account adequately the long-term redox processes in the geosphere surrounding the repository. To build confidence in understanding these processes, a redox front in a reduced siliceous sedimentary rock distributed in an uplifting area in Japan has been studied in detail. Geochemical analyses show increased concentrations of Fe and trace elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), at the redox front, even though concentrations of reduced rock matrix constituents show little change. Detailed SEM observations revealed that fossilized microorganisms composed of amorphous granules made exclusively of Fe and Si occur in the rock's pore space. Microbial 16S rDNA analysis suggests that there is presently a zonation of different bacterial groups within the redox band, and bacterial zonation played an important role in the concentration of Fe-oxyhydroxides at the redox front. These water-rock-microbe interactions can be considered analogous to the processes occurring in the redox fronts that would develop around geological repositories for radioactive waste. Once formed, the Fe-oxyhydroxides within such a front would be preserved even after reducing conditions resume following repository closure.

  13. Clues on active differential uplift across the Giudicarie belt (Central-Eastern Alps, Italy) by means of PSInSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massironi, Matteo; Zampieri, Dario; Schiavo, Alessio; Bianchi, Marco; Franceschini, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The Permanent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar INterferometry (PSInSAR) methodology provides high resolution assessment of surface deformations (precision ranging from 0.8 to 0.1 mm/year) over long periods of observation. Hence, it is particularly suitable to analyze surface motion over wide regions associated to a weak tectonic activity. For this reason we have adopted the PSInSAR technique to study regional movement across the Giudicarie belt, a NNE-trending trust belt oblique to the Southern Alpine chain and presently characterized by a low to moderate seismicity. Over 11,000 PS velocities along the satellite Line Of Sight (LOS) were calculated using images acquired in descending orbit during the 1992-1996 time span. The PSInSAR data show a differential uplift of around 1.4-1.7 mm/year across the most external WNW-dipping thrusts of the Giudicarie belt (Mt. Baldo, Mt. Stivo and Mt. Grattacul thrusts alignment). This corresponds to a horizontal contraction across the external part of the Giudicarie belt of about 1.3-1.5 mm/year.

  14. Use of PSInSAR™ data to infer active tectonics: Clues on the differential uplift across the Giudicarie belt (Central-Eastern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massironi, M.; Zampieri, D.; Bianchi, M.; Schiavo, A.; Franceschini, A.

    2009-10-01

    The Permanent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar INterferometry (PSInSAR™) methodology provides high-resolution assessment of surface deformations (precision ranging from 0.8 to 0.1 mm/year) over long periods of observation. Hence, it is particularly suitable to analyze surface motion over wide regions associated to a weak tectonic activity. For this reason we have adopted the PSInSAR technique to study regional movement across the Giudicarie belt, a NNE-trending trust belt oblique to the Southern Alpine chain and presently characterized by a low to moderate seismicity. Over 11,000 PS velocities along the satellite Line Of Sight (LOS) were calculated using images acquired in descending orbit during the 1992-1996 time span. The PSInSAR data show a differential uplift of around 1.4-1.7 mm/year across the most external WNW-dipping thrusts of the Giudicarie belt (Mt. Baldo, Mt. Stivo and Mt. Grattacul thrusts alignment). This corresponds to a horizontal contraction across the external part of the Giudicarie belt of about 1.3-1.5 mm/year.

  15. 77 FR 24673 - Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and Gunnison National Forests; Colorado; Federal Coal Lease Modifications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ..., topography, hydrogeology, and hydrology identified in the baseline assessment to mining activities in the... coal estate managed by the BLM. The proposed action deals primarily with underground mining. It is assumed that longwall mining practices would be used. Surface disturbance may include soil subsidence due...

  16. 78 FR 46312 - Spruce Beetle Epidemic and Aspen Decline Management Response; Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... treat affected stands, improve the resiliency of stands at risk of these large-scale epidemics and... across diverse vegetation ranging from sagebrush, pi[ntilde]on, juniper and ponderosa pine to Engelmann... past decade has been the hottest and driest in centuries. This climate pattern, together with...

  17. Environmental surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Ribeiro, C.

    1977-01-01

    An environmental survey conducted in high natural radioactivity areas and methods used to evaluated radiation doses received by the population are presented. It is shown doses absorved due to ingestion of radioactively contaminated food and water. Exposure to external gamma radiation fields or inhalation of abnormal quantities of natural airborne radioactivity are discussed [pt

  18. Survey < > Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The project, Survey Creation suggests that point cloud models from 3D scans of an existing space can be the source for explorative drawings. By probing into the procedure of 3D laser scanning, it became possible to make use of the available point clouds to both access geometric representation......) and the creation drawing (of the anticipated)....

  19. Readership survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article reviews the last readership survey, which helped to check readers' reactions and the level and style of the journal. The majority of readers (32 per cent), not surprisingly, work in high energy physics. In fact, if the estimate of the world high energy physics population as some 5000 people is correct, CERN Courier reaches every one of them. The next large category of readers is the teaching profession (21 percent), with industrialists (12 per cent) in third place

  20. Plio-Quaternary river incision rates inferred from burial dating (Al-26/Be-10) of in cave-deposited alluvium in the Meuse catchment (E Belgium): new insights into the uplift history of the Ardennes massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; Peeters, Alexandre; Demoulin, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Although the Late Cenozoic uplift of the intraplate Variscan Ardennes/Rhenish massif (N Europe) has been long studied, its causes, shape and timing are still under debate (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). This is mainly due to the scarcity of reliable ages for uplift markers, such as Quaternary terrace staircases along the deeply-incised valleys or Late Tertiary planation surfaces. In parallel, multi-level cave systems in limestone rocks, wherein abandoned phreatic passages filled with alluvium represent former phases of fluvial base-level stability, record the history of regional river incision (Anthony & Granger, 2007). Here, we present new burial ages (Al-26/Be-10) from fluvial gravels washed in a multi-level cave system developed in Devonian limestones of the lower Ourthe valley (main Ardennian tributary of the Meuse). Our results highlight a significant increase of incision rates from the Middle Pleistocene on, and allow reconstructing the incision history in the northern part of the Ardennes over the last 3.4 Ma. These long-term incision rates derived from burial ages are then discussed in relation to the existing studies dealing with river incision and/or tectonic uplift of the Ardennes/Rhenish massif (e.g. Demoulin & Hallot, 2009; Rixhon et al., 2011). Our cosmogenic nuclide ages thus enlarge the data pool required to explore the spatio-temporal characteristics of the drainage system's incision response to combined tectonic and climatic signals. References Anthony, D., Granger, D.E., 2007. A new chronology for the age of Appalachian erosional surfaces determined by cosmogenic nuclides in cave sediments. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 874-887 Demoulin, A., Hallot, E., 2009. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe). Tectonophysics 474, 696-708. Rixhon, G., et al., 2011. Quaternary river incision in NE Ardennes (Belgium): Insights from Be-10/Al-26 dating of rive terraces. Quaternary Geochronology 6

  1. Gravimetric survey and modeling of the basement morphology in the sedimentary thickness characterization, NE portion of Paraná Sedimentary Basin - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Fries

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The northeast portion of the Paraná Sedimentary Basin is distinguished by structural highs as the known Pitanga Dome, an uplifted structure identified in the last century. It represents a geological and evolutionary evidence of the Paraná Sedimentary Basin and has undergone inspired studies and intense exploration surveys. This study consists of a gravimetric survey in the Pitanga Dome area, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The Bouguer gravity anomalies have been identified and related to the structural high, sedimentary thickness, and the basement morphology. Processing and enhancement techniques were used for forward modeling based on previous studies. The three models from profiles sectioning the dome have a sedimentary thickness varying from 200 to 1.250 meters. The adopted methodology has provided important results determining that the Pitanga Dome can be understood through rational 3D visualization. The area can be interpreted as an undulating basement with thinning of sedimentary rocks related to deep features (structures in the crust/mantle limit (Moho uplift. This characteristic is confirmed by the sedimentary layer thickening present throughout the surrounding area. The results also offer important insights and support for further studies concerning the genesis and evolution of this and other uplifted structures of the Paraná Sedimentary Basin.

  2. Delamination of lithospheric mantle evidenced by Cenozoic potassic rocks in Yunnan, SW China: A contribution to uplift of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bei; Long, Xiaoping; Wilde, Simon A.; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Qiang; Xia, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhaofeng

    2017-07-01

    New zircon U-Pb ages, mineral chemical data, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes from the potassium-rich intrusions in the Yunnan area, SW China, were determined to provide constraints on the uplift of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. The intrusive rocks consist of shoshonitic syenites (high-Mg syenites, low-Mg syenites and syenite porphyries) and potassic granitoids (granite porphyries). Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating indicates coeval emplacement ages of 35 Ma. The shoshonitic syenites have alkaline affinities and the enrichment in LILEs and LREEs (e.g. La, Sr, U, Pb), with depletion of HFSEs (e.g. Nb, Ti, Ta) and weak Eu anomalies. They display uniform Sr-Nd-Lu-Hf isotopic compositions with similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7073-0.7079), enriched εNd(t) values (- 6.8 to - 4.3) and mostly negative zircon εHf(t) values ranging from - 4.6 to + 0.1. The high-Mg syenites have high MgO, Fe2O3T, TiO2, CaO, Cr, Ni concentrations and relatively high Mg# (60-68), indicating an origin from enriched lithospheric mantle. The low-Mg syenites and syenite porphyries are geochemically distinct with the high-Mg syenites, but the insignificant variations in major elements, linear trends of La against (La/Yb)N and similar Sr-Nd isotopic compositions to the high-Mg syenites suggest that they were produced by different degrees of partial melting of the same enriched mantle source. The potassic granitic intrusions are sub-alkaline with a strongly peraluminous character. They display an S-type granite affinity, with high Al2O3/TiO2 and low CaO/Na2O and K2O/Al2O3 ratios, suggesting a pelitic source. They are LREE-enriched and have relatively flat HREE patterns with weakly negative Eu anomalies and positive Rb, U, and Pb anomalies and negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies. They have relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7143) and enriched Nd isotopic compositions [εNd(t) = - 4.1]. Their zircon εHf(t) values (- 4.0 to + 0.09) and old two-stage Hf model ages (TDMc = 1.16-1.36 Ga

  3. Post-Triassic thermal history of the Tazhong Uplift Zone in the Tarim Basin, Northwest China: Evidence from apatite fission-track thermochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caifu Xiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tarim Basin is a representative example of the basins developed in the northwest China that are characterized by multiple stages of heating and cooling. In order to better understand its complex thermal history, apatite fission track (AFT thermochronology was applied to borehole samples from the Tazhong Uplift Zone (TUZ. Twelve sedimentary samples of Silurian to Triassic depositional ages were analyzed from depths coinciding with the apatite partial annealing zone (∼60–120 °C. The AFT ages, ranging from 132 ± 7 Ma (from a Triassic sample to 25 ± 2 Ma (from a Carboniferous sample, are clearly younger than their depositional ages and demonstrate a total resetting of the AFT thermometer after deposition. The AFT ages vary among different tectonic belts and decrease from the No. Ten Faulted Zone (133–105 Ma in the northwest, the Central Horst Zone in the middle (108–37 Ma, to the East Buried Hill Zone in the south (51–25 Ma. Given the low magnitude of post-Triassic burial heating evidenced by low vitrinite reflectance values (Ro < 0.7%, the total resetting of the AFT system is speculated to result from the hot fluid flow along the faults. Thermal effects along the faults are well documented by younger AFT ages and unimodal single grain age distributions in the vicinity of the faults. Permian–early Triassic basaltic volcanism may be responsible for the early Triassic total annealing of those samples lacking connectivity with the fault. The above arguments are supported by thermal modeling results.

  4. Uplift rates from a new high-density GPS network in Palmer Land indicate significant late Holocene ice loss in the southwestern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstencroft, Martin; King, Matt A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Bentley, Michael J.; Nield, Grace A.; King, Edward C.; McMillan, Malcolm; Shepherd, Andrew; Barletta, Valentina; Bordoni, Andrea; Riva, Riccardo E. M.; Didova, Olga; Gunter, Brian C.

    2015-10-01

    The measurement of ongoing ice-mass loss and associated melt water contribution to sea-level change from regions such as West Antarctica is dependent on a combination of remote sensing methods. A key method, the measurement of changes in Earth's gravity via the GRACE satellite mission, requires a potentially large correction to account for the isostatic response of the solid Earth to ice-load changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. In this study, we combine glacial isostatic adjustment modelling with a new GPS dataset of solid Earth deformation for the southern Antarctic Peninsula to test the current understanding of ice history in this region. A sufficiently complete history of past ice-load change is required for glacial isostatic adjustment models to accurately predict the spatial variation of ongoing solid Earth deformation, once the independently-constrained effects of present-day ice mass loss have been accounted for. Comparisons between the GPS data and glacial isostatic adjustment model predictions reveal a substantial misfit. The misfit is localized on the southwestern Weddell Sea, where current ice models under-predict uplift rates by approximately 2 mm yr-1. This under-prediction suggests that either the retreat of the ice sheet grounding line in this region occurred significantly later in the Holocene than currently assumed, or that the region previously hosted more ice than currently assumed. This finding demonstrates the need for further fieldwork to obtain direct constraints on the timing of Holocene grounding line retreat in the southwestern Weddell Sea and that GRACE estimates of ice sheet mass balance will be unreliable in this region until this is resolved.

  5. Total Survey Error for Longitudinal Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynn, Peter; Lugtig, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the application of the total survey error paradigm to longitudinal surveys. Several aspects of survey error, and of the interactions between different types of error, are distinct in the longitudinal survey context. Furthermore, error trade-off decisions in survey design and

  6. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  7. Reader survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-10-15

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big.

  8. Reader survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big

  9. The Two Subduction Zones of the Southern Caribbean: Lithosphere Tearing and Continental Margin Recycling in the East, Flat Slab Subduction and Laramide-Style Uplifts in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Bezada, M. J.; Niu, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2015-12-01

    The southern Caribbean plate boundary is a complex strike-slip fault system bounded by oppositely vergent subduction zones, the Antilles subduction zone in the east, and a currently locked Caribbean-South American subduction zone in the west (Bilham and Mencin, 2013). Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography images both the Atlanic (ATL) and the Caribbean (CAR) plates subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America. Ps receiver functions show a depressed 660 discontinuity and thickened transition zone associated with each subducting plate. In the east the oceanic (ATL) part of the South American (SA) plate subducts westward beneath the CAR, initiating the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike slip system, a subduction-transform edge propagator (STEP) fault (Govers and Wortel, 2005). The point at which the ATL tears away from SA as it descends into the mantle is evidenced by the Paria cluster seismicity at depths of 60-110 km (Russo et al, 1993). Body wave tomography and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) thickness determined from Sp and Ps receiver functions and Rayleigh waves suggest that the descending ATL also viscously removes the bottom third to half of the SA continental margin lithospheric mantle as it descends. This has left thinned continental lithosphere under northern SA in the wake of the eastward migrating Antilles subduction zone. The thinned lithosphere occupies ~70% of the length of the El Pilar-San Sebastian fault system, from ~64oW to ~69oW, and extends inland several hundred kilometers. In northwestern SA the CAR subducts east-southeast at low angle under northern Colombia and western Venezuela. The subducting CAR is at least 200 km wide, extending from northernmost Colombia as far south as the Bucaramanga nest seismicity. The CAR descends steeply under Lake Maracaibo and the Merida Andes. This flat slab is associated with three Neogene basement cored, Laramide-style uplifts: the Santa Marta

  10. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina A. Doblin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core eddy (CCE and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2–10 times greater Shannon index in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67% by larger micro-plankton $(\\geq 20\\lrm{\\mu }\\mathrm{m}$ ≥ 20 μ m , as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a ‘greening’ effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially

  11. Tectonic uplift-influenced monsoonal changes promoted hominin occupation of the Luonan Basin: Insights from a loess-paleosol sequence, eastern Qinling Mountains, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qian; Hong, Hanlie; Zhao, Lulu; Furnes, Harald; Lu, Huayu; Han, Wen; Liu, Yao; Jia, Zhuoyue; Wang, Chaowen; Yin, Ke; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2017-08-01

    Quaternary soil deposits from northern and southern China are distinctly different, reflecting variability of the East Asian monsoon north and south of the Qinling Mountains. Coeval sediments from the transitional climatic zone of central China, which are little studied to date, have the potential to improve our understanding of Quaternary monsoon changes and associated influences on hominin occupation of this region. Here, we investigate in detail a well-preserved and continuous Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence (Shangbaichuan) from the Luonan Basin, using a variety of weathering indices including major and trace element ratios, clay mineralogy, and Fe-oxide mineralogy. The whole-rock samples display similar rare earth element patterns characterized by upper continental crustal ratios: (La/Yb)N ≈ 9.5 and Eu/Eu* ≈ 0.65. Elemental data such as (La/Yb)N, La/Th and Eu/Eu* ratios show a high degree of homogeneity, suggesting that dust in the source region may have been thoroughly mixed and recycled, resulting in all samples having a uniform initial composition. Indices for pedogenic weathering such as Na/K, Ba/Sr, Rb/Sr, CIA, CIW, CPA, PIA, kaolinite/illite, (kaolinite + smectite)/illite, and hematite/(hematite + goethite) exhibit similar secular trends and reveal a four-stage accumulation history. The indices also indicate that the climate was warmer and wetter during the most recent interglacial stage, compared with coeval environments of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Secular changes in weathering intensity can be related to stepwise uplift of the Qinling Mountains and variation in East Asian monsoon intensity, both of which played significant roles in controlling climate evolution in the Luonan Basin. Furthermore, intensified aridity and winter monsoon strength in dust source areas, as evidenced by mineralogic and geochemical changes, may have been due to the mid-Pleistocene climate transition. Based on temporal correlation of warmer and wetter climatic conditions

  12. Hydrochemical patterns of a small lake and a stream in an uplifting area proposed as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel, Forsmark, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnback, Pernilla; Åström, Mats

    2007-10-01

    SummaryThe overall aim of this study was to increase the understanding of the chemical dynamics of small catchments. The focus was on a small oligotropic lake and its major inflow stream in an uplifting area in eastern Sweden (Forsmark) proposed as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel. The hydrochemical sampling campaign lasted for nearly 4 years with sample collection monthly to semi-monthly, and continuous flow measurements carried out over the last 20 months. All this was done as part of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKBs) Site Investigation Programme. The major findings were: (1) as a result of the calcareous overburden caused by redistributed Paleozoic deposits, pH and the Ca and HCO3- concentrations were relatively high in both the stream and lake throughout the period, (2) limnic primary production resulted in decreased concentrations of Ca, HCO3-, NH4+, NO3- and Si, and increased pH and concentrations of chlorophyll a, O 2, DON, POC, PON and POP in the lake in summer, while in other seasons (in winter in particular) when the production was minimal or non-existent the concentrations in the lake and the inflow stream were similar, (3) intrusion of brackish-water resulted in moderately to strongly increased concentrations of Cl -, Na, Mg, Br -, SO42-, K and Sr in the lake: the ratio versus Cl - were for Na and Br - always similar to those in sea water, for Mg and SO42- similar to those in sea water at elevated Cl - concentrations (>3 mM), while K and Sr always occurred in relative excess as compared to sea water, (4) high U concentrations in both the stream and the lake was derived most likely from reduced U-minerals in the overburden and was predicted to be carried to >90% in the form of calcium uranyl carbonate, in a model in which colloidal Fe and Al oxyhydroxides were not considered, (5) the rare earth elements (REEs) had similar concentrations and fractionation patterns in the stream and lake, unlike those found in the

  13. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Michelson, D.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Literature was searched for methods of removing uranium from drinking water. No relevant papers were found, but approximately 1000 publications were identified in a less specific search for methods of removing uranium from water. Most of the latter publications dealt with the recovery of uranium from ores, industrial and analytical chemistry solutions, or seawater. The conditions under which these studies were performed were usually quite different from those normally occurring in municipal water treatment practice, but some potentially interesting systems of recovery were identified. A few papers addressed the problem of removing uranium from natural fresh waters and established the effectiveness of using adsorbents or coprecipitants, such as aluminum hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, activated carbon, and ion exchangers, under certain conditions. Also, many US manufacturers and users of water treatment equipment and products were contacted regarding recommended methods of removing uranium from potable water. Based on the results of these surveys, it is recommended that untreated, partially treated, and finished water samples from municipal water treatment facilities be analyzed to determine their extent of removal of uranium by presently used procedures. In addition, laboratory studies are suggested to determine what changes, if any, are needed to maximize the effectiveness of treatments that are already in use in existing water treatment plants

  14. Surveying the Alentejo continental shelf for minerals and Quaternary environmental changes: preliminary results of the MINEPLAT project survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiva, João; Ribeiro, Carlos; Terrinha, Pedro; Brito, Pedro; Neres, Marta

    2017-04-01

    The tectonic uplift of South Portugal in the last 5 Million years (My) was firstly identified on the basis of morphologic criteria by Mariano Feio (1952, "The evolution of the relief of Baixo Alentejo and Algarve", transl.). However, the assessment of continental vertical movements off Portugal and its relation with tectonics was only initiated in the 1990-ies. This work was carried out in the framework of FP6 and FP7 in the domains of Natural Hazards funded by the European Community. The swath bathymetry cartography of the southwest part of the Iberian Peninsula resulted from the effort of European and national projects, of 19 oceanographic surveys, a total of 200 ship time days executed from 2000 to 2006, involving 14 research institutions from 7 European countries. As a result of this effort together with acquisition and interpretation of thousands of km of seismic reflection profiles, the Pliocene-Quaternary uplift of the Alentejo continental margin (SW Portugal) is now widely accepted by the scientific community. This uplift has not been yet quantified but it is possible that can have contributed to erosion and deposition of metallic ores as placers in the continental shelf. This argues in favor of the potential existence of placers in the continental shelf and the need for the detailed investigation that will allow determination of ideal location for placers deposition in the past Pliocene-Quaternary (5 My). The source for metals can arguably be associated to the Iberian Pyrite Belt ores hosted in the Alentejo Paleozoic formations and to the hyper-alkaline intrusions of Sines and Monchique of Late Cretaceous age. Artificial renourishment of beaches with offshore sand has not been assessed for the Alentejo littoral, despite that the coast located to the south of the Sines segment shows high susceptibility to erosion. This has been observed on a regular basis as the beaches are frequently devoid of sand, thus jeopardizing their touristic potential. The detailed

  15. Simulated variations of eolian dust from inner Asian deserts at the mid-Pliocene, last glacial maximum, and present day: contributions from the regional tectonic uplift and global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhengguo; Liu, Xiaodong; An, Zhisheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Loess Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Xi' an (China); Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Northern Tibetan Plateau uplift and global climate change are regarded as two important factors responsible for a remarkable increase in dust concentration originating from inner Asian deserts during the Pliocene-Pleistocene period. Dust cycles during the mid-Pliocene, last glacial maximum (LGM), and present day are simulated with a global climate model, based on reconstructed dust source scenarios, to evaluate the relative contributions of the two factors to the increment of dust sedimentation fluxes. In the focused downwind regions of the Chinese Loess Plateau/North Pacific, the model generally produces a light eolian dust mass accumulation rate (MAR) of 7.1/0.28 g/cm{sup 2}/kyr during the mid-Pliocene, a heavier MAR of 11.6/0.87 g/cm{sup 2}/kyr at present, and the heaviest MAR of 24.5/1.15 g/cm{sup 2}/kyr during the LGM. Our results are in good agreement with marine and terrestrial observations. These MAR increases can be attributed to both regional tectonic uplift and global climate change. Comparatively, the climatic factors, including the ice sheet and sea surface temperature changes, have modulated the regional surface wind field and controlled the intensity of sedimentation flux over the Loess Plateau. The impact of the Tibetan Plateau uplift, which increased the areas of inland deserts, is more important over the North Pacific. The dust MAR has been widely used in previous studies as an indicator of inland Asian aridity; however, based on the present results, the interpretation needs to be considered with greater caution that the MAR is actually not only controlled by the source areas but the surface wind velocity. (orig.)

  16. Occurrence of 1 ka-old corals on an uplifted reef terrace in west Luzon, Philippines: Implications for a prehistoric extreme wave event in the South China Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Noelynna T.; Maxwell, Kathrine V.; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Chou, Yu-Chen; Duan, Fucai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Satake, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    Recent 230Th dating of fossil corals in west Luzon has provided new insights on the emergence of late Quaternary marine terraces that fringe west Luzon Island facing the Manila Trench. Apart from regional sea level changes, accumulated uplift from aseismic and seismic processes may have influenced the emergence of sea level indicators such as coral terraces and notches. Varied elevations of middle-to-late Holocene coral terraces along the west Luzon coasts reveal the differential uplift that is probably associated with the movement of local onland faults or upper-plate structures across the Manila Trench forearc basin. In Badoc Island, offshore west of Luzon mainland, we found notably young fossil corals, dated at 945.1 ± 4.6 years BP and 903.1 ± 3.9 years BP, on top of a 5-m-high reef platform. To constrain the mechanism of emergence or emplacement of these fossil corals, we use field geomorphic data and wave inundation models to constrain an extreme wave event that affected west Luzon about 1000 years ago. Our preliminary tectonic and tsunami models show that a megathrust rupture will likely lead to subsidence of a large part of the west Luzon coast, while permanent coastal uplift is attributed to an offshore upper-plate rupture in the northern Manila Trench forearc region. The modeled source fault ruptures and tsunami lead to a maximum wave height of more than 3 m and inundation distance as far as 2 km along the coasts of western and northern Luzon. While emplacement of coral boulders by an unusually strong typhoon is also likely, modeled storm surge heights along west Luzon do not exceed 2 m even with Typhoon Haiyan characteristics. Whether tsunami or unusually strong typhoon, the occurrence of a prehistoric extreme wave event in west Luzon remains an important issue in future studies of coastal hazards in the South China Sea region.

  17. Study on the estimation method of uplift during the late quaternary by using river terraces. 1. Strategy of terrace correlation and a case study on stratigraphy of river terraces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hataya, Ryuta

    2005-01-01

    There are a few uplift data during the late Quaternary obtained by using river terraces than those by using marine terraces, because it is difficult to date a river terrace whose age is older than the marine oxygen isotope stage 6. In this paper, at first, we reviewed the terrace correlation method, and we proposed our viewpoint of terrace correlation which is based on relationship between geomorphologic features of terraces and geology that consist of terraces. Next, we did the case study on terrace stratigraphy in the Kawasaki Basin, Miyagi pref., and showed that our method is practical. (author)

  18. Optimizing accuracy of determinations of CO₂ storage capacity and permanence, and designing more efficient storage operations: An example from the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Duguid, Andrew [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-12-01

    At a potential injection site on the Rock Springs Uplift in southwest Wyoming, an investigation of confining layers was undertaken to develop and test methodology, identify key data requirements, assess previous injection scenarios relative to detailed confining layer properties, and integrate all findings in order to reduce the uncertainty of CO₂ storage permanence. The assurance of safe and permanent storage of CO₂ at a storage site involves a detailed evaluation of the confining layers. Four suites of field data were recognized as crucial for determining storage permanence relative to the confining layers; seismic, core and petrophysical data from a wellbore, formation fluid samples, and in-situ formation tests. Core and petrophysical data were used to create a vertical heterogenic property model that defined porosity, permeability, displacement pressure, geomechanical strengths, and diagenetic history. These analyses identified four primary confining layers and multiple redundant confining layers. In-situ formation tests were used to evaluate fracture gradients, regional stress fields, baseline microseismic data, step-rate injection tests, and formation perforation responses. Seismic attributes, correlated with the vertical heterogenic property models, were calculated and used to create a 3-D volume model over the entire site. The seismic data provided the vehicle to transform the vertical heterogenic property model into a horizontal heterogenic property model, which allowed for the evaluation of confining layers across the entire study site without risking additional wellbore perforations. Lastly, formation fluids were collected and analyzed for geochemical and isotopic compositions from stacked reservoir systems. These data further tested primary confining layers, by evaluating the evidence of mixing between target reservoirs (mixing would imply an existing breach of primary confining layers). All data were propagated into a dynamic, heterogenic geologic

  19. PALEOTECTONIC AND PALEOGEOGRAPHIC CONDITIONS FOR THE ACCUMULATION OF THE LOWER RIPHEAN AI FORMATION IN THE BASHKIR UPLIFT (SOUTHERN URALS: THE TERRANECHRONE® DETRITAL ZIRCON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Romanyuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The TerraneChrone® (LA-ICP-MS technique has been applied to carry out an integrated study of detrital zircons in sandstones sampled from the basal horizons of the stratotypical Riphean sequence in the Southern Urals, specifically the Navysh and Chudin suites of the Ai Formation of the Burzyan Group in the Bashkir Uplift. The concentrations of trace elements in the detrital zircons suggest that the role of oceanic or marginal-marine complexes among the primary sources of zircons was insignificant, and show a better agreement with the intra-continental rather than passive-margin origin of the Riphean basin, whose basal levels are composed by the Ai Formation. The U/Pb ages of zircons from samples K13-206 and M08-16-1 are generally similar: the Paleoproterozoic zircons predominate (the dominant peaks are actually coincident, 2063 and 2055 Ma, and only a few grains of the Archean age are present. Despite the similar U/Pb ages of the detrital zircons, these two samples considerably differ in their Hf isotopic features and the concentrations of trace elements, which means that the zircons in the studied sandstones are of different geodynamic origin. The characteristics of these zircons can be explained by a model showing the Ai Formation in the Navysh graben that is a rift structure and a predecessor of the Kama-Belaya aulacogene in the inner Volga-Ural region of the Paleoproterozoic supercontinent Columbia. At the initial stage of rifting, the granitoid complexes with a lower total silicic acidity, which composed the graben walls, had been eroded; as a result of erosion, coarse clastic rocks accumulated within the Navysh graben and formed the Navysh suite. A specific “carbonatitic” complex containing zircons (about 2.0, 2.5, 2.85 and 3.6 Ga and the Palaeoarchean crustal material in the substrate of their parent rocks was also eroded. In the final stage of rifting, already at the initial stages of the development of the Kama-Belaya aulacogen

  20. Using slope-area and apatite fission track analysis to decipher the rock uplift pattern of the Yumu Shan: New insights into the growth of the NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yizhou; Zheng, Dewen; Pang, Jianzhang; Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Weitao; Yu, Jingxing; Zhang, Zhuqi; Zheng, Wenjun; Zhang, Peizhen; Li, Youjuan

    2018-05-01

    Studies have shown that the growth of the Qilian Shan, the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, started 10 Ma ago. However, when and how it expanded northwards is still under debate. Here we focus on the rock uplift pattern of the Yumu Shan, an active fault-related fold in the Hexi Corridor north to the Qilian Shan. Normalized channel steepness achieved from the analysis of river longitudinal profiles shows a spatially variant rock uplift pattern, with higher rates in the middle part and lower rates towards the west and east tips. The compression of the mountain is typically accommodated by fault-fold related shortening and vertical thickening. Apatite fission track thermochronology reveals that the growth of the Yumu Shan started 4 Ma ago, similar to the work on active tectonics. Combining the onset ages of the growth of the Qilian Shan (10 Ma), Laojunmiao anticline (3-4 Ma), Baiyanghe anticline (3-4 Ma), Wenshu Shan (4.5 Ma) and Heli Shan (2 Ma), we draw an conclusion that the NE margin of the Tibetan Plateau initiated growth in the mid-Miocene and expanded to the Hexi Corridor and to the south of the Alxa block in the early Pleistocene.

  1. Gas Hydrate Occurrence Inferred from Dissolved Cl− Concentrations and δ18O Values of Pore Water and Dissolved Sulfate in the Shallow Sediments of the Pockmark Field in Southwestern Xisha Uplift, Northern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Luo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water pockmarks are frequently accompanied by the occurrence of massive gas hydrates in shallow sediments. A decline in pore-water Cl− concentration and rise in δ18O value provide compelling evidence for the gas hydrate dissociation. Mega-pockmarks are widely scattered in the southwestern Xisha Uplift, northern South China Sea (SCS. Pore water collected from a gravity-core inside of a mega-pockmark exhibits a downward Cl− concentration decrease concomitant with an increase in δ18O value at the interval of 5.7–6.7 mbsf. Concentrations of Cl−, Na+, and K+ mainly cluster along the seawater freshening line without distinct Na+ enrichment and K+ depletion. Thus, we infer that the pore water anomalies of Cl− concentrations and δ18O values are attributed to gas hydrate dissociation instead of clay mineral dehydration. Moreover, the lower δ18O values of sulfate in the target core (C14 than those in the reference core (C9 may be associated with the equilibrium oxygen fractionation during sulfate reduction between sulfate and the relatively 18O-depleted ambient water resulting from gas hydrate formation. The gas hydrate contents are estimated to be 6%–10% and 7%–15%, respectively, according to the offset of Cl− concentrations and δ18O values from the baselines. This pockmark field in southwestern Xisha Uplift is likely to be a good prospective area for the occurrence of gas hydrate in shallow sediments.

  2. Co-eruptive subsidence and post-eruptive uplift associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile, revealed by DInSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euillades, Pablo Andrés; Euillades, Leonardo Daniel; Blanco, Mauro Hugo; Velez, María Laura; Grosse, Pablo; Sosa, Gustavo Javier

    2017-09-01

    The 2011-2012 eruption of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, southern Andes (Chile), was associated with complex surface deformation affecting an area of roughly 50 by 50 km. We report here differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) results of pre-, co- and post-eruptive deformation from ENVISAT ASAR, COSMO-Skymed, and ALOS-2/PALSAR scenes acquired between early 2011 and early 2017. No clear pre-eruptive deformation is observed during five months before the eruption, although some patterns could be interpreted as showing inflation occurring between April and May 2011. Co-eruptive interferograms show a complex deformation pattern consisting in a major deflation lobe (120 cm LOS lengthening) centered 10 km NW of the eruption vent accompanied by smaller uplift and subsidence regions in the vicinity of the vent. Re-inflation began immediately after the end of the eruption. A first pulse lasted 3 years between 2012 and 2015, accumulating 70 cm uplift. We detect here a second pulse, beginning in June 2016 and still ongoing in February 2017, reaching 12 cm in half a year. Inverse modeling with spherical cavity and spheroidal sources locates re-inflation sources at a depth ranging between 8 and 11 km under the surface. It suggests re-filling of the reservoir occurring after the draining of a shallow magma chamber during the 2011-2012 eruption.

  3. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2010-01-01

    During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…

  4. Lesotho - Enterprise Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The 2011 MCA-Lesotho baseline enterprise survey is a national survey of enterprises. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current status of businesses...

  5. 2015 Community Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — These are the answers to the 2015 Community Survey.A comprehensive summary of the survey results can be found here.The survey asked town members to address their...

  6. Determination of Cenozoic sedimentary structures using integrated geophysical surveys: A case study in the Barkol Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Chen, Chao; Du, Jinsong; Wang, Limin; Lei, Binhua

    2018-01-01

    Thickness estimation of sedimentary basin is a complex geological problem, especially in an orogenic environment. Intense and multiple tectonic movements and climate changes result in inhomogeneity of sedimentary layers and basement configurations, which making sedimentary structure modelling difficult. In this study, integrated geophysical methods, including gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) sounding and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used to estimate basement relief to understand the geological structure and evolution of the eastern Barkol Basin in China. This basin formed with the uplift of the eastern Tianshan during the Cenozoic. Gravity anomaly map revealed the framework of the entire area, and ERT as well as MT sections reflected the geoelectric features of the Cenozoic two-layer distribution. Therefore, gravity data, constrained by MT, ERT and boreholes, were utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of the Quaternary layer. The gravity effect of the Quaternary layer related to the Tertiary layer was later subtracted to obtain the residual anomaly for inversion. For the Tertiary layer, the study area was divided into several parts because of lateral difference of density contrasts. Gravity data were interpreted to determine the density contrast constrained by the MT results. The basement relief can be verified by geological investigation, including the uplift process and regional tectonic setting. The agreement between geophysical survey and prior information from geology emphasizes the importance of integrated geophysical survey as a complementary means of geological studies in this region.

  7. Using Electronic Surveys: Advice from Survey Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the perceptions and recommendations of sixty-two experienced survey..researchers from the American Educational Research Association regarding the use of..electronic surveys. The most positive aspects cited for the use of electronic surveys were..reduction of costs (i.e., postage, phone charges, the use of electronic mail for pre-notification or..follow-up purposes, and the compatibility of data with existing software programs. These..professionals expressed limitations in using electronic surveys pertaining to the limited..sampling frame as well as issues of confidentiality, privacy, and the credibility of the sample...They advised that electronic surveys designed with the varied technological background and..capabilities of the respondent in mind, follow sound principles of survey construction, and be..administered to pre-notified, targeted populations with published email addresses.

  8. New Zircon U-Pb Age Constrain of the Origin of Devil's River Uplift (SW Texas) and Insights into the Late Proterozoic and Paleozoic Evolution of the Southern Margin of Laurentia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Dickerson, P. W.; Stockli, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Devils River Uplift (DRU) in SW Texas records the evolution of the southern Laurentian margin from Grenvillian orogenesis and assembly of Rodinia, to its fragmentation by rifting, and to the amalgamation of Pangaea. It was cored by a well (Shell No. 1 Stewart), penetrating Precambrian gneisses and Cambrian metasediments and sandstones. New zircon LA-ICP-MS data from a total of 10 samples elucidate the crystallization and depositional ages, as well as the detrital provenance, of Precambrian and Cambrian rocks from the DRU. Zircons from five Precambrian crystalline basement samples (6000-9693') yield uniform U-Pb crystallization ages of 1230 Ma that are similar to ages for young gneisses of the Valley Spring Domain (Llano uplift) in central Texas, where they mark the cessation of arc magmatism within the Grenville orogenic belt. The 1230 Ma igneous basement is overlain by L.-M. Cambrian metasedimentary rocks ( 4000-6000') with maximum depositional ages of 533-545 Ma. Detrital zircons from Cambrian strata are dominated by a 1070-1080 Ma population, likely derived from basement units exposed in Texas (Llano uplift, Franklin Mts.), with minor contributions from local 1230 Ma Precambrian basement and the 1380-1500 Ma Granite Rhyolite Province. The L.-M. Cambrian interval is dominated (>80%) by Neoproterozoic detrital magmatic zircons with two major distinct age clusters at 570-700 Ma and 780-820 Ma, supporting a two-stage Rodinia rift model and providing strong evidence for major Cryogenian-Eocambrian intraplate magmatism along the southern margin of Rodinia. Moreover, detrital zircon signatures for L.-M. and U. Cambrian strata strongly correlate with those from the Cuyania terrane of W. Argentina - notably the W. Sierras Pampeanas (Sa. Pie de Palo, Sa. de Maz): 1230 Ma from metasandstones (PdP); 1081-1038 Ma from metasiliciclastics (PdP, SdM); Cryogenian-Eocambrian [774 & 570 Ma] plutons (SdM, PdP). In summary, these new zircon U-Pb data from DRU in SW Texas show

  9. Partial delamination of continental mantle lithosphere, uplift-related crust mantle decoupling, volcanism and basin formation: a new model for the Pliocene Quaternary evolution of the southern East-Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalot-Prat, F.; Girbacea, R.

    2000-11-01

    A geodynamic model is proposed for the Mid-Miocene to Quaternary evolution of the southern East-Carpathians in order to explain the relationships between shallow and deep geological phenomena that occurred synchronously during late-collision tectonics. In this area, an active volcanic zone cross-cuts since 2 My the suture between the overriding Tisza-Dacia and subducting European continental plates. Mafic calc-alkaline and alkaline magmas (south Harghita and Persani volcanoes) erupted contemporaneously. These magmas were supplied by partial melting of the mantle lithosphere of the subducting, and not of the overriding, plate. In an effort to decipher this geodynamically a-typical setting of magma generation, the spatial and temporal distribution of shallow and deep phenomena was successively examined in order to establish the degree of their interdependence. Our model indicates that intra-mantle delamination of the subducting European plate is the principal cause of a succession of events. It caused upwelling of the hot asthenosphere below a thinned continental lithosphere of the Carpathians, inducing the uplift of the lithosphere and its internal decoupling at the Moho level by isostatic and mostly thermal effects. During this uplift, the crust deformed flexurally whilst the mantle deformed in a ductile way. This triggered decompressional partial melting of the uppermost mantle lithosphere. Flexural deformation of the crust induced its fracturing, allowing for the rapid ascent of magmas to the surface, as well as reactivation of an older detachment horizon at the base of the Carpathian nappe stack above which the Brasov, Ciuc and Gheorghieni hinterland basins formed by extension and gravity spreading. The rapid subsidence of the Focsani foreland basin is controlled by the load exerted on the lithosphere by the delaminated mantle slab that is still attached to it. In this model, crust-mantle decoupling, magma genesis and volcanism, local near-surface hinterland

  10. 带键槽透水底板上举力特性模型试验研究%Model test on uplift force of pervious floor with a keyway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马斌; 马永磊; 邢仕强

    2017-01-01

    To protect the downstream river bed and bank slope of the high dam from the serious erosion by high—speed flood flow,which will endanger dam safety,it is necessary to build all kinds of stilling pond protective structures as the first line of defense for dam safety.The security of all types of stilling pond protective structures is the premise for the safety of high dam flood discharge.As the studies on downstream protective works of the high dam dig deeper,floors of different structural forms have been proposed,such as the stilling pond floor with a keyway and the pervious floor,to increase the stability of the stilling pond.The form of the stilling pond also transformed from the "passive protection" model to the "active protection" model.This paper studied the pervious floor with a keyway that combines "active protection" with "passive protection".A model test was conducted to analyze the uplift force in terms of the maximum value,probability density distribution,amplitude,and power spectrum.The results showed:In comparison with the floor with a keyway,increasing permeable holes can reduce the uplift force.The probability density distribution of the uplift force basically conforms to the normal distribution.The magnitude of the uplift force is reduced.The power spectral density is even closer to a low frequency.%为保护高坝下游河床和岸坡不受泄洪高速水流的严重冲刷,危及大坝安全,需修建各类消力塘防护结构以构建大坝安全第一道防线.各类消力塘防护结构的安全是高坝泄洪安全的前提保障.随着对高坝下游防护工程的研究不断深入,相继提出了带键槽消力塘底板、透水底板等不同结构形式的底板,增加消力塘的稳定性,消力塘形式也从“被动防护”模式向“主动防护”模式转变.对“主动防护”与“被动防护”相结合的带键槽的透水底板进行研究,通过模型试验从最大值、概率密度分布、幅值和功率谱等角度

  11. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  12. Aerial radiation surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist

  13. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Powder River II Project: the Newcastle and Gillette Quadrangles of Wyoming and South Dakota; the Ekalaka Quadrangle of Montana, South and North Dakota. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    During the months of August through September 1978, geoMetrics, Inc. flew approximately 9000 line miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in eastern Wyoming and southern Montana over three 1 0 x 2 0 NTMS quadrangle (Newcastle, Gillette, and Ekalaka) as part of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. All radiometric and magnetic data were fully reduced and interpreted by geoMetrics, and are presented as four volumes (one Volume I and three Volume II's) in this report. The survey area lies entirely within the northern Great Plains Physiographic Province. The deep Powder River Basin and the Black Hills Uplift are the two dominant structures in the area. Both structures strike NNW approximately parallel to each other with the Powder River Basin to the west of the Uplift. The Basin is one of the largest and deepest in the northern Great Plains and contains over 17,000 feet of Phanerozoic sediments at its deepest point. Economic deposits of oil, coal, bentonite and uranium are found in the Tertiary and/or Cretaceous rocks of the Basin. Gold, silver, lead, copper, manganese, rare-earth elements and uranium have been mined in the Uplift. Epigenetic uranium deposits lie primarily in the Monument Hills - Box Creek and Pumpkin Buttes - Turnercrest districts within arkosic sandstones of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. A total of 368 groups of statistical values in the uranium window meet the criteria for valid anomalies and are discussed in the interpretation sections (83 in Newcastle, 109 in Gillette, and 126 in Ekalaka). Most anomalies lie in the Tertiary sediments of the Powder River Basin, but only a few are clearly related to known uranium mines or prospects. Magnetic data generally delineate the deep Powder River Basin relative to the Black Hills Uplift. Higher frequency anomalies appear related to producing oil fields and mapped sedimentary structures

  14. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Powder River II Project: the Newcastle and Gillette Quadrangles of Wyoming and South Dakota; the Ekalaka Quadrangle of Montana, South and North Dakota. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    During the months of August through September 1978, geoMetrics, Inc. flew approximately 9000 line miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in eastern Wyoming and southern Montana over three 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangle (Newcastle, Gillette, and Ekalaka) as part of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. All radiometric and magnetic data were fully reduced and interpreted by geoMetrics, and are presented as four volumes (one Volume I and three Volume II's) in this report. The survey area lies entirely within the northern Great Plains Physiographic Province. The deep Powder River Basin and the Black Hills Uplift are the two dominant structures in the area. Both structures strike NNW approximately parallel to each other with the Powder River Basin to the west of the Uplift. The Basin is one of the largest and deepest in the northern Great Plains and contains over 17,000 feet of Phanerozoic sediments at its deepest point. Economic deposits of oil, coal, bentonite and uranium are found in the Tertiary and/or Cretaceous rocks of the Basin. Gold, silver, lead, copper, manganese, rare-earth elements and uranium have been mined in the Uplift. Epigenetic uranium deposits lie primarily in the Monument Hills - Box Creek and Pumpkin Buttes - Turnercrest districts within arkosic sandstones of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. A total of 368 groups of statistical values in the uranium window meet the criteria for valid anomalies and are discussed in the interpretation sections (83 in Newcastle, 109 in Gillette, and 126 in Ekalaka). Most anomalies lie in the Tertiary sediments of the Powder River Basin, but only a few are clearly related to known uranium mines or prospects. Magnetic data generally delineate the deep Powder River Basin relative to the Black Hills Uplift. Higher frequency anomalies appear related to producing oil fields and mapped sedimentary structures.

  15. SURVEY, BUFFALO COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  17. Survey, OCONEE COUNTY, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, DOUGLAS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. GDOT employee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    The research team worked in collaboration with GDOT to conduct the 2016 GDOT Employee Survey. This research study aimed to increase the response rate and the usefulness of the feedback from the GDOT employee survey to support organizational decisions...

  20. SURVEY, KENAI PENINSULSA, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, OSCEOLA COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. SURVEY, POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  5. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  6. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  8. SURVEY, Lowndes County, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. SURVEY, REFUGIO COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. SURVEY, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. Designing an Effective Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasunic, Mark

    2005-01-01

    ... of them. However, to protect the validity of conclusions drawn from a survey, certain procedures must be followed throughout the process of designing, developing, and distributing the survey questionnaire...

  12. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  13. SURVEY, MISSOULA COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, Northumberland County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  15. SURVEY, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, HOLMES COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  20. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. Primer on Health Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    David L Nordstrom; David L Nordstrom

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medical examinations are discussed. Approaches to questionnaire construction are introduced along with properties that questionnaires are evaluated for. Modes of administration, sam...

  2. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  3. GIS Readiness Survey 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2014-01-01

    The GIS Readiness Survey 2014 is a follow-up to the corresponding survey that was carried out among public institutions in Denmark in 2009. The present survey thus provides an updated image of status and challenges in relation to the use of spatial information, the construction of the com- mon...

  4. Conducting online surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selm, M. van; Jankowski, N.W.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is increasingly being used as a tool and platform for survey research. Two types of electronic or online surveys available for data collection are the email and Web based survey, and they constitute the focus of this paper. We address a multitude of issues researchers should

  5. A Subaru galaxy redshift survey: WFMOS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, M

    2008-01-01

    A planned galaxy redshift survey with the Subaru 8.2m telescope, the WFMOS survey, offers a unique opportunity for probing detailed properties of large-scale structure formation in the expanding universe by measuring clustering strength of galaxy distribution as a function of distance scale and redshift. In particular, the precise measurement of the galaxy power spectrum, combined with the cosmic microwave background experiments, allows us to obtain stringent constraints on or even determine absolute mass scales of the Big-Bang relic neutrinos as the neutrinos imprint characteristic scale- and redshift-dependent modifications onto the galaxy power spectrum shape. Here we describe the basic concept of how the galaxy clustering measurement can be used to explore the neutrino masses, with particular emphasis on advantages of the WFMOS survey over the existing low-redshift surveys such as SDSS

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. Primer on Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Nordstrom

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medical examinations are discussed. Approaches to questionnaire construction are introduced along with properties that questionnaires are evaluated for. Modes of administration, sample size issues, and data analysis approaches are also introduced. The primer is illustrated with examples of surveys conducted in different countries with various public health purposes.

  8. Developing the online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffry S; McNew, Ryan

    2008-12-01

    Institutions of higher education are now using Internet-based technology tools to conduct surveys for data collection. Research shows that the type and quality of responses one receives with online surveys are comparable with what one receives in paper-based surveys. Data collection can take place on Web-based surveys, e-mail-based surveys, and personal digital assistants/Smartphone devices. Web surveys can be subscription templates, software packages installed on one's own server, or created from scratch using Web programming development tools. All of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The survey owner must make informed decisions as to the right technology to implement. The correct choice can save hours of work in sorting, organizing, and analyzing data.

  9. Web survey methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Callegaro, Mario; Vehovar, Asja

    2015-01-01

    Web Survey Methodology guides the reader through the past fifteen years of research in web survey methodology. It both provides practical guidance on the latest techniques for collecting valid and reliable data and offers a comprehensive overview of research issues. Core topics from preparation to questionnaire design, recruitment testing to analysis and survey software are all covered in a systematic and insightful way. The reader will be exposed to key concepts and key findings in the literature, covering measurement, non-response, adjustments, paradata, and cost issues. The book also discusses the hottest research topics in survey research today, such as internet panels, virtual interviewing, mobile surveys and the integration with passive measurements, e-social sciences, mixed modes and business intelligence. The book is intended for students, practitioners, and researchers in fields such as survey and market research, psychological research, official statistics and customer satisfaction research.

  10. Aerial radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Aerial gamma spectrometry surveys are the most effective, comprehensive and preferred tool to delimit the large area surface contamination in a radiological emergency either due to a nuclear accident or following a nuclear strike. The airborne survey apart from providing rapid and economical evaluation of ground contamination over large areas due to larger ground clearance and higher speed, is the only technique to overcome difficulties posed by ground surveys of inaccessible region. The aerial survey technique can also be used for searching of lost radioactive sources, tracking of radioactive plume and generation of background data on the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of nuclear installations

  11. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  12. Management Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers' Managers' Satisfaction Survey asks managers to rate their perception of workforce planning, interaction with and levels of support...

  13. A Survey of the Innovation Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Shangqin; Oxley, Les; McCann, Philip

    Both theoretical and conceptual understanding of innovation has developed significantly since the early 1980s. More noticeable, however, are the major changes that have been experienced in empirically-oriented innovation research as a result of the introduction of firm level innovation surveys.

  14. Estimates of the topographic uplift of the Southern African Plateau from the African Superswell through petrologically-consistent thermo-chemical modelling of the geoid, SHF, Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves and MT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan G.; Afonso, Juan Carlos; Fullea, Javier

    2015-04-01

    The deep mantle African Superswell is thought to cause up to 500 m of the uplift of the Southern African Plateau. We investigate this phenomenon through stochastic thermo-chemical inversion modelling of the geoid, surface heat flow, Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves and MT data, in a manner that is fully petrologically-consistent. We invert for a three layer crustal velocity, density and thermal structure, but assume the resistivity layering (based on prior inversion of the MT data alone). Inversions are performed using an improved Delayed Rejection and Adaptive Metropolis (DRAM) type Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. We demonstrate that a single layer lithosphere can fit most of the data, but not the MT responses. We further demonstrate that modelling the seismic data alone, without the constraint of requiring reasonable oxide chemistry or of fitting the geoid, permits wildly acceptable elevations and with very poorly defined lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). We parameterise the lithosphere into three layers, and bound the permitted oxide chemistry of each layer consistent with known chemical layering. We find acceptable models, from 5 million tested in each case, that fit all responses and yield a posteriori elevation distributions centred on 900-950 m, suggesting dynamic support from the lower mantle of some 400 m.

  15. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics

  16. Our Surveys & Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics

  17. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  18. IT Barometer survey, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs.......Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs....

  19. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Upcoming Sunyaev–. Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to ...

  20. The VLA Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark; VLASS Survey Team, VLASS Survey Science Group

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), which began in September 2017, is a seven year project to image the entire sky north of Declination -40 degrees in three epochs. The survey is being carried out in I,Q and U polarization at a frequency of 2-4GHz, and a resolution of 2.5 arcseconds, with each epoch being separated by 32 months. Raw data from the survey, along with basic "quicklook" images are made freely available shortly after observation. Within a few months, NRAO will begin making available further basic data products, including refined images and source lists. In this talk I shall describe the science goals and methodology of the survey, the current survey status, and some early results, along with plans for collaborations with external groups to produce enhanced, high level data products.

  1. Physics Survey Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    An overview of a series of assignments of the branches of physics carried out by the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council. It identifies further theories in physics and makes recommendations on preventive priorities. The Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) has conducted a new decadal survey of physics entitled ''Physics in a New Era''. The survey includes assessments of the main branches of physics as well as certain selected emerging areas. The various elements of the survey were prepared by separately-appointed National Research Council (NRC) committees. The BPA formed the Physics Survey Overview Committee (PSOVC) to complete the survey by preparing an overview of the field of physics to summarize and synthesize the results of the various assessments and to address cross-cutting issues that concern physics as a whole

  2. Regulatory and licensee surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the workshop two CSNI/WGHOF surveys were distributed. One survey was directed at regulatory bodies and the other was directed at plant licensees. The surveys were: 1 - Regulatory Expectations of Licensees' Arrangements to Ensure Suitable Organisational Structure, Resources and Competencies to Manage Safety (sent to WGHOF regulatory members). The survey requested that the respondents provide a brief overview of the situation related to plant organisations in their country, their regulatory expectations and their formal requirements. The survey addressed three subjects: the demonstration and documentation of organisational structures, resources and competencies, organisational changes, issues for improvement (for both current and new plants). Responses were received from eleven regulatory bodies. 2 - Approaches to Justify Organisational Suitability (sent to selected licensees). The purpose of the survey to was to gain an understanding of how licensees ensure organisational suitability, resources and competencies. This information was used to assist in the development of the issues and subjects that were addressed at the group discussion sessions. Responses were received from over fifteen licensees from nine countries. The survey requested that the licensees provide information on how they ensure effective organisational structures at their plants. The survey grouped the questions into the following four categories: organisational safety functions, resource and competence, decision-making and communication, good examples and improvement needs. The findings from these surveys were used in conjunction with other factors to identify the key issues for the workshop discussion sessions. The responses from these two surveys are discussed briefly in Sections 4 and 5 of this report. More extensive reviews of the regulatory and licensee responses are provided in Appendix 1

  3. Web-based Surveys: Changing the Survey Process

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Holly

    2002-01-01

    Web-based surveys are having a profound influence on the survey process. Unlike other types of surveys, Web page design skills and computer programming expertise play a significant role in the design of Web-based surveys. Survey respondents face new and different challenges in completing a Web-based survey. This paper examines the different types of Web-based surveys, the advantages and challenges of using Web-based surveys, the design of Web-based surveys, and the issues of validity, error, ...

  4. Web-Based Surveys: Not Your Basic Survey Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys are not new to the library environment. Although such surveys began as extensions of print surveys, the Web-based environment offers a number of approaches to conducting a survey that the print environment cannot duplicate easily. Since 1994, the author and others have conducted national surveys of public library Internet…

  5. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  6. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionAim And ScopeClassification Of SurveysThe Structure Of This BookGeneral Principles Of SurveyingErrorsRedundancyStiffnessAdjustmentPlanning And Record KeepingPrincipal Surveying ActivitiesEstablishing Control NetworksMappingSetting OutResectioningDeformation MonitoringAngle MeasurementThe Surveyor's CompassThe ClinometerThe Total StationMaking ObservationsChecks On Permanent AdjustmentsDistance MeasurementGeneralTape MeasurementsOptical Methods (Tachymetry)Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)Ultrasonic MethodsGNSSLevellingTheoryThe InstrumentTechniqueBookingPermanent Adjustmen

  7. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  8. Minerals industry survey 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh Minerals Industry Survey produced by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents an invaluable time series on the minerals industry's financial performance, as well as an up to date description of the industry for the latest financial year. The survey has been conceived as a supplement to and expansion of the various Australian Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics publications which describe the exploration, mining and smelting and refining industries in Australia. The tables in this survey have been prepared by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies.

  9. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  10. Geothermal survey handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this handbook is to publicize widely the nature of geothermal surveys. It covers geothermal survey planning and measurement as well as measurement of thermal conductivity. Methods for the detection of eruptive areas, the measurement of radiative heat using snowfall, the measurement of surface temperature using infrared radiation and the measurement of thermal flow are described. The book also contains information on physical detection of geothermal reservoirs, the measurement of spring wells, thermographic measurement of surface heat, irregular layer surveying, air thermographics and aerial photography. Isotope measurement techniques are included.

  11. Telephony user survey

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    Let us know your needs to better plan the transition to a new CERN telephony system.   CERN is planning to upgrade its telephony network and replace the system with a new and modern VoIP infrastructure. We strive to make this transition as beneficial and smooth as possible for you. Please let us know more about your current working environment, expectations and suggestions by responding to this survey: https://cern.ch/tel-survey. The more answers we get, the better the new system will serve everyone in the future. The survey will take you about five minutes to complete; we are counting on your feedback!

  12. EPRINT ARCHIVE USER SURVEY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    University of Southampton invites the CERN community to participate in a survey Professor Stevan Harnad is conducting on current users and non-users of Eprint Archives. http://www.eprints.org/survey/ The findings will be used to suggest potential enhancements of the services as well as to get a deeper understanding of the very rapid developments in the on-line dissemination and use of scientific and scholarly research. (The survey is anonymous. Revealing your identity is optional and it will be kept confidential.)

  13. Pilot pulsar surveys with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.

    2013-01-01

    We are performing two complementary pilot pulsar surveys as part of LOFAR commissioning. The LOFAR Pilot Pulsar Survey (LPPS) is a shallow all-sky survey using an incoherent combination of LOFAR stations. The LOFAR Tied-Array Survey (LOTAS) is a deeper pilot survey using 19 simultaneous tied-array

  14. Lesotho - Health Facility Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The main objective of the 2011 Health Facility Survey (HFS) was to establish a baseline for informing the Health Project performance indicators on health facilities,...

  15. Hake Survey ADCP (2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  16. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  17. Food Labels Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Nationally-Representative Phone Survey April 6, 2016 Consumer Reports® National Research Center Introduction In February, 2016, the Consumer Reports® National Research Center conducted a nationally representative phone ...

  18. IT User Community Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peter Jones (IT-CDA-WF)

    2016-01-01

    IT-CDA is gathering information to more accurately form a snapshot of the CERN IT user community and we would appreciate you taking time to complete the following survey.   We want to use this survey to better understand how the user community uses their devices and our services, and how the delivery of those services could be improved. You will need to authenticate to complete the survey. However please note that your responses are confidential and will be compiled together and analysed as a group. You can also volunteer to offer additional information if you so wish. This survey should take no longer than 5 minutes. Thanks in advance for your collaboration.

  19. Hake Survey ADCP (2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  20. Hake Survey ADCP (1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  1. Hake Survey ADCP (1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  2. Hake Survey ADCP (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  3. 2000 LEPC Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the summary report of the 1999 nationwide Local Emergency Planning Committee survey, released in May 2000. It measured their levels of compliance and proactivity, roles in prevention and counter-terrorism, communication, and response plans.

  4. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  5. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  6. Shrimp Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Shrimp Survey was initiated in 1983 by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and monitors the relative abundance (number of shrimp),...

  7. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  8. Patient survey (ICH CAHPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In-Center Hemodialysis Facilites Patient evaluations from the In-Center Hemodialysis Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (ICH-CAHPS) Survey. The...

  9. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  10. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  11. ASD Customer Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ASD implemented a customer satisfaction survey for our products and services. This feedback will provide a better understanding of how ASD products and services can...

  12. 2005 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  13. Applicant Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers developed 3 surveys that asks applicants to assess their satisfaction with the application process on a 1-10 point scale, with 10...

  14. 2013 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  15. Industry Based Monkfish Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monkfish industry leaders expressed concerns that the NEFSC bottom trawl surveys did not sample in all monkfish habitats; particularly the deeper water outside the...

  16. NMFS Reef Survey Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reef Environmental Survey Project (REEF) mission to educate and enlist divers in the conservation of marine habitats is accomplished primarily through its Fish...

  17. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  18. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...

  19. Fisheries Disaster Survey, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Responses to selected questions from the Social and Economic Survey administered in spring and summer 2000 to recipients of the second round (Round II) of financial...

  20. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  1. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  2. Billfish Angler Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Billfish Angler Survey provides estimates of billfish angling activities in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This collection of recreational billfish catch and...

  3. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  4. 2011 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  5. 2009 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  6. 2007 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  7. Radon survey techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews radon measurement surveys in soils and in water. Special applications, and advantages and limitations of the radon measurement techniques are considered. The working group also gives some directions for further research in this field

  8. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  9. Annual Omnibus Survey: A survey of life in Qatar 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Diop, Abdoulaye; Gengler, Justin John; Khan, Mohammad N.; Traugott, Michael; Elawad, Elmogiera Fadlallh; Al Ansari, Majed; Le, Kien T.; El-Maghraby, Engi; Elkassem, Rima Charbaji; Qutteina, Yara; Al Khulaifi, Buthaina; Nasrallah, Catherine; Al Subaey, Mohammed; Mustafa, Semsia Al-Ali; Alqassass, Haneen

    2015-01-01

    This Executive Summary presents the highlights of the 2014 Omnibus survey, the fourth in a series of Omnibus surveys since 2010. The surveys were carried out by the Social and Economic Survey Research Institute (SESRI) of Qatar University. Each Omnibus survey interviews a large and representative sample of Qatari citizens, resident expatriates and laborers. In these surveys, we asked a number of questions covering several topics of importance to Qatari society, including their ...

  10. Estimation of the long-term slip, surface uplift and block rotation along the northern strand of the North Anatolian Fault Zone: Inferences from geomorphology of the Almacık Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Cengiz; Tüysüz, Okan

    2017-11-01

    The Almacık Block is one of the key morphotectonic units in the eastern Marmara Region associated with the long-term slip partitioning within the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). In this study, we provide new geomorphic reconstructions of offset drainage basins, morphometric analysis of topography, and longitudinal profiles of the rivers crossing different flanks of the Almacık Block. Our geomorphic reconstructions of offset drainage basins along the Hendek and Karadere faults imply mean offsets of 2.3 ± 0.4 km and 8.4 ± 0.7 km, respectively, during the Quaternary. Our dataset also imply that slip partitioning occurs in a broader zone than previously proposed, and that the total 10.7 ± 0.6 km offset along the Hendek and Karadere faults of the northern strand must be taken into account for long-term slip partitioning in the Eastern Marmara Region. Together with previously suggested 10 km offset along the southern strand (Yaltırak, 2002), 16 ± 1.0 km offset along the middle strand (Özalp et al., 2013) and the 52 ± 1.0 km offset along the Mudurnu Segment of the northern strand (Akbayram et al., 2016) our newly proposed geomorphic markers raise the cumulative offset in the eastern Marmara region associated with the NAF to 89 ± 1.0 km since the Latest Pliocene - Quaternary. In addition to these lateral displacements, our morphometric analysis and longitudinal profiles of the rivers imply up to 1130 ± 130 m surface uplift of the Almacık Block as a combined result of vertical displacement within the deformation zone of the northern strand of the NAFZ. Finally, by assuming that river basins act as passive deformation markers, our basin azimuth analyses imply 20° ± 2° clockwise rotation of the Almacık Block associated with the NAFZ.

  11. Site surveying and levelling

    CERN Document Server

    Clancy, John

    2013-01-01

    This popular and useful text has been completely revised and up-dated so that it forms and indipensible handbook for any student of surveying. An additional chapter on modern developments is included and the text has also been extended to cover ordnance survey; calculation of areas; computation of true horizontal length; measurement of vertical angles; Code of Measuring Practice; curve ranging and calculations of volumes for earthworks.

  12. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  13. Nearshore Survey System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering , geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental...CRAB: A Unique Nearshore Surveying Vehicle.” American Society of Civil Engineers , Journal of Surveying Engineering 110(1): 1–7. Clausner, J. E., W...unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and

  14. DSM-5 field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania).......The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania)....

  15. Issues in environmental survey design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several environmental survey design issues are discussed and illustrated with surveys designed by Research Triangle Institute statisticians. Issues related to sampling and nonsampling errors are illustrated for indoor air quality surveys, radon surveys, pesticide surveys, and occupational and personal exposure surveys. Sample design issues include the use of auxiliary information (e.g. for stratification), and sampling in time. We also discuss the reduction and estimation of nonsampling errors, including nonresponse and measurement bias

  16. Retirement Applicant Satisfaction Survey Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset contains information about the Retirement Applicant Survey (RAS). The survey measured satisfaction results with the retirement application process. The...

  17. Redshift Survey Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. W.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Kaiser, N.

    1994-12-01

    In the first half of 1995, the Anglo-Australian Observatory is due to commission a wide field (2.1(deg) ), 400-fiber, double spectrograph system (2dF) at the f/3.3 prime focus of the AAT 3.9m bi-national facility. The instrument should be able to measure ~ 4000 galaxy redshifts (assuming a magnitude limit of b_J ~\\ 20) in a single dark night and is therefore ideally suited to studies of large-scale structure. We have carried out simple 3D numerical simulations to judge the relative merits of sparse surveys and contiguous surveys. We generate a survey volume and fill it randomly with particles according to a selection function which mimics a magnitude-limited survey at b_J = 19.7. Each of the particles is perturbed by a gaussian random field according to the dimensionless power spectrum k(3) P(k) / 2pi (2) determined by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (1994) from the IRAS QDOT survey. We introduce some redshift-space distortion as described by Kaiser (1987), a `thermal' component measured from pairwise velocities (Davis & Peebles 1983), and `fingers of god' due to rich clusters at random density enhancements. Our particular concern is to understand how the window function W(2(k)) of the survey geometry compromises the accuracy of statistical measures [e.g., P(k), xi (r), xi (r_sigma ,r_pi )] commonly used in the study of large-scale structure. We also examine the reliability of various tools (e.g. genus) for describing the topological structure within a contiguous region of the survey.

  18. Uplifting developing communities through sustained technology transfer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available in the Port St Johns Municipality, O R Tambo District, Eastern Cape Province (where conditions described above prevail), to construct a cultural village and an indigenous foods restaurant (Mashiri, 2005). When completed, the cultural village... and the indigenous foods restaurant, which are designed to blend in with the existing village morphology, will showcase Xhosa culture and cuisine as well as offer entertainment and overnight accommodation for visitors. The project also involves the construction...

  19. An uplifting discussion of T-duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Moore, Gregory W.

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that string theory has a T-duality symmetry relating circle compactifications of large and small radius. This symmetry plays a foundational role in string theory. We note here that while T-duality is order two acting on the moduli space of compactifications, it is order four in its action on the conformal field theory state space. More generally, involutions in the Weyl group W ( G) which act at points of enhanced G symmetry have canonical lifts to order four elements of G, a phenomenon first investigated by J. Tits in the mathematical literature on Lie groups and generalized here to conformal field theory. This simple fact has a number of interesting consequences. One consequence is a reevaluation of a mod two condition appearing in asymmetric orbifold constructions. We also briefly discuss the implications for the idea that T-duality and its generalizations should be thought of as discrete gauge symmetries in spacetime.

  20. ESR teleradiology survey: results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    With recent developments of teleradiology technology and services, it has become necessary to better evaluate its extent and use among different countries in Europe. With this goal in mind, the ESR launched two specific surveys intended to gather the current state of adoption and implementation of teleradiology in clinical practice. A special focus on differentiating between insourcing teleradiology services among partners of the same organisation and outsourcing to external services was an essential part of the design of these surveys. The first survey was addressed to 44 national societies of different countries in Europe, while the second survey was intended for all practicing radiologist ESR members. While the results of these surveys reported here may provide a wealth of information to better understand the trends in adoption of teleradiology in Europe, they only represent a snapshot at a certain point in time. The rapid development of telecommunication tools as well as a fundamental change in practice and healthcare economics will certainly influence these observations in the upcoming years. These data, however, will provide objective and relevant parameters for supporting the efforts of experts and policy makers in promoting appropriate criteria and guidelines for adequate use of teleradiology in clinical practice. Main Messages • Understand concepts and challenges of teleradiology • Provide insight into current trends and solutions for teleradiology • Compare differences in teleradiolgy strategies between countries in Europe • Establish a reference on statistical data of usage of teleradiology in Europe.

  1. 2012 Mask Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

    2012-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

  2. PEP Laser Surveying System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1979-03-01

    A Laser Surveying System has been developed to survey the beam elements of the PEP storage ring. This system provides automatic data acquisition and analysis in order to increase survey speed and to minimize operator error. Two special instruments, the Automatic Readout Micrometer and the Small Automatic Micrometer, have been built for measuring the locations of fiducial points on beam elements with respect to the light beam from a laser. These instruments automatically encode offset distances and read them into the memory of an on-line computer. Distances along the beam line are automatically encoded with a third instrument, the Automatic Readout Tape Unit. When measurements of several beam elements have been taken, the on-line computer analyzes the measured data, compared them with desired parameters, and calculates the required adjustments to beam element support stands

  3. Survey and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, C.; Vegas, F.

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser) and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  4. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described

  5. Automatic surveying techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of automatic surveying methods in a more systematic manner, the PEP organization signed a contract in late 1975 for TRW Systems Group to undertake a feasibility study. The completion of this study resulted in TRW Report 6452.10-75-101, dated December 29, 1975, which was largely devoted to an analysis of a survey system based on an Inertial Navigation System. This PEP note is a review and, in some instances, an extension of that TRW report. A second survey system which employed an ''Image Processing System'' was also considered by TRW, and it will be reviewed in the last section of this note. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  6. SURVEY AND RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mileto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  7. Survey team on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Bruder, Regina; Planas, Núria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of the work of the ICME 13 Survey Team on ‘Conceptualisation and the role of competencies, knowing and knowledge in mathematics education research’. It surveys a variety of historical and contemporary views and conceptualisations of what it means to master...... mathematics, focusing on notions such as mathematical competence and competencies, mathematical proficiency, and mathematical practices, amongst others. The paper provides theoretical analyses of these notions—under the generic heading of mathematical competencies—and gives an overview of selected research...

  8. Surveys on surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. The sixtieth birthday (on December 14, 1996) of C.T.C. Wall, a leading member of the subject''s founding generation, led the editors of this volume to reflect on the extraordinary accomplishments of surgery theory as well as its current enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source surveying surgery theory and its applications. Because no one person could write such a survey, the editors ask

  9. Surveys on surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. There have been some extraordinary accomplishments in that time, which have led to enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source that surveys surgery theory and its applications. Indeed, no one person could write such a survey. The sixtieth birthday of C. T. C. Wall, one of the leaders of the founding generation of surgery theory, provided an opportunity to rectify the situation and produce a

  10. CDS User survey

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Document Service

    2011-01-01

      The CERN Document Server is launching a user survey in order to collect information relative to its search engine, submission interfaces, collaborative features and content organisation. With the view of re-shaping its collections and interfaces and to better integrate with the new INSPIRE platform that serves all HEP literature, CERN Document Server team invites you to take part in the survey. Your input is essential to provide us with useful information before setting up the new service and improve your interactions with CDS. Thanks for participating !  

  11. DSM-5 field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Pathologic skin picking (skin picking disorder [SPD]) is a prevalent and disabling condition, which has received increasing study. It is timely to consider including SPD in DSM-5. The aim of this field survey was to investigate possible diagnostic criteria for SPD.......Pathologic skin picking (skin picking disorder [SPD]) is a prevalent and disabling condition, which has received increasing study. It is timely to consider including SPD in DSM-5. The aim of this field survey was to investigate possible diagnostic criteria for SPD....

  12. The Kilo-Degree Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; Applegate, D.; Begeman, K.; Belikov, A.; Blake, C.; Bout, J.; Boxhoorn, D.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Buddendiek, A.; Cacciato, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Choi, A.; Cordes, O.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Edge, A.; Erben, T.; Franse, J.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Deraps, J.; Helmich, E.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Köhlinger, F.; Kitching, T.; La Barbera, F.; Lacerda, P.; McFarland, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Peacock, J.; Pila-Diez, B.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.; Sifon, C.; Sikkema, G.; Simon, P.; Sutherland, W.; Tudorica, A.; Valentijn, E.; van der Burg, R.; van Uitert, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.; Kleijn, G. V.; Viola, M.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), a 1500-square-degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), is described. KiDS will image two fields in u-,g-,r- and i-bands and, together with the VIKING survey, produce nine-band (u- to

  13. Urananite leaching: literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, G.F.; Bryant, E.A.; Williams, K.E.

    1979-04-01

    A literature survey was undertaken to provide background materials for a series of experiments involving the interaction of spent uranium dioxide fuel with various environments. Notes and references pertaining to the basic properties of UO/sub 2/ as produced and after reactor exposure are presented. The use of computerized literature searches is illustrated with specific topics related to leaching experiments. 57 references.

  14. 2007 Global Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauzon, Jean-Claude; Preng, Richard; Sutton, Bob; Pavlovic, Bojan

    2007-06-15

    The World Energy Council (WEC), in partnership with Korn/Ferry International undertook a survey focussing on the topic ''Tackling the Three S's: Sustainability, Security and Strategy.'' More than 50 senior executives from the world's leading energy companies and their strategic suppliers were interviewed by Korn/Ferry International.

  15. And the Survey Says ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Two-Year Colleges, Physics Majors, and Diversity. As noted last month, we're taking a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). We expect to have the first reports from our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers in the spring of 2014. Last month we noted that the high school physics experience of undergraduate physics…

  16. Computational Sociolinguistics: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Doğruöz, A. Seza; Rosé, Carolyn P.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    Language is a social phenomenon and variation is inherent to its social nature. Recently, there has been a surge of interest within the computational linguistics (CL) community in the social dimension of language. In this article we present a survey of the emerging field of “computational

  17. And the Survey Says...

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1987, the Statistical Research Center at the American Institute of Physics has regularly conducted a survey of high school physics teachers. This September we're at it again. This fall, we will look for physics teachers at each of the 4,000+ schools with 12th grade in our nationally representative sample of public and private schools. We…

  18. Surveying the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of almost 150 colleges and universities found many are beginning to use integrated marketing approaches. Institutions report the most significant increases in all targeted areas (annual fund, applicant pool, enrollment yield) when their integrated marketing programs have the support of an alumni or trustee committee. Other findings…

  19. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  20. A call for surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Jensen, Christian S.; Tan, Kian-Lee

    2012-01-01

    The database field is experiencing an increasing need for survey papers. We call on more researchers to set aside time for this important writing activity. The database field is growing in population, scope of topics covered, and the number of papers published. Each year, thousands of new papers ...