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Sample records for survey tentative detection

  1. Tentative detection of the nitrosylium ion in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Bailleux, S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules, UMR 8523 CNRS, Université Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Alekseev, E. [Institute of Radio Astronomy, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Krasnoznamennaya ul. 4, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Fuente, A.; Bachiller, R. [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Apdo. 112, E-28803 Alcalá de Henares (Spain); Roueff, E. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8112. Place J. Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Gerin, M. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR8112 and Ecole Normale Superieure, 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Treviño-Morales, S. P. [Instituto de Radio Astronomía Milimétrica (IRAM), Avenida Divina Pastora 7, Local 20, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Marcelino, N. [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Lefloch, B. [UJF-Grenoble/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-11-01

    We report the tentative detection in space of the nitrosylium ion, NO{sup +}. The observations were performed toward the cold dense core Barnard 1-b. The identification of the NO{sup +} J = 2-1 line is supported by new laboratory measurements of NO{sup +} rotational lines up to the J = 8-7 transition (953207.189 MHz), which leads to an improved set of molecular constants: B {sub 0} = 59597.1379(62) MHz, D {sub 0} = 169.428(65) kHz, and eQq {sub 0}(N) = –6.72(15) MHz. The profile of the feature assigned to NO{sup +} exhibits two velocity components at 6.5 and 7.5 km s{sup –1}, with column densities of 1.5 × 10{sup 12} and 6.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup –2}, respectively. New observations of NO and HNO, also reported here, allow us to estimate the following abundance ratios: X(NO)/X(NO{sup +}) ≅ 511, and X(HNO)/X(NO{sup +}) ≅ 1. This latter value provides important constraints on the formation and destruction processes of HNO. The chemistry of NO{sup +} and other related nitrogen-bearing species is investigated by the means of a time-dependent gas phase model which includes an updated chemical network according to recent experimental studies. The predicted abundance for NO{sup +} and NO is found to be consistent with the observations. However, that of HNO relative to NO is too high. No satisfactory chemical paths have been found to explain the observed low abundance of HNO. HSCN and HNCS are also reported here with an abundance ratio of ≅ 1. Finally, we have searched for NNO, NO{sub 2}, HNNO{sup +}, and NNOH{sup +}, but only upper limits have been obtained for their column density, except for the latter for which we report a tentativedetection.

  2. Rotational spectroscopy, tentative interstellar detection, and chemical modeling of N-methylformamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloche, A.; Meshcheryakov, A. A.; Garrod, R. T.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Müller, H. S. P.; Menten, K. M.

    2017-05-01

    Context. N-methylformamide, CH3NHCHO, may be an important molecule for interstellar pre-biotic chemistry because it contains a peptide bond, which in terrestrial chemistry is responsible for linking amino acids in proteins. The rotational spectrum of the most stable trans conformer of N-methylformamide is complicated by strong torsion-rotation interaction due to the low barrier of the methyl torsion. For this reason, the theoretical description of the rotational spectrum of the trans conformer has, up to now, not been accurate enough to provide a firm basis for its interstellar detection. Aims: In this context, as a prerequisite for a successful interstellar detection, our goal is to improve the characterization of the rotational spectrum of N-methylformamide. Methods: We use two absorption spectrometers in Kharkiv and Lille to measure the rotational spectra over the frequency range 45-630 GHz. The analysis is carried out using the Rho-axis method and the RAM36 code. We search for N-methylformamide toward the hot molecular core Sagittarius (Sgr) B2(N2) using a spectral line survey carried out with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The astronomical spectra are analyzed under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The astronomical results are put into a broader astrochemical context with the help of a gas-grain chemical kinetics model. Results: The new laboratory data set for the trans conformer of N-methylformamide consists of 9469 distinct line frequencies with J ≤ 62, including the first assignment of the rotational spectra of the first and second excited torsional states. All these lines are fitted within experimental accuracy for the first time. Based on the reliable frequency predictions obtained in this study, we report the tentative detection of N-methylformamide toward Sgr B2(N2). We find N-methylformamide to be more than one order of magnitude less abundant than formamide (NH2CHO), a factor of two less abundant than the

  3. ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM AND TENTATIVE DETECTION OF DCOOCH3-METHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margules, L.; Huet, T. R.; Demaison, J.; Carvajal, M.; Kleiner, I.; Moellendal, H.; Tercero, B.; Marcelino, N.; Cernicharo, J.

    2010-01-01

    New centimeter-wave (7-80 GHz) and submillimeter-wave (580-661 GHz) spectra of a deuterated species of methyl formate (DCOOCH 3 ) have been measured. Transitions with a maximum value of J = 64 and K = 36 have been assigned and fitted together with previous measurements. The internal rotation of this compound was treated using the so-called rho axis method. A total of 1703 transitions were fitted using this method. Only 24 parameters were employed in the final fit, which has an rms deviation of 94.2 kHz. The dipole moment and the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of the deuterated specie have also been obtained. This new study has permitted a tentative detection of DCOOCH 3 in Orion with the IRAM 30 m telescope based on the observation of more than 100 spectral features with low blending effects among the 400 lines expected in the observed frequency domain (for which over 300 are heavily blended with other species). These 100 transitions are above noise and confusion limited without heavy blending and cannot be assigned to any other species. Moreover, none of the strongest unblended transitions is missing. The derived source-averaged total column density for DCOOCH 3 is 7.8 x 10 14 cm -2 and the DCOOCH 3 /HCOOCH 3 column density ratio varies between 0.02 and 0.06 in the different cloud components of Orion. This value is consistent with the deuteration enhancement found for other species in this cloud.

  4. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project. A program on survey and research in fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project under planning at Horonobe-machi by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is a research facility on deep underground shown in the Long-term program on research, development and application of nuclear energy (June, 1994)' (LPNE), where some researches on the deep underground targeted at sedimentary rocks are carried out. The plan on The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory performed at Horonobe-machi' is an about 20 years plan ranging from beginning to finishing of its survey and research, which is carried out by three steps such as 'Survey and research performed from earth surface', 'Survey and research performed under excavation of road', and Survey and research performed by using the road'. The survey and research performed from earth surface is begun in fiscal year 2000, and contains physical investigation, trial drilling survey and so on from air and on-earth, by which data on distribution of stratums and dislocations, flowing method and water quality of underground water, strength of stratum and so on were collected, and some forecasting of change on flowing method, water pressure, water quality and so on by construction of underground facility on a base of the obtained data. And, in 2000 fiscal year, as on-site survey, some hearing surveys on using condition of underground water, will also be carried out, under consideration of meteorological condition and so on. (G.K.)

  5. Global nuclear survey: Public support for new power plants remains tentative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A new 18-country opinion survey sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) found that 'while majorities of citizens generally support the continued use of existing nuclear reactors, most people do not favour the building of new nuclear plants'. Indeed, the findings of the survey, conducted by Globescan Inc. show that 'six in ten citizens (62%) overall believe that existing nuclear reactors should continue to be used, yet six in ten (59%) do not favour new nuclear plants being built'. At a time when the nuclear power option is being vigorously pursued in the fast developing countries of Asia and being reconsidered in some European nations and the USA, the findings raise questions as to whether the nuclear industry and politicians have sufficiently raised public confidence in the safety and efficiency of the nuclear power option. Regionally, support for nuclear power is highest in South Korea, the United States and India, where clear pluralities support the building of new nuclear plants. In Morocco, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Cameroon, pluralities prefer that all existing plants be shut down. The IAEA-sponsored survey was conducted between May and August this year in 18 countries representing all regions. Approximately 18,000 people were polled by telephone and in-person interviews. The opinion poll fielded six distinct questions, ranging from awareness of the IAEA and the effectiveness of IAEA inspections to support for peaceful nuclear applications and views about the security of nuclear materials and facilities and the threat of nuclear terrorism. Among the many revealing findings from the survey: 1) Pluralities of citizens in all but three of the 18 countries surveyed believe that IAEA inspections are not effective in monitoring countries' nuclear programmes. An average of 46 percent of people across the 18 countries surveyed say that IAEA inspections are not effective, while three in ten people (29%) say that they are; 2) Majorities in

  6. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project. A program on survey and research performed from earth surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project under planning at Horonobe-machi by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is a research facility on deep underground shown in the Long-term program on research, development and application of nuclear energy (June, 1994)' (LPNE), where some researches on the deep underground targeted at sedimentary rocks are carried out. The plan on The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory performed at Horonobe-machi' is an about 20 years plan ranging from beginning to finishing of its survey and research, which is carried out by three steps such as 'Survey and research performed from earth surface', 'Survey and research performed under excavation of road', and Survey and research performed by using the road'. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory is one of research facilities on deep underground shown its importance in LPNE, and carries out some researches on the deep underground at a target of the sedimentary rocks. And also The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory confirms some technical reliability and support on stratum disposal shown in the 'Technical reliability on stratum disposal of the high level radioactive wastes. The Second Progress Report of R and D on geological disposal' summarized on November, 1999 by JNC through actual tests and researches at the deep stratum. The obtained results are intended to reflect to disposal business of The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory and safety regulation and so on performed by the government, together with results of stratum science research, at the Tono Geoscience Center, of geological disposal R and D at the Tokai Works, or of international collaborations. For R and D at the The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory after 2000, following subjects are shown: 1) Survey technique on long-term stability of geological environment, 2) Survey technique on geological environment, 3) Engineering technique on engineered barrier and

  7. Tentative detection of warm intervening gas towards PKS 0548-322 with XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcons, X.

    2005-03-17

    We present the results of a long ({approx} 93 ksec) XMM-Newton observation of the bright BL-Lac object PKS 0548-322 (z = 0.069). Our Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectrum shows a single absorption feature at an observed wavelength {lambda} = 23.33 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom} which we interpret as OVI K{alpha} absorption at z = 0.058, i.e., {approx} 3000 km s{sup -1} from the background object. The observed equivalent width of the absorption line {approx} 30m {angstrom}, coupled with the lack of the corresponding absorption edge in the EPIC pn data, implies a column density N{sub OVI} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and turbulence with a Doppler velocity parameter b > 100 km s{sup -1}. Within the limitations of our RGS spectrum, no OVII or OV K{alpha} absorption are detected. Under the assumption of ionization equilibrium by both collisions and the extragalactic background, this is only marginally consistent if the gas temperature is {approx} 2.5 x 10{sup 5} K, with significantly lower or higher values being excluded by our limits on OV or OVII. If confirmed, this would be the first X-ray detection of a large amount of intervening warm absorbing gas through OVI absorption. The existence of such a high column density absorber, much stronger than any previously detected one in OVI, would place stringent constraints on the large-scale distribution of baryonic gas in the Universe.

  8. A tentative detection of the 183-GHz water vapor line in the martian atmosphere: Constraints upon the H2O abundance and vertical distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, TH.; Lellouch, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Paubert, G.; Gulkis, S.

    1995-01-01

    The 183-GHz water vapor line was tentatively detected on Mars in January 1991, with the IRAM 30-m millimeter antenna, under extremely dry atmospheric conditions. The measurement refers to the whole disk. The spectral line, although marginally detected, can be fit with a constant H2O mixing ratio of 1.0 x 10(exp -5), which corresponds to a water abundance of 1 pr-microns; in any case, an upper limit of 3 pr-microns is inferred. This value is comparable to the very small abundances measured by Clancy (1992) 5 weeks before our observation and seems to imply both seasonal and long-term variations in the martian water cycle.

  9. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    ubuntu is always sought ethically, and for the authors it underscores what we have both endorsed as ethical feminism. In this essay it is considered how ubuntu feminism could refuse the demands of patriarchy, as well as the confines of liberal feminism. The authors are interested in thinking about ubuntu in general as critique, as a critical response to the pervasiveness of a liberal legal order. Their aim is also to explore tentatively ubuntu and spatiality � how could one understand ubuntu in spatial terms, and more pertinently, how could ubuntu and ubuntu feminism relate to spatial justice? Before turning to the theoretical discussion, some of the on-the-ground history of the Ubuntu Project will be reviewed, including the Project�s attempt to build an Ubuntu Women�s Centre in Khayamandi in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  10. CONSTRAINING THE DISTRIBUTION OF DARK MATTER IN THE INNER GALAXY WITH AN INDIRECT DETECTION SIGNAL: THE CASE OF A TENTATIVE 130 GeV γ-RAY LINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ruizhi; Feng Lei; Li Xiang; Fan Yizhong

    2013-01-01

    Dark matter distribution in the very inner region of our Galaxy is still debated. In N-body simulations, a cuspy dark matter halo density profile is favored. Several dissipative baryonic processes, however, are found to be able to significantly flatten dark matter distribution, and a cored dark matter halo density profile is possible. Baryons dominate the gravitational potential in the inner Galaxy, hence a direct constraint on the abundance of dark matter particles is rather challenging. Recently, a few groups have identified a tentative 130 GeV line signal in the Galactic center, which could be interpreted as the signal of dark matter annihilation. Using current 130 GeV line data and adopting the generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile of the dark matter halo—local dark matter density ρ 0 = 0.4 GeV cm –3 and r s = 20 kpc—we obtain a 95% confidence level lower (upper) limit on the inner slope of dark matter density distribution, α = 1.06 (the cross section of dark matter annihilation into γ-rays (σv) χχ →γ γ = 1.3 × 10 –27 cm 3 s –1 ). Such a slope is consistent with the results of some N-body simulations and, if the signal is due to dark matter, suggests that baryonic processes may be unimportant.

  11. 7 CFR 29.25 - Tentative standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tentative standards. 29.25 Section 29.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.25 Tentative standards. Standards for tobacco prepared by the...

  12. Modeling seasonal detection patterns for burrowing owl surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Kathleen D. Fleming; Cameron Barrows; John T. Rotenberry

    2012-01-01

    To guide monitoring of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in the Coachella Valley, California, USA, we analyzed survey-method-specific seasonal variation in detectability. Point-based call-broadcast surveys yielded high early season detectability that then declined through time, whereas detectability on driving surveys increased through the season. Point surveys...

  13. Some Tentative Plans for Football on TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Tentative football televising agreements between the National Collegiate Athletics Association and four television broadcasting companies, unconfirmed by contract pending a Supreme Court antitrust ruling concerning network and cable television companies, are outlined. (MSE)

  14. Tentative novel lyssavirus in a bat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokireki, T; Tammiranta, N; Kokkonen, U-M; Kantala, T; Gadd, T

    2018-02-15

    A tentative novel member of the genus Lyssavirus, designated as Kotalahti bat lyssavirus, was detected in a Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) in Finland. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the virus differs from other known lyssaviruses, being closely related to Khujand virus, Aravan virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus and European bat lyssavirus 2. © 2018 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The optimal number of surveys when detectability varies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana L Moore

    Full Text Available The survey of plant and animal populations is central to undertaking field ecology. However, detection is imperfect, so the absence of a species cannot be determined with certainty. Methods developed to account for imperfect detectability during surveys do not yet account for stochastic variation in detectability over time or space. When each survey entails a fixed cost that is not spent searching (e.g., time required to travel to the site, stochastic detection rates result in a trade-off between the number of surveys and the length of each survey when surveying a single site. We present a model that addresses this trade-off and use it to determine the number of surveys that: 1 maximizes the expected probability of detection over the entire survey period; and 2 is most likely to achieve a minimally-acceptable probability of detection. We illustrate the applicability of our approach using three practical examples (minimum survey effort protocols, number of frog surveys per season, and number of quadrats per site to detect a plant species and test our model's predictions using data from experimental plant surveys. We find that when maximizing the expected probability of detection, the optimal survey design is most sensitive to the coefficient of variation in the rate of detection and the ratio of the search budget to the travel cost. When maximizing the likelihood of achieving a particular probability of detection, the optimal survey design is most sensitive to the required probability of detection, the expected number of detections if the budget were spent only on searching, and the expected number of detections that are missed due to travel costs. We find that accounting for stochasticity in detection rates is likely to be particularly important for designing surveys when detection rates are low. Our model provides a framework to do this.

  16. Monocular pedestrian detection: Survey and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzweiler, M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Pedestrian detection is a rapidly evolving area in computer vision with key applications in intelligent vehicles, surveillance, and advanced robotics. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of the art from both methodological and experimental perspectives. The

  17. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  18. Clinical survey to detect diabetes mellitus, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnick, P.A.; Anderson, P.S. Jr.

    1961-07-19

    Data from this study are in agreement with the general observations that diabetes is not uncommon in Japan. In an adult study population in Hiroshima 108 patients with diabetes were detected, yielding the prevalence rate of 3.02 percent. Nearly one-half of the patients were diagnosed initially as a result of the routine detection program. Although in females a trend with exposure is suggested by the raw data no statistically significant differences could be demonstrated. However, the size of the sample involved does not permit confident negative conclusions. Additional clinical and laboratory observations were completed in order to characterize the manifestation of diabetes in these subjects. Late manifestations of diabetes frequently were found, but atherosclerotic complications were nonexistent. This is considered to be related to the low fat, high carbohydrate diet of the Japanese. The lack of ketosis, apparently low prevalence rate for juveniles, and male preponderance suggest that diabetes in Japan differs from the disease found in many Western countries. 69 references, 1 figure, 9 tables.

  19. Comparison of survey techniques on detection of northern flying squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggins, Corinne A.; Gilley, L. Michelle; Kelly, Christine A.; Ford, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect a species is central to the success of monitoring for conservation and management purposes, especially if the species is rare or endangered. Traditional methods, such as live capture, can be labor-intensive, invasive, and produce low detection rates. Technological advances and new approaches provide opportunities to more effectively survey for species both in terms of accuracy and efficiency than previous methods. We conducted a pilot comparison study of a traditional technique (live-trapping) and 2 novel noninvasive techniques (camera-trapping and ultrasonic acoustic surveys) on detection rates of the federally endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) in occupied habitat within the Roan Mountain Highlands of North Carolina, USA. In 2015, we established 3 5 × 5 live-trapping grids (6.5 ha) with 4 camera traps and 4 acoustic detectors systematically embedded in each grid. All 3 techniques were used simultaneously during 2 4-day survey periods. We compared techniques by assessing probability of detection (POD), latency to detection (LTD; i.e., no. of survey nights until initial detection), and survey effort. Acoustics had the greatest POD (0.37 ± 0.06 SE), followed by camera traps (0.30 ± 0.06) and live traps (0.01 ± 0.005). Acoustics had a lower LTD than camera traps (P = 0.017), where average LTD was 1.5 nights for acoustics and 3.25 nights for camera traps. Total field effort was greatest with live traps (111.9 hr) followed by acoustics (8.4 hr) and camera traps (9.6 hr), although processing and examination for data of noninvasive techniques made overall effort similar among the 3 methods. This pilot study demonstrated that both noninvasive methods were better rapid-assessment detection techniques for flying squirrels than live traps. However, determining seasonal effects between survey techniques and further development of protocols for both noninvasive techniques is

  20. UAS Detection Classification and Neutralization: Market Survey 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, John Clark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Erdman, Matthew Kelly [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to briefly frame the challenges of detecting low, slow, and small (LSS) unmanned aerial systems (UAS). The conclusion drawn from internal discussions and external reports is the following; detection of LSS UAS is a challenging problem that can- not be achieved with a single detection modality for all potential targets. Classification of LSS UAS, especially classification in the presence of background clutter (e.g., urban environment) or other non-threating targets (e.g., birds), is under-explored. Though information of avail- able technologies is sparse, many of the existing options for UAS detection appear to be in their infancy (when compared to more established ground-based air defense systems for larger and/or faster threats). Companies currently providing or developing technologies to combat the UAS safety and security problem are certainly worth investigating, however, no company has provided the statistical evidence necessary to support robust detection, identification, and/or neutralization of LSS UAS targets. The results of a market survey are included that highlights potential commercial entities that could contribute some technology that assists in the detection, classification, and neutral- ization of a LSS UAS. This survey found no clear and obvious commercial solution, though recommendations are given for further investigation of several potential systems.

  1. Unmanned aerial vehicles for surveying marine fauna: assessing detection probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Amanda; Peel, David; Kelly, Natalie

    2017-06-01

    Aerial surveys are conducted for various fauna to assess abundance, distribution, and habitat use over large spatial scales. They are traditionally conducted using light aircraft with observers recording sightings in real time. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer an alternative with many potential advantages, including eliminating human risk. To be effective, this emerging platform needs to provide detection rates of animals comparable to traditional methods. UAVs can also acquire new types of information, and this new data requires a reevaluation of traditional analyses used in aerial surveys; including estimating the probability of detecting animals. We conducted 17 replicate UAV surveys of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) while simultaneously obtaining a 'census' of the population from land-based observations, to assess UAV detection probability. The ScanEagle UAV, carrying a digital SLR camera, continuously captured images (with 75% overlap) along transects covering the visual range of land-based observers. We also used ScanEagle to conduct focal follows of whale pods (n = 12, mean duration = 40 min), to assess a new method of estimating availability. A comparison of the whale detections from the UAV to the land-based census provided an estimated UAV detection probability of 0.33 (CV = 0.25; incorporating both availability and perception biases), which was not affected by environmental covariates (Beaufort sea state, glare, and cloud cover). According to our focal follows, the mean availability was 0.63 (CV = 0.37), with pods including mother/calf pairs having a higher availability (0.86, CV = 0.20) than those without (0.59, CV = 0.38). The follows also revealed (and provided a potential correction for) a downward bias in group size estimates from the UAV surveys, which resulted from asynchronous diving within whale pods, and a relatively short observation window of 9 s. We have shown that UAVs are an effective alternative to

  2. Detection of spectroscopic binaries in the Gaia-ESO Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Swaelmen, M.; Merle, T.; Van Eck, S.; Jorissen, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Gaia-ESO survey (GES) is a ground-based spectroscopic survey, complementing the Gaia mission, in order to obtain high accuracy radial velocities and chemical abundances for 10^5 stars. Thanks to the numerous spectra collected by the GES, the detection of spectroscopic multiple system candidates (SBn, n ≥ 2) is one of the science case that can be tackled. We developed at IAA (Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique) a novative automatic method to detect multiple components from the cross-correlation function (CCF) of spectra and applied it to the CCFs provided by the GES. Since the bulk of the Milky Way field targets has been observed in both HR10 and HR21 GIRAFFE settings, we are also able to compare the efficiency of our SB detection tool depending on the wavelength range. In particular, we show that HR21 leads to a less efficient detection compared to HR10. The presence of strong and/or saturated lines (Ca II triplet, Mg I line, Paschen lines) in the wavelength domain covered by HR21 hampers the computation of CCFs, which tend to be broadened compared to their HR10 counterpart. The main drawback is that the minimal detectable radial velocity difference is ˜ \\SI{60}km/s for HR21 while it is ˜ \\SI{25}km/s for HR10. A careful design of CCF masks (especially masking Ca triplet lines) can substantially improve the detectability rate of HR21. Since HR21 spectra are quite similar to the one produced by the RVS spectrograph of the Gaia mission, analysis of RVS spectra in the context of spectroscpic binaries can take adavantage of the lessons learned from the GES to maximize the detection rate.

  3. Detection probability in aerial surveys of feral horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.

    2011-01-01

    Observation bias pervades data collected during aerial surveys of large animals, and although some sources can be mitigated with informed planning, others must be addressed using valid sampling techniques that carefully model detection probability. Nonetheless, aerial surveys are frequently employed to count large mammals without applying such methods to account for heterogeneity in visibility of animal groups on the landscape. This often leaves managers and interest groups at odds over decisions that are not adequately informed. I analyzed detection of feral horse (Equus caballus) groups by dual independent observers from 24 fixed-wing and 16 helicopter flights using mixed-effect logistic regression models to investigate potential sources of observation bias. I accounted for observer skill, population location, and aircraft type in the model structure and analyzed the effects of group size, sun effect (position related to observer), vegetation type, topography, cloud cover, percent snow cover, and observer fatigue on detection of horse groups. The most important model-averaged effects for both fixed-wing and helicopter surveys included group size (fixed-wing: odds ratio = 0.891, 95% CI = 0.850–0.935; helicopter: odds ratio = 0.640, 95% CI = 0.587–0.698) and sun effect (fixed-wing: odds ratio = 0.632, 95% CI = 0.350–1.141; helicopter: odds ratio = 0.194, 95% CI = 0.080–0.470). Observer fatigue was also an important effect in the best model for helicopter surveys, with detection probability declining after 3 hr of survey time (odds ratio = 0.278, 95% CI = 0.144–0.537). Biases arising from sun effect and observer fatigue can be mitigated by pre-flight survey design. Other sources of bias, such as those arising from group size, topography, and vegetation can only be addressed by employing valid sampling techniques such as double sampling, mark–resight (batch-marked animals), mark–recapture (uniquely marked and

  4. Detection and tentative grouping of Strawberry crinkle virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.; Lindner, J.L.; Vasková, D.; Spak, J.; Thompson, J.R.; Jelkmann, W.; Schoen, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    A partial sequence of the putative polymerase (L) protein of Strawberry crinkle virus (SCV), genus Cytorhabdovirus, is described. The virus protein was found to be distantly related to the L protein of the rhabdoviruses Northern cereal mosaic virus, Rice yellow stunt virus and Sonchus yellow net

  5. Miscellaneous radioactive materials detected during uranium mill tailings surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management directed the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group in the conduct of radiological surveys on properties in Monticello, Utah, associated with the Mendaciously millsite National Priority List site. During these surveys, various radioactive materials were detected that were unrelated to the Monticello millsite. The existence and descriptions of these materials were recorded in survey reports and are condensed in this report. The radioactive materials detected are either naturally occurring radioactive material, such as rock and mineral collections, uranium ore, and radioactive coal or manmade radioactive material consisting of tailings from other millsites, mining equipment, radium dials, mill building scraps, building materials, such as brick and cinderblock, and other miscellaneous sources. Awareness of the miscellaneous and naturally occurring material is essential to allow DOE to forecast the additional costs and schedule changes associated with remediation activities. Also, material that may pose a health hazard to the public should be revealed to other regulatory agencies for consideration

  6. Using Person Fit Statistics to Detect Outliers in Survey Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Felt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: When working with health-related questionnaires, outlier detection is important. However, traditional methods of outlier detection (e.g., boxplots can miss participants with “atypical” responses to the questions that otherwise have similar total (subscale scores. In addition to detecting outliers, it can be of clinical importance to determine the reason for the outlier status or “atypical” response.Objective: The aim of the current study was to illustrate how to derive person fit statistics for outlier detection through a statistical method examining person fit with a health-based questionnaire.Design and Participants: Patients treated for Cushing's syndrome (n = 394 were recruited from the Cushing's Support and Research Foundation's (CSRF listserv and Facebook page.Main Outcome Measure: Patients were directed to an online survey containing the CushingQoL (English version. A two-dimensional graded response model was estimated, and person fit statistics were generated using the Zh statistic.Results: Conventional outlier detections methods revealed no outliers reflecting extreme scores on the subscales of the CushingQoL. However, person fit statistics identified 18 patients with “atypical” response patterns, which would have been otherwise missed (Zh > |±2.00|.Conclusion: While the conventional methods of outlier detection indicated no outliers, person fit statistics identified several patients with “atypical” response patterns who otherwise appeared average. Person fit statistics allow researchers to delve further into the underlying problems experienced by these “atypical” patients treated for Cushing's syndrome. Annotated code is provided to aid other researchers in using this method.

  7. Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerónimo, David; López, Antonio M; Sappa, Angel D; Graf, Thorsten

    2010-07-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs), and particularly pedestrian protection systems (PPSs), have become an active research area aimed at improving traffic safety. The major challenge of PPSs is the development of reliable on-board pedestrian detection systems. Due to the varying appearance of pedestrians (e.g., different clothes, changing size, aspect ratio, and dynamic shape) and the unstructured environment, it is very difficult to cope with the demanded robustness of this kind of system. Two problems arising in this research area are the lack of public benchmarks and the difficulty in reproducing many of the proposed methods, which makes it difficult to compare the approaches. As a result, surveying the literature by enumerating the proposals one--after-another is not the most useful way to provide a comparative point of view. Accordingly, we present a more convenient strategy to survey the different approaches. We divide the problem of detecting pedestrians from images into different processing steps, each with attached responsibilities. Then, the different proposed methods are analyzed and classified with respect to each processing stage, favoring a comparative viewpoint. Finally, discussion of the important topics is presented, putting special emphasis on the future needs and challenges.

  8. Simulation of Telescope Detectivity for Geo Survey and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, P.

    2014-09-01

    As the number of space debris on Earths Orbit increases steadily, the need to survey, track and catalogue them becomes of key importance. In this context, CNES has been using the TAROT Telescopes (Rapid Telescopes for Transient Objects owned and operated by CNRS) for several years to conduct studies about space surveillance and tracking. Today, two testbeds of services using the TAROT telescopes are running every night: one for GEO situational awareness and the second for debris tracking. Additionally to the CNES research activity on space surveillance and tracking domain, an operational collision avoidance service for LEO and GEO satellites is in place at CNES for several years. This service named CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation: Alerts and Recommendations) is used by CNES as well as by external customers. As the optical debris tracking testbed based on TAROT telescopes is the first step toward an operational provider of GEO measures that could be used by CAESAR, simulations have been done to help choosing the sites and types of telescopes that could be added in the GEO survey and debris tracking telescope network. One of the distinctive characteristics of the optical observation of space debris compared to traditional astronomic observation is the need to observe objects at low elevations. The two mains reasons for this are the need to observe the GEO belt from non-equatorial sites and the need to observe debris at longitudes far from the telescope longitude. This paper presents the results of simulations of the detectivity for GEO debris of various telescopes and sites, based on models of the GEO belt, the atmosphere and the instruments. One of the conclusions is that clever detection of faint streaks and spread sources by image processing is one of the major keys to improve the detection of debris on the GEO belt.

  9. SIDRA: a blind algorithm for signal detection in photometric surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislis, D.; Bachelet, E.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bramich, D. M.; Parley, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Signal Detection using Random-Forest Algorithm (SIDRA). SIDRA is a detection and classification algorithm based on the Machine Learning technique (Random Forest). The goal of this paper is to show the power of SIDRA for quick and accurate signal detection and classification. We first diagnose the power of the method with simulated light curves and try it on a subset of the Kepler space mission catalogue. We use five classes of simulated light curves (CONSTANT, TRANSIT, VARIABLE, MLENS and EB for constant light curves, transiting exoplanet, variable, microlensing events and eclipsing binaries, respectively) to analyse the power of the method. The algorithm uses four features in order to classify the light curves. The training sample contains 5000 light curves (1000 from each class) and 50 000 random light curves for testing. The total SIDRA success ratio is ≥90 per cent. Furthermore, the success ratio reaches 95-100 per cent for the CONSTANT, VARIABLE, EB and MLENS classes and 92 per cent for the TRANSIT class with a decision probability of 60 per cent. Because the TRANSIT class is the one which fails the most, we run a simultaneous fit using SIDRA and a Box Least Square (BLS)-based algorithm for searching for transiting exoplanets. As a result, our algorithm detects 7.5 per cent more planets than a classic BLS algorithm, with better results for lower signal-to-noise light curves. SIDRA succeeds to catch 98 per cent of the planet candidates in the Kepler sample and fails for 7 per cent of the false alarms subset. SIDRA promises to be useful for developing a detection algorithm and/or classifier for large photometric surveys such as TESS and PLATO exoplanet future space missions.

  10. A Survey of Artificial Immune System Based Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS. The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs. This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted.

  11. A survey of artificial immune system based intrusion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Li, Tao; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Feng; Zou, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID) is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS). The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs). This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted.

  12. Underground Water Distribution System, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Leak Detection Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... The survey was conducted by myself, Donald Muir, Operations Coordinator, and required 12.25 working days. This was not a survey of the entire water distribution system but instead a survey of water mains 8 inch and larger...

  13. AMICO: optimized detection of galaxy clusters in photometric surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellagamba, Fabio; Roncarelli, Mauro; Maturi, Matteo; Moscardini, Lauro

    2018-02-01

    We present Adaptive Matched Identifier of Clustered Objects (AMICO), a new algorithm for the detection of galaxy clusters in photometric surveys. AMICO is based on the Optimal Filtering technique, which allows to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the clusters. In this work, we focus on the new iterative approach to the extraction of cluster candidates from the map produced by the filter. In particular, we provide a definition of membership probability for the galaxies close to any cluster candidate, which allows us to remove its imprint from the map, allowing the detection of smaller structures. As demonstrated in our tests, this method allows the deblending of close-by and aligned structures in more than 50 per cent of the cases for objects at radial distance equal to 0.5 × R200 or redshift distance equal to 2 × σz, being σz the typical uncertainty of photometric redshifts. Running AMICO on mocks derived from N-body simulations and semi-analytical modelling of the galaxy evolution, we obtain a consistent mass-amplitude relation through the redshift range of 0.3 5.

  14. Opaque Watercolor (Tentative Course Outline). Art Education: 6673.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Jean E.

    This tentative course outline is for use in one of the Quinmester Program classes, Opaque Watercolor. Designed for students in grades 7-12, with no prerequisite, the course includes the introduction of a variety of techniques in a number of opaque media including tempera, gouache, and cassein. Matting and mounting techniques are also taught. A…

  15. DETECTION OF COASTLINE DEFORMATION USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEODETIC SURVEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sabuncu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal areas are being destroyed due to the usage that effect the natural balance. Unconsciously sand mining from the sea for nearshore nourishment and construction uses are the main ones. Physical interferences for mining of sand cause an ecologic threat to the coastal environment. However, use of marine sand is inevitable because of economic reasons or unobtainable land-based sand resources. The most convenient solution in such a protection–usage dilemma is to reduce negative impacts of sand production from marine. This depends on the accurate determination of criteriaon production place, style, and amount of sand. With this motivation, nearshore geodedic surveying studies performed on Kilyos Campus of Bogazici University located on the Black Sea coast, north of Istanbul, Turkey between 2001-2002. The study area extends 1 km in the longshore. Geodetic survey was carried out in the summer of 2001 to detect the initial condition for the shoreline. Long-term seasonal changes in shoreline positions were determined biannually. The coast was measured with post-processed kinematic GPS. Besides, shoreline change has studied using Landsat imagery between the years 1986-2015. The data set of Landsat 5 imageries were dated 05.08.1986 and 31.08.2007 and Landsat 7 imageries were dated 21.07.2001 and 28.07.2015. Landcover types in the study area were analyzed on the basis of pixel based classification method. Firstly, unsupervised classification based on ISODATA (Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Technique has been applied and spectral clusters have been determined that gives prior knowledge about the study area. In the second step, supervised classification was carried out by using the three different approaches which are minimum-distance, parallelepiped and maximum-likelihood. All pixel based classification processes were performed with ENVI 4.8 image processing software. Results of geodetic studies and classification outputs will be

  16. Automatic Fire Detection: A Survey from Wireless Sensor Network Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrepour, M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Automatic fire detection is important for early detection and promptly extinguishing fire. There are ample studies investigating the best sensor combinations and appropriate techniques for early fire detection. In the previous studies fire detection has either been considered as an application of a

  17. Clustering and community detection in directed networks: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2013-12-01

    Networks (or graphs) appear as dominant structures in diverse domains, including sociology, biology, neuroscience and computer science. In most of the aforementioned cases graphs are directed - in the sense that there is directionality on the edges, making the semantics of the edges nonsymmetric as the source node transmits some property to the target one but not vice versa. An interesting feature that real networks present is the clustering or community structure property, under which the graph topology is organized into modules commonly called communities or clusters. The essence here is that nodes of the same community are highly similar while on the contrary, nodes across communities present low similarity. Revealing the underlying community structure of directed complex networks has become a crucial and interdisciplinary topic with a plethora of relevant application domains. Therefore, naturally there is a recent wealth of research production in the area of mining directed graphs - with clustering being the primary method sought and the primary tool for community detection and evaluation. The goal of this paper is to offer an in-depth comparative review of the methods presented so far for clustering directed networks along with the relevant necessary methodological background and also related applications. The survey commences by offering a concise review of the fundamental concepts and methodological base on which graph clustering algorithms capitalize on. Then we present the relevant work along two orthogonal classifications. The first one is mostly concerned with the methodological principles of the clustering algorithms, while the second one approaches the methods from the viewpoint regarding the properties of a good cluster in a directed network. Further, we present methods and metrics for evaluating graph clustering results, demonstrate interesting application domains and provide promising future research directions.

  18. Tentative reference method for measurement of tritium in environmental waters. Environmental monitoring series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    A tentative reference method for the measurement of tritium in potable and nonpotable environmental water is described. Water samples are treated with sodium hydroxide and potassium permanganate and then a water fraction is separated from interferences by distillation. Two distillation procedures are described, a simple aqueous distillation for samples from potable water sources, and an aqueous-azeotropic-benzene distillation for nonpotable water sources. Alliquots of a designated distillate fraction are measured for tritium activity by liquid scintillation detection. Distillation recovery and counting efficiency factors are determined with tritium standards. Results are reported in picocuries per milliliter

  19. A novel citrus viroid found in Australia, tentatively named citrus viroid VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, G A; Donovan, N J; Bodaghi, S; Jelinek, S M; Vidalakis, G

    2018-01-01

    A novel citrus viroid was discovered in a non-symptomatic Lisbon lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm.f.) tree in New South Wales, Australia. Bioindexing, molecular detection and characterization involving sequencing combined with in silico analysis for the identification of the viroid-RNA hallmark properties of transmissibility and autonomous replication as well as specific sequence and structural motifs suggest that this viroid is a member of a new species in the genus Apscaviroid, family Pospiviroidae, which we have tentatively named "citrus viroid VII" (CVd-VII).

  20. The ultraviolet, optical, and infrared properties of Sloan Digital Sky Survey sources detected by GALEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agueros, MA; Ivezic, Z; Covey, KR; Obric, M; Hao, L; Walkowicz, LM; West, AA; Vanden Berk, DE; Lupton, RH; Knapp, GR; Gunn, JE; Richards, GT; Bochanski, J; Brooks, A; Claire, M; Haggard, D; Kaib, N; Kimball, A; Gogarten, SM; Seth, A; Solontoi, M

    We discuss the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared properties of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) sources detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX) as part of its All-sky Imaging Survey Early Release Observations. Virtually all (> 99%) the GALEX sources in the overlap region are detected

  1. Approaches to automated detection of cyberbullying:A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Salawu, Semiu; He, Yulan; Lumsden, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Research into cyberbullying detection has increased in recent years, due in part to the proliferation of cyberbullying across social media and its detrimental effect on young people. A growing body of work is emerging on automated approaches to cyberbullying detection. These approaches utilise machine learning and natural language processing techniques to identify the characteristics of a cyberbullying exchange and automatically detect cyberbullying by matching textual data to the identified ...

  2. Using Person Fit Statistics to Detect Outliers in Survey Research

    OpenAIRE

    Felt, John M.; Castaneda, Ruben; Tiemensma, Jitske; Depaoli, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Context: When working with health-related questionnaires, outlier detection is important. However, traditional methods of outlier detection (e.g., boxplots) can miss participants with “atypical” responses to the questions that otherwise have similar total (subscale) scores. In addition to detecting outliers, it can be of clinical importance to determine the reason for the outlier status or “atypical” response. Objective: The aim of the current study was to illustrate how to derive person f...

  3. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. I. Survey description, data reduction, and source detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Roland; Conseil, Simon; Mary, David; Brinchmann, Jarle; Shepherd, Martin; Akhlaghi, Mohammad; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Piqueras, Laure; Wisotzki, Lutz; Lagattuta, David; Epinat, Benoit; Guerou, Adrien; Inami, Hanae; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Courbot, Jean Baptiste; Contini, Thierry; Richard, Johan; Maseda, Michael; Bouwens, Rychard; Bouché, Nicolas; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Schaye, Joop; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Pello, Roser; Herenz, Christian; Guiderdoni, Bruno; Carollo, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    We present the MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Survey, a mosaic of nine MUSE fields covering 90% of the entire HUDF region with a 10-h deep exposure time, plus a deeper 31-h exposure in a single 1.15 arcmin2 field. The improved observing strategy and advanced data reduction results in datacubes with sub-arcsecond spatial resolution (0.̋65 at 7000 Å) and accurate astrometry (0.̋07 rms). We compare the broadband photometric properties of the datacubes to HST photometry, finding a good agreement in zeropoint up to mAB = 28 but with an increasing scatter for faint objects. We have investigated the noise properties and developed an empirical way to account for the impact of the correlation introduced by the 3D drizzle interpolation. The achieved 3σ emission line detection limit for a point source is 1.5 and 3.1 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 for the single ultra-deep datacube and the mosaic, respectively. We extracted 6288 sources using an optimal extraction scheme that takes the published HST source locations as prior. In parallel, we performed a blind search of emission line galaxies using an original method based on advanced test statistics and filter matching. The blind search results in 1251 emission line galaxy candidates in the mosaic and 306 in the ultradeep datacube, including 72 sources without HST counterparts (mAB > 31). In addition 88 sources missed in the HST catalog but with clear HST counterparts were identified. This data set is the deepest spectroscopic survey ever performed. In just over 100 h of integration time, it provides nearly an order of magnitude more spectroscopic redshifts compared to the data that has been accumulated on the UDF over the past decade. The depth and high quality of these datacubes enables new and detailed studies of the physical properties of the galaxy population and their environments over a large redshift range. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programs 094.A-0289(B), 095.A-0010(A

  4. Pedestrians’ detection in thermal bands – Critical survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nermin K. Negied; Elsayed E. Hemayed; Magda B. Fayek

    2015-01-01

    Thermal imaging is simply the technique of using the heat given off by an object to produce an image of it or locate it. New thermal imaging frameworks for detection, segmentation and unique feature extraction and similarity measurements for human physiological biometrics recognition have been introduced in literature. The research investigates specialized algorithms that would use the individual's heat signature for human detection, crowd counting and applications that take benefits of this ...

  5. High Resolution Seismic Reflection Survey for Coal Mine: fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khukhuudei, M.; Khukhuudei, U.

    2014-12-01

    High Resolution Seismic Reflection (HRSR) methods will become a more important tool to help unravel structures hosting mineral deposits at great depth for mine planning and exploration. Modern coal mining requires certainly about geological faults and structural features. This paper focuses on 2D Seismic section mapping results from an "Zeegt" lignite coal mine in the "Mongol Altai" coal basin, which required the establishment of major structure for faults and basement. HRSR method was able to detect subsurface faults associated with the major fault system. We have used numerical modeling in an ideal, noise free environment with homogenous layering to detect of faults. In a coal mining setting where the seismic velocity of the high ranges from 3000m/s to 3600m/s and the dominant seismic frequency is 100Hz, available to locate faults with a throw of 4-5m. Faults with displacements as seam thickness detected down to several hundred meter beneath the surface.

  6. Echoes from the abyss: Tentative evidence for Planck-scale structure at black hole horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Jahed; Dykaar, Hannah; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2017-10-01

    In classical general relativity (GR), an observer falling into an astrophysical black hole is not expected to experience anything dramatic as she crosses the event horizon. However, tentative resolutions to problems in quantum gravity, such as the cosmological constant problem, or the black hole information paradox, invoke significant departures from classicality in the vicinity of the horizon. It was recently pointed out that such near-horizon structures can lead to late-time echoes in the black hole merger gravitational wave signals that are otherwise indistinguishable from GR. We search for observational signatures of these echoes in the gravitational wave data released by the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), following the three black hole merger events GW150914, GW151226, and LVT151012. In particular, we look for repeating damped echoes with time delays of 8 M log M (+spin corrections, in Planck units), corresponding to Planck-scale departures from GR near their respective horizons. Accounting for the "look elsewhere" effect due to uncertainty in the echo template, we find tentative evidence for Planck-scale structure near black hole horizons at false detection probability of 1% (corresponding to 2.5 σ

  7. Pedestrians’ detection in thermal bands – Critical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin K. Negied

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal imaging is simply the technique of using the heat given off by an object to produce an image of it or locate it. New thermal imaging frameworks for detection, segmentation and unique feature extraction and similarity measurements for human physiological biometrics recognition have been introduced in literature. The research investigates specialized algorithms that would use the individual's heat signature for human detection, crowd counting and applications that take benefits of this new technology. The highly accurate results obtained by the algorithms presented clearly demonstrate the ability of the thermal infrared systems to extend in application to other thermal imaging based systems.

  8. Outlier Detection Techniques For Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the field of wireless sensor networks, measurements that significantly deviate from the normal pattern of sensed data are considered as outliers. The potential sources of outliers include noise and errors, events, and malicious attacks on the network. Traditional outlier detection techniques are

  9. Outlier detection techniques for wireless sensor networks: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the field of wireless sensor networks, those measurements that significantly deviate from the normal pattern of sensed data are considered as outliers. The potential sources of outliers include noise and errors, events, and malicious attacks on the network. Traditional outlier detection

  10. Neuro-evolutionary event detection technique for downhole microseismic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Debotyam; Salehi, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen a significant increase in borehole microseismic data acquisition programs associated with unconventional reservoir developments such as hydraulic fracturing programs for shale oil and gas. The data so acquired is used for hydraulic fracture monitoring and diagnostics and therefore, the quality of the data in terms of resolution and accuracy has a significant impact on its value to the industry. Borehole microseismic data acquired in such environments typically suffer from propagation effects due to the presence of thin interbedded shale layers as well as noise and interference effects. Moreover, acquisition geometry has significant impact on detectability across portions of the sensor array. Our work focuses on developing robust first arrival detection and pick selection workflow for both P and S waves specifically designed for such environments. We introduce a novel workflow for refinement of picks with immunity towards significant noise artifacts and applicability over data with very low signal-to-noise ratio provided some accurate picks have already been made. This workflow utilizes multi-step hybrid detection and classification routine which makes use of a neural network based autopicker for initial picking and an evolutionary algorithm for pick refinement. We highlight the results from an actual field case study including multiple examples demonstrating immunity towards noise and compare the effectiveness of the workflow with two contemporary autopicking routines without the application of the shared detection/refinement procedure. Finally, we use a windowed waveform cross-correlation based uncertainty estimation method for potential quality control purposes. While the workflow was developed to work with the neural network based autopicker, it can be used with any other traditional autopicker and provides significant improvements in pick detection across seismic gathers.

  11. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  12. Network Community Detection: A Review and Visual Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Bisma S.; Niazi, Muaz A.

    2017-01-01

    Community structure is an important area of research. It has received a considerable attention from the scientific community. Despite its importance, one of the key problems in locating information about community detection is the diverse spread of related articles across various disciplines. To the best of our knowledge, there is no current comprehensive review of recent literature which uses a scientometric analysis using complex networks analysis covering all relevant articles from the Web...

  13. Survey of Insurance Fraud Detection Using Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sithic, H. Lookman; Balasubramanian, T.

    2013-01-01

    With an increase in financial accounting fraud in the current economic scenario experienced, financial accounting fraud detection has become an emerging topics of great importance for academics, research and industries. Financial fraud is a deliberate act that is contrary to law, rule or policy with intent to obtain unauthorized financial benefit and intentional misstatements or omission of amounts by deceiving users of financial statements, especially investors and creditors. Data mining tec...

  14. New Advances and Challenges of Fall Detection Systems: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Falling, as one of the main harm threats to the elderly, has drawn researchers’ attentions and has always been one of the most valuable research topics in the daily health-care for the elderly in last two decades. Before 2014, several researchers reviewed the development of fall detection, presented issues and challenges, and navigated the direction for the study in the future. With smart sensors and Internet of Things (IoT developing rapidly, this field has made great progress. However, there is a lack of a review and discussion on novel sensors, technologies and algorithms introduced and employed from 2014, as well as the emerging challenges and new issues. To bridge this gap, we present an overview of fall detection research and discuss the core research questions on this topic. A total of 6830 related documents were collected and analyzed based on the key words. Among these documents, the twenty most influential and highly cited articles are selected and discussed profoundly from three perspectives: sensors, algorithms and performance. The findings would assist researchers in understanding current developments and barriers in the systems of fall detection. Although researchers achieve fruitful work and progress, this research domain still confronts challenges on theories and practice. In the near future, the new solutions based on advanced IoT will sustainably urge the development to prevent falling injuries.

  15. General survey of detection methods for irradiation foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    The development of detection techniques is needed, in order for regulating authorities to determine whether or not a particular food sample has been irradiated, and label it accordingly so that a consumer's free choice can be exercised. The chemical and physical changes brought about in foods by practical doses of irradiation are very small, and therefore very sensitive methods are required. A number of promising approaches have been developed and evaluated. These include chemical, physical and biological methods ranging from the very simple to highly sophisticated techniques. (author)

  16. Detection and plant monitoring programs: lessons from an intensive survey of Asclepias meadii with five observers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Alexander

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs, where numbers of individuals are followed through time, are central to conservation. Although incomplete detection is expected with wildlife surveys, this topic is rarely considered with plants. However, if plants are missed in surveys, raw count data can lead to biased estimates of population abundance and vital rates. To illustrate, we had five independent observers survey patches of the rare plant Asclepias meadii at two prairie sites. We analyzed data with two mark-recapture approaches. Using the program CAPTURE, the estimated number of patches equaled the detected number for a burned site, but exceeded detected numbers by 28% for an unburned site. Analyses of detected patches using Huggins models revealed important effects of observer, patch state (flowering/nonflowering, and patch size (number of stems on probabilities of detection. Although some results were expected (i.e. greater detection of flowering than nonflowering patches, the importance of our approach is the ability to quantify the magnitude of detection problems. We also evaluated the degree to which increased observer numbers improved detection: smaller groups (3-4 observers generally found 90 - 99% of the patches found by all five people, but pairs of observers or single observers had high error and detection depended on which individuals were involved. We conclude that an intensive study at the start of a long-term monitoring study provides essential information about probabilities of detection and what factors cause plants to be missed. This information can guide development of monitoring programs.

  17. A survey about methods dedicated to epistasis detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eNiel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, findings of genome-wide association studies (GWAS improved our knowledge and understanding of disease genetics. To date, thousands of SNPs have been associated to diseases and other complex traits. Statistical analysis typically looks for association between a phenotype and a SNP taken individually via single-locus tests. However, geneticists admit this is an oversimplified approach to tackle the complexity of underlying biological mechanisms. Interaction between SNPs, namely epistasis, must be considered. Unfortunately, epistasis detection gives rise to analytic challenges since analyzing every SNP combination is at present impractical at a genome-wide scale. In this review, we will present the main strategies recently proposed to detect epistatic interactions, along with their operating principle. Some of these methods are exhaustive, such as multifactor dimensionality reduction, likelihood ratio-based tests or receiver operating characteristic curve analysis; some are non-exhaustive, such as machine learning techniques (random forests, Bayesian networks or combinatorial optimization approaches (ant colony optimization, computational evolution system.

  18. Detection probability of gyrfalcons and other cliff-nesting raptors during aerial surveys in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Travis L.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; McCaffery, Brian J.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Watson, Richard T.; Cade, Tom J.; Fuller, Mark; Hunt, Grainger; Potapov, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the status of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and other cliffnesting raptors as the Arctic climate changes often requires aerial surveys of their breeding habitats. Because traditional, count-based surveys that do not adjust for differing detection probabilities can provide faulty inference about population status (Link and Sauer 1998, Thompson 2002), it will be important to incorporate measures of detection probability into survey methods whenever possible. To evaluate the feasibility of this, we conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons, Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling following MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2006). We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills (hereafter called Volcanoes) near Bethel, Alaska. We used the following terms and definitions throughout: Survey Site: site of a nest used previously by a raptor and marked with a GPS-obtained latitude and longitude accurate to within 20 m. All GPS locations were obtained in prior years from a helicopter hovering approximately 10?20 m from a nest. The site was considered occupied if a bird or an egg was detected within approximately 500 m of the nest and this area served as our sampling unit. When multiple historical nests were located on a single cliff, we used only one GPS location to locate the survey site. Detection probability (p): the probability of a species being detected at a site given the site is occupied. Occupancy (?): the probability that the species of interest is present at a site during the survey period. A site was considered occupied if the

  19. A Survey On Various Web Template Detection And Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Mary Varghese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In todays digital world reliance on the World Wide Web as a source of information is extensive. Users increasingly rely on web based search engines to provide accurate search results on a wide range of topics that interest them. The search engines in turn parse the vast repository of web pages searching for relevant information. However majority of web portals are designed using web templates which are designed to provide consistent look and feel to end users. The presence of these templates however can influence search results leading to inaccurate results being delivered to the users. Therefore to improve the accuracy and reliability of search results identification and removal of web templates from the actual content is essential. A wide range of approaches are commonly employed to achieve this and this paper focuses on the study of the various approaches of template detection and extraction that can be applied across homogenous as well as heterogeneous web pages.

  20. Technical manual: a survey of scintillating medium for high-energy particle detection

    OpenAIRE

    Baitenov, Adil; Iakovlev, Alexander; Beznosko, Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    There are various particle detection methods used nowadays and the most common is using scintillators. Among scintillating materials, solid plastic and water-based liquid scintillators (WbLS) are the latest development. In particular, WbLS allows researchers to apply different particle detection methods for increased experiment efficiency. This survey attempts to make an overview on detection methods and detectors in high-energy physics using scintillators. It is meant as a summary for those ...

  1. Galactic Sources Detected in the NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsick, John A.; Clavel, Maïca; Chiu, Jeng-Lun [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Lansbury, George B.; Aird, James [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Rahoui, Farid [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fornasini, Francesca M.; Hong, JaeSub; Grindlay, Jonathan E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bodaghee, Arash [Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States); Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Krivonos, Roman A. [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya Str. 84/32, 117997, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) provides an improvement in sensitivity at energies above 10 keV by two orders of magnitude over non-focusing satellites, making it possible to probe deeper into the Galaxy and universe. Lansbury and collaborators recently completed a catalog of 497 sources serendipitously detected in the 3–24 keV band using 13 deg{sup 2} of NuSTAR coverage. Here, we report on an optical and X-ray study of 16 Galactic sources in the catalog. We identify 8 of them as stars (but some or all could have binary companions), and use information from Gaia to report distances and X-ray luminosities for 3 of them. There are 4 CVs or CV candidates, and we argue that NuSTAR J233426–2343.9 is a relatively strong CV candidate based partly on an X-ray spectrum from XMM-Newton . NuSTAR J092418–3142.2, which is the brightest serendipitous source in the Lansbury catalog, and NuSTAR J073959–3147.8 are low-mass X-ray binary candidates, but it is also possible that these 2 sources are CVs. One of the sources is a known high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB), and NuSTAR J105008–5958.8 is a new HMXB candidate that has strong Balmer emission lines in its optical spectrum and a hard X-ray spectrum. We discuss the implications of finding these HMXBs for the surface density (log N –log S ) and luminosity function of Galactic HMXBs. We conclude that with the large fraction of unclassified sources in the Galactic plane detected by NuSTAR in the 8–24 keV band, there could be a significant population of low-luminosity HMXBs.

  2. Single-Camera Trap Survey Designs Miss Detections: Impacts on Estimates of Occupancy and Community Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Brent S; Nielsen, Clayton K; Holzmueller, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    The use of camera traps as a tool for studying wildlife populations is commonplace. However, few have considered how the number of detections of wildlife differ depending upon the number of camera traps placed at cameras-sites, and how this impacts estimates of occupancy and community composition. During December 2015-February 2016, we deployed four camera traps per camera-site, separated into treatment groups of one, two, and four camera traps, in southern Illinois to compare whether estimates of wildlife community metrics and occupancy probabilities differed among survey methods. The overall number of species detected per camera-site was greatest with the four-camera survey method (Pcamera survey method detected 1.25 additional species per camera-site than the one-camera survey method, and was the only survey method to completely detect the ground-dwelling silvicolous community. The four-camera survey method recorded individual species at 3.57 additional camera-sites (P = 0.003) and nearly doubled the number of camera-sites where white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were detected compared to one- and two-camera survey methods. We also compared occupancy rates estimated by survey methods; as the number of cameras deployed per camera-site increased, occupancy estimates were closer to naïve estimates, detection probabilities increased, and standard errors of detection probabilities decreased. Additionally, each survey method resulted in differing top-ranked, species-specific occupancy models when habitat covariates were included. Underestimates of occurrence and misrepresented community metrics can have significant impacts on species of conservation concern, particularly in areas where habitat manipulation is likely. Having multiple camera traps per site revealed significant shortcomings with the common one-camera trap survey method. While we realize survey design is often constrained logistically, we suggest increasing effort to at least two camera traps

  3. Litter survey detects the South Atlantic 'garbage patch'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G

    2014-02-15

    A distance-based technique was used to assess the distribution and abundance of floating marine debris (>1cm) in the southeast Atlantic Ocean between Cape Town and Tristan da Cunha, crossing the southern edge of the South Atlantic 'garbage patch' predicted by surface drift models. Most litter was made of plastic (97%). Detection distances were influenced by the size and buoyancy of litter items. Litter density decreased from coastal waters off Cape Town (>100 items km(-2)) to oceanic waters (<10 items km(-2)), and was consistently higher (6.2 ± 1.3 items km(-2)) from 3 to 8°E than in adjacent oceanic waters (2.7 ± 0.3 items km(-2)) or in the central South Atlantic around Tristan (1.0 ± 0.4 items km(-2)). The area with high litter density had few seaweeds, suggesting that most litter had been drifting for a long time. The results indicate that floating debris is accumulating in the South Atlantic gyre as far south as 34-35°S. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tentative investigation on neutron mirror fabrication with electroless nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jiang; Morita, Shin-ya; Yamagata, Yutaka; Takeda, Shin; Kato, Jun-ichi; Hino, Masahiro; Furusaka, Michihiro

    2013-01-01

    Neutron optics becomes highly required due to the rapid development of neutron technology. In this paper, we attempt to fabricate the neutron mirror by using a metal substrate made of electroless nickel plating to take place of glass concerning about mirror's optical performance and manufacturing method. A new manufacture process chain of neutron mirror is proposed by following the steps of fast milling and precision cutting of aluminium/stainless, electroless nickel plating, ultra-precision cutting by diamond tools, super-smooth polishing and super mirror coating to obtain high form accuracy and good surface roughness time-efficiently. Some tentative investigations are carried out. A workpiece (□ 50 x 50 mm 2 ) with flat surface made of electroless nickel plating is machined by ultra-precision cutting and polishing. The surface roughness with 0.728 nm rms (0.588 nm Ra) is acquired. According to results of reflectometry, the neutron beam can be reflected effectively with high intensity and little scattering. (author)

  5. Grizzly Bear Noninvasive Genetic Tagging Surveys: Estimating the Magnitude of Missed Detections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason T; Heim, Nicole; Code, Sandra; Paczkowski, John

    2016-01-01

    Sound wildlife conservation decisions require sound information, and scientists increasingly rely on remotely collected data over large spatial scales, such as noninvasive genetic tagging (NGT). Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), for example, are difficult to study at population scales except with noninvasive data, and NGT via hair trapping informs management over much of grizzly bears' range. Considerable statistical effort has gone into estimating sources of heterogeneity, but detection error-arising when a visiting bear fails to leave a hair sample-has not been independently estimated. We used camera traps to survey grizzly bear occurrence at fixed hair traps and multi-method hierarchical occupancy models to estimate the probability that a visiting bear actually leaves a hair sample with viable DNA. We surveyed grizzly bears via hair trapping and camera trapping for 8 monthly surveys at 50 (2012) and 76 (2013) sites in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada. We used multi-method occupancy models to estimate site occupancy, probability of detection, and conditional occupancy at a hair trap. We tested the prediction that detection error in NGT studies could be induced by temporal variability within season, leading to underestimation of occupancy. NGT via hair trapping consistently underestimated grizzly bear occupancy at a site when compared to camera trapping. At best occupancy was underestimated by 50%; at worst, by 95%. Probability of false absence was reduced through successive surveys, but this mainly accounts for error imparted by movement among repeated surveys, not necessarily missed detections by extant bears. The implications of missed detections and biased occupancy estimates for density estimation-which form the crux of management plans-require consideration. We suggest hair-trap NGT studies should estimate and correct detection error using independent survey methods such as cameras, to ensure the reliability of the data upon which species management and

  6. Grizzly Bear Noninvasive Genetic Tagging Surveys: Estimating the Magnitude of Missed Detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason T.; Heim, Nicole; Code, Sandra; Paczkowski, John

    2016-01-01

    Sound wildlife conservation decisions require sound information, and scientists increasingly rely on remotely collected data over large spatial scales, such as noninvasive genetic tagging (NGT). Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), for example, are difficult to study at population scales except with noninvasive data, and NGT via hair trapping informs management over much of grizzly bears’ range. Considerable statistical effort has gone into estimating sources of heterogeneity, but detection error–arising when a visiting bear fails to leave a hair sample–has not been independently estimated. We used camera traps to survey grizzly bear occurrence at fixed hair traps and multi-method hierarchical occupancy models to estimate the probability that a visiting bear actually leaves a hair sample with viable DNA. We surveyed grizzly bears via hair trapping and camera trapping for 8 monthly surveys at 50 (2012) and 76 (2013) sites in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada. We used multi-method occupancy models to estimate site occupancy, probability of detection, and conditional occupancy at a hair trap. We tested the prediction that detection error in NGT studies could be induced by temporal variability within season, leading to underestimation of occupancy. NGT via hair trapping consistently underestimated grizzly bear occupancy at a site when compared to camera trapping. At best occupancy was underestimated by 50%; at worst, by 95%. Probability of false absence was reduced through successive surveys, but this mainly accounts for error imparted by movement among repeated surveys, not necessarily missed detections by extant bears. The implications of missed detections and biased occupancy estimates for density estimation–which form the crux of management plans–require consideration. We suggest hair-trap NGT studies should estimate and correct detection error using independent survey methods such as cameras, to ensure the reliability of the data upon which species

  7. Grizzly Bear Noninvasive Genetic Tagging Surveys: Estimating the Magnitude of Missed Detections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Fisher

    Full Text Available Sound wildlife conservation decisions require sound information, and scientists increasingly rely on remotely collected data over large spatial scales, such as noninvasive genetic tagging (NGT. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos, for example, are difficult to study at population scales except with noninvasive data, and NGT via hair trapping informs management over much of grizzly bears' range. Considerable statistical effort has gone into estimating sources of heterogeneity, but detection error-arising when a visiting bear fails to leave a hair sample-has not been independently estimated. We used camera traps to survey grizzly bear occurrence at fixed hair traps and multi-method hierarchical occupancy models to estimate the probability that a visiting bear actually leaves a hair sample with viable DNA. We surveyed grizzly bears via hair trapping and camera trapping for 8 monthly surveys at 50 (2012 and 76 (2013 sites in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada. We used multi-method occupancy models to estimate site occupancy, probability of detection, and conditional occupancy at a hair trap. We tested the prediction that detection error in NGT studies could be induced by temporal variability within season, leading to underestimation of occupancy. NGT via hair trapping consistently underestimated grizzly bear occupancy at a site when compared to camera trapping. At best occupancy was underestimated by 50%; at worst, by 95%. Probability of false absence was reduced through successive surveys, but this mainly accounts for error imparted by movement among repeated surveys, not necessarily missed detections by extant bears. The implications of missed detections and biased occupancy estimates for density estimation-which form the crux of management plans-require consideration. We suggest hair-trap NGT studies should estimate and correct detection error using independent survey methods such as cameras, to ensure the reliability of the data upon which species

  8. Tentative food defense guidelines for food producers and processors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagawa, Yoshiyuki; Akahane, Manabu; Imamura, Tomoaki; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Onitake, Kazuo; Takaya, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    With increasing global interest in intentional food contamination, expert meetings have been held by the G8, while the U.S. government has proposed policies for preventing food terrorism and intentional contamination. However, Japan has no food defense policy, and some food companies are concerned about an impending terrorism and contamination crisis. We developed a Food Defense Checklist for Food Producers and Processors and published the details on the website. We also developed tentative Food Defense Guidelines for Food Producers and Processors on the basis of the checklist. In this study, we tested the usability of the guidelines through a hearing survey regarding food plants. We also compared the checklist with the implementation manual for the approval system of Comprehensive Sanitation Management and Production Process (the Japanese equivalent of the HACCP). We organized the comments gleaned from the hearing survey and provided a detailed explanation of the guidelines. As the HACCP has been adopted by Japanese food companies, we included both precautionary measures and the HACCP perspective in the explanation regarding the rapid dissemination of information. The guidelines are useful for Japanese food companies, and it is important to disseminate knowledge on this topic and implement food defense measures.

  9. A survey of partition-based techniques for copy-move forgery detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Wandji Nanda Nathalie; Xingming, Sun; Moise, Fah Kue

    2014-01-01

    A copy-move forged image results from a specific type of image tampering procedure carried out by copying a part of an image and pasting it on one or more parts of the same image generally to maliciously hide unwanted objects/regions or clone an object. Therefore, detecting such forgeries mainly consists in devising ways of exposing identical or relatively similar areas in images. This survey attempts to cover existing partition-based copy-move forgery detection techniques.

  10. Detection rates of geckos in visual surveys: Turning confounding variables into useful knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Bjorn; Rodda, Gordon H.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Savidge, Julie A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Transect surveys without some means of estimating detection probabilities generate population size indices prone to bias because survey conditions differ in time and space. Knowing what causes such bias can help guide the collection of relevant survey covariates, correct the survey data, anticipate situations where bias might be unacceptably large, and elucidate the ecology of target species. We used negative binomial regression to evaluate confounding variables for gecko (primarily Hemidactylus frenatus and Lepidodactylus lugubris) counts on 220-m-long transects surveyed at night, primarily for snakes, on 9,475 occasions. Searchers differed in gecko detection rates by up to a factor of six. The worst and best headlamps differed by a factor of at least two. Strong winds had a negative effect potentially as large as those of searchers or headlamps. More geckos were seen during wet weather conditions, but the effect size was small. Compared with a detection nadir during waxing gibbous (nearly full) moons above the horizon, we saw 28% more geckos during waning crescent moons below the horizon. A sine function suggested that we saw 24% more geckos at the end of the wet season than at the end of the dry season. Fluctuations on a longer timescale also were verified. Disturbingly, corrected data exhibited strong short-term fluctuations that covariates apparently failed to capture. Although some biases can be addressed with measured covariates, others will be difficult to eliminate as a significant source of error in longterm monitoring programs.

  11. Visual surveying platform for the automated detection of road surface distresses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available is vital to preventing pothole formation and growth. To improve the efficiency of maintenance and reduce the cost thereof, the Visual Surveying Platform (VSP) is being developed that will automatically detect and analyse road distresses. The VSP consists...

  12. To see or not to see: investigating detectability of Ganges River dolphins using a combined visual-acoustic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Nadia I; Gibbons, James M; Turvey, Samuel T; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ahmed, Benazir; Mahabub, Emile; Smith, Brian D; Jones, Julia P G

    2014-01-01

    Detection of animals during visual surveys is rarely perfect or constant, and failure to account for imperfect detectability affects the accuracy of abundance estimates. Freshwater cetaceans are among the most threatened group of mammals, and visual surveys are a commonly employed method for estimating population size despite concerns over imperfect and unquantified detectability. We used a combined visual-acoustic survey to estimate detectability of Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in four waterways of southern Bangladesh. The combined visual-acoustic survey resulted in consistently higher detectability than a single observer-team visual survey, thereby improving power to detect trends. Visual detectability was particularly low for dolphins close to meanders where these habitat features temporarily block the view of the preceding river surface. This systematic bias in detectability during visual-only surveys may lead researchers to underestimate the importance of heavily meandering river reaches. Although the benefits of acoustic surveys are increasingly recognised for marine cetaceans, they have not been widely used for monitoring abundance of freshwater cetaceans due to perceived costs and technical skill requirements. We show that acoustic surveys are in fact a relatively cost-effective approach for surveying freshwater cetaceans, once it is acknowledged that methods that do not account for imperfect detectability are of limited value for monitoring.

  13. Using detection dogs to conduct simultaneous surveys of northern spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina and barred owls (Strix varia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Wasser

    Full Text Available State and federal actions to conserve northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina habitat are largely initiated by establishing habitat occupancy. Northern spotted owl occupancy is typically assessed by eliciting their response to simulated conspecific vocalizations. However, proximity of barred owls (Strix varia-a significant threat to northern spotted owls-can suppress northern spotted owl responsiveness to vocalization surveys and hence their probability of detection. We developed a survey method to simultaneously detect both species that does not require vocalization. Detection dogs (Canis familiaris located owl pellets accumulated under roost sites, within search areas selected using habitat association maps. We compared success of detection dog surveys to vocalization surveys slightly modified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Draft 2010 Survey Protocol. Seventeen 2 km × 2 km polygons were each surveyed multiple times in an area where northern spotted owls were known to nest prior to 1997 and barred owl density was thought to be low. Mitochondrial DNA was used to confirm species from pellets detected by dogs. Spotted owl and barred owl detection probabilities were significantly higher for dog than vocalization surveys. For spotted owls, this difference increased with number of site visits. Cumulative detection probabilities of northern spotted owls were 29% after session 1, 62% after session 2, and 87% after session 3 for dog surveys, compared to 25% after session 1, increasing to 59% by session 6 for vocalization surveys. Mean detection probability for barred owls was 20.1% for dog surveys and 7.3% for vocal surveys. Results suggest that detection dog surveys can complement vocalization surveys by providing a reliable method for establishing occupancy of both northern spotted and barred owl without requiring owl vocalization. This helps meet objectives of Recovery Actions 24 and 25 of the Revised Recovery Plan for the

  14. Modeling detection probability to improve marsh bird surveys in southern Canada and the Great Lakes states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marsh birds are notoriously elusive, with variation in detection probability across species, regions, seasons, and different times of day and weather. Therefore, it is important to develop regional field survey protocols that maximize detections, but that also produce data for estimating and analytically adjusting for remaining differences in detections. We aimed to improve regional field survey protocols by estimating detection probability of eight elusive marsh bird species throughout two regions that have ongoing marsh bird monitoring programs: the southern Canadian Prairies (Prairie region and the southern portion of the Great Lakes basin and parts of southern Québec (Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region. We accomplished our goal using generalized binomial N-mixture models and data from ~22,300 marsh bird surveys conducted between 2008 and 2014 by Bird Studies Canada's Prairie, Great Lakes, and Québec Marsh Monitoring Programs. Across all species, on average, detection probability was highest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region from the beginning of May until mid-June, and then fell throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was lowest in the Prairie region in mid-May and then increased throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was highest during darkness compared with light; and did not vary significantly according to temperature (range: 0-30°C, cloud cover (0%-100%, or wind (0-20 kph, or during morning versus evening. We used our results to formulate improved marsh bird survey protocols for each region. Our analysis and recommendations are useful and contribute to conservation of wetland birds at various scales from local single-species studies to the continental North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Program.

  15. Linear feature detection algorithm for astronomical surveys - II. Defocusing effects on meteor tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektešević, Dino; Vinković, Dejan; Rasmussen, Andrew; Ivezić, Željko

    2018-03-01

    Given the current limited knowledge of meteor plasma micro-physics and its interaction with the surrounding atmosphere and ionosphere, meteors are a highly interesting observational target for high-resolution wide-field astronomical surveys. Such surveys are capable of resolving the physical size of meteor plasma heads, but they produce large volumes of images that need to be automatically inspected for possible existence of long linear features produced by meteors. Here, we show how big aperture sky survey telescopes detect meteors as defocused tracks with a central brightness depression. We derive an analytic expression for a defocused point source meteor track and use it to calculate brightness profiles of meteors modelled as uniform brightness discs. We apply our modelling to meteor images as seen by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope telescopes. The expression is validated by Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of photons travelling through the atmosphere and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope telescope optics. We show that estimates of the meteor distance and size can be extracted from the measured full width at half-maximum and the strength of the central dip in the observed brightness profile. However, this extraction becomes difficult when the defocused meteor track is distorted by the atmospheric seeing or contaminated by a long-lasting glowing meteor trail. The full width at half-maximum of satellite tracks is distinctly narrower than meteor values, which enables removal of a possible confusion between satellites and meteors.

  16. A Survey of Partition-Based Techniques for Copy-Move Forgery Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandji Nanda Nathalie Diane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A copy-move forged image results from a specific type of image tampering procedure carried out by copying a part of an image and pasting it on one or more parts of the same image generally to maliciously hide unwanted objects/regions or clone an object. Therefore, detecting such forgeries mainly consists in devising ways of exposing identical or relatively similar areas in images. This survey attempts to cover existing partition-based copy-move forgery detection techniques.

  17. Precise Detection of Buried Underground Utilities by Non-destructive Electromagnetic Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, Ho Woong; Lee, Seung Hee; Lee, Kang Won

    2002-01-01

    To detect the position and depth of buried underground utilities, method of Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR) survey is the most commonly used. However, the skin-depth of GPR is very shallow, and in the places where subsurface materials are not homogeneous and are compose of clays and/or salts and gravels, GPR method has limitations in application and interpretation. The aim of this study is to overcome these limitations of GPR survey. For this purpose the site where the GPR survey is unsuccessful to detect the underground big pipes is selected, and soil tests were conducted to confirm the reason why GPR method was not applicable. Non-destructive high-frequency electromagnetic (HFEM) survey was newly developed and was applied in the study area to prove the effectiveness of this new technique. The frequency ranges 2kHz∼4MHz and the skin depth is about 30m. The HFEM measures the electric field and magnetic field perpendicular to each other to get the impedance from which vertical electric resistivity distribution at the measured point can be deduced. By adopting the capacitive coupled electrodes, it can make the measuring time shorter, and can be applied to the places covered by asphalt an and/or concrete. In addition to the above mentioned advantages, noise due to high-voltage power line is much reduced by stacking the signals. As a result, the HFEM was successful in detecting the buried underground objects. Therefore this method is a promising new technique that can be applied in the lots of fields, such as geotechnical and archaeological surveys

  18. Experimental Study on Electrode Method for Electrical Resistivity Survey to Detect Cavities under Road Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Seon Park; Jin-Hoon Jeong; Hae-Won Park; Kyoungchul Kim

    2017-01-01

    There are two types of electrode methods for electrical resistivity survey (ERS): the pole electrode method (PEM) and flat electrode method (FEM). During the past few decades, most studies were conducted by using PEM for various purposes while only a few were conducted by using FEM. Laboratory and field experiments were performed in this study to investigate the advantage of FEM in detecting cavities under pavements. In the laboratory experiment, the results of PEM and FEM were compared graph...

  19. Genotyping in 46 patients with tentative diagnosis of Treacher Collins syndrome revealed unexpected phenotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teber, Ozge Altug; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Fischer, Sven; Böhringer, Stefan; Albrecht, Beate; Albert, Angelika; Arslan-Kirchner, Mine; Haan, Eric; Hagedorn-Greiwe, Monika; Hammans, Christof; Henn, Wolfram; Hinkel, Georg Klaus; König, Rainer; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Kunze, Jürgen; Neumann, Luitgard M; Prott, Eva-Christina; Rauch, Anita; Rott, Hans-Dieter; Seidel, Heide; Spranger, Stephanie; Sprengel, Martin; Zoll, Barbara; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Wieczorek, Dagmar

    2004-11-01

    To define the range of phenotypic expression in Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS; Franceschetti-Klein syndrome), we performed mutation analysis in the TCOF1 gene in 46 patients with tentative diagnosis of TCS and evaluated the clinical data, including a scoring system. A total of 27 coding exons of TCOF1 and adjacent splice junctions were analysed by direct sequencing. In 36 patients with a clinically unequivocal diagnosis of TCS, we detected 28 pathogenic mutations, including 25 novel alterations. No mutation was identified in the remaining eight patients with unequivocal diagnosis of TCS and 10 further patients, in whom the referring diagnosis of TCS was clinically doubtful. There is no overt genotype-phenotype correlation except that conductive deafness is significantly less frequent in patients with mutations in the 3' part of the open reading frame. Inter- and intrafamilial variation is wide. Some mutation carriers, parents of typically affected patients, are so mildly affected that the diagnosis might be overlooked clinically. This suggests that modifying factors are important for phenotypic expression. Based on these findings, minimal diagnostic criteria were defined: downward slanting palpebral fissures and hypoplasia of the zygomatic arch. The difficulties in genetic counselling, especially diagnosis of family members with a mild phenotype, are described.

  20. Azole susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis and Malassezia furfur and tentative epidemiological cut-off values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Iatta, Roberta; Immediato, Davide; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution and the epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs) of Malassezia pachydermatis and Malassezia furfur isolates for fluconazole (FLZ), itraconazole (ITZ), posaconazole (POS), and voriconazole (VOR). A total of 62 M. pachydermatis strains from dogs with dermatitis and 78 M. furfur strains from humans with bloodstream infections (BSI) were tested by a modified broth microdilution Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method. ITZ and POS displayed lower MICs than VOR and FLZ, regardless of the Malassezia species. The MIC data for azoles of M. pachydermatis were four two-fold dilutions lower than those of M. furfur. Based on the ECVs, about 94% of Malassezia strains might be categorized within susceptible population for all azoles, except for FLZ, and azole cross-resistance was detected in association with FLZ in M. pachydermatis but not in M. furfur.The study proposes, for the first time, tentative azole ECVs for M. pachydermatis and M. furfur for monitoring the emergence of isolates with decreased susceptibilities and shows that the azole MIC distribution varied according to the Malassezia species tested, thus suggesting the usefulness of determining the susceptibility profile for effective treatment of each species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A national survey on the use of screening tools to detect physical child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Kristin Garton; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C; Groner, Jonathan I; Thackeray, Jonathan D; Deans, Katherine J

    2016-08-01

    Recognition of physical child abuse is imperative for ensuring children's safety. Screening tools (ST) may increase identification of physical abuse; however, the extent of their use is unknown. This study assessed use of STs for physical abuse in children's hospitals and determined attitudes regarding STs. A web-based survey was sent to child abuse program contacts at 103 children's hospitals. The survey assessed institutional use of a ST for physical abuse and characteristics of the ST used. Respondents were asked to identify benefits and liabilities of STs used or barriers to ST use. Seventy-two respondents (70 %) completed the survey; most (64 %) were child abuse pediatricians. Nine (13 %) respondents reported using a ST for physical abuse; STs varied in length, population, administration, and outcomes of a positive screen. Most respondents (86 %) using a ST felt that it increased detection of abuse. Barriers noted included lack of time for development and provider completion of a ST. While few respondents endorsed use of a ST for physical abuse, most believed that it increased detection of abuse. Future research should focus on development of a brief, uniform ST for physical abuse which may increase detection in at-risk children.

  2. Impact of Methane Leak Detection and Repair Programs: Determining Pre- and Post-Survey Emissions Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda-Stuart, D. J.; Ravikumar, A. P.; Brandt, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Upstream production sites contribute 66 percent of methane emissions from natural gas systems [1]. Being a major greenhouse gas, many states and national governments are developing policies to reduce methane emissions. Recent policies to address this issue have focused on periodic leak detection and repair (LDAR) surveys at oil and gas facilities [2]. Development of effective LDAR surveys is complicated by two things. First, available empirical data makes it difficult to say anything definitive about which facilities or equipment are most prone to leakage. Second, there has been little research done on post-LDAR emissions profiles and the time evolution of leaks, two measures that would influence survey effectiveness and cost. In this work, we present data from LDAR operations conducted at upstream facilities of a Canadian natural gas producer. Surveys were done by an outside contractor using a FLIR optical gas imaging camera. Twenty-two well pads, five processing plants, and three compressor stations were surveyed, of which four, two, and one, respectively, were revisited. We examine the persistence of leaks over time periods ranging from 6 months to 15 months following the initial LDAR survey. Developing pre- and post-survey emission factors and distributions can help inform survey schedules and help update and monitor mitigation targets. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of weather conditions, survey frequency, and operational characteristics of equipment on the effectiveness of the LDAR program. For instance, we find that a survey done at the commissioning of a gas processing plant yields both safety and emissions reduction benefits. Using leak frequency distributions, we identify components and equipment that require more frequent and targeted surveying. Insights from this study can assist businesses and policy makers develop methane mitigation policies aimed at maximizing the marginal benefits of LDAR programs. [1] Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  3. The IRAM-30 m line survey of the Horsehead PDR. II. First detection of the l-C3H+ hydrocarbon cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pety, J.; Gratier, P.; Guzmán, V.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Bardeau, S.; Sievers, A.; Le Petit, F.; Le Bourlot, J.; Belloche, A.; Talbi, D.

    2012-12-01

    Context. Pure gas-phase chemistry models do not succeed in reproducing the measured abundances of small hydrocarbons in the interstellar medium. Information on key gas-phase progenitors of these molecules sheds light on this problem. Aims: We aim to constrain the chemical content of the Horsehead mane with a millimeter unbiased line survey at two positions, namely the photo-dissociation region (PDR) and the nearby shielded core. This project revealed a consistent set of eight unidentified lines toward the PDR position. We associate them to the l-C3H+ hydrocarbon cation, which enables us to constrain the chemistry of small hydrocarbons. We observed the lowest detectable J line in the millimeter domain along a cut toward the illuminating direction to constrain the spatial distribution of the l-C3H+ emission perpendicular to the photo-dissociation front. Methods: We simultaneously fit 1) the rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of a linear rotor; and 2) the Gaussian line shapes located at the eight predicted frequencies. A rotational diagram is then used to infer the excitation temperature and the column density. We finally compare the abundance to the results of the Meudon PDR photochemical model. Results: Six out of the eight unidentified lines observable in the millimeter bands are detected with a signal-to-noise ratio from 6 to 19 toward the Horsehead PDR, while the two last ones are tentatively detected. Mostly noise appears at the same frequency toward the dense core, located less than 40'' away. Moreover, the spatial distribution of the species integrated emission has a shape similar to radical species such as HCO, and small hydrocarbons such as C2H, which show enhanced abundances toward the PDR. The observed lines can be accurately fitted with a linear rotor model, implying a 1Σ ground electronic state. The deduced rotational constant value is B = 11 244.9512 ± 0.0015 MHz, close to that of l-C3H. Conclusions: This is the first detection of the l

  4. A SURVEY ON DELAY AND NEIGHBOR NODE MONITORING BASED WORMHOLE ATTACK PREVENTION AND DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir T Bagade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET, network layer attacks, for example wormhole attacks, disrupt the network routing operations and can be used for data theft. Wormhole attacks are of two types: hidden and exposed wormhole. There are various mechanisms in literature which are used to prevent and detect wormhole attacks. In this paper, we survey wormhole prevention and detection techniques and present our critical observations for each. These techniques are based on cryptographic mechanisms, monitoring of packet transmission delay and control packet forwarding behavior of neighbor nodes. We compare the techniques using the following criteria- extra resources needed applicability to different network topologies and routing protocols, prevention/detection capability, etc. We conclude the paper with potential research directions.

  5. Detectability of rotation-powered pulsars in future hard X-ray surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei

    2009-01-01

    Recent INTEGRAL/IBIS hard X-ray surveys have detected about 10 young pulsars. We show hard X-ray properties of these 10 young pulsars, which have a luminosity of 10 33 -10 37 erg s -1 and a photon index of 1.6-2.1 in the energy range of 20-100 keV. The correlation between X-ray luminosity and spin-down power of L X ∝ L sd 1.31 suggests that the hard X-ray emission in rotation-powered pulsars is dominated by the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) component. Assuming spectral properties are similar in 20-100 keV and 2-10 keV for both the pulsar and PWN components, the hard X-ray luminosity and flux of 39 known young X-ray pulsars and 8 millisecond pulsars are obtained, and a correlation of L X ∝ L sd 1.5 is derived. About 20 known young X-ray pulsars and 1 millisecond pulsars could be detected with future INTEGRAL and HXMT surveys. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations of hard X-ray pulsars in the Galaxy and the Gould Belt, assuming values for the pulsar birth rate, initial position, proper motion velocity, period, and magnetic field distribution and evolution based on observational statistics and the L X - L sd relations: L X ∝ L sd 1.31 and L X ∝ L sd 1.5 . More than 40 young pulsars (mostly in the Galactic plane) could be detected after ten years of INTEGRAL surveys and the launch of HXMT. So, the young pulsars would be a significant part of the hard X-ray source population in the sky, and will contribute to unidentified hard X-ray sources in present and future hard X-ray surveys by INTEGRAL and HXMT.

  6. A Direct Imaging Survey of Spitzer-detected Debris Disks: Occurrence of Giant Planets in Dusty Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Tiffany; Mawet, Dimitri; Bryan, Marta L.; Hinkley, Sasha; Bowler, Brendan P.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Batygin, Konstantin; Padgett, Deborah; Morales, Farisa Y.; Serabyn, Eugene; Christiaens, Valentin; Brandt, Timothy D.; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2017-12-01

    We describe a joint high-contrast imaging survey for planets at the Keck and Very Large Telescope of the last large sample of debris disks identified by the Spitzer Space Telescope. No new substellar companions were discovered in our survey of 30 Spitzer-selected targets. We combine our observations with data from four published surveys to place constraints on the frequency of planets around 130 debris disk single stars, the largest sample to date. For a control sample, we assembled contrast curves from several published surveys targeting 277 stars that do not show infrared excesses. We assumed a double power-law distribution in mass and semimajor axis (SMA) of the form f(m,a)={{Cm}}α {a}β , where we adopted power-law values and logarithmically flat values for the mass and SMA of planets. We find that the frequency of giant planets with masses 5-20 M Jup and separations 10-1000 au around stars with debris disks is 6.27% (68% confidence interval 3.68%-9.76%), compared to 0.73% (68% confidence interval 0.20%-1.80%) for the control sample of stars without disks. These distributions differ at the 88% confidence level, tentatively suggesting distinctness of these samples. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  7. Detecting and Treating Verified Influential Values in a Monthly Retail Trade Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulry Mary H.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In survey data, an observation is considered influential if it is reported correctly and its weighted contribution has an excessive effect on a key estimate, such as an estimate of total or change. In previous research with data from the U.S. Monthly Retail Trade Survey (MRTS, two methods, Clark Winsorization and weighted M-estimation, have shown potential to detect and adjust influential observations. This article discusses results of the application of a simulation methodology that generates realistic population time-series data. The new strategy enables evaluating Clark Winsorization and weighted M-estimation over repeated samples and producing conditional and unconditional performance measures. The analyses consider several scenarios for the occurrence of influential observations in the MRTS and assess the performance of the two methods for estimates of total retail sales and month-to-month change.

  8. Modeling the Sensitivity of Field Surveys for Detection of Environmental DNA (eDNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin T; Lance, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method is the practice of collecting environmental samples and analyzing them for the presence of a genetic marker specific to a target species. Little is known about the sensitivity of the eDNA method. Sensitivity is the probability that the target marker will be detected if it is present in the water body. Methods and tools are needed to assess the sensitivity of sampling protocols, design eDNA surveys, and interpret survey results. In this study, the sensitivity of the eDNA method is modeled as a function of ambient target marker concentration. The model accounts for five steps of sample collection and analysis, including: 1) collection of a filtered water sample from the source; 2) extraction of DNA from the filter and isolation in a purified elution; 3) removal of aliquots from the elution for use in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay; 4) PCR; and 5) genetic sequencing. The model is applicable to any target species. For demonstration purposes, the model is parameterized for bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) assuming sampling protocols used in the Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS). Simulation results show that eDNA surveys have a high false negative rate at low concentrations of the genetic marker. This is attributed to processing of water samples and division of the extraction elution in preparation for the PCR assay. Increases in field survey sensitivity can be achieved by increasing sample volume, sample number, and PCR replicates. Increasing sample volume yields the greatest increase in sensitivity. It is recommended that investigators estimate and communicate the sensitivity of eDNA surveys to help facilitate interpretation of eDNA survey results. In the absence of such information, it is difficult to evaluate the results of surveys in which no water samples test positive for the target marker. It is also recommended that invasive species managers articulate concentration

  9. Cross-sectional survey of detectable rate of subclinical hypothyroidism in different people in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shanhui; Liu Peng; Liu Lixiang; Liu Shoujun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the detectable rates of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) of children aged 8-10 years, adults aged 18-45 years, breast feeding women and pregnant women, and analyze the differences of the detectable rates in different people with different levels of urinary iodine concentrations and immune status in order to provide new indexes for prevention and treatment of iodine deficiency disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in four kinds of 1999 target people (633 children aged 8-10 years, 703 adults aged 18-45 years, 334 breast feeding women and 329 pregnant women) in six different areas in China from the April 2009 to April 2010. The morning blood samples and three urine samples selected randomly of different people were collected and the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid microsome antibody (TMAb), thyroid globulin antibody (TGAb) in blood samples and iodine in urine samples were detected. Results: The detectable rates of subclinical hypothyroidism of children aged -10 years old, adults aged 18-45 years old, breast feeding women and pregnant women were 10.43% , 4.84% , 4.19% , and 3.95% , respectively. The detectable rate of SH in children group was significantly higher than that in adults group (P<0.01). There was no significant differences of the detectable rates of SH between children children whose urinary iodine were normal and children whose urinary iodine were elevated (P>0.05). The positive rates of TMAb and TGAb of people with SH were significantly higher than those of people with normal thyroid function (P<0.01). Conclusion: The detectable rate of SH of children aged 8-10 years is higher than those in other three groups, which indicates that the index of SH should be used in routine monitoring of iodine disorder control in children. (authors)

  10. Survey of artificial intelligence methods for detection and identification of component faults in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of computer-based systems that apply artificial intelligence methods to detect and identify component faults in nuclear power plants is presented. Classification criteria are established that categorize artificial intelligence diagnostic systems according to the types of computing approaches used (e.g., computing tools, computer languages, and shell and simulation programs), the types of methodologies employed (e.g., types of knowledge, reasoning and inference mechanisms, and diagnostic approach), and the scope of the system. The major issues of process diagnostics and computer-based diagnostic systems are identified and cross-correlated with the various categories used for classification. Ninety-five publications are reviewed

  11. Laboratorial training of examiners for using a visual caries detection system in epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Moro, Bruna Lp; Lara, Juan S; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Guedes, Renata S; Haddad, Ana E; Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M

    2013-10-03

    In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). Regarding the reproducibility, the mean (range) of kappa values was 0.781 (0.529-0.927) for occlusal surfaces, 0.568 (0.191-0.881) for smooth surfaces, and 0.844 (0.698-0.971) for proximal surfaces. Considering all lesions, sensitivity and specificity mean values were respectively 0.724 and 0.844 for occlusal, 0.635 and 0.943 for smooth and 0.658 and 0.927 for proximal surfaces. For detecting advanced lesions, sensitivities and

  12. Literature survey on the advance detection of dykes in underground coal mine workings.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, GA

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature survey on the advance detection of dykes in underground coal mine workings Prof. G A Fourie Laboratory for Advanced Engineering University of Pretoria Project COL 503b October 1998 i Executive Summary To minimise risk, a more effective.... Average borehole lengths achieved with this method are now in ii the order of 1200 metres, however, development work is in progress to increase the effective reach to 2000 metres. Similar work is currently in progress at Sasol Coal. The use of ground...

  13. Comparison of detection rates of breeding marsh birds in passive and playback surveys at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T.; Finkbeiner, S.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared detection rates of passive and playback breeding bird survey techniques on elusive marsh birds - Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola), and Sora (Porzana carolina) - during a two-year study at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, in southwestern South Dakota. We conducted 151 passive point counts followed by playback-response surveys at the same points in marsh-bird habitat on the refuge. Playback surveys detected secretive water birds more frequently than our passive surveys, increasing rates for each species by factors of 2.4 to 7.0. The distance a bird was detected from a point varied with the species and the survey technique.

  14. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  15. Estimating detection probability for Canada lynx Lynx canadensis using snow-track surveys in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; David L. Turner; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Jay A. Kolbe

    2012-01-01

    We used snow-tracking surveys to determine the probability of detecting Canada lynx Lynx canadensis in known areas of lynx presence in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA during the winters of 2006 and 2007. We used this information to determine the minimum number of survey replicates necessary to infer the presence and absence of lynx in areas of similar lynx...

  16. Eye Tracking and Head Movement Detection: A State-of-Art Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Eye-gaze detection and tracking have been an active research field in the past years as it adds convenience to a variety of applications. It is considered a significant untraditional method of human computer interaction. Head movement detection has also received researchers' attention and interest as it has been found to be a simple and effective interaction method. Both technologies are considered the easiest alternative interface methods. They serve a wide range of severely disabled people who are left with minimal motor abilities. For both eye tracking and head movement detection, several different approaches have been proposed and used to implement different algorithms for these technologies. Despite the amount of research done on both technologies, researchers are still trying to find robust methods to use effectively in various applications. This paper presents a state-of-art survey for eye tracking and head movement detection methods proposed in the literature. Examples of different fields of applications for both technologies, such as human-computer interaction, driving assistance systems, and assistive technologies are also investigated. PMID:27170851

  17. Modified electrical survey for effective leakage detection at concrete hydraulic facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bomi; Oh, Seokhoon

    2018-02-01

    Three original electrode arrays for the effective leakage detection of concrete hydraulic facilities through electrical resistivity surveys are proposed: 'cross-potential', 'direct-potential' and modified tomography-like arrays. The main differences with respect to the commonly used arrays are that the current line-sources are separated from potential pole lines and floated upon the water. The potential pole lines are located directly next to the facility in order to obtain intuitive data and useful interpretations of the internal conditions of the hydraulic facility. This modified configuration of the array clearly displays the horizontal variation of the electrical field around the damaged zones of the concrete hydraulic facility, and any anomalous regions that might be found between potential poles placed across the facilities. In order to facilitate the interpretation of these modified electrical surveys, a new and creative way of presenting the measurements is also proposed and an inversion approach is provided for the modified tomography-like array. A numerical modeling and two field tests were performed to verify these new arrays and interpretation methods. The cross and direct potential array implied an ability to detect small variations of the potential field near the measurement poles. The proposed array showed the overall potential distribution across the hydraulic facility which may be used to assist in the search of trouble zones within the structure, in combination with the traditional electrical resistivity array.

  18. Automated detection of extended sources in radio maps: progress from the SCORPIO survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggi, S.; Ingallinera, A.; Leto, P.; Cavallaro, F.; Bufano, F.; Schillirò, F.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Buemi, C. S.; Norris, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    Automated source extraction and parametrization represents a crucial challenge for the next-generation radio interferometer surveys, such as those performed with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its precursors. In this paper, we present a new algorithm, called CAESAR (Compact And Extended Source Automated Recognition), to detect and parametrize extended sources in radio interferometric maps. It is based on a pre-filtering stage, allowing image denoising, compact source suppression and enhancement of diffuse emission, followed by an adaptive superpixel clustering stage for final source segmentation. A parametrization stage provides source flux information and a wide range of morphology estimators for post-processing analysis. We developed CAESAR in a modular software library, also including different methods for local background estimation and image filtering, along with alternative algorithms for both compact and diffuse source extraction. The method was applied to real radio continuum data collected at the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) within the SCORPIO project, a pathfinder of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) survey at the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). The source reconstruction capabilities were studied over different test fields in the presence of compact sources, imaging artefacts and diffuse emission from the Galactic plane and compared with existing algorithms. When compared to a human-driven analysis, the designed algorithm was found capable of detecting known target sources and regions of diffuse emission, outperforming alternative approaches over the considered fields.

  19. Geophysical surveys for buried waste detection at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Rising, J.L.; Kimbrough, J.R.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes a series of geophysical surveys performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The main purpose of the surveys was to evaluate techniques, principally ground-penetrating radar, for detecting and mapping radioactive wastes buried in shallow trenches and pits. A second purpose was to determine the feasibility of using ground-penetrating radar to measure the depth of basalt bedrock. A prototype geophyscal survey system developed by the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory was used for this study. Radar, magnetometer, and metal detector measurements were made at three sites in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at INEL. Radar measurements were made at fourth site adjacent to the RWMC. The combination of three geophysical methods was shown to provide considerable information about the distribution of buried waste materials. The tests confirmed the potential effectiveness of the radar method, but they also pointed out the need for continued research and development in ground-penetrating radar technology. The radar system tested in this study appears to be capable of measuring the depth to basalt in the vicinity of the RWMC

  20. Detection Survey of Khapra Beetle in Stored Agricultural Products in Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciati Hadi Wuryaningsih

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Evert (Celeoptera: Dermestidae entered Central Java together with importation of stored products four decades ago. A survey was conducted to detect whether the Kaphra beetle existed in Central Java after they had been fumigated during commodity arrival. If the Kaphra beetle is absent, the data could be treated as the starting point toward declaring a pest free area (PFA of Kaphra beetle in Central Java. The survey employed the procedure established in Australia, except this survey lasted for 11 months starting from April 2008 to February 2009. Insect traps (Trécé Incorporation, Oklahoma, USA were placed in eight sites distributed in six districts identified as high risk for Kaphra beetle. The traps were substituted following the label. The traps were checked every 2–4 weeks making the total observations varying from 18–24 times, except one site (eight times. No Kaphra beetle was observed during this detection survey. This finding strongly suggests that Kaphra beetle is not present in Central Java. Survey should be continued to collect data sufficient to declare PFA of Kaphra beetle.   KumbangKhapra,Trogoderma granarium Evert (Celeoptera;Dermestidae masuk ke Jawa Tengah bersama sama dengan produk impor empat dekade lalu. Survei deteksi ini dilakukan untuk mendeteksi apakah kumbang Kaphra masih ada di Jawa Tengah setelah dilakukan fumigasi sejak kedatangannya. Jika kumbang Kaphra sudah tidak ada, data tersebut digunakan sebagai langkah awal penetapan area bebas hama (Pest FreeArea/PFA kumbang Kaphra di JawaTengah. Survei menggunakan prosedur yang telah ditetapkan di Australia, yang dilakukan selama 11 bulan mulai April 2008 hingga Februari 2009. Perangkap serangga (produk dari Trécé Incorporation, Oklahoma, USA diletakkan di delapan tempat yang tersebar di enam Kabupaten/kota yang diidentifikasi sebagai daerah berisiko tinggi terhadap keberadaan kumbang Kaphra. Perangkap diganti dengan interval

  1. Individual Uncertainty and the Uncertainty of Science: The Impact of Perceived Conflict and General Self-Efficacy on the Perception of Tentativeness and Credibility of Scientific Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Danny; Feinkohl, Insa; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We examined in two empirical studies how situational and personal aspects of uncertainty influence laypeople's understanding of the uncertainty of scientific information, with focus on the detection of tentativeness and perception of scientific credibility. In the first study (N = 48), we investigated the impact of a perceived conflict due to contradicting information as a situational, text-inherent aspect of uncertainty. The aim of the second study (N = 61) was to explore the role of general self-efficacy as an intra-personal uncertainty factor. In Study 1, participants read one of two versions of an introductory text in a between-group design. This text provided them with an overview about the neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The text expressed a positive attitude toward DBS in one experimental condition or focused on the negative aspects of this method in the other condition. Then participants in both conditions read the same text that dealt with a study about DBS as experimental treatment in a small sample of patients with major depression. Perceived conflict between the two texts was found to increase the perception of tentativeness and to decrease the perception of scientific credibility, implicating that text-inherent aspects have significant effects on critical appraisal. The results of Study 2 demonstrated that participants with higher general self-efficacy detected the tentativeness to a lesser degree and assumed a higher level of scientific credibility, indicating a more naïve understanding of scientific information. This appears to be contradictory to large parts of previous findings that showed positive effects of high self-efficacy on learning. Both studies showed that perceived tentativeness and perceived scientific credibility of medical information contradicted each other. We conclude that there is a need for supporting laypeople in understanding the uncertainty of scientific information and that scientific writers should

  2. Applications of UAV Photogrammetric Surveys to Natural Hazard Detection and Cultural Heritage Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trizzino, Rosamaria; Caprioli, Mauro; Mazzone, Francesco; Scarano, Mario

    2017-04-01

    area is an ancient Aragonese watchtower of the seventeenth century, located near the Abbey of San Vito in the countryside of Polignano a Mare (in the province of Bari, Southern Italy). The survey has been carried out with an "esacopter" equipped with a CANON EOS 550D. The image processing was carried out with Photogrammetric and Structure from Motion software (Agisoft PhotoScan) and, as a result, a cloud of 524.607 points with a 0.010096 m/pix resolution was obtained starting from 330 nadiral and inclined images. In order to verify the suitability of this technique we carried out also a terrestrial photogrammetric survey using three different photographic media, a reflex camera with integrated GPS, a compact digital camera and a camera of a smartphone. Three data set of image have been obtained and then compared. In conclusion, it is possible to say that the peculiarity of the RPAS photogrammetric survey allowed highlighting some peculiariar features of the tower, such as the presence of a trapdoor and of a chimney at the roof level, not detectable with a terrestrial survey, that could provide essential elements in order to execute restoration works aimed at the recovery of the cultural heritage.

  3. la tentative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Lake

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Can a duet between music and image be a written essay? Collaborators Jane Lake and Hugo the Wolf explore this premise through sight, sound, and text in an essay, an attempt, a temptation on "repetition, memory, rhythm, and marks made by the passage of time."

  4. la tentative

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Lake; Hugo Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Can a duet between music and image be a written essay? Collaborators Jane Lake and Hugo the Wolf explore this premise through sight, sound, and text in an essay, an attempt, a temptation on "repetition, memory, rhythm, and marks made by the passage of time."

  5. The Role of Extrinsic Feedback in Interlanguage Fossilization: A Discussion of "Rule Fossilization: A Tentative Model."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamendella, John T.; Selinker, Larry

    1979-01-01

    Six tentative conclusions about the role of extrinsic feedback in interlanguage fossilization are presented and discussed in light of hypotheses made by Virgil and Oller regarding this phenomenon. Extrinsic factors are those characteristics of the learner which are oriented toward the environment and which act as the interface between the learner…

  6. 78 FR 79701 - Tentative Determination Regarding Partially Hydrogenated Oils; Request for Comments and for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... primary dietary source of industrially-produced trans fatty acids, or trans fat, are not GRAS for any use... consumption of trans fat with a 60-day comment period ending on January 7, 2014. The notice also invited.... FDA-2013-N-1317] Tentative Determination Regarding Partially Hydrogenated Oils; Request for Comments...

  7. Preservice Biology Teachers' Conceptions About the Tentative Nature of Theories and Models in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Bianca; Krüger, Dirk

    2018-02-01

    In research on the nature of science, there is a need to investigate the role and status of different scientific knowledge forms. Theories and models are two of the most important knowledge forms within biology and are the focus of this study. During interviews, preservice biology teachers ( N = 10) were asked about their understanding of theories and models. They were requested to give reasons why they see theories and models as either tentative or certain constructs. Their conceptions were then compared to philosophers' positions (e.g., Popper, Giere). A category system was developed from the qualitative content analysis of the interviews. These categories include 16 conceptions for theories ( n tentative = 11; n certai n = 5) and 18 conceptions for models ( n tentative = 10; n certain = 8). The analysis of the interviews showed that the preservice teachers gave reasons for the tentativeness or certainty of theories and models either due to their understanding of the terms or due to their understanding of the generation or evaluation of theories and models. Therefore, a variety of different terminology, from different sources, should be used in learning-teaching situations. Additionally, an understanding of which processes lead to the generation, evaluation, and refinement or rejection of theories and models should be discussed with preservice teachers. Within philosophy of science, there has been a shift from theories to models. This should be transferred to educational contexts by firstly highlighting the role of models and also their connections to theories.

  8. Recent mycotoxin survey data and advanced mycotoxin detection techniques reported from China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Xing, Fuguo; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in agro-food systems has been a serious concern over the last few decades in China, where the Ministry of Health has set maximum limits for mycotoxins in different agro-products. Overall survey data show that aflatoxin contamination in infant cereals, edible oils, raw milk, ginger and its related products are far below Chinese regulatory limits. The absence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in infant milk powders indicates a high standard of control. Aflatoxins in liquorice roots and lotus seeds have been reported for the first time. For deoxynivalenol, high levels were found in wheat grown in the Yangtze Delta region, which is more prone to rainfall, supporting Fusarium infection. The emerging mycotoxins beauvericins and enniatins have been reported in the medicinal herbs in China. Ochratoxin A in wine was below the European Union regulatory limits, but fumonisins in maize need to be monitored and future regulatory control considered. Overall from all the survey data analysed in this review, it can be concluded that 92% of the samples analysed had mycotoxin levels below the Chinese regulatory limits. In terms of detection techniques in recent years, immuno-based assays have been developed largely due to their excellent sensitivity and ease of use. Assays targeting multiple mycotoxins like aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol have been reported using microarrays and suspension arrays targeting in particular maize, rice and peanuts. Aptamer-based assays against ochratoxin A and aflatoxins B1 and B2 have been developed involving fluorescence detection; and surface plasmon resonance immunosensors have been developed targeting wine, maize, wheat, wild rye, hay and peanut oil with high sensitivity (> 0.025 ng l(-1)). Commercialisation of these technologies is much needed for wider usage in the coming years.

  9. THE DETECTION OF INTERSTELLAR ETHANIMINE (CH3CHNH) FROM OBSERVATIONS TAKEN DURING THE GBT PRIMOS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Steber, Amanda L.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matthew T.; Harris, Brent J.; Pate, Brooks H.; Hollis, Jan M.; Jewell, Philip R.; Remijan, Anthony J.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Martinez, Oscar Jr.; McCarthy, Michael C.; Lovas, Frank J.; Corby, Joanna F.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed reaction product screening measurements using broadband rotational spectroscopy to identify rotational transition matches between laboratory spectra and the Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS radio astronomy survey spectra in Sagittarius B2 North (Sgr B2(N)). The broadband rotational spectrum of molecules created in an electrical discharge of CH 3 CN and H 2 S contained several frequency matches to unidentified features in the PRIMOS survey that did not have molecular assignments based on standard radio astronomy spectral catalogs. Several of these transitions are assigned to the E- and Z-isomers of ethanimine. Global fits of the rotational spectra of these isomers in the range of 8-130 GHz have been performed for both isomers using previously published mm-wave spectroscopy measurements and the microwave measurements of the current study. Possible interstellar chemistry formation routes for E-ethanimine and Z-ethanimine are discussed. The detection of ethanimine is significant because of its possible role in the formation of alanine—one of the twenty amino acids in the genetic code.

  10. Towards Large-Scale, Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection Systems in Industrial Networks: A Survey of Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Iturbe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Networks (INs are widespread environments where heterogeneous devices collaborate to control and monitor physical processes. Some of the controlled processes belong to Critical Infrastructures (CIs, and, as such, IN protection is an active research field. Among different types of security solutions, IN Anomaly Detection Systems (ADSs have received wide attention from the scientific community. While INs have grown in size and in complexity, requiring the development of novel, Big Data solutions for data processing, IN ADSs have not evolved at the same pace. In parallel, the development of Big Data frameworks such as Hadoop or Spark has led the way for applying Big Data Analytics to the field of cyber-security, mainly focusing on the Information Technology (IT domain. However, due to the particularities of INs, it is not feasible to directly apply IT security mechanisms in INs, as IN ADSs face unique characteristics. In this work we introduce three main contributions. First, we survey the area of Big Data ADSs that could be applicable to INs and compare the surveyed works. Second, we develop a novel taxonomy to classify existing IN-based ADSs. And, finally, we present a discussion of open problems in the field of Big Data ADSs for INs that can lead to further development.

  11. SPIDERS: selection of spectroscopic targets using AGN candidates detected in all-sky X-ray surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwelly, T.; Salvato, M.; Merloni, A.; Brusa, M.; Buchner, J.; Anderson, S. F.; Boller, Th.; Brandt, W. N.; Budavári, T.; Clerc, N.; Coffey, D.; Del Moro, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Green, P. J.; Jin, C.; Menzel, M.-L.; Myers, A. D.; Nandra, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Ridl, J.; Schwope, A. D.; Simm, T.

    2017-07-01

    SPIDERS (SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources) is a Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) survey running in parallel to the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) cosmology project. SPIDERS will obtain optical spectroscopy for large numbers of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxy cluster members detected in wide-area eROSITA, XMM-Newton and ROSAT surveys. We describe the methods used to choose spectroscopic targets for two sub-programmes of SPIDERS X-ray selected AGN candidates detected in the ROSAT All Sky and the XMM-Newton Slew surveys. We have exploited a Bayesian cross-matching algorithm, guided by priors based on mid-IR colour-magnitude information from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, to select the most probable optical counterpart to each X-ray detection. We empirically demonstrate the high fidelity of our counterpart selection method using a reference sample of bright well-localized X-ray sources collated from XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift-XRT serendipitous catalogues, and also by examining blank-sky locations. We describe the down-selection steps which resulted in the final set of SPIDERS-AGN targets put forward for spectroscopy within the eBOSS/TDSS/SPIDERS survey, and present catalogues of these targets. We also present catalogues of ˜12 000 ROSAT and ˜1500 XMM-Newton Slew survey sources that have existing optical spectroscopy from SDSS-DR12, including the results of our visual inspections. On completion of the SPIDERS programme, we expect to have collected homogeneous spectroscopic redshift information over a footprint of ˜7500 deg2 for >85 per cent of the ROSAT and XMM-Newton Slew survey sources having optical counterparts in the magnitude range 17 < r < 22.5, producing a large and highly complete sample of bright X-ray-selected AGN suitable for statistical studies of AGN evolution and clustering.

  12. Experimental Study on Electrode Method for Electrical Resistivity Survey to Detect Cavities under Road Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Seon Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of electrode methods for electrical resistivity survey (ERS: the pole electrode method (PEM and flat electrode method (FEM. During the past few decades, most studies were conducted by using PEM for various purposes while only a few were conducted by using FEM. Laboratory and field experiments were performed in this study to investigate the advantage of FEM in detecting cavities under pavements. In the laboratory experiment, the results of PEM and FEM were compared graphically and statistically. A significant difference between the results of PEM and FEM was observed for concrete at an age of seven days, while there was no significant difference in the results for soil materials. Electrical resistivity could not be obtained from asphalt because it is an insulator. In a field experiment, four different cases were simulated: field ground with/without cavity and concrete pavement with/without cavity. The results of PEM and FEM for these cases were compared using 2D electrical resistivity contour images. It was observed that the distribution of electrical resistivity obtained using FEM was wider than that using PEM. Moreover, the locations of the cavities artificially made in the ground and under the pavement were accurately detected using both PEM and FEM.

  13. Detecting outliers and learning complex structures with large spectroscopic surveys - a case study with APOGEE stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Itamar; Poznanski, Dovi; Baron, Dalya; Zasowski, Gail; Shahaf, Sahar

    2018-02-01

    In this work we apply and expand on a recently introduced outlier detection algorithm that is based on an unsupervised random forest. We use the algorithm to calculate a similarity measure for stellar spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). We show that the similarity measure traces non-trivial physical properties and contains information about complex structures in the data. We use it for visualization and clustering of the dataset, and discuss its ability to find groups of highly similar objects, including spectroscopic twins. Using the similarity matrix to search the dataset for objects allows us to find objects that are impossible to find using their best fitting model parameters. This includes extreme objects for which the models fail, and rare objects that are outside the scope of the model. We use the similarity measure to detect outliers in the dataset, and find a number of previously unknown Be-type stars, spectroscopic binaries, carbon rich stars, young stars, and a few that we cannot interpret. Our work further demonstrates the potential for scientific discovery when combining machine learning methods with modern survey data.

  14. Detecting outliers and learning complex structures with large spectroscopic surveys - a case study with APOGEE stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Itamar; Poznanski, Dovi; Baron, Dalya; Zasowski, Gail; Shahaf, Sahar

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we apply and expand on a recently introduced outlier detection algorithm that is based on an unsupervised random forest. We use the algorithm to calculate a similarity measure for stellar spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). We show that the similarity measure traces non-trivial physical properties and contains information about complex structures in the data. We use it for visualization and clustering of the data set, and discuss its ability to find groups of highly similar objects, including spectroscopic twins. Using the similarity matrix to search the data set for objects allows us to find objects that are impossible to find using their best-fitting model parameters. This includes extreme objects for which the models fail, and rare objects that are outside the scope of the model. We use the similarity measure to detect outliers in the data set, and find a number of previously unknown Be-type stars, spectroscopic binaries, carbon rich stars, young stars, and a few that we cannot interpret. Our work further demonstrates the potential for scientific discovery when combining machine learning methods with modern survey data.

  15. Tentative minimum inhibitory concentration and zone diameter breakpoints for moxifloxacin using BSAC criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J M; Ashby, J P; Jevons, G M; Wise, R

    1999-12-01

    Tentative MIC and zone diameter breakpoints were determined for moxifloxacin using BSAC criteria. An MIC breakpoint of or = 20 mm for Enterobacteriaceae and staphylococci, 18 mm for the respiratory pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) and 15 mm for enterococci. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a 5 microg disc, three bands are suggested for interpretation, that of > or = 25 mm (sensitive), 18-24 mm (intermediate) and < or = 17 mm (resistant).

  16. Tentative job analysis for a high-level, fixed-site, nuclear security officer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, K.G.; Trujillo, A.A.

    1977-10-01

    A tentative job analysis for a high-level, fixed-site, nuclear security officer is presented. The primary objective of the report is to provide a framework for evaluating the functions of a security officer in physical protection systems. Several job requirements related to duties, basic skills, personal contacts, supervision, working conditions, and decision making are presented. Individual character traits desirable in security officers are described

  17. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  18. A survey on the state-of-the-technique on software based pipeline leak detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Renan Martins [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao]. E-mail: renan@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a general technical survey on software based leak detection systems (LDS), approaching its main technological features, the operational situations where they are feasible, and the scenarios within the Brazilian pipeline network. The decision on what LDS to choose for a given pipeline is a matter of cost, suitability and feasibility. A simpler low cost, less effective product, but with a fast installation and tuning procedure, may be more suitable for a given operational site (pipeline configuration, kind of fluid, quality of instrumentation and communication), than a complex, high cost, efficient product, but taking a long time to be properly installed. Some other may really have a level of complexity that will require a more sophisticated system. A few number of them will simply not be suitable to have a LDS: it may be caused by the poor quality or absence of instrumentation, or, the worst case, due to the lack of technology to approach that specific case, e. g., multiphase flow lines, or those lines that commonly operates in slack condition. It is intended to approach here the general state-of-the-technique and make some initial comments on the costs. (author)

  19. Using laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent) in surveys for the detection of noncavitated occlusal dentine caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando-Meirelles, M P M; de Sousa, M da Luz Rosário

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the DIAGNOdent system in epidemiological studies to detect noncavitated occlusal caries lesions, and compare the results with those found in radiographic examinations. The sample consisted of 1,290 occlusal surfaces of permanent molars, examined in 179 schoolchildren aged 12-15 years. The methods used were: visual inspection, radiographic examination and DIAGNOdent exam, with radiographic examination being considered the gold standard, and noncavitated caries lesions identified in dentin under sound enamel. The inclusion criterion of this study was to have sound occlusal surfaces on visual inspection. The sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values were used for statistical analysis. Of the 1,290 surfaces examined during visual inspection, 918 were scored as clinically sound. Of these, 789 were examined by radiographic examination and DIAGNOdent, considering that in more than half of them (410) there were coincident results in the absence of noncavitated lesion in both methods (radiographic examination by DIAGNOdent), with specificity of 74% and negative predictive values of 82% and 155 coincident surfaces with presence of caries, with sensitivity of 64% and positive predictor values of 53% for DIAGNOdent. These results suggest that although DIAGNOdent is not a substitute method for the radiographic examination in surveys, it may be an alternative as an auxiliary to visual inspection.

  20. The MUSE-Wide survey: detection of a clustering signal from Lyman α emitters in the range 3 < z < 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, C.; Wisotzki, L.; Schmidt, K. B.; Herenz, E. C.; Urrutia, T.; Garel, T.; Kerutt, J.; Saust, R. L.; Bacon, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Contini, T.; Guiderdoni, B.; Marino, R. A.; Richard, J.; Schaye, J.; Soucail, G.; Weilbacher, P. M.

    2017-11-01

    We present a clustering analysis of a sample of 238 Ly α emitters at redshift 3 ≲ z ≲ 6 from the MUSE-Wide survey. This survey mosaics extragalactic legacy fields with 1h MUSE pointings to detect statistically relevant samples of emission line galaxies. We analysed the first year observations from MUSE-Wide making use of the clustering signal in the line-of-sight direction. This method relies on comparing pair-counts at close redshifts for a fixed transverse distance and thus exploits the full potential of the redshift range covered by our sample. A clear clustering signal with a correlation length of r0=2.9^{+1.0}_{-1.1} Mpc (comoving) is detected. Whilst this result is based on only about a quarter of the full survey size, it already shows the immense potential of MUSE for efficiently observing and studying the clustering of Ly α emitters.

  1. The X-ray properties of five galactic supernova remnants detected by the Spitzer glimpse survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Moffitt, William P.; Rho, Jeonghee; Heinke, Craig O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the X-ray properties of five Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs)—Kes 17 (G304.6+0.1), G311.5–0.3, G346.6–0.2, CTB 37A (G348.5+0.1), and G348.5–0.0—that were detected in the infrared by Reach et al. in an analysis of data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) that was conducted by the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present and analyze archival ASCA observations of Kes 17, G311.5–0.3, and G346.6–0.2, archival XMM-Newton observations of Kes 17, CTB 37A, and G348.5–0.0, and an archival Chandra observation of CTB 37A. All of the SNRs are clearly detected in the X-ray except possibly G348.5–0.0. Our study reveals that the four detected SNRs all feature center-filled X-ray morphologies and that the observed emission from these sources is thermal in all cases. We argue that these SNRs should be classified as mixed-morphology SNRs (MM SNRs); our study strengthens the correlation between MM SNRs and SNRs interacting with molecular clouds and suggests that the origin of MM SNRs may be due to the interactions between these SNRs and adjacent clouds. Our ASCA analysis of G311.5–0.3 reveals for the first time X-ray emission from this SNR: the X-ray emission is center-filled within the radio and infrared shells and thermal in nature (kT ∼ 0.98 keV), thus motivating its classification as an MM SNR. We find considerable spectral variations in the properties associated with the plasmas of the other X-ray-detected SNRs, such as a possible overabundance of magnesium in the plasma of Kes 17. Our new results also include the first detailed spatially resolved spectroscopic study of CTB 37A using Chandra as well as a spectroscopic study of the discrete X-ray source CXOU J171428.5–383601, which may be a neutron star associated with CTB 37A. Finally, we also estimate such properties as electron density n e , radiative age t rad and swept-up mass M X for each of the four X-ray-detected SNRs. Each of these values

  2. Research and development of a high-temperature helium-leak detection system (joint research). Part 1 survey on leakage events and current leak detection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Kawasaki, Kozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Urakami, Masao; Saisyu, Sadanori [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR), the detection of leakage of helium at an early stage is very important for the safety and stability of operations. Since helium is a colourless gas, it is generally difficult to identify the location and the amount of leakage when very little leakage has occurred. The purpose of this R and D is to develop a helium leak detection system for the high temperature environment appropriate to the HTGR. As the first step in the development, this paper describes the result of surveying leakage events at nuclear facilities inside and outside Japan and current gas leakage detection technology to adapt optical-fibre detection technology to HTGRs. (author)

  3. Designing and Implementing a Retrospective Earthquake Detection Framework at the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J.; Yeck, W.; Benz, H.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC) is implementing and integrating new signal detection methods such as subspace correlation, continuous beamforming, multi-band picking and automatic phase identification into near-real-time monitoring operations. Leveraging the additional information from these techniques help the NEIC utilize a large and varied network on local to global scales. The NEIC is developing an ordered, rapid, robust, and decentralized framework for distributing seismic detection data as well as a set of formalized formatting standards. These frameworks and standards enable the NEIC to implement a seismic event detection framework that supports basic tasks, including automatic arrival time picking, social media based event detections, and automatic association of different seismic detection data into seismic earthquake events. In addition, this framework enables retrospective detection processing such as automated S-wave arrival time picking given a detected event, discrimination and classification of detected events by type, back-azimuth and slowness calculations, and ensuring aftershock and induced sequence detection completeness. These processes and infrastructure improve the NEIC's capabilities, accuracy, and speed of response. In addition, this same infrastructure provides an improved and convenient structure to support access to automatic detection data for both research and algorithmic development.

  4. Tentative Characterization of Polyphenolic Compounds in the Male Flowers of Phoenix dactylifera by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry and DFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Ben Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Phoenix dacylifera is an ancient palm species rich in (polyphenols. These phenolic compounds were tentatively identified by using liquid chromatography coupled with ion spray mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC/MS/MS with negative ion detection. Negative identification of the compounds was based on their retention times and mass spectra in full scan mode (MS, and in different MS/MS modes. For the first time, complete hypothesis, and routs for both p-coumaroylshikimic acids (CoSA and caffeoylshikimic acids (CSA were suggested and confirmed by Density Fonctional Theory (DFT study. Notably, of the 53 compounds characterized, 19 hydroxycinnamates derivatives were tentativelycharacterized in male flowers of date palm and 15 of them were recorded for the first time. In addition, five organic acids, six B-type proanthocyanidins, two anthocyanidin and 21 flavonoid derivatives have been tentatively characterized. Identification of B-type proanthocyanidins were based on the diagnostic ions resulting from heterocyclic ring fission (HRF and retro-Diels-Alder (RDA reaction of flavan-3-ol provided information on the hydroxylation pattern and the type of inter-flavan bond proanthocyanidins. The sequence of proanthocyanidins was detected through ions extracted from quinone methide (QM cleavage of the inter-flavan bond.

  5. Tentative Characterization of Polyphenolic Compounds in the Male Flowers of Phoenix dactylifera by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry and DFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Ridha; Hamed, Arafa I; Mahalel, Usam A; Al-Ayed, Abdullah Sulaiman; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Moldoch, Jaroslaw; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2017-03-02

    Phoenix dacylifera is an ancient palm species rich in (poly)phenols. These phenolic compounds were tentatively identified by using liquid chromatography coupled with ion spray mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC/MS/MS) with negative ion detection. Negative identification of the compounds was based on their retention times and mass spectra in full scan mode (MS), and in different MS/MS modes. For the first time, complete hypothesis, and routs for both p -coumaroylshikimic acids (CoSA) and caffeoylshikimic acids (CSA) were suggested and confirmed by Density Fonctional Theory (DFT) study. Notably, of the 53 compounds characterized, 19 hydroxycinnamates derivatives were tentativelycharacterized in male flowers of date palm and 15 of them were recorded for the first time. In addition, five organic acids, six B-type proanthocyanidins, two anthocyanidin and 21 flavonoid derivatives have been tentatively characterized. Identification of B-type proanthocyanidins were based on the diagnostic ions resulting from heterocyclic ring fission (HRF) and retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) reaction of flavan-3-ol provided information on the hydroxylation pattern and the type of inter-flavan bond proanthocyanidins. The sequence of proanthocyanidins was detected through ions extracted from quinone methide (QM) cleavage of the inter-flavan bond.

  6. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  7. Chronic insomnia cases detection with the help of Athens Insomnia Scale and SF-36 health survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiewicz, P.; Skalski, M.; Fornal-Pawlowska, Malgorzata

    2011-10-01

    Standardization of the diagnostic process of insomnia is a highly important task in clinical practice, epidemiological considerations and treatment outcomes assessment. In this paper we describe standard surveys relationships within cluster groups with the same insomnia degrees.

  8. Expected Planet and False Positive Detection Rates for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Timothy M.; Latham, David W.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will survey the entire sky to locate the nearest and brightest transiting extrasolar planets with orbital periods up to about 36 days. Here we estimate the number and kind of astrophysical false positives that TESS will report, along with the number of extrasolar planets. These estimates are then used to size the ground-based follow-up observing efforts needed to confirm and characterize the planets. We estimate that the needed observi...

  9. A Survey on Distributed Filtering and Fault Detection for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, theoretical and practical research on large-scale networked systems has gained an increasing attention from multiple disciplines including engineering, computer science, and mathematics. Lying in the core part of the area are the distributed estimation and fault detection problems that have recently been attracting growing research interests. In particular, an urgent need has arisen to understand the effects of distributed information structures on filtering and fault detection in sensor networks. In this paper, a bibliographical review is provided on distributed filtering and fault detection problems over sensor networks. The algorithms employed to study the distributed filtering and detection problems are categorised and then discussed. In addition, some recent advances on distributed detection problems for faulty sensors and fault events are also summarized in great detail. Finally, we conclude the paper by outlining future research challenges for distributed filtering and fault detection for sensor networks.

  10. Synchrotron Emission from Dark Matter Annihilation: Predictions for Constraints from Non-detections of Galaxy Clusters with New Radio Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Emma; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Splettstoesser, Megan; Profumo, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    The annihilation of dark matter particles is expected to yield a broad radiation spectrum via the production of Standard Model particles in astrophysical environments. In particular, electrons and positrons from dark matter annihilation produce synchrotron radiation in the presence of magnetic fields. Galaxy clusters are the most massive collapsed structures in the universe, and are known to host ˜μG-scale magnetic fields. They are therefore ideal targets to search for, or to constrain the synchrotron signal from dark matter annihilation. In this work, we use the expected sensitivities of several planned surveys from the next generation of radio telescopes to predict the constraints on dark matter annihilation models which will be achieved in the case of non-detections of diffuse radio emission from galaxy clusters. Specifically, we consider the Tier 1 survey planned for the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) at 120 MHz, the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) survey planned for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) at 1.4 GHz, and planned surveys for Aperture Tile in Focus (APERTIF) at 1.4 GHz. We find that, for massive clusters and dark matter masses ≲ 100 {GeV}, the predicted limits on the annihilation cross section would rule out vanilla thermal relic models for even the shallow LOFAR Tier 1, ASKAP, and APERTIF surveys.

  11. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  12. A survey of the use of soy in processed Turkish meat products and detection of genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulca, Pelin; Balta, Handan; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2014-01-01

    To screen for possible illegal use of soybeans in meat products, the performance characteristics of a commercial polymer chain reaction (PCR) kit for detection of soybean DNA in raw and cooked meat products were established. Minced chicken and beef products containing soybean at levels from 0.1% to 10.0% were analysed by real-time PCR to amplify the soybean lectin gene. The PCR method could reliably detect the addition of soybean at a level of 0.1%. A survey of 38 Turkish processed meat products found only six samples to be negative for the presence of soybean. In 32 (84%) positive samples, 13 (34%) contained levels of soy above 0.1%. Of soybean positive samples, further DNA analysis was conducted by real-time PCR to detect whether genetically modified (GM) soybean had been used. Of 32 meat samples containing soybean, two samples were positive for GM modification.

  13. Dengue fever occurrence and vector detection by larval survey, ovitrap and MosquiTRAP: a space-time clusters analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Diogo Portella Ornelas; Scherrer, Luciano Rios; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The use of vector surveillance tools for preventing dengue disease requires fine assessment of risk, in order to improve vector control activities. Nevertheless, the thresholds between vector detection and dengue fever occurrence are currently not well established. In Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), dengue has been endemic for several years. From January 2007 to June 2008, the dengue vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was monitored by ovitrap, the sticky-trap MosquiTRAP™ and larval surveys in an study area in Belo Horizonte. Using a space-time scan for clusters detection implemented in SaTScan software, the vector presence recorded by the different monitoring methods was evaluated. Clusters of vectors and dengue fever were detected. It was verified that ovitrap and MosquiTRAP vector detection methods predicted dengue occurrence better than larval survey, both spatially and temporally. MosquiTRAP and ovitrap presented similar results of space-time intersections to dengue fever clusters. Nevertheless ovitrap clusters presented longer duration periods than MosquiTRAP ones, less acuratelly signalizing the dengue risk areas, since the detection of vector clusters during most of the study period was not necessarily correlated to dengue fever occurrence. It was verified that ovitrap clusters occurred more than 200 days (values ranged from 97.0±35.35 to 283.0±168.4 days) before dengue fever clusters, whereas MosquiTRAP clusters preceded dengue fever clusters by approximately 80 days (values ranged from 65.5±58.7 to 94.0±14. 3 days), the former showing to be more temporally precise. Thus, in the present cluster analysis study MosquiTRAP presented superior results for signaling dengue transmission risks both geographically and temporally. Since early detection is crucial for planning and deploying effective preventions, MosquiTRAP showed to be a reliable tool and this method provides groundwork for the development of even more precise tools.

  14. Dengue Fever Occurrence and Vector Detection by Larval Survey, Ovitrap and MosquiTRAP: A Space-Time Clusters Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Diogo Portella Ornelas; Scherrer, Luciano Rios; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The use of vector surveillance tools for preventing dengue disease requires fine assessment of risk, in order to improve vector control activities. Nevertheless, the thresholds between vector detection and dengue fever occurrence are currently not well established. In Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), dengue has been endemic for several years. From January 2007 to June 2008, the dengue vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was monitored by ovitrap, the sticky-trap MosquiTRAP™ and larval surveys in an study area in Belo Horizonte. Using a space-time scan for clusters detection implemented in SaTScan software, the vector presence recorded by the different monitoring methods was evaluated. Clusters of vectors and dengue fever were detected. It was verified that ovitrap and MosquiTRAP vector detection methods predicted dengue occurrence better than larval survey, both spatially and temporally. MosquiTRAP and ovitrap presented similar results of space-time intersections to dengue fever clusters. Nevertheless ovitrap clusters presented longer duration periods than MosquiTRAP ones, less acuratelly signalizing the dengue risk areas, since the detection of vector clusters during most of the study period was not necessarily correlated to dengue fever occurrence. It was verified that ovitrap clusters occurred more than 200 days (values ranged from 97.0±35.35 to 283.0±168.4 days) before dengue fever clusters, whereas MosquiTRAP clusters preceded dengue fever clusters by approximately 80 days (values ranged from 65.5±58.7 to 94.0±14. 3 days), the former showing to be more temporally precise. Thus, in the present cluster analysis study MosquiTRAP presented superior results for signaling dengue transmission risks both geographically and temporally. Since early detection is crucial for planning and deploying effective preventions, MosquiTRAP showed to be a reliable tool and this method provides groundwork for the development of even more precise tools. PMID:22848729

  15. Association of atopy and tentative diagnosis of skin cancer - results from occupational skin cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, I; Mohr, P; Zander, N; Fölster-Holst, R; Augustin, M

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between atopic conditions and carcinoma of the skin has been described inconsistently. Population-based data providing information on atopic diseases as well as on skin cancer are sparse. To determine the correlation between atopy and prevalence of precanceroses, non-melanoma skin cancer and malignant melanoma (MM), while taking into account known risk factors for skin cancer. Data from occupational skin cancer screenings were analysed in a cross-sectional study. Dermatologists performed whole body examinations and collected medical histories. Subjects comprised all employees (16-70 years) examined from 2006 to 2014. 'Atopy' was defined by clinical screening diagnosis and/or by participant-reported, pre-existing atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or other specified allergies confirmed by a physician. Tentative screening diagnoses of skin cancer related to actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. The study cohort comprised 90 265 employees (mean age 43 ± 11 years, 58.5% male), 30.7% of whom were ever diagnosed with an atopic disease. Persons with atopic conditions recorded in their medical history and at the time of screening had a significantly lower prevalence of actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and MM. After controlling for age, sex and relevant risk factors (skin type, childhood sun burns), atopy remained significantly protective against BCC (OR 0.77) and MM (OR 0.53). Design limitations of the study include that all findings of skin cancer were based on clinical examination only and must therefore be considered tentative diagnoses. Furthermore, owing to the cross-sectional study design, causal pathways cannot be proven. However, analyses of data from such a large and general population-based cohort afford valuable insights into the relationship between atopic diseases and skin cancer. They provide the grounds for prospective cohort studies to evaluate and dissect the underlying mechanism. © 2017

  16. Proposing a tentative cut point for the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storholm, Erik David; Fisher, Dennis G; Napper, Lucy E; Reynolds, Grace L; Halkitis, Perry N

    2011-12-01

    Bivariate analyses were utilized in order to identify the relations between scores on the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) and self-report of risky sexual behavior and drug abuse among 482 racially and ethnically diverse men and women. CSBI scores were associated with both risky sexual behavior and drug abuse among a diverse non-clinical sample, thereby providing evidence of criterion-related validity. The variables that demonstrated a high association with the CSBI were subsequently entered into a multiple regression model. Four variables (number of sexual partners in the last 30 days, self-report of trading drugs for sex, having paid for sex, and perceived chance of acquiring HIV) were retained as variables with good model fit. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were conducted in order to determine the optimal tentative cut point for the CSBI. The four variables retained in the multiple regression model were utilized as exploratory gold standards in order to construct ROC curves. The ROC curves were then compared to one another in order to determine the point that maximized both sensitivity and specificity in the identification of compulsive sexual behavior with the CSBI scale. The current findings suggest that a tentative cut point of 40 may prove clinically useful in discriminating between persons who exhibit compulsive sexual behavior and those who do not. Because of the association between compulsive sexual behavior and HIV, STIs, and drug abuse, it is paramount that a psychometrically sound measure of compulsive sexual behavior is made available to all healthcare professionals working in disease prevention and other areas.

  17. [Detection of domestic violence against women. Survey in a primary health care clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Carla; Mejía, Raúl; Aleman, María; Vidal, Alfredo; Majdalani, María Pia; Fayanás, Roberto; Fernández, Alicia; Pérez Stable, Eliseo J

    2004-01-01

    According to Pan American Health Organization nearly 50% of women suffer chronic domestic violence in Latin America. We evaluated the prevalence of gender based violence (GBV) in women assisted in a University Outpatient Clinic in Buenos Aires. We used a survey originally developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in Spanish. The survey was distributed to a consecutive sample of women more than 18 years of age who attended the clinic. Participants were randomized to fill out the questionnaire anonymously (self-administered) or during an interview with the physician in order to test the sensitivity of these two different modalities of data collection. Of 360 eligible women 270, (75%) completed the questionnaire. The respondents had a median age of 45.4 years, only 33% had more than 7 years of formal education and 48% did not live with a partner. Of the 270 respondents, 120 (44%) women reported mistreatment at least once during their lifetime. Of these, 108 (40%) reported psychological GBV, 53 physical GBV and 45 reported sexual GBV. Most of the respondents suffered more than one type of violence. 46 (17%) women reported sexual abuse during childhood, 219 (81%) of participants never had been asked by their physician about domestic violence. Women interviewed by the physician reported GBV more frequently than those completing the self-administered survey (p <0.005). The survey developed by the IPPF is considered a useful tool for screening in a clinical setting.

  18. SURVEY SIMULATIONS OF A NEW NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID DETECTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Giorgini, J.; Masiero, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Conrow, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; Fowler, J.; Jarrett, T. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-18, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Statler, T. [Astrophysical Institute, Ohio University (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We have carried out simulations to predict the performance of a new space-based telescopic survey operating at thermal infrared wavelengths that seeks to discover and characterize a large fraction of the potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. Two potential architectures for the survey were considered: one located at the Earth–Sun L1 Lagrange point, and one in a Venus-trailing orbit. A sample cadence was formulated and tested, allowing for the self-follow-up necessary for objects discovered in the daytime sky on Earth. Synthetic populations of NEAs with sizes as small as 140 m in effective spherical diameter were simulated using recent determinations of their physical and orbital properties. Estimates of the instrumental sensitivity, integration times, and slew speeds were included for both architectures assuming the properties of newly developed large-format 10 μm HgCdTe detector arrays capable of operating at ∼35 K. Our simulation included the creation of a preliminary version of a moving object processing pipeline suitable for operating on the trial cadence. We tested this pipeline on a simulated sky populated with astrophysical sources such as stars and galaxies extrapolated from Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Explorer data, the catalog of known minor planets (including Main Belt asteroids, comets, Jovian Trojans, planets, etc.), and the synthetic NEA model. Trial orbits were computed for simulated position-time pairs extracted from the synthetic surveys to verify that the tested cadence would result in orbits suitable for recovering objects at a later time. Our results indicate that the Earth–Sun L1 and Venus-trailing surveys achieve similar levels of integral completeness for potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 140 m; placing the telescope in an interior orbit does not yield an improvement in discovery rates. This work serves as a necessary first step for the detailed planning of a next-generation NEA survey.

  19. SURVEY SIMULATIONS OF A NEW NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID DETECTION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Giorgini, J.; Masiero, J.; Grav, T.; Conrow, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; Fowler, J.; Jarrett, T.; Spahr, T.; Statler, T.; Wright, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out simulations to predict the performance of a new space-based telescopic survey operating at thermal infrared wavelengths that seeks to discover and characterize a large fraction of the potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. Two potential architectures for the survey were considered: one located at the Earth–Sun L1 Lagrange point, and one in a Venus-trailing orbit. A sample cadence was formulated and tested, allowing for the self-follow-up necessary for objects discovered in the daytime sky on Earth. Synthetic populations of NEAs with sizes as small as 140 m in effective spherical diameter were simulated using recent determinations of their physical and orbital properties. Estimates of the instrumental sensitivity, integration times, and slew speeds were included for both architectures assuming the properties of newly developed large-format 10 μm HgCdTe detector arrays capable of operating at ∼35 K. Our simulation included the creation of a preliminary version of a moving object processing pipeline suitable for operating on the trial cadence. We tested this pipeline on a simulated sky populated with astrophysical sources such as stars and galaxies extrapolated from Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Explorer data, the catalog of known minor planets (including Main Belt asteroids, comets, Jovian Trojans, planets, etc.), and the synthetic NEA model. Trial orbits were computed for simulated position-time pairs extracted from the synthetic surveys to verify that the tested cadence would result in orbits suitable for recovering objects at a later time. Our results indicate that the Earth–Sun L1 and Venus-trailing surveys achieve similar levels of integral completeness for potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 140 m; placing the telescope in an interior orbit does not yield an improvement in discovery rates. This work serves as a necessary first step for the detailed planning of a next-generation NEA survey

  20. The Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey: Are Low-luminosity Submillimeter Galaxies Detected in the Rest-frame UV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Cowie, Lennox L.; Barger, Amy J.; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2017-12-01

    In this third paper of the Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey series, we present Submillimeter Array (SMA) detections of six intrinsically faint 850 μm sources detected in SCUBA-2 images of the lensing cluster fields, A1689, A2390, A370, MACS J0717.5+3745, and MACS J1423.8+2404. Two of the SCUBA-2 sources split into doublets, yielding a total of eight SMA detections. The intrinsic 870 μm flux densities of these submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) are ∼1 mJy. Five of the eight SMGs are not detected in optical or near-infrared (NIR) images. The NIR-to-submillimeter flux ratios of these faint SMGs suggest that most of them are extremely dusty and/or are at very high redshifts. By combining these SMGs and several other samples from the literature, we find a bimodal distribution for the faint sources in the space of submillimeter flux versus NIR-to-submillimeter flux ratio. While most of the SMA-detected lensed sources are very obscured, the other SMGs with similar flux densities are mostly bright in the NIR. Future Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of a large sample of SCUBA-2 sources in cluster fields will allow us to decide whether or not the bimodality we observe here really exists.

  1. Electrical surveys in detection of seam displacements in mines of the L'vovsko-Volynskii basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyuschechkin, V.F.; Karavaev, V.Ya.; Kozel, K.K.

    1985-04-01

    Tectonic dislocations are one of the major factors increasing mining cost in the L'vovsko-Volynskii basin. Three tectonic dislocations fall on each long pillar mined by longwall faces. Surveying methods used in the basin for forecasting faults and other tectonic dislocations are discussed. Electrical surveys used in the basin are characterized. Schemes for electric logging used in the basin are discussed: the TEhP-P sequential three-electrode electric logging, the EhDEhP-P sequential equatorial-dipole electric logging, the EhP-P sequential electric logging, the TEhP three-electrode electric logging, the EhDEhP equatorial-dipole electric logging, the EhP electric logging, and the SEhP symmetrical electric profiling. Electrode array in these methods is described. Efficiency of detecting low-amplitude tectonic dislocations using electric logging in the basin is high and amounts to about 80%.

  2. Ignoring imperfect detection in biological surveys is dangerous: a response to 'fitting and interpreting occupancy models'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita

    Full Text Available In a recent paper, Welsh, Lindenmayer and Donnelly (WLD question the usefulness of models that estimate species occupancy while accounting for detectability. WLD claim that these models are difficult to fit and argue that disregarding detectability can be better than trying to adjust for it. We think that this conclusion and subsequent recommendations are not well founded and may negatively impact the quality of statistical inference in ecology and related management decisions. Here we respond to WLD's claims, evaluating in detail their arguments, using simulations and/or theory to support our points. In particular, WLD argue that both disregarding and accounting for imperfect detection lead to the same estimator performance regardless of sample size when detectability is a function of abundance. We show that this, the key result of their paper, only holds for cases of extreme heterogeneity like the single scenario they considered. Our results illustrate the dangers of disregarding imperfect detection. When ignored, occupancy and detection are confounded: the same naïve occupancy estimates can be obtained for very different true levels of occupancy so the size of the bias is unknowable. Hierarchical occupancy models separate occupancy and detection, and imprecise estimates simply indicate that more data are required for robust inference about the system in question. As for any statistical method, when underlying assumptions of simple hierarchical models are violated, their reliability is reduced. Resorting in those instances where hierarchical occupancy models do no perform well to the naïve occupancy estimator does not provide a satisfactory solution. The aim should instead be to achieve better estimation, by minimizing the effect of these issues during design, data collection and analysis, ensuring that the right amount of data is collected and model assumptions are met, considering model extensions where appropriate.

  3. Early detection of breast cancer in Brazil: data from the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Souza-Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2017-06-01

    To analyze whether the actions of early detection of breast cancer, initiated with the medical request for mammography, differ between users of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) and those who have private health insurance. From the data collected in the National Health Survey, we estimated the proportions of women who had medical request for mammography according to presence or absence of private health insurance. For assessing the factors related to having mammography medical request, we estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios and respective 95%CI by logistic regression. We also analyzed the main reasons reported for not having performed mammography after medical request, as well as the time between examination and result. Of the women interviewed, 66.7% had a medical request for mammography (59.4% among SUS users and 83.9% among those with private health insurance). Having private health insurance, higher education level, and being white were positively associated with having the medical request. Only 5.4% (95%CI 4.8-6.0) of women who received medical request failed to perform mammography - 7.6% were SUS users and 1.7% had health insurance. The most reported reasons for not being able to perform the examination were: not thinking it was necessary; having the test scheduled, but not yet performed; and not being able to schedule it. More than 70% of women received the result with less than one month from its execution. The barriers to access a medical request for mammographic screening for breast cancer are higher among women who depend exclusively on SUS. Analisar se as ações de detecção precoce para o câncer de mama, iniciadas com o pedido médico de mamografia, diferem entre usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e aquelas que possuem plano de saúde privado. A partir dos dados coletados na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, foram calculadas as proporções de mulheres que tiveram pedido médico para realização de mamografia segundo ter ou n

  4. Gammafet - fixed-wing gamma survey for the detection of radioactive materials. Finnish support to IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M. [Defence Technical Research Centre (Finland); Nikkinen, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-06-01

    Finland has the operational capability to make airborne gamma ray measurements in emergency situations. The original purpose of airborne radiation mapping was to determine hazardous areas containing radioactive fallout after nuclear accidents or the use of nuclear weapons. Regular exercises are held annually to keep operational functionality at high level for this purpose. The knowledge and achieved practice can easily be extended to use in international radiation monitoring campaigns. The presented guidelines are based on Finnish knowhow, but it is not limited to use with Finnish equipment. The report describes the method and its usability in detecting the chain of nuclear material production using aerial gamma ray measurements. Technical details are given on how to manage measurement tasks, and information is also given on what is detectable from an aeroplane and how it is detected. The ability to use the airborne detection system has been tested to reveal the use of undeclared nuclear material. Various scenarios were considered with which to reveal clandestine nuclear material production, enrichment, and nuclear waste trails. The exercises arranged during this programme show that it is possible to reveal such clandestine activities. The fixed-wing gamma measurement technique developed under this contract is ready for detecting significant amounts of nuclear material efficiently and cost effectively. Large areas can be screened to find suspicious sub-areas for more accurate inspection. The approximate cost of screening is USD 17.4 per square kilometre. (orig.)

  5. Detecting Foci of Malaria Transmission with School Surveys: A Pilot Study in the Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebako N Takem

    Full Text Available In areas of declining malaria transmission such as in The Gambia, the identification of malaria infected individuals becomes increasingly harder. School surveys may be used to identify foci of malaria transmission in the community.The survey was carried out in May-June 2011, before the beginning of the malaria transmission season. Thirty two schools in the Upper River Region of The Gambia were selected with probability proportional to size; in each school approximately 100 children were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. Each child had a finger prick blood sample collected for the determination of antimalarial antibodies by ELISA, malaria infection by microscopy and PCR, and for haemoglobin measurement. In addition, a simple questionnaire on socio-demographic variables and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets was completed. The cut-off for positivity for antimalarial antibodies was obtained using finite mixture models. The clustered nature of the data was taken into account in the analyses.A total of 3,277 children were included in the survey. The mean age was 10 years (SD = 2.7 [range 4-21], with males and females evenly distributed. The prevalence of malaria infection as determined by PCR was 13.6% (426/3124 [95% CI = 12.2-16.3] with marked variation between schools (range 3-25%, p<0.001, while the seroprevalence was 7.8% (234/2994 [95%CI = 6.4-9.8] for MSP119, 11.6% (364/2997 [95%CI = 9.4-14.5] for MSP2, and 20.0% (593/2973 [95% CI = 16.5-23.2 for AMA1. The prevalence of all the three antimalarial antibodies positive was 2.7% (79/2920.This survey shows that malaria prevalence and seroprevalence before the transmission season were highly heterogeneous.

  6. Survey of aflatoxins in watermelon seeds from Iran using immunoaffinity column cleanup and HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizy, J; Beheshti, H R; Fakoor Janati, S S; Khoshbakht Fahim, N

    2011-01-01

    This survey was undertaken to determine the levels of aflatoxins in melon seeds. Among 65 samples analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC), the results showed that aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was the major toxins in melon seeds, detected in 58 samples (89.2% of the total) at an average concentration of 8.5 ng g(-1). The level of AFB1 in 12 samples exceeded the maximum tolerated level for AFB1 in Iranian (5 ng g(-1)) regulations; in other words, 18.5% of samples were unfit for human consumption.

  7. Predictions of Planet Detections with Near-infrared Radial Velocities in the Upcoming SPIRou Legacy Survey-planet Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Ryan; Artigau, Étienne; Delfosse, Xavier; Malo, Lison; Moutou, Claire; Doyon, René; Donati, Jean-Francois; Cumming, Andrew; Dumusque, Xavier; Hébrard, Élodie; Menou, Kristen

    2018-02-01

    The SPIRou near-infrared spectropolarimeter is destined to begin science operations at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope in mid-2018. One of the instrument’s primary science goals is to discover the closest exoplanets to the solar system by conducting a three- to five-year long radial velocity survey of nearby M dwarfs at an expected precision of ∼1 m s‑1, the SPIRou Legacy Survey-Planet Search (SLS-PS). In this study, we conduct a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the SLS-PS using our current understanding of the occurrence rate of M dwarf planetary systems and physical models of stellar activity. From simultaneous modeling of planetary signals and activity, we predict the population of planets to be detected in the SLS-PS. With our fiducial survey strategy and expected instrument performance over a nominal survey length of ∼3 years, we expect SPIRou to detect {85.3}-12.4+29.3 planets including {20.0}-7.2+16.8 habitable-zone planets and {8.1}-3.2+7.6 Earth-like planets from a sample of 100 M1–M8.5 dwarfs out to 11 pc. By studying mid-to-late M dwarfs previously inaccessible to existing optical velocimeters, SPIRou will put meaningful constraints on the occurrence rate of planets around those stars including the value of {η }\\oplus at an expected level of precision of ≲ 45 % . We also predict that a subset of {46.7}-6.0+16.0 planets may be accessible with dedicated high-contrast imagers on the next generation of extremely large telescopes including {4.9}-2.0+4.7 potentially imagable Earth-like planets. Lastly, we compare the results of our fiducial survey strategy to other foreseeable survey versions to quantify which strategy is optimized to reach the SLS-PS science goals. The results of our simulations are made available to the community on GitHub (https://github.com/r-cloutier/SLSPS_Simulations).

  8. Target detection in synthetic aperture radar imagery: a state-of-the-art survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Darymli, Khalid; McGuire, Peter; Power, Desmond; Moloney, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Target detection is the front-end stage in any automatic target recognition system for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery (SAR-ATR). The efficacy of the detector directly impacts the succeeding stages in the SAR-ATR processing chain. There are numerous methods reported in the literature for implementing the detector. We offer an umbrella under which the various research activities in the field are broadly probed and taxonomized. First, a taxonomy for the various detection methods is proposed. Second, the underlying assumptions for different implementation strategies are overviewed. Third, a tabular comparison between careful selections of representative examples is introduced. Finally, a novel discussion is presented, wherein the issues covered include suitability of SAR data models, understanding the multiplicative SAR data models, and two unique perspectives on constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection: signal processing and pattern recognition. From a signal processing perspective, CFAR is shown to be a finite impulse response band-pass filter. From a statistical pattern recognition perspective, CFAR is shown to be a suboptimal one-class classifier: a Euclidean distance classifier and a quadratic discriminant with a missing term for one-parameter and two-parameter CFAR, respectively. We make a contribution toward enabling an objective design and implementation for target detection in SAR imagery.

  9. Survey and Detection of Endophytic Fungi in Lolium Germ Plasm by Direct Staining and Aphid Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; Stephen L. Clement; Walter J. Kaiser

    1991-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes were detected in 28 of 85 accessions from five of eight species in a collection of Lolium germ plasm. Comparative descriptions of endophytic mycelium in seeds of L. multiflorum, L. perenne, L. persicum, L. rigidum, and L. temulentum revealed morphological characteristics...

  10. Detection surveys for fishers and american martens in California, 1989-1994: summary and interpertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; Richard L. Truex; Chester V. Ogan; Kelly Busse

    1997-01-01

    Commercial trapping of fishers (Martes pennanti) and American martens (M. americana) has been prohibited in California since the mid-1900's, yet concern continues to exist about the status of their populations. Recently developed methods for detecting the presence of forest carnivores have made it possible to estimate their...

  11. Scat-detection dogs survey low density moose in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Kretser; Michale Glennon; Alice Whitelaw; Aimee Hurt; Kristine Pilgrim; Michael Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    The difficulty of collecting occurrence and population dynamics data in mammalian populations of low density poses challenges for making informed management decisions. We assessed the use of scat-detection dogs to search for fecal pellets in a low density moose (Alces alces) population in the Adirondack Park in New York State, and the success rate of DNA...

  12. Designing efficient surveys: spatial arrangement of sample points for detection of invasive species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Kean, J. M.; Epanchin-Niell, R.; Liebhold, A. M.; Haight, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2015), s. 445-459 ISSN 1387-3547 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0553768 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biosecurity * early pest detection * eradication Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.855, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-014-0742-x

  13. A Survey of Visualization Tools Assessed for Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    known set behaviors and detected intrusions (5). Host-based was the first IDS ever designed to audit information provided by a mainframe (6). It...performed its audit locally or on separate machines (6). A shift in computing from mainframe environments to distributed workstation networks was the

  14. Degrading Discontinuous Permafrost Detected by Repeated Electrical Resistivity Tomography Surveys, Northwest Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, A.; Holloway, J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is causing permafrost to warm rapidly in most of the Arctic. In subarctic regions where permafrost is discontinuous, however, rates of frozen ground warming are slower. This is because net positive heat fluxes at the surface of the ground and geothermal heat are transformed into latent heat associated with increases in soil unfrozen moisture content, especially in fine-grained soils at temperatures just below 0°C. At such sites, monitoring of temperatures in boreholes may be insufficient to track progressive change both because thaw may occur laterally, and because the slow alteration of temperature may be less than the accuracy of the instrumentation. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) surveys represent an alternative technique to monitor permafrost change because the electrical properties of soils alter significantly as their unfrozen moisture contents increase. We present results from multi-year studies in Yukon, northern British Columbia and the Northwest Territories where repeated ERT surveys using permanent or temporary electrode arrays reveal progressive thaw of thin permafrost at undisturbed sites in the boreal forest, and at sites affected by recent forest fire or changes in surface drainage. These field observations not only show the impact of climate and surface change on permafrost, they also demonstrate the efficacy of ERT as a means of monitoring sites where frost tables are too deep to be probed or where taliks have developed. We conclude that ERT surveys should be incorporated into international monitoring networks such as the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost since they can reveal progressive change at sites where ground temperatures, in contrast, suggest stable permafrost conditions.

  15. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE II LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Sun Kwok

    2009-01-01

    We report the result of a search for the infrared counterparts of 37 planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire II (GLIMPSE II) survey. The photometry and images of these PNs at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm, taken through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), are presented. Most of these nebulae are very red and compact in the IRAC bands, and are found to be bright and extended in the 24 μm band. The infrared morphology of these objects are compared with Hα images of the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs. The implications for morphological difference in different wavelengths are discussed. The IRAC data allow us to differentiate between PNs and H II regions and be able to reject non-PNs from the optical catalog (e.g., PNG 352.1 - 00.0). Spectral energy distributions are constructed by combing the IRAC and MIPS data with existing near-, mid-, and far-IR photometry measurements. The anomalous colors of some objects allow us to infer the presence of aromatic emission bands. These multi-wavelength data provide useful insights into the nature of different nebular components contributing to the infrared emission of PNs.

  16. A national survey of diagnostic tests reported by UK community optometrists for the detection of chronic open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Joy; Edgar, David F; Kotecha, Aachal; Murdoch, Ian E; Lawrenson, John G

    2011-07-01

    In the UK, the majority of cases of chronic open angle glaucoma are detected by community optometrists following a routine sight test. However, there is potential for variability in case finding strategies used. The aim of this study was to carry out a national web-based survey to determine current diagnostic tests used by optometrists in glaucoma case finding. Optometrists on the Association of Optometrists (AOP) electronic database were invited to participate. The survey was open for 16 weeks between April and July 2008. A total of 1875 optometrists were eligible to enter the survey, of which 1264 answered the questions relating to diagnostic equipment. Respondents were asked to indicate their usual method of examining the optic nerve head. Direct ophthalmoscopy only was used by 25% with the majority (62%) using a combination of direct and slit-lamp binocular indirect methods. The vast majority of optometrists (78%) used non-contact tonometry to measure intraocular pressure, with only 16% routinely using a Goldmann or Perkins applanation tonometer. The perimeter most frequently used was either one of the Henson range of instruments (39%) or the Humphrey Field Analyser (22%). A smaller number of optometrists (angle glaucoma, although there is a lack of standardisation with respect to equipment used. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  17. The Challenge of Non-Technical Loss Detection using Artificial Intelligence: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Glauner, Patrick; Meira, Jorge Augusto; Valtchev, Petko; State, Radu; Bettinger, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Detection of non-technical losses (NTL) which include electricity theft, faulty meters or billing errors has attracted increasing attention from researchers in electrical engineering and computer science. NTLs cause significant harm to the economy, as in some countries they may range up to 40% of the total electricity distributed. The predominant research direction is employing artificial intelligence to predict whether a customer causes NTL. This paper first provides an overview of how NTLs ...

  18. Single-Camera Trap Survey Designs Miss Detections: Impacts on Estimates of Occupancy and Community Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Pease, Brent S.; Nielsen, Clayton K.; Holzmueller, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of camera traps as a tool for studying wildlife populations is commonplace. However, few have considered how the number of detections of wildlife differ depending upon the number of camera traps placed at cameras-sites, and how this impacts estimates of occupancy and community composition. During December 2015-February 2016, we deployed four camera traps per camera-site, separated into treatment groups of one, two, and four camera traps, in southern Illinois to compare whether estimat...

  19. A survey of direct inversion methods having possible application to tunnel detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Within recent years there has been considerable interest in the development of geophysical methods for the location of hidden underground tunnels and cavities. Consideration of this problem has been motivated by military applications, such as the detection of shallow man-made tunnels and arm caches, as well as civilian applications such as detection of limestone cavities in karst terrain and the mapping of abandoned mine workings. There are also applications for in-situ coal gasification and for the monitoring of nuclear waste disposal sites. The most reliable method presently used to map these underground anomalies has been direct detection by closely spaced drilling. However, the high cost of drilling renders this method impractical except for detailed and localized mapping, and certainly unfeasible for any type of broad-scale reconnaissance activity. Largely motivated by petroleum and mineral exploration needs, however, the seismic industry has seen a virtual revolution in acquisition and processing techniques within the past ten years. Paralleling these developments have been corresponding developments in acoustical imaging and non-destructive testing. Researchers in the field of inverse scattering have produced a number of new methods for target imaging from backscattered reflection data

  20. Culturally invariable properties of male homosexuality: tentative conclusions from cross-cultural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitam, F L

    1983-06-01

    While the behavior of homosexuals in some aspects is subject to cultural variability, this analysis explores the equally important question of cultural invariability. Based on several years of field work in homosexual communities in the United States, Guatemala, Brazil, and the Philippines, six tentative conclusions about cultural invariability are offered: (1) homosexual persons appear in all societies; (2) the percentage of homosexuals in all societies seems to be about the same and remains stable over time; (3) social norms do not impede or facilitate the emergence of homosexual orientation; (4) homosexual subcultures appear in all societies, given sufficient aggregates of people; (5) homosexuals in different societies tend to resemble each other with respect to certain behavioral interests and occupational choices; and (6) all societies produce similar continua from overtly masculine to overtly feminine homosexuals. Implications for this interpretation of homosexuality include the notion that homosexuality is not created by social structural arrangements but is rather a fundamental form of human sexuality acted out in different cultural settings.

  1. Measurement of strontium-89 and strontium-90 in environmental waters. A tentative reference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    A tentative reference method for the measurement of 89 Sr and 90 Sr in environmental waters is described. Samples of environmental water sources are collected, preserved with acid-strontium carrier, and analyzed for 89 Sr and/or 90 Sr. The isotopes are separated from the sample water by precipitating with stable strontium carrier as carbonate. The strontium carbonate is dissolved, 90 Sr separated, the strontium reprecipitated as carbonate, filtered, and counted for the combined 89 Sr and 90 Sr activity. The 90 y is allowed to grow in from the 90 y activity; the strontium carbonate is redissolved; the 90 y is separated, precipitated, and counted for the 90 Sr determination. The 89 Sr activity is then determined by difference of the total 89 Sr and 90 y and the separate 90 Sr activities. Recoveries are determined from the added and found (recovered) strontium carrier. Counting efficiencies are determined with prepared standard reference samples. Results are reported in pCi/liter

  2. Tentative design-philosophy for bellows in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors pipings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaller, K.; Vrillon, B.

    1980-01-01

    Expansion joints have proved to be reliable components, when properly designed and realized, in normal industrial equipment. But nevertheless bellows have not been employed widely in nuclear reactors and almost not in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors, where use of expansion-joints could considerably shorten the length of pipelines and, in consequence, lower the cost of the power plant. In the framework of its research and development program on fast reactors the French Atomic Energy.Commission, in cooperation with the industry, develops guidelines, backed up by experiments, to allow a safe design of pipe-lines and compensating-devices. The main points of these guidelines are discussed in this paper with the understanding, that they are tentative rules subject to changes. The guidelines are a complement to existing rules, like ASME - Code III, Code Case 1481, standards of the EJMA Preliminary Draft for Code Case Class I, Expansion Joints in Piping systems and suppliers' rules for the special case of application to sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. Relatively small diameters and easily accessible expansion joints, on control rods and valves for example, are not concerned. These guidelines do not apply to the bellows which are used as an integral part of a component

  3. Tentative criteria for assessing workers exposure to toluene by urinary toluene screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Fumiyuki; Hirao, Tomohiro; Suna, Shigeru; Kureha, Akinori; Jitsunari, Fumihiko

    2006-04-01

    This study assessed screening thresholds for determining workers exposure to toluene (Tol) by urinary Tol (Tol-U) and proposed applicable criteria for on-site settings. Participants' urine samples (n = 21) were collected at the end of the workday during the latter half of a week and the Tol-U concentration was assayed. Simultaneously, each worker's exposure dose to Tol in the breathing zone during work, Tol-TWA (time-weighted average), was measured. Tentative criteria were proposed. Level I, less than Tol-U 38 microg/l, has the least chance of exceeding Tol-OEL 50 ppm (occupational exposure limit for Tol recommended by the Japan Society for Occupational Health), probability 95% <. Level II, Tol-U 38-60 microg/l, has a low possibility of exceeding Tol-OEL. Level III, Tol-U 60-110 microg/l, has a high possibility of exceeding Tol-OEL. Level IV, more than Tol-U 110 microg/l, clearly exceeds Tol-OEL, probability 95% <.

  4. A Full Slice Test Version of a Tentative Upgraded Readout System for TileCal

    CERN Document Server

    Muschter, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Bohm, C; Eriksson, D; Kavianipour, H; Oreglia, M; Tang, F

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade plans on the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) include the full readout of all data to the counting room. In order to study functional requirements of the future upgraded TileCal readout system we have assembled a minimal TDAQ slice. The aim is to implement a tentative readout chain for TileCal, starting with a newly developed 3-in-1 FE-board from University of Chicago and ending with the storage of triggered data on a PC. Later we will use PMT pulses, amplified and shaped by the 3-in-1 board, as a data source. However, for simplicity we start by using well defined calibration pulses also generated by the 3-in-1 board. The pulses are sampled by a 12 bit ADC, which is connected to an ML605 evaluation board from XILINX. These boards emulate the new on-detector electronics. The ML605 communicates via two 5Gb/s optical links with a Virtex-6 FPGA development board from HighTech Global which emulates the off-detector electronics. The off-detector board is situated in a PC and uses PCIe for readout an...

  5. Aesthetics-based classification of geological structures in outcrops for geotourism purposes: a tentative proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailenko Anna V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current growth in geotourism requires an urgent development of classifications of geological features on the basis of criteria that are relevant to tourist perceptions. It appears that structure-related patterns are especially attractive for geotourists. Consideration of the main criteria by which tourists judge beauty and observations made in the geodiversity hotspot of the Western Caucasus allow us to propose a tentative aesthetics-based classification of geological structures in outcrops, with two classes and four subclasses. It is possible to distinguish between regular and quasi-regular patterns (i.e., striped and lined and contorted patterns and irregular and complex patterns (paysage and sculptured patterns. Typical examples of each case are found both in the study area and on a global scale. The application of the proposed classification permits to emphasise features of interest to a broad range of tourists. Aesthetics-based (i.e., non-geological classifications are necessary to take into account visions and attitudes of visitors.

  6. Identity transition following traumatic brain injury: a dynamic process of contraction, expansion and tentative balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchberger, Heidi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Neal, Ronita

    2008-11-01

    The study aimed to understand turning points and processes that define the experience of identity change for individuals with brain injury. The current study applied an interpretive qualitative research design using a phenomenological approach. Qualitative 'life-story' interviewing was undertaken to explore the natural course of identity following TBI and a critical incident technique was applied to systematically examine key milestones. A purposive sample of six individuals with brain injury who represented a successive range of post-injury time frames (1-2 years, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-15 years, 15-20 years and 25+ years) participated in the interviews. Qualitative analysis indicated that identity transition was characterized by a dynamic and convoluted process of contraction, expansion and tentative balance. The influence of subjective processes on the development of identity highlights the inadequacy of fragmented approaches when exploring the individual experience. Findings from this study have important implications for the delivery of person-focused rehabilitation and remind one to consider with caution the usual indicators of adjustment that are often applied to brain injury rehabilitation.

  7. 75 FR 12233 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Receipt of Petition and Tentative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9127-1] New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Receipt of Petition and Tentative Affirmative Determination AGENCY: Environmental Protection... matter which may result in a prohibition of all sewage discharges from vessels in the above-described NYS...

  8. 76 FR 55608 - Milk in the Mideast Marketing Area; Notice of Hearing on Proposed Amendments to Tentative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1033 Milk in the Mideast Marketing Area; Notice of Hearing on Proposed Amendments to Tentative Marketing Agreement and Order AGENCY: Agricultural...

  9. Survey of Study on Internal Waves Detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jin-song

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Internal Waves (IWs detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image has received considerable attentions in the area of marine remote sensing and has already become one of the most important marine applications of SAR. Typical research results at home and abroad are reviewed. Three areas of researches are introduced and summarized, including parameter inversion method of IWs, the effect of different SAR parameter and wind field conditions on IWs imaging, the 2-dimentional SAR imaging simulation of IWs.

  10. GPs views and understanding of PSA testing, screening and early detection; survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J; Melia, J; Kirby, M; Graffy, J; Moss, S

    2016-05-01

    There is currently no national prostate cancer screening programme in the UK. However, patients 50 years and older are entitled to a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, if informed on the advantages and disadvantages of testing and their risk of cancer. The Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP) provides this guidance. The aim of this study was to access GPs' views and understanding of PSA testing, prostate cancer screening and early detection. A total of 708 questionnaires were returned by GPs across two English regions in 2013 and the GP questionnaire responses were quantitatively analysed. In the 699 completed questionnaires, the majority of GPs were well informed about PSA testing, screening and early detection. Only 32% used guidelines for referral, 14% knew all age-specific PSA referral levels, 71% that Black men have a higher prostate cancer risk than White men (22% correctly answered threefold increase) and 82% that family history is a risk factor. A further 78% thought electronic prompts during consultation would encourage PCRMP guideline usage and 75% had never been offered a PSA test and prostate cancer educational course, of which 73% would like to attend a course. Only 23% were aware of the latest PSA screening evidence and 94% would like an update. Participating GPs seem to be well informed but need more information and tools to help follow recommended guidance. In particular, increased awareness of PCRMP guidelines especially by automated methods, further educational courses and evidence updates would be beneficial. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Survey on gastrointestinal parasites and detection of Cryptosporidium spp. on cattle in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananta, Sylvia Maharani; Suharno; Hidayat, Adi; Matsubayashi, Makoto

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the presence of gastrointestinal parasites on cattle in Indonesia because the prevalence of parasites varies between countries depending on the terrain surrounding livestock farms and investigations in Indonesia have never been performed. Fecal samples from cattle at 35 farms in 7 districts in West Java, Indonesia, has been examined using the floatation or sedimentation methods, and a immunofluorescence assay and experimentally inoculation to mice for Cryptosporidium or Giardia.spp. 153 of 394 examined cattle (38.8%) were infected with gastrointestinal parasites. The prevalence of Eimeria spp., Nematoda spp. (including Oesophagustomum and Bunostomum-like), Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum spp. was 22.4%, 11.2%, 12.5% and 3.8%, respectively. Cryptosporidium andersoni (C. andersoni) was also found in two samples. One isolate of this parasite was confirmed to be transmitted to mice, in contrast to the isolates from other countries. although this survey is preliminary, the results shows that the infection of gastrointestinal parasites in Indonesia was not high, but these infected cattle could be as a potential source leading to economic losses in livestock production. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Survey of detection systems and electronics for I.L.L. experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobe, J.

    1976-01-01

    Various systems of counting and sensing which have been developed are described. The first generation of these instruments consists of conventional detectors filled with 3 He at high pressure. Different types of BF 3 Position Sensitive Detectors (PSDs) have been developed. For powder studies we have a 400-cell curved detector (Banana) with 5 mm resolution in one dimension, angular aperture 80 and radius of curvature 1.5 m. For small angle scattering we use an area detector with 4000 and 160000 cells, position sensing in two dimensions with 5 mm of resolution and active detection diameter of 64 cm. The new high pressure 3 He PSDs are developed with 2 mm of resolution and the new electronics use the hybrid circuit technique for analogue channel

  13. Geomorphic change detection in proglacial areas using repetitive unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Evans, David; Roberts, David; Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Glacial forelands exposed due to the glacier recession are one of the most dynamically transformed landscapes in Polar and mountainous areas. These areas are supposed to be intensively changed by various geomorphological processes related to the glacial retreat and meltwater activity, as well as paraglacial adjustment of topography. This study deals with landscape transformation in an annual time-scale in the foreland of Hørbyebreen and Rieperbreen (Svalbard) and Fjallsjökull and Kviárjökull (Iceland) to assess landscape changes in 2014-2016 period. The main aim of this study is to map and quantify landforms development in detailed spatial scale to provide an insight into geomorphological processes which occurred shortly after the retreat of the ice margin. Low-altitude aerial photographs were taken using small quadcopter equipped with 12 MP camera. Images were acquired at an elevation between 40 and 60 m above the ground level. The images were subsequently processed using structure-from-motion approach to produce orthomosaics ( 3 cm cell size) and digital elevation models (DEMs) with 5-10 cm cell size. Subtracting DEMs from subsequent time periods created DEMs of Differences — which enabled us to calculate the amount of material loss or deposition. Accuracy of the orthophotos and DEMs was improved using ground control points measured with dGPS. Over the 2014-2016 period repetitive UAV-based surveys revealed and quantify changes in landscape including: (1) glacier thinning; (2) ice-cored moraines degradation; (3) development of terminoglacial and supraglacial lakes; (4) debris flow activity. Short-time dynamics of different components showed very high variability over time and space illustrating relative importance of ice backwasting and downwasting as well as glacifluvial processes for studied forelands The research was founded by Polish National Science Centre (project granted by decision number DEC-2011/01/D/ST10/06494).

  14. Developing optimal search strategies for detecting clinically sound prognostic studies in MEDLINE: an analytic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes R Brian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical end users of MEDLINE have a difficult time retrieving articles that are both scientifically sound and directly relevant to clinical practice. Search filters have been developed to assist end users in increasing the success of their searches. Many filters have been developed for the literature on therapy and reviews but little has been done in the area of prognosis. The objective of this study is to determine how well various methodologic textwords, Medical Subject Headings, and their Boolean combinations retrieve methodologically sound literature on the prognosis of health disorders in MEDLINE. Methods An analytic survey was conducted, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from MEDLINE for candidate search terms and combinations. Six research assistants read all issues of 161 journals for the publishing year 2000. All articles were rated using purpose and quality indicators and categorized into clinically relevant original studies, review articles, general papers, or case reports. The original and review articles were then categorized as 'pass' or 'fail' for methodologic rigor in the areas of prognosis and other clinical topics. Candidate search strategies were developed for prognosis and run in MEDLINE – the retrievals being compared with the hand search data. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies were calculated. Results 12% of studies classified as prognosis met basic criteria for scientific merit for testing clinical applications. Combinations of terms reached peak sensitivities of 90%. Compared with the best single term, multiple terms increased sensitivity for sound studies by 25.2% (absolute increase, and increased specificity, but by a much smaller amount (1.1% when sensitivity was maximized. Combining terms to optimize both sensitivity and specificity achieved sensitivities and specificities of approximately 83% for each. Conclusion Empirically derived

  15. THE DETECTION OF INTERSTELLAR ETHANIMINE (CH{sub 3}CHNH) FROM OBSERVATIONS TAKEN DURING THE GBT PRIMOS SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Steber, Amanda L.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matthew T.; Harris, Brent J.; Pate, Brooks H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Hollis, Jan M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jewell, Philip R.; Remijan, Anthony J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904-2475 (United States); Lattanzi, Valerio; Martinez, Oscar Jr.; McCarthy, Michael C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lovas, Frank J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Corby, Joanna F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We have performed reaction product screening measurements using broadband rotational spectroscopy to identify rotational transition matches between laboratory spectra and the Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS radio astronomy survey spectra in Sagittarius B2 North (Sgr B2(N)). The broadband rotational spectrum of molecules created in an electrical discharge of CH{sub 3}CN and H{sub 2}S contained several frequency matches to unidentified features in the PRIMOS survey that did not have molecular assignments based on standard radio astronomy spectral catalogs. Several of these transitions are assigned to the E- and Z-isomers of ethanimine. Global fits of the rotational spectra of these isomers in the range of 8-130 GHz have been performed for both isomers using previously published mm-wave spectroscopy measurements and the microwave measurements of the current study. Possible interstellar chemistry formation routes for E-ethanimine and Z-ethanimine are discussed. The detection of ethanimine is significant because of its possible role in the formation of alanine-one of the twenty amino acids in the genetic code.

  16. DETECTION OF E-CYANOMETHANIMINE TOWARD SAGITTARIUS B2(N) IN THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE PRIMOS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Seifert, Nathan A.; Steber, Amanda L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Loomis, Ryan A.; Vasquez, David; Nyiramahirwe, Jolie; Sciortino, Nicole; Johnson, Kennedy; Pate, Brooks H.; Corby, Joanna F.; Martinez, Oscar Jr.; Crabtree, Kyle N.; McCarthy, Michael C.; Jewell, Philip R.; Remijan, Anthony J.; Hollis, Jan M.; Lovas, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    The detection of E-cyanomethanimine (E-HNCHCN) toward Sagittarius B2(N) is made by comparing the publicly available Green Bank Telescope (GBT) PRIMOS survey spectra to laboratory rotational spectra from a reaction product screening experiment. The experiment uses broadband molecular rotational spectroscopy to monitor the reaction products produced in an electric discharge source using a gas mixture of NH 3 and CH 3 CN. Several transition frequency coincidences between the reaction product screening spectra and previously unassigned interstellar rotational transitions in the PRIMOS survey have been assigned to E-cyanomethanimine. A total of eight molecular rotational transitions of this molecule between 9 and 50 GHz are observed with the GBT. E-cyanomethanimine, often called the HCN dimer, is an important molecule in prebiotic chemistry because it is a chemical intermediate in proposed synthetic routes of adenine, one of the two purine nucleobases found in DNA and RNA. New analyses of the rotational spectra of both E-cyanomethanimine and Z-cyanomethanimine that incorporate previous millimeter-wave measurements are also reported.

  17. DETECTION OF E-CYANOMETHANIMINE TOWARD SAGITTARIUS B2(N) IN THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE PRIMOS SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Seifert, Nathan A.; Steber, Amanda L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Loomis, Ryan A.; Vasquez, David; Nyiramahirwe, Jolie; Sciortino, Nicole; Johnson, Kennedy; Pate, Brooks H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Corby, Joanna F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Martinez, Oscar Jr.; Crabtree, Kyle N.; McCarthy, Michael C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jewell, Philip R.; Remijan, Anthony J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Hollis, Jan M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lovas, Frank J., E-mail: bp2k@virginia.edu, E-mail: mccarthy@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aremijan@nrao.edu [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The detection of E-cyanomethanimine (E-HNCHCN) toward Sagittarius B2(N) is made by comparing the publicly available Green Bank Telescope (GBT) PRIMOS survey spectra to laboratory rotational spectra from a reaction product screening experiment. The experiment uses broadband molecular rotational spectroscopy to monitor the reaction products produced in an electric discharge source using a gas mixture of NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}CN. Several transition frequency coincidences between the reaction product screening spectra and previously unassigned interstellar rotational transitions in the PRIMOS survey have been assigned to E-cyanomethanimine. A total of eight molecular rotational transitions of this molecule between 9 and 50 GHz are observed with the GBT. E-cyanomethanimine, often called the HCN dimer, is an important molecule in prebiotic chemistry because it is a chemical intermediate in proposed synthetic routes of adenine, one of the two purine nucleobases found in DNA and RNA. New analyses of the rotational spectra of both E-cyanomethanimine and Z-cyanomethanimine that incorporate previous millimeter-wave measurements are also reported.

  18. ReRep: Computational detection of repetitive sequences in genome survey sequences (GSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves-Ferreira Marcelo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome survey sequences (GSS offer a preliminary global view of a genome since, unlike ESTs, they cover coding as well as non-coding DNA and include repetitive regions of the genome. A more precise estimation of the nature, quantity and variability of repetitive sequences very early in a genome sequencing project is of considerable importance, as such data strongly influence the estimation of genome coverage, library quality and progress in scaffold construction. Also, the elimination of repetitive sequences from the initial assembly process is important to avoid errors and unnecessary complexity. Repetitive sequences are also of interest in a variety of other studies, for instance as molecular markers. Results We designed and implemented a straightforward pipeline called ReRep, which combines bioinformatics tools for identifying repetitive structures in a GSS dataset. In a case study, we first applied the pipeline to a set of 970 GSSs, sequenced in our laboratory from the human pathogen Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agent of leishmaniosis, an important public health problem in Brazil. We also verified the applicability of ReRep to new sequencing technologies using a set of 454-reads of an Escheria coli. The behaviour of several parameters in the algorithm is evaluated and suggestions are made for tuning of the analysis. Conclusion The ReRep approach for identification of repetitive elements in GSS datasets proved to be straightforward and efficient. Several potential repetitive sequences were found in a L. braziliensis GSS dataset generated in our laboratory, and further validated by the analysis of a more complete genomic dataset from the EMBL and Sanger Centre databases. ReRep also identified most of the E. coli K12 repeats prior to assembly in an example dataset obtained by automated sequencing using 454 technology. The parameters controlling the algorithm behaved consistently and may be tuned to the properties

  19. Physical activity in young adults: a signal detection analysis of Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2007 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Carmina G; Tate, Deborah F; Mayer, Deborah K; Allicock, Marlyn; Cai, Jianwen; Campbell, Marci K

    2015-01-01

    Many young adults are insufficiently active to achieve the health benefits of regular physical activity. Using signal detection analysis of data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, the authors examined distinct subgroups of 18-39 year-old adults who vary in their likelihood of not meeting physical activity recommendations. We randomly split the sample and conducted signal detection analysis on the exploratory half to identify subgroups and interactions among sociodemographic and health communication variables that predicted engaging in less than 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity (low physical activity). We compared rates of low physical activity among subgroups with similarly defined subgroups in the validation sample. Overall, 62% of participants did not meet physical activity recommendations. Among 8 subgroups identified, low physical activity rates ranged from 31% to 90%. Predictors of low physical activity were general health, body mass index (BMI), perceived cancer risk, health-related Internet use, and trust in information sources. The least active subgroup (90% low physical activity) included young adults in poor to good health with a BMI of 30.8 or more (obese). The most active subgroup (31% low physical activity) comprised those in very good to excellent health, who used a website to help with diet, weight, or physical activity, and had little to no trust in health information on television. Findings suggest potential intervention communication channels and can inform targeted physical activity interventions for young adults.

  20. The JCMT Transient Survey: Detection of Submillimeter Variability in a Class I Protostar EC 53 in Serpens Main

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyunju; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Mairs, Steve; Johnstone, Doug; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Kang, Sung-ju; Kang, Miju; Cho, Jungyeon; The JCMT Transient Team

    2017-11-01

    During the protostellar phase of stellar evolution, accretion onto the star is expected to be variable, but this suspected variability has been difficult to detect because protostars are deeply embedded. In this paper, we describe a submillimeter luminosity burst of the Class I protostar EC 53 in Serpens Main, the first variable found during our dedicated JCMT/SCUBA-2 monitoring program of eight nearby star-forming regions. EC 53 remained quiescent for the first six months of our survey, from 2016 February to August. The submillimeter emission began to brighten in 2016 September, reached a peak brightness of 1.5 times the faint state, and has been decaying slowly since 2017 February. The change in submillimeter brightness is interpreted as dust heating in the envelope, generated by a luminosity increase of the protostar of a factor of ≥4. The 850 μm light curve resembles the historical K-band light curve, which varies by a factor of ˜6 with a 543 period and is interpreted as accretion variability excited by interactions between the accretion disk and a close binary system. The predictable detections of accretion variability observed at both near-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths make the system a unique test-bed, enabling us to capture the moment of the accretion burst and to study the consequences of the outburst on the protostellar disk and envelope.

  1. AuDeNTES: Automatic Detection of teNtative Plagiarism According to a rEference Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Leonardo; Micucci, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In academic courses, students frequently take advantage of someone else's work to improve their own evaluations or grades. This unethical behavior seriously threatens the integrity of the academic system, and teachers invest substantial effort in preventing and recognizing plagiarism. When students take examinations requiring the production of…

  2. A Tentative Research on the Education of Teacher by "Adlerian Psychology" (II) : Using Structured Group Encounter Method

    OpenAIRE

    柴山, 謙二; シバヤマ, ケンジ; Shibayama, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    This is a tentative research on the education of teacher explored in Adlerian Psychology that used the structured group encounter method. The purpose of teacher education by Adlerian Psychology is to develop and deepen social interests of teachers, and to learn this theory and psychological techniques at school. The process of short-time workshop for teachers who were specialized in guidance for pupils was designed and documented for the education of teacher, and the author participated in th...

  3. Economics Research in France: Tentative Conclusions Based on EconLit Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirucki, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed the scientific contributions of representative economics research groups in France based on the EconLit bibliographic database. Research groups were categorized in either the "French specificity" group or the "traditional" group. Three indicators - overall visability, net production, and international presence -- were…

  4. A Study on the Reasons for the Inefficiency of College English Teaching and Some Tentative Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaogang

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of a survey, the reasons for the inefficiency of current College English teaching are examined. First, the traditional learning methodology is entrenched and the concepts and ideology of language teaching are outdated. Second, the social and learning environment resulted in the conflicts between the purpose of English teaching and the…

  5. Deep learning approach for classifying, detecting and predicting photometric redshifts of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey stripe 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet-Itam, J.; Pasquet, J.

    2018-04-01

    We have applied a convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify and detect quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 and also to predict the photometric redshifts of quasars. The network takes the variability of objects into account by converting light curves into images. The width of the images, noted w, corresponds to the five magnitudes ugriz and the height of the images, noted h, represents the date of the observation. The CNN provides good results since its precision is 0.988 for a recall of 0.90, compared to a precision of 0.985 for the same recall with a random forest classifier. Moreover 175 new quasar candidates are found with the CNN considering a fixed recall of 0.97. The combination of probabilities given by the CNN and the random forest makes good performance even better with a precision of 0.99 for a recall of 0.90. For the redshift predictions, the CNN presents excellent results which are higher than those obtained with a feature extraction step and different classifiers (a K-nearest-neighbors, a support vector machine, a random forest and a Gaussian process classifier). Indeed, the accuracy of the CNN within |Δz| http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A97

  6. Mapping hardwood mortality for the early detection of P. ramorum: an assessment of aerial surveys and object-oriented image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik Haunreiter; Zhanfeng Liu; Jeff Mai; Zachary Heath; Lisa Fischer

    2008-01-01

    Effective monitoring and identification of areas of hardwood mortality is a critical component in the management of sudden oak death (SOD). From 2001 to 2005, aerial surveys covering 13.5 million acres in California were conducted to map and monitor hardwood mortality for the early detection of Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen responsible for SOD....

  7. Panchromatic properties of 99 000 galaxies detected by SDSS, and (some by) ROSAT, GALEX, 2MASS, IRAS, GB6, FIRST, NVSS and WENSS surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obric, M.; Ivezic, Z.; Best, P. N.; Lupton, R. H.; Tremonti, C.; Brinchmann, J.; Agueeros, M. A.; Knapp, G. R.; Gunn, J. E.; Rockosi, C. M.; Schlegel, D.; Finkbeiner, D.; Gacesa, M.; Smolcic, V.; Anderson, S. F.; Voges, W.; Juric, M.; Siverd, R. J.; Steinhardt, W.; Jagoda, A. S.; Blanton, M. R.; Schneider, D. P.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the panchromatic properties of 99 088 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 1 'main' spectroscopic sample ( a flux-limited sample for 1360 deg(2)). These galaxies are positionally matched to sources detected by ROSAT, Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX),

  8. Exploring the chemistry of complex samples by tentative identification and semi-quantification: a food contact material case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieke, Eelco Nicolaas; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Granby, Kit

    2017-01-01

    unique to the sample and could be tentatively elucidated via accurate mass, isotopic pattern, and precursor/product-ion correlations. Nearly 85% of these 117 peaks were matched with database entries, which provided varying certainty of information about the analyte structure. Semi...... to retrieve the most likely chemical match from a structure database. In addition, TOF-only data is used to estimate analyte concentration via semi-quantification. The method is demonstrated in recycled paper food contact material (FCM). Here, 585 chromatographic peaks were discovered, of which 117 were...

  9. Exome sequencing unravels unexpected differential diagnoses in individuals with the tentative diagnosis of Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramswig, Nuria C; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Alanay, Yasemin; Albrecht, Beate; Barthelmie, Alexander; Boduroglu, Koray; Braunholz, Diana; Caliebe, Almuth; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H; Czeschik, Johanna Christina; Endele, Sabine; Graf, Elisabeth; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Kiper, Pelin Özlem Simsek; López-González, Vanesa; Parenti, Ilaria; Pozojevic, Jelena; Utine, Gulen Eda; Wieland, Thomas; Kaiser, Frank J; Wollnik, Bernd; Strom, Tim M; Wieczorek, Dagmar

    2015-06-01

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) are rare intellectual disability/congenital malformation syndromes that represent distinct entities but show considerable clinical overlap. They are caused by mutations in genes encoding members of the BRG1- and BRM-associated factor (BAF) complex. However, there are a number of patients with the clinical diagnosis of CSS or NCBRS in whom the causative mutation has not been identified. In this study, we performed trio-based whole-exome sequencing (WES) in ten previously described but unsolved individuals with the tentative diagnosis of CSS or NCBRS and found causative mutations in nine out of ten individuals. Interestingly, our WES analysis disclosed overlapping differential diagnoses including Wiedemann-Steiner, Kabuki, and Adams-Oliver syndromes. In addition, most likely causative de novo mutations were identified in GRIN2A and SHANK3. Moreover, trio-based WES detected SMARCA2 and SMARCA4 deletions, which had not been annotated in a previous Haloplex target enrichment and next-generation sequencing of known CSS/NCBRS genes emphasizing the advantages of WES as a diagnostic tool. In summary, we discuss the phenotypic and diagnostic challenges in clinical genetics, establish important differential diagnoses, and emphasize the cardinal features and the broad clinical spectrum of BAF complex disorders and other disorders caused by mutations in epigenetic landscapers.

  10. Tentative Structural Assignment of a Glucuronide Metabolite of Methyltestosterone in Tilapia Bile by Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishshanka, Upul; Chu, Pak-Sin; Evans, Eric; Reimschuessel, Renate; Hasbrouck, Nicholas; Amarasinghe, Kande; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi

    2015-06-24

    Methyltestosterone (MT), a strong androgenic steroid, is not approved for use in fish aquaculture in the United States. It is used in the U.S. under an investigational new animal drug exemption (INAD) only during the early life stages of fish. There is a possibility that farmers feed fish with MT to enhance production for economic gains. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods for the detection of MT and its metabolite residues in fish tissue for monitoring purposes. Previously, our laboratory developed a liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF) method for characterization of 17-O-glucuronide metabolite (MT-glu) in bile of tilapia dosed with MT. The system used was an Agilent 6530 Q-TOF equipped with electrospray jet stream technology, operating in positive ion mode. Retrospective analysis of the data generated in that experiment by a feature-finding algorithm, combined with a search against an in-house library of possible MT-metabolites, resulted in the discovery of a major glucuronide metabolite of MT in the bile extracts. Preliminary data indicate it to be a glucuronide of a hydroxylated MT (OHMT-glu) which persists in tilapia bile for at least 2 weeks after dosing. We present the tentative structural assignment of the OHMT-glu in tilapia bile and time course of development. This glucuronide can serve as a marker to monitor illegal use of MT in tilapia culture.

  11. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba: description and tentative explanation of its low HIV prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémençon Stéphan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic has the lowest prevalence rate of the Caribbean region. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba and to explore the reasons for this low prevalence. Methods Data were obtained from the Cuban HIV/AIDS programme established in 1983. This programme has an extensive adult HIV testing policy, including testing of all pregnant women. HIV and AIDS cases have been recorded since 1986. Persons found to be HIV-positive are interviewed on their sexual behaviour and partners. Tracing and voluntary testing of these partners are organised. Epidemiological description of this epidemic was obtained from analysis of this data set. Using elementary mathematical analyses, we estimated the coverage of the detection system (percentage of HIV-positive adults detected and the average period between HIV infection and detection. Estimated HIV prevalence rates were corrected to account for the coverage. Results HIV prevalence has increased since 1996. In 2005, the prevalence among pregnant women was 1.2 per 10,000 (16/137000. Estimated HIV prevalence among 15- to 49-year-olds was 8.1 per 10,000 (4913/6065000; 95%CI: 7.9 per 10,000 – 8.3 per 10,000. Most (77% of the HIV-positive adults were men, most (85.1% of the detected HIV-positive men were reported as having sex with men (MSM, and most of the HIV-positive women reported having had sex with MSM. The average period between HIV infection and detection was estimated to be 2.1 years (IQR = 1.7 – 2.2 years. We estimated that, for the year 2005, 79.6% (IQR: 77.3 – 81.4% of the HIV-positive persons were detected. Conclusion MSM drive the HIV epidemic in Cuba. The extensive HIV testing policy may be an important factor in explaining the low HIV prevalence. To reduce the HIV epidemic in Cuba, the epidemic among MSM should be addressed. To understand this epidemic further, data on sexual behaviour should be collected. Now that

  12. Take Only Photographs, Leave Only Footprints: Novel Applications of Non-Invasive Survey Methods for Rapid Detection of Small, Arboreal Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Mills

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate wildlife survey techniques is essential to promote effective and efficient monitoring of species of conservation concern. Here, we demonstrate the utility of two rapid-assessment, non-invasive methods to detect the presence of elusive, small, arboreal animals. We use the hazel dormouse, Muscardinus avellanarius, a rodent of conservation concern, as our focal species. Prevailing hazel dormouse survey methods are prolonged (often taking months to years to detect dormice, dependent on season and habitat, and/or have low detection rates. Alternatives would be of great use to ecologists who undertake dormouse surveys, especially those assessing the need for mitigation measures, as legally required for building development projects. Camera traps and footprint tracking are well-established tools for monitoring elusive large terrestrial mammals, but are rarely used for small species such as rodents, or in arboreal habitats. In trials of these adapted methods, hazel dormice visited bait stations and were successfully detected by both camera traps and tracking equipment at each of two woodland study sites, within days to weeks of installation. Camera trap images and footprints were of adequate quality to allow discrimination between two sympatric small mammal species (hazel dormouse and wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus. We discuss the relative merits of these methods with respect to research aims, funds, time available and habitat.

  13. Take Only Photographs, Leave Only Footprints: Novel Applications of Non-Invasive Survey Methods for Rapid Detection of Small, Arboreal Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Cheryl A; Godley, Brendan J; Hodgson, David J

    2016-01-01

    The development of appropriate wildlife survey techniques is essential to promote effective and efficient monitoring of species of conservation concern. Here, we demonstrate the utility of two rapid-assessment, non-invasive methods to detect the presence of elusive, small, arboreal animals. We use the hazel dormouse, Muscardinus avellanarius, a rodent of conservation concern, as our focal species. Prevailing hazel dormouse survey methods are prolonged (often taking months to years to detect dormice), dependent on season and habitat, and/or have low detection rates. Alternatives would be of great use to ecologists who undertake dormouse surveys, especially those assessing the need for mitigation measures, as legally required for building development projects. Camera traps and footprint tracking are well-established tools for monitoring elusive large terrestrial mammals, but are rarely used for small species such as rodents, or in arboreal habitats. In trials of these adapted methods, hazel dormice visited bait stations and were successfully detected by both camera traps and tracking equipment at each of two woodland study sites, within days to weeks of installation. Camera trap images and footprints were of adequate quality to allow discrimination between two sympatric small mammal species (hazel dormouse and wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus). We discuss the relative merits of these methods with respect to research aims, funds, time available and habitat.

  14. The LABOCA/ACT Survey of Clusters at All Redshifts: Multiwavelength Analysis of Background Submillimeter Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Paula; Lindner, Robert R.; Baker, Andrew J.; Bond, J. Richard; Dünner, Rolando; Galaz, Gaspar; Gallardo, Patricio; Hilton, Matt; Hughes, John P.; Infante, Leopoldo; Lima, Marcos; Menten, Karl M.; Sievers, Jonathan; Weiss, Axel; Wollack, Edward J.

    2018-03-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of 48 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) detected in the Large APEX Bolometer Camera/Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) Survey of Clusters at All Redshifts, LASCAR, which acquired new 870 μm and Australia Telescope Compact Array 2.1 GHz observations of 10 galaxy clusters detected through their Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect (SZE) signal by the ACT. Far-infrared observations were also conducted with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (100/160 μm) and SPIRE (250/350/500 μm) instruments on Herschel for sample subsets of five and six clusters. LASCAR 870 μm maps were reduced using a multiscale iterative pipeline that removes the SZE increment signal, yielding point-source sensitivities of σ ∼ 2 mJy beam‑1. We detect in total 49 sources at the 4σ level and conduct a detailed multiwavelength analysis considering our new radio and far-IR observations plus existing near-IR and optical data. One source is identified as a foreground galaxy, 28 SMGs are matched to single radio sources, four have double radio counterparts, and 16 are undetected at 2.1 GHz but tentatively associated in some cases to near-IR/optical sources. We estimate photometric redshifts for 34 sources with secure (25) and tentative (9) matches at different wavelengths, obtaining a median z={2.8}-1.7+2.1. Compared to previous results for single-dish surveys, our redshift distribution has a comparatively larger fraction of sources at z > 3, and the high-redshift tail is more extended. This is consistent with millimeter spectroscopic confirmation of a growing number of high-z SMGs and relevant for testing of cosmological models. Analytical lens modeling is applied to estimate magnification factors for 42 SMGs at clustercentric radii >1.‧2 with the demagnified flux densities and source-plane areas, we obtain integral number counts that agree with previous submillimeter surveys.

  15. IMPLICATIONS OF THE TENTATIVE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GW150914 AND A FERMI -GBM TRANSIENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang; Yuan, Qiang; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Liu, Si-Ming; Wei, Da-Ming [Key Laboratory of dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang, Fu-Wen, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fwzhang@glut.edu.cn [College of Science, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2016-08-10

    The merger-driven gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their associated gravitational-wave (GW) radiation, if both are successfully detected, have some far-reaching implications, including, for instance: (i) the statistical comparison of the physical properties of the short/long-short GRBs with and without GW detection can test the general origin model; (ii) revealing the physical processes taking place at the central engine; (iii) measuring the velocity of the gravitational wave directly/accurately. In this work, we discuss these implications in the case of a possible association of GW150914/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) transient 150914. We compared GBM transient 150914 with other SGRBs and found that such an event may be a distinct outlier in some statistical diagrams, possibly due to its specific binary black hole merger origin. However, the presence of a “new” group of SGRBs with “unusual” physical parameters is also possible. If the outflow of GBM transient 150914 was launched by the accretion onto the nascent black hole, the magnetic activity rather than the neutrino process is likely responsible for the energy extraction, and the accretion disk mass is estimated to be ∼10{sup −5} M {sub ⊙}. The GW150914/GBM transient 150914 association, if confirmed, would provide the first opportunity to directly measure the GW velocity, and its departure from the speed of the light should be within a factor of ∼10{sup −17}.

  16. The basic concept for the geological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshiaki

    1998-01-01

    Before the construction of high level radioactive waste repository, the implementing entity will go through three siting stages for the repository. In each of those three stages, the implementing entity will carry out geological surveys. In this report, the concept for the geological surveys is described, on the basic of 'The policies for the high level radioactive waste disposal (a tentative draft)' issued by the Atomic Energy Commission in July, 1997. (author)

  17. Survey of childhood empyema in Asia: Implications for detecting the unmeasured burden of culture-negative bacterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Xuzhuang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parapneumonic empyema continues to be a disease of significant morbidity and mortality among children despite recent advances in medical management. To date, only a limited number of studies have assessed the burden of empyema in Asia. Methods We surveyed medical records of four representative large pediatric hospitals in China, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam using ICD-10 diagnostic codes to identify children Results During the study period, we identified 1,379 children diagnosed with empyema or pleural effusion (China, n = 461; Korea, n = 134; Taiwan, n = 119; Vietnam, n = 665. Diagnoses of pleural effusion (n = 1,074 were 3.5 times more common than of empyema (n = 305, although the relative proportions of empyema and pleural effusion noted in hospital records varied widely between the four sites, most likely because of marked differences in coding practices. Although pleural effusions were reported more often than empyema, children with empyema were more likely to have a cultured pathogen. In addition, we found that median age and gender distribution of children with these conditions were similar across the four countries. Among 1,379 empyema and pleural effusion specimens, 401 (29% were culture positive. Staphylococcus aureus (n = 126 was the most common organism isolated, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 83, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 37 and Klebsiella (n = 35 and Acinetobacter species (n = 34. Conclusion The age and gender distribution of empyema and pleural effusion in children in these countries are similar to the US and Western Europe. S. pneumoniae was the second leading bacterial cause of empyema and pleural effusion among Asian children. The high proportion of culture-negative specimens among patients with pleural effusion or empyema suggests that culture may not be a sufficiently sensitive diagnostic method to determine etiology in the majority of cases. Future prospective studies in different countries would

  18. Detecting the occurrence of indigenous and non-indigenous megafauna through fishermen knowledge: A complementary tool to coastal and port surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzurro, E; Bolognini, L; Dragičević, B; Drakulović, D; Dulčić, J; Fanelli, E; Grati, F; Kolitari, J; Lipej, L; Magaletti, E; Marković, O; Matić-Skoko, S; Mavrič, B; Milone, N; Joksimović, A; Tomanić, J; Scarpato, A; Tutman, P; Vrdoljak, D; Zappacosta, F

    2018-01-12

    Marine bioinvasions and other rapid biodiversity changes require today integrating existing monitoring tools with other complementary detection strategies to provide a more efficient management. Here we explored the efficacy of fishermen observations and traditional port surveys to effectively track the occurrence of both indigenous and non-indigenous megafauna in the Adriatic Sea. This consisted mainly of mobile taxa such as fishes, crustaceans and molluscs. Port surveys using traps and nets within 10 major Adriatic harbours, were compared with the information obtained from 153 interviews with local fishermen. Information gathered by traps and nets varied significantly and generally resulted of limited efficacy in exotic species detection. Interviews allowed tracking the occurrence of new species through time and space, providing complementary knowledge at the low cost. This combined approach improves our capability of being informed on the arrival of species of different origin, providing a more rational, improved basis for environmental management and decision making. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection, quantification and genotyping of Herpes Simplex Virus in cervicovaginal secretions by real-time PCR: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad-Sancho Angels

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD is an important public health problem, whose interaction with HIV results in mutually enhancing epidemics. Conventional methods for detecting HSV tend to be slow and insensitive. We designed a rapid PCR-based assay to quantify and type HSV in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL fluid of subjects attending a Genito-Urinary Medicine (GUM clinic. Vaginal swabs, CVL fluid and venous blood were collected. Quantitative detection of HSV was conducted using real time PCR with HSV specific primers and SYBR Green I. Fluorogenic TaqMan Minor Groove Binder (MGB probes designed around a single base mismatch in the HSV DNA polymerase I gene were used to type HSV in a separate reaction. The Kalon test was used to detect anti-HSV-2 IgG antibodies in serum. Testing for HIV, other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI and related infections was based on standard clinical and laboratory methods. Results Seventy consecutive GUM clinic attendees were studied. Twenty-seven subjects (39% had detectable HSV DNA in CVL fluid; HSV-2 alone was detected in 19 (70% subjects, HSV-1 alone was detected in 4 (15% subjects and both HSV types were detected in 4 (15% subjects. Eleven out of 27 subjects (41% with anti-HSV-2 IgG had detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL fluid. Seven subjects (10% were HIV-positive. Three of seven (43% HIV-infected subjects and two of five subjects with GUD (40% were secreting HSV-2. None of the subjects in whom HSV-1 was detected had GUD. Conclusion Quantitative real-time PCR and Taqman MGB probes specific for HSV-1 or -2 were used to develop an assay for quantification and typing of HSV. The majority of subjects in which HSV was detected had low levels of CVL fluid HSV, with no detectable HSV-2 antibodies and were asymptomatic.

  20. An eDNA assay for river otter detection: A tool for surveying a semi-aquatic mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha M. Padgett-Stewart; Taylor M. Wilcox; Kellie J. Carim; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an effective tool for the detection of elusive or low-density aquatic organisms. However, it has infrequently been applied to mammalian species. North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) are both broad ranging and semi-aquatic, making them an ideal candidate for examining the uses of eDNA for detection of mammals. We developed...

  1. Detectability in Audio-Visual Surveys of Tropical Rainforest Birds: The Influence of Species, Weather and Habitat Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S Anderson

    Full Text Available Indices of relative abundance do not control for variation in detectability, which can bias density estimates such that ecological processes are difficult to infer. Distance sampling methods can be used to correct for detectability, but in rainforest, where dense vegetation and diverse assemblages complicate sampling, information is lacking about factors affecting their application. Rare species present an additional challenge, as data may be too sparse to fit detection functions. We present analyses of distance sampling data collected for a diverse tropical rainforest bird assemblage across broad elevational and latitudinal gradients in North Queensland, Australia. Using audio and visual detections, we assessed the influence of various factors on Effective Strip Width (ESW, an intuitively useful parameter, since it can be used to calculate an estimate of density from count data. Body size and species exerted the most important influence on ESW, with larger species detectable over greater distances than smaller species. Secondarily, wet weather and high shrub density decreased ESW for most species. ESW for several species also differed between summer and winter, possibly due to seasonal differences in calling behavior. Distance sampling proved logistically intensive in these environments, but large differences in ESW between species confirmed the need to correct for detection probability to obtain accurate density estimates. Our results suggest an evidence-based approach to controlling for factors influencing detectability, and avenues for further work including modeling detectability as a function of species characteristics such as body size and call characteristics. Such models may be useful in developing a calibration for non-distance sampling data and for estimating detectability of rare species.

  2. Mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging (T-LiDAR) survey of areas on Dauphin Island, Alabama, in the aftermath of Hurricane Isaac, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2014-01-01

    Topographic survey data of areas on Dauphin Island on the Alabama coast were collected using a truck-mounted mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging system. This system is composed of a high frequency laser scanner in conjunction with an inertial measurement unit and a position and orientation computer to produce highly accurate topographic datasets. A global positioning system base station was set up on a nearby benchmark and logged vertical and horizontal position information during the survey for post-processing. Survey control points were also collected throughout the study area to determine residual errors. Data were collected 5 days after Hurricane Isaac made landfall in early September 2012 to document sediment deposits prior to clean-up efforts. Three data files in ASCII text format with the extension .xyz are included in this report, and each file is named according to both the acquisition date and the relative geographic location on Dauphin Island (for example, 20120903_Central.xyz). Metadata are also included for each of the files in both Extensible Markup Language with the extension .xml and ASCII text formats. These topographic data can be used to analyze the effects of storm surge on barrier island environments and also serve as a baseline dataset for future change detection analyses.

  3. Detection of the brown spruce longhorn beetle, Tetropium fuscum (F.) with semiochemical-baited traps, tree bands, and visual surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Sweeney; Jessica Price; Wayne MacKay; Bob Guscott; Peter de Groot; Jerzy Gutowski

    2007-01-01

    The brown spruce longhorn beetle, Tetropium fuscum (F.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), (BSLB) native to northern and central Europe, has been the focus of a containment and eradication program by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency in the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, since May 2000. Surveys are conducted using host volatile-baited traps and visual...

  4. Assessment of survey radiography and comparison with x-ray computed tomography for detection of hyperfunctioning adrenocortical tumors in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhout, G.; Stolp, R.; Rijnberk, A.; Waes, P.F.G.M. van

    1990-01-01

    Results of abdominal survey radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) were compared in 13 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism histologically attributed to adrenocortical tumors. X-ray computed tomography enabled accurate localization of the tumor in all 13 dogs. Apart from 2 poorly demarcated irregular-shaped and mineralized carcinomas, there were no differences between adenoma (n = 3) and carcinoma (n = 10) on CT images. In 1 dog, invasion of the caudal vena cava by the tumor was suggested on CT images and was confirmed during surgery. Suspicion of adhesions between tumors of the right adrenal gland and the caudal vena cava on the basis of CT images was confirmed during surgery in only 2 of 6 dogs. Survey radiography allowed accurate localization of the tumor in 7 dogs (4 on the right side and 3 on the left). In 6 of these dogs, the tumor was visible as a well-demarcated soft tissue mass and, in the other dog, as a poorly demarcated mineralized mass. The smallest tumor visualized on survey radiographs had a diameter of 20 mm on CT images. Six tumors with diameter less than or equal to 20 mm were not visualized on survey radiographs. In 1 of these dogs, a mineralized nodule was found in the left adrenal region, without evidence of a mass. In a considerable number of cases, survey radiography can provide presurgical localization of adrenocortical tumors in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism; CT is redundant in these instances. In the absence of positive radiographic findings, CT is valuable for localization of adrenocortical tumors

  5. First Results from Faint Infrared Grism Survey (Figs): First Simultaneous Detection of Ly Alpha Emission and Lyman Break From a Galaxy at Z =7.51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilvi, V.; Pirzkal, N.; Malhotra, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Rhoads, J. E.; Windhorst, R.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A.; Zakamska, N. L.; Ryan, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies at high redshifts provide a valuable tool to study cosmic dawn, and therefore it is crucial to reliably identify these galaxies. Here, we present an unambiguous and first simultaneous detection of both the Lyman-Alpha emission and the Lyman break from a z = 7.512 +/- 0.004 galaxy, observed in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS). These spectra, taken with G102 grism on Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST), show a significant emission line detection (6 Sigma) in two observational position angles (PA), with Lyman-Alpha line flux of 1.06 +/- 0.19 x 10(exp -17) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2). The line flux is nearly a factor of four higher than in the archival MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations. This is consistent with other recent observations implying that ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy underestimates total emission line fluxes, and if confirmed, can have strong implications for reionization studies that are based on ground-based Lyman-Alpha measurements. A 4-Alpha detection of the NV line in one PA also suggests a weak Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), and if confirmed would make this source the highest-redshift AGN yet found.These observations from the Hubble Space Telescope thus clearly demonstrate the sensitivity of the FIGS survey, and the capability of grism spectroscopy to study the epoch of reionization.

  6. Detection limits of quantitative and digital PCR assays and their influence in presence-absence surveys of environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret; Dorazio, Robert M.; Butterfield, John S.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Nico, Leo; Ferrante, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    A set of universal guidelines is needed to determine the limit of detection (LOD) in PCR-based analyses of low concentration DNA. In particular, environmental DNA (eDNA) studies require sensitive and reliable methods to detect rare and cryptic species through shed genetic material in environmental samples. Current strategies for assessing detection limits of eDNA are either too stringent or subjective, possibly resulting in biased estimates of species’ presence. Here, a conservative LOD analysis grounded in analytical chemistry is proposed to correct for overestimated DNA concentrations predominantly caused by the concentration plateau, a nonlinear relationship between expected and measured DNA concentrations. We have used statistical criteria to establish formal mathematical models for both quantitative and droplet digital PCR. To assess the method, a new Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) TaqMan assay was developed and tested on both PCR platforms using eDNA in water samples. The LOD adjustment reduced Grass Carp occupancy and detection estimates while increasing uncertainty – indicating that caution needs to be applied to eDNA data without LOD correction. Compared to quantitative PCR, digital PCR had higher occurrence estimates due to increased sensitivity and dilution of inhibitors at low concentrations. Without accurate LOD correction, species occurrence and detection probabilities based on eDNA estimates are prone to a source of bias that cannot be reduced by an increase in sample size or PCR replicates. Other applications also could benefit from a standardized LOD such as GMO food analysis, and forensic and clinical diagnostics.

  7. Survey and visual detection of Zaire ebolavirus in clinical samples targeting the nucleoprotein gene in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV can lead to severe hemorrhagic fever with a high risk of death in humans and other primates. To guide treatment and prevent spread of the viral infection, a rapid and sensitive detection method is required for clinical samples. Here, we described and evaluated a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP method to detect Zaire ebolavirus using the nucleoprotein gene (NP as a target sequence. Two different techniques were used, a calcein/Mn2+ complex chromogenic method and real-time turbidity monitoring. The RT-LAMP assay detected the NP target sequence with a limit of 4.56 copies/μL within 45 min under 61°C, a similar even or increase in sensitivity than that of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Additionally, all pseudoviral particles or non- Zaire EBOV genomes were negative for LAMP detection, indicating that the assay was highly specific for EBOV. To appraise the availability of the RT-LAMP method for use in clinical diagnosis of EBOV, of 417 blood or swab samples collected from patients with clinically suspected infections in Sierra Leone, 307 were identified for RT-LAMP-based surveillance of EBOV. Therefore, the highly specific and sensitive RT-LAMP method allows the rapid detection of EBOV, and is a suitable tool for clinical screening, diagnosis, and primary quarantine purposes.

  8. K2: A NEW METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF GALAXY CLUSTERS BASED ON CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY MULTICOLOR IMAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanjavur, Karun; Willis, Jon; Crampton, David

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new method, K2, optimized for the detection of galaxy clusters in multicolor images. Based on the Red Sequence approach, K2 detects clusters using simultaneous enhancements in both colors and position. The detection significance is robustly determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and through comparison with available cluster catalogs based on two different optical methods, and also on X-ray data. K2 also provides quantitative estimates of the candidate clusters' richness and photometric redshifts. Initially, K2 was applied to the two color (gri) 161 deg 2 images of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Wide (CFHTLS-W) data. Our simulations show that the false detection rate for these data, at our selected threshold, is only ∼1%, and that the cluster catalogs are ∼80% complete up to a redshift of z = 0.6 for Fornax-like and richer clusters and to z ∼ 0.3 for poorer clusters. Based on the g-, r-, and i-band photometric catalogs of the Terapix T05 release, 35 clusters/deg 2 are detected, with 1-2 Fornax-like or richer clusters every 2 deg 2 . Catalogs containing data for 6144 galaxy clusters have been prepared, of which 239 are rich clusters. These clusters, especially the latter, are being searched for gravitational lenses-one of our chief motivations for cluster detection in CFHTLS. The K2 method can be easily extended to use additional color information and thus improve overall cluster detection to higher redshifts. The complete set of K2 cluster catalogs, along with the supplementary catalogs for the member galaxies, are available on request from the authors.

  9. Use of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey to detect a subgroup of fibromyalgia patients with psychological dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Oswald, J; Salemi, S; Michel, B A; Sprott, H

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the in-depth application of the Short-Form-(SF)-36 Health Survey to score the general well-being in fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) patients. Quality of life was evaluated in 12 patients with FS. With respect to mental well-being (social functioning, role limitation due to emotional health problems, and mental health), two distinguished groups were found concerning psychological functioning. One group (n = 8) demonstrated psychological dysfunction, where...

  10. A survey of motif finding Web tools for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Tam L; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2014-02-20

    ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) has provided the advantage for finding motifs as ChIP-Seq experiments narrow down the motif finding to binding site locations. Recent motif finding tools facilitate the motif detection by providing user-friendly Web interface. In this work, we reviewed nine motif finding Web tools that are capable for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data. We showed each motif finding Web tool has its own advantages for detecting motifs that other tools may not discover. We recommended the users to use multiple motif finding Web tools that implement different algorithms for obtaining significant motifs, overlapping resemble motifs, and non-overlapping motifs. Finally, we provided our suggestions for future development of motif finding Web tool that better assists researchers for finding motifs in ChIP-Seq data.

  11. Low tuberculosis notification in mountainous Vietnam is not due to low case detection: a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vree, M.; Hoa, N. B.; Sy, D. N.; Co, N. V.; Cobelens, F. G. J.; Borgdorff, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies show that tuberculosis notification declines with increasing altitude. This can be due to declining incidence or declining case detection. In Vietnam notification rates of new smear-positive tuberculosis in the central mountainous provinces (26/100,000 population) are

  12. Neural mechanisms underlying the effects of face-based affective signals on memory for faces: a tentative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In our daily lives, we form some impressions of other people. Although those impressions are affected by many factors, face-based affective signals such as facial expression, facial attractiveness, or trustworthiness are important. Previous psychological studies have demonstrated the impact of facial impressions on remembering other people, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying this psychological process. The purpose of this article is to review recent functional MRI (fMRI) studies to investigate the effects of face-based affective signals including facial expression, facial attractiveness, and trustworthiness on memory for faces, and to propose a tentative concept for understanding this affective-cognitive interaction. On the basis of the aforementioned research, three brain regions are potentially involved in the processing of face-based affective signals. The first candidate is the amygdala, where activity is generally modulated by both affectively positive and negative signals from faces. Activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as the second candidate, increases as a function of perceived positive signals from faces; whereas activity in the insular cortex, as the third candidate, reflects a function of face-based negative signals. In addition, neuroscientific studies have reported that the three regions are functionally connected to the memory-related hippocampal regions. These findings suggest that the effects of face-based affective signals on memory for faces could be modulated by interactions between the regions associated with the processing of face-based affective signals and the hippocampus as a memory-related region. PMID:22837740

  13. A simple tentative model of the losses caused by the Senegalese grasshopper, Oedaleus senegalensis (Krauss 1877) to millet in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal, Amadou Bocar; Ouambama, Zakaria; Dieng, Ibnou

    2015-01-01

    based on these parameters was developed. The yield was significantly correlated to both the density of O. senegalensis and the defoliation level on 17 September. The best model to foresee millet yield involved grasshopper density and cumulated rainfall and may be regarded a tentative method in O...

  14. Extragalactic molecular line surveys: the starburst galaxy NGC253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, S.; Mauersberger, R.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Henkel, C.; García-Burillo, S.

    Figure 1 shows the first spectral line survey towards an extragalactic source, the starburst galaxy NGC253. The scan, carried out at the IRAM 30m telescope, covers ~86% of the observable 2mm atmospheric window from 129.1 to 175.2GHz. A total of ~ 100 spectral features have been identified as transitions from 25 different molecular species. Ten out of these 25 molecules have been detected for the first time towards a starbust galaxy. NO, NS, SO2, H2S and H2CS were reported by Martín et al.(2003), Martín et al.(2005) while C2S, CH2NH, NH2CN, HOCO+ and C3H are tentatively detected in the survey. These new detections implies an increase of ~ 40% in the 27 molecular species previosly detected outside the galaxy (Mauersberger & Henkel(1993), Mauersberger et al.(1995), Sage & Ziurys(1995), Heikkila et al.(1999).) Additionaly, DNC and N2D+, two deuterated species never obseved in the extragalactic ISM, are tentatively identified. The molecular abundances derived for each species in NGC253 have been compared with five Galactic sources known to be prototypes of different types of chemistry. The chemical complexity of NGC253 resembles closely that observed towards prototypical Galactic Center molecular clouds (SgrB2(OH) in, thought to be mainly dominated by low velocity shocks Martín-Pintado et al.(2001). This comparison certainly indicates that the chemistry of the molecular environment within the nuclear region of NGC253 and that in Galactic Center molecular clouds are driven by similar physical processes. Also a comparison has been performed with five selected prominent galaxies which clearly shows up the chemical differenciation between nuclei of galaxies. The chemical complexity of IC342, and also that of NGC4945 except for the observed lack of SiO, clearly resemble that of NGC253. On the other hand, it is remarkable the different chemical complexity observed between the starburst nuclei within NGC253 and M82. This difference has been interpreted in terms of the

  15. Survey and rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples targeting the rcsA gene in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derong eDong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a wide-spread nosocomial pathogen. A rapid and sensitive molecular method for the detection of K. pneumoniae in clinical samples is needed to guide therapeutic treatment. In this study, we first described a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the rapid detection of capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulating gene rcsA from K. pneumoniae in clinical samples by using two methods including real-time turbidity monitoring and fluorescence detection to assess the reaction. Then dissemination of K. pneumoniae strains was investigated from ICU patients in three top hospitals in Beijing, China. The results showed that the detection limit of the LAMP method was 0.115 pg/µl DNA within 60 min under isothermal conditions (61°C, a 100-fold increase in sensitivity compared with conventional PCR. All 30 non- K. pneumoniae strains tested were negative for LAMP detection, indicating the high specificity of the LAMP reaction. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay to clinical diagnosis, of 110 clinical sputum samples collected from ICU patients with clinically suspected multi-resistant infections in China, a total of 32 K. pneumoniae isolates were identified for LAMP-based surveillance of rcsA. All isolates belonged to nine different K. pneumoniae multilocus sequence typing (MLST groups. Strikingly, of the 32 K. pneumoniae strains, 18 contained the Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC-encoding gene blaKPC-2 and had high resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Moreover, K. pneumoniae WJ-64 was discovered to contain blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 genes simultaneously in the isolate. Our data showed the high prevalence of blaKPC-2 among K. pneumoniae and co-occurrence of many resistant genes in the clinical strains signal a rapid and continuing evolution of K. pneumoniae. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid and sensitive visual K. pneumoniae detection LAMP assay, which could be a useful tool for clinical screening

  16. To detect cycle slip for GNSS medium-long baseline in real time marine surveys using fitting method by a selection of the parameter weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Distance-related errors complicate the resolution of real-time ambiguity in medium-long baseline marine surveys. Therefore, detection and recovery of cycle slips in real time is required to ensure high accuracy of global navigation satellite system positioning and navigation in marine surveys. To resolve this, an improved method was presented, where linear combinations of the triple-differenced (TD) between carriers L1 and L2 were formed for a wide lane and free ionosphere. To overcome severe ill-conditioned problems of the normal equation, the fitting method by a selection of the parameter weights was used. suggested the construction of a regularized matrix by combining a priori information of known coordinates of reference stations, followed by the determination of the corresponding regularized parameter. A float solution was calculated for the TD ambiguity. The search cycle slip (TD integer ambiguity) was obtained using the least-squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment (LAMBDA) method. Using our method, cycle slips of several reference station-baselines with lengths of a few hundred to one thousand kilometers were detected in real-time. The results were consistent with professional software, with a success rate of 100%.

  17. Detection of prostate cancer by an FDG-PET cancer screening program: results from a Japanese nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Senda, Michio; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Terauchi, Takashi; Inoue, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze detection rates and effectiveness of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) cancer screening program for prostate cancer in Japan, which is defined as a cancer-screening program for subjects without known cancer. It contains FDG-PET aimed at detection of cancer at an early stage with or without additional screening tests such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 92,255 asymptomatic men underwent the FDG-PET cancer screening program. Of these, 504 cases with findings of possible prostate cancer in any screening method were analyzed. Of the 504 cases, 165 were verified as having prostate cancer. Of these, only 61 cases were detected by FDG-PET, which result in 37.0% relative sensitivity and 32.8% positive predictive value (PPV). The sensitivity of PET/computed tomography (CT) scanner was higher than that of dedicated PET (44.0% vs. 20.4%). However, the sensitivity of FDG-PET was lower than that of PSA and pelvic MRI. FDG-PET did not contribute to improving the sensitivity and PPV when performed as combined screening. PSA should be included in FDG-PET cancer screening programs to screen for prostate cancer

  18. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of 86 volatile organic compounds in water by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, including detections less than reporting limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Brooke F.; Rose, Donna L.; Noriega, Mary C.; Murtaugh, Lucinda K.; Abney, Sonja R.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents precision and accuracy data for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the nanogram-per-liter range, including aromatic hydrocarbons, reformulated fuel components, and halogenated hydrocarbons using purge and trap capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. One-hundred-four VOCs were initially tested. Of these, 86 are suitable for determination by this method. Selected data are provided for the 18 VOCs that were not included. This method also allows for the reporting of semiquantitative results for tentatively identified VOCs not included in the list of method compounds. Method detection limits, method performance data, preservation study results, and blank results are presented. The authors describe a procedure for reporting low-concentration detections at less than the reporting limit. The nondetection value (NDV) is introduced as a statistically defined reporting limit designed to limit false positives and false negatives to less than 1 percent. Nondetections of method compounds are reported as ?less than NDV.? Positive detections measured at less than NDV are reported as estimated concentrations to alert the data user to decreased confidence in accurate quantitation. Instructions are provided for analysts to report data at less than the reporting limits. This method can support the use of either method reporting limits that censor detections at lower concentrations or the use of NDVs as reporting limits. The data-reporting strategy for providing analytical results at less than the reporting limit is a result of the increased need to identify the presence or absence of environmental contaminants in water samples at increasingly lower concentrations. Long-term method detection limits (LTMDLs) for 86 selected compounds range from 0.013 to 2.452 micrograms per liter (?g/L) and differ from standard method detection limits (MDLs) in that the LTMDLs include the long-term variance of multiple instruments, multiple operators, and multiple

  19. SPITZER ULTRA FAINT SURVEY PROGRAM (SURFS UP). II. IRAC-DETECTED LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AT 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 BEHIND STRONG-LENSING CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Bradač, Maruša; Hoag, Austin; Cain, Benjamin; Lubin, L. M.; Knight, Robert I. [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lemaux, Brian C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Brammer, Gabriel B. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Castellano, Marco; Amorin, Ricardo; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Schmidt, Kasper B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Schrabback, Tim [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf Dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Linden, Anja von der, E-mail: khhuang@ucdavis.edu, E-mail: astrokuang@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We study the stellar population properties of the IRAC-detected 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 galaxy candidates from the Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program. Using the Lyman Break selection technique, we find a total of 17 galaxy candidates at 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 from Hubble Space Telescope images (including the full-depth images from the Hubble Frontier Fields program for MACS 1149 and MACS 0717) that have detections at signal-to-noise ratios  ≥ 3 in at least one of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm channels. According to the best mass models available for the surveyed galaxy clusters, these IRAC-detected galaxy candidates are magnified by factors of ∼1.2–5.5. Due to the magnification of the foreground galaxy clusters, the rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes M{sub 1600} are between −21.2 and −18.9 mag, while their intrinsic stellar masses are between 2 × 10{sup 8}M{sub ⊙} and 2.9 × 10{sup 9}M{sub ⊙}. We identify two Lyα emitters in our sample from the Keck DEIMOS spectra, one at z{sub Lyα} = 6.76 (in RXJ 1347) and one at z{sub Lyα} = 6.32 (in MACS 0454). We find that 4 out of 17 z ≳ 6 galaxy candidates are favored by z ≲ 1 solutions when IRAC fluxes are included in photometric redshift fitting. We also show that IRAC [3.6]–[4.5] color, when combined with photometric redshift, can be used to identify galaxies which likely have strong nebular emission lines or obscured active galactic nucleus contributions within certain redshift windows.

  20. A survey and description of candidate technologies to support single shell tank waste retrieval, leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Wegener, W.H.; Iwatate, D.F.

    1995-09-01

    This report was initially designed to provide a comprehensive review of potential leak detection technologies (LDTs). To this end, the report would contain several sections outlining the selection process. The purpose was twofold:(l) the reader would have a clear understanding of why specific technologies were recommended or not recommended, and (2) the reader could apply the same process in the future as new LDTs become available. Curtailment of project scope has prevented the development of the requisite judging criteria. The report has been modified accordingly. Section 2 of this report presents the baseline and guiding assumptions that were used to judge the LDTs. These assumptions include the environment where the technologies would be employed, the potential leak detection targets, and anticipated leak mechanisms. Section 3 presents a brief review of the methods used to arrive at the recommended LDTs. It also includes a description of the different technology families considered. Section 4 presents the recommended LDTs along with detailed descriptions of each that include sensitivities, operating parameters, and costs

  1. A survey of existing and emerging technologies for external detection of liquid leaks at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.

    1994-10-01

    During the history of the Hanford Site, many structures were built that stored and transported liquids used for the production mission; some of these structures are still active. Active structures include underground storage tanks retention basins, and pipes and pipelines. Many of the liquids stored and transported in these structures are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. Any leakage of liquids from active structures, has the added potential to mobilize contaminants in the unsaturated zone. Therefore, it is beneficial to monitor these structures for leaks. The purpose of tills report is to catalog existing and emerging technologies that have potential for the external monitoring of liquid leaks. The report will focus primarily on the needs at the Hanford Site tank farms that are located in the 200 Areas, but will also be relevant to other Hanford Site facilities. Leak detection systems, both external and internal, are currently used at some Hanford facilities. This report focuses on the detection of leaks as they migrate into the soils surrounding the facilities.

  2. A survey of existing and emerging technologies for external detection of liquid leaks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.

    1994-10-01

    During the history of the Hanford Site, many structures were built that stored and transported liquids used for the production mission; some of these structures are still active. Active structures include underground storage tanks retention basins, and pipes and pipelines. Many of the liquids stored and transported in these structures are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. Any leakage of liquids from active structures, has the added potential to mobilize contaminants in the unsaturated zone. Therefore, it is beneficial to monitor these structures for leaks. The purpose of tills report is to catalog existing and emerging technologies that have potential for the external monitoring of liquid leaks. The report will focus primarily on the needs at the Hanford Site tank farms that are located in the 200 Areas, but will also be relevant to other Hanford Site facilities. Leak detection systems, both external and internal, are currently used at some Hanford facilities. This report focuses on the detection of leaks as they migrate into the soils surrounding the facilities

  3. Fault detection by Turam TEM survey. Numerical model studies and a case history; TEM ho Turam sokutei haichi ni yoru danso kenshutsu no kokoromi. Model keisan to jisshirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T. [Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science; Takeuchi, A. [Toyama University, Toyama (Japan). Faculty of Science; He, P. [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    With an objective to detect faults estimated to exist along the Shigesumi valley in the Kamioka mine, discussions were given by using electromagnetic survey, which uses the Turam measurement arrangement based on the TEM method, and three-dimensional model calculations. The Turam measurement arrangement, which installs transmission loop fixedly, is used to identify nature and distribution of electrically conductive objects upon noticing abnormal portions in magnetic fields in the measurement data. In the model calculation, the plate model calculation method and the FDTD method were used, and so was the calculation code TEM3DL. The result revealed that strong topographical influence is seen from steep V-shaped valley existing along the traverse line in the measurement data, but an abnormal resistivity band accompanying remarkable distortion in the curve was detected. According to the result of the model calculation, anomaly detection may be found difficult in locations where a low resistivity band has not grown enough locally. It was possible from these facts to assume a model in which the low resistivity band exists directly below the Shigesumi valley, suggesting existence of faults. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  4. "Anterior convergent" chest probing in rapid ultrasound transducer positioning versus formal chest ultrasonography to detect pneumothorax during the primary survey of hospital trauma patients: a diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Behrad; Haji, Houman Seyedjavady

    2015-01-01

    Occult pneumothorax represents a diagnostic pitfall during the primary survey of trauma patients, particularly if these patients require early positive pressure ventilation. This study investigated the accuracy of our proposed rapid model of ultrasound transducer positioning during the primary survey of trauma patients after their arrival at the hospital. This diagnostic trial was conducted over 12 months and was based on the results of 84 ultrasound (US) exams performed on patients with severe multiple trauma. Our index test (US) was used to detect pneumothorax in four pre-defined locations on the anterior of each hemi-thorax using the "Anterior Convergent" approach, and its performance was limited to the primary survey. Consecutively, patients underwent chest-computed tomography (CT) with or without chest radiography. The diagnostic findings of both chest radiography and chest ultrasounds were compared to the gold-standard test (CT). The diagnostic sensitivity was 78 % for US and 36.4 % for chest radiography (p radiography (not significant); the positive predictive values were 74 % for US and 80 % for chest radiography (not significant); the negative predictive values were 94 % for US and 87 % for chest radiography (not significant); the positive likelihood ratio was 10 for US and 18 for chest radiography (p = 0.007); and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.25 for US and 0.65 for chest radiography (p = 0.001). The mean required time for performing the new method was 64 ± 10 s. An absence of the expected diffused dynamic view among ultrasound images obtained from patients with pneumothorax was also observed. We designated this phenomenon "Gestalt Lung Recession." "Anterior convergent" chest US probing represents a brief but efficient model that provides clinicians a safe and accurate exam and adequate resuscitation during critical minutes of the primary survey without interrupting other medical staff activities taking place around the trauma

  5. Use of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey to detect a subgroup of fibromyalgia patients with psychological dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Jürg; Salemi, Souzan; Michel, Beat A; Sprott, Haiko

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the in-depth application of the Short-Form-(SF)-36 Health Survey to score the general well-being in fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) patients. Quality of life was evaluated in 12 patients with FS. With respect to mental well-being (social functioning, role limitation due to emotional health problems, and mental health), two distinguished groups were found concerning psychological functioning. One group (n = 8) demonstrated psychological dysfunction, whereas the other (n = 4) showed normal psychological scores. Physical well-being scores (physical functioning, role limitation due to physical health problems, bodily pain, general health, and vitality) did not differ between FS patients but were altogether below the normal range. Regarding the psychological scores of the two groups of patients, SF-36 can be used to differentiate between patients with and without psychological dysfunction independent of pain. Therefore, we propose that the SF-36 could be of help to provide the most adequate therapy to achieve an optimal outcome in patients with FS and psychological disturbances.

  6. Active Galaxy Host Properties from a New H I 21-cm Survey of the Swift BAT-detected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lisa M.; George, E. R.; Zauderer, B.; Darling, J.

    2013-01-01

    Many questions remain open on how central supermassive black holes and their host galaxies form and affect each other's evolution. In order to answer these questions, we need to understand the observational properties of a complete sample of active galaxies. To this end, we have been collecting and studying multi-wavelength spectroscopy of a unique sample of active galaxies selected in the very hard X-rays with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. Here we present an analysis of the 21-cm H I spectra, which we observed with the 100-m Green Bank Telescope in 2012, for a sample of 95 Swift-detected AGN. With this complete sample, we show evidence for differences in the host cold gas mass content between obscured and unobscured AGN.

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of Rinorea dentata (Violaceae) used in South-Western Nigerian ethnomedicine and detection of cyclotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attah, Alfred F; Hellinger, Roland; Sonibare, Mubo A; Moody, Jones O; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan; Gruber, Christian W

    2016-02-17

    People living in the tropical rain forest of South-Western Nigeria use Rinorea dentata (P. Beauv.) Kuntze (Violaceae) in ethno-veterinary medicine to facilitate parturition. There are no evidence-based pharmacological investigations for the uterotonic activity of this plant. (i) Collection of data about the ethnopharmacological uses of R. dentata and evaluation of its uses and applications in health care; (ii) determining potential uterotonic effects in vitro, and (iii) chemical characterization of R. dentata, which is a member of the Violaceae family known to express circular cystine-knot peptides, called cyclotides. The ethnopharmacological use of R. dentata in settlement camps within the area J4 of Omo forest has been investigated by semi-structured questionnaires and open interviews. Use index analysis has been performed by seven quantitative statistical models. Respondents' claim on the beneficial ethno-veterinary application of the plant to aid parturition has been investigated in vitro by myometrial contractility organ bath assays. The bioactive plant extract was screened by chemical derivatization and mass spectrometry-based peptidomics using reversed-phase HPLC fractionation and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Based on the survey analysis, medicinal preparations of R. dentata have been used for anti-microbial and anti-malaria purpose in humans, and for aiding parturition in farm animals. The latter application was mentioned by one out of six respondents who claimed to use this plant for any medicinal purpose. The plant extract exhibited a weak uterotonic effect using organ bath studies. The plant contains cyclotides and the peptide riden A has been identified by de novo amino acid sequencing using mass spectrometry. Few dwellers around the settlement camps of the tropical forest of Omo (Nigeria) use R. dentata for various health problems in traditional veterinary and human medicine. The weak uterotonic effect of the cyclotide-rich extract is in agreement with the

  8. Eleven Years of Data on the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Medical Student Version (JSE-S): Proxy Norm Data and Tentative Cutoff Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to provide typical descriptive statistics, score distributions and percentile ranks of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Medical Student version (JSE-S) of male and female medical school matriculants to serve as proxy norm data and tentative cutoff scores. The participants were 2,637 students (1,336 women and 1,301 men) who matriculated at Sidney Kimmel (formerly Jefferson) Medical College between 2002 and 2012, and completed the JSE at the beginning of medical school. Information extracted from descriptive statistics, score distributions and percentile ranks for male and female matriculants were used to develop proxy norm data and tentative cutoff scores. The score distributions of the JSE tended to be moderately skewed and platykurtic. Women obtained a significantly higher mean score (116.2 ± 9.7) than men (112.3 ± 10.8) on the JSE-S (t2,635 = 9.9, p < 0.01). It was suggested that percentile ranks can be used as proxy norm data. The tentative cutoff score to identify low scorers was ≤ 95 for men and ≤ 100 for women. Our findings provide norm data and cutoff scores for admission decisions under certain conditions and for identifying students in need of enhancing their empathy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Perkinsus olseni and P. chesapeaki detected in a survey of perkinsosis of various clam species in Galicia (NW Spain) using PCR-DGGE as a screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilo, Andrea; Pintado, José; Villalba, Antonio; Abollo, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    A survey on perkinsosis was performed involving 15 locations scattered along the Galician coast (NW Spain) and four clam species with high market value (Ruditapes decussatus, Ruditapes philippinarum, Venerupis corrugata and Polititapes rhomboides). The prevalence of Perkinsus parasites was estimated by PCR using genus-specific primers. The highest percentage of PCR-positive cases for perkinsosis corresponded to clams R. decussatus and V. corrugata, while lower values were detected in R. philippinarum and no case was found in P. rhomboides. The discrimination of Perkinsus species was performed by PCR-RFLP and by a new PCR-DGGE method developed in this study. Perkinsus olseni was identified in every clam species, except in P. rhomboides, using both PCR-DGGE and PCR-RFLP. Additionally, Perkinsus chesapeaki was only detected by PCR-DGGE infecting two Manila clams R. philippinarum from the same location, reporting the first case in Galicia. P. chesapeaki identification was further confirmed by in situ hybridisation assay and phylogenetic analysis of ITS region and LSU rDNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The ALMA Frontier Fields Survey. I. 1.1 mm continuum detections in Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403 and MACS J1149.5+2223

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, J.; Bauer, F. E.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Kneissl, R.; Villard, E.; Carvajal, R.; Kim, S.; Laporte, N.; Anguita, T.; Aravena, M.; Bouwens, R. J.; Bradley, L.; Carrasco, M.; Demarco, R.; Ford, H.; Ibar, E.; Infante, L.; Messias, H.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Nagar, N.; Padilla, N.; Treister, E.; Troncoso, P.; Zitrin, A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Dusty star-forming galaxies are among the most prodigious systems at high redshift (z > 1), characterized by high star-formation rates and huge dust reservoirs. The bright end of this population has been well characterized in recent years, but considerable uncertainties remain for fainter dusty star-forming galaxies, which are responsible for the bulk of star formation at high redshift and thus play a key role in galaxy growth and evolution. Aims: In this first paper of our series, we describe our methods for finding high redshift faint dusty galaxies using millimeter observations with ALMA. Methods: We obtained ALMA 1.1 mm mosaic images for three strong-lensing galaxy clusters from the Frontier Fields Survey, which constitute some of the best studied gravitational lenses to date. The ≈2' × 2' mosaics overlap with the deep HST WFC3/IR footprints and encompass the high magnification regions of each cluster for maximum intrinsic source sensitivity. The combination of extremely high ALMA sensitivity and the magnification power of these clusters allows us to systematically probe the sub-mJy population of dusty star-forming galaxies over a large surveyed area. Results: We present a description of the reduction and analysis of the ALMA continuum observations for the galaxy clusters Abell 2744 (z = 0.308), MACS J0416.1-2403 (z = 0.396) and MACS J1149.5+2223 (z = 0.543), for which we reach observed rms sensitivities of 55, 59 and 71 μJy beam-1 respectively. We detect 12 dusty star-forming galaxies at S/N ≥ 5.0 across the three clusters, all of them presenting coincidence with near-infrared detected counterparts in the HST images. None of the sources fall close to the lensing caustics, thus they are not strongly lensed. The observed 1.1 mm flux densities for the total sample of galaxies range from 0.41 to 2.82 mJy, with observed effective radii spanning ≲0.̋05 to 0.̋37 ± 0.̋21 . The lensing-corrected sizes of the detected sources appear to be in the

  11. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Search for [CII] Line and Dust Emission in 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, M.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Bouwens, R.; Oesch, P. A.; Carilli, C. L.; Bauer, F. E.; Da Cunha, E.; Daddi, E.; Gónzalez-López, J.; Ivison, R. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Weiss, A.; Anguita, T.; Bacon, R.; Bell, E.; Bertoldi, F.; Cortes, P.; Cox, P.; Hodge, J.; Ibar, E.; Inami, H.; Infante, L.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Ota, K.; Popping, G.; van der Werf, P.; Wagg, J.; Fudamoto, Y.

    2016-12-01

    We present a search for [C II] line and dust continuum emission from optical dropout galaxies at z > 6 using ASPECS, our Atacama Large Millimeter submillimeter Array Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-deep Field (UDF). Our observations, which cover the frequency range of 212-272 GHz, encompass approximately the range of 6 4.5σ, two of which correspond to blind detections with no optical counterparts. At this significance level, our statistical analysis shows that about 60% of our candidates are expected to be spurious. For one of our blindly selected [C II] line candidates, we tentatively detect the CO(6-5) line in our parallel 3 mm line scan. None of the line candidates are individually detected in the 1.2 mm continuum. A stack of all [C II] candidates results in a tentative detection with S 1.2 mm = 14 ± 5 μJy. This implies a dust-obscured star-formation rate (SFR) of (3 ± 1) M ⊙ yr-1. We find that the two highest-SFR objects have candidate [C II] lines with luminosities that are consistent with the low-redshift L [C II] versus SFR relation. The other candidates have significantly higher [C II] luminosities than expected from their UV-based SFR. At the current sensitivity, it is unclear whether the majority of these sources are intrinsically bright [C II] emitters, or spurious sources. If only one of our line candidates was real (a scenario greatly favored by our statistical analysis), we find a source density for [C II] emitters at 6 universe.

  12. Electrochemical detection of magnetically-entrapped DNA sequences from complex samples by multiplexed enzymatic labelling: Application to a transgenic food/feed quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares-Palenzuela, C L; Martín-Clemente, J P; Lobo-Castañón, M J; López-Ruiz, B

    2017-03-01

    Monitoring of genetically modified organisms in food and feed demands molecular techniques that deliver accurate quantitative results. Electrochemical DNA detection has been widely described in this field, yet most reports convey qualitative data and application in processed food and feed samples is limited. Herein, the applicability of an electrochemical multiplex assay for DNA quantification in complex samples is assessed. The method consists of the simultaneous magnetic entrapment via sandwich hybridisation of two DNA sequences (event-specific and taxon-specific) onto the surface of magnetic microparticles, followed by bienzymatic labelling. As proof-of-concept, we report its application in a transgenic food/feed survey where relative quantification (two-target approach) of Roundup Ready Soybean® (RRS) was performed in food and feed. Quantitative coupling to end-point PCR was performed and calibration was achieved from 22 and 243 DNA copies spanning two orders of magnitude for the event and taxon-specific sequences, respectively. We collected a total of 33 soybean-containing samples acquired in local supermarkets, four out of which were found to contain undeclared presence of genetically modified soybean. A real-time PCR method was used to verify these findings. High correlation was found between results, indicating the suitability of the proposed multiplex method for food and feed monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A field survey using LAMP assay for detection of Schistosoma mansoni in a low-transmission area of schistosomiasis in Umbuzeiro, Brazil: Assessment in human and snail samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandasegui, Javier; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Muro, Antonio; Simões Barbosa, Constança; Lopes de Melo, Fabio; Loyo, Rodrigo; de Souza Gomes, Elainne Christine

    2018-03-01

    In Brazil, schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health relevance, mainly in poor areas where Schistosoma mansoni is the only human species encountered and Biomphalaria straminea is one of the intermediate host snails. A nested-PCR based on a specific mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region has been successfully developed and applied as a reference method in Brazil for S. mansoni detection, mainly in host snails for epidemiological studies. The amplification efficiency of LAMP is known to be higher than PCR. The present work aimed to assess the utility of our previously described SmMIT-LAMP assay for S. mansoni detection in human stool and snail samples in a low-transmission area of schistosomiasis in the municipality of Umbuzeiro, Paraíba State, Northeast Region of Brazil. A total of 427 human stool samples were collected during June-July 2016 in the municipality of Umbuzeiro and an overall prevalence of 3.04% (13/427) resulted positive by duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear. A total of 1,175 snails identified as Biomphalaria straminea were collected from 14 breeding sites along the Paraíba riverbank and distributed in 46 pools. DNA from human stool samples and pooled snails was extracted using the phenol/chloroform method. When performing the SmMIT-LAMP assay a total of 49/162 (30.24%) stool samples resulted positive, including 12/13 (92.31%) that were Kato-Katz positive and 37/149 (24.83%) previously Kato-Katz negative. By nested-PCR, only 1/46 pooled DNA snail samples was positive. By SmMIT-LAMP assay, the same sample also resulted positive and an additional one was positive from a different breeding site. Data of human and snail surveys were used to build risk maps of schistosomiasis incidence using kernel density analysis. This is the first study in which a LAMP assay was evaluated in both human stool and snail samples from a low-transmission schistosomiasis-endemic area. Our SmMIT-LAMP proved to be much more efficient in detection of S

  14. MERCURY IN SOIL AND ATMOSPHERE AS A PATHFINDER ELEMENT FOR ISTRIAN BAUXITE DEPOSITS — A TENTATIVE EXPLORATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav A. Palinkaš

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available ID order to find out a secondary dispersion halo of mercury and some other trace elements around the bauxite ore bodies, the authors sampled terra rossa along traverses over them. At the same time, mercury in air is measured and expressed by relative values (mA using Zeeman mercury vapor analyser. Mercury in soil was determined by flameless atomic absorption method and Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Co and Mn by standard AA techniques. The results are equivocal since the natural vertical soil profiles are severely disturbed on traverses due to different land use, what should be taken into consideration during continuation of the survey.

  15. A visual and acoustic survey for harbour porpoises off North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in southern Europe and along the Atlantic African coast is poorly understood, with tentative assessments suggesting a discrete West African population with a northern limit around the Straits of Gibraltar. This study describes visual and acoustic surveys for porpoises ...

  16. If you're going to be a leader, at least act like it! Prejudice towards women who are tentative in leader roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Renata; Bain, Paul G; David, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Role congruity theory predicts prejudice towards women who meet the agentic requirements of the leader role. In line with recent findings indicating greater acceptance of agentic behaviour from women, we find evidence for a more subtle form of prejudice towards women who fail to display agency in leader roles. Using a classic methodology, the agency of male and female leaders was manipulated using assertive or tentative speech, presented through written (Study 1, N = 167) or verbal (Study 2, N = 66) communications. Consistent with predictions, assertive women were as likeable and influential as assertive men, while being tentative in leadership reduced the likeability and influence of women, but not of men. Although approval of agentic behaviour from women in leadership reflects progress, evidence that women are quickly singled out for disapproval if they fail to show agency is important for understanding how they continue to be at a distinct disadvantage to men in leader roles. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  17. The Prevalence, Correlates, Detection and Control of Diabetes among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles Salas

    Full Text Available Little is known of the epidemiology of diabetes among older people in low and middle income countries. We aimed to study and compare prevalence, social patterning, correlates, detection, treatment and control of diabetes among older people in Latin America, India, China and Nigeria.Cross-sectional surveys in 13 catchment area sites in nine countries. Diagnosed diabetes was assessed in all sites through self-reported diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was assessed in seven Latin American sites through fasting blood samples (glucose > = 7 mmol/L.Total diabetes prevalence in catchment sites in Cuba (prevalence 24.2%, SMR 116, Puerto Rico (43.4%, 197, and urban (27.0%, 125, and rural Mexico (23.7%, 111 already exceeds that in the USA, while that in Venezuela (20.9%, 100 is similar. Diagnosed diabetes prevalence varied very widely, between low prevalences in sites in rural China (0.9%, rural India (6.6% and Nigeria (6.0%. and 32.1% in Puerto Rico, explained mainly by access to health services. Treatment coverage varied substantially between sites. Diabetes control (40 to 61% of those diagnosed was modest in the Latin American sites where this was studied. Diabetes was independently associated with less education, but more assets. Hypertension, central obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia, but not hypercholesterolaemia were consistently associated with total diabetes.Diabetes prevalence is already high in most sites. Identifying undiagnosed cases is essential to quantify population burden, particularly in least developed settings where diagnosis is uncommon. Metabolic risk factors and associated lifestyles may play an important part in aetiology, but this requires confirmation with longitudinal data. Given the high prevalence among older people, more population research is indicated to quantify the impact of diabetes, and to monitor the effect of prevention and health system strengthening on prevalence, treatment and control.

  18. The Prevalence, Correlates, Detection and Control of Diabetes among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Aquiles; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Sosa, Ana L; Uwakwe, Richard; Williams, Joseph D; Jotheeswaran, A T; Liu, Zhaorui; Lopez Medina, A M; Salinas-Contreras, Rosa Maria; Prince, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the epidemiology of diabetes among older people in low and middle income countries. We aimed to study and compare prevalence, social patterning, correlates, detection, treatment and control of diabetes among older people in Latin America, India, China and Nigeria. Cross-sectional surveys in 13 catchment area sites in nine countries. Diagnosed diabetes was assessed in all sites through self-reported diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was assessed in seven Latin American sites through fasting blood samples (glucose > = 7 mmol/L). Total diabetes prevalence in catchment sites in Cuba (prevalence 24.2%, SMR 116), Puerto Rico (43.4%, 197), and urban (27.0%, 125), and rural Mexico (23.7%, 111) already exceeds that in the USA, while that in Venezuela (20.9%, 100) is similar. Diagnosed diabetes prevalence varied very widely, between low prevalences in sites in rural China (0.9%), rural India (6.6%) and Nigeria (6.0%). and 32.1% in Puerto Rico, explained mainly by access to health services. Treatment coverage varied substantially between sites. Diabetes control (40 to 61% of those diagnosed) was modest in the Latin American sites where this was studied. Diabetes was independently associated with less education, but more assets. Hypertension, central obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia, but not hypercholesterolaemia were consistently associated with total diabetes. Diabetes prevalence is already high in most sites. Identifying undiagnosed cases is essential to quantify population burden, particularly in least developed settings where diagnosis is uncommon. Metabolic risk factors and associated lifestyles may play an important part in aetiology, but this requires confirmation with longitudinal data. Given the high prevalence among older people, more population research is indicated to quantify the impact of diabetes, and to monitor the effect of prevention and health system strengthening on prevalence, treatment and control.

  19. A first possible chameleon from the late Miocene of India (the hominoid site of Haritalyangar): a tentative evidence for an Asian dispersal of chameleons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhyan, Anek R; Čerňanský, Andrej

    2016-12-01

    Miocene rare fossils from India, tentatively attributed to chameleons, are described for the first time. The material consists of a fragment of the left squamosal and an element interpreted as a posterodorsal process of the parietal. The specimens come from a late Miocene site of the Nagri Formation (Middle Siwaliks, ~ 9 Mya) at Haritalyangar, North India. This material presents a possible evidence for a chameleon dispersal to Asia. Based on molecular data, the dispersion of an Asian chamaeleonid lineage from Africa to Arabia/Asia is dated at approximately 13 Mya and its diversification in situ at around 6-8 Mya. However, till now, no Miocene-age fossil record has been described to support crown chamaeleonid presence in this area. The material described herein is very fragmented. If correctly allocated, the Haritalyangar chameleons show the oldest known occurrence of this clade in India, at least approximately 9 Mya ago.

  20. A Tentative Mechanism for Dust Vertical Transport at Extreme Altitudes from the Collapse of Supersaturated Tropospheric Cavities on Mars with Particular Reference to March 2012 Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, F. J.

    2017-09-01

    A tentative solution for the so far unresolved Mystery Mars plume observed in March-2012 which baffles planetary scientist since then is proposed. The martian Plumes seen reaching high above the surface of Mars are causing a stir among scientists studying the atmosphere on the Red Planet since 2012. This plume is challenging all our current understanding above martian atmosphere and the current global martial atmospheric models. The proposed solution, is a totally novel approach which seems consistent with all the facts. If the theoretical predictions from the model are finally confirmed in the near future, this can have undreamt-of implications for the study of the dynamic of the atmosphere of the red planet.

  1. Aphid transmission of Lettuce necrotic leaf curl virus, a member of a tentative new subgroup within the genus Torradovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Martin; Dullemans, Annette M; van der Vlugt, René A A

    2017-09-15

    Lettuce necrotic leaf curl virus (LNLCV) was described as the first non-tomato-infecting member of the genus Torradovirus. Until today, the virus was found only in The Netherlands in two different areas in open field crops of lettuce. In 2015, LNLCV was accepted by the ICTV as a new member of the genus Torradovirus. The tomato-infecting (TI) torradoviruses Tomato torrado virus (ToTV), Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV) and Tomato chocolàte virus (ToChV) are transmitted by at least three whitefly species in a semi-persistent and stylet-borne manner. As LNLCV was transmitted in open fields in The Netherlands, where whiteflies are present only in low incidence, transmission studies were set up to identify the natural vector of LNLCV. Whitefly species which survive Dutch open field conditions during summer, as well as lettuce colonizing aphid species, were tested for their ability to transmit LNLCV. Lengths of acquisition and inoculation periods were chosen in accordance with the conditions for TI torradoviruses. Transmission experiments involving whiteflies were never successful. Transmission with aphids was only successful in case of the lettuce-currant aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri. Localization of LNLCV virions in N. ribisnigri with a nested RT-PCR indicated the stylets as possible retention sites. The willow-carrot aphid Cavariella aegopodii did not transmit LNLCV in our transmission experiment but the virus could be detected in the stylets of this aphid, leaving C. aegopodii as a possible vector for LNLCV. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. ?Anterior convergent? chest probing in rapid ultrasound transducer positioning versus formal chest ultrasonography to detect pneumothorax during the primary survey of hospital trauma patients: a diagnostic accuracy study

    OpenAIRE

    Ziapour, Behrad; Haji, Houman Seyedjavady

    2015-01-01

    Background Occult pneumothorax represents a diagnostic pitfall during the primary survey of trauma patients, particularly if these patients require early positive pressure ventilation. This study investigated the accuracy of our proposed rapid model of ultrasound transducer positioning during the primary survey of trauma patients after their arrival at the hospital. Methods This diagnostic trial was conducted over 12?months and was based on the results of 84 ultrasound (US) exams performed on...

  3. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter . Upcoming Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high ...

  4. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmology with cluster surveys. SUBHABRATA MAJUMDAR. CITA, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8, Canada. E-mail: subha@cita.utoronto.ca. Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is.

  5. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Upcoming Sunyaev–. Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to ...

  6. Detection of graves using the micro-resistivity method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Luzio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case history of the application of resistivity methods on the detection of a tomb tentatively associated with Damião de Goes, a prominent Portuguese humanist who lived in the XVI century. The survey carried out inside Varzea Church comprised dipole-dipole, gradient and pole-pole arrays. The results obtained from the 2D inversion of dipole-dipole data and 3D inversion of the gradient array have shown high resistivity anomalies that were assigned to the walls of the tomb. The low resistivity anomalies observed in between were interpreted as due to the presence of water enriched by ions from the decomposition of human bodies. This result is corroborated by the imaging obtained using the 3D probability tomography of the gradient and pole-pole data. Excavation works, carried out in accordance with the results of the geoelectrical investigation, successfully found a 2.7×0.8×1.7 m tomb, where several human bones have been collected. A 3D resistivity model incorporating the main features of the tomb was built after the excavation. The pole-pole model responses calculated from this model reproduce the main features observed in the data.

  7. Nucleotide sequence analyses of coat protein gene of peanut stunt virus isolates from alfalfa and different hosts show a new tentative subgroup from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid-Motlagh, Mohammad Hadi; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Mehrvar, Mohsen; Hajimorad, Mohammad Reza

    2017-09-01

    Alfalfa cultivars grown in 14 provinces in Iran were surveyed for the relative incidence of peanut stunt virus (PSV) during 2013-2016. PSV were detected in 41.89% of symptomatic alfalfa samples and a few alternate hosts by plate-trapped antigen ELISA. Among other hosts tested only Chenopodium album , Robinia pseudoacacia and Arachis hypogaea were found naturally infected with PSV. Twenty five isolates of PSV were chosen for biological and molecular characterizations based on their geographical distributions. There was not any differences in experimental host range of these isolates; however, variation in systemic symptoms observed on Nicotiana glutinosa . Total RNA from 25 of viral isolates were subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis using primers directed against coat protein (CP) gene. The CP genes of 25 Iranian PSV isolates were either 651 or 666 nucleotides long. The nucleotide and amino acid identities for CP gene among Iranian PSV isolates were 79.3-99.7 and 72-100%, respectively. They also shared between 67.4 and 82.4% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PSV isolates reported elsewhere in the world. Phylogenetic analyses of CP gene sequences showed formation of a new subgroup comprising only the Iranian isolates. Natural infection of a few alternate hosts with PSV is reported for the first time from Iran.

  8. Suivi prospectif sur 5 ans des tentatives de suicide en population clinique dans la région de Fès, Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarab, Chadya; Elghazouani, Fatima; Aalouane, Rachid; Rammouz, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Au Maroc, les tentatives de suicide (TS) demeurent un sujet mal évalué à cause de considérations socioculturelles et l'absence d'approche longitudinale. L'objectif principal était d’évaluer le devenir des suicidants après 5ans au centre universitaire psychiatrique de Fès, les objectifs secondaires étaient l'estimation de la prévalence des TS, préciser les étiologies les plus fréquentes, et établir une corrélation entre les paramètres sociodémographiques, cliniques et évolutifs. Etude prospective à visée transversale et longitudinale, incluant les suicidants vus à l'hôpital psychiatrique de Fès, avec un suivi longitudinal sur 5ans. L’évaluation a été faite par un hétéro-questionnaire et le Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) cherchant le trouble psychiatrique sous jacent. On a recruté 105 patients suicidants, 62% des femmes, l’âge moyen est de 29,23ans. La prévalence des tentatives de suicide est de 3% sur l'ensemble des consultants à l’établissement. Les troubles de l'humeur, psychotiques et de personnalité ont occupé respectivement 37,6%, 27,7%, et 25,7% des cas. La récidive suicidaire a été notée chez 54% des patients, était significativement corrélée à la vie solitaire (P: 0,039) et à la présence d'antécédents familiaux de TS (P: 0,046). L'utilisation de moyens violents était significativement fréquente chez les patients psychotiques. Après 5ans, 32 patients ont répondu à notre appel. Le taux de récidive était de 15%. On a noté trois cas de décès dont deux suicides confirmés. Les résultats confirment les données de la littérature scientifique avec certaines particularités cliniques et évolutives. PMID:25478042

  9. First survey for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection in cattle from Central and Southern regions of Portugal using serological and DNA detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incidence of bovine babesiosis in Portugal is currently unknown. In this study, a first survey of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle was carried out using blood samples from 406 clinically healthy individuals from different districts from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and a...

  10. Infall and Outflow Motions towards a Sample of Massive Star Forming Regions from the RMS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, N.; Lumsden, S. L.; Moore, T. J. T.; Maud, L. T.; Mendigutía, I.

    2018-03-01

    We present the results of an outflow and infall survey towards a distance limited sample of 31 massive star forming regions drawn from the RMS survey. The presence of young, active outflows is identified from SiO (8-7) emission and the infall dynamics are explored using HCO+/H13CO+ (4-3) emission. We investigate if the infall and outflow parameters vary with source properties, exploring whether regions hosting potentially young active outflows show similarities or differences with regions harbouring more evolved, possibly momentum driven, "fossil" outflows. SiO emission is detected towards approximately 46% of the sources. When considering sources with and without an SiO detection (i.e. potentially active and fossil outflows respectively), only the 12CO outflow velocity shows a significant difference between samples, indicating SiO is more prevalent towards sources with higher outflow velocities. Furthermore, we find the SiO luminosity increases as a function of the Herschel 70 μm to WISE 22μm flux ratio, suggesting the production of SiO is prevalent in younger, more embedded regions. Similarly, we find tentative evidence that sources with an SiO detection have a smaller bolometric luminosity-to-mass ratio, indicating SiO (8-7) emission is associated with potentially younger regions. We do not find a prevalence towards sources displaying signatures of infall in our sample. However, the higher energy HCO+ transitions may not be the best suited tracer of infall at this spatial resolution in these regions.

  11. Rule Fossilization: A Tentative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Neddy A.; Oller, John W.

    1976-01-01

    A cybernetic model of factors involved in the fossilization of grammatical and lexical forms in learner grammars is offered. A distinction is made between affective and cognitive dimensions of a multidimensional channel of human communication; and the effect of expected and unexpected feedback on these two dimensions is discussed. (Author/POP)

  12. [Tentative definitions regarding international comparisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body-gendrot, S

    1992-01-01

    This is an introduction to a special issue devoted to the development of businesses by foreigners in France, Europe, and North America. The author discusses the difficulty of establishing what commonly used migration studies terms actually mean, particularly when making international comparisons. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  13. A Survey on Pharmacovigilance Activities in ASEAN and Selected Non-ASEAN Countries, and the Use of Quantitative Signal Detection Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheng Leng; Ang, Pei San; Li, Shu Chuen

    2017-06-01

    Most Countries have pharmacovigilance (PV) systems in place to monitor the safe use of health products. The process involves the detection and assessment of safety issues from various sources of information, communicating the risk to stakeholders and taking other relevant risk minimization measures. This study aimed to assess the PV status in Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) countries, sources for postmarket safety monitoring, methods used for signal detection and the need for a quantitative signal detection algorithm (QSDA). Comparisons were conducted with centres outside ASEAN. A questionnaire was sent to all PV centres in ASEAN countries, as well as seven other countries, from November 2015 to June 2016. The questionnaire was designed to collect information on the status of PV, with a focus on the use of a QSDA. Data were collected from nine ASEAN countries and seven other countries. PV activities were conducted in all these countries, which were at different stages of development. In terms of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports, the average number received per year ranged from 3 to 50,000 reports for ASEAN countries and from 7000 to 1,103,200 for non-ASEAN countries. Thirty-three percent of ASEAN countries utilized statistical methods to help detect signals from ADR reports compared with 100% in the other non-ASEAN countries. Eighty percent agreed that the development of a QSDA would help in drug signal detection. The main limitation identified was the lack of knowledge and/or lack of resources. Spontaneous ADR reports from healthcare professionals remains the most frequently used source for safety monitoring. The traditional method of case-by-case review of ADR reports prevailed for signal detection in ASEAN countries. As the reports continue to grow, the development of a QSDA would be useful in helping detect safety signals.

  14. Tentative identification of polar and mid-polar compounds in extracts from wine lees by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in high-resolution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado de la Torre, M P; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-06-01

    Sustainable agriculture has a pending goal in the revalorization of agrofood residues. Wine lees are an abundant residue in the oenological industry. This residue, so far, has been used to obtain tartaric acid or pigments but not for being qualitatively characterized as a source of polar and mid-polar compounds such as flavonoids, phenols and essential amino acids. Lees extracts from 11 Spanish wineries have been analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in high resolution mode. The high-resolution power of LC-MS/MS has led to the tentative identification of the most representative compounds present in wine lees, comprising primary amino acids, anthocyans, flavanols, flavonols, flavones and non-flavonoid phenolic compounds, among others. Attending to the profile and content of polar and mid-polar compounds in wine lees, this study underlines the potential of wine lees as an exploitable source to isolate interesting compounds. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A CLOUDINESS INDEX FOR TRANSITING EXOPLANETS BASED ON THE SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LINES: TENTATIVE EVIDENCE FOR HOTTER ATMOSPHERES BEING LESS CLOUDY AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin, E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-07-20

    We present a dimensionless index that quantifies the degree of cloudiness of the atmosphere of a transiting exoplanet. Our cloudiness index is based on measuring the transit radii associated with the line center and wing of the sodium or potassium line. In deriving this index, we revisited the algebraic formulae for inferring the isothermal pressure scale height from transit measurements. We demonstrate that the formulae of Lecavelier et al. and Benneke and Seager are identical: the former is inferring the temperature while assuming a value for the mean molecular mass and the latter is inferring the mean molecular mass while assuming a value for the temperature. More importantly, these formulae cannot be used to distinguish between cloudy and cloud-free atmospheres. We derive values of our cloudiness index for a small sample of seven hot Saturns/Jupiters taken from Sing et al. We show that WASP-17b, WASP-31b, and HAT-P-1b are nearly cloud-free at visible wavelengths. We find the tentative trend that more irradiated atmospheres tend to have fewer clouds consisting of sub-micron-sized particles. We also derive absolute sodium and/or potassium abundances ∼10{sup 2} cm{sup −3} for WASP-17b, WASP-31b, and HAT-P-1b (and upper limits for the other objects). Higher-resolution measurements of both the sodium and potassium lines, for a larger sample of exoplanetary atmospheres, are needed to confirm or refute this trend.

  16. Survey of vaginal-flora Candida species isolates from women of different age groups by use of species-specific PCR detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermitsky, John-Paul; Self, Matthew J; Chadwick, Sean G; Trama, Jason P; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli; Gygax, Scott E

    2008-04-01

    A retrospective survey of 93,775 samples testing positive in Candida species-specific PCR tests performed on cervicovaginal swabs over a 4-year period demonstrated consistent yearly distributions of Candida albicans (89%), C. glabrata (7.9%), C. parapsilosis (1.7%), and C. tropicalis (1.4%). However, the species distributions among different age groups revealed increases in the percentages of non-albicans species with increases in age.

  17. Periodic optical variability of radio-detected ultracool dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L. K.; Golden, A.; Singh, Navtej; Sheehan, B.; Butler, R. F. [Centre for Astronomy, National University of Ireland, Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Hallinan, G. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boyle, R. P. [Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zavala, R. T., E-mail: lkh@astro.caltech.edu [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    A fraction of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are known to be radio active, in some cases producing periodic pulses. Extensive studies of two such objects have also revealed optical periodic variability, and the nature of this variability remains unclear. Here, we report on multi-epoch optical photometric monitoring of six radio-detected dwarfs, spanning the ∼M8-L3.5 spectral range, conducted to investigate the ubiquity of periodic optical variability in radio-detected ultracool dwarfs. This survey is the most sensitive ground-based study carried out to date in search of periodic optical variability from late-type dwarfs, where we obtained 250 hr of monitoring, delivering photometric precision as low as ∼0.15%. Five of the six targets exhibit clear periodicity, in all cases likely associated with the rotation period of the dwarf, with a marginal detection found for the sixth. Our data points to a likely association between radio and optical periodic variability in late-M/early-L dwarfs, although the underlying physical cause of this correlation remains unclear. In one case, we have multiple epochs of monitoring of the archetype of pulsing radio dwarfs, the M9 TVLM 513–46546, spanning a period of 5 yr, which is sufficiently stable in phase to allow us to establish a period of 1.95958 ± 0.00005 hr. This phase stability may be associated with a large-scale stable magnetic field, further strengthening the correlation between radio activity and periodic optical variability. Finally, we find a tentative spin-orbit alignment of one component of the very low mass binary, LP 349–25.

  18. The Value Of Enhanced Neo Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2012-10-01

    NEO surveys have now achieved, more or less, the “Spaceguard Goal” of cataloging 90% of NEAs larger than 1 km in diameter, and thereby have reduced the short-term hazard from cosmic impacts by about an order of magnitude, from an actuarial estimate of 1,000 deaths per year (actually about a billion every million years, with very little in between), to about 100 deaths per year, with a shift toward smaller but more frequent events accounting for the remaining risk. It is fair to ask, then, what is the value of a next-generation accelerated survey to “retire” much of the remaining risk. The curve of completion of survey versus size of NEA is remarkably similar for any survey, ground or space based, visible light or thermal IR, so it is possible to integrate risk over all sizes, with a time variable curve of completion to evaluate the actuarial value of speeding up survey completion. I will present my latest estimate of NEA population and completion of surveys. From those I will estimate the “value” of accelerated surveys such as Pan-STARRS, LSST, or space-based surveys, versus continuing with current surveys. My tentative conclusion is that we may have already reached the point in terms of cost-benefit where accelerated surveys are not cost-effective in terms of reducing impact risk. If not yet, we soon will. On the other hand, the surveys, which find and catalog main-belt and other classes of small bodies as well as NEOs, have provided a gold mine of good science. The scientific value of continued or accelerated surveys needs to be emphasized as the impact risk is increasingly “retired.”

  19. Case, Teacher and School Characteristics Influencing Teachers' Detection and Reporting of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: Results from an Australian Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Bridgstock, Ruth; Farrell, Ann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Schweitzer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify the influence of multiple case, teacher and school characteristics on Australian primary school teachers' propensity to detect and report child physical abuse and neglect using vignettes as short hypothetical cases. Methods: A sample of 254 teachers completed a self-report questionnaire. They responded to a series of 32…

  20. Rule-driven defect detection in CT images of hardwood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Sarigul; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with automated detection and identification of internal defects in hardwood logs using computed tomography (CT) images. We have developed a system that employs artificial neural networks to perform tentative classification of logs on a pixel-by-pixel basis. This approach achieves a high level of classification accuracy for several hardwood species (...

  1. A Novel Astrovirus-Like RNA Virus Detected in Human Stool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Munnink, Bas B.; Cotten, Matthew; Canuti, Marta; Deijs, Martin; Jebbink, Maarten F.; van Hemert, Formijn J.; Phan, My V. T.; Bakker, Margreet; Jazaeri Farsani, Seyed Mohammad; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Several novel clades of astroviruses have recently been identified in human faecal samples. Here, we describe a novel astrovirus-like RNA virus detected in human stools, which we have tentatively named bastrovirus. The genome of this novel virus consists of 6,300 nucleotides organized in three open

  2. Patient Perceptions of Breast Cancer Risk in Imaging-Detected Low-Risk Scenarios and Thresholds for Desired Intervention: A Multi-Institution Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Shelby, Rebecca A; Knippa, Emily E; Langman, Eun L; Miller, Lauren S; Whiteside, Beth E; Soo, Mary Scott C

    2018-03-29

    To determine women's perceptions of breast cancer risk and thresholds for desiring biopsy when considering BI-RADS 3 and 4A scenarios and recommendations, respectively. Women presenting for screening mammography from five geographically diverse medical centers were surveyed. Demographic information and baseline anxiety were queried. Participants were presented with scenarios of short-term imaging follow-up recommendations (ie, BI-RADS 3) and biopsy recommendations (ie, BI-RADS 4A) for low-risk mammographic abnormalities and asked to estimate their breast cancer risk for each scenario. Participants reported the threshold (ie, likelihood of cancer) where they would feel comfortable undergoing short-term imaging follow-up and biopsy and their anticipated regret for choosing short-term follow-up versus biopsy. Analysis of 2,747 surveys showed that participants estimated breast cancer risk of 32.8% for a BI-RADS 3 and 41.1% for a BI-RADS 4A scenarios are significantly greater rates than clinically established rates (risk associated with both BI-RADS 3 and 4A scenarios and desire very low biopsy thresholds. Greater anticipated regret and less relief and confidence was reported with the choice to undergo short-term imaging follow-up compared with biopsy. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of Geoelectrical Resistivity Surveys for the Detection of a Debris Flow Causative Water Conducting Zone at KM 9, Gap-Fraser’s Hill Road (FT 148, Fraser’s Hill, Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Anuri Ghazali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the findings of resistivity surveys which were conducted at the initiation area of debris flow at KM 9, Fraser’s Hill Gap road (FT148. The study involves three slope parallel survey lines and two lines perpendicular to the slope face. The parallel lines are FH01, FH02, and FH03, while the lines FH04 and FH05 are perpendicular. A granite body was detected at the central part of the east line and is nearest to the ground surface along FH02. The existence of low resistivity zones within the granite body is interpreted as highly fractured, water conducting zones. These zones are continuous as they have been detected in both the east-west as well as the north-south lines. The residual soil layer is relatively thin at zones where weathered granite dominates the slope face of the failure mass. The weak layer is relatively thick with an estimated thickness of 80 m and water flow occurs at the base of it. The high water flow recorded from the horizontal drains further supports the possible existence of these highly fractured, water conducting zones located within the granite. The shallow fractured granite is virtually “floating” above the water saturated zone and therefore is considered unstable.

  4. [Significance of parental variables on early detection of pediatric hearing loss. Results of a retrospective survey of parents with hearing-impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Maddalena, H; Reich, K; Arold, R

    1997-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in early detection of hearing losses in children, a relatively long interval still exists from initial concern by families to definite audiological identification. The aim of our retrospective cross-sectional study was to identify parental factors contributing to the delay of early detection. The parents of 70 hearing-impaired children were interviewed. All children were fitted with hearing aids in our clinical and had no additional physical or cognitive disabilities. At an average age of 19.5 months, parents or family doctors noticed first signs of a possible hearing impairment. On average it then took an additional 7.2 months until hearing impairment was diagnosed by an expert and the necessary first steps taken for rehabilitation (fitting of hearing aids). Significantly, total hearing loss or profound hearing impairments were detected earlier than mild or moderate hearing impairments. In addition to hearing loss, parental education correlated significantly with an earlier start of rehabilitation. Statistical analysis revealed that children with hearing-impaired close relatives as well as first-born children tended to be diagnosed later. To further improve secondary prevention of hearing loss, the competence of specific parental groups should be taken into consideration.

  5. Harmonizing methods for wildlife abundance estimation and pathogen detection in Europe-a questionnaire survey on three selected host-pathogen combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Jana; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Kuiken, Thijs

    2017-01-01

    Background: The need for wildlife health surveillance as part of disease control in wildlife, domestic animals and humans on the global level is widely recognized. However, the objectives, methods and intensity of existing wildlife health surveillance programs vary greatly among European countries......, resulting in a patchwork of data that are difficult to merge and compare. This survey aimed at evaluating the need and potential for data harmonization in wildlife health in Europe. The specific objective was to collect information on methods currently used to estimate host abundance and pathogen prevalence...... estimation, there is an urgent need to develop tools for the routine collection of host abundance data in a harmonized way. Wildlife health experts are encouraged to apply the harmonized APHAEA protocols in epidemiological studies in wildlife and to increase cooperation....

  6. Environmental radioactivity survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.G.; Lee, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    A systematic survey on the environmental radioactivity at Chosun University and its surrounding areas during the year of 1981 was carried out through various environmental samples, which were precipitation, surface soil, stream water, pine needles, and others. Out of these samples natural background radiation was surveyed. No significant radioactive materials from the Atomic Energy Research Institute attached to Chosun University and the Radioisotopes Laboratory of Chosun University Hospital were detected during this period. (author)

  7. Survey of prenatal screening policies in Europe for structural malformations and chromosome anomalies, and their impact on detection and termination rates for neural tube defects and Down's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, P A; Devigan, C; Khoshnood, B

    2008-01-01

    tube defects (NTDs) using the EUROCAT database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Existence of national prenatal screening policies, legal gestation limit for TOPFA, prenatal detection and termination rates for Down's syndrome and NTD. RESULTS: Ten of the 18 countries had a national country-wide policy for Down...... cases. Six of the 18 countries had a legal gestational age limit for TOPFA, and in two countries, termination of pregnancy was illegal at any gestation. CONCLUSIONS: There are large differences in screening policies between countries in Europe. These, as well as organisational and cultural factors...

  8. Comparison between self-report of cannabis use and toxicological detection of THC/THCCOOH in blood and THC in oral fluid in drivers in a roadside survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, Trudy; Silverans, Peter; Verstraete, Alain G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the number of drivers who self-reported cannabis use by questionnaires to the results of toxicological analysis. During roadside surveys, 2957 respondents driving a personal car or van completed a questionnaire to report their use of drugs and medicines during the previous two weeks and to indicate the time of their last intake. Cannabis was analyzed in oral fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), in blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Frequencies in the time categories were calculated and compared with toxicological results. Diagnostic values were calculated for the time categories in which positive findings were to be expected (THC) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in blood, THC in oral fluid). Most self-reported cannabis use was more than 12 h before driving. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was low, while the specificity and accuracy were high. Kappa statistics revealed a fair agreement between self-report and positive findings for THC in oral fluid and blood and moderate agreement with THCCOOH in blood. Self-report largely underestimates driving under the influence of cannabis, particularly recent cannabis use; therefore analysis of biological samples is necessary. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of organophosphate pesticides in filtered water by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Virendra K.; Wydoski, Duane S.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 20 parent organophosphate pesticides and 5 pesticide degradates from filtered natural-water samples is described. Seven of these compounds are reported permanently with an estimated concentration because of performance issues. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter, and then 1 liter of filtrate is pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction columns that contain octadecyl-bonded porous silica to extract the compounds. The C-18 columns are dried with nitrogen gas, and method compounds are eluted from the columns with ethyl acetate. The extract is analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Single-operator method detection limits in all three water-matrix samples ranged from 0.004 to 0.012 microgram per liter. Method performance was validated by spiking all compounds into three different matrices at three different concentrations. Eight replicates were analyzed at each concentration level in each matrix. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in surface-water samples ranged from 39 to 149 percent and those in ground-water samples ranged from 40 to 124 percent for all pesticides except dimethoate. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in reagent-water samples ranged from 41 to 119 percent for all pesticides except dimethoate. Dimethoate exhibited reduced recoveries (mean of 43 percent in low- and medium-concentration level spiked samples and 20 percent in high-concentration level spiked samples) in all matrices because of incomplete collection on the C-18 column. As a result, concen-trations of dimethoate and six other compounds (based on performance issues) in samples are reported in this method with an estimated remark code.

  10. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organophosphate pesticides in bottom sediment by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Virendra Kumar; Wydoski, Duane S.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 20 parent organophosphate pesticides and 5 pesticide degradates from bottom-sediment samples is described. The compound O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-proplyphosphorothioate is reported as an estimated concentration because of variable performance. In this method, the sediment samples are centrifuged to remove excess waster mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate and Soxhlet extracted overnight with dichloromethane (93 percent) and methanol (7 percent). The extract is concentrated and then filtered through a 0.2-micrometer polytetrafluoroethylene membrane syringe filter. An aliquot of the sample extract is quantitatively injected onto two polystyrene-divinylbenzene gel-permeation chromatographic columns connected in series. The compounds are eluted with dichloromethane and a fraction is collected for analysis, with some coextracted interferences, including elemental sulfur, separated and discarded. The aliquot is concentrated and solvent exchanged to ethyl acetate. The extract is analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Single-operator method detection limits in sodium sulfate matrix samples ranged from 0.81 to 2 micrograms per kilogram. Method performance was validated by spiking all compounds into three different solid matrices (sodium sulfate, bed sediment from Clear Creek, and bed sediment from Evergreen Lake) at three different concentrations. Eight replicates were analyzed at each concentration in each matrix. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in Clear Creek samples ranged from 43 to 110 percent, and those in Evergreen Lake samples ranged from 62 to 118 percent for all pesticides. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in reagent sodium sulfate samples ranged from 41 to 101 percent for all pesticides. The only exception was O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-propylphosphorothioate, which had an average recovery of 35 percent, and, thus, sample concentration is reported as estimated ('E' remark code).

  11. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  12. Integrated hierarchical geo-environmental survey strategy applied to the detection and investigation of an illegal landfill: A case study in the Campania Region (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Vincenzo; Cavuoto, Giuseppe; Punzo, Michele; Tarallo, Daniela; Casazza, Marco; Guarriello, Silvio Marco; Lega, Massimiliano

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes an approach to detect and investigate the main characteristics of a solid waste landfill through the integration of geological, geographical and geophysical methods. In particular, a multi-temporal analysis of the landfill morphological evolution was carried out using aerial and satellite photos, since there were no geological and geophysical data referring to the study area. Subsequently, a surface geophysical prospection was performed through geoelectric and geomagnetic methods. In particular, the combination of electrical resistivity, induced polarization and magnetic measurements removed some of the uncertainties, generally associated with a separate utilization of these techniques. This approach was successfully tested to support the Prosecutor Office of Salerno (S Italy) during a specific investigation about an illegal landfill. All the collected field data supported the reconstruction of the site-specific history, while the real quarry geometry and site geology were defined. Key elements of novelty of this method are the combination and the integration of different methodological approaches, as the parallel and combined use of satellite, aerial and in-situ collected data, that were validated in a real investigation and that revealed the effectiveness of this strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A rapid isothermal assay for the detection of Hop stunt viroid in hop plants (Humulus lupulus), and its application in disease surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappagantu, Madhu; Villamor, Dan Edward V; Bullock, Jeff M; Eastwell, Kenneth C

    2017-07-01

    Hop stunt disease caused by Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) is a growing threat to hop cultivation globally. HSVd spreads mainly by use of contaminated planting material and by mechanical means. Thorough testing of hop yards and removal of infected bines are critical components of efforts to control the spread of the disease. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has become the primary technique used for HSVd detection; however, sample handling and analysis are technically challenging. In this study, a robust reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay was developed to facilitate analysis of multiple samples. The assay was optimized with all major variants of HSVd from other host species in addition to hop variants. Used in conjunction with sample collection cards, RT-RPA accommodates large sample numbers. Greenhouse and farm samples tested with RT-RPA were also tested with RT-PCR and a 100% correlation between the two techniques was found. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Detection of the Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Hot Subdwarf Companion of 60 Cygni (B1 Ve) from a Survey of IUE Spectra of Be Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luqian; Gies, Douglas R.; Peters, Geraldine J.

    2017-07-01

    We used archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) high-dispersion, short wavelength spectra data to search for evidence of the spectra of hot subdwarf companions of six rapidly rotating Be stars in binary systems. We searched for the signature of a hot companion through an analysis of the cross-correlation functions (CCFs) of observed and model spectra that were separated into primary and secondary components using a Doppler tomography algorithm and adopted spectroscopic orbital solutions. A positive detection of the flux from a hot companion was made for the reconstructed secondary CCF of just one target, 60 Cygni (B1 Ve). We estimate that the companion of the Be star in 60 Cygni has {T}{eff}=42+/- 4 kK, mass ratio {M}2/{M}1=0.15+/- 0.02, and monochromatic flux ratio {f}2/{f}1=0.034+/- 0.002 in the spectral region near 1525 Å. If the companions of the other target Be stars are also hot, then they must be faint and contribute less than ≈ 1 % of the UV flux (<0.6% in the case of γ Cas). We also discuss a shell episode of Pleione (28 Tau) recorded in the IUE spectran in an appendix.

  15. Accuracy of whole-body low-dose multidetector CT (WBLDCT) versus skeletal survey in the detection of myelomatous lesions, and correlation of disease distribution with whole-body MRI (WBMRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, T.G. [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Dublin 7 (Ireland)]|[St Paul' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Moriarty, J.; Shortt, C.P.; O' Connell, M.; Eustace, S.J. [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Gleeson, J.P. [University of Limerick, Department of Applied Mathemathics and Statistics, Limerick (Ireland); Fitzpatrick, P. [University College Dublin, UCD School of Public Health and Population Science, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Byrne, B. [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Dublin 7 (Ireland); McHugh, J.; O' Gorman, P. [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Department of Haematology, Dublin 7 (Ireland)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility of whole-body low-dose computed tomography (WBLDCT) in the diagnosis and staging of multiple myeloma and compare to skeletal survey (SS), using bone marrow biopsy and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI; where available) as gold standard. Patients referred over an 18-month period for investigation of suspected multiple myeloma or restaging of myeloma were randomized to undergo one of two WBLDCT protocols using high kVp, low mAs technique (140 kVp, 14 mAs; or 140 kVp, 25 mAs). Recent WBMRI scans were reviewed in 23 cases. Each imaging modality was assessed by two radiologists in consensus and scored from 0-3 (0= normal, 1=1-4 lesions, 2=5-20 lesions, 3{>=}20 lesions/diffuse disease) in ten anatomical areas. Overall stage of disease, image quality score, and the degree of confidence of diagnosis were recorded. Diagnostic accuracy of skeletal survey and WBLDCT were determined using a gold standard of bone marrow biopsy and distribution of disease was compared to WBMRI. Thirty-nine patients were evaluated. WBLDCT identified more osteolytic lesions than skeletal survey with a greater degree of diagnostic confidence and led to restaging in 18 instances (16 upstaged, two downstaged). In those with recent WBMRI, distribution of disease on WBLDCT showed superior correlation with WBMRI when compared with SS. Overall reader impression of stage on WBLDCT showed significant correlation with WBMRI ({kappa}=0.454, p<0.05). WBLDCT provided complementary information to WBMRI in nine patients with normal marrow signal following treatment response, but which were shown to have diffuse residual cortical abnormalities on CT. WBLDCT at effective doses lower than previously reported, is superior to SS at detecting osteolytic lesions and at determining overall stage of multiple myeloma, and provides complementary information to WBMRI. (orig.)

  16. Serological detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in a countrywide survey in dogs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Friederike; Schaper, Roland; Schunack, Bettina; Połozowski, Andrzej; Piekarska, Jolanta; Szwedko, Aleksandra; Jodies, Robert; Kowalska, Dagmara; Schüpbach, Dörte; Pantchev, Nikola

    2014-09-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of attention in the past few years. Nevertheless, in many parts of Europe information on their occurrence is still scarce. In a large study in Poland 3,094 serum samples taken from dogs throughout all 16 Polish provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. A total of 12.31% (381/3,094; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.18-13.52%) and 3.75% (116/3,094; 95% CI: 3.11-4.48%) of the dogs were positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies, respectively. Furthermore, 0.26% (8/3,094; 95% CI: 0.11-0.51%) were positive for E. canis antibodies and 0.16% (5/3,094; 95% CI: 0.05-0.38%) for D. immitis antigen. The highest percentages of A. phagocytophilum-positive dogs were noted in Lesser Poland, Silesia and Łódź Provinces. For B. burgdorferi s.l., the highest prevalence was recorded in Łódź Province. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were recorded in 1.71% of all examined dogs (53/3,094; 95% CI: 1.29-2.23%). One dog even had a triple infection, testing positive for E. canis too. Both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. have previously been reported in Poland and were confirmed in the present study by positive samples from all 16 provinces. Concerning E. canis and D. immitis travel history or importation cannot be excluded as factors which may have determined the occurrence of these pathogens in the relevant animals. Practitioners in Poland should be aware of the above mentioned CVBDs and of prophylactic measures to protect dogs and their owners.

  17. Detection of an intense polychromatic gamma beam modulated at 3000 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beil, H.; Veyssiere, A.; Daujat, P.

    1968-01-01

    This paper presents two methods of detection of a γ beam modulated at very high frequencies. The intense modulated beam is created by means of Bremsstrahlung in a gold-target, the latter having been placed in the emerging electron beam of the Linac at Saclay. A tentative interpretation of the physical phenomena involved in the detection processes is also given. The empirical data agree reasonably well with numerical evaluations based on well established theoretical concepts concerning these phenomena. (authors) [fr

  18. Airborne Detection of Cosmic-Ray Albedo Neutrons for Regional-Scale Surveys of Root-Zone Soil Water on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, M.; Bannehr, L.; Köhli, M.; Zreda, M. G.; Weimar, J.; Zacharias, S.; Oswald, S. E.; Bumberger, J.; Samaniego, L. E.; Schmidt, U.; Zieger, P.; Dietrich, P.

    2017-12-01

    While the detection of albedo neutrons from cosmic rays became a standard method in planetary space science, airborne neutron sensing has never been conceived for hydrological research on Earth. We assessed the applicability of atmospheric neutrons to sense root-zone soil moisture averaged over tens of hectares using neutron detectors on an airborne vehicle. Large-scale quantification of near-surface water content is an urgent challenge in hydrology. Information about soil and plant water is crucial to accurately assess the risks for floods and droughts, to adjust regional weather forecasts, and to calibrate and validate the corresponding models. However, there is a lack of data at scales relevant for these applications. Most conventional ground-based geophysical instruments provide root-zone soil moisture only within a few tens of m2, while electromagnetic signals from conventional remote-sensing instruments can only penetrate the first few centimeters below surface, though at larger spatial areas.In the last couple of years, stationary and roving neutron detectors have been used to sense the albedo component of cosmic-ray neutrons, which represents the average water content within 10—15 hectares and 10—50 cm depth. However, the application of these instruments is limited by inaccessible terrain and interfering local effects from roads. To overcome these limitations, we have pioneered first simulations and experiments of such sensors in the field of airborne geophysics. Theoretical investigations have shown that the footprint increases substantially with height above ground, while local effects smooth out throughout the whole area. Campaigns with neutron detectors mounted on a lightweight gyrocopter have been conducted over areas of various landuse types including agricultural fields, urban areas, forests, flood plains, and lakes. The neutron signal showed influence of soil moisture patterns in heights of up to 180 m above ground. We found correlation with

  19. Assessment of the FasciMol-ELISA in the detection of the trematode Fasciola hepatica in field-collected Galba cubensis: a novel tool for the malacological survey of fasciolosis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Annia; Vázquez, Antonio A; Sánchez, Jorge; Fraga, Jorge; Hernández, Hilda; Martínez, Elizabeth; Marcet, Ricardo; Figueredo, Mabel; Sarracent, Jorge

    2016-01-16

    Fasciolosis is one of the food-borne neglected trematodioses that has reemerged as a human disease while its effects on domestic animal health remains of significant economic consideration. Being snail-borne disease, the accurate and time-saving epidemiological surveillance of the transmission foci where infected lymnaeid snails occur could be essential to effectively focus or redirect control strategies. For this purpose, the first monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic assay to detect Fasciola hepatica-infected snails (FasciMol-ELISA) was recently developed and showed a high sensitivity and specificity when tested in an experimental F. hepatica - Galba cubensis system. Here, we surveyed populations of G. cubensis occurring in western Cuba for the assessment of the FasciMol-ELISA in determining natural F. hepatica infection in this intermediate host. A multiplex PCR, previously developed to detect F. hepatica in G. cubensis, was used for sample classification. Snail dissection method was also employed as screening technique. A Χ(2) test and a Kappa index were calculated to evaluate the positivity and the level of agreement between the FasciMol-ELISA and the snail dissection methods with the multiplex PCR, respectively. Galba cubensis was found in nine out of 12 sampled localities of which four were positive for F. hepatica infection as detected by both immunoenzymatic and PCR-based assays. The overall prevalence was higher than the natural infection rates previously reported for Cuban G. cubensis (range from 4.1 to 7.42% depending on the screening method). No significant differences were found between FasciMol-ELISA and multiplex PCR when determining parasite positivity (Χ(2) = 6.283; P = 0.0981) whereas an excellent agreement was also noted (Kappa = 0.8224). Our results demonstrate the importance of malacological surveys in assessing parasite transmission risk and constitute an alert on the need of accurate measures to control fasciolosis in

  20. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Amy K; Salem, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Survey research is a unique methodology that can provide insight into individuals' perspectives and experiences and can be collected on a large population-based sample. Specifically, in plastic surgery, survey research can provide patients and providers with accurate and reproducible information to assist with medical decision-making. When using survey methods in research, researchers should develop a conceptual model that explains the relationships of the independent and dependent variables. The items of the survey are of primary importance. Collected data are only useful if they accurately measure the concepts of interest. In addition, administration of the survey must follow basic principles to ensure an adequate response rate and representation of the intended target sample. In this article, the authors review some general concepts important for successful survey research and discuss the many advantages this methodology has for obtaining limitless amounts of valuable information.

  1. Results of 2008-2009 Pennsylvania wood destroying insect survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sven-Erik. Spichiger

    2011-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (DOA) participates in a variety of insect surveys each year to detect new and potentially invasive species affecting plants in Pennsylvania. Surveys are carried out by seasonal survey crews, permanent DOA staff, and cooperating agencies.

  2. OPTICAL STUDIES OF 13 HARD X-RAY SELECTED CATACLYSMIC BINARIES FROM THE SWIFT-BAT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Thorstensen, John R.

    2015-01-01

    From a set of 13 cataclysmic binaries that were discovered in the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey, we conducted time-resolved optical spectroscopy and/or time-series photometry of 11, with the goal of measuring their orbital periods and searching for spin periods. Seven of the objects in this study are new optical identifications. Orbital periods are found for seven targets, ranging from 81 minutes to 20.4 hr. PBC J0706.7+0327 is an AM Herculis star (polar) based on its emission-line variations and large amplitude photometric modulation on the same period. Swift J2341.0+7645 may be a polar, although the evidence here is less secure. Coherent pulsations are detected from two objects, Swift J0503.7−2819 (975 s) and Swift J0614.0+1709 (1412 s and 1530 s, spin and beat periods, respectively), indicating that they are probable intermediate polars (DQ Herculis stars). For two other stars, longer spin periods are tentatively suggested. We also present the discovery of a 2.00 hr X-ray modulation from RX J2015.6+3711, possibly a contributor to Swift J2015.9+3715, and likely a polar

  3. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M. [School of Physical Sciences, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 7001 (Australia); Jordan, C. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth, WA, 6845 (Australia); Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW, 2109 (Australia); Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  4. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M.; Jordan, C.; Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M.; Dawson, J. R.; Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  5. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide open-quotes stand-offclose quotes capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected

  6. Survey of resistance to permethrin and diazinon and the use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay to detect resistance alleles in the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew Y; Guerrero, Felix D; Almazán Garcia, Consuelo; George, John E

    2003-11-01

    A field survey was conducted in 2001 to evaluate resistance to pyrethroid and organophosphate (OP) insecticides on horn flies, Hematobia irritans irritans (L.), from seven ranches in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, and from three locations in central Texas. Filter papers impregnated with either technical permethrin or diazinon were used to measure the levels of resistance to pyrethroids and OPs. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used on individual horn flies from these field populations to detect the presence of the kdr and super-kdr alleles associated with pyrethroid resistance, and a mutated alphaE7 esterase allele associated with OP resistance. Relative to a susceptible laboratory (Kerrville) strain, horn flies from Mexico exhibited 5.1- to 28.3-fold resistance to permethrin at the LC50, and 23.8- to 136-fold resistance at the LC90. Horn flies from Texas ranches exhibited only two- to five-fold resistance. All field populations of the horn fly were highly susceptible to diazinon, and no mutant alphaE7 esterase alleles were detected. The super-kdr allele was found only in a single fly from a ranch in Mexico. Results of PCR assays showed that the kdr allele was present at various frequencies in field populations of horn flies. A gender-related bias in distribution of kdr genotypes was found in horn flies from Mexico, but not in horn flies from Texas. The overall kdr allelic frequencies in horn flies from Mexico were 23.2-37.8% higher in females than in males. Regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between kdr allelic frequencies and the levels of knockdown resistance to permethrin among the horn fly populations studied. The results validate the role of the PCR-based molecular assay as a diagnostic tool in monitoring resistance to pyrethroids and also provide useful information on population genetics of horn fly resistance to pyrethroids and OPs.

  7. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  8. NORM Survey in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    A survey programme was initiated several years ago with the aim of estimating the incidence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) exposure for workers in the oil and gas industry, gold mining, spas, and a tourist cavern in Argentina. This work presents the procedures, methods employed, and results to date from the survey, including protection and remedial actions recommended when deemed necessary. Radium isotope concentrations measured in some samples were well above the exemption values established by IAEA Standards. Elevated radon levels (above the action level established for workplaces) were detected in the gas facilities, the gold mine, and the tourist cavern. The pertinent authorities and the facilities were informed of the detected values in order to take actions to reduce concentrations. In terms of the spas, almost all values for geothermal waters were below the corresponding guidance levels. Some regulatory aspects for the management of NORM are suggested.

  9. Nurse Religiosity and Spiritual Care: An Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston; Gober-Park, Carla; Schoonover-Shoffner, Kathy; Mamier, Iris; Somaiya, Chintan K; Bahjri, Khaled

    2017-08-01

    This study measured the frequency of nurse-provided spiritual care and how it is associated with various facets of nurse religiosity. Data were collected using an online survey accessed from the home page of the Journal of Christian Nursing. The survey included the Nurse Spiritual Care Therapeutics Scale, six scales quantifying facets of religiosity, and demographic and work-related items. Respondents ( N = 358) indicated high religiosity yet reported neutral responses to items about sharing personal beliefs and tentativeness of belief. Findings suggested spiritual care was infrequent. Multivariate analysis showed prayer frequency, employer support of spiritual care, and non-White ethnicity were significantly associated with spiritual care frequency (adjusted R 2 = .10). Results not only provide an indication of spiritual care frequency but empirical encouragement for nurse managers to provide a supportive environment for spiritual care. Findings expose the reality that nurse religiosity is directly related, albeit weakly, to spiritual care frequency.

  10. Мотив искушений в драме Флобера «Искушение святого Антония» Le motif des tentations dans La Tentation de saint Antoine de Flaubert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Modina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Beaucoup d’œuvres de Flaubert ont des traits autobiographiques, mais c’est seulement avec le personnage de son drame philosophique La Tentation de saint Antoine que Flaubert s’identifie vraiment. L’image de saint Antoine accompagna l’écrivain pendant presque trente ans et se retrouve dans ses œuvres aux moments critiques de sa vie. Cependant, La Tentation de saint Antoine demeure l’un des drames les plus méconnus de Flaubert dans la critique littéraire russe. Cet article est un essai sur l’œuvre de Flaubert vue à travers le prisme du motif de la tentation. Celui-ci organise le contenu du drame et se développe de façon particulière dans ses différentes versions. Les deux premières datant de 1849 et 1856, et la version finale étant de 1874. Dans les premières versions de La Tentation de saint Antoine Flaubert montre de façon très visible le processus de transformation d’un homme mortel en Créateur. La formation de l’Artiste se déroule comme un sacrement mystérieux ressemblant aux anciens rituels. Les trois parties du drame, ainsi que leur enchaînement, rappellent les mystères d’Eleusis. Ici, les tentations sont des appels à l’abandon de la foi et de la possibilité de créer. La troisième version du drame est construite sur les motifs de la connaissance et de la foi, ainsi que de la vérité et du dogme. L’idée de la tentation est de décourager la recherche de la vérité. Le motif des tentations est très étroitement lié à la recherche de l’identité du personnage qui se veut Artiste. L’expérience intérieure de Flaubert se reflète dans les trois versions du drame : l’élimination de la vision tragique de l’antithèse « matériel et idéal », le passage du mysticisme de Pascal au panthéisme esthétique. Cette œuvre est l’histoire du développement de l’identité artistique de Flaubert où les tentations sont des éléments nécessaires à l’Artiste pour la connaissance de

  11. Intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1978-07-01

    Intrusion detection sensors are an integral part of most physical security systems. Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security, Sandia Laboratories has conducted a survey of available intrusion detection sensors and has tested a number of different sensors. An overview of these sensors is provided. This overview includes (1) the operating principles of each type of sensor, (2) unique sensor characteristics, (3) desired sensor improvements which must be considered in planning an intrusion detection system, and (4) the site characteristics which affect the performance of both exterior and interior sensors. Techniques which have been developed to evaluate various intrusion detection sensors are also discussed

  12. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  13. Evaluation of the initial thematic output from a continuous change-detection algorithm for use in automated operational land-change mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengra, Bruce; Gallant, Alisa L.; Zhu, Zhe; Dahal, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has begun the development of operational, 30-m resolution annual thematic land cover data to meet the needs of a variety of land cover data users. The Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm is being evaluated as the likely methodology following early trials. Data for training and testing of CCDC thematic maps have been provided by the USGS Land Cover Trends (LC Trends) project, which offers sample-based, manually classified thematic land cover data at 2755 probabilistically located sample blocks across the conterminous United States. These samples represent a high quality, well distributed source of data to train the Random Forest classifier invoked by CCDC. We evaluated the suitability of LC Trends data to train the classifier by assessing the agreement of annual land cover maps output from CCDC with output from the LC Trends project within 14 Landsat path/row locations across the conterminous United States. We used a small subset of circa 2000 data from the LC Trends project to train the classifier, reserving the remaining Trends data from 2000, and incorporating LC Trends data from 1992, to evaluate measures of agreement across time, space, and thematic classes, and to characterize disagreement. Overall agreement ranged from 75% to 98% across the path/rows, and results were largely consistent across time. Land cover types that were well represented in the training data tended to have higher rates of agreement between LC Trends and CCDC outputs. Characteristics of disagreement are being used to improve the use of LC Trends data as a continued source of training information for operational production of annual land cover maps.

  14. Evaluation of the Initial Thematic Output from a Continuous Change-Detection Algorithm for Use in Automated Operational Land-Change Mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Pengra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS has begun the development of operational, 30-m resolution annual thematic land cover data to meet the needs of a variety of land cover data users. The Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC algorithm is being evaluated as the likely methodology following early trials. Data for training and testing of CCDC thematic maps have been provided by the USGS Land Cover Trends (LC Trends project, which offers sample-based, manually classified thematic land cover data at 2755 probabilistically located sample blocks across the conterminous United States. These samples represent a high quality, well distributed source of data to train the Random Forest classifier invoked by CCDC. We evaluated the suitability of LC Trends data to train the classifier by assessing the agreement of annual land cover maps output from CCDC with output from the LC Trends project within 14 Landsat path/row locations across the conterminous United States. We used a small subset of circa 2000 data from the LC Trends project to train the classifier, reserving the remaining Trends data from 2000, and incorporating LC Trends data from 1992, to evaluate measures of agreement across time, space, and thematic classes, and to characterize disagreement. Overall agreement ranged from 75% to 98% across the path/rows, and results were largely consistent across time. Land cover types that were well represented in the training data tended to have higher rates of agreement between LC Trends and CCDC outputs. Characteristics of disagreement are being used to improve the use of LC Trends data as a continued source of training information for operational production of annual land cover maps.

  15. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results

  16. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented

  17. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej; Lindskog, Staffan

    2007-03-01

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented

  18. Outline of the report on the seismic safety examination of nuclear facilities based on the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake (tentative translation) - September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    From the standpoint of thoroughly confirming the seismic safety of nuclear facilities, Nuclear Safety Commission established an Examination Committee on the Seismic Safety of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities (hereinafter called Seismic Safety Examination Committee) based on the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake on January 19, 1995, two days after the occurrence of the earthquake, in order to examine the validity of related guidelines on the seismic design to be used for the safety examination. This report outlines the results of the examinations by the Seismic Safety Examination Committee: basic principle of examinations at the seismic safety examination committee, overview on the related guidelines of the seismic design, information and knowledge obtained on the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, examination of validity of the guidelines based on various information of the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. The Seismic Design Examination Committee surveyed the related guidelines on seismic design, selected the items to be examined, and examined on those items based on the knowledge obtained from the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. As a result, the Committee confirmed that the validity of the guidelines regulating the seismic design of nuclear facilities is not impaired even though on the basis of the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. However, the people related to the nuclear facilities may not be content with the above result, but continuously put efforts in doing the following matters to improve furthermore the reliability of seismic design of nuclear facilities by always reflecting the latest knowledge on the seismic design. 1) - The people related to nuclear facilities must seriously accept the fact that valuable knowledge could be obtained from the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake, try to study and analyze the obtained data, and reflect the results of investigations, studies, and examinations conducted appropriately to the seismic design of nuclear facilities referring to the investigations

  19. Culture-Bound Syndromes of a Brazilian Amazon Riverine population: Tentative correspondence between traditional and conventional medicine terms and possible ethnopharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, E; Santos, J de F L; Rodrigues, E

    2017-05-05

    It is not always possible to correlate the "emic" terms to the "etic" ones during ethnopharmacological surveys, especially regarding those related to Culture-Bound Syndromes (CBS). Nevertheless, it is the role of ethnopharmacology to address these correlations, since they are the basis for the understanding of potential bioactives. This study reports the clinical manifestations and therapeutic resources used for the treatment of CBS among some riverine inhabitants of Brazilian Amazonia. An effort was made to establish a correspondence between the local "emic" terms of traditional medicine and the symptoms or diseases known by conventional medicine ("etic" terms). The ultimate goal was to gain insights to suggest further pharmacological studies with the local resources. Fieldwork was guided by methods of anthropology, botany and zoology-with the assistance of a doctor-among the traditional healing experts in Jaú National Park (during 199 days in 1995) and Unini River Extractive Reserve (210 days from 2008 to 2012). Fifty-nine healers of different kinds were interviewed: a prayer-maker, medium, natural resource expert, massage therapist, midwife and snakebite healer. The clinical manifestations and healing resources of the following CBS were collected: "mau olhado" (evil eye), "quebrante" (chipping); "espante" (fright or susto); "doença do ar" (air diseases); "vento caído" (fallen wind); "derrame" (leakage); "mãe do corpo" (mother of the body) and "panema" (unlucky). The first three seem to be local variations of other CBSs already described in Latin America. "doença do ar", "vento caído", "derrame" and "mãe do corpo" seem to be folk terms for known conventional medical disorders, while "panema" is a yet undescribed Brazilian CBS that is possibly related to dysthymic disorder or depression and deserves further investigation. Treatments included prayer rituals, fumigation, baths and oral remedies using 25 plants and 10 animals. It was possible to establish

  20. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    . In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong......In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer...... learning perspective. This paper looks into the challenges in some details. It is stated that facing these challenges requires an innovative and adaptable approach to both curriculum design and course delivery within the framework of an overall quality culture. The success will eventually depend...

  1. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    and personhood imagined to be already there, and communication as the free-flow of information? Is it therefore considered non-problematic that people commit themselves to remembering their past and present experience of illness and share it in detail within an - to them - unknown context? Can it even...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures....... Subjectivity is rather regulated and constituted in this practice. The relevant question becomes in what particular ways subjectivity and humanness are performed here? We want to look into this question exploring the agency of surveys, their effects and the politics involved in such a scientific practice....

  2. DNA methylation based testing of 418 patients suspected of having Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and tentative localization of the 15q11-13 imprinting center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsthemke, B.; Dittrich, B.; Buiting, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Using a test based on parent-of-origin specific DNA methylation at the D15S63 (PW71) locus, we studied 358 patients (aged 1-33 years) for diagnostic confirmation of PWS and 60 infants (aged 0-12 months) with severe hypotonia of unknown origin. 57/358 patients were examined personally. 28/57 patients showed typical clinical signs of PWS and lacked the paternal PW71 band. 29-57 patients did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for PWS and had a normal methylation pattern. This suggests that the test detects most if not all patients with typical PWS. 301/358 samples were sent to us from outside. The test confirmed the diagnosis in 105/301 patients. Most of the other 196 patients lacked neonatal hypotonia and hypogonadism. On the other hand, 27/60 hypotonic infants tested positive for PWS. These results indicate that PWS is often not recognized in infants and wrongly diagnosed in obese children and adults. We propose to perform the PW71 methylation test in every newborn with severe hypotonia of unknown origin to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures. In the course of diagnostic testing we and others have identified PWS and Angelman syndrome (AS) patients with apparently normal chromosomes of biparental inheritance, but abnormal DNA methylation and gene expression. The identification of microdeletions in some of these patients suggests the existence of an imprinting center within 30 kb proximal of SNRPN, which regulates the chromatin structure, DNA methylation and gene expression. We propose that the paternal copy of 15q11-13 has a euchromatoid structure, from which the PWS genes are transcribed, and that the maternal copy has a heterochromatoid structure from which the AS gene is transcribed. Depending on the parental origin of the mutation, both chromosomes of a patient have a heterochromatoid domain, which silences the PWS genes, or a euchromatoid domain, which silences the AS gene.

  3. The MALT 90 GHz Pilot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James; Rathborne, Jill; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Brooks, Kate; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Longmore, Steven; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Walsh, Andrew; Peretto, Nicolas

    2009-04-01

    In early November, 2008, Australian and international Galactic astronomers met to plan future surveys of the Galactic plane with ATNF facilities. We intend to coordinate our efforts so that such surveys produce the maximum scientific return with minimal overlap in observations. To this end, the Millimetre Astronomers Large-area multi-Transition (MALT) team was formed. The MALT team has identified key Galactic plane surveys: a 42--50 GHz survey, a 90 GHz survey and a 115 GHz survey. In this proposal, we aim to conduct a pilot survey to explore options in the 90 GHz (3 mm) range. This pilot survey will provide detection rates, typical line strengths, and source sizes for various "finder charts" for high-mass star-forming cores. Such information is crucial for a rational design of a complete 90 GHz MALT survey.

  4. Readership survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article reviews the last readership survey, which helped to check readers' reactions and the level and style of the journal. The majority of readers (32 per cent), not surprisingly, work in high energy physics. In fact, if the estimate of the world high energy physics population as some 5000 people is correct, CERN Courier reaches every one of them. The next large category of readers is the teaching profession (21 percent), with industrialists (12 per cent) in third place

  5. The ALMA-PILS survey: The sulphur connection between protostars and comets: IRAS 16293-2422 B and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Calmonte, Ursina; van der Wiel, Matthijs H. D.; Coutens, Audrey; Calcutt, Hannah; Müller, Holger S. P.; Bjerkeli, Per; Persson, Magnus V.; Wampfler, Susanne F.; Altwegg, Kathrin

    2018-02-01

    The evolutionary past of our Solar System can be pieced together by comparing analogous low-mass protostars with remnants of our Protosolar Nebula - comets. Sulphur-bearing molecules may be unique tracers of the joint evolution of the volatile and refractory components. ALMA Band 7 data from the large unbiased Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS) are used to search for S-bearing molecules in the outer disc-like structure, ˜60 au from IRAS 16293-2422 B, and are compared with data on 67P/C-G stemming from the ROSINA instrument aboard Rosetta. Species such as SO2, SO, OCS, CS, H2CS, H2S and CH3SH are detected via at least one of their isotopologues towards IRAS 16293-2422 B. The search reveals a first-time detection of OC33S towards this source and a tentative first-time detection of C36S towards a low-mass protostar. The data show that IRAS 16293-2422 B contains much more OCS than H2S in comparison to 67P/C-G; meanwhile, the SO/SO2 ratio is in close agreement between the two targets. IRAS 16293-2422 B has a CH3SH/H2CS ratio in range of that of our Solar System (differences by a factor of 0.7 - 5.3). It is suggested that the levels of UV radiation during the initial collapse of the systems may have varied and have potentially been higher for IRAS 16293-2422 B due to its binary nature; thereby, converting more H2S into OCS. It remains to be conclusively tested if this also promotes the formation of S-bearing complex organics. Elevated UV levels of IRAS 16293-2422 B and a warmer birth cloud of our Solar System may jointly explain the variations between the two low-mass systems.

  6. EEZ survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has contracted with the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS) to charter the research vessel Farnella. The project is to map the ocean floor at depths greater than 500 m along the recently established United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The short range objectives include obtaining seafloor contours along the deep sea thermal spring zones in the Pacific Ocean basin. Should any of the zones prove economic for their sulfide mineral deposits, the charts should be of value to industry for years to come.

  7. Aqueous alteration detection in Tikhonravov crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancarella, F.; Fonti, S.; Alemanno, G.; Orofino, V.; Blanco, A.

    2018-03-01

    The existence of a wet period lasting long enough to allow the development of elementary forms of life on Mars has always been a very interesting issue. Given this perspective, the research for geological markers of such occurrences has been continually pursued. Once a favorable site is detected, effort should be spent to get as much information as possible aimed at a precise assessment of the genesis and evolution of the areas showing the selected markers. In this work, we discuss the recent finding of possible deposits pointing to the past existence of liquid water in Tikhonravov crater located in Arabia Terra. Comparison of CRISM spectra and those of laboratory minerals formed by aqueous alteration has led us to the conclusion that the studied areas within the impact crater host phyllosilicates deposits. In addition, analysis of the CRISM spectra has resulted in the tentative identification of carbonates mixed with phyllosilicates.

  8. Reader survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big

  9. The ordinary light microscope: an appropriate tool for provisional detection and identification of crystals in synovial fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, E; Tovar, J; Ruiz, M T

    1989-01-01

    To determine if the ordinary light microscope is a useful tool in the detection and identification of crystals in synovial fluid 63 fluids (13 with monosodium urate (MSU), 14 with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), one with both types of crystal, and 35 without crystals) were examined blindly by two observers, first with an ordinary light microscope, then with a polarising light microscope. Tentative identification of the crystals by their shape was attempted. The sensitivity of the ordi...

  10. Detecting temporal change in land-surface altitude using robotic land-surveying techniques and geographic information system applications at an earthen dam site in Southern Westchester County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Michael L.; Chu, Anthony

    2017-08-14

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study with New York City Department of Environmental Protection to characterize the local groundwater-flow system and identify potential sources of seeps on the southern embankment at the Hillview Reservoir in southern Westchester County, New York. Monthly site inspections at the reservoir indicated an approximately 90-square-foot depression in the land surface directly upslope from a seep that has episodically flowed since 2007. In July 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey surveyed the topography of land surface in this depression area by collecting high-accuracy (resolution less than 1 inch) measurements. A point of origin was established for the topographic survey by using differentially corrected positional data collected by a global navigation satellite system. Eleven points were surveyed along the edge of the depression area and at arbitrary locations within the depression area by using robotic land-surveying techniques. The points were surveyed again in March 2012 to evaluate temporal changes in land-surface altitude. Survey measurements of the depression area indicated that the land-surface altitude at 8 of the 11 points decreased beyond the accepted measurement uncertainty during the 44 months from July 2008 to March 2012. Two additional control points were established at stable locations along Hillview Avenue, which runs parallel to the embankment. These points were measured during the July 2008 survey and measured again during the March 2012 survey to evaluate the relative accuracy of the altitude measurements. The relative horizontal and vertical (altitude) accuracies of the 11 topographic measurements collected in March 2012 were ±0.098 and ±0.060 feet (ft), respectively. Changes in topography at 8 of the 11 points ranged from 0.09 to 0.63 ft and topography remained constant, or within the measurement uncertainty, for 3 of the 11 points.Two cross sections were constructed through the depression area

  11. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  12. Grandeur et tentation de la medecine

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, J

    1980-01-01

    Jean BERNARD est ne a Paris en 1907. Il fait ses etudes a la Faculte des Sciences et de Medecine. Il a consacre une oeuvre considerable aux developpements des recherches et des connaissances sur les causes et les traitements des maladies du sang. Ses principaux travaux sont sur les leucemies. La medecine a plus change pendant les 40 dernieres annees que pendant les 40 siecles precedents. Certains de ces progres meritent une analyse particuliere. Les echecs ou les demi-echecs doivent etre examines. Les voies futures de la recherche biologique et medicale sont pour une large part inspires par ces echecs. Les consequences economiques et sociales des progres de la medecine : economiques, les depenses de la sante croissant plus que le produit national brut. Les remedes efficaces doivent etre discutes. Morales, avec les trois maitrises a acquise ou va acquerir, maitrise de l'heredite, maitrise de la reproduction, maitrise du systeme nerveux.

  13. Observation of monojet events and tentative interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztazabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Mattison, T.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Donvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Engelhardt, A.; Foà, L.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moneta, L.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Abt, I.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Courault, F.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliwsi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; San Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1994-08-01

    A data sample corresponding to almost two million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP has been searched for monojet events. Three events were found, in agreement with the expectation from the process ee→γ*vvbar, with γ*→ffbar. Two events are hadronic, the third one being an e+e- pair. All monojet masses are in excess of 3 GeV/c2, and two of the event have large transverse momenta: 18.5 and 20.3 GeV/c. These kinematic characteristics are quite unlikely in the process ee→γ*vvbar. The probability of their occurence increases substantially when processes involving further Z or W exchanges are taken into account, but still remains at the 5% level.

  14. Statistical theory of signal detection

    CERN Document Server

    Helstrom, Carl Wilhelm; Costrell, L; Kandiah, K

    1968-01-01

    Statistical Theory of Signal Detection, Second Edition provides an elementary introduction to the theory of statistical testing of hypotheses that is related to the detection of signals in radar and communications technology. This book presents a comprehensive survey of digital communication systems. Organized into 11 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the theory of signal detection and the typical detection problem. This text then examines the goals of the detection system, which are defined through an analogy with the testing of statistical hypotheses. Other chapters consider

  15. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  16. Mémoire et imagination chez les aliénistes esquiroliens et dans la troisième version de la Tentation de saint-Antoine de Flaubert : d’un savoir l’autre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Cabanès

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A la suite d’Esquirol dans son traité Des maladies mentales de 1838, ceux que l’on appelait alors les « aliénistes » proposent de nouvelles théories de l’imagination qui, considérées dans leur ensemble, esquissent un cadre épistémique que Flaubert utilise comme cadre rhétorique dans la troisième version de la Tentation de saint-Antoine. Toutefois, l’auteur n’accepte pas l’assimilation de l’état dans lequel se trouve l’artiste lorsqu’il crée à une hallucination pathologique. Il s’oppose en cela à la théorie de Moreau de Tours ; en revanche, il se montre plus proche de la pensée de Brierre de Boismont (et de celle de l’historien Alfred Maury. Par cet usage intelligemment mitigé du cadre épistémique de l’aliénisme contemporain et par l’invention d’une prose poétique dont les soubassements théoriques annoncent certaines conceptions de Freud et de Nietzsche, Flaubert dépasse résolument les esquiroliens.

  17. Accuracy of whole-body low-dose multidetector CT (WBLDCT) versus skeletal survey in the detection of myelomatous lesions, and correlation of disease distribution with whole-body MRI (WBMRI).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, T G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility of whole-body low-dose computed tomography (WBLDCT) in the diagnosis and staging of multiple myeloma and compare to skeletal survey (SS), using bone marrow biopsy and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI; where available) as gold standard.

  18. Joint analysis of refraction seismic survey with multilevel hydrophone measurement (application for detecting the high velocity thin lid); Kussekiho jishin tansa data to kochu hydrophone data no fukugo kaiseki no rei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, S.; Harada, T.; Hayashi, K. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    During a refraction seismic survey conducted at a spot where a high-speed lava layer is supposedly concealed, the distribution of lava layer was estimated, and a composite analysis involving the vibration data received via hydrophones arranged in a bore hole was accomplished using a high-speed model based on an assumed geological section. The refraction survey centered on the bore hole and was accomplished using 250m-long traverse lines extending therefrom, one to the upstream and the other to the downstream of a river, producing a total length of 500m. The hydrophones were installed in the bore hole, and the measurement was carried out in an offset VSP-like observation pattern. In the analysis, the velocities obtained by the refraction survey and velocity logging were assigned to each layer on the basis of the assumed geological section for the construction of a velocity distribution model, which served as the early model for the repetition of calculation. Calculation was repeated with help of the said model, and a geological structure, capable of explaining the travel time data collected during the refraction survey and velocity logging, was successfully estimated. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  19. First Spectroscopic Confirmations of z ∼ 7.0 Ly α Emitting Galaxies in the LAGER Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Weida; Wang, Junxian; Kang, Wenyong; Kong, Xu; Yang, Huan [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Jiang, Chunyan [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai 200030 (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Gonzalez, Alicia; Tilvi, Vithal [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Institution for Science, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Walker, Alistair R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Jiang, Linhua [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hibon, Pascale [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Barrientos, L. Felipe; Galaz, Gaspar [Centro de Astroingeniería, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Finkelstein, Steven [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Zheng, XianZhong, E-mail: urverda@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhengzy@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu, E-mail: linfante@carnegiescience.edu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-08-20

    Narrowband imaging is a highly successful approach for finding large numbers of high-redshift Ly α emitting galaxies (LAEs) up to z ∼ 6.6. However, at z ≳ 7 there are as of yet only three narrowband selected LAEs with spectroscopic confirmations (two at z ∼ 6.9–7.0, one at z ∼ 7.3), which hinders extensive studies on cosmic reionization and galaxy evolution at this key epoch. We have selected 23 candidate z ∼ 6.9 LAEs in COSMOS field with the large area narrowband survey Lyman-Alpha Galaxies at the End of Reionization (LAGER). In this work, we present spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 candidates using the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on Magellan. For nine of these, the observations are sufficiently deep to detect the expected lines. Ly α emission lines are identified in six sources (yielding a success rate of 2/3), including three luminous LAEs with Ly α luminosities of L {sub Lyα} ∼ 10{sup 43.5} erg s{sup −1}, the highest among known spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at ≳7.0. This triples the sample size of spectroscopically confirmed narrowband selected LAEs at z ≳ 7, and confirms the bright-end bump in the Ly α luminosity function we previously derived based on the photometric sample, supporting a patchy reionization scenario. Two luminous LAEs appear physically linked with a projected distance of 1.1 pMpc and velocity difference of ∼170 km s{sup −1}. They likely sit in a common ionized bubble produced by themselves or with close neighbors, which reduces the intergalactic medium attenuation of Ly α . A tentative narrow N v λ 1240 line is seen in one source, hinting at activity of a central massive black hole with metal-rich line-emitting gas.

  20. The Muscles Treasury Survey. I. Motivation and Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Youngblood, Allison; Brown, Alexander; Schneider, P. Christian; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Roberge, Aki; Buccino, Andrea P.

    2016-01-01

    Ground- and space-based planet searches employing radial velocity techniques and transit photometry have detected thousands of planet-hosting stars in the Milky Way. With so many planets discovered, the next step toward identifying potentially habitable planets is atmospheric characterization. While the Sun-Earth system provides a good framework for understanding the atmospheric chemistry of Earth-like planets around solar-type stars, the observational and theoretical constraints on the atmospheres of rocky planets in the habitable zones (HZs) around low-mass stars (K and M dwarfs) are relatively few. The chemistry of these atmospheres is controlled by the shape and absolute flux of the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED), however, flux distributions of relatively inactive low-mass stars are poorly understood at present. To address this issue, we have executed a panchromatic (X-ray to mid-IR) study of the SEDs of 11 nearby planet-hosting stars, the Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems (MUSCLES) Treasury Survey. The MUSCLES program consists visible observations from Hubble and ground-based observatories. Infrared and astrophysically inaccessible wavelengths (EUV and Lyalpha) are reconstructed using stellar model spectra to fill in gaps in the observational data. In this overview and the companion papers describing the MUSCLES survey, we show that energetic radiation (X-ray and ultraviolet) is present from magnetically active stellar atmospheres at all times for stars as late as M6. The emission line luminosities of C IV and Mg II are strongly correlated with band-integrated luminosities and we present empirical relations that can be used to estimate broadband FUV and XUV (is equivalent to X-ray + EUV) fluxes from individual stellar emission line measurements. We find that while the slope of the SED, FUV/NUV, increases by approximately two orders of magnitude form early K to late M dwarfs (approximately

  1. THE MUSCLES TREASURY SURVEY. I. MOTIVATION AND OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Youngblood, Allison [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Schneider, P. Christian [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hawley, Suzanne L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Froning, Cynthia S. [Department of Astronomy, C1400, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Roberge, Aki [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Buccino, Andrea P.; Mauas, Pablo J. D. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (UBA-CONICET) and Departamento de Física (UBA), CC.67, suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Davenport, James R. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States); Fontenla, Juan M. [NorthWest Research Associates, 3380 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301-2245 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, 14850, NY (United States); Kowalski, Adam F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Miguel, Yamila [Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, CNRS, Blvd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice cedex 4 (France); Redfield, Seth, E-mail: kevin.france@colorado.edu [Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459-0123 (United States); and others

    2016-04-01

    Ground- and space-based planet searches employing radial velocity techniques and transit photometry have detected thousands of planet-hosting stars in the Milky Way. With so many planets discovered, the next step toward identifying potentially habitable planets is atmospheric characterization. While the Sun–Earth system provides a good framework for understanding the atmospheric chemistry of Earth-like planets around solar-type stars, the observational and theoretical constraints on the atmospheres of rocky planets in the habitable zones (HZs) around low-mass stars (K and M dwarfs) are relatively few. The chemistry of these atmospheres is controlled by the shape and absolute flux of the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED), however, flux distributions of relatively inactive low-mass stars are poorly understood at present. To address this issue, we have executed a panchromatic (X-ray to mid-IR) study of the SEDs of 11 nearby planet-hosting stars, the Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems (MUSCLES) Treasury Survey. The MUSCLES program consists visible observations from Hubble and ground-based observatories. Infrared and astrophysically inaccessible wavelengths (EUV and Lyα) are reconstructed using stellar model spectra to fill in gaps in the observational data. In this overview and the companion papers describing the MUSCLES survey, we show that energetic radiation (X-ray and ultraviolet) is present from magnetically active stellar atmospheres at all times for stars as late as M6. The emission line luminosities of C iv and Mg ii are strongly correlated with band-integrated luminosities and we present empirical relations that can be used to estimate broadband FUV and XUV (≡X-ray + EUV) fluxes from individual stellar emission line measurements. We find that while the slope of the SED, FUV/NUV, increases by approximately two orders of magnitude form early K to late M dwarfs (≈0.01–1), the absolute FUV

  2. A prospective study comparing whole-body skeletal X-ray survey with 18F-FDG-PET/CT, 18F-NaF-PET/CT and whole-body MRI in the detection of bone lesions in multiple myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Eva; Hendel, Helle W; Al-Farra, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Background: For decades, the most widely used imaging technique for myeloma bone lesions has been a whole-body skeletal X-ray survey (WBXR), but newer promising imaging techniques are evolving. Purpose: To compare WBXR with the advanced imaging techniques 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron......, all patients underwent FDG-PET/CT, NaF-PET/CT, and WB-MRI. Experienced specialists performed blinded readings based on predefined anatomical regions and diagnostic criteria. Results: In a region-based analysis, a two-sided ANOVA test showed that the extent of detected skeletal disease depends...... on the scanning technique (P 

  3. Follow-up skeletal surveys for nonaccidental trauma: can a more limited survey be performed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, Susan R.; Nixon, G.W.; Prince, Jeffrey S.; Campbell, Kristine A.; Hansen, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated the value of the follow-up skeletal survey in identifying additional fractures, clarifying indeterminate findings, and improving dating of skeletal injuries in victims of physical abuse. To determine whether a more limited follow-up survey could yield the same radiologic data as a full follow-up survey. The study cohort comprised 101 children who had follow-up surveys that met our inclusion criteria. Consensus readings of both original and follow-up surveys were performed by two pediatric radiologists. These results were compared to determine additional findings from the follow-up surveys. Limited skeletal survey protocols were evaluated to determine whether they would detect the same fractures seen with a complete osseous survey. In the 101 children 244 fractures were identified on the initial osseous survey. Follow-up surveys demonstrated new information in 38 children (37.6%). A 15-view limited follow-up survey identified all additional information seen on the complete follow-up survey. Our data demonstrate that a 15-view limited follow-up skeletal survey could be performed without missing clinically significant new fractures and still allow proper identification of confirmed fractures or normal findings. A limited survey would decrease radiation dose in children. (orig.)

  4. Follow-up skeletal surveys for nonaccidental trauma: can a more limited survey be performed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan, Susan R. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Nixon, G.W.; Prince, Jeffrey S. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Campbell, Kristine A.; Hansen, Karen [University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Studies have demonstrated the value of the follow-up skeletal survey in identifying additional fractures, clarifying indeterminate findings, and improving dating of skeletal injuries in victims of physical abuse. To determine whether a more limited follow-up survey could yield the same radiologic data as a full follow-up survey. The study cohort comprised 101 children who had follow-up surveys that met our inclusion criteria. Consensus readings of both original and follow-up surveys were performed by two pediatric radiologists. These results were compared to determine additional findings from the follow-up surveys. Limited skeletal survey protocols were evaluated to determine whether they would detect the same fractures seen with a complete osseous survey. In the 101 children 244 fractures were identified on the initial osseous survey. Follow-up surveys demonstrated new information in 38 children (37.6%). A 15-view limited follow-up survey identified all additional information seen on the complete follow-up survey. Our data demonstrate that a 15-view limited follow-up skeletal survey could be performed without missing clinically significant new fractures and still allow proper identification of confirmed fractures or normal findings. A limited survey would decrease radiation dose in children. (orig.)

  5. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of chlorinated pesticides in aquatic tissue by capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiker, Thomas J.; Madsen, J.E.; Deacon, J.R.; Foreman, W.T.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of chlorinated organic compounds in aquatic tissue by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection is described. Whole-body-fish or corbicula tissue is homogenized, Soxhlet extracted, lipid removed by gel permeation chromatography, and fractionated using alumina/silica adsorption chromatography. The extracts are analyzed by dissimilar capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. The method reporting limits are 5 micrograms per kilogram (μg/kg) for chlorinated compounds, 50 μg/kg for polychlorinated biphenyls, and 200 μg/kg for toxaphene.

  6. The BRITE spectropolarimetric survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, C.; Lèbre, A.

    2014-12-01

    The BRITE constellation of nanosatellites observes very bright stars to perform seismology. We have set up a spectropolarimetric survey of all BRITE targets, i.e. all ˜600 stars brighter than V=4, with Narval at TBL, ESPaDOnS at CFHT and HarpsPol at ESO. We plan to reach a magnetic detection threshold of B_{pol} = 50 G for stars hotter than F5 and B_{pol} = 5 G for cooler stars. This program will allow us to combine magnetic information with the BRITE seismic information and obtain a better interpretation and modelling of the internal structure of the stars. It will also lead to new discoveries of very bright magnetic stars, which are unique targets for follow-up and multi-technique studies.

  7. 2012 Alumni Perspectives Survey. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Conducted in September 2011, this Alumni Perspectives Survey by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) is a longitudinal study of respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey, the annual GMAC[R] exit survey of graduate management students in their final year of business school. This 12th annual report includes responses…

  8. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2010-01-01

    During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…

  9. Coulometry for the detection of water content in archaeological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Crupi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we performed coulometric measurements to detect the water content in archaeological pottery in order to get information on the manufacture technique. The samples under study were the so-called "Ionian Cups" coming from various archaeological sites in eastern Sicily (South-Italy. In particular, we tentatively achieved the estimation of firing temperatures of the archaeological samples by comparing the coulometric results with those obtained in the case of raw materials fired under controlled conditions. The results were in good agreement with those previously obtained on the same samples by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS. It is worth underlying that for the first time, the detection of water content as revealed by this analytical technique was related to archaeometric issues.

  10. 2015 Community Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — These are the answers to the 2015 Community Survey.A comprehensive summary of the survey results can be found here.The survey asked town members to address their...

  11. Lesotho - Enterprise Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The 2011 MCA-Lesotho baseline enterprise survey is a national survey of enterprises. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current status of businesses...

  12. Sleep Spindles as an Electrographic Element: Description and Automatic Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée Coppieters ’t Wallant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindle is a peculiar oscillatory brain pattern which has been associated with a number of sleep (isolation from exteroceptive stimuli, memory consolidation and individual characteristics (intellectual quotient. Oddly enough, the definition of a spindle is both incomplete and restrictive. In consequence, there is no consensus about how to detect spindles. Visual scoring is cumbersome and user dependent. To analyze spindle activity in a more robust way, automatic sleep spindle detection methods are essential. Various algorithms were developed, depending on individual research interest, which hampers direct comparisons and meta-analyses. In this review, sleep spindle is first defined physically and topographically. From this general description, we tentatively extract the main characteristics to be detected and analyzed. A nonexhaustive list of automatic spindle detection methods is provided along with a description of their main processing principles. Finally, we propose a technique to assess the detection methods in a robust and comparable way.

  13. Sleep Spindles as an Electrographic Element: Description and Automatic Detection Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters 't Wallant, Dorothée; Maquet, Pierre; Phillips, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Sleep spindle is a peculiar oscillatory brain pattern which has been associated with a number of sleep (isolation from exteroceptive stimuli, memory consolidation) and individual characteristics (intellectual quotient). Oddly enough, the definition of a spindle is both incomplete and restrictive. In consequence, there is no consensus about how to detect spindles. Visual scoring is cumbersome and user dependent. To analyze spindle activity in a more robust way, automatic sleep spindle detection methods are essential. Various algorithms were developed, depending on individual research interest, which hampers direct comparisons and meta-analyses. In this review, sleep spindle is first defined physically and topographically. From this general description, we tentatively extract the main characteristics to be detected and analyzed. A nonexhaustive list of automatic spindle detection methods is provided along with a description of their main processing principles. Finally, we propose a technique to assess the detection methods in a robust and comparable way.

  14. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2013-04-01

    Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use.

  15. Utility of CK7 and CK20 immunohistochemistry in the detection of synchronous breast and colon carcinoma in a pleural effusion: a case report and supporting survey of archival material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopyra, G A; Warhol, M J; Multhaupt, H A

    2001-07-01

    We present a case of synchronous breast and colon carcinoma in a pleural effusion, to our knowledge the first such reported case in the English-language literature. The patient was a 55-yr-old white female with known metastatic breast and colon carcinoma who developed a malignant pleural effusion which demonstrated two strikingly different populations of malignant cells by immunohistochemical study of cell block material. One cell population demonstrated a cytokeratin (CK)7+/CK20-/ER+ phenotype, while the other demonstrated a CK7-/CK20+/ER- phenotype, consistent with breast and colon origin, respectively. An immunohistochemical survey of archival breast and colon primary and metastatic carcinomas confirmed the established CK7+/CK20- phenotype of breast and CK7-/CK20+ phenotype of colon primary carcinomas, and the maintenance of this phenotype in metastases thereof. A survey of benign and malignant mesothelial lesions confirmed the absence of staining for estrogen receptor, but showed 6/10 cases weakly positive for CK20, which has not been described in other published series. This unusual case graphically illustrates the utility of cytokeratin subset immunohistochemistry in effusion cytology. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Violencia doméstica contra la mujer: Una encuesta en consultorios de atención primaria Detection of domestic violence against women: Survey in a primary health care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pontecorvo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo a la Organización de la Salud, en América Latina cerca del 50% de las mujeres sufren violencia doméstica crónica. Se realizó esta investigación con el objetivo de estimar la prevalencia de violencia basada en género (VBG en las mujeres que se atienden en el Programa de Medicina Interna General (PMIG y comparar la frecuencia de detección de VBG bajo diferentes modalidades de encuesta. Se utilizó una muestra consecutiva de mujeres mayores de 18 años de edad que concurren al PMIG y aceptaron participar. Se utilizó la encuesta para detección de VBG desarrollada por la International Planning Parenthood Foundation. La mitad de la población completó la encuesta en forma anónima y a solas, y a la otra mitad el médico tratante le entregó el cuestionario al final de la consulta. Se repartieron 360 encuestas, se recuperaron 270. La edad promedio de la población fue 45.4 años, el 33 % poseía mas de 7 años de educación formal, el 48% no convivía en situación de pareja, el 56% tenía trabajo. Ciento veinte mujeres (44.4% refirieron haber sufrido algún tipo de violencia en su vida. Ciento ocho informaron violencia psicológica, 53 violencia física y 45 violencia sexual. Cuarenta y seis mujeres (17.5% relataron haber sufrido violencia sexual en la niñez. Cuarenta (14.8% refirieron sufrir violencia en la actualidad. Las mujeres que respondieron la encuesta en forma anónima referían haber sufrido VBG con una frecuencia significativamente menor que las otras (P According to Pan American Health Organization nearly 50% of women suffer chronic domestic violence in Latin America. We evaluated the prevalence of gender based violence (GBV in women assisted in a University Outpatient Clinic in Buenos Aires. We used a survey originally developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF in Spanish. The survey was distributed to a consecutive sample of women more than 18 years of age who attended the clinic

  17. Leak detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hilleret, Noël

    1999-01-01

    This paper will give an introduction to the leak detection of vacuum systems. Various methods to detect leaks as well as the most widely used helium leak detectors and their different applications are presented. Practical examples in the context of accelerator vacuum systems will illustrate the topic.

  18. Leak detection

    CERN Document Server

    Zapfe, K

    2007-01-01

    This paper will give an introduction to the leak detection of vacuum systems. Various methods to detect leaks as well as the most widely used helium leak detectors and their different applications are presented. Practical examples in the context of accelerator vacuum systems will illustrate the topic.

  19. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organophosphate pesticides in whole water by continuous liquid-liquid extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Virendra K.; Wydoski, Duane S.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 20 parent organophosphate pesticides and 5 organophosphate pesticide degradates from natural-water samples is described. Compounds are extracted from water samples with methylene chloride using a continuous liquid-liquid extractor for 6 hours. The solvent is evaporated using heat and a flow of nitrogen to a volume of 1 milliliter and solvent exchanged to ethyl acetate. Extracted compounds are determined by capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Single-operator derived method detection limits in three water-matrix samples ranged from 0.003 to 0.009 microgram per liter. Method performance was validated by spiking all compounds in three different matrices at three different concentrations. Eight replicates were analyzed at each concentration in each matrix. Mean recoveries of most method compounds spiked in surface-water samples ranged from 54 to 137 percent and those in ground-water samples ranged from 40 to 109 percent for all pesticides. Recoveries in reagent-water samples ranged from 42 to 104 percent for all pesticides. The only exception was O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-propylphosphorothioate, which had variable recovery in all three matrices ranging from 27 to 79 percent. As a result, the detected concentration of O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-propylphosphorothioate in samples is reported in this method with an estimated remark code. Based on the performance issue, two more compounds, disulfoton and ethion monoxon, also will be reported in this method with an estimated remark code. Estimated-value compounds, which are ?E-coded? in the data base, do not meet the performance criteria for unqualified quantification, but are retained in the method because the compounds are important owing to high use or potential environmental effects and because analytical performance has been consistent and reproducible.

  20. Radio Surveys: an Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, Raffaella

    Radio astronomy has provided important surveys that have made possible key (and sometimes serendipitous) discoveries. I will briefly mention some of the past continuum and line (HI) radio surveys as well as new, on-going surveys and surveys planned for the near future. This new generation of large

  1. Handbook of web surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.; Biffignandi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Best practices to create and implementhighly effective web surveys Exclusively combining design and sampling issues, Handbook of Web Surveys presents a theoretical yet practical approach to creating and conducting web surveys. From the history of web surveys to various modes of data collection to

  2. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom and suspended sediment by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Mary C.; Wydoski, Duane S.; Foreman, William T.

    2004-01-01

    A method applicable for the determination of 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, including total toxaphene as a complex mixture, and 3 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures as Aroclor equivalents--Aroclor 1016/1242, 1254, and 1260--in soil, aquatic bottom sediment, and suspended sediment is described. Method performance data are presented. The solvent system is designed to extract simultaneously selected OC pesticides and PCBs from the same sample matrix. The compounds are extracted by conventional Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, followed by partial isolation using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) to remove inorganic sulfur and large naturally present molecules from the sediment extract. The aliquot of extract collected from the GPC for OCs (OC pesticides and PCBs) is split into two sample fractions by alumina/silica combined-column chromatography, followed by Florisil adsorption chromatography to remove interfering compounds in the second fraction. The OC fractions are analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC/ECD). This report is limited to the determination of selected OC pesticides and PCBs by GC/ECD using this method. Interim reporting levels (IRLs) have been set at 0.400 to 3.12 micrograms per kilogram for 18 individual OC pesticides, 200 micrograms per kilogram for toxaphene, and 4.04 to 4.68 micrograms per kilogram for the PCBs, based on a sample size of 25-gram equivalent dry weight. These reporting levels may change following additional determinations of method detection limits.

  3. First detection of Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus and Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus, and new phylogenetic groups for Grapevine fleck virus and Hop stunt viroid isolates, revealed from grapevine field surveys in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola FIORE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the prevalence of virus and viroid infections was conducted in a grapevine field collection in Valencia, Spain. Samples of autochthonous and traditional grapevine cultivars were collected during November 2011 and tested for the presence of fourteen viruses and five viroids, using RT-PCR. The prevalent viruses were Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV: 49% infected samples and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2: 15% of samples. GLRaV-1, GLRaV-3, GLRaV-4 (variants 4 and 5, Grapevine fanleaf virus, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus (GRVFV and Grapevine virus A were also detected. Hop stunt viroid (HSVd: 92% of plants infected and Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (6% of plants were also detected. Mixed infections with two, and up to six different viruses and/or viroids were common. Only five samples (4% were free from 19 pathogens tested. This is the first report of GLRaV-4 (variants 4 and 5 in the Valencia region of Spain, and the first record of GRSPaV and GRVFV in this country. Phylogenetic analyses performed with the sequences of these viruses showed that the Spanish isolates of GLRaV-4, GFkV and HSVd belong to new phylogenetic groups.

  4. Metal Detecting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, metal detector surveying conducted by non-professional volunteers (amateur archaeologists) has contributed significantly to archaeological research and heritage practice in Denmark. Metal detecting has always been legal in Denmark, and official stakeholders have from...... the beginning of metal detector archaeology pursued a liberal model, focusing on cooperation and inclusion rather than confrontation and criminalization. Like no other surveying method, the metal detector has contributed to increasing enormously the amount of data and sites from metal-rich periods. Virtually...... all of the spectacular and ground-breaking discoveries of the past decades are owed to metal detectors in the hands of amateur archaeologists. In order to serve as a contribution to the discussion on the upsides and downsides of liberal metal detector archaeology, this article addresses mainly three...

  5. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pović, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of δz/z Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological types for ~ 20.000 sources in 8 ALHAMBRA fields. For early-type galaxies we expect to recover ~ 70% and 30-40% up to magnitudes 20.0 and 21.5, respectively, having the contamination of late-types of

  6. Asteroids in the High Cadence Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, J.; Fuentes, C.; Förster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; San Martín, J.; Littín, J.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera-Vives, G.; Estévez, P. A.; Galbany, L.; González-Gaitán, S.; Martínez, J.; de Jaeger, Th.; Hamuy, M.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the serendipitous observations of solar system objects imaged during the High cadence Transient Survey 2014 observation campaign. Data from this high-cadence wide-field survey was originally analyzed for finding variable static sources using machine learning to select the most-likely candidates. In this work, we search for moving transients consistent with solar system objects and derive their orbital parameters. We use a simple, custom motion detection algorithm to link trajectories and assume Keplerian motion to derive the asteroid’s orbital parameters. We use known asteroids from the Minor Planet Center database to assess the detection efficiency of the survey and our search algorithm. Trajectories have an average of nine detections spread over two days, and our fit yields typical errors of {σ }a∼ 0.07 {au}, σ e ∼ 0.07 and σ i ∼ 0.°5 in semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination, respectively, for known asteroids in our sample. We extract 7700 orbits from our trajectories, identifying 19 near-Earth objects, 6687 asteroids, 14 Centaurs, and 15 trans-Neptunian objects. This highlights the complementarity of supernova wide-field surveys for solar system research and the significance of machine learning to clean data of false detections. It is a good example of the data-driven science that Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will deliver.

  7. Acoustic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccobene, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The proposal of acoustic neutrino detection is living a renaissance: the interest in ultra high energy neutrino detection, the fast improvements of deep sea technology and the availability of large deep sea research infrastructures are the three main ingredients to explain the new interest in this technique. The status of simulation work, medium studies, sensor developments and first results from test experimental setups are presented.

  8. Crime and Detection in a Defective World: The Detective Fictions of Borges and Dürrenmatt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Holzapfel

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available The debt of contemporary writers to detective fiction, both in theme and technique, has been noted in recent criticism. However, studies of a comparative nature are virtually nonexistent. This article attempts to show some remarkable parallels in the approach taken by Friedrich Dürrenmatt and Jorge Luis Borges to a genre which, as yet, has not acquired recognition as literary art form. The similarities of the two authors are striking both with respect to their world view and to their transformation of the genre through poetic treatment. Detective fiction, which lends itself readily to innovation and parody, is used by these writers to meditate and comment on the reaches and limitations of human reason and on its implications for a genre that has spent itself. Proposing tentatively that its possibilities have been exhausted, Borges and Dürrenmatt discover in the process of writing a new and original form, a radically modified detective story as well as the fundamentals of a new esthetic.

  9. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  10. Aerial radiation surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist

  11. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Abelquist, E.W. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor`s performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors` performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments.

  12. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Abelquist, E.W.

    1998-03-01

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor's performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors' performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments

  13. Combined Survey Format (CSF) Archaeogeophysical (Metal Detecting, Radiometrics and Resistivity) and Archaeochemical (XRF) Investigations of the 19th Century La Hacienda Y Presidio of Babocomari Military Site in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, R. J.; Aydin, N.; Brackett, C.

    2007-05-01

    Recent archaeological investigations of Historic Era Mexican and Anglo-American and Prehistoric and Protohistoric Hohokam and Sobaipuri culture sites on the Babacomari Land Grant near Sierra Vista Arizona by Carothers Environmental, LLC (CE), Wondjina Research Institute (WRI) and DMG Four Corners Research (FCR) led to the discovery of two major 19th Century military sites that were known from the literature but had not been scientifically investigated. It was decided by WRI and BABACOMARI RANCH that this project was ideal for an experimental cooperative training program for archaeologists and geologists from the anthropology and geology departments of UA, ASU, NAU, PC, and members of AAS, AAHS, AAC, THS and USFS personnel in the use of the new CSF archaeogeophysical, archaeochemical and airbourne remote sensing technologies and field techniques that have just been recently introduced in the US. WRI, CE and Statistical Research Inc. (SRI) conducted CSF VLF Metal Detecting, Radiometrics and Resistivity studies and portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) archaeochemical studies. The results will be presented along with suggestions as to use of these technologies in CSF studies.

  14. The DECam Minute Cadence Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardi, C.; Kilic, M.; Munn, J. A.; Gianninas, A.; Barber, S. D.; Dey, A.; Stetson, P. B.

    2017-03-01

    We present the first results from a minute cadence survey of a 3 deg2 field obtained with the Dark Energy Camera. We imaged part of the Canada- France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey area over eight half-nights. We use the stacked images to identify 111 high proper motion white dwarf candidates with g≤ 24.5 mag and search for eclipse-like events and other sources of variability. We find a new g=20.64 mag pulsating ZZ Ceti star with pulsation periods of 11-13 min. However, we do not find any transiting planetary companions in the habitable zone of our target white dwarfs. Given the probability of eclipses of 1% and our observing window from the ground, the non-detection of such companions in this first field is not surprising. Minute cadence DECam observations of additional fields will provide stringent constraints on the frequency of planets in the white dwarf habitable zone.

  15. A longitudinal survey of African swine fever in Uganda reveals high apparent disease incidence rates in domestic pigs, but absence of detectable persistent virus infections in blood and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhangi, Denis; Masembe, Charles; Emanuelson, Ulf; Boqvist, Sofia; Mayega, Lawrence; Ademun, Rose Okurut; Bishop, Richard P; Ocaido, Michael; Berg, Mikael; Ståhl, Karl

    2015-05-13

    African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal, haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs, that poses a serious threat to pig farmers and is currently endemic in domestic pigs in most of sub-Saharan Africa. To obtain insight into the factors related to ASF outbreaks at the farm-level, a longitudinal study was performed in one of the major pig producing areas in central Uganda. Potential risk factors associated with outbreaks of ASF were investigated including the possible presence of apparently healthy ASF-virus (ASFV) infected pigs, which could act as long-term carriers of the virus. Blood and serum were sampled from 715 pigs (241 farms) and 649 pigs (233 farms) to investigate presence of ASFV and antibodies, during the periods of June-October 2010 and March-June 2011, respectively. To determine the potential contribution of different risks to ASF spread, a questionnaire-based survey was administered to farmers to assess the association between ASF outbreaks during the study period and the risk factors. Fifty-one (21 %) and 13 (5.6 %) farms reported an ASF outbreak on their farms in the previous one to two years and during the study period, respectively. The incidence rate for ASF prior to the study period was estimated at 14.1 per 100 pig farm-years and 5.6 per 100 pig farm-years during the study. Three pigs tested positive for ASFV using real-time PCR, but none tested positive for ASFV specific antibodies using two different commercial ELISA tests. There was no evidence for existence of pigs that were long-term carriers for the virus based on the analysis of blood and serum as there were no seropositive pigs and the only three ASFV DNA positive pigs were acutely infected and were linked to outbreaks reported by farmers during the study. Potential ASF risk factors were present on both small and medium-scale pig farms, although small scale farms exhibited a higher proportion with multiple potential risk factors (like borrowing boars for sows mating, buying replacement from

  16. SURVEY, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. National Health Care Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  18. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  19. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. National Aquatic Resource Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA reports information on the condition of our nation's waters using probabilistic surveys. The National Aquatic Resource Surveys assess the status of and changes in water quality of the nation's coastal waters, lakes, rivers and streams, and wetlands.

  1. SURVEY, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, ATTALA COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. SURVEY, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  5. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  6. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. GDOT employee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    The research team worked in collaboration with GDOT to conduct the 2016 GDOT Employee Survey. This research study aimed to increase the response rate and the usefulness of the feedback from the GDOT employee survey to support organizational decisions...

  8. SURVEY, Lowndes County, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. SURVEY, Lancaster County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  10. HCAHPS Hospital Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) Hospital Survey The intent of the HCAHPS initiative is to provide a standardized survey...

  11. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  13. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  15. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  16. SURVEY, RICE COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. Fingerprint detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, George C.

    1992-01-01

    A method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints is provided and includes contacting a substrate containing a latent print thereon with a colloidal metal composition for time sufficient to allow reaction of said colloidal metal composition with said latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print. Further, the method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints can include contacting the metal composition-latent print reaction product with a secondary metal-containing solution for time sufficient to allow precipitation of said secondary metal thereby enhancing the visibility of the latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print.

  18. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  19. GIS Readiness Survey 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2014-01-01

    The GIS Readiness Survey 2014 is a follow-up to the corresponding survey that was carried out among public institutions in Denmark in 2009. The present survey thus provides an updated image of status and challenges in relation to the use of spatial information, the construction of the com- mon...

  20. A Subaru galaxy redshift survey: WFMOS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, M

    2008-01-01

    A planned galaxy redshift survey with the Subaru 8.2m telescope, the WFMOS survey, offers a unique opportunity for probing detailed properties of large-scale structure formation in the expanding universe by measuring clustering strength of galaxy distribution as a function of distance scale and redshift. In particular, the precise measurement of the galaxy power spectrum, combined with the cosmic microwave background experiments, allows us to obtain stringent constraints on or even determine absolute mass scales of the Big-Bang relic neutrinos as the neutrinos imprint characteristic scale- and redshift-dependent modifications onto the galaxy power spectrum shape. Here we describe the basic concept of how the galaxy clustering measurement can be used to explore the neutrino masses, with particular emphasis on advantages of the WFMOS survey over the existing low-redshift surveys such as SDSS

  1. Incorporating detectability of threatened species into environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, Georgia E; Bekessy, Sarah A; McCarthy, Michael A; Wintle, Brendan A

    2015-02-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a key mechanism for protecting threatened plant and animal species. Many species are not perfectly detectable and, even when present, may remain undetected during EIA surveys, increasing the risk of site-level loss or extinction of species. Numerous methods now exist for estimating detectability of plants and animals. Despite this, regulations concerning survey protocol and effort during EIAs fail to adequately address issues of detectability. Probability of detection is intrinsically linked to survey effort; thus, minimum survey effort requirements are a useful way to address the risks of false absences. We utilized 2 methods for determining appropriate survey effort requirements during EIA surveys. One method determined the survey effort required to achieve a probability of detection of 0.95 when the species is present. The second method estimated the survey effort required to either detect the species or reduce the probability of presence to 0.05. We applied these methods to Pimelea spinscens subsp. spinescens, a critically endangered grassland plant species in Melbourne, Australia. We detected P. spinescens in only half of the surveys undertaken at sites where it was known to exist. Estimates of the survey effort required to detect the species or demonstrate its absence with any confidence were much higher than the effort traditionally invested in EIA surveys for this species. We argue that minimum survey requirements be established for all species listed under threatened species legislation and hope that our findings will provide an impetus for collecting, compiling, and synthesizing quantitative detectability estimates for a broad range of plant and animal species. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  3. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  4. Malware Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Maughan, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Shared resources, such as the internet, have created a highly interconnected cyber-infrastructure. Many malicious attacks on critical infrastructures are achieved by malicious code or malware, such as viruses and worms. This book captures the research in the area of malicious code detection, prevention and mitigation.

  5. Primordial non-Gaussianity from LAMOST surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yan; Wang Xin; Chen Xuelei; Zheng Zheng

    2010-01-01

    The primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) in the matter density perturbation is a very powerful probe of the physics of the very early Universe. The local PNG can induce a distinct scale-dependent bias on the large scale structure distribution of galaxies and quasars, which could be used for constraining it. We study the detection limits of PNG from the surveys of the LAMOST telescope. The cases of the main galaxy survey, the luminous red galaxy (LRG) survey, and the quasar survey of different magnitude limits are considered. We find that the Main1 sample (i.e. the main galaxy survey which is one magnitude deeper than the SDSS main galaxy survey, or r NL are |f NL | NL | NL | is between 50 and 103, depending on the magnitude limit of the survey. With Planck-like priors on cosmological parameters, the quasar survey with g NL | < 43 (2σ). We also discuss the possibility of further tightening the constraint by using the relative bias method proposed by Seljak.

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. 2006 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Alameda County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data set is a survey of Alameda County in Northern California. The entire survey covers approximately 868.382 square miles....

  8. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin in south-central Louisiana. The entire survey area encompasses 981 square miles....

  9. Identifying Careless Responses in Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Adam W.; Craig, S. Bartholomew

    2012-01-01

    When data are collected via anonymous Internet surveys, particularly under conditions of obligatory participation (such as with student samples), data quality can be a concern. However, little guidance exists in the published literature regarding techniques for detecting careless responses. Previously several potential approaches have been…

  10. Loop-induced dark matter direct detection signals from gamma-ray lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Haisch, Ulrich; Kahlhoefer, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Improved limits as well as tentative claims for dark matter annihilation into gamma-ray lines have been presented recently. We study the direct detection cross section induced from dark matter annihilation into two photons in a model-independent fashion, assuming no additional couplings between...... dark matter and nuclei. We find a striking non-standard recoil spectrum due to different destructively interfering contributions to the dark matter nucleus scattering cross section. While in the case of s-wave annihilation the current sensitivity of direct detection experiments is insufficient...... to compete with indirect detection searches, for p-wave annihilation the constraints from direct searches are comparable. This will allow to test dark matter scenarios with p-wave annihilation that predict a large di-photon annihilation cross section in the next generation of experiments....

  11. Smile detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rus, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Facial expressions are one of the most powerful and indirect means of transferring feelings, cognitive status, ulterior motive and opinion among people. Considering their significance it is reasonable to expect that the development of tools recognizing facial expressions would have a big effect on everyday life. In the past years, the developers have made big progress on the development of classifiers that are needed for this kind of expression detection; however there is still a great gap be...

  12. The ISOGAL survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omont, A.; ISOGAL Collaboration

    1999-03-01

    ISOGAL is a 7-15 μm ISOCAM survey, with 6'' pixels and sensitivity below 10 mJy, of ~20 deg2, in the galactic plane mostly interior to |l| = 30o. In combination with KJI DENIS data, the ISO images allow detailed studies of cold stellar populations and galactic structures in regions highly obscured throughout the inner Galaxy, with a sensitivity and pixel surface two orders of magnitude better than IRAS. Data reduction is particularly difficult because of the high density of strong sources, of memory effects and of short integration times. However, an improved data reduction is almost complete for all the fields observed, with the use of CIA ISOCAM software and of a special source extraction. The data quality is acceptable, as concerns reliability, completeness and photometric accuracy of the sources, to allow a systematic scientific analysis. A few fields, in the bulge and in the galactic disk, exemplify the results expected from the ~200 fields observed. These results include: A complete census of mass-losing AGB stars in fields of the inner bulge. Even very weak mass-loss are very well characterised, down to the RGB tip. Such stars are by far the most numerous there. They form a very well defined sequence in ISOGAL-DENIS infrared colour-magnitude diagrams. The knowledge of Long Period Variables in two Baade's Window fields confirm that their luminosity is just above the tip of this sequence, and that the spectral type of the stars of the sequence is M6-9III. The same AGB sequence is also quite visible in 7-15 μm colour-magnitude diagrams in the galactic disk, even with a very large extinction. Such AGB stars are thus particularly numerous among the ~105 sources detected by ISOGAL. However, foreground red giants and dusty young stars are also quite numerous. The latter with a few solar masses are detectable through the galactic centre distance. A number of bright young stars are identified on lines of sight close to the Galactic Centre, The combination of ISOGAL

  13. A survey of tests for protection against non-ductile failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girotra, C.C.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the various tests available to test susceptibility to brittle fracture - their advantages, limitations has been made and the present status of data available to engineers has been surveyed. Due to the limitations of the charpy V-notch impact testing method - LEFM based Ksub(Ic) test and GYFM based COD test have been receiving recognition. ASME Section III has recently recommended Ksub(Ic) test as an alternative test for the selection of (ferritic) materials for class 1 pressure vessels. COD test proposed by British research workers, however, is yet to gain recognition for pressure vessel code particles, although it has existed as a tentative specification for more than 2 years and is more relevant to the materials with average strength. (author)

  14. The Dark Energy Survey Image Processing Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, E.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a five-year optical imaging campaign with the goal of understanding the origin of cosmic acceleration. DES performs a 5000 square degree survey of the southern sky in five optical bands (g,r,i,z,Y) to a depth of ~24th magnitude. Contemporaneously, DES performs a deep, time-domain survey in four optical bands (g,r,i,z) over 27 square degrees. DES exposures are processed nightly with an evolving data reduction pipeline and evaluated for image quality to determine if they need to be retaken. Difference imaging and transient source detection are also performed in the time domain component nightly. On a bi-annual basis, DES exposures are reprocessed with a refined pipeline and coadded to maximize imaging depth. Here we describe the DES image processing pipeline in support of DES science, as a reference for users of archival DES data, and as a guide for future astronomical surveys.

  15. The NASA SETI sky survey: Recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Olsen, E. T.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) project utilizes two complementary search strategies: a sky survey and a targeted search. The SETI team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, has primary responsibility to develop and carry out the sky survey part. Described here is progress that has been made developing the major elements of the survey including a 2-million channel wideband spectrum analyzer system that is being designed and constructed by JPL for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The system will be a multiuser instrument; it will serve as a prototype for the SETI sky survey processor. This prototype system will be used to test the signal detection and observational strategies on DSN antennas in the near future.

  16. The NASA SETI sky survey - Recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael J.; Gulkis, Samuel; Olsen, Edward T.; Renzetti, Nicholas A.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) project utilizes two complimentary search strategies: a sky survey and a targeted search. The SETI team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have primary responsibility to develop and carry out the sky survey part of the Microwave Observing Project. The paper describes progress that has been made to develop the major elements of the survey including a two-million channel wideband spectrum analyzer system that is being developed and constructed by JPL for the Deep Space Network. The new system will be a multiuser instrument that will serve as a prototype for the SETI Sky Survey processor. This system will be used to test the signal detection and observational strategies on deep-space network antennas in the near future.

  17. The California Baseline Methane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.

  18. Web survey methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Callegaro, Mario; Vehovar, Asja

    2015-01-01

    Web Survey Methodology guides the reader through the past fifteen years of research in web survey methodology. It both provides practical guidance on the latest techniques for collecting valid and reliable data and offers a comprehensive overview of research issues. Core topics from preparation to questionnaire design, recruitment testing to analysis and survey software are all covered in a systematic and insightful way. The reader will be exposed to key concepts and key findings in the literature, covering measurement, non-response, adjustments, paradata, and cost issues. The book also discusses the hottest research topics in survey research today, such as internet panels, virtual interviewing, mobile surveys and the integration with passive measurements, e-social sciences, mixed modes and business intelligence. The book is intended for students, practitioners, and researchers in fields such as survey and market research, psychological research, official statistics and customer satisfaction research.

  19. Predicting survey responses: how and why semantics shape survey statistics on organizational behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ketil Arnulf

    Full Text Available Some disciplines in the social sciences rely heavily on collecting survey responses to detect empirical relationships among variables. We explored whether these relationships were a priori predictable from the semantic properties of the survey items, using language processing algorithms which are now available as new research methods. Language processing algorithms were used to calculate the semantic similarity among all items in state-of-the-art surveys from Organisational Behaviour research. These surveys covered areas such as transformational leadership, work motivation and work outcomes. This information was used to explain and predict the response patterns from real subjects. Semantic algorithms explained 60-86% of the variance in the response patterns and allowed remarkably precise prediction of survey responses from humans, except in a personality test. Even the relationships between independent and their purported dependent variables were accurately predicted. This raises concern about the empirical nature of data collected through some surveys if results are already given a priori through the way subjects are being asked. Survey response patterns seem heavily determined by semantics. Language algorithms may suggest these prior to administering a survey. This study suggests that semantic algorithms are becoming new tools for the social sciences, opening perspectives on survey responses that prevalent psychometric theory cannot explain.

  20. Predicting Survey Responses: How and Why Semantics Shape Survey Statistics on Organizational Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Larsen, Kai Rune; Martinsen, Øyvind Lund; Bong, Chih How

    2014-01-01

    Some disciplines in the social sciences rely heavily on collecting survey responses to detect empirical relationships among variables. We explored whether these relationships were a priori predictable from the semantic properties of the survey items, using language processing algorithms which are now available as new research methods. Language processing algorithms were used to calculate the semantic similarity among all items in state-of-the-art surveys from Organisational Behaviour research. These surveys covered areas such as transformational leadership, work motivation and work outcomes. This information was used to explain and predict the response patterns from real subjects. Semantic algorithms explained 60–86% of the variance in the response patterns and allowed remarkably precise prediction of survey responses from humans, except in a personality test. Even the relationships between independent and their purported dependent variables were accurately predicted. This raises concern about the empirical nature of data collected through some surveys if results are already given a priori through the way subjects are being asked. Survey response patterns seem heavily determined by semantics. Language algorithms may suggest these prior to administering a survey. This study suggests that semantic algorithms are becoming new tools for the social sciences, opening perspectives on survey responses that prevalent psychometric theory cannot explain. PMID:25184672

  1. A deep X-ray spectroscopic survey of the ESO imaging survey fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.; Hansen, Lene

    1998-01-01

    V, we propose to perform a spectroscopic survey with SODART and push these telescopes to the limit at the high energies. By selecting the four ESO Imaging Survey fields EIS teach 6 deg(2)) we will take full advantage of the large, systematic effort ESO is putting into the optical survey of these fields......The deepest ROSAT surveys have shown, that, in the energy range 0.5-2.0 keV, QSO's can account for similar to 30 per cent of the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXRB), and Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELG) and clusters of galaxies for about 10 per cent each. But, by assuming characteristic spectral....... This spectroscopic X-ray survey will provide a large, statistically complete, sample of sources detected at high energies, more than an order of magnitude fainter than obtained by previous missions. The study of these sources will significantly improve our understanding not only of the origin of DXRB, but also...

  2. Current management of anorectal malformation in Egypt: a survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/aim Anorectal malformation (ARM) represents a wide spectrum of anomalies. Its management includes various strategies. This survey aims at detecting the current preferences of Egyptian pediatric surgeons regarding the management of ARM. Materials and methods A survey was circulated individually to the ...

  3. Visual aids for aerial observers on forest insect surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.T. Larsen

    1957-01-01

    Aerial surveys are widely used to detect, appraise, and map damage caused to forest trees by insects. The success of these surveys largely depends upon the ability of observers to distinguish differences in foliage color and tree condition. The observers' ability is influenced by several factors.

  4. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  5. Current management of anorectal malformation in Egypt: a survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/aim: Anorectal malformation (ARM) represents a wide spectrum of anomalies. Its management includes various strategies. This survey aims at detecting the current preferences of Egyptian pediatric surgeons regarding the management of ARM. Materials and methods: A survey was circulated individually to the ...

  6. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs

  7. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  8. Management Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers' Managers' Satisfaction Survey asks managers to rate their perception of workforce planning, interaction with and levels of support...

  9. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  10. Aerial radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Aerial gamma spectrometry surveys are the most effective, comprehensive and preferred tool to delimit the large area surface contamination in a radiological emergency either due to a nuclear accident or following a nuclear strike. The airborne survey apart from providing rapid and economical evaluation of ground contamination over large areas due to larger ground clearance and higher speed, is the only technique to overcome difficulties posed by ground surveys of inaccessible region. The aerial survey technique can also be used for searching of lost radioactive sources, tracking of radioactive plume and generation of background data on the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of nuclear installations

  11. Edge Detection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    PROJECT. T ASK0 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA It WORK UNIT NUMBERS V 545 Technology Square ( Cambridge, HA 02139 I I* CONTOOL1LIN@4OFFICE NAME...ARD-A1t62 62 EDGE DETECTION(U) NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 1/1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB E C HILDRETH SEP 85 AI-M-8 N99SI4-8S-C-6595...used to carry out this analysis. cce~iO a N) ’.~" D LI’BL. P p ------------ Sj. t i MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY i ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  12. Corporate Recruiters Survey: 2014 Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Worthington, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Corporate Recruiters Survey Report examines the current hiring outlook for graduate business students and analyzes demand by industry and world region, salaries, job functions, and mobility in regional job placement. It also explores recruiter behavior, including recruitment practices and school and candidate selection criteria, and…

  13. A Survey of the Innovation Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Shangqin; Oxley, Les; McCann, Philip

    Both theoretical and conceptual understanding of innovation has developed significantly since the early 1980s. More noticeable, however, are the major changes that have been experienced in empirically-oriented innovation research as a result of the introduction of firm level innovation surveys.

  14. Aircrew Sizing Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    the aircrew population is growing heavier and exhibiting some increased measurements related to increased mass. 15. SUBJECT TERMS anthropometry , body...LIST ACSS Aircrew Sizing Survey AFB Air Force Base ANSUR Army Anthropometric Survey CAESAR Civilian American & European Surface Anthropometry ...Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR) was developed for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. The ACSS was intended to replace the JSF-CAESAR

  15. Infrastructure Survey 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

  16. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    ). The consumer survey was conducted in four countries (Germany, Poland, Sweden, and United States) with approximately 1,000 respondents per country. The purpose of the survey was to explore consumption and psychological differences across markets and cultures. The collected data represents the empirical...

  17. 2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Periodically, Maryland's sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders are surveyed to determine the nature, extent, and trend of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. The "2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey (MAS)" presents the latest findings regarding ATOD use by Maryland's adolescents and compares State and local…

  18. Readership Surveys Build Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Bob

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of students' opinions of their school newspaper. Lists four changes that were based on the survey results: (1) added emphasis on meeting students' personal interest needs, (2) increase in short feature and humorous stories, (3) more persuasive editorial and opinion pieces, and (4) increase in advertising benefits for…

  19. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  20. Survey team on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Bruder, Regina; Planas, Núria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of the work of the ICME 13 Survey Team on ‘Conceptualisation and the role of competencies, knowing and knowledge in mathematics education research’. It surveys a variety of historical and contemporary views and conceptualisations of what it means to master...

  1. The EURONEAR Lightcurve Survey of Near Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Macias, A. Aznar; Tudor, V.; Predatu, M.; Galád, A.; Gajdoš, Š.; Világi, J.; Stevance, H. F.; Errmann, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Char, F.; Peixinho, N.; Popescu, M.; Sonka, A.; Cornea, R.; Suciu, O.; Toma, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Sota, A.; Licandro, J.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Morate, D.; Mocnik, T.; Diaz Alfaro, M.; Lopez-Martinez, F.; McCormac, J.; Humphries, N.

    2017-08-01

    This data paper presents lightcurves of 101 near Earth asteroids (NEAs) observed mostly between 2014 and 2017 as part of the EURONEAR photometric survey using 11 telescopes with diameters between 0.4 and 4.2 m located in Spain, Chile, Slovakia and Romania. Most targets had no published data at the time of observing, but some objects were observed in the same period mainly by B. Warner, allowing us to confirm or improve the existing results. To plan the runs and select the targets, we developed the public Long Planning tool in PHP. For preliminary data reduction and rapid follow-up planning we developed the LiDAS pipeline in Python and IRAF. For final data reduction, flux calibration, night linkage and Fourier fitting, we used mainly MPO Canopus. Periods of 18 targets are presented for the first time, and we could solve or constrain rotation for 16 of them. We secured periods for 45 targets (U˜ 3), found candidate periods for other 16 targets (U˜ 2), and we propose tentative periods for other 32 targets (U˜ 1). We observed 7 known or candidate binary NEAs, fiting 3 of them (2102 Tantalus, 5143 Heracles and 68348). We observed 8 known or candidate tumbling NEAs, deriving primary periods for 3 objects (9400, 242708 and 470510). We evidenced rapid oscillations (few minutes) and could fit fast tentative periods TP2 for 5 large newly suggested tumbling or binary candidates (27346, 112985, 285625, 377732, 408980), probably discovering at least one new binary NEA (2011 WO41). We resolved periods of 4 special objects which include two proposed space mission targets (163249 and 101955 Bennu), one very fast rotator NEA discovered by EURONEAR (2014 NL52) and the "Halloween asteroid" (2015 TB145). Using Mercator in simultaneous 3 band MAIA imaging, we could evidence for the first time clear variation in the color lightcurves of 10 NEAs. The periods derived from the g- r color lightcurves are found to match individual band period fits for 4 NEAs (27346, 86067, 112985 and

  2. Development of a Change Detection Method with Low-Performance Point Cloud Data for Updating Three-Dimensional Road Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fuse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D road maps have garnered significant attention recently because of applications such as autonomous driving. For 3D road maps to remain accurate and up-to-date, an appropriate updating method is crucial. However, there are currently no updating methods with both satisfactorily high frequency and accuracy. An effective strategy would be to frequently acquire point clouds from regular vehicles, and then take detailed measurements only where necessary. However, there are three challenges when using data from regular vehicles. First, the accuracy and density of the points are comparatively low. Second, the measurement ranges vary for different measurements. Third, tentative changes such as pedestrians must be discriminated from real changes. The method proposed in this paper consists of registration and change detection methods. We first prepare the synthetic data obtained from regular vehicles using mobile mapping system data as a base reference. We then apply our proposed change detection method, in which the occupancy grid method is integrated with Dempster–Shafer theory to deal with occlusions and tentative changes. The results show that the proposed method can detect road environment changes, and it is easy to find changed parts through visualization. The work contributes towards sustainable updates and applications of 3D road maps.

  3. The VLA Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark; VLASS Survey Team, VLASS Survey Science Group

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), which began in September 2017, is a seven year project to image the entire sky north of Declination -40 degrees in three epochs. The survey is being carried out in I,Q and U polarization at a frequency of 2-4GHz, and a resolution of 2.5 arcseconds, with each epoch being separated by 32 months. Raw data from the survey, along with basic "quicklook" images are made freely available shortly after observation. Within a few months, NRAO will begin making available further basic data products, including refined images and source lists. In this talk I shall describe the science goals and methodology of the survey, the current survey status, and some early results, along with plans for collaborations with external groups to produce enhanced, high level data products.

  4. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  5. Smoke detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  6. Signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholomier, M.

    1985-01-01

    In a scanning electron microscope, whatever is the measured signal, the same set is found: incident beam, sample, signal detection, signal amplification. The resulting signal is used to control the spot luminosity with the observer cathodoscope. This is synchronized with the beam scanning on the sample; on the cathodoscope, the image in secondary electrons, backscattered electrons,... of the sample surface is reconstituted. The best compromise must be found between a register time low enough to remove eventual variations (under the incident beam) of the nature of the observed phenomenon, and a good spatial resolution of the image and a signal-to-noise ratio high enough. The noise is one of the basic limitations of the scanning electron microscope performance. The whose measurement line must be optimized to reduce it [fr

  7. Radon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-01-25

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

  8. Regulatory and licensee surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the workshop two CSNI/WGHOF surveys were distributed. One survey was directed at regulatory bodies and the other was directed at plant licensees. The surveys were: 1 - Regulatory Expectations of Licensees' Arrangements to Ensure Suitable Organisational Structure, Resources and Competencies to Manage Safety (sent to WGHOF regulatory members). The survey requested that the respondents provide a brief overview of the situation related to plant organisations in their country, their regulatory expectations and their formal requirements. The survey addressed three subjects: the demonstration and documentation of organisational structures, resources and competencies, organisational changes, issues for improvement (for both current and new plants). Responses were received from eleven regulatory bodies. 2 - Approaches to Justify Organisational Suitability (sent to selected licensees). The purpose of the survey to was to gain an understanding of how licensees ensure organisational suitability, resources and competencies. This information was used to assist in the development of the issues and subjects that were addressed at the group discussion sessions. Responses were received from over fifteen licensees from nine countries. The survey requested that the licensees provide information on how they ensure effective organisational structures at their plants. The survey grouped the questions into the following four categories: organisational safety functions, resource and competence, decision-making and communication, good examples and improvement needs. The findings from these surveys were used in conjunction with other factors to identify the key issues for the workshop discussion sessions. The responses from these two surveys are discussed briefly in Sections 4 and 5 of this report. More extensive reviews of the regulatory and licensee responses are provided in Appendix 1

  9. The Bright SHARC Survey: The Cluster Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, A. K; Nichol, R. C.; Holden, B. P.; Ulmer, M. P.; Pildis, R. A.; Merrelli, A. J.; Adami, C.; Burke, D. J.; Collins, C. A.; Metevier, A. J.; Kron, R. G.; Commons, K.

    1999-01-01

    We present the Bright SHARC (Serendipitous High-Redshift Archival ROSAT Cluster) Survey, which is an objective search for serendipitously detected extended X-ray sources in 460 deep ROSAT PSPC pointings. The Bright SHARC Survey covers an area of 178.6 deg2 and has yielded 374 extended sources. We discuss the X-ray data reduction, the candidate selection and present results from our on-going optical follow-up campaign. The optical follow-up concentrates on the brightest 94 of the 374 extended ...

  10. The WFIRST Galaxy Survey Exposure Time Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Christopher M.; Gehrels, Neil; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kruk, Jeffrey; Rhodes, Jason; Wang, Yun; Zoubian, Julien

    2013-01-01

    This document describes the exposure time calculator for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) high-latitude survey. The calculator works in both imaging and spectroscopic modes. In addition to the standard ETC functions (e.g. background and SN determination), the calculator integrates over the galaxy population and forecasts the density and redshift distribution of galaxy shapes usable for weak lensing (in imaging mode) and the detected emission lines (in spectroscopic mode). The source code is made available for public use.

  11. The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Peter J.; West, Richard G.; Goad, Michael R.; Jenkins, James S.; Pollacco, Don L.; Queloz, Didier; Rauer, Heike; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Christopher A.; Chazelas, Bruno; Eigmüller, Philipp; Lambert, Gregory; Genolet, Ludovic; McCormac, James; Walker, Simon; Armstrong, David J.; Bayliss, Daniel; Bento, Joao; Bouchy, François; Burleigh, Matthew R.; Cabrera, Juan; Casewell, Sarah L.; Chaushev, Alexander; Chote, Paul; Csizmadia, Szilárd; Erikson, Anders; Faedi, Francesca; Foxell, Emma; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Gillen, Edward; Grange, Andrew; Günther, Maximilian N.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Jackman, James; Jordán, Andrés; Louden, Tom; Metrailler, Lionel; Moyano, Maximiliano; Nielsen, Louise D.; Osborn, Hugh P.; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Raddi, Roberto; Raynard, Liam; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Soto, Maritza; Titz-Weider, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    We describe the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS), which is a ground-based project searching for transiting exoplanets orbiting bright stars. NGTS builds on the legacy of previous surveys, most notably WASP, and is designed to achieve higher photometric precision and hence find smaller planets than have previously been detected from the ground. It also operates in red light, maximizing sensitivity to late K and early M dwarf stars. The survey specifications call for photometric precision of 0.1 per cent in red light over an instantaneous field of view of 100 deg2, enabling the detection of Neptune-sized exoplanets around Sun-like stars and super-Earths around M dwarfs. The survey is carried out with a purpose-built facility at Cerro Paranal, Chile, which is the premier site of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). An array of twelve 20 cm f/2.8 telescopes fitted with back-illuminated deep-depletion CCD cameras is used to survey fields intensively at intermediate Galactic latitudes. The instrument is also ideally suited to ground-based photometric follow-up of exoplanet candidates from space telescopes such as TESS, Gaia and PLATO. We present observations that combine precise autoguiding and the superb observing conditions at Paranal to provide routine photometric precision of 0.1 per cent in 1 h for stars with I-band magnitudes brighter than 13. We describe the instrument and data analysis methods as well as the status of the survey, which achieved first light in 2015 and began full-survey operations in 2016. NGTS data will be made publicly available through the ESO archive.

  12. The X-ray source content of the XMM-Newton Galactic plane survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motch, C.; Warwick, R.; Cropper, M. S.; Carrera, F.; Guillout, P.; Pineau, F.-X.; Pakull, M. W.; Rosen, S.; Schwope, A.; Tedds, J.; Webb, N.; Negueruela, I.; Watson, M. G.

    2010-11-01

    We report the results of an optical campaign carried out by the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre with the specific goal of identifying the brightest X-ray sources in the XMM-Newton Galactic plane survey. In addition to photometric and spectroscopic observations obtained at the ESO-VLT and ESO-3.6 m, we used cross-correlations with the 2XMMi, USNO-B1.0, 2MASS, and GLIMPSE catalogues to advance the identification process. Active coronae account for 16 of the 30 positively or tentatively identified X-ray sources and exhibit the softest X-ray spectra. Many of the identified hard X-ray sources are associated with massive stars, possible members of binary systems and emitting at intermediate X-ray luminosities of 1032-34 erg s-1. Among these are (i) a very absorbed, likely hyper-luminous star with X-ray/optical spectra and luminosities comparable to those of η Carina; (ii) a new X-ray-selected WN8 Wolf-Rayet star in which most of the X-ray emission probably arises from wind collision in a binary; (iii) a new Be/X-ray star belonging to the growing class of γ-Cas analogues; and (iv) a possible supergiant X-ray binary of the kind discovered recently by INTEGRAL. One of the sources, XGPS-25, has a counterpart of moderate optical luminosity that exhibits HeII λ4686 and Bowen CIII-NIII emission lines, suggesting that this may be a quiescent or X-ray shielded low mass X-ray binary, although its X-ray properties might also be consistent with a rare kind of cataclysmic variable (CV). We also report the discovery of three new CVs, one of which is a likely magnetic system displaying strong X-ray variability. The soft (0.4-2.0 keV) band log N(>S) - log S curve is completely dominated by active stars in the flux range of 1×10-13 to 1×10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. Several active coronae are also detected above 2 keV suggesting that the population of RS CVn binaries contributes significantly to the hard X-ray source population. In total, we are able to identify a large fraction of the hard

  13. Predicting carnivore occurrence with noninvasive surveys and occupancy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Long; Therese Donovan; Paula MacKay; William Zielinski; Jeffrey. Buzas

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial carnivores typically have large home ranges and exist at low population densities, thus presenting challenges to wildlife researchers. We employed multiple, noninvasive survey methods—scat detection dogs, remote cameras, and hair snares—to collect detection–nondetection data for elusive American black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers...

  14. A targeted survey for HI clouds in galaxy groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, MA

    2001-01-01

    Five galaxy groups with properties similar to those of the Local Group have been surveyed for H I clouds with the Arecibo Telescope. In total 300 pointings have been observed on grids of approximately 2.5 x 1.5 Mpc(2) centred on the groups. The 4.5 sigma detection limit on the minimal detectable H I

  15. 10 CFR 39.33 - Radiation detection instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation detection instruments. 39.33 Section 39.33... Equipment § 39.33 Radiation detection instruments. (a) The licensee shall keep a calibrated and operable radiation survey instrument capable of detecting beta and gamma radiation at each field station and...

  16. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  17. Radio spectrometric survey of un-surveyed areas in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R; Jubeli, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The values and distribution of the radioelements e U, e Th, % K and Ur units in the surface geological formations of the west and south sectors of Syrian region, were estimated using carbone gamma ray spectrometric survey. The radiometric maps were prepared, as well as, many geological profiles, cross sections studied in different locations and geochemical samples were analyzed by laboratory gamma ray spectrometry and by x-ray diffractometry, the results of the all sets were compared. In general, the survey shows, low radioelement concentrations in the area, especially on basic rocks (Jabal Al-arab, Hawran) south Syria, and on ultra basic rocks (ophiolitic complex) north-west Syria, but there are some separate anomalous spots were connected with phosphate rocks, detected on cretaceous and Palaeogene age. Some times we noticed high radioelement concentrations haloes associated with fractured zones were already arise from secondary uranium mineralization, as a result of solutions movement through fissures in carbonatic and/or chalk like limestone rocks. finally, the obtained concentrations, represent a background values which has no significant importance for uranium exploration point of view. (author)

  18. EPRINT ARCHIVE USER SURVEY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    University of Southampton invites the CERN community to participate in a survey Professor Stevan Harnad is conducting on current users and non-users of Eprint Archives. http://www.eprints.org/survey/ The findings will be used to suggest potential enhancements of the services as well as to get a deeper understanding of the very rapid developments in the on-line dissemination and use of scientific and scholarly research. (The survey is anonymous. Revealing your identity is optional and it will be kept confidential.)

  19. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionAim And ScopeClassification Of SurveysThe Structure Of This BookGeneral Principles Of SurveyingErrorsRedundancyStiffnessAdjustmentPlanning And Record KeepingPrincipal Surveying ActivitiesEstablishing Control NetworksMappingSetting OutResectioningDeformation MonitoringAngle MeasurementThe Surveyor's CompassThe ClinometerThe Total StationMaking ObservationsChecks On Permanent AdjustmentsDistance MeasurementGeneralTape MeasurementsOptical Methods (Tachymetry)Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)Ultrasonic MethodsGNSSLevellingTheoryThe InstrumentTechniqueBookingPermanent Adjustmen

  20. FLEXI Project Management Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohunen, Anna; Krzanik, Lech; Kuvaja, Pasi; Similä, Jouni; Rodriguez, Pilar; Hyysalo, Jarkko; Linna, Tommi

    FLEXI Project Management Survey (FLEXI PMS) has been established to gain detailed knowledge on how the software industry - in particular successful companies - manages agile software development. FLEXI PMS investigates the actual agile values, principles, practices and contexts. The survey is supported by a careful literature review and analysis of existing studies. Special attention is attached to large, multi-site, multi-company and distributed projects - the target area of FLEXI project. The survey is intended to provide solid data for further knowledge acquisition and project/company positioning with regard to feasible agile management practices.

  1. Telephony user survey

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    Let us know your needs to better plan the transition to a new CERN telephony system.   CERN is planning to upgrade its telephony network and replace the system with a new and modern VoIP infrastructure. We strive to make this transition as beneficial and smooth as possible for you. Please let us know more about your current working environment, expectations and suggestions by responding to this survey: https://cern.ch/tel-survey. The more answers we get, the better the new system will serve everyone in the future. The survey will take you about five minutes to complete; we are counting on your feedback!

  2. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  3. Nearshore Survey System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 19 Coastal Field Data Collection Program Nearshore Survey System Evaluation Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La...Collection Program ERDC/CHL TR-17-19 December 2017 Nearshore Survey System Evaluation Michael F. Forte, William A. Birkemeier, and J. Robert Mitchell...No. 462585 ERDC/CHL TR-17-19 ii Abstract This report evaluates the accuracy of two systems for surveying the beach and nearshore zone. The 10

  4. Survey of hydrogen monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.

    1981-01-01

    Presented are results of a survey of commercially available monitoring devices suitable for hydrogen detection in the secondary containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during the post postulated accident period. Available detectors were grouped into the following five classes: combustion, solid state, electrochemical, thermal conductivity, and absorption. The performance of most available sensors is likely to deteriorate when exposed to the postulated conditions which include moisture, which could be at high temperature, and radioactive noncondensibles. Of the commercial devices, those using metallic filament thermal conductivity detectors seem least susceptible to performance change. Absorption detectors are best suited for this monitoring task but the only available device is designed for pipeline corrosion assessment. Initiation of experimental study to assess apparent deficiencies of commercial detectors is recommended. Also recommended is an analytical/experimental effort to determine the optimum detector array for monitoring in the secondary containment vessels

  5. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  6. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  7. Lesotho - Health Facility Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The main objective of the 2011 Health Facility Survey (HFS) was to establish a baseline for informing the Health Project performance indicators on health facilities,...

  8. IT User Community Survey

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Jones (IT-CDA-WF)

    2016-01-01

    IT-CDA is gathering information to more accurately form a snapshot of the CERN IT user community and we would appreciate you taking time to complete the following survey.   We want to use this survey to better understand how the user community uses their devices and our services, and how the delivery of those services could be improved. You will need to authenticate to complete the survey. However please note that your responses are confidential and will be compiled together and analysed as a group. You can also volunteer to offer additional information if you so wish. This survey should take no longer than 5 minutes. Thanks in advance for your collaboration.

  9. Hake Survey ADCP (1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  10. Hake Survey ADCP (1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  11. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  12. Fisheries Disaster Survey, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Responses to selected questions from the Social and Economic Survey administered in spring and summer 2000 to recipients of the second round (Round II) of financial...

  13. Billfish Angler Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Billfish Angler Survey provides estimates of billfish angling activities in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This collection of recreational billfish catch and...

  14. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  15. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...

  16. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  17. Litter survey in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the litter survey for highways, urban areas, and recreational areas as specified in the "Virginia Litter Control Act". Litter samples from 61 highway sites, 11 urban sites, and 10 recreational sites geographical...

  18. Shrimp Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Shrimp Survey was initiated in 1983 by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and monitors the relative abundance (number of shrimp),...

  19. ASD Customer Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ASD implemented a customer satisfaction survey for our products and services. This feedback will provide a better understanding of how ASD products and services can...

  20. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  1. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  2. Industry Based Monkfish Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monkfish industry leaders expressed concerns that the NEFSC bottom trawl surveys did not sample in all monkfish habitats; particularly the deeper water outside the...

  3. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospital ratings for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital...

  4. National Nursing Home Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Nursing Home Survey provides includes characteristics such as size of nursing home facilities, ownership, Medicare/Medicaid certification, occupancy rate, number of days of care provided, and expenses.

  5. Applicant Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers developed 3 surveys that asks applicants to assess their satisfaction with the application process on a 1-10 point scale, with 10...

  6. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  7. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  8. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  9. 2005 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  10. 2009 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  11. 2013 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  12. 2011 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  13. 2007 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  14. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  15. NMFS Reef Survey Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reef Environmental Survey Project (REEF) mission to educate and enlist divers in the conservation of marine habitats is accomplished primarily through its Fish...

  16. Radon survey techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews radon measurement surveys in soils and in water. Special applications, and advantages and limitations of the radon measurement techniques are considered. The working group also gives some directions for further research in this field

  17. Space Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Steph; Saraiva, Jose; Doran, Rosa

    2017-04-01

    NUCLIO is a Portuguese non-profit organization with a strong record of investing in science education and outreach. We have developed and implemented many activities mostly directed to a young audience, in a bid to awaken and reinforce the interest that young people devote to Astronomy and all things spatial. In this framework, we have created a week-long program called Space Detectives, supported by the Municipality of Cascais, based on a story-line that provided a number of challenges and opportunities for learning matters as diverse as the electro-magnetic spectrum, means of communication, space travel, the martian environment, coding and robotics. We report on the first session that took place in December 2016. We had as participants several kids aged 9 to 12, with a mixed background in terms of interest in the sciences. Their response varied from enthusiastic to somewhat less interested, depending on the nature of the subject and the way it was presented - a reaction not necessarily related to its complexity. This week was taken as something of a trial run, in preparation for the European Commission- funded project "Stories of Tomorrow", to be implemented in schools. The individual activities and the way they were related to the story-line, as well as the smooth transition from one to the next, were subject to an analysis that will allow for improvements in the next installments of this program. We believe this is an excellent approach to the goals of using Space and Astronomy as an anchor for generating and keeping interest in the scientific areas, and of finding new and richer ways of learning.

  18. DSM-5 field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania).......The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania)....

  19. Site surveying and levelling

    CERN Document Server

    Clancy, John

    2013-01-01

    This popular and useful text has been completely revised and up-dated so that it forms and indipensible handbook for any student of surveying. An additional chapter on modern developments is included and the text has also been extended to cover ordnance survey; calculation of areas; computation of true horizontal length; measurement of vertical angles; Code of Measuring Practice; curve ranging and calculations of volumes for earthworks.

  20. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  1. Near-Earth Object Survey Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Shantanu P.; Chesley, Steven R.; Farnocchia, Davide

    2017-10-01

    There is a significant interest in Near-Earth objects (NEOs) because they pose an impact threat to Earth, offer valuable scientific information, and are potential targets for robotic and human exploration. The number of NEO discoveries has been rising rapidly over the last two decades with over 1800 being discovered last year, making the total number of known NEOs >16000. Pan-STARRS and the Catalina Sky Survey are currently the most prolific NEO surveys, having discovered >1600 NEOs between them in 2016. As next generation surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) become operational in the next decade, the discovery rate is expected to increase tremendously. Coordination between various survey telescopes will be necessary in order to optimize NEO discoveries and create a unified global NEO discovery network. We are collaborating on a community-based, open-source software project to simulate asteroid surveys to facilitate such coordination and develop strategies for improving discovery efficiency. Our effort so far has focused on development of a fast and efficient tool capable of accepting user-defined asteroid population models and telescope parameters such as a list of pointing angles and camera field-of-view, and generating an output list of detectable asteroids. The software takes advantage of the widely used and tested SPICE library and architecture developed by NASA’s Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (Acton, 1996) for saving and retrieving asteroid trajectories and camera pointing. Orbit propagation is done using OpenOrb (Granvik et al. 2009) but future versions will allow the user to plug in a propagator of their choice. The software allows the simulation of both ground-based and space-based surveys. Performance is being tested using the Grav et al. (2011) asteroid population model and the LSST simulated survey “enigma_1189”.

  2. Design and Development of Carborne Survey Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarbaini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In most nuclear and radiological emergencies involving the release of radioactive materials to environment, it is important that data on the geographic distribution of potentially hazardous radioactive materials be quickly presented to the authorities. The mobile radiation detection system makes it possible to measure radioactive materials in the environment at random places because of its easy mobility from place to place. The purpose of the work is to develop a mobile radiation detection system to measure gamma exposure rate, radioactive material on the ground and airborne radioactive particulate in the environment quickly. In this work, we have developed a carborne survey equipment system consisting of three gamma ray detectors, one airbome radioactive particulate sampler, a GPS (Global Positioning System, meteorological sensors, a data acquisition system and an operation software. Performance of the carborne survey equipment has been successfully demonstrated to measure iodine and argon release from medical isotope production facility on Serpong in western Java, Indonesia.

  3. The Survey Checklist (Manifesto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Artino, Anthony R

    2018-03-01

    Checklists can mitigate a multitude of high-cost mistakes in fields ranging from surgery to aviation. As part of a standard protocol, checklists may provide many benefits, including improved equity and communication among team members and more efficient integration of different processes during complex tasks. Mostly, though, checklists serve as easy, efficient means to remind professionals of what they already know but can easily forget. By improving processes, checklists can reduce procedural errors, miscommunications, and even deaths. Although the stakes of writing a survey are rarely as high as they are for performing surgery or piloting a plane, checklists can improve the quality of surveys in medical education. In this Perspective, the authors propose a survey checklist to serve the same core function as surgical checklists-to reduce error. That is, a survey checklist can help medical education practitioners and researchers gather more accurate responses. Designers can use the checklist in the appendix to guide item creation processes or to help evaluate the quality of existing surveys. The checklist focuses on formulating items, crafting response options, and formatting/organizing the whole survey.

  4. Munitions Response Projects Shallow Water Marine UXO Detection Survey - Underwater Survey of Camp Lejeune

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    includes a 2.0 meter (m) wide (2 receiver coil) non-contact bottom-skimming sensor platform, a down rigging tow bar, and a hydrofoil control surface...an elevator control surface that is commonly referred to as a hydrofoil . During the demonstration the system was mounted on a 6.7 m. ThunderJet jet...collection. • The hydrofoil (also referred to as an elevator) is an active control surface that produces upward and downward force on the sensor

  5. Toward the development of survey trapping technology for the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese Poland; Damon Crook; Joseph Francese; Jason Oliver; Gard Otis; Peter De Groot; Gary Grant; Linda MacDonald; Deborah McCullough; Ivich Fraser; David Lance; Victor Mastro; Nadeer Youssef; Tanya Turk; Melodie Youngs

    2007-01-01

    Improved survey tools are essential for accurately delimiting the infestation of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and for detecting new infestations. Current survey methods including visual surveys for damage, girdled trap trees, and trunk dissections are less than ideal because newly infested trees...

  6. Issues in environmental survey design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several environmental survey design issues are discussed and illustrated with surveys designed by Research Triangle Institute statisticians. Issues related to sampling and nonsampling errors are illustrated for indoor air quality surveys, radon surveys, pesticide surveys, and occupational and personal exposure surveys. Sample design issues include the use of auxiliary information (e.g. for stratification), and sampling in time. We also discuss the reduction and estimation of nonsampling errors, including nonresponse and measurement bias

  7. THE DISCOVERY OF Y DWARFS USING DATA FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Prato, Lisa A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H 2 O and CH 4 that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51–054031.2, the latest-type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f λ , so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH 3 . These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS 0722–05 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spectral standard. In total, six of the seven new brown dwarfs are classified as Y dwarfs: four are classified as Y0, one is classified as Y0 (pec?), and WISEP J1828+2650 is classified as >Y0. We have also compared the spectra to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon and infer that the brown dwarfs have effective temperatures ranging from 300 K to 500 K, making them the coldest spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs known to date.

  8. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1 the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2 frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3 the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4 various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition.

  9. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriani, Nor Surayahani; Hussain, Aini; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf

    2013-01-01

    Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1) the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2) frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3) the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4) various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition. PMID:23921828

  10. Chapter G: Tentative Correlation Between CIPW Normin pl (Total Plagioclase) and Los Angeles Wear in Precambrian Midcontinental Granites-Examples from Missouri and Oklahoma, with Applications and Limitations for Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George H.

    2004-01-01

    The normative chemical classification of Cross, Iddings, Pirsson, and Washington (CIPW) is commonly used in igneous petrology to distinguish igneous rocks by comparing their magmatic chemistries for similar and dissimilar components. A potential use for this classification other than in petrologic studies is in the rapid assessment of aggregate sources, possibly leading to an economic advantage for an aggregate producer or user, by providing the opportunity to determine whether further physical testing of an aggregate is warranted before its use in asphalt or concrete pavement. However, the CIPW classification currently should not be substituted for the physical testing required in specifications by State departments of transportation. Demands for physical testing of aggregates have increased nationally as users seek to maximize the quality of the aggregate they purchase for their pavements. Concrete pavements are being laid with increased thicknesses to withstand increasing highway loads. New pavement mixes, most notably Superior Performance Asphalt Pavement ('Superpave'), are designed for additional service life. For both concrete and asphalt, the intent is to generate a durable pavement with a longer service life that should decrease overall life-cycle costs. Numerous aggregate producers possess chemical-composition data available for examination to answer questions from the potential user. State geological surveys also possess chemical-composition data for stone sources. Paired with the results of physical testing, chemical- composition data provide indicative information about stone durability and aggregate strength. The Missouri Department of Transportation has noted a possible relation among coarse-grained Precambrian granites of the midcontinental region, correlating the results of abrasion testing with the contents of normative minerals, also known as normins, calculated from chemical composition data. Thus, normin pl ( total plagioclase) can predict, by

  11. Time-lapse resistivity surveys over simulated clandestine graves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, John R; Pringle, Jamie K; Tuckwell, George W

    2009-11-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a better understanding of how electrical resistivity surveys can be used to locate clandestine graves. Resistivity surveys were conducted regularly over three simulated clandestine graves containing a pig cadaver, no cadaver and a pig cadaver wrapped in tarpaulin, respectively. Additionally, soil and groundwater samples were collected from two more simulated graves outside the survey area. The grave containing a pig cadaver was detectable from a low resistivity anomaly in the survey data. Groundwater data suggest that the resistivity anomaly associated with the surveyed pig grave was caused by a localised increase in groundwater conductivity. Wrapping a cadaver was found to initially change the resistivity response of a grave to a high resistivity anomaly. Resistivity surveys did not detect the disturbed soil in the grave that did not contain a cadaver. Although soil samples showed grave soil to be more porous than undisturbed soil, the lack of response from the grave that did not contain a cadaver suggests that disturbed soil was not responsible for the resistivity anomalies observed in this study. Resistivity surveys successfully detected all graves containing cadavers throughout the study, whilst also showing the potential to eliminate the need for mass excavation in a genuine search.

  12. 2012 Mask Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

    2012-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

  13. Three-phase molecularly imprinted sol-gel based hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for enrichment and selective determination of a tentative lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Karimi, Mohammad; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, the modification of a polysulfone hollow fiber membrane with in situ molecularly imprinted sol-gel process (as a novel and one-step method) was prepared and investigated. 3-(propylmethacrylate)trimethoxysilane (3PMTMOS) as an inorganic precursor was used for preparation of molecularly imprinted sol-gel. The modified molecularly imprinted sol-gel hollow fiber membrane (MSHM) was used for the liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) of hippuric acid (HA) in human plasma and urine samples. MSHM as a selective, robust, and durable tool was used for at least 50 extractions without significant decrease in the extraction efficiency. The non-molecularly imprinted sol-gel hollow fiber membrane (NSHM) as blank hollow fiber membrane was prepared by the same process, only without HA. To achieve the best condition, influential parameters on the extraction efficiency were thoroughly investigated. The capability of this robust, green, and simple method for extraction of HA was successfully accomplished with LC/MS/MS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) in human plasma and urine samples were 0.3 and 1.0nmolL(-1), respectively. The standard calibration curves were obtained within the concentration range 1-2000nmolL(-1) for HA in human plasma and urine. The coefficients of determination (r(2)) were ≥0.998. The obtained data exhibited recoveries were higher than 89% for the extraction of HA in human plasma and urine samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Aalborg Survey / Part 3 - Interview Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm; Jensen, Maria Vestergaard

    boys and nine girls) from Part 2 – GPS based survey, who are still enrolled at the same school as they were during the GPS based survey. This interview based survey supplements the quantitative data on young people’s use of urban space in Aalborg from the Web and GPS based surveys in part 1 and 2...

  15. Using Survey IDs to Enhance Survey Research and Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgeley, Catrin M.

    2017-01-01

    Survey IDs are short strings of unique characters assigned to each recipient in a sample population. Extension research can benefit from the improved organization of survey implementation and data collection, better researcher-respondent communication, and reduced survey material costs supported through the use of survey IDs. This article outlines…

  16. Helicopter magnetic survey conducted to locate wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Stamp, V. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center); Hall, R. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center); Colina, K. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center)

    2008-07-01

    A helicopter magnetic survey was conducted in August 2007 over 15.6 sq mi at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3’s (NPR-3) Teapot Dome Field near Casper, Wyoming. The survey’s purpose was to accurately locate wells drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood for EOR, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The ability of the helicopter magnetic survey to accurately locate wells was accomplished by comparing airborne well picks with well locations from an intense ground search of a small test area.

  17. A multispectral scanner survey of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Date of survey: August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Howard, M.E.; Shines, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The Multispectral Remote Sensing Department of the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an airborne multispectral scanner survey of a portion of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The survey was conducted on August 21 and 22, 1993, using a Daedalus AADS1268 scanner and coincident aerial color photography. Flight altitudes were 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) above ground level for systematic coverage and 1,000 feet (304 meters) for selected areas of special interest. The multispectral scanner survey was initiated as part of an interim and limited investigation conducted to gather preliminary information regarding historical hazardous material release sites which could have environmental impacts. The overall investigation also includes an inventory of environmental restoration sites, a ground-based geophysical survey, and an aerial radiological survey. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of man-made soil disturbances. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the data to assist image interpretation. A geologic ratio enhancement and a color composite consisting of AADS1268 channels 10, 7, and 9 (mid-infrared, red, and near-infrared spectral bands) proved most useful for detecting soil disturbances. A total of 358 disturbance sites were identified on the imagery and mapped using a geographic information system. Of these sites, 326 were located within the Tonopah Test Range while the remaining sites were present on the imagery but outside the site boundary. The mapped site locations are being used to support ongoing field investigations

  18. Ambitious Survey Spots Stellar Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Astronomers scanning the skies as part of ESO's VISTA Magellanic Cloud survey have now obtained a spectacular picture of the Tarantula Nebula in our neighbouring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. This panoramic near-infrared view captures the nebula itself in great detail as well as the rich surrounding area of sky. The image was obtained at the start of a very ambitious survey of our neighbouring galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds, and their environment. The leader of the survey team, Maria-Rosa Cioni (University of Hertfordshire, UK) explains: "This view is of one of the most important regions of star formation in the local Universe - the spectacular 30 Doradus star-forming region, also called the Tarantula Nebula. At its core is a large cluster of stars called RMC 136, in which some of the most massive stars known are located." ESO's VISTA telescope [1] is a new survey telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile (eso0949). VISTA is equipped with a huge camera that detects light in the near-infrared part of the spectrum, revealing a wealth of detail about astronomical objects that gives us insight into the inner workings of astronomical phenomena. Near-infrared light has a longer wavelength than visible light and so we cannot see it directly for ourselves, but it can pass through much of the dust that would normally obscure our view. This makes it particularly useful for studying objects such as young stars that are still enshrouded in the gas and dust clouds from which they formed. Another powerful aspect of VISTA is the large area of the sky that its camera can capture in each shot. This image is the latest view from the VISTA Magellanic Cloud Survey (VMC). The project will scan a vast area - 184 square degrees of the sky (corresponding to almost one thousand times the apparent area of the full Moon) including our neighbouring galaxies the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The end result will be a detailed study of the star formation history and three

  19. THE DISCOVERY OF HD 37605c AND A DISPOSITIVE NULL DETECTION OF TRANSITS OF HD 37605b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sharon Xuesong; Wright, Jason T.; Mahadevan, Suvrath [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Cochran, William; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip J. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kane, Stephen R.; Von Braun, Kaspar [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Henry, Gregory W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Boulevard, Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Valenti, Jeff A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Antoci, Victoria; Dragomir, Diana; Matthews, Jaymie M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z1 (Canada); Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard, E-mail: xxw131@psu.edu, E-mail: jtwright@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    We report the radial velocity discovery of a second planetary mass companion to the K0 V star HD 37605, which was already known to host an eccentric, P {approx} 55 days Jovian planet, HD 37605b. This second planet, HD 37605c, has a period of {approx}7.5 years with a low eccentricity and an Msin i of {approx}3.4 M{sub Jup}. Our discovery was made with the nearly 8 years of radial velocity follow-up at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and Keck Observatory, including observations made as part of the Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey effort to provide precise ephemerides to long-period planets for transit follow-up. With a total of 137 radial velocity observations covering almost 8 years, we provide a good orbital solution of the HD 37605 system, and a precise transit ephemeris for HD 37605b. Our dynamic analysis reveals very minimal planet-planet interaction and an insignificant transit time variation. Using the predicted ephemeris, we performed a transit search for HD 37605b with the photometric data taken by the T12 0.8 m Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) and the MOST satellite. Though the APT photometry did not capture the transit window, it characterized the stellar activity of HD 37605, which is consistent of it being an old, inactive star, with a tentative rotation period of 57.67 days. The MOST photometry enabled us to report a dispositive null detection of a non-grazing transit for this planet. Within the predicted transit window, we exclude an edge-on predicted depth of 1.9% at the >>10{sigma} level, and exclude any transit with an impact parameter b > 0.951 at greater than 5{sigma}. We present the BOOTTRAN package for calculating Keplerian orbital parameter uncertainties via bootstrapping. We made a comparison and found consistency between our orbital fit parameters calculated by the RVLIN package and error bars by BOOTTRAN with those produced by a Bayesian analysis using MCMC.

  20. THE DISCOVERY OF HD 37605c AND A DISPOSITIVE NULL DETECTION OF TRANSITS OF HD 37605b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sharon Xuesong; Wright, Jason T.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Cochran, William; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Kane, Stephen R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Henry, Gregory W.; Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Antoci, Victoria; Dragomir, Diana; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    We report the radial velocity discovery of a second planetary mass companion to the K0 V star HD 37605, which was already known to host an eccentric, P ∼ 55 days Jovian planet, HD 37605b. This second planet, HD 37605c, has a period of ∼7.5 years with a low eccentricity and an Msin i of ∼3.4 M Jup . Our discovery was made with the nearly 8 years of radial velocity follow-up at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and Keck Observatory, including observations made as part of the Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey effort to provide precise ephemerides to long-period planets for transit follow-up. With a total of 137 radial velocity observations covering almost 8 years, we provide a good orbital solution of the HD 37605 system, and a precise transit ephemeris for HD 37605b. Our dynamic analysis reveals very minimal planet-planet interaction and an insignificant transit time variation. Using the predicted ephemeris, we performed a transit search for HD 37605b with the photometric data taken by the T12 0.8 m Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) and the MOST satellite. Though the APT photometry did not capture the transit window, it characterized the stellar activity of HD 37605, which is consistent of it being an old, inactive star, with a tentative rotation period of 57.67 days. The MOST photometry enabled us to report a dispositive null detection of a non-grazing transit for this planet. Within the predicted transit window, we exclude an edge-on predicted depth of 1.9% at the >>10σ level, and exclude any transit with an impact parameter b > 0.951 at greater than 5σ. We present the BOOTTRAN package for calculating Keplerian orbital parameter uncertainties via bootstrapping. We made a comparison and found consistency between our orbital fit parameters calculated by the RVLIN package and error bars by BOOTTRAN with those produced by a Bayesian analysis using MCMC.