Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Winston, Flaura K; Senserrick, Teresa M; García-España, Felipe; Kinsman, Sara; Quistberg, D Alex; Ross, James G; Elliott, Michael R
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of fatality and acquired disability in adolescents. Young, inexperienced drivers are overrepresented in crashes. Our goal was to explore the adolescent perspective on driving safety to provide a better understanding of factors that influence safety and teenagers' exposure to driving hazards. Adolescents generated, prioritized, and explained their viewpoint by using the teen-centered method. These viewpoints were obtained from a school-based nationally representative survey of 9th-, 10th-, and 11th-graders (N = 5665) from 68 high schools, conducted in spring 2006, that included teen-generated items. The main outcome measures were rating of risk and prevalence of witnessing driving hazards. Drinking while driving was ranked as the greatest hazard (87% of the respondents reported that it made a lot of difference), although only 12% witnessed it often. Ranked next as dangers while driving were text-messaging, racing, impairment from marijuana, and road rage. Sixty percent viewed inexperience as a significant hazard, although only 15% reported seeing it often. Cell phone use was viewed as a significant hazard by 28%, although 57% witnessed it frequently. Only 10% viewed peer passengers as hazardous, but 64% frequently observed them. Distracting peer behaviors, among other distractions, were viewed as more dangerous. Subpopulations varied in the degree they perceived hazards. For example, black and Hispanic adolescents viewed substance use while driving as less hazardous than did white adolescents but witnessed it more frequently. Adolescents generally understand the danger of intoxicated driving. However, some groups need to better recognize this hazard. Distractions take teenagers' focus off the road, but not all are viewed as hazardous. Although inexperience is the key factor that interacts with other conditions to cause crashes, adolescents do not recognize what merits experience. Future research is needed to explore how to
Lavin, Claudia; Cox, Joanne E
Teen pregnancy has been subject of public concern for many years. In the United States, despite nearly 2 decades of declining teen pregnancy and birth rates, the problem persists, with significant disparities present across racial groups and in state-specific rates. This review examines recent trends, pregnancy prevention initiatives and family planning policies that address the special needs of vulnerable youth. Unintended teen pregnancies impose potentially serious social and health burdens on teen parents and their children, as well as costs to society. Trends in teen pregnancy and birth rates show continued decline, but state and racial disparities have widened. Demographic factors and policy changes have contributed to these disparities. Research supports comprehensive pregnancy prevention initiatives that are multifaceted and promote consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for youth at risk of becoming pregnant. There is strong consensus that effective teen pregnancy prevention strategies should be multifaceted, focusing on delay of sexual activity especially in younger teens while promoting consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for those youth who are or plan to be sexually active. There is a need for further research to identify effective interventions for vulnerable populations.
Ellen Wartella; Vicky Rideout; Heather Montague; Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan; Alexis Lauricella
In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health...
Full Text Available In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health topics. The survey covered the types of health topics teens most frequently search for, which technologies they are most likely to use and how they use them, and whether they report having changed their behaviors due to digital health information. In addition, this survey explores how the digital divide continues to impact adolescents. Results of this study indicate that teens are concerned about many health issues, ranging from fitness, sexual activity, drugs, hygiene as well as mental health and stress. As teens virtually always have a digital device at their fingertips, it is clear that public health interventions and informational campaigns must be tailored to reflect the ways that teens currently navigate digital health information and the health challenges that concern them most.
Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan
To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.
Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.
Aquilino, M L; Bragadottir, H
To elicit the views of teens concerning effective strategies to prevent pregnancy. Qualitative methods and a focus group approach were used. The sample consisted of male and female adolescents, 14 to 19 years of age, in grades 9 to 12, who volunteered to participate in the study. Seven groups of teens met with the investigator twice over 2 consecutive weeks. Instruments included a Screening Questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guidelines. Teens were concerned about teen pregnancy, and supported a comprehensive approach to sex education beginning in the early elementary grades, with age and developmentally appropriate content and reinforcement from late grade school through high school. Generally, teens thought that teaching abstinence in grade school followed by contraception education in junior high and high school was a realistic strategy for pregnancy prevention. They wanted to discuss sexual feelings as well as the mechanical aspects of sex. Finally, they did not want to be told not to have sex, but rather wanted to be guided in their own decision making. Teens wanted parents and other adults to be involved in helping them understand sexuality and make decisions about sexual behavior. Nurses who work with families need to understand why teens are becoming pregnant, provide opportunities for teens to discuss sexual behavior, and educate parents on sexual development and parent-child communication. Nurses also need to let parents and teens know that they are a resource for information, guidance, and health services related to sexual development and behavior.
Johnston Polacek, Georgia N. L.; Rojas, Viviana; Levitt, Steven; Mika, Virginia Seguin
Little is known about Hispanic teens' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors and their relationship to media influences. Information about this relationship could contribute to an understanding of the early onset of sexual behavior and early teen pregnancy. This paper reports preliminary findings from a pilot project conducted to determine…
Full Text Available Modern teens have pervasively integrated new technologies into their lives, and technology has become an important component of teen popular culture. Educators have pointed out the promise of exploiting technology to enhance students’ language and literacy skills and general academic success. However, there is no consensus on the effect of technology on teens, and scant literature is available that incorporates the perspective of urban and linguistically diverse students on the feasibility of applying new technologies in teaching and learning literacy in intact classrooms. This paper reports urban adolescents’ perspectives on the use of technology within teen culture, for learning in general and for literacy instruction in particular. Focus group interviews were conducted among linguistically diverse urban students in grades 6, 7 and 8 in a lower income neighborhood in the Northeastern region of the United States. The major findings of the study were that 1 urban teens primarily and almost exclusively used social media and technology devices for peer socializing, 2 they were interested in using technology to improve their literacy skills, but did not appear to voluntarily or independently integrate technology into learning, and 3 8th graders were considerably more sophisticated in their use of technology and their suggestions for application of technology to literacy learning than 6th and 7th graders. These findings lead to suggestions for developing effective literacy instruction using new technologies.
Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Jones, Jordan T; Chesser, Amy; Weeks, Kerri
Text messaging is a widespread, cost-effective method for communicating. It is widely used by both parents and teens. The study objective was to survey teens and their parents to assess the capability and willingness of teens to receive healthcare-related text messages from their physician. Parents and teens (12-17 years old) at an adolescent clinic were asked to complete surveys. Surveys were available in hard copy or electronically (via Survey Monkey) using computer kiosks in the waiting room. Approval was received from two local Institutional Review Boards. Of the 93 pairs who began the survey, 47 pairs (51%) qualified and completed both the teen and parent surveys. Over 85% of teens were willing to receive texts from their doctor. Teens were most interested in appointment reminders (81%), immunization reminders (53%), and general test results (for example, strep [53%]). Parents' willingness to allow teens to receive text messages directly varied by content. Many parents preferred to also receive a copy of any text message sent to their teen. Both parents and teens endorse using text messages for appointment reminders. Parents appear willing for their teens to receive some health information directly. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of using text messages for communication with teens to improve care and utilization of services for adolescents.
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.
The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation began surveying Kansas City area teens during the 1984-85 school year. The Kauffman Teen Survey now addresses two sets of issues for teens. Teen Health Behaviors, addressed in this report, have been a focus of the survey since its inception. The report focuses on teen use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in…
Hacker, K A; Amare, Y; Strunk, N; Horst, L
To ascertain views of public high school students on preventing teen pregnancy. The authors hypothesized that students at varying risk for pregnancy (e.g., abstinent, consistent contraceptors, inconsistent contraceptors) would have differing views which would have implications for future pregnancy prevention programming. A 75-question anonymous survey designed for this study was administered in six Boston high schools. The sample consisted of 49% females and 51% males in 10th and 11th grades from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. One thousand surveys were received and analyzed using Chi-square tests to assess statistically significant differences in student responses. Sixty-three percent of the students had had sexual intercourse: 72% of males and 54% of females. Of these, 35% were consistent contraceptors and 65% were inconsistent. Students believed that having more information on pregnancy and birth control (52%), education about relationships (33%), parental communication (32%), improved contraceptive access (31%), and education about parenting realities (30%) would prevent teen pregnancy. Abstinent teens were more likely (58%) to say that information on pregnancy and birth control was important (pbirth control (p school, and health arenas can prevent pregnancy. Abstinent, consistent contraceptors, and inconsistent contraceptors have different preferences regarding strategies. This information has important implications for educational content and policy discussions.
Herrman, Judith W; Nandakumar, Ratna
Initiatives designed to prevent teen pregnancy are often based on adult perceptions of the negative aspects of a teen birth. Qualitative research has revealed that teens may perceive positive rewards associated with teen parenting. These perceptions have not yet been examined through survey research. The theory of reasoned action proposes that individuals assess the costs and rewards prior to engaging in a behavior and provides a framework for the development of a survey instrument designed to measure adolescent thoughts about the costs and rewards of the teen parenting experience. This manuscript describes the development and testing of a quantitative survey instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceptions. Pretesting, piloting, exploratory factor analysis, and a variety of reliability and validity measures were used to determine the value of the measure. The thoughts on teen parenting survey (TTPS) demonstrates an alpha level of .90. The TTPS yields a cumulative score of teen perceptions about the impact of a teen birth during the adolescent years that may be used to assess youth beliefs, correlated with demographic data, used to identify teens at risk for pregnancy/parenting, or provide a pretest/posttest to assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to foster realistic attitudes toward teen parenting.
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuses surveys have consistently found that the family is fundamental to keeping children away from tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs. This 2002 survey keeps the focus on family and seeks to assess the impact of siblings on the likelihood of teen substance abuse. This year 1,000 teens ages 12 to 17…
Li, Jia; Snow, Catherine; White, Claire
Modern teens have pervasively integrated new technologies into their lives, and technology has become an important component of teen popular culture. Educators have pointed out the promise of exploiting technology to enhance students' language and literacy skills and general academic success. However, there is no consensus on the effect of…
Hornby, Jenny; Bobick, Bryna
In this article, we discuss a museum program for teens located in an urban environment. The participants were high school students from public, private, religious and home schools. The program allowed learning to occur in an informal setting and united teens from one city through a common interest in visual art. Also, it was an opportunity for the…
Daniel, Shannon M.; Pacheco, Mark B.
Increasingly, educational research suggests that translanguaging pedagogies can provide meaningful supports for English language learners. Yet, few studies examine how multilingual teens in English-dominant settings independently translanguage to make sense of school and achieve their goals. In this study, we review definitions of translanguaging…
Si Hyung Lee
Full Text Available To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP using a population-based study design.A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2 + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg-0.18 × age (years-1.91. TLCPD was calculated as IOP-CSFP. The NTG subjects were divided into two groups according to IOP level: low-teen NTG (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg and high-teen NTG (15 mmHg < IOP ≤ 21 mmHg groups. The association between TLCPD and the prevalence of NTG was assessed in the low- and high-teen IOP groups.In the normal population (n = 12,069, the weighted mean estimated CSFP was 11.69 ± 0.04 mmHg and the weighted mean TLCPD 2.31 ± 0.06 mmHg. Significantly higher TLCPD (p < 0.001; 6.48 ± 0.27 mmHg was found in the high-teen NTG compared with the normal group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in TLCPD between normal and low-teen NTG subjects (p = 0.395; 2.31 ± 0.06 vs. 2.11 ± 0.24 mmHg. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the high-teen IOP group (p = 0.006; OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15, but not the low-teen IOP group (p = 0.636. Instead, the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the low-teen IOP group (p < 0.001; OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.16.TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in high-teen IOP subjects, but not low-teen IOP subjects, in whom hypertension may be more closely associated. This study suggests that the underlying mechanisms may differ between low-teen and high-teen NTG patients.
Lee, Si Hyung; Kwak, Seung Woo; Kang, Eun Min; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Sang Yeop; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun
Background To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods A total of 12,743 adults (? 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (C...
Falck, Russel S.; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Li, Linna; Carlson, Robert G.
Background: Illicit drug use by school-aged teens can adversely affect their health and academic achievement. This study used a survey administered in schools to assess the prevalence of problematic drug use among teenagers in a Midwestern community. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 11th- and 12th-grade students (N = 3974) in 16…
During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…
Full Text Available This study asked two broad questions: (1 what is the prevalence of teen pregnancy in contemporary Vietnam; and (2 what selected social, family, and individual factors are associated with teen pregnancy in Vietnam? The study utilized Vietnam Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth surveys conducted in 2003 and 2008 to answer the two research questions within the context of fast political, economic, and social change in Vietnam in the last two decades. Results of this study show that the prevalence of pregnancy among Vietnamese teenagers in the surveys was stable at 4%, or 40 pregnancies per 1000 adolescent girls aged 14 to 19. Age, experience of domestic violence, and early sexual debut were positively correlated with higher odds of teenage pregnancy for both survey cohorts; however, being an ethnic minority, educational attainment, sexual education at school, Internet use, and depressive symptoms were significantly related to teenage pregnancy only in the 2008 cohort.
Darden, Paul M; Thompson, David M; Roberts, James R; Hale, Jessica J; Pope, Charlene; Naifeh, Monique; Jacobson, Robert M
To determine the reasons adolescents are not vaccinated for specific vaccines and how these reasons have changed over time. We analyzed the 2008-2010 National Immunization Survey of Teens examining reasons parents do not have their teens immunized. Parents whose teens were not up to date (Not-UTD) for Tdap/Td and MCV4 were asked the main reason they were not vaccinated. Parents of female teens Not-UTD for human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) were asked their intent to give HPV, and those unlikely to get HPV were asked the main reason why not. The most frequent reasons for not vaccinating were the same for Tdap/Td and MCV4, including "Not recommended" and "Not needed or not necessary." For HPV, the most frequent reasons included those for the other vaccines as well as 4 others, including "Not sexually active" and "Safety concerns/Side effects." "Safety concerns/Side effects" increased from 4.5% in 2008 to 7.7% in 2009 to 16.4% in 2010 and, in 2010, approaching the most common reason "Not Needed or Not Necessary" at 17.4% (95% CI: 15.7-19.1). Although parents report that health care professionals increasingly recommend all vaccines, including HPV, the intent to not vaccinate for HPV increased from 39.8% in 2008 to 43.9% in 2010 (OR for trend 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04-1.13). Despite doctors increasingly recommending adolescent vaccines, parents increasingly intend not to vaccinate female teens with HPV. The concern about safety of HPV grew with each year. Addressing specific and growing parental concerns about HPV will require different considerations than those for the other vaccines.
... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...
A study from Safe Kids Worldwide, made possible by a grant from the General Motors Foundation, surveyed 1,000 teens to learn why more teens die in motor vehicle crashes than from any other cause of death. The report highlights why teens don’t always buckle up, explores their texting and distraction
Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale
We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the…
Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…
Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.; Lee, Faye C. H.
This study examined practitioners' understandings of cultural sensitivity in the context of pregnancy prevention programs for Latina teens. Fifty-eight practitioners from teen pregnancy prevention programs in California were interviewed in a guided conversation format. Three themes emerged in our analysis. First, practitioners' definitions of…
Guzman, Lina; Ikramullah, Erum; Manlove, Jennifer; Peterson, Kristen; Scarupa, Harriet J.
Teen romantic relationships have become a pervasive part of popular culture, from TV shows, movies, and books to blogs and social networking sites. But the attention paid to these relationships extends beyond the parameters of popular culture. Romance, teen style, has become of increasing interest to anyone concerned with healthy adolescent…
Edwards, Christine C; Elliott, Sean P; Conway, Terry L; Woodruff, Susan I
The objective of this study was to assess Web sites related to teen smoking cessation on the Internet. Seven Internet search engines were searched using the keywords teen quit smoking. The top 20 hits from each search engine were reviewed and categorized. The keywords teen quit smoking produced between 35 and 400,000 hits depending on the search engine. Of 140 potential hits, 62% were active, unique sites; 85% were listed by only one search engine; and 40% focused on cessation. Findings suggest that legitimate on-line smoking cessation help for teens is constrained by search engine choice and the amount of time teens spend looking through potential sites. Resource listings should be updated regularly. Smoking cessation Web sites need to be picked up on multiple search engine searches. Further evaluation of smoking cessation Web sites need to be conducted to identify the most effective help for teens.
Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan
While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculat...
Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.
Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental
Carroll, R M; Shepard, M P; Mahon, M M; Deatrick, J A; Orsi, A J; Moriarty, H J; Feetham, S L
A secondary data analysis of the National Commission on Children: 1990 Survey of Parents and Children was conducted with a subsample of 457 parent-teen pairs who responded to the "worry about AIDS" question. The teen's worry about contracting AIDS was associated with race, parent's education, the amount of discipline from the parent for engaging in sex, the teen's desire to talk to the parent about the problem of sex, the teen's rating of the neighborhood as a safe place to grow up, whether the parent listened to the teen's telephone interview, and the parent's response to whether his or her teen had a history of sexually transmitted disease. Of the parent-teen pairs in the subsample, 46% (N = 210) agreed in their responses about worry. Agreement was more frequent among the parent-teen pairs when compared to randomly constructed surrogate pairs. Dyadic analysis supported a family system view of perceived susceptibility.
Sobol-Goldberg, Shira; Rabinowitz, Jonathan
The literature suggests an association between poor school performance and obesity. However, little is known about academic achievement and behavior as possible risk factors for future obesity. The analysis was based on data from 3172 participants aged 6 to 25years from the US National Longitudinal Survey conducted 1986 to 2010. Academic achievement, behavior problems and body mass index (BMI) were assessed at childhood (6-9) and teenhood (10-14). Height and weight were self-reported at pre-young adulthood (15-18) and young adulthood (19-25). Based on logistic regression stratified by sex and race/ethnicity, academic and behavioral deficiencies during childhood and teenhood were risk factors for young adult obesity with some sex and ethnic/racial differences. The highest prevalence rates of obesity by race/ethnicity and sex are as follows: black/Hispanic females, those in the lowest quartile of teen reading and math (32.8%); black/Hispanic males, those in lowest quartile of teen reading (26.1%); white males, those in the highest quartile of behavioral problems (21.9%); and white females, those in the lowest quartile teen math (23.2%). Poor school performance in childhood and teenhood is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity. Prospective studies should further examine the association of school performance and adult obesity and whether programs directed at improving school performance may have secondary gains in preventing obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reiter, Paul L.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Brewer, Noel T.
US guidelines provided a permissive recommendation forHPV vaccine for males in 2009, with an updated recommendation for routine vaccination in 2011. Dataon vaccine uptake among males, however, remain sparse. We analyzed 2010–2011 data (collected mostlyprior to the recommendation for routine vaccination) from the National Immunization Survey-Teen for a nationally representative sample of adolescent males ages 13–17 (n=22,365). We examined HPV vaccine initiation( receipt of at least one doseba sed on healthcare provider records) as the primary outcome. Analyses used weighted logistic regression. HPV vaccine initiation increased from 1.4% in 2010 to 8.3% in 2011. Parents who reported receiving a healthcare provider recommendation to get their sons HPV vaccine were much more likely to have vaccinated sons (OR=19.02, 95% CI: 14.36–25.19). Initiation was also higher among sons who were Hispanic (OR=1.83, 95% CI: 1.24–2.71) or who were eligible for the Vaccines for Children program (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.01–2.31). Only31.0% of parents with unvaccinated sons indicatedtheir sons were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to receive HPV vaccine in the next year. The most common main reasons for parents not intending to vaccinate were believing vaccination is not needed or not necessary (24.5%), not having received a provider recommendation (22.1%), and lack of knowledge (15.9%). HPV vaccination is low among adolescent males in the US, and provider recommendation for vaccination is likely keyto improv ingvaccine uptake. Given the updated recommendation for routine vaccination and the changes in health insurance coverage that are likely to follow, continued efforts are needed to monitor HPV vaccination among males. PMID:23602667
Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan
While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Overall, girls are more likely to be report being bullied (31.3% vs. 22.9%), in particularly to be cyberbullied (22.0% vs. 10.8%), while boys are only more likely to report exclusive school bullying (12.2% vs. 9.2%). Reports of 2-week sadness and all suicidality items were highest among teens reporting both forms of bullying, followed by those reporting cyberbullying only, followed by those reporting school bullying only. For example, among those reporting not being bullied 4.6% reported having made a suicide attempt, compared to 9.5% of those reporting school bullying only (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.8-2.9), 14.7% of those reporting cyberbullying only (AOR 3.5 (2.6-4.7)), and 21.1% of those reporting victimization of both types of bullying (AOR 5.6 (4.4-7)). Bullying victimization, in school, cyber, or both, is associated with higher risk of sadness and suicidality among teens. Interventions to prevent school bullying as well as cyberbullying are needed. When caring for teens reporting being bullied, either at school or in cyberbullying, it's important to screen for depression and suicidality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.
A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)
Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.
Access to and availability of contraceptive methods in stores play an important role in the prevention of AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Although teens are generally knowledgable about birth control, many encounter barriers when attempting to obtain contraceptive. Forty-five drug stores and 15 convenience…
... episodes, or a mix of both types. Some teens will try to hide depression or thoughts of suicide. They might withdraw, or act out. This can ... teen depression? What should I do if my teen is depressed? Did I do ... antidepressants cause suicide? Once my teenager is treated for suicide or ...
Discusses academic libraries, digital environments, increasing competition, the relationship between service quality and user satisfaction, and user surveys. Describes the SERVQUAL model that measures service quality and user satisfaction in academic libraries; considers gaps between user expectations and managers' perceptions of user…
Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives. 257 ... be regarded, according to Gouws (2007: 314), as externally motivated products. .... Fair attention is given to different style or normative levels, i.e. .... differs enough from standard French to be regarded as a new emerging lan- ..... Tous les leaders des par-.
Kim, Theresa H M; Connolly, Jennifer A; Tamim, Hala
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mood disorder that affects 10-20 percent of women, and can begin any time during first year after delivery lasting for months. Social support may decrease risk of depression during pregnancy for women. However, literature shows that the amount of social support received during and after pregnancy is different for teen mothers and adult mothers. This study examined the effects of social support received during and after pregnancy on PPD among Canadian women and identified if the relationship was different for teen mothers compared to adult mothers. The study was based on secondary analysis of the Maternity Experiences Survey. A total of 6,421 women with singleton live births, aged 15 years and older were analyzed. Teen mothers were identified as 15-19 years old and adult mothers were identified as 20 years and older. The main outcome of the study was PPD, which was evaluated using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale. The main independent variable was social support received during pregnancy and after birth. Logistic regression was computed to assess the relationship between social support and PPD after adjusting for confounding variables and age as an interaction term. Adjusted Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were reported. PPD was experienced by 14.0% among teen mothers and 7.2% among adult mothers (p teen mothers reported receiving more support during pregnancy and after birth than adult mothers (p teen compared to adult mothers. Both teen and adult mothers were approximately five times more likely to experience PPD if they received no support or minimal support after the birth of the baby (95% CI, 3.51-7.36). Receiving social support especially after birth is important for mothers of all ages to reduce the risk of PPD.
Hamann, Cara J; Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Chande, Vidya; Peek-Asa, Corinne
To examine pre-licensure agreement on driving expectations and predictors of teen driving expectations among parent-teen dyads. Cross-sectional survey of 163 parent-teen dyads. Descriptive statistics, weighted Kappa coefficients, and linear regression were used to examine expectations about post-licensure teen driving. Teens reported high pre-licensure unsupervised driving (N = 79, 48.5%) and regular access to a car (N = 130, 81.8%). Parents and teens had low agreement on teen driving expectations (eg, after dark, κw = 0.23). Each time teens currently drove to/from school, their expectation of driving in risky conditions post-licensure increased (β = 0.21, p = .02). Pre-licensure improvement of parent-teen agreement on driving expectations are needed to have the greatest impact on preventing teens from driving in high risk conditions.
Bhat-Schelbert, Kavitha; Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng; Matambanadzo, Annamore; Hannibal, Kristin; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Zimmerman, Richard K
The CDC recommends annual influenza vaccination for all children age 6 months and older, yet vaccination rates remain modest. Effective strategies to improve influenza vaccination for children are needed. Eight focus groups with 91 parents, teens, pediatric healthcare staff and providers, and immunization and marketing experts were conducted, audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and coded based on grounded theory. Three themes emerged: barriers, facilitators, and strategies. Barriers included fear, misinformation, and mistrust, with exacerbation of these barriers attributed to media messages. Many considered influenza vaccination unnecessary and inconvenient, but would accept vaccination if recipients or other family members were considered high risk, if recommended by their doctor or another trusted person, or if offered or mandated by the school. Access to better information regarding influenza disease burden and vaccine safety and efficacy were notable facilitators, as were prevention of the inconvenience of missing work or important events, and if the child requests to receive the vaccine. Marketing strategies included incentives, jingles, videos, wearable items, strategically-located information sheets or posters, and promotion by informed counselors. Practice-based strategies included staff buy-in, standing orders protocols, vaccination clinics, and educational videos. Teen-specific strategies included message delivery through schools, texting, internet, and social networking sites. To improve influenza vaccination rates for children using practice-based interventions, participants suggested campaigns that provide better information regarding the vaccine, the disease and its implications, and convenient access to vaccination. Strategies targeting adolescents should use web-based social marketing technologies and campaigns based in schools. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Madden, Mary; Cortesi, Sandra; Gasser, Urs; Lenhart, Amanda; Duggan, Maeve
Most parents of teenagers are concerned about what their teenage children do online and how their behavior could be monitored by others. Some parents are taking steps to observe, discuss, and check up on their children's digital footprints. A new survey of 802 parents and their teens shows that: (1) 81% of parents of online teens say they are…
Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...
Feinstein, Brian A; Thomann, Matthew; Coventry, Ryan; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E
Close parent-adolescent relationships and specific parenting practices (e.g., communication about sex, monitoring) are associated with reduced sexual risk behavior among heterosexual youth. Despite gay/bisexual male youth being at increased risk of HIV, little is known about parental influences on their sexual behavior. As such, the goal of the current study was to examine parent-adolescent relationships and parenting practices related to teen sex and dating from the perspective of gay/bisexual adolescent boys. Online focus groups were conducted with 52 gay/bisexual male youth ages 14-17 years. Most gay/bisexual adolescent boys felt that their sexual orientation had an influence on their relationships with their parents and discussions about sex/dating. Although some felt that their relationships improved after coming out, a larger percentage reported that it put strain on their relationships. Discussions about sex/dating generally decreased after coming out, but some youth described positive conversations with their parents. Many reported that their parents struggled with whether or not to adapt parenting practices (e.g., rules about dating) after they came out. Youth consistently noted that parent-adolescent relationships and parenting practices depended on the adolescent's level of outness. Findings have important implications for refining HIV prevention programs for gay/bisexual adolescent boys, especially interventions that include parents.
What is depression in teens? Teen depression is a serious medical illness. It's more than just a feeling of being sad or "blue" for a few days. It is ... trouble focusing and have no motivation or energy. Depression can make you feel like it is hard ...
... Pregnancy has sub items, Reproductive Health & Teen Pregnancy Contraceptive Use STDs Teen Pregnancy & Childbearing Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Trends Negative Impacts Strategies & Approaches for Prevention Engaging Adolescent Males in Prevention Tips for Parents of Teens ...
Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Kennedy, Allison; Stokley, Shannon
We aim to describe factors that influence parental decisions to vaccinate their adolescents. Data from the July to December 2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen Parental Concerns Module were analyzed to determine factors that influence parental decisions to vaccinate their adolescents. Parents reported that their adolescent's health care provider recommended tetanus toxoid/tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Td/Tdap; 74.4%), meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY; 60.3%), and human papillomavirus (HPV; 71.3%). Vaccination coverage estimates were significantly higher among parents who reported receiving a provider recommendation: 85.2% versus 76.7% (Td/Tdap), 77.3% versus 49.7% (MenACWY), and 62.2% versus 21.5% (HPV). Compared with Td/Tdap and MenACWY, fewer HPV vaccination conversations included recommendations for vaccination. Other than health care providers, school requirements (46.1%), news coverage (31.2%), and family (31.0%) were most frequently reported influences on parental vaccination decisions. Many factors influence parental decisions to vaccinate their adolescents; one of the most important factors is the provider recommendation. Missed opportunities for vaccination persist when strong vaccination recommendations are not given or are delayed.
Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young person can ... victim, an offender, or a witness to the violence. Violent acts can include Bullying Fighting, including punching, ...
... time when they have been taught that showing emotion is something that girls do – but macho guys ... not caring about anything and a lack of motivation or interest. Help the teen understand that these ...
Vagi, Kevin J; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Basile, Kathleen C; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M
National estimates of teen dating violence (TDV) reveal high rates of victimization among high school populations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's national Youth Risk Behavior Survey has provided often-cited estimates of physical TDV since 1999. In 2013, revisions were made to the physical TDV question to capture more serious forms of physical TDV and to screen out students who did not date. An additional question was added to assess sexual TDV. To describe the content of new physical and sexual TDV victimization questions first administered in the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to share data on the prevalence and frequency of TDV (including the first-ever published overall "both physical and sexual TDV" and "any TDV" national estimates using these new questions), and to assess associations of TDV experience with health-risk behaviors. Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of 9900 students who dated, from a nationally representative sample of US high school students, using the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Two survey questions separately assessed physical and sexual TDV; this analysis combined them to create a 4-level TDV measure and a 2-level TDV measure. The 4-level TDV measure includes "physical TDV only," "sexual TDV only," "both physical and sexual TDV," and "none." The 2-level TDV measure includes "any TDV" (either or both physical and sexual TDV) and "none." Sex-stratified bivariate and multivariable analyses assessed associations between TDV and health-risk behaviors. In 2013, among students who dated, 20.9% of female students (95% CI, 19.0%-23.0%) and 10.4% of male students (95% CI, 9.0%-11.7%) experienced some form of TDV during the 12 months before the survey. Female students had a higher prevalence than male students of physical TDV only, sexual TDV only, both physical and sexual TDV, and any TDV. All health-risk behaviors were most prevalent among students who experienced both forms of TDV and were
Understood as the stage in individual life comprised between physiological puberty (a "natural" condition) and the recognition of the adult status (a "cultural" construction), adolescence has been envisaged as a universal condition, a stage in human development to be found in all societies and historical moments. Nevertheless, anthropological founding's across space and times depict a more complex panorama. The large variety of situations can be grouped into five big models of adolescence, which correspond to different types of society: "puber" from the primitive stateless societies; "ephebe" from ancient states; "boy and girl" from pre-industrial rural societies; "teenager" from the first industrialisation process and "youngsters" from modern post-industrial societies. In order to describe the features of these five models of youth, this article presents a series of ethnographical examples to illustrate the enormous plasticity of adolescence in past and present. This perspective is to be considered as the psycho-social and cultural environment for adolescent brain development, that will be discussed in depth along in this special issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.
A national survey of 3,351 high achieving high school students (junior and senior level) was conducted. All students had A or B averages. Topics covered include lifestyles, political beliefs, violence and entertainment, education, cheating, school violence, sexual violence and date rape, peer pressure, popularity, suicide, drugs and alcohol,…
O'Laughlen, Mary C; Hollen, Patricia J; Rance, Karen; Rovnyak, Virginia; Hinton, Ivora; Hellems, Martha A; Radecki, Linda
Although adolescent substance use can have direct effects on asthma symptoms and interact with medications used to treat asthma, no validated health-related quality of life (HRQL) instrument exists for adolescents 17 to 19 years of age with asthma. The American Academy of Pediatric's HRQL instrument, the Child Health Survey for Asthma (CHSA)-Child version, was modified with a substance use subscale to address outcomes specific to adolescents ages 17 to 19 years with asthma. Two cohorts (N = 70) were recruited for instrument testing at pediatric primary care practices and two university clinics. A small methodological study with 24 adolescents was conducted to obtain initial support of the psychometric properties for the CHSA-Teen version at baseline, day 14, and day 16. A follow-up study included 46 teens to provide further support. The psychometric properties of the CHSA-Teen version were good and comparable with the CHSA-Child version for feasibility, reliability, and validity. Health care providers need to be aware of each adolescent's substance use to personalize counseling related to asthma medications. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Herrman, Judith W.; Kelley, Andrea; Haigh, Katherine M.
Teens' own thoughts on fostering safe sexual practice are important perspectives in promoting adolescent sexual health yet are relatively absent in the literature. This focus group study explored teens' perceptions about the supports and challenges that exist as teens strive to engage in healthy sexual practices. Seventy-five teens participated in…
Campbell, Brendan T; Borrup, Kevin; Corsi, John M; Kelliher, Kristine M; Saleheen, Hassan; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry
Each year about 4,000 teens ages 16-19 die on U.S. roads. Injury prevention counseling is recommended as a valuable and cost-effective part of routine health supervision. This study describes pediatrician knowledge and practice regarding teen driving safety. A 31-item self-administered survey was mailed to pediatricians. 160 of 392 pediatricians (41%) completed the survey. During a health supervision visit 93% of pediatricians reported discussing seat belt use, 89% impaired driving, 54% teen licensing laws, and 16% parent teen contract. Half reported having a teen in their practice killed in a crash. A majority surveyed report discussing and counseling teens on first wave teen driver safety issues (seat belts, alcohol use), but most do not discuss graduated driver licensing laws or related issues. Broadly adopted, this inexpensive counseling approach, could lead to reductions in teen motorvehicle crash injuries.
Hosanna A. Asfaw
Full Text Available Prior studies show that perceived smoking prevalence is a significant predictor of smoking initiation. In this study, we examine racial/ethnic differences in perceived smoking prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in exposure to contextual factors associated with perceived smoking prevalence. We used cross-sectional time series data from the Legacy Media Tracking Surveys (LMTS, a national sample of 35,000 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. Perceived smoking prevalence was the primary outcome variable, measured using an LMTS question: “Out of every 10 people your age, how many do you think smoke?” Multivariable models were estimated to assess the association between perceived smoking prevalence; race/ethnicity; and exposure to social contextual factors. Findings indicate that African American, Hispanic, and American Indian youth exhibit the highest rates of perceived smoking prevalence, while white and Asian youth exhibit the lowest. Minority youth are also disproportionately exposed to social contextual factors that are correlated with high perceived smoking prevalence. These findings suggest that disproportionate exposure to social contextual factors may partially explain why minority youth exhibit such high levels of perceived smoking prevalence.
Campbell, Brendan T; Borrup, Kevin; Saleheen, Hassan; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry
As part of a statewide campaign, we surveyed physician attitudes and practice regarding teen driving safety before and after a brief intervention designed to facilitate in office counseling. A 31-item self-administered survey was mailed to Connecticut physicians, and this was followed by a mailing of teen driving safety materials to physician practices in the state. A postintervention survey was mailed 8 months after the presurvey. A total of 102 physicians completed both the pre and postsurveys. Thirty-nine percent (39%) reported having had a teen in their practice die in a motor vehicle crash in the presurvey, compared with 49% in the postsurvey. Physician counseling increased significantly for a number of issues: driving while impaired from 86% to 94%; restrictions on teen driving from 53% to 64%; teen driving laws from 53% to 63%; safe vehicle from 32% to 42%; parents model safe driving from 29% to 44%; and teen-parent written contract from 15% to 37%. At baseline, the majority of physicians who provide care to teenagers in Connecticut report discussing and counseling teens on first wave teen driver safety issues (seat belts, alcohol use), but most do not discuss graduate driver licensing laws or related issues. After a brief intervention, there was a significant increase in physician counseling of teens on teen driving laws and on the use of teen-parent contracts. Additional interventions targeting physician practices can improve physician counseling to teens and their parents on issues of teen driving safety.
Villalobos-Hernández, Aremis; Campero, Lourdes; Suárez-López, Leticia; Atienzo, Erika E; Estrada, Fátima; De la Vara-Salazar, Elvia
To characterize female adolescents who have been pregnant, and to analyze the association between adolescent pregnancy and educational gaps. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data come from the Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut 2012), a Mexican representative survey. The set of data used is related to sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics from 1 790 women from 12 to 19 years who had begun their sexual life and had a pregnancy record. Three statistical models were adjusted to observe the association between variables. The dependent variable of the first model was the condition of previous pregnancy, the second to be pregnant at the time of data collection, and the third, educational gap. A 74.9% of the adolescents with history of pregnancy has educational gap. To have the condition of previous pregnancy is associated with living with sexual partner (OR=8.4), educational gap (OR=2.4), low socioeconomical level (OR=2.0) and school assistance (OR=0.5). To be pregnant at the time of data collection has related only to living with sexual partner (OR=9.4). The educational gap shows an association with having more than one pregnancy (OR=2.4), live with sexual partner (OR=1.6), low socioeconomical level (OR=1.8), and school assistance as protective factor (OR=0.3). It is necessary to implement effective and efficient educational public politics in order to decrease educational gap. At the same time, to guarantee and improve sexual education in the school system to prevent adolescent pregnancy.
Full Text Available Objective. To characterize female adolescents who have been pregnant, and to analyze the association between adolescent pregnancy and educational gaps. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data come from the Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut 2012, a Mexican representative survey. The set of data used is related to sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics from 1 790 women from 12 to 19 years who had begun their sexual life and had a pregnancy record. Three statistical models were adjusted to observe the association between variables. The dependent variable of the first model was the condition of previous pregnancy, the second to be pregnant at the time of data collection, and the third, educational gap. Results. A 74.9% of the adolescents with history of pregnancy has educational gap. To have the condition of previous pregnancy is associated with living with sexual partner (OR=8.4, educational gap (OR=2.4, low socioeconomical level (OR=2.0 and school assistance (OR=0.5. To be pregnant at the time of data collection has related only to living with sexual partner (OR=9.4. The educational gap shows an association with having more than one pregnancy (OR=2.4, live with sexual partner (OR=1.6, low socioeconomical level (OR=1.8, and school assistance as protective factor (OR=0.3. Conclusion. It is necessary to implement effective and efficient educational public politics in order to decrease educational gap. At the same time, to guarantee and improve sexual education in the school system to prevent adolescent pregnancy.
... Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions ... for Teens Print en español Ejercicios fáciles para adolescentes Finding it hard to fit in fitness? Just ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...
... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence [550 KB, 2 Pages, 508] ...
Huang, Patty; Kao, Trudy; Curry, Allison E; Durbin, Dennis R
To compare the characteristics of driving and nondriving teens and explore the driving outcomes for teens with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders. Parents of teens aged 15 to 18 years with a parent-reported diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder enrolled in Interactive Autism Network, an online research registry, were eligible for this cross-sectional study. An online survey was used for data collection. A total of 297 parents completed the survey. Sixty-three percent of teens currently drive or plan to drive. Twenty-nine percent of the teens who are age-eligible to drive currently drive. Compared with age-eligible but nondriving teens, a greater proportion of driving teens were in full-time regular education (p public transportation. Driving predictors included individualized education plans with driving goals, indicators of functional status (classroom placement, college aspiration, and job experience), and parent experience with teaching teens to drive. Twelve percent of teens received driving citations, and 12% of teens had been involved in a motor vehicle crash. Although a significant proportion of teens with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders were driving or learning to drive, the fact that most driving teens' individualized education plans did not include driving goals suggests an area of opportunity for improvement in transition planning. Driving teens were more frequently in regular education settings with college aspirations, which could help schools identify potential drivers.
Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011
Nine percent of 13- to 15-year-old teens and 3% of teens 16 to 18 years old say they are "always" or "often" bullied to a point that makes them feel very sad, angry, sad, or upset. Over one-quarter of all teens say they are "sometimes" bullied to this point. This article presents some results of a "Harris Poll" of 776 teens surveyed online in…
Fitton, Daniel; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Bell, Beth
UX is a widely explored topic within HCI and has a large practitioners' community. However, the users considered in research and practice, are most often adults -- since adults represent the largest technology market share. However teenagers represent a growing market of unique users, and more...... needs to be understood about this population, from a UX perspective. The theme of this workshop is Building a Bridge to the Future and the aim is to gather together academics and UX practitioners, interested in teen users specifically, in order to discuss experiences, understandings, insights...
Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Bhat, Geeta
Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of "worry" about their teen driver's safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen's driving. We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental "worry," and influence of rules regarding their teen's driving, reported by teen's driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver's license). Response categories were dichotomized because of small cell sizes, and we ran separate log-linear regression models to explore whether imposing all four restrictions on teen drivers was associated with either worry intensity ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all") or perceived influence of parental rules ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all"). Among the 456 parent respondents, 80% reported having restrictions for their teen driver regarding use of safety belts, drinking and driving, cell phones, and text messaging while driving. However, among the 188 parents of licensed teens, only 9% reported having a written parent-teen driving agreement, either currently or in the past. Worrying "a lot" was reported less frequently by parents of newly licensed teens (36%) compared with parents of learning teens (61%). Parents report having rules and restrictions for their teen drivers, but only a small percentage formalize the rules and restrictions in a written parent-teen driving agreement. Parents worry less about their teen driver's safety during the newly licensed phase, when crash risk is high as compared to the learning phase. Further research is needed into how to effectively support parents in supervising and monitoring their teen driver. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Cheruvu, Vinay K; Bhatta, Madhav P; Drinkard, Lauren N
1) To identify socio-demographic factors associated with parental "no-intent" for their 13-17 year old unvaccinated daughter to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series within the next twelve months, 2) to describe patterns in "no-intent" by socio-demographic factors, and 3) to identify socio-demographic factors associated with parental reasons for "no-intent". Data from 2008-2012 National Immunization Survey - Teen (NIS - Teen) were examined in this study. Parents with "no-intent" to vaccinate their daughters were asked to identify reasons for their decision. All responses were categorized into five domains identified as barriers to receive the HPV vaccine series: 1) Safety and Effectiveness Concerns; 2) Systemic Barriers; 3) Vaccine Misinformation; 4) Lack of Knowledge about the Vaccine; and 5) Socio-cultural Barriers. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to address the study objectives. Number of people in the household, household income, mother's age, education, health insurance, recommendation of a health care provider, and the survey year were significantly associated with parental "no-intent". Race/ethnicity, mother's education, marital status, recommendation of a health care provider, household income, age of the unvaccinated daughter, and the survey year, were significantly associated with one or more domains identified as barriers to receive the HPV vaccine. This study identified sub-groups of parents across different socio-demographic factors with "no-intent" for their adolescent daughters to receive the HPV vaccine. Developing strategies that target educational tools towards the identified sub-groups of parents about the purpose, safety, and efficacy of the HPV vaccine, and HPV infection, may help increase HPV vaccine acceptance, initiation and completion rates.
Siegfried, John J.; Walstad, William B.
Survey results from a large sample of economics departments describe offerings for principles courses, coursework requirements for economics majors, and program augmentations such as capstone courses, senior seminars, and honors programs. Findings are reported for all institutions, and institutions are subdivided into six different categories…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.
Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…
Rohlfs, Izabella; Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta
Most studies into social determinants of health conducted in Spain based on data from health surveys have focused on social class inequalities. This paper aims to review the progressive incorporation of gender perspective and sex differences into health surveys in Spain, and to suggest design, data collection and analytical proposals as well as to make policy proposals. Changes introduced into health surveys in Spain since 1995 to incorporate gender perspective are examined, and proposals for the future are made, which would permit the analysis of differences in health between women and men as a result of biology or because of gender inequalities. The introduction of gender perspective in health surveys requires the incorporation of questions related to family setting and reproductive work, workplace and society in general to detect gender differences and inequalities (for example, domestic work, intimate partner violence, discrimination, contract type or working hours). Health indicators reflecting differential morbidity and taking into account the different life cycle stages must also be incorporated. Analyses ought to be disaggregated by sex and interpretation of results must consider the complex theoretical frameworks explaining the differences in health between men and women based on sex differences and those related to gender. Analysis of survey data ought to consider the impact of social, political and cultural constructs of each society. Any significant modification in procedures for collection of data relevant to the study of gender will require systematic coordination between institutions generating the data and researchers who are trained in and sensitive to the topic.
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Help Teens Manage Diabetes Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... healthy behaviors, and conflict resolution. The CST training helps diabetic teens to make good decisions when it ...
Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...
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Teen mothers often face a stigmatizing gaze based on the belief that early childbearing jeopardizes their life chances and the health and development of their children. Growing evidence suggests that the poor maternal-child outcomes associated with early childbearing have been overstated and may be explained by teen mothers' childhood disadvantage and adversities. After reviewing what is currently known about the relationships between early childbearing and maternal-child outcomes, as well as teen mothers' perspectives on mothering, clinical practices are suggested that address teen mothers' concerns, strengths, aspirations, and the long-term inequities that contribute to poor outcomes.
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Patel, Payal H; Sen, Bisakha
The objective of this article is to examine the association of teen motherhood and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. The physical and mental health components (PCS and MCS) of the SF-12 Healthy Survey in the NLSY79 health module were used to assess long-term health outcomes of women who experienced teenage motherhood. Various familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics were indentified and controlled for that may have predicted teen motherhood and long-term health outcomes. The two comparison groups for teen mothers were women who experienced teen-pregnancy only and women who were engaged in unprotected sexual activity as a teenage but did not experience pregnancy. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression was used for analysis. The average PCS and MCS for teen mothers was 49.91 and 50.89, respectively. Teen mothers exhibited poorer physical health later in life compared to all women as well as the comparison groups. When controlling for age, teen mothers had significantly lower PCS and MCS scores compared to all other women. Furthermore, when controlling for familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics, teen mothers exhibited significantly lower PCS and MCS scores. When comparing teen mothers to the two comparison groups, PCS was not statistically different although MCS was significantly lower in the teen-pregnancy group. Teen motherhood does lead to poorer physical health outcomes later in life. On the other hand, poorer mental health outcomes in later life may be attributed to the unmeasured factors leading to a teen pregnancy and not teen motherhood itself. Additional research needs to be conducted on the long-term consequences of teen motherhood.
Lederman, Regina P; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia
In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention of sexual risks, HIV, and adolescent pregnancy. Surveys assessed students' attitudes and intentions regarding early sexual and other health-risk behaviors, family interactions, and perceived parental disapproval of risk behaviors. The authors used general linear modeling to compare results. The experimental prevention program differentiated the total scores of the 3 groups (p < .05). A similar result was obtained for student intentions to avoid sex (p < .01). Pairwise comparisons showed the experimental program group scored higher than the nonparticipant group on total scores (p < .01) and on students' intention to avoid sex (p < .01). The results suggest this novel educational program involving both parents and students offers a promising approach to HIV and teen pregnancy prevention.
Perkins, Rebecca B; Lin, Mengyun; Wallington, Sherrie F; Hanchate, Amresh D
To determine the effectiveness of existing school entry and education mandates on HPV vaccination coverage, we compared coverage among girls residing in states and jurisdictions with and without education and school-entry mandates. Virginia and the District of Columbia enacted school entry mandates, though both laws included liberal opt-out provisions. Ten additional states had mandates requiring distribution of education to parents or provision of education within school curricula. Using data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen from 2009-2013, we estimated multilevel logistic regression models to compare coverage with HPV vaccines for girls ages 13-17 residing in states and jurisdictions with and without school entry and education mandates, adjusting for demographic factors, healthcare access, and provider recommendation. Girls residing in states and jurisdictions with HPV vaccine school entry mandates (DC and VA) and education mandates (LA, MI, CO, IN, IA, IL, NJ, NC, TX, and WA) did not have higher HPV vaccine series initiation or completion than those living in states without mandates for any year (2009-2013). Similar results were seen when comparing girls ages 13-14 to those ages 15-17, and after adjustment for known covariates of vaccination. States and jurisdictions with school-entry and education mandates do not currently have higher HPV vaccination coverage than states without such legislation. Liberal opt-out language in existing school entry mandates may weaken their impact. Policy-makers contemplating legislation to improve vaccination coverage should be aware of the limitations of existing mandates.
Herrman, Judith W; Waterhouse, Julie K; Chiquoine, Julie
To evaluate the effectiveness of simulation as a strategy to influence teens' perceptions of pregnancy and parenting. This pilot study was a preexperimental, one group pre/posttest design. The school-based wellness center of a high school was the setting for the weekly sessions and the pre/posttest administration. Sample members participated in 6 weekly Baby Think it Over (BTIO) classes and an infant simulator experience. The final sample included 79 teens age 14 to 18 years who attended one of eight BTIO sessions. We used the Thoughts on Teen Parenting Survey (TTPS) to assess the perceptions of teens with regard to the costs and rewards associated with teen parenting. The TTPS yields a composite score of the teen attitudes toward the teen parenting experience and eight subscale scores that assess different areas of teen life. No significant differences were found in the mean pre/posttest scores or in correlations of the demographic data and mean scores. Two significant differences in pre/posttest subscale scores were in the areas of friends and personal characteristics. The results of this study suggest that the effectiveness of using infant simulators to influence the perceptions of teens about the reality of teen parenting is minimal. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
McCracken, Katherine A; Loveless, Meredith
To provide clinicians with a review of recent research and clinically applicable tools regarding teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy rates have declined but still remain a significant problem in the USA. Teen pregnancy prevention was identified by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as one of its top six priorities, which is increasing research and intervention data. Long-acting contraceptive methods are acceptable to teens and have been shown to reduce teen birth rates. Pregnant teens need special attention to counseling on pregnancy options and reducing risk during pregnancy with regular prenatal care. Postpartum teens should be encouraged and supported to breastfeed, monitored for depression, and have access to reliable contraception to avoid repeat undesired pregnancy. This review highlights important issues for all providers caring for female adolescents and those who may encounter teen pregnancy. Foremost prevention of teen pregnancy by comprehensive sexual education and access to contraception is the priority. Educating patients and healthcare providers about safety and efficacy of long-acting reversible contraception is a good step to reducing undesired teen pregnancies. Rates of postpartum depression are greater in adolescents than in adults, and adolescent mothers need to be screened and monitored for depression. Strategies to avoid another undesired pregnancy shortly after delivery should be implemented.
Noting that rates of teen pregnancies and births have declined over the past decade, this analysis examined how much of the progress is due to fewer teens having sex and how much to lower rates of pregnancy among sexually active teens. The analysis drew on data from the federal government's National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), a large,…
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Objective: The study seeks to examine factors associated with teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives after giving birth. Methods: The 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey data was used to test the study objective. A sample of 12, 911 teen mothers aged between 10 and 18 years were extracted from 23, 020 ...
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Claudia F Ortiz Lopez
Full Text Available First year pharmacy Immersion students from University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy used a three question survey during their rotation at Moses H. Cone Hospital that analyzed patients’ medication adherence. Data collection revealed common trends that have been shown in the literature and areas for improvement. This method of evaluation was used by Phase I Immersion students to gain perspective on the problems we continue to have with medication adherence. Conflict of Interest We do not have any potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Type: Student Project
Perkins, Rebecca B.; Lin, Mengyun; Wallington, Sherrie F.; Hanchate, Amresh D.
ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the effectiveness of existing school entry and education mandates on HPV vaccination coverage, we compared coverage among girls residing in states and jurisdictions with and without education and school-entry mandates. Virginia and the District of Columbia enacted school entry mandates, though both laws included liberal opt-out provisions. Ten additional states had mandates requiring distribution of education to parents or provision of education within school curricula. Methods: Using data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen from 2009–2013, we estimated multilevel logistic regression models to compare coverage with HPV vaccines for girls ages 13–17 residing in states and jurisdictions with and without school entry and education mandates, adjusting for demographic factors, healthcare access, and provider recommendation. Results: Girls residing in states and jurisdictions with HPV vaccine school entry mandates (DC and VA) and education mandates (LA, MI, CO, IN, IA, IL, NJ, NC, TX, and WA) did not have higher HPV vaccine series initiation or completion than those living in states without mandates for any year (2009–2013). Similar results were seen when comparing girls ages 13–14 to those ages 15–17, and after adjustment for known covariates of vaccination. Conclusions: States and jurisdictions with school-entry and education mandates do not currently have higher HPV vaccination coverage than states without such legislation. Liberal opt-out language in existing school entry mandates may weaken their impact. Policy-makers contemplating legislation to improve vaccination coverage should be aware of the limitations of existing mandates. PMID:27152418
Diaz, Christina J; Fiel, Jeremy E
Although teenage mothers have lower educational attainment and earnings than women who delay fertility, causal interpretations of this relationship remain controversial. Scholars argue that there are reasons to predict negative, trivial, or even positive effects, and different methodological approaches provide some support for each perspective. We reconcile this ongoing debate by drawing on two heuristics: (1) each methodological strategy emphasizes different women in estimation procedures, and (2) the effects of teenage fertility likely vary in the population. Analyses of the Child and Young Adult Cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,661) confirm that teen pregnancy has negative effects on most women's attainment and earnings. More striking, however, is that effects on college completion and early earnings vary considerably and are most pronounced among those least likely to experience an early pregnancy. Further analyses suggest that teen pregnancy is particularly harmful for those with the brightest socioeconomic prospects and who are least prepared for the transition to motherhood.
Anderson, D Mark; Elsea, David
In this note, we use data from the national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys for the period 1999 through 2011 to estimate the relationship between the Meth Project, an anti-methamphetamine advertising campaign, and meth use among high school students. During this period, a total of eight states adopted anti-meth advertising campaigns. After accounting for pre-existing downward trends in meth use, we find little evidence that the campaign curbed meth use in the full sample. We do find, however, some evidence that the Meth Project may have decreased meth use among White high school students. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.
Abma, Joyce C.
This study analyzed the roles of trends in sociodemographic factors known to be related to the risk of a teen birth. The goal was to analyze the roles of these trends in maternal education, family structure and mother’s age at first birth in the likelihood of adolescents becoming teen mothers across multiple birth cohorts of women covering the years since 1991. Data are from the 1995, 2002, 2006–2010 and 2011–2013 National Surveys of Family Growth (NSFG). Consecutive birth cohorts of female respondents were constructed and retrospectively followed to estimate the risk of a teen birth for each cohort. Logistic regression models estimate the odds of a teen birth across cohorts and within strata of the predictors across cohorts. Maternal education rose across cohorts; the proportion who were non-Hispanic white declined. In general, the likelihood of an adolescent birth did not change within categories of the predictors that are considered at higher risk for a teen birth across birth cohorts. Specifically, there was no change in the odds of a teen birth among women whose mothers did not finish high school, those born to teen mothers and those not from two-parent families. The odds of a birth declined across cohorts for black women. The findings suggest that much of the decline in teen birth rates is due to declines in the proportion of teens in higher risk categories, rather than to declines within those categories. PMID:25680702
Whelehan, Imelda, 1960-
online article - free to access This essay concerns itself with two examples of contemporary teen romance and examines the similarities with adult chick lit. These texts are compared with Judy Blume's classic 'Forever' written in 1975 to emphasis continuities between contemporary teen fiction and its more overty feminist forebears
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SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Bravi, F; Gibertoni, D; Marcon, A; Sicotte, C; Minvielle, E; Rucci, P; Angelastro, A; Carradori, T; Fantini, M P
Hospital networks are an emerging organizational form designed to face the new challenges of public health systems. Although the benefits introduced by network models in terms of rationalization of resources are known, evidence about stakeholders' perspectives on hospital network performance from the literature is scanty. Using the Competing Values Framework of organizational effectiveness and its subsequent adaptation by Minvielle et al., we conducted in 2009 a survey in five hospitals of an Italian network for oncological care to examine and compare the views on hospital network performance of internal stakeholders (physicians, nurses and the administrative staff). 329 questionnaires exploring stakeholders' perspectives were completed, with a response rate of 65.8%. Using exploratory factor analysis of the 66 items of the questionnaire, we identified 4 factors, i.e. Centrality of relationships, Quality of care, Attractiveness/Reputation and Staff empowerment and Protection of workers' rights. 42 items were retained in the analysis. Factor scores proved to be high (mean score>8 on a 10-item scale), except for Attractiveness/Reputation (mean score 6.79), indicating that stakeholders attach a higher importance to relational and health care aspects. Comparison of factor scores among stakeholders did not reveal significant differences, suggesting a broadly shared view on hospital network performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donald, Sarah; Donoghue, Vicki; Dawley, Amy
Based on work with teen volunteers, teen advisory councils, teen reading buddy programs and anime and manga clubs, Sarah Donald, Vicki Donoghue and Amy Dawley discuss their successes with teenagers, and practical ways to serve teens in the community.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D
Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.
Ahern, Nancy R; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Thacker, Paige
Adolescence is a developmental stage marked by risk-taking and limited comprehension of dangers of risky behaviors. Previous research has focused on adolescents' perspective of risk with little evidence on parents' knowledge regarding risk. This qualitative study examined parental knowledge and perspectives of child/teen risk behaviors associated with salvia, sexting, inhalant use/abuse, and self/participant-assisted choking. A sample of 30 parents of children/teens aged 10-17 completed a self-administered survey based on Flanagan's critical incident technique. Data were analyzed according to Flanagan's guidelines. Two advanced practice nurses determined category reliability with 95% agreement. The survey yielded five categories of parental responses to potential risky behaviors in their child/teen including the following: talking to my children, setting up consequences, confronting the child, seeking help, and talking to others. Although the majority of the parents were aware of newer behaviors, less than one half of the participants reported discussing risks with their child/teen. One third reported that their child knew a friend who was thinking about/tried sexting. One quarter of parents reported that they were not monitoring their child/teen's media use. Study findings provide important implications for developing an evidence-based education intervention to improve parents' awareness, knowledge, and identification of risk behaviors in their children/teens. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... That Can Go Wrong Print en español El sistema endocrino Ever dozed through chemistry class and wondered ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...
... More on this topic for: Teens What's a Healthy Alternative to Water? Compulsive Exercise IV (Video) Sports Center Caffeine Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea A Guide ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Meniscus Tears KidsHealth / For Teens / Meniscus Tears What's in this ... surgery to fix it. What Is a Meniscus Tear? Your knee is made up of three bones: ...
... genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, the French ... immediately. What's Life Like for Teens With Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome affects people differently, so life is not ...
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... the percentage of teens who misuse steroids. Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ... Drugs of Abuse Discover what happens to the brain on drugs. ... vs. drug use. Read More » 92 Comments Dopers Downfall ...
... to help people figure out what's behind their stress — and then provide advice on how to fix problems or handle them better. What You Can Do The good news is belly pain isn't usually serious in teens. ...
Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Endometriosis KidsHealth / For Teens / Endometriosis What's in this article? ... doctor thought Anne might have endometriosis. What Is Endometriosis? When a woman has endometriosis, tissue that looks ...
... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Appendicitis in Teens Page Content Article Body Early adolescence ... it has no known function. Symptoms that Suggest Appendicitis may Include: Persistent abdominal pain that migrates from ...
Chang, Tammy; Choi, HwaJung; Richardson, Caroline R; Davis, Matthew M
The objective of this study was to examine whether teen birth was independently associated with overweight and obesity in a US cohort. We examined whether teen birth is independently associated with overweight and obesity in a multiyear US cohort using the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. We performed multinomial logistic regression adjusting for survey cohort, age at survey, race, education, and parity. We included women 20-59 years old at the time of survey, with at least 1 live birth, not currently or recently pregnant (unweighted, n = 5220; weighted, n = 48.4 million). Our outcome measure was the effect of teen birth on subsequent overweight and obesity. In bivariate analyses, women with a teen birth were significantly more likely than women without a teen birth to be overweight (relative risk ratios [RRRs], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.90) or obese (RRR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.56-2.16) at the time of the survey. In multivariate models, women with a teen birth remained significantly more likely to be overweight (adjusted RRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62) or obese (adjusted RRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09-1.61) than women without a teen birth. For women in the United States, giving birth as a teen is associated with subsequent overweight/obese status later in life. To inform clinical and policy interventions with the goal to improve the long-term health of teenage mothers, future studies must examine modifiable physiological and sociomedical reasons for early child-bearing and later risk of obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
In 2009, approximately 410,000 teens aged 15-19 years gave birth in the United States, and the teen birth rate remains higher than in other developed countries. To describe U.S. trends in teen births and related factors, CDC used data on 1) teen birth rates during 1991-2009 from the National Vital Statistics System, 2) sexual intercourse and contraceptive use among high school students during 1991-2009 from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and 3) sex education, parent communication, use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), and receipt of reproductive health services among teens aged 15-19 years from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth. In 2009, the national teen birth rate was 39.1 births per 1,000 females, a 37% decrease from 61.8 births per 1,000 females in 1991 and the lowest rate ever recorded. State-specific teen birth rates varied from 16.4 to 64.2 births per 1,000 females and were highest among southern states. Birth rates for black and Hispanic teens were 59.0 and 70.1 births per 1,000 females, respectively, compared with 25.6 for white teens. From 1991 to 2009, the percentage of high school students who ever had sexual intercourse decreased from 54% to 46%, and the percentage of students who had sexual intercourse in the past 3 months but did not use any method of contraception at last sexual intercourse decreased from 16% to 12%. From 1999 to 2009, the percentage of students who had sexual intercourse in the past 3 months and used dual methods at last sexual intercourse (condoms with either birth control pills or the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera) increased from 5% to 9%. During 2006-2008, 65% of female teens and 53% of male teens received formal sex education that covered saying no to sex and provided information on methods of birth control. Overall, 44% of female teens and 27% of male teens had spoken with their parents about both topics, but among teens who had ever had sexual intercourse, 20% of females and 31
Abar, Caitlin; Turrisi, Robert
Building on previous findings supporting the continuing influence of parents on their teens after they have gone to college [Turrisi, R., Jaccard, J., Taki, R., Dunnam, H., & Grimes, J. (2001). Examination of the short-term efficacy of a parent intervention to reduce college student drinking tendencies. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(4), 366-372.; Turrisi, R., Padilla, K., & Wiersma, K. (2000). College student drinking: An examination of theoretical models of drinking tendencies in freshman and upperclassmen. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61, 598-602.[28
Wolff, Jamie; Parker, Claire; Borisoff, Jaimie; Mortenson, W Ben; Mattie, Johanne
Exoskeleton technology has potential benefits for wheelchair users' health and mobility. However, there are practical barriers to their everyday use as a mobility device. To further understand potential exoskeleton use, and facilitate the development of new technologies, a study was undertaken to explore perspectives of wheelchair users and healthcare professionals on reasons for use of exoskeleton technology, and the importance of a variety of device characteristics. An online survey with quantitative and qualitative components was conducted with wheelchair users and healthcare professionals working directly with individuals with mobility impairments. Respondents rated whether they would use or recommend an exoskeleton for four potential reasons. Seventeen design features were rated and compared in terms of their importance. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to categorize the 17 design features into meaningful groupings. Content analysis was used to identify themes for the open ended questions regarding reasons for use of an exoskeleton. 481 survey responses were analyzed, 354 from wheelchair users and 127 from healthcare professionals. The most highly rated reason for potential use or recommendation of an exoskeleton was health benefits. Of the design features, 4 had a median rating of very important: minimization of falls risk, comfort, putting on/taking off the device, and purchase cost. Factor analysis identified two main categories of design features: Functional Activities and Technology Characteristics. Qualitative findings indicated that health and physical benefits, use for activity and access reasons, and psychosocial benefits were important considerations in whether to use or recommend an exoskeleton. This study emphasizes the importance of developing future exoskeletons that are comfortable, affordable, minimize fall risk, and enable functional activities. Findings from this study can be utilized to inform the priorities for future
Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A.; Bhat, Geeta
Introduction Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of “worry” about their teen driver’s safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen’s driving. Methods We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental “worry,” and influence of rules regarding their teen’s driving, reported by teen’s driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver’s license). Response categories were dichotomized because of small cell sizes, and we ran separate log-linear regression models to explore whether imposing all four restrictions on teen drivers was associated with either worry intensity (“a lot” versus “somewhat, not very much or not at all”) or perceived influence of parental rules (“a lot” versus “somewhat, not very much or not at all”). Results Among the 456 parent respondents, 80% reported having restrictions for their teen driver regarding use of safety belts, drinking and driving, cell phones, and text messaging while driving. However, among the 188 parents of licensed teens, only 9% reported having a written parent-teen driving agreement, either currently or in the past. Worrying “a lot” was reported less frequently by parents of newly licensed teens (36%) compared with parents of learning teens (61%). Conclusions and Practical Applications Parents report having rules and restrictions for their teen drivers, but only a small percentage formalize the rules and restrictions in a written parent-teen driving agreement. Parents worry less about their teen driver’s safety during the newly licensed phase, when crash risk is high as compared to the learning phase. Further research is needed into how to effectively
Full Text Available It briefly reviewed the history of geographic information content development since the existence of geographic information system. It pointed out that the current definition of geographic information is always the extension from the "spatial+ attributes" basic mapping framework of geographic information. It is increasingly difficult to adapt to the analysis and application of spatial-temporal big data. From the perspective of geography research subject and content, it summarized systematically that the content and extension of the "geographic information" that geography needs. It put forward that a six-element expression model of geographic information, including spatial location, semantic description, attribute characteristics, geometric form, evolution process, and objects relationship.Under the guidance of the laws of geography, for geographical phenomenon of spatial distribution, temporal pattern and evolution process, the interaction mechanism of the integrated expression, system analysis and efficient management, it designed that a unified GIS data model which is expressed by six basic elements, a new GIS data structure driven by geographical rules and interaction, and key technologies of unstructured spatio-temporal data organization and storage. It provided that a theoretical basis and technical support for the shift from the surveying and mapping geographic information to the scientific geographic information, and it can help improving the organization, management, analysis and expression ability of the GIS of the geographical laws such as geographical pattern, evolution process, and interaction between elements.
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Mirman, Jessica H; Albert, W Dustin; Curry, Allison E; Winston, Flaura K; Fisher Thiel, Megan C; Durbin, Dennis R
The large contribution of inexperience to the high crash rate of newly licensed teens suggests that they enter licensure with insufficient skills. In a prior analysis, we found moderate support for a direct effect of a web-based intervention, the TeenDrivingPlan (TDP), on teens' driving performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the mechanisms by which TDP may be effective and to extend our understanding of how teens learn to drive. A randomized controlled trial conducted with teen permit holders and parent supervisors (N = 151 dyads) was used to determine if the effect of TDP on driver performance operated through five hypothesized mediators: (1) parent-perceived social support; (2) teen-perceived social support; (3) parent engagement; (4) practice quantity; and (5) practice diversity. Certified driving evaluators, blinded to teens' treatment allocation, assessed teens' driving performance 24 weeks after enrollment. Mediator variables were assessed on self-report surveys administered periodically over the study period. Exposure to TDP increased teen-perceived social support, parent engagement, and practice diversity. Both greater practice quantity and diversity were associated with better driving performance, but only practice diversity mediated the relationship between TDP and driver performance. Practice diversity is feasible to change and increases teens' likelihood of completing a rigorous on-road driving assessment just before licensure. Future research should continue to identify mechanisms that diversify practice driving, explore complementary ways to help families optimize the time they spend on practice driving, and evaluate the long-term effectiveness of TDP. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Watson, Linnea Lynne; Vogel, Linda R.
While recent research has shown the long-term effects of teen pregnancy are not as devastating as once predicted, more than 40 years after the passage of Title IX legislation mandating equal educational opportunities for pregnant and parenting teens, only 50% of teen parents graduate high school, lagging far behind their non-parenting peers. This…
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Neuhaus, Carolyn Plunkett
On seeing promising results in a small number of patients, some researchers are conducting trials to determine whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). This article asks whether we should open enrollment in trials of DBS for AN to adolescents. Despite concerns about informed consent, parental consent, and unforeseeable psychological sequelae, the article concludes that the risks to anorexic adolescents associated with participation in trials of DBS are reasonable considering the substantial risks of not enrolling teens with AN in research on DBS. The seriousness of AN, its high incidence in teens, and serious shortfalls in the AN treatment literature point to the need for improved, evidence-based treatments for teens with AN. This unmet need generates an obligation on the part of researchers and physicians to promote and conduct research on AN in adolescents.
Ahern, Nancy R; Bramlett, Traci
After years of high teen birth rates, there is currently a decline in U.S. pregnancy and birth rates among teens. Nevertheless, these rates continue to be higher than those of most global counterparts, and psychosocial and physical adversities still occur for pregnant teens and their children. The declining birth rates may be due to teens making better choices about contraceptive use and sexual behaviors. Psychiatric-mental health nurses are in key positions to enhance pregnancy prevention for teens. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 25-28.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Forgays, Deborah Kirby; DeMilio, Lisa
Teen Courts are an effective judicial alternative for many youth offenders. The majority of youth courts deal solely with first-time offenders. However, repeat offenders are at a greater risk for future crime. Is Teen Court effective with more experienced offenders? In this study, the authors examine the outcomes of 26 Whatcom County Teen Court offenders with at least one prior conviction. The sentence completion rate was higher and the recidivism was lower for the Teen Court offenders when compared with a sample of first-time Court Diversion offenders. This objective evidence of program success is augmented by an offender's perspective on his or her court experience. These perspectives as well as the continued voluntary involvement with Teen Court are discussed in relation to empowerment theory.
About half of the almost 1 million US teenagers who become pregnant each year carry their pregnancies to term and give birth. However, after years of steady increases, teen birthrates in the US are lower and pregnancy rates have fallen to their lowest level in 20 years. Teenage sexual activity is also declining. Over the period 1991-96, the birthrate in the US among teens declined from the 20-year high of 62.1 births/1000 females aged 15-19 to 54.4/1000. This 12% decline comes after a 24% increase in the birthrate between 1986 and 1991. Declines in the teen birthrate were observed for the nation overall, as well as in each state, ranging from 6% in Alabama to 29% in Alaska. The teen birthrate among Blacks declined 21% to reach a record low of 91.4/1000 in 1996, while the rate for Hispanic teens barely changed during 1991-95, but eventually declined 5% during 1995-96 to 101.8/1000. The birthrate among non-Hispanic White teens declined 9% during the period to 48.1/1000, while the birthrate for teens aged 15-17 fell 13% during the period and 9% for 18-19 year olds. Pregnancy rates among women aged 15-19 years declined 14% between 1990 and 1995, to 101.1/1000, the lowest level since the mid-1970s. Although researchers are unsure why teen pregnancy and birthrates have fallen, recent survey data suggest that the declines have occurred because both fewer teens are having sex and more sexually active adolescents are using contraception.
... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Teen Pregnancy A Key Role for Health Care Providers Language: ... Battles: Teen Pregnancy Prevention Status Reports (PSRs): Teen Pregnancy FastStats: Teen Births Vital Signs – Preventing Teen Pregnancy [PODCAST – 1: ...
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Hymowitz, Kay S.
The market and advertising media aimed at children has skyrocketed in recent years. Many new products targeting 8-12-year-olds appeal to their sense of teen fashion, image consciousness, and independence from adults. Describes the development of this market aimed at early adolescents and how it is changing childhood as Americans have known it. (SM)
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... in his or her body. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A transfusion is a simple medical procedure that ...
During your teens you go through puberty and become sexually mature. If you're a girl, you develop breasts and begin to get your period. If you're a boy, your penis and testicles become larger. If you have sex, you could get pregnant or get someone pregnant. Whether you choose to have sex ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Turner Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Turner Syndrome What's in this ... en español El síndrome de Turner What Is Turner Syndrome? Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic condition found ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Depression KidsHealth / For Teens / Depression What's in this article? ... Yourself Print en español Depresión Regular Sadness vs. Depression It's natural to feel sad, down, or discouraged ...
Eaton, Sarah Elaine
This report is a compiliation of evidence-informed blog posts on cyberbulling among children and teens. It examines the issue of cyberbullying from the perspective of both the victim and the perpetrator. A key argument is that cyberbullying is a matter not only for the children involved, but also for their families and educators.
... Teens Winnable Battles Social Media at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 ... Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. National Rates and Disparities Nationally, the teen birth rate (number of births ...
Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.
Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…
Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Romero, Lisa; Spitz, Alison; Gavin, Lorrie; Barfield, Wanda
Teens who give birth at age 15-17 years are at increased risk for adverse medical and social outcomes of teen pregnancy. To examine trends in the rate and proportion of births to teens aged 15-19 years that were to teens aged 15-17 years, CDC analyzed 1991-2012 National Vital Statistics System data. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2006-2010 were used to examine sexual experience, contraceptive use, and receipt of prevention opportunities among female teens aged 15-17 years. During 1991-2012, the rate of births per 1,000 teens declined from 17.9 to 5.4 for teens aged 15 years, 36.9 to 12.9 for those aged 16 years, and 60.6 to 23.7 for those aged 17 years. In 2012, the birth rate per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years was higher for Hispanics (25.5), non-Hispanic blacks (21.9), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17.0) compared with non-Hispanic whites (8.4) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (4.1). The rate also varied by state, ranging from 6.2 per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years in New Hampshire to 29.0 in the District of Columbia. In 2012, there were 86,423 births to teens aged 15-17 years, accounting for 28% of all births to teens aged 15-19 years. This percentage declined from 36% in 1991 to 28% in 2012 (pteens aged 15-17 years received formal sex education on birth control or how to say no to sex, 24% had not spoken with parents about either topic; among sexually experienced female teens, 83% reported no formal sex education before first sex. Among currently sexually active female teens (those who had sex within 3 months of the survey) aged 15-17 years, 58% used clinical birth control services in the past 12 months, and 92% used contraception at last sex; however, only 1% used the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. Births to teens aged 15-17 years have declined but still account for approximately one quarter of births to teens aged 15-19 years. These data highlight opportunities to increase younger teens exposure to interventions that delay
Donna R. Gillespie
Full Text Available Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit, (TALK, is an annual weekend retreat designed for teens interested in promoting and marketing 4-H in their communities. TALK organizers felt teens would benefit from an intensive weekend retreat focused on communication. TALK produces a network of educated and excited 4-H teens that are available to help with 4-H promotion and marketing. Participants arrive on Friday evening for team building activities, on Saturday they participate in one of the workshops offered and on Sunday morning each workshop group has the opportunity to share their completed projects and what they learned. At the conclusion of the retreat, teens are designated "County 4-H Ambassadors" and certificates of completion, professional business cards and polo shirts are presented. The TALK teen participants return home to share what they learned with their local county 4-H staff and help promote and market 4-H in their communities.
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Norris, Michael; Twill, Sarah; Kim, Chigon
Teen courts have grown rapidly in the United States despite little evidence of their effectiveness. A survival analysis of 635 teen court and 186 regular diversion participants showed no significant differences in recidivism, although program completers were half as likely to reoffend as noncompleters. Older offenders survived significantly better…
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.
Hall, M.; Mayhew, M. A.
Teen Science Cafés are a global phenomenon where scientists and teenagers engage in lively conversations about current, relevant, and intriguing science. In the past two years, Teen Café programs have been initiated in 41 sites in 18 U.S. states via the Teen Science Cafe Network, teensciencecafe.org. Other such programs are growing in the UK, eastern Africa, South Africa, and Singapore. The events are a free, informal, and low risk way for scientists to share their science with a receptive audience much focused on future careers. The success of a Café depends on the core principle that rich conversation occurs; a Café program is not a lecture series. Engaging teen participants brings out different perspectives and new dimensions to the topic; this has typically given scientists new ways of thinking about their own research! Presenting the event as a conversation and inviting the teens to bring in questions and points of view is key to fostering a dynamic Café. Scientists report that the training provided for these engagements has changed the way they talk about their science to peers, managers, and funding agencies. Teen Cafés have been shown to significantly change teens' view of the importance of science in their lives, positively influence teens' understanding of science in the news, and increase their ability and confidence to use facts to support scientific points of view. The Café events also positively influenced teens' interest in science and science careers, and revealed to them the true nature of scientific research and the interesting lives that scientists lead. Cafés are an excellent vehicle for scientists to have broader impact on the current generation of students, our future adult citizens. The Teen Science Café Network is an open community of practice committed to helping others implement Teen Cafés.
Full Text Available Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been the object of research focus for the past two decades, fault diagnosis in these networks has received little attention. This is an essential requirement for wireless networks, especially in WSNs, because of their ad-hoc nature, deployment requirements and resource limitations. Therefore, in this paper we survey fault diagnosis from the perspective of network operations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey from such a perspective. We survey the proactive, active and passive fault diagnosis schemes that have appeared in the literature to date, accenting their advantages and limitations of each scheme. In addition to illuminating the details of past efforts, this survey also reveals new research challenges and strengthens our understanding of the field of fault diagnosis.
Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.
This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598
Shults, Ruth A; Bergen, Gwen; Smith, Tracy J; Cook, Larry; Kindelberger, John; West, Bethany
Teens' crash risk is highest in the first years of independent driving. Circumstances surrounding fatal crashes have been widely documented, but less is known about factors related to nonfatal teen driver crashes. This study describes single vehicle nonfatal crashes involving the youngest teen drivers (15-17 years), compares these crashes to single vehicle nonfatal crashes among adult drivers (35-44 years) and examines factors related to nonfatal injury producing crashes for teen drivers. Police crash data linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department data for 2005-2008 from the South Carolina Crash Outcomes Data Evaluation System (CODES) were analyzed. Nonfatal, single vehicle crashes involving passenger vehicles occurring on public roadways for teen (15-17 years) drivers were compared with those for adult (35-44 years) drivers on temporal patterns and crash risk factors per licensed driver and per vehicle miles traveled. Vehicle miles traveled by age group was estimated using data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis was conducted for teen driver crashes to determine which characteristics were related to crashes resulting in a minor/moderate injury or serious injury to at least one vehicle occupant. Compared with adult drivers, teen drivers in South Carolina had 2.5 times the single vehicle nonfatal crash rate per licensed driver and 11 times the rate per vehicle mile traveled. Teen drivers were nearly twice as likely to be speeding at the time of the crash compared with adult drivers. Teen driver crashes per licensed driver were highest during the afternoon hours of 3:00-5:59 pm and crashes per mile driven were highest during the nighttime hours of 9:00-11:59 pm. In 66% of the teen driver crashes, the driver was the only occupant. Crashes were twice as likely to result in serious injury when teen passengers were present than when the teen driver was alone. When teen drivers crashed while
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, more than 305,000 teens ages 15 to 19 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy.
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…
Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and
Rivara, Frederick P; Koepsell, Thomas D; Wang, Jin; Durbin, Dennis; Jaffe, Kenneth M; Vavilala, Monica; Dorsch, Andrea; Roper-Caldbeck, Maria; Houseknecht, Eileen; Temkin, Nancy
To identify sociodemographic factors associated with completing a follow-up survey about health status on the web versus by telephone, and to examine differences in reported health-related quality of life by method of response. Survey about child health status of 896 parents of children aged 0-17 years treated in a hospital emergency department or admitted for a traumatic brain injury or arm injury, and 227 injured adolescents aged 14-17 years. The main outcomes were characteristics of those who completed a follow-up survey on the web versus by telephone and health-related quality of life by method of response. Email addresses were provided by 76.9 percent of parents and 56.5 percent of adolescents at baseline. The survey was completed on the web by 64.9 percent of parents and 40.2 percent of adolescents through email. Parents with email access who were Blacks, Hispanics, had lower incomes, and those who were not working were less likely to choose the web mode for completing the survey. Unlike adolescents, the amount of time for parents to complete the survey online was significantly shorter than completion by telephone. Differences by survey mode were small but statistically significant in some of the six functional outcome measures examined. Survey mode was associated with several sociodemographic characteristics. Sole use of web surveys could provide biased data. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Hartke, Robert J; Trierweiler, Robert
To describe the development and results of a detailed survey on return to work (RTW) after stroke completed by survivors at various stages of recovery. This study used a multi-method qualitative and quantitative research strategy to design and implement a 39-item survey for stroke survivors. Individual interviews, focus groups, and working committees were used to conceptualize the issues and translate them into a survey format. Surveys were distributed in regular and electronic mail. Groups of rehabilitation professionals, employers, and stroke survivors were assembled to review findings and obtain feedback to aide in interpretation. Overall 715 surveys were completed. The respondents were on average 54 years of age, mostly white, well-educated, urban dwelling, and in skilled occupations. Results are described in seven areas: financial, stroke impairments, organizational, work and psychological issues, interpersonal support, and therapy. Several salient findings are described including the role of fatigue, under utilization of vocational rehabilitation (VR) services, and motivational factors related to finances, self-esteem, work, and workplace relationships. Although earning an income is a strong motivation to RTW, salary decreases in importance when compared with other psychological benefits. Fatigue was rated as the second highest impairment barrier to RTW and persisted as a relevant impediment over time. Attitudes of co-workers and flexibility in work schedule were viewed as most helpful to the RTW process, whereas work stress was viewed as the greatest impediment to return. Only 24% of the sample received VR counseling with more respondents receiving counseling if they returned 6 months or longer after their stroke. Other trends and clinical and research implications are discussed.
... Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Use Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs Ages & Stages ...
Michalsky, Marc P; Inge, Thomas H; Teich, Steven; Eneli, Ihuoma; Miller, Rosemary; Brandt, Mary L; Helmrath, Michael; Harmon, Carroll M; Zeller, Meg H; Jenkins, Todd M; Courcoulas, Anita; Buncher, Ralph C
The number of adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery (WLS) has increased in response to the increasing prevalence of severe childhood obesity. Adolescents undergoing WLS require unique support, which may differ from adult programs. The aim of this study was to describe institutional and programmatic characteristics of centers participating in Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS), a prospective study investigating safety and efficacy of adolescent WLS. Data were obtained from the Teen-LABS database, and site survey completed by Teen-LABS investigators. The survey queried (1) institutional characteristics, (2) multidisciplinary team composition, (3) clinical program characteristics, and (4) clinical research infrastructure. All centers had extensive multidisciplinary involvement in the assessment, pre-operative education, and post-operative management of adolescents undergoing WLS. Eligibility criteria and pre-operative clinical and diagnostic evaluations were similar between programs. All programs have well-developed clinical research infrastructure, use adolescent-specific educational resources, and maintain specialty equipment, including high weight capacity diagnostic imaging equipment. The composition of clinical team and institutional resources is consistent with current clinical practice guidelines. These characteristics, coupled with dedicated research staff, have facilitated enrollment of 242 participants into Teen-LABS. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Patrão, Luís; Zorro, Sara; Silva, Jorge; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Ribeiro, João
Human factors and awareness of flight physiology play a crucial role in flight safety. Even so, international legislation is vague relative to training requirements in hypoxia and altitude physiology. Based on a previously developed survey, an adapted questionnaire was formulated and released online for Portuguese pilots. Specific questions regarding the need for pilot attention monitoring systems were added to the original survey. There were 117 pilots, 2 of whom were women, who completed the survey. Most of the pilots had a light aviation license and flew in unpressurized cabins at a maximum ceiling of 10,000 ft (3048 m). The majority of the respondents never experienced hypoxic symptoms. In general, most of the individuals agreed with the importance of an introductory hypoxia course without altitude chamber training (ACT) for all pilot populations, and with a pilot monitoring system in order to increase flight safety. Generally, most of the pilots felt that hypoxia education and training for unpressurized aircraft is not extensive enough. However, almost all the respondents were willing to use a flight physiology monitoring system in order to improve flight safety.
Winters, Paul A., Ed.
The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…
Layzer, Carolyn; Rosapep, Lauren; Barr, Sherry
This process study is a companion to a randomized evaluation of a school-based, peer-led comprehensive sexual health education program, Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), in which 11th- and 12th-grade students are trained by school health educators to conduct informative workshops with ninth-grade peers in schools in North Carolina. The process study was designed to understand youth participants' perspectives on the program in order to gain insight into program effectiveness. This is a mixed-methods study in 7 schools, with online surveys (N = 88) and 8 focus groups with peer educators (N = 116), end-of-program surveys (N = 1122), 8 focus groups with ninth-grade workshop participants (N = 89), and observations of the Teen PEP class and workshops during the semester of implementation in each school, 2012-2014. Both peer educators and ninth graders perceived benefits of participating in Teen PEP across a range of domains, including intentions, skills, and knowledge and that the peer education modality was important in their valuation of the experience. Our findings suggest that the peer-led comprehensive sexual health education approach embodied in Teen PEP can be an important educational mechanism for teaching students information and skills to promote sexual health. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.
The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…
Bloom, Paul N.; And Others
Surveys of adolescents examined the link between sports promotion and advertising of alcohol and tobacco and teen smoking and drinking behaviors. Data analysis found an association between exposure to sporting events and cigarette use and beer consumption. Watching stock car racing was related to cigarette use; football and basketball to beer use.…
Wilson, Stephen; Alcaino, Eduardo A
Paediatric dentists receive training in sedation during their advanced education training, but evidence suggests that this training varies widely. The purpose of this study was to survey members of the International Association of Paediatric Dentistry (IAPD) and the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) on their opinion on pharmacological and other behavioural management techniques and their training related to provision of oral health care of paediatric patients in the dental setting. A request was made for access to the IAPD and EAPD membership email addresses. The responses were recorded anonymously and data uploaded into spss (version 9) and analysed using descriptive analysis and chi-square with and without tabulation processes. A total of 311 respondents of 1973 targeted individuals answered the survey. The response rate was 16%. The majority of the respondents came from the continent of Europe, Asia, and the Americas. The most frequent type of sedation was general anaesthesia (52% of the respondents), followed by nitrous oxide (46%) and then oral sedation (44%). At least 91% of the respondents indicated that they were interested in the development of continuing education on the topic of sedation. Paediatric dentists around the world use relatively few behaviour management techniques, including pharmacological management. There is a definite interest in continuing education in the area of sedation. The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
... A consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2016;12:785. Teens, young adults and sleep. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. http://www.aasmnet.org/. Accessed June 29, 2017. ...
Roberto Giugliani MD, PhD
Full Text Available The Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS is an international long-term observational registry sponsored by Shire for patients diagnosed with Fabry disease who are receiving or are candidates for therapy with agalsidase alfa (agalα. Established in 2001, FOS provides long-term data on agalα safety/efficacy and collects data on the natural history of Fabry disease, with the aim of improving clinical management. The FOS publications have helped establish prognostic and severity scores, defined the incidence of specific disease variants and implications for clinical management, described clinical manifestations in special populations, confirmed the high prevalence of cardiac morbidity, and demonstrated correlations between ocular changes and Fabry disease severity. These FOS data represent a rich resource with utility not only for description of natural history/therapeutic effects but also for exploratory hypothesis testing and generation of tools for diagnosis/management, with the potential to improve future patient outcomes.
Raymond Bingham, C; Zakrajsek, Jennifer S; Almani, Farideh; Shope, Jean T; Sayer, Tina B
Driver distraction is an important contributor to crash risk. Teenage driver distraction can be influenced by the attitudes and behaviors of parents. This study examined teens' and their parents' engagement in distracting behavior while driving. Survey data were collected from a national sample of 403 parent-teen dyads using random-digit dialing telephone interviews. Results demonstrated few parent or teen sex differences in distracting behavior engagement while driving, or in their perceptions of each others' behavior. Parents and teens' frequencies of distracting behavior engagement were positively correlated. Parents' and teens' perceptions of each others' distracting behavior engagement while driving exceeded their own selfreports. Finally, the likelihood that teens reported engaging in distracting behavior while driving was more strongly associated with their perceptions of their parents' distracting behavior than by parents' self reports of their own behavior. These results suggest that parents' examples of driving behavior are an important influence on teen driving behavior, but potentially more important are teens' perceptions of their parents' behaviors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...
This study was a randomized control intervention to measure the effectiveness of a cellular phone control device : that communicates with the vehicles of teen drivers to deny them access to their phone while driving for the : purpose of reducing dist...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth / For Teens / Stem Cell Transplants What's ... Take to Recover? Coping Print What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...
... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...
... girl might notice an increased amount of clear vaginal discharge. This discharge is common. There's no need for ... topic for: Teens Why Are My Breasts Sore? Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Tampons, Pads, and Other ...
... thoughts. Teens going through major life changes (parents' divorce, moving, a parent leaving home due to military service or parental separation, financial changes) and those who are victims of ...
Easter, Sarah Rae; Raglan, Greta B; Little, Sarah E; Schulkin, Jay; Robinson, Julian N
Objective To characterize contemporary attitudes toward global health amongst board-certified obstetricians-gynecologists (Ob-Gyns) in the US. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Respondents were stratified by interest and experience in global health and group differences were reported. Results A total of 202 of 400 (50.5%) surveys were completed; and 67.3% ( n = 136) of respondents expressed an interest in global health while 25.2% ( n = 51) had experience providing healthcare abroad. Personal safety was the primary concern of respondents (88 of 185, 47.6%), with 44.5% (57 of 128) identifying 2 weeks as an optimal period of time to spend abroad. The majority (113 of 186, 60.8%) cited hosting of local physicians in the US as the most valuable service to developing a nation's healthcare provision. Conclusion Despite high interest in global health, willingness to spend significant time abroad was limited. Concerns surrounding personal safety dovetailed with the belief that training local physicians in the US provides the most valuable service to international efforts. These attitudes and concerns suggest novel solutions will be required to increase involvement of Ob-Gyns in global women's health.
Full Text Available In order to shape tax reform it is necessary objectively to assess the current stateof-the-art of and of the outlook for the tax system. After having reviewed all previous reforms in the light of the consumption-based (interest-adjusted concept of direct taxation, which was almost systematically implemented in Croatia in 1994, we present the results of a broad expert opinion survey about the Croatian tax system. The most interesting results suggest the maintenance/(reintroduction of different tax incentives and reduced VAT rates, rejection of a flat tax as well as decrease of tax brackets, an increase in alcohol and tobacco duties, the introduction of a financial activities tax, a further shift from income to consumption, a decrease of the tax share in GDP and a belief in the behavioral responsiveness of tax decreases/exemptions, as well as a firm commitment to the principle of equity. The last three economic views/values are important predictors of other tax attitudes.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control. Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/7/2015.
Johnson, Nicholas; Murphy, Alison; McNeese, Nathan; Reddy, Madhu; Purao, Sandeep
A survey of rural hospitals was conducted in the spring of 2012 to better understand their perspectives on health information technology (HIT) outsourcing and the role that hospital-to-hospital HIT partnerships (HHPs) can play as an outsourcing mechanism. The survey sought to understand how HHPs might be leveraged for HIT implementation, as well as the challenges with forming them. The results suggest that HHPs have the potential to address rural hospitals’ slow rate of HIT adoption, but there are also challenges to creating these partnerships. These issues, as well as avenues for further research, are then discussed. PMID:24551373
Johnson, Nicholas; Murphy, Alison; McNeese, Nathan; Reddy, Madhu; Purao, Sandeep
A survey of rural hospitals was conducted in the spring of 2012 to better understand their perspectives on health information technology (HIT) outsourcing and the role that hospital-to-hospital HIT partnerships (HHPs) can play as an outsourcing mechanism. The survey sought to understand how HHPs might be leveraged for HIT implementation, as well as the challenges with forming them. The results suggest that HHPs have the potential to address rural hospitals' slow rate of HIT adoption, but there are also challenges to creating these partnerships. These issues, as well as avenues for further research, are then discussed.
Si Hyung Lee
Full Text Available To investigate the association between heavy metal levels and open-angle glaucoma (OAG with low- and high-teen baseline intraocular pressure (IOP using a population-based study design.This cross-sectional study included 5,198 participants older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2008 to 2012 and had blood heavy metal levels available. The OAG with normal baseline IOP (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg subjects were stratified into low-teen OAG (baseline IOP ≤ 15 mmHg and high-teen OAG (15 mmHg < baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg, and the association between blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels and glaucoma prevalence was assessed for low- and high-teen OAG.The adjusted geometric mean of blood cadmium levels was significantly higher in subjects with low-teen OAG than that of the non-glaucomatous group (P = 0.028, whereas there were no significant differences in blood lead and mercury levels. After adjusting for potential confounders, the low-teen OAG was positively associated with log-transformed blood cadmium levels (OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.03-1.93; P = 0.026. For high-teen OAG, log-transformed blood levels of the three heavy metals were not associated with disease prevalence. The association between log-transformed blood cadmium levels and low-teen OAG was significant only in men (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10-2.48; P = 0.016, and not in women (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.66-1.85; P = 0.709.The results of this study suggest that cadmium toxicity could play a role in glaucoma pathogenesis, particularly in men and in OAG with low-teen baseline IOP.
... adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen. By ... teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising a ...
... Turner Syndrome Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search PCOS for Teens September 2013 Download PDFs English Espanol ... PCOS Challenge womenshealth.gov Teens Health What is PCOS? PCOS, which stands for polycystic ovary syndrome, is ...
... control after they have given birth. Although teen birth rates have been falling for the last two decades, ... effective forms of birth control. SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, teens, ages 15–19, 2010 Larger image ...
Kleon, Scott; Rinehart, Susan
Teen participants in the Ohio 4-H Teen Community Leadership College (n=64) perceived their leadership skills to be much higher after the program. They appeared to need improvement in initiative, assertiveness, and objectivity. (SK)
... QUESTIONS FAQ042 ESPECIALLY FOR TEENS You and Your Sexuality (Especially for Teens) • What happens during puberty? • What ... feelings expressed? There are many ways to express sexuality. Sexual intercourse is one way. Others include masturbation , ...
This report summarizes what is known about the teen driver crash problem and reviews the research on the major contributing factors to the high teen crash rate. Dispositional factors, such as immaturity, inexperience, faulty judgment, and a higher pr...
... Text Size Email Print Share Health Concerns for Gay and Lesbian Teens Page Content Article Body Sexual activity Most teens, whether they are gay, lesbian, bisexual , or straight, are not sexually active. ...
... Topic En español Get Your Teen Screened for Depression Browse Sections The Basics Overview What Is Depression? ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: What Is Depression? What is depression? Teen depression can be a ...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.
... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...
O'Leary, James D; Crawford, Mark W
Educators in anesthesia have an obligation to ensure that fellowship programs are training anesthesiologists to meet the highest standards of performance in clinical and academic practice. The objective of this survey was to characterize the perspectives of graduates of Canadian core fellowship programs in pediatric anesthesia (during a ten-year period starting in 2003) on the adequacies and inadequacies of fellowship training. We conducted an electronic survey of graduates from eight departments of pediatric anesthesia in Canada who completed one-year core fellowship training in pediatric anesthesia from 2003 to 2013. A novel survey design was implemented, and the content and structure of the design were tested before distribution. Data were collected on respondents' demographics, details of training and practice settings, perceived self-efficacy in subspecialty practices, research experience, and perspectives on one-year core fellowship training in pediatric anesthesia. Descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals were determined. The survey was sent to 132 anesthesiologists who completed core fellowship training in pediatric anesthesia in Canada. Sixty-five (49%) completed and eligible surveys were received. Most of the anesthesiologists surveyed perceived that 12 months of core fellowship training are sufficient to acquire the knowledge and critical skills needed to practice pediatric anesthesia. Subspecialty areas most frequently perceived to require improved training included pediatric cardiac anesthesia, chronic pain medicine, and regional anesthesia. This survey reports perceived deficiencies in domains of pediatric anesthesia fellowship training. These findings should help guide the future development of core and advanced fellowship training programs in pediatric anesthesia.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, more than 305,000 teens ages 15 to 19 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy. Created: 4/8/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/8/2014.
Ramirez, Marizen; Roth, Lisa; Young, Tracy; Peek-Asa, Corinne
To compare perceptions about rural road and general driving behaviors between teens who live in- and out-of-town from rural communities in Iowa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 160 teens anticipating their Intermediate License within 3 months upon enrollment into this study. Self-administered surveys were used to collect demographics and driving exposures (eg, frequency of driving, age when first drove unsupervised). Two Likert scales were included to measure agreement with safe driving behaviors on rural roads and general safe driving behaviors (eg, speeding, seat belt use). T-tests were calculated comparing mean composite scores between in- and out-of-town teens, and between mean rural road and general driving safety attitude scores. A linear regression multivariable model was constructed to identify predictors of the rural road score. While the majority of teens endorsed rural road and general safe driving behaviors, up to 40% did not. Thirty-two percent did not believe the dangers of animals on rural roads, and 40% disagreed that exceeding the speed limit is dangerous. In-town teens were less safety conscious about rural road hazards with a significantly lower mean composite score (4.4) than out-of-town teens (4.6); mean scores for general driving behaviors were similar. Living out-of-town and owning one's own car were significant predictors of increased rural road safety scores. Rural, in-town teens have poorer safety attitudes about rural roadway hazards compared with out-of-town teens. Interventions that involve education, parental supervision, and practice on rural roads are critical for preventing teen crashes on rural roads. No claim to original US government works.
Machira, Kennedy; Palamuleni, Martin E
The study seeks to examine factors associated with teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives after giving birth. The 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey data was used to test the study objective. A sample of 12, 911 teen mothers aged between 10 and 18 years were extracted from 23, 020 women and were asked of contraceptive usage after first birth experiences, in which, a logistic regression model was employed to estimate correlates of contraceptive usage. The study found that 54.8% of the teen mothers are still at a risk of having a repeat teenage pregnancy due to their non-use of contraceptives. This implies that less than 50% of teen mothers use contraceptives after experiencing teen birth. It is noted that health care factors such as use of antenatal care, awareness of pregnancy complications, attainment of primary education and exposure to media predict teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives. Despite endeavours made by government to improve access to family planning, health care challenges still exist affecting women's use of contraceptives in Malawi. Ameliorating these health encounters call for wide-range approaches aimed at addressing teen birth comprehensively in order to prevent early motherhood and subsequently high fertility. None declared.
Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne
Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228
Stewart, Alison; Kaye, Kelleen
When it comes to making decisions about sex, teens today are doing far better than they were 20 years ago. Fewer teens are having sex, and among those who are, more teens are using contraception. The happy result is that teen pregnancy and birth rates have declined dramatically. Despite this extraordinary progress, teen pregnancy and childbearing…
... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...
... Affecting the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...
... and calcium. Tofu, kidney and other beans, edamame (soy beans), quinoa, dark leafy greens, fortified soy milk and fortified orange juice are just a few of the many nutrient-rich plant-based options. Remind teens to replace animal-based ... 1 cup navy bean or lentil soup 1 ounce string cheese 1 ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis) KidsHealth / For Teens / Sickle Cell ... drepanocíticas (Crisis de dolor) What Is a Sickle Cell Crisis? Sickle cell disease changes the shape of ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth / For Teens / Smoking and Asthma Print en español Fumar y el asma Does Smoking Make Asthma Worse? Yes. If you have asthma, ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...
... TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your HealthMental Health: Keeping Your Emotional HealthPersistent ... Not caring about people and things. Lack of motivation. Fatigue, loss of energy, and lack of interest ...
Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm
Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B
The current study examined whether a match or mismatch between teen mothers' cultural orientation and the cultural context of the family (i.e., familial ethnic socialization) predicted mother-daughter everyday and coparenting conflict, and in turn, teen mothers' adjustment. Participants were 204 Mexican-origin teen mothers (M age = 16.81 years; SD = 1.00). Consistent with a person-environment fit perspective, findings indicated that a mismatch between teen mothers' cultural orientation (i.e., high mainstream cultural involvement) and the cultural context of the family (i.e., higher levels of familial ethnic socialization) predicted greater mother-daughter everyday conflict and coparenting conflict 1 year later. However, when there was a match (i.e., high levels of familial ethnic socialization for teen mothers with high Mexican orientation), familial ethnic socialization was not associated with mother-daughter conflict. In addition, mother-daughter conflict was positively associated with depressive symptoms and engagement in risky behaviors 1 year later among all teen mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
This study was undertaken to evaluate uncertainty from the Basic Specialist Trainee perspective. The survey of trainees explored 1) factors in decision making, 2) the personal impact of uncertainty, 3) the responses to both clinical errors and challenges to their decision making and 4) the potential strategies to address uncertainty. Forty-one (93%) of trainees surveyed responded. Important factors in decision making were clinical knowledge and senior colleague’s opinion. Sixty percent experienced significant anxiety post call as a consequence of their uncertainty. When errors are made by colleagues, the trainee’s response is acceptance (52.5%), and sympathy (32%).Trainees are strongly influenced by the opinions of senior colleagues often changing their opinions having made confident decisions. Solutions to address uncertainty include enhanced knowledge translation, and to a lesser extent, enhanced personal awareness and resilience awareness. To enhance the training experience for BST and lessen the uncertainty experienced these strategies need to be enacted within the training milieu.
Gill, Simerpal K; Shults, Ruth A; Cope, Jennifer Rittenhouse; Cunningham, Timothy J; Freelon, Brandi
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teens in the United States. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs allow new drivers to gain driving experience while protecting them from high-risk situations. North Dakota was one of the last states to implement GDL, and the current program does not meet all of the best practice recommendations. This study used qualitative techniques to explore parents' perceptions of the role teen driving plays in the daily lives of rural North Dakota families, their understanding of the risks faced by their novice teen drivers, and their support for GDL. A total of 28 interviews with parents of teens aged 13-16 years were conducted in four separate rural areas of the state. During the face-to-face interviews, parents described their teens' daily lives as busy, filled with school, sports, and other activities that often required traveling considerable distances. Participation in school-sponsored sports and other school-related activities was highly valued. There was nearly unanimous support for licensing teens at age 14½, as was permitted by law at the time of the interviews. Parents expressed that they were comfortable supervising their teen's practice driving, and few reported using resources to assist them in this role. Although few parents expressed concerns over nighttime driving, most parents supported a nighttime driving restriction with exemptions for school, work or sports-related activities. Despite many parents expressing concern over distracted driving, there was less consistent support among parents for passenger restrictions, especially if there would be no exemptions for family members or school activities. These findings can assist in planning policies and programs to reduce crashes among novice, teen drivers, while taking into account the unique perspectives and lifestyles of families living in rural North Dakota. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Romero, Lisa; Spitz, Alison; Gavin, Lorrie; Barfield, Wanda
Background Teens who give birth at age 15–17 years are at increased risk for adverse medical and social outcomes of teen pregnancy. Methods To examine trends in the rate and proportion of births to teens aged 15–19 years that were to teens aged 15–17 years, CDC analyzed 1991–2012 National Vital Statistics System data. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2006–2010 were used to examine sexual experience, contraceptive use, and receipt of prevention opportunities among female teens aged 15–17 years. Results During 1991–2012, the rate of births per 1,000 teens declined from 17.9 to 5.4 for teens aged 15 years, 36.9 to 12.9 for those aged 16 years, and 60.6 to 23.7 for those aged 17 years. In 2012, the birth rate per 1,000 teens aged 15–17 years was higher for Hispanics (25.5), non-Hispanic blacks (21.9), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17.0) compared with non-Hispanic whites (8.4) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (4.1). The rate also varied by state, ranging from 6.2 per 1,000 teens aged 15–17 years in New Hampshire to 29.0 in the District of Columbia. In 2012, there were 86,423 births to teens aged 15–17 years, accounting for 28% of all births to teens aged 15–19 years. This percentage declined from 36% in 1991 to 28% in 2012 (pteens aged 15–17 years received formal sex education on birth control or how to say no to sex, 24% had not spoken with parents about either topic; among sexually experienced female teens, 83% reported no formal sex education before first sex. Among currently sexually active female teens (those who had sex within 3 months of the survey) aged 15–17 years, 58% used clinical birth control services in the past 12 months, and 92% used contraception at last sex; however, only 1% used the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. Conclusions Births to teens aged 15–17 years have declined but still account for approximately one quarter of births to teens aged 15–19 years. Implications for public health
Garwick, Ann W; Rhodes, Kristine L; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Hellerstedt, Wendy L
American Indian adolescent pregnancy rates are high, yet little is known about how Native youth view primary pregnancy prevention. The aim was to identify pregnancy prevention strategies from the perspectives of both male and female urban Native youth to inform program development. Native Teen Voices (NTV) was a community-based participatory action research study in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Twenty focus groups were held with 148 Native youth who had never been involved in a pregnancy. Groups were stratified by age (13-15 and 16-18 years) and sex. Participants were asked what they would do to prevent adolescent pregnancy if they were in charge of programs for Native youth. Content analyses were used to identify and categorize the range and types of participants' recommendations within and across the age and sex cohorts. Participants in all cohorts emphasized the following themes: show the consequences of adolescent pregnancy; enhance and develop more pregnancy prevention programs for Native youth in schools and community-based organizations; improve access to contraceptives; discuss teen pregnancy with Native youth; and use key messages and media to reach Native youth. Native youth perceived limited access to comprehensive pregnancy prevention education, community-based programs and contraceptives. They suggested a variety of venues and mechanisms to address gaps in sexual health services and emphasized enhancing school-based resources and involving knowledgeable Native peers and elders in school and community-based adolescent pregnancy prevention initiatives. A few recommendations varied by age and sex, consistent with differences in cognitive and emotional development.
Full Text Available With rapid advancement of Cloud computing and networking technologies, a wide spectrum of Cloud services have been developed by various providers and utilized by numerous organizations as indispensable ingredients of their information systems. Cloud service performance has a significant impact on performance of the future information infrastructure. Thorough evaluation on Cloud service performance is crucial and beneficial to both service providers and consumers; thus forming an active research area. Some key technologies for Cloud computing, such as virtualization and the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA, bring in special challenges to service performance evaluation. A tremendous amount of effort has been put by the research community to address these challenges and exciting progress has been made. Among the work on Cloud performance analysis, evaluation approaches developed with a system modeling perspective play an important role. However, related works have been reported in different sections of the literature; thus lacking a big picture that shows the latest status of this area. The objectives of this article is to present a survey that reflects the state of the art of Cloud service performance evaluation from the system modeling perspective. This articles also examines open issues and challenges to the surveyed evaluation approaches and identifies possible opportunities for future research in this important field.
Lombardi, Donald; Squires, Liza; Sjostedt, Philip; Eichler, Irmgard; Turner, Mark A; Thompson, Charles
Obtaining assent from children participating in clinical trials acknowledges autonomy and developmental ability to contribute to the consent process. This critical step in pediatric drug development remains poorly understood, with significant room for improving the clarity, efficiency, and implementation of the assent process. Beyond ethical necessity of informing children about their treatment, the assent process provides the advantages of including children in discussions about their diagnosis and treatment-allowing greater understanding of interventions included in the study. A formalized assent process acknowledges the child as a volunteer and provides a forum for questions and feedback. Legal, cultural, and social differences have historically prevented the development of clear, concise, and accessible materials to ensure children understand the clinical trial design. Published guidelines on obtaining pediatric assent are vague, with many decisions left to local institutional review boards and ethics committees, underscoring the need for collaboratively designed standards. To address this need, 2 surveys were conducted to quantify perspectives on assent in pediatric clinical trials. Two digital surveys were circulated in the United States and internationally (October 2014 to January 2015). The first survey targeted children, parents, and/or caregivers. The second polled clinical trial professionals on their organizations' experience and policies regarding pediatric assent. Forty-five respondents completed the child and parent/caregiver survey; 57 respondents completed the industry survey. Respondents from both surveys detailed experiences with clinical trials and the impediments to securing assent, offering potential solutions to attaining assent in pediatric patients. An important opportunity exists for standardized practices and tools to ensure pediatric patients make well-informed decisions regarding their participation in clinical trials, using materials
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, factors associated with incongruence between parents' and adolescents' reports of teens' sexual experience were investigated, and the consequences of inaccurate parental knowledge for adolescents' subsequent sexual behaviors were explored. Most parents of virgins accurately reported teens' lack of experience, but most parents of teens who had had sex provided inaccurate reports. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that many adolescent-, parent-, and family-level factors predicted the accuracy of parents' reports. Parents' accurate knowledge of their teens' sexual experience was not found to be consistently beneficial for teens' subsequent sexual outcomes. Rather, parents' expectations about teens' sexual experience created a self-fulfilling prophecy, with teens' subsequent sexual outcomes conforming to parents' expectations. These findings suggest that research on parent-teen communication about sex needs to consider the expectations being expressed, as well as the information being exchanged.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español How Much Sleep Do I Need? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Much ... enough sleep. Why Don't Teens Get Enough Sleep? Until recently, teens often got a bad rap ...
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Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda
Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in
Bergman, David A.; Brown, Nancy L.; Wilson, Sandra
We conducted a qualitative study of the attitudes of teens and parents toward the use of a patient portal. We conducted two teen and two parent focus groups, one teen electronic bulletin board, and one parent electronic bulletin board. Videotapes and transcripts from the groups were independently analyzed by two reviewers for significant themes, which were then validated by two other members ...
Subuhi Asheer; Ellen Kisker
This report discusses findings from the first 18 months of a program implementation evaluation of AIM 4 Teen Moms, a teen pregnancy intervention designed to delay rapid repeat pregnancies among parenting teen mothers in Los Angeles.
Mbakaya, C F; Onyoyo, H A; Lwaki, S A; Omondi, O J
A baseline survey was conducted in 1995 on management perspectives of occupational health and safety (OHS) structures and practices in Kenya. This was achieved by interviewing management and supervisory staff attending 1 week multi-disciplinary courses that were organized by the Federation of Kenya Employers (FKE) and the International Labour Office (ILO) at hotel venues in Kenya. The purpose of the survey was to gain some insight into work safety conditions in Kenya and to assess the potential for a new OHS manual to meet existing knowledge gaps. The manual was locally developed in 1993/4 by Kenyan OHS experts in collaboration with colleagues from the Swedish National Institute for Working Life. Results of the survey from 65 participants indicated that most workplace managers were not familiar with the Kenyan work safety legislation. Work injuries were largely attributable to working with dangerous machinery. Occupational diseases and HIV/AIDS were cited as other causes of workplace morbidity and mortality. Although most respondents (70%) were satisfied with their work safety conditions, only 37% said their workplaces were annually audited by labour inspectors while 45% said injured workers were not treated well by management. Many workplaces (65%) violated the mandatory legal requirement on the establishment of health and safety committees. The OHS resource person and course content were rated highly by most respondents (96%). The foregoing results provided the basis of a needs analysis for future OHS programs in Kenya.
Jordan, T R; Price, J H; Fitzgerald, S
This survey assessed rural parents' (n = 374) perceptions of the characteristics, content, and comfort level of discussions about sexual issues with their teens. Almost all parents (94%) reported they had talked with their teens about sex. Two-thirds (65%) reported being comfortable talking with their teens about sexual issues. From a list of 17 potential topical areas in sexual communication, parents were most likely to discuss with their teens the responsibilities of being a parent (46%), sexually transmitted diseases (40%), dating behavior (37%), and not having sex until marriage (36%). Most parents (80%) believed that the majority of sexuality education should be provided by the family and supplemented by outside organizations, preferably schools. Almost all parents (92%) believed sexuality education should include information on birth control methods including condoms. Almost two of three parents (64%) believed schools should begin teaching sexuality education before students reach seventh grade. Parents (52%) claimed they could best be helped in communicating with their teens by receiving a regular newsletter regarding teen sexual issues.
Zierold, Kristina M
Safety training is strongly endorsed as one way to prevent teens from performing dangerous tasks at work. The objective of this mixed methods study was to characterize the safety training that teenagers receive on the job. From 2010 through 2012, focus groups and a cross-sectional survey were conducted with working teens. The top methods of safety training reported were safety videos (42 percent) and safety lectures (25 percent). The top lessons reported by teens were "how to do my job" and "ways to spot hazards." Males, who were more likely to do dangerous tasks, received less safety training than females. Although most teens are getting safety training, it is inadequate. Lessons addressing safety behaviors are missing, training methods used are minimal, and the time spent is insignificant. More research is needed to understand what training methods and lessons should be used, and the appropriate safety training length for effectively preventing injury in working teens. In addition, more research evaluating the impact of high-quality safety training compared to poor safety training is needed to determine the best training programs for teens. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Full Text Available In 2009, just 27% of American teens with mobile phones reported using their devices to access the internet. However, teens from lower income families and minority teens were significantly more likely to use their phones to go online. Together, these surprising trends suggest a potential narrowing of the digital divide, offering internet access to those without other means of going online. This is an important move, as, in today’s society, internet access is central to active citizenship in general and teen citizenship in particular. Yet the cost of this move toward equal access is absorbed by those who can least afford it: Teenagers from low income households. Using survey and focus group data from a national study of “Teens and Mobile Phone Use” (released by Pew and the University of Michigan in 2010, this article helps identify and explain this and other emergent trends for teen use (as well as non-use of the internet through mobile phones.
Baltes, Jacky; Byagowi, Ahmad; Anderson, John; Kopacek, Peter
This paper describes our first teen sized humanoid robot Archie. This robot has been developed in conjunction with Prof. Kopacek’s lab from the Technical University of Vienna. Archie uses brushless motors and harmonic gears with a novel approach to position encoding. Based on our previous experience with small humanoid robots, we developed software to create, store, and play back motions as well as control methods which automatically balance the robot using feedback from an internal measurement unit (IMU).
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the perspectives of development of organic food supply in Poland. The work contains the results of the nationwide survey which was carried out among conventional farms’ owners. It was evaluated that – according to farmers’ declaration – organic farms number can be equal to 6.8-24.2% of all Polish farms. The main incentives influencing conversion into organic farming methods are health and environment care, satisfaction from work and agri-environmental subsidies. The main identified barriers are limited sales possibilities, low profitability of production, high labour intensity, high production cost, and low yield. In a long run the development of organic market could be stimulated by the increase of demand. In the middle time period, there is a need for the increase of subsidies rates which should be combined with the improvement of certification and control system.
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are gradually adopted in the industrial world due to their advantages over wired networks. In addition to saving cabling costs, WSNs widen the realm of environments feasible for monitoring. They thus add sensing and acting capabilities to objects in the physical world and allow for communication among these objects or with services in the future Internet. However, the acceptance of WSNs by the industrial automation community is impeded by open issues, such as security guarantees and provision of Quality of Service (QoS. To examine both of these perspectives, we select and survey relevant WSN technologies dedicated to industrial automation. We determine QoS requirements and carry out a threat analysis, which act as basis of our evaluation of the current state-of-the-art. According to the results of this evaluation, we identify and discuss open research issues.
Chavez, Laura J; Grannis, Connor; Dolce, Millie; Chisolm, Deena J
Caring for teens with special health care needs places physical and mental health burdens on parents, which can be exacerbated by the stresses of transitions to independence. Medical homes can improve teen transitions to greater self-management and reduce health care-related time and financial burdens for families. We examined the association between parent-reported teen medical home status and caregiver health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The study sample included parents or caregivers of teens with special health care needs aged 15 to 18 recruited from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization who participated in a survey (response rate, 40.5%). The primary outcome was parent HRQOL scores (0-100 points) measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Family Impact Module. Medical home status was based on parent report of teen's health care meeting medical home criteria. Linear regression models were used to estimate HRQOL scores, adjusted for demographic characteristics, health literacy, and teen functional limitation. Among 488 parents, 27% reported their teen received care consistent with a medical home. Adjusted parent HRQOL scores were significantly higher among those whose teens had a medical home (74.40; 95% confidence interval, 71.31-77.48), relative to those whose teens did not (65.78; 95% confidence interval, 63.92-67.65). Medical home subscale analyses showed HRQOL scores had significant positive associations with family-centered care and coordinated care, but not other subscales. Teen medical home status was positively associated with caregiver HRQOL, suggesting that the medical home may benefit overall caregiver well-being. In particular, receiving care that was family centered and coordinated appeared to be the most beneficial. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min
The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, "advertisement/public relations" was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, "low manpower/seeking business partners" were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers.
Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min
The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, “advertisement/public relations” was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, “low manpower/seeking business partners” were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers. PMID:26199635
Full Text Available Abstract Background The feasibility of randomized trials often depends on successful patient recruitment. Although numerous recruitment barriers have been identified it is unclear which of them complicate recruitment most. Also, most surveys have focused on the patients' perspective of recruitment barriers whereas the perspective of recruiting physicians has received less attention. Therefore, our aim was to conduct a postal survey among recruiting physicians of a multi-center trial to weigh barriers according to their impact on recruitment. Methods We identified any potential recruitment barriers from the literature and from our own experience with a multi-center trial of respiratory rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We developed and pilot-tested a self-administered questionnaire where recruiting physicians were asked to express their agreement with statements about recruitment barriers on a Likert-type scale from 1 (full agreement with statement = very substantial recruitment barrier to 7 (no agreement with statement = no recruitment barrier. Results 38 of 55 recruiting physicians returned questionnaires (69% response rate, of which 35 could be analyzed (64% useable response rate. Recruiting physicians reported that "time constraints" (median agreement of 3, interquartile range 2–5 had the most negative impact on recruitment followed by "difficulties including identified eligible patients" (median agreement of 5, IQR 3–6. Other barriers such as "trial design barriers", "lack of access to treatment", "individual barriers of recruiting physicians" or "insufficient training of recruiting physicians" were perceived to have little or no impact on patient recruitment. Conclusion Physicians perceived time constraints as the most relevant recruitment barrier in a randomized trial. To overcome recruitment barriers interventions, that are affordable for both industry- and investigator-driven trials, need to be
Full Text Available Authors are at the heart of academic publishing, but their voices are underrepresented in discussions about improving the academic publishing system. To understand the viewpoints of authors on various aspects of academic publishing and the challenges they face, we developed a large-scale survey entitled “Author perspectives on the academic publishing process” and made it available in December 2016. The survey has received 8,795 responses; this paper is based on the interim results drawn from 5,293 survey responses, and presents some interesting and thought-provoking trends that were observed in the authors’ responses, such as their interpretation of plagiarism and decisive factors in journal selection, as well as their thoughts on what needs to change in the publishing system for it to be more author-friendly. Some of the most important findings of the survey were: (1 the majority of the authors found manuscript preparation to be the most challenging task in the publication process, (2 the impact factor of a journal was reported to be the most important consideration for journal selection, (3 most authors found journal guidelines to be incomplete, (4 major gaps existed in author-journal communication, and (5 although awareness of ethics was high, awareness of good publication practice standards was low. Moreover, more than half of the participants indicated that among areas for improvement in the publishing system, they would like to see changes in the time it takes to publish a paper, the peer review process, and the fairness and objectivity of the publication process. These findings indicate the necessity of making the journal publication process more author-centered and smoothing the way for authors to get published.
Bergman, David A; Brown, Nancy L; Wilson, Sandra
We conducted a qualitative study of the attitudes of teens and parents toward the use of a patient portal. We conducted two teen and two parent focus groups, one teen electronic bulletin board, and one parent electronic bulletin board. Videotapes and transcripts from the groups were independently analyzed by two reviewers for significant themes, which were then validated by two other members of the research team. Twenty-eight teens and 23 parents participated in the groups. Significant themes included issues about teens' control of their own healthcare; enthusiasm about the use of a patient portal to access their providers, seek health information, and make appointments; and concerns about confidentiality. In summary, there was considerable support among teens and parents for a patient portal as well as concerns about confidentiality. The teen portal affords an opportunity to negotiate issues of confidentiality.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent mothers in the U.S. are much less likely to initiate breastfeeding than older mothers, and teens who do initiate breastfeeding tend to breastfeed for shorter durations. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate breastfeeding practices, barriers and facilitators among adolescent mothers ages 17 and younger. Methods Quantitative descriptive analyses are conducted using data from the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS. The population-based sample comprises 389 teens ages 13-17 giving birth to a live born infant in North Carolina in 2000 - 2005 and in 2007. Qualitative analyses are based on in-depth interviews with 22 Black, White and Hispanic teen mothers residing in rural and urban areas of North Carolina conducted between November 2007 and February 2009. Results In quantitative analyses, 52% (196 of 389 of North Carolina teen mothers initiated breastfeeding, but half of those who initiated breastfeeding (92/196 stopped within the first month postpartum. Hispanic teens (44/52 or 89% were much more likely than Black (61/159 or 41% or White teens (87/164 or 52% to initiate breastfeeding and to continue for a longer duration. Nearly sixty two percent (29/52 of Hispanic respondents breastfed for greater than four weeks as compared to 16% (29/159 of Black respondents and 26% (39/164 of White respondents. Common barriers to breastfeeding initiation and continuation included not liking breastfeeding, returning to school, nipple pain, and insufficient milk. Qualitative data provided context for the quantitative findings, elucidating the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding from the teens' perspective and insight into the ways in which breastfeeding support to teens could be enhanced. Conclusions The large number of adolescents ceasing breastfeeding within the first month points to the need for more individualized follow-up after hospital discharge in the first few days
Kearney, Melissa S; Levine, Phillip B
Teens in the United States are far more likely to give birth than in any other industrialized country in the world. U.S. teens are two and a half times as likely to give birth as compared to teens in Canada, around four times as likely as teens in Germany or Norway, and almost 10 times as likely as teens in Switzerland. Among more developed countries, Russia has the next highest teen birth rate after the United States, but an American teenage girl is still around 25 percent more likely to give birth than her counterpart in Russia. Moreover, these statistics incorporate the almost 40 percent fall in the teen birth rate that the United States has experienced over the past two decades. Differences across U.S. states are quite dramatic as well. A teenage girl in Mississippi is four times more likely to give birth than a teenage girl in New Hampshire--and 15 times more likely to give birth as a teen compared to a teenage girl in Switzerland. This paper has two overarching goals: understanding why the teen birth rate is so high in the United States and understanding why it matters. Thus, we begin by examining multiple sources of data to put current rates of teen childbearing into the perspective of cross-country comparisons and recent historical context. We examine teen birth rates alongside pregnancy, abortion, and "shotgun" marriage rates as well as the antecedent behaviors of sexual activity and contraceptive use. We seek insights as to why the rate of teen childbearing is so unusually high in the United States as a whole, and in some U.S. states in particular. We argue that explanations that economists have tended to study are unable to account for any sizable share of the variation in teen childbearing rates across place. We describe some recent empirical work demonstrating that variation in income inequality across U.S. states and developed countries can explain a sizable share of the geographic variation in teen childbearing. To the extent that income inequality
Lee, Si Hyung; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Wonseok; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun
To assess the associations between vascular and metabolic comorbidities and the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) in Korea. Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012 were analysed. Participants diagnosed with OAG with normal IOP were further classified into low-teen IOP (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen IOP (15 mmHg teen IOP groups. The prevalences of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher among subjects with low-teen OAG compared with normal subjects, while only the prevalences of hypertension and stroke were higher among subjects with high-teen OAG compared with normal subjects. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for confounding factors, low-teen OAG was significantly associated with hypertension (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.30-2.18), hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.07-2.08), ischaemic heart disease (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.07-3.11), stroke (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.12-3.25) and metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.12-1.90). High-teen OAG was only associated with stroke (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.20-5.53). Various vascular and metabolic comorbidities were significantly associated with low-teen OAG, but not with high-teen OAG. These data support the hypothesis that vascular factors play a more significant role in the pathogenesis of OAG with low-teen baseline IOP. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Davari, Parastoo; Millsop, Jillian W; Johnson, Mary Ann N; Takahashi, Stefani R; Peng, David H; Badger, Joanna; Bahr, Brooks A; Shinkai, Kanade; Li, Chin-Shang; Fazel, Nasim
Limited data are available regarding the undergraduate dermatology clinical clerkship curriculum in the United States. Our primaryaim is to assess medical students' perspectives of the dermatology clinical clerkship. A multicenter survey study was conducted, which included four California dermatology academic programs. A 17-item questionnaire was designed to investigate medical student perception with regard tothe overall educational value of the various teaching aspects of the dermatology clinical clerkship. A total of 152 medical student surveys were completed. Over half of the medical students felt proficient in diagnosing the most commondermatologic conditions. Eighty-seven percent of medical students were very satisfied with the dermatology clerkship. Ninety-one percent of students felt the length of the clerkship was appropriate. The vast majority of medical students reported a high level of proficiency in the treatment and diagnosis of common skin disorders. In contrast, our findings suggest that medical students may not begaining sufficient hands-on experience in conducting certain dermatologic procedures following the dermatology clerkship. Overall, medical studentperception of the dermatology clinical clerkship was mostly positive.
Full Text Available In the new era of connectivity, marked by the explosive number of wireless electronic devices and the need for smart and pervasive applications, Machine-to-Machine (M2M communications are an emerging technology that enables the seamless device interconnection without the need of human interaction. The use of M2M technology can bring to life a wide range of mHealth applications, with considerable benefits for both patients and healthcare providers. Many technological challenges have to be met, however, to ensure the widespread adoption of mHealth solutions in the future. In this context, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey on M2M systems for mHealth applications from a wireless communication perspective. An end-to-end holistic approach is adopted, focusing on different communication aspects of the M2M architecture. Hence, we first provide a systematic review ofWireless Body Area Networks (WBANs, which constitute the enabling technology at the patient’s side, and then discuss end-to-end solutions that involve the design and implementation of practical mHealth applications. We close the survey by identifying challenges and open research issues, thus paving the way for future research opportunities.
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Tracy, Allison J.; Richer, Amanda M.; Erkut, Sumru
This brief report examined teenagers’ sexuality communication with their parents and extended families. It compared who teens of early parents (those who had children when they were adolescents) and teens of later parents (those who were adults when they had children) talk to about sex. Eighth grade students (N=1281) in 24 schools completed survey items about their communication about sex. Structural equation modeling was used to predict communication profiles, while adjusting for the nesting...
... short. Obey speed limits. Never use a cell phone or text while driving. Parents can Understand that most teens who drink ... number of teen passengers Never use a cell phone or text while driving Obey speed limits Get your copy of CDC's ...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them. Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/2/2013.
... dairy products. The body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if your child or teen has high cholesterol (too much cholesterol in the blood), he or she has a higher risk of coronary artery disease and other heart diseases. What causes high cholesterol in children and teens? Three main ...
This podcast is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.
... have about bodies, such as the differences between boys and girls and where babies come from. But don't ... together, and we'll come out of it — together! Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: January ... Problems in Teens Helping Teens Learn to Drive Talking to Your Child About Puberty ...
Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.
This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in…
Fuller, Taleria R; White, Carla P; Chu, Jocelyn; Dean, Deborah; Clemmons, Naomi; Chaparro, Carmen; Thames, Jessica L; Henderson, Anitra Belle; King, Pebbles
Addressing the social determinants of health (SDOH) that influence teen pregnancy is paramount to eliminating disparities and achieving health equity. Expanding prevention efforts from purely individual behavior change to improving the social, political, economic, and built environments in which people live, learn, work, and play may better equip vulnerable youth to adopt and sustain healthy decisions. In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with the Office of Adolescent Health funded state- and community-based organizations to develop and implement the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. This effort approached teen pregnancy from an SDOH perspective, by identifying contextual factors that influence teen pregnancy and other adverse sexual health outcomes among vulnerable youth. Strategies included, but were not limited to, conducting a root cause analysis and establishing nontraditional partnerships to address determinants identified by community members. This article describes the value of an SDOH approach for achieving health equity, explains the integration of such an approach into community-level teen pregnancy prevention activities, and highlights two project partners' efforts to establish and nurture nontraditional partnerships to address specific SDOH.
Pereira, Stacey; Robinson, Jill Oliver; Peoples, Hayley A; Gutierrez, Amanda M; Majumder, Mary A; McGuire, Amy L; Rothstein, Mark A
The importance of health privacy protections in the era of the "Facebook Generation" has been called into question. The ease with which younger people share personal information about themselves has led to the assumption that they are less concerned than older generations about the privacy of their information, including health information. We explored whether survey respondents' views toward health privacy suggest that efforts to strengthen privacy protections as health information is moved online are unnecessary. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), which is well-known for recruitment for survey research, we distributed a 45-item survey to individuals in the U.S. to assess their perspectives toward privacy and security of online and health information, social media behaviors, use of health and fitness devices, and demographic information. 1310 participants (mean age: 36 years, 50% female, 78% non-Hispanic white, 54% college graduates or higher) were categorized by generations: Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. In multivariate regression models, we found that generational cohort was an independent predictor of level of concern about privacy and security of both online and health information. Younger generations were significantly less likely to be concerned than older generations (all P privacy or security of online or health information (all P > 0.05). This study is limited by the non-representativeness of our sample. Though Millennials reported lower levels of concern about privacy and security, this was not related to internet or social media behaviors, and majorities within all generations reported concern about both the privacy and security of their health information. Thus, there is no intergenerational imperative to relax privacy and security standards, and it would be advisable to take privacy and security of health information more seriously.
Full Text Available The importance of health privacy protections in the era of the "Facebook Generation" has been called into question. The ease with which younger people share personal information about themselves has led to the assumption that they are less concerned than older generations about the privacy of their information, including health information. We explored whether survey respondents' views toward health privacy suggest that efforts to strengthen privacy protections as health information is moved online are unnecessary.Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk, which is well-known for recruitment for survey research, we distributed a 45-item survey to individuals in the U.S. to assess their perspectives toward privacy and security of online and health information, social media behaviors, use of health and fitness devices, and demographic information.1310 participants (mean age: 36 years, 50% female, 78% non-Hispanic white, 54% college graduates or higher were categorized by generations: Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. In multivariate regression models, we found that generational cohort was an independent predictor of level of concern about privacy and security of both online and health information. Younger generations were significantly less likely to be concerned than older generations (all P 0.05.This study is limited by the non-representativeness of our sample.Though Millennials reported lower levels of concern about privacy and security, this was not related to internet or social media behaviors, and majorities within all generations reported concern about both the privacy and security of their health information. Thus, there is no intergenerational imperative to relax privacy and security standards, and it would be advisable to take privacy and security of health information more seriously.
Pereira, Stacey; Robinson, Jill Oliver; Gutierrez, Amanda M.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.; Rothstein, Mark A.
Background The importance of health privacy protections in the era of the “Facebook Generation” has been called into question. The ease with which younger people share personal information about themselves has led to the assumption that they are less concerned than older generations about the privacy of their information, including health information. We explored whether survey respondents’ views toward health privacy suggest that efforts to strengthen privacy protections as health information is moved online are unnecessary. Methods Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk), which is well-known for recruitment for survey research, we distributed a 45-item survey to individuals in the U.S. to assess their perspectives toward privacy and security of online and health information, social media behaviors, use of health and fitness devices, and demographic information. Results 1310 participants (mean age: 36 years, 50% female, 78% non-Hispanic white, 54% college graduates or higher) were categorized by generations: Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. In multivariate regression models, we found that generational cohort was an independent predictor of level of concern about privacy and security of both online and health information. Younger generations were significantly less likely to be concerned than older generations (all P privacy or security of online or health information (all P > 0.05). Limitations This study is limited by the non-representativeness of our sample. Conclusions Though Millennials reported lower levels of concern about privacy and security, this was not related to internet or social media behaviors, and majorities within all generations reported concern about both the privacy and security of their health information. Thus, there is no intergenerational imperative to relax privacy and security standards, and it would be advisable to take privacy and security of health information more seriously. PMID:28926626
Dellinger, Ann M; West, Bethany A
Traffic crashes are the leading cause of death among teens. Health care providers have an opportunity to address what works to keep teens safe on the road during the patient visit. An online survey was conducted of 1088 health care providers who saw patients at or near driving age. The survey assessed which road safety topics were discussed and which types of educational products were used most often. Family and general practice physicians represented 44.3% of the sample, followed by pediatricians (22.5%), nurse practitioners (17.6%), and internists (15.5%). Nearly all respondents (92.9%) reported addressing one or more driving safety factors (seat belt use, nighttime driving, fatigue, teen passengers, alcohol/drug use, speeding/reckless driving, and cell phone use/texting) with adolescent patients and/or their parents. Seat belt use was reported more often (83.7%) than other topics. The use of parent-teen driving agreements, a known effective intervention, was reported by less than 10% of respondents. Since health care providers expressed interest in receiving written resource materials, distribution of parent-teen driving agreements to health care providers might encourage greater uptake and use of this effective intervention.
This podcast is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, in 2012, more than 86,000 teens ages 15 to 17 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy.
Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara
Life continues to hold considerable risk for adolescents in the United States. In 2006, the teen death rate stood at 64 deaths per 100,000 teens (13,739 teens) (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Although it has declined by 4 percent since 2000, the rate of teen death in this country remains substantially higher than in many peer nations, based…
Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie
Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bhatnagar, Tim; Ben Mortensen, W; Mattie, Johanne; Wolff, Jamie; Parker, Claire; Borisoff, Jaimie
Exoskeleton technology has potential benefits for wheelchair users' health and mobility. However, there are practical barriers to their everyday use as a mobility device. In particular, challenges related to travelling longer distances and transitioning between using a wheelchair and exoskeleton walking may present significant deterrents to regular exoskeleton use. In an effort to remove these barriers, a combined exoskeleton-wheelchair concept ('COMBO') has been proposed, which aims to achieve the benefits of both these mobility technologies. Given the inherent importance of including user-stakeholder opinions when designing an assistive technology solution, a study was undertaken to explore the perspectives of wheelchair users and healthcare professionals on the proposed conceptual design of the COMBO. An online survey with quantitative and qualitative components was conducted with wheelchair users and healthcare professionals working directly with individuals with mobility impairments. Respondents rated whether they would use or recommend a COMBO for four potential reasons. Nine design features were rated and compared in terms of their importance. Content analysis was used to analyze data from an open-ended question regarding additional perceptions about using or recommending a COMBO. A total of 481 survey responses were analyzed, 354 from wheelchair users and 127 from healthcare professionals. Potential health benefits was the most highly rated reason for potential use or recommendation of a COMBO. Of the 9 design features, 2 had a median rating of very important: inclusion of a fall-protection mechanism, and the ability for the operator to use their hands while standing. Qualitative findings indicated that health and physical benefits, use for daily life activities, and psychosocial benefits were important considerations in whether to use or recommend the COMBO. This study captures the opinions and perspectives of two stakeholder groups for an exoskeleton
Gok Metin, Zehra; Izgu, Nur; Karadas, Canan; Arikan Donmez, Ayse
In Turkey, between 22.1% and 84.1% of patients with cancer use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, few CAM-related studies have focused on the perspective of oncology nurses. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Turkish oncology nurses regarding CAM. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 127 participants was conducted in Ankara, Turkey. A semistructured questionnaire including characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of oncology nurses toward CAM was administered to participants. We found that more than half of nurses (54.0%) surveyed had no information on CAM modalities. Most oncology nurses (81.1%) used audiovisual media sources to obtain CAM information. Many nurses (81.3%) reported not using any CAM in cancer care, and only 26.8% recommended CAM to patients. Most nurses used CAM to accelerate wound healing (19.7%) and to manage symptoms, including constipation and diarrhea (8.8%) and anxiety (7.9%). Music (52.8%), massage (49.6%), and exercise (48.8%) were stated to be beneficial. Important barriers to use CAM for patients with cancer involved a lack of knowledge (60.6%); needing physician approval to apply any CAM methods to patients (52.1%); legal and institutional issues (47.2%); and limited educational, training, or certificate programs (44.1%). There is a need for increased knowledge about CAM by oncology nurses, considering their vital role in symptom management of patients with cancer. This can be achieved through solving legal and institutional problems, structured and comprehensive education/training programs, and the integration of CAM therapy into cancer care guidelines.
Lorang, Melissa; Callahan, Bryan; Cummins, Kevin M.; Achar, Suraj; Brown, Sandra A.
Multiple risks are associated with early use of anabolic androgenic steroids, yet public understanding is limited and teen use not uncommon. The present study surveyed 4,231 high school students to understand prevalence of use, association with athletics and other substance use and expectations of drug effects. While overall rates of steroid use…
Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Bacon, Sarah
Background: Teen dating violence (TDV) negatively impacts health, mental and physical well-being, and school performance. Methods: Data from a nationally representative sample of high school students participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) are used to demonstrate associations…
Lenhart, Amanda; Ling, Rich; Campbell, Scott; Purcell, Kristen
Daily text messaging among American teens has shot up in the past 18 months, from 38% of teens texting friends daily in February of 2008 to 54% of teens texting daily in September 2009. And it's not just frequency--teens are sending enormous quantities of text messages a day. Half of teens send 50 or more text messages a day, or 1,500 texts a…
Martín-Carrasco, Manuel; Arranz, Francisco Javier
Mental health services are not systematically involved in the care of dementias in Spain. Nevertheless, many patients with dementia attend these services. The perspective of psychiatrist as regards this situation has not been evaluated at the national level to date, and it may be of interest to determine their actual involvement and the strategies to foster it. A survey was conducted on 2,000 psychiatrists on a range of mental health care services. Respondents provided socio-demographic data and information about clinical aspects, together with their opinions regarding the management of dementia. Responses were described by their raw frequencies and measures of association for cross-tabulations resulting from selected pairs of questions. Inferences were made by calculating their 95% confidence intervals. Psychiatrist involvement in the management of dementias was limited, aside from those involved in psycho-geriatric units or nursing homes facilities. However, there were wide, regional differences. Nearly all respondents (81%) were ready to augment their knowledge and skills in the area of dementia. In particular, the insufficient medical education, together with other organizational factors, such as the difficulties in ordering diagnostic tests (i.e. neuroimaging), or prescribing anti-dementia drugs in some regions, were common barriers psychiatrists faced when approaching patients with dementia. Increasing psychiatrist involvement and boosting coordinated efforts with other specialists in a form of integrated care may advance the care of dementias in Spain to a more valuable level. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela
This study examined the overlap in teen dating violence and bullying perpetration and victimization, with regard to acts of physical violence, psychological abuse, and-for the first time ever-digitally perpetrated cyber abuse. A total of 5,647 youth (51% female, 74% White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey. Results indicated substantial co-occurrence of all types of teen dating violence and bullying. Youth who perpetrated and/or experienced physical, psychological, and cyber bullying were likely to have also perpetrated/experienced physical and sexual dating violence, and psychological and cyber dating abuse. © The Author(s) 2014.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.
Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920
Okumu, Moses; Mengo, Cecilia; Ombayo, Bernadette; Small, Eusebius
Teen dating violence (TDV), bullying, and HIV risk behaviors are public health concerns that impact adolescents in the United States. National estimates reveal high rates of these risk behaviors among high school students. Based on theoretical and empirical evidence, we hypothesized that experiencing teen dating violence (sexual and physical) would mediate the impact of bullying on HIV risk. Data were from the 2013 National Youth Behavior Risk Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) among students who answered questions on bullying, TDV, and HIV risk (N = 13,571). The YRBSS is conducted biennially among 9th- to 12th-grade students nationally. We used multiple regression analysis and Hayes' SPSS process macro to examine the 2 study hypotheses. Findings from bivariate analysis suggest an association between bullying and HIV risk. The study also found associations between physical, sexual teen dating violence and HIV risk. Results also indicate that both physical and sexual teen dating violence mediate the association between bullying and HIV risk. Our findings suggest that multidimensional interventions should be developed to reduce the rate of teen dating violence and combat bullying as a preventative method for HIV risk among high school students. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Willoughby, Jessica Fitts
Sexual health text message services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide adolescents with accurate sexual health information, but promotion of such services is often limited. This study uses three quantitative methods (service use data, a text message-based questionnaire, and an in-school online survey) to assess the effectiveness of an in-school social marketing campaign promoting a sexual health text message service that connects teens directly with a health educator. The 3-month campaign was associated with increased service use, but use was still relatively low. Follow-up qualitative work that included focus groups and interviews found a number of barriers to use. Teens indicated they did not have sexual health questions, did not think of the service, or were unsure how to use it. Teens also brought up additional barriers such as concern over parents seeing the messages. Implications for text message service providers and health educators are discussed.
Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis
To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P content-related effect of cigarette advertisements and underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.
Gill, Simerpal K.; Shults, Ruth A.; Cope, Jennifer Rittenhouse; Cunningham, Timothy J.; Freelon, Brandi
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teens in the United States. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs allow new drivers to gain driving experience while protecting them from high-risk situations. North Dakota was one of the last states to implement GDL, and the current program does not meet all of the best practice recommendations. This study used qualitative techniques to explore parents’ perceptions of the role teen driving plays in the daily lives of rural North Dakota families, their understanding of the risks faced by their novice teen drivers, and their support for GDL. A total of 28 interviews with parents of teens aged 13–16 years were conducted in four separate rural areas of the state. During the face-to-face interviews, parents described their teens’ daily lives as busy, filled with school, sports, and other activities that often required traveling considerable distances. Participation in school-sponsored sports and other school-related activities was highly valued. There was nearly unanimous support for licensing teens at age 14½, as was permitted by law at the time of the interviews. Parents expressed that they were comfortable supervising their teen’s practice driving, and few reported using resources to assist them in this role. Although few parents expressed concerns over nighttime driving, most parents supported a nighttime driving restriction with exemptions for school, work or sports-related activities. Despite many parents expressing concern over distracted driving, there was less consistent support among parents for passenger restrictions, especially if there would be no exemptions for family members or school activities. These findings can assist in planning policies and programs to reduce crashes among novice, teen drivers, while taking into account the unique perspectives and lifestyles of families living in rural North Dakota. PMID:23499983
Alsup, Janet, Ed.
Taking a critical, research-oriented perspective, this exploration of the theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical connections between the reading and teaching of young adult literature and adolescent identity development centers around three key questions: (1) Who are the teens reading young adult literature?; (2) Why should teachers teach young…
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Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Li, Ning; Chung, Paul J
Adolescence is a critical developmental period for self-concept (role identity). Cross-sectional studies link self-concept's behavioral conduct domain (whether teens perceive themselves as delinquent) with adolescent substance use. If self-concept actually drives substance use, then it may be an important target for intervention. In this study, we used longitudinal data from 1 school year to examine whether behavioral self-concept predicts teen drinking behaviors or vice versa. A total of 291 students from a large, predominantly Latino public high school completed a confidential computerized survey in the fall and spring of their 9th grade year. Survey measures included the frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking and at-school alcohol use in the previous 30 days; and the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents behavioral conduct subscale. Multiple regressions were performed to test whether fall self-concept predicted the frequency and type of spring drinking behavior, and whether the frequency and type of fall drinking predicted spring self-concept. Fall behavioral self-concept predicted both the frequency and type of spring drinking. Students with low versus high fall self-concept had a predicted probability of 31% versus 20% for any drinking, 20% versus 8% for binge drinking and 14% versus 4% for at-school drinking in the spring. However, neither the frequency nor the type of fall drinking significantly predicted spring self-concept. Low behavioral self-concept may precede or perhaps even drive adolescent drinking. If these results are confirmed, then prevention efforts might be enhanced by targeting high-risk teens for interventions that help develop a healthy behavioral self-concept. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kroning, Maureen; Kroning, Kayla
Adolescent depression is a serious problem affecting 10.7% of all teens and 29.9% of high school students; 17% of high school students have contemplated suicide. Yet, depression in teens is often unrecognized. This article relays the tragic death of a 17-year-old, along with symptoms of depression and suicide in adolescents; DSM-5 criteria for depression; treatments including protective factors, psychotherapy, and medications; and imparts interventions for addressing this huge but silent crisis.
This podcast is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control. Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/7/2015.
Driessnack, Martha; Williams, Janet K; Barnette, J Jackson; Sparbel, Kathleen J; Paulsen, Jane S
Adolescents, who have a parent with Huntington Disease (HD), not only are at genetic risk for HD but also are witness to its onset and devastating clinical progression as their parent declines. To date, no mechanism has been developed to direct health care providers to the atypical adolescent experiences of these teens. The purpose of this report is to describe the process of developing the HD-Teen Inventory clinical assessment tool. Forty-eight teens and young adults from 19 U.S. states participated in the evaluation of the HD-Teen Inventory tool. Following item analysis, the number of items was reduced and item frequency and reaction scales were combined, based on the strong correlation (r = .94). The resultant tool contains 15 inventory and 2 open-ended response items. The HD-Teen Inventory emerged as a more compact and efficient tool for identifying the most salient concerns of at-risk teens in HD families in research and/or clinical practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This project is part of the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC program of research, a multi-level and longitudinal research program being conducted in 36 nursing homes in three Canadian Prairie Provinces. The overall goal of TREC is to improve the quality of care for older persons living in nursing homes and the quality of work life for care providers. The purpose of this paper is to report on development and evaluation of facility annual reports (FARs from facility administrators’ perspectives on the usefulness, meaningfulness, and understandability of selected data from the TREC survey. Methods A cross sectional survey design was used in this study. The feedback reports were developed in collaboration with participating facility administrators. FARs presented results in four contextual areas: workplace culture, feedback processes, job satisfaction, and staff burnout. Six weeks after FARs were mailed to each administrator, we conducted structured telephone interviews with administrators to elicit their evaluation of the FARs. Administrators were also asked if they had taken any actions as a result of the FAR. Descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as content analysis for open-ended questions, were used to summarize findings. Results Thirty-one facility administrators (representing thirty-two facilities participated in the interviews. Six administrators had taken action and 18 were planning on taking action as a result of FARs. The majority found the four contextual areas addressed in FAR to be useful, meaningful, and understandable. They liked the comparisons made between data from years one and two and between their facility and other TREC study sites in their province. Twenty-two indicated that they would like to receive information on additional areas such as aggressive behaviours of residents and information sharing. Twenty-four administrators indicated that FARs contained enough information, while eight
Mammen, Jennifer; Rhee, Hyekyun; Norton, Sally A; Butz, Arlene M; Halterman, Jill S; Arcoleo, Kimberly
A previous definition of adolescent asthma self-management was derived from interviews with clinicians/researchers and published literature; however, it did not incorporate perspectives of teens or parents. Therefore, we conducted in-depth interviews with teens and parents and synthesized present findings with the prior analysis to develop a more encompassing definition and model. Focal concepts were qualitatively extracted from 14-day self-management voice-diaries (n = 14) and 1-hour interviews (n = 42) with teens and parents (28 individuals) along with concepts found in the previous clinical/research oriented analysis. Conceptual structure and relationships were identified and key findings synthesized to develop a revised definition and model of adolescent asthma self-management. There were two primary self-management constructs: processes of self-management and tasks of self-management. Self-management was defined as the iterative process of assessing, deciding, and responding to specific situations in order to achieve personally important outcomes. Clinically relevant asthma self-management tasks included monitoring asthma, managing active issues through pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic strategies, preventing future issues, and communicating with others as needed. Self-management processes were reciprocally influenced by intrapersonal factors (both cognitive and physical), interpersonal factors (family, social and physical environments), and personally relevant asthma and non-asthma outcomes. This is the first definition of asthma self-management incorporating teen, parent, clinician, and researcher perspectives, which suggests that self-management processes and behaviors are influenced by individually variable personal and interpersonal factors, and are driven by personally important outcomes. Clinicians and researchers should investigate teens' symptom perceptions, medication beliefs, current approaches to symptom management, relevant outcomes, and
Hall, M.; Mayhew, M. A.
The 'Teen Cafè' phenomenon grew out of an NSF-funded experiment to bring the Cafè Scientifique model for engagement of the public with science and scientists to high school teenagers. Cafè Scientifique New Mexico (cafènm.org), now in its seventh year, has proven highly popular with high school teens for much the same reason as for adult Cafè programs: the blend of socializing in an attractive venue and interaction with a scientist on an interesting science topic. Teen Cafés also include exploration of the topic with hands-on activities. The success of the model has led to the creation of the national Teen Science Cafè Network (teensciencecafe.org. This first year of the new program, four 'Founding Members' of the Network-- in Florida, Colorado, North Carolina, and the St. Louis, Missouri region--started up Teen Cafè programs. Each applied the model with a unique flair appropriate to local institutions and demographics. Each Member in the Network runs Cafès in multiple local venues. We are now gearing up for our second year, and the Network is growing. Our Teen Cafè topics have covered a very wide range, from belly-button biodiversity to cyber-security to patterns of mega-earthquakes to a day in the life of a teen dolphin to corals on acid to emergency room medicine to alternative fuel cars. Presenters have come from a great variety of local institutions. Though they are popular with teens because they are fun and interesting, our evaluations have demonstrated that the programs are having a significant impact on participating teens' understanding of the nature of science, the work that scientists do, and the importance of science to their daily lives. We are also having success in training scientists to communicate effectively with this public audience. Presenters report strong satisfaction with their resulting quality of science communication. A surprising number have reported that their experience with the program has led them to think in a new way about
Most adults are challenged when it comes to understanding teens' motives. "What were they thinking of?" is an all-too-common response. Without a doubt, no developmental period in life is more confounding and baffling than adolescence. Until recently, erratic teen behavior was blamed on raging hormones, but scientific research in the last decade…
Adamson, David M.
Depression's effects on adolescent functioning and family burden are not well understood; there is also limited understanding of teens' and parents' attitudes and knowledge about depression, how these and other factors influence readiness for treatment, and the barriers to care that teens and their parents encounter. To address these knowledge…
Kusuma, Krista Dahl; Wyrick, Gabrielle
The teen behavior typically exhibited in school visit groups is often read by museum teachers as resistance or disengagement, when the opposite is more likely the case. This paper attempts to dispel some of the myths around teen behavior and serve as a practical guide to museum educators who desire a deeper, more successful engagement with teen…
Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon
To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loke, Alice Yuen; Lam, Pui-Ling
Teenagers are unprepared to face or to deal with an unexpected pregnancy. Adolescents do not necessarily possess the cognitive ability needed to clearly evaluate such a situation or to determine how to resolve their pregnancy. This study seeks to shed light on what pregnant adolescents consider when coming to a decision about what to do about their pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of Hong Kong Chinese women recruited from a Maternal and Child Health Centre, who had a history of being pregnant in their teens and out of wedlock. Interviews were conducted to explore the considerations surrounding their decision on how to resolve their pregnancy. A total of nine women were interviewed. An analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that to arrive at a decision on what to do about their pregnancy, pregnant teens took into consideration their relationship with their boyfriend, their family's advice or support, practical considerations, their personal values in life, and views on adoption. The results of this study results highlighted that during this life-altering event for adolescents, an open discussion should take place among all of the parties concerned. A better understanding of each party's perspective would allow for better decision making on the resolution of the pregnancy. Health professionals or social workers are there to help pregnant adolescents, romantic partners, and family members make informed choices on how to resolve the pregnancy.
Weiss, Eve; Fisher Thiel, Megan; Sultana, Nahida; Hannan, Chloe; Seacrist, Thomas
From the advent of airbags to electronic stability control, technological advances introduced into automobile design have significantly reduced injury and death from motor vehicle crashes. These advances are especially pertinent among teen drivers, a population whose leading cause of death is motor vehicle crashes. Recently developed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to compensate for skill deficits and reduce overall crash risk. Yet, ADAS is only effective if drivers are willing to use it. Limited research has been conducted on the suitability of ADAS for teen drivers. The goal of this study is to identify teen drivers' perceived need for ADAS, receptiveness to in-vehicle technology, and intervention preferences. The long-term goal is to understand public perceptions and barriers to ADAS use and to help determine how these systems must evolve to meet the needs of the riskiest driving populations. Three focus groups (N = 24) were conducted with licensed teen drivers aged 16-19 years and 2 focus groups with parents of teen drivers (N = 12). Discussion topics included views on how ADAS might influence driving skills and behaviors; trust in technology; and data privacy. Discussions were transcribed; the team used conventional content analysis and open coding methods to identify 12 coding domains and code transcripts with NVivo 10. Interrater reliability testing showed moderate to high kappa scores. Overall, participants recognized potential benefits of ADAS, including improved safety and crash reduction. Teens suggested that ADAS is still developing and therefore has potential to malfunction. Many teens reported a greater trust in their own driving ability over vehicle technology. They expressed that novice drivers should learn to drive on non-ADAS-equipped cars and that ADAS should be considered a supplemental aid. Many teens felt that overreliance on ADAS may increase distracted driving or risky behaviors among teens. Parents also
Katzen, C.S.; Dicker, A.P.
Purpose: Use of e-mail to improve physician-patient communication is becoming increasingly widespread, however, little research has been done to evaluate patients' interest and concerns regarding this technology. The goals of this study were to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of e-mail for communication between patients and their oncologist and (2) assess from the perspective of the patient the accessibility and usefulness of e-mail to facilitate medical treatment and advice as compared to conventional mail and telephone. E-mail as a clinical tool is a new trend in medicine that is growing quickly, however, there are few reports to date that evaluate the patients' perspective concerning e-mail usage. The use of e-mail in doctor-patient communication is potentially faster and more efficient than conventional mail and may reduce 'telephone tag'. E-mail initiated by the physician also allows for potential follow-up after treatment. Our study evaluated the types of transactions (personal medical questions, referrals, etc.) for which patients' preferred using e-mail in place of conventional communication methods. Materials and Methods: A self-administered survey (8 pages; 50 items) was mailed to 65 patients who were treated within the previous three years for prostate cancer in a radiation oncology practice. This survey explored the opinions and behaviors of patients with regard to online communication about general healthcare issues. The items included: patients' interest in e-mail, comfort in using e-mail, concerns about confidentiality, and access to e-mail. Patients' interest in using e-mail for specific situations were also evaluated, such as, making appointments, following up on treatment, or asking general health related questions. Patients' concerns about using email to communicate with healthcare organizations also were assessed. Results: The response rate to the survey was 63%, with a median age of 68 years (range 53-82), and the majority of respondents were
Jeffrey M. Flesch
Full Text Available This review draws from published research related to the best practices for the utilization of teens as teachers to examine Choose Health Action Teens (CHAT, a teen’s as teachers (TAT training curriculum. Research shows that there are various components necessary to build a high quality TAT program. Most of these components fall under four areas in which training is necessary for teens and adults: Teaching strategies, youth/child development, subject matter to be taught, and youth-adult partnerships. These four areas provide a framework to review the Choose Health Action Teens (CHAT (Crosiar & Wolfe, 2013 teens as teachers training program curriculum.
Hessler, Danielle; Fisher, Lawrence; Polonsky, William; Johnson, Nicole
To identify the unique areas of diabetes-related distress (DD) for parents of teens with type 1 diabetes and parent and teen characteristics associated with DD. Areas of DD were developed from structured interviews and translated into 46 survey items. Items were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis (EFA). An EFA with 332 parents (88% mothers) reduced items to four Parent Diabetes Distress Scale (PDDS) factors (20 items, α = .94): Personal, Teen Management, Parent/Teen Relationship, and Healthcare Team Distress. Parent DD was higher among fathers, younger or single parents, parents of teens with higher hemoglobin A1c or severe low blood glucose levels, authoritarian parenting, depressive symptoms, and low emotional support. 4 areas of parent DD were identified using a newly developed measure, the PDDS. DD was associated with family demographic, teen diabetes status, and parent contextual factors, and can help identify parents who may be more vulnerable to DD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Blaakman, Susan W; Cohen, Alyssa; Fagnano, Maria; Halterman, Jill S
Teens with persistent asthma do not always receive daily preventive medications or do not take them as prescribed, despite established clinical guidelines. The purpose of this study was to understand urban teens' experiences with asthma management, preventive medication adherence and participation in a school-based intervention. Teens (12-15 years) with persistent asthma, and prescribed preventive medication, participated in a pilot study that included daily observed medication therapy at school and motivational interviewing. Semi-structured interviews occurred at final survey. Qualitative content analysis enabled data coding to identify themes. Themes were classified as "general asthma management" or "program-specific." For general management, routines were important, while hurrying interfered with taking medications. Forgetfulness was most commonly linked to medication nonadherence. Competing demands related to school preparedness and social priorities were barriers to medication use. Independence with medications was associated with several benefits (e.g. avoiding parental nagging and feeling responsible/mature). Program-specific experiences varied. Half of teens reported positive rapport with their school nurse, while a few felt that their nurse was dismissive. Unexpected benefits and barriers within the school structure included perceptions about leaving the classroom, the distance to the nurse's office, the necessity of hall passes and morning school routines. Importantly, many teens connected daily medication use with fewer asthma symptoms, incenting continued adherence. Teens with asthma benefit from adherence to preventive medications but encounter numerous barriers to proper use. Interventions to improve adherence must accommodate school demands and unique teen priorities. The school nurse's role as an ally may support teens' transition to medication independence.
Carrion, Carme; Arroyo Moliner, Liliana; Castell, Conxa; Puigdomènech, Elisa; Felipe Gómez, Santiago; Domingo, Laia; Espallargues, Mireia
The PEGASO Project aims to design a technological system aimed at European adolescents to promote healthy lifestyles. The objective was to explore teenagers and their parents and teachers perceptions with regards to mobile technology use in promoting a healthier lifestyle, in terms of food and physical activity. Qualitative study based on primary data obtained through four focus groups analysis (three teenager groups between 13 and 15 y and 1 parent/teacher group). Verbatim transcriptions have been analysed following content analysis perspective. Four different categories were identified: 1: social and cultural context, 2: adolescents and health, 3: role of technology in teenagers' lives and 4: use of technology to acquire healthier habits. Each category helped to arise various subcategories linked to the relation between teens and health: holistic health concept, health/disease perception directly related with feeling physically fit and social acceptance. With regards to technology, the arisen themes were: feeling connected with others, importance of entertainment/games, omnipresent use of Smartphones and risk of excessive dependence on technology. The difference between teens and adults with regards to health and technology categories were not significant. Both teens and adults think that for technology to be effective in acquiring healthier habits it has to help teens to improve and maintain their self-esteem, in an entertaining way and using their own communication codes, mainly audio-visual ones, always under the umbrella of a holistic and integrated perception of health.
Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith
College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students' perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students' concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students' (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress management to 70% [35/50] for eating a
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... Having a mutually respectful and honest relationship. Using birth control if they have sex and a condom every time. Know where their teens are and what they are doing, particularly after school. Be aware of their teen's use of social ...
The Novice Teen Driver Education and Training Administrative Standards set forth in this document serve to guide all novice teen driver education and training programs in States striving to provide quality, consistent driver education and training. W...
Johansen, Michael E; Matic, Kathleen; McAlearney, Ann Scheck
The purpose of this study was to determine rates of stimulant/atomoxetine use among teens (aged 12-17 years) and young adults (aged 18-23 years) and to investigate associations in medication use before and after the transition from teen to young adult. Repeated cross-sectional analyses using the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The sample included all teens and young adults between 2003 and 2012. Within this group, a staggered sample of individuals between 2006 and 2012 born during a 5-year range was used to minimize false positive findings due to temporal trends. The primary outcome was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication use (two or more prescriptions and ≥60 tablets). A multivariable logistic regression was utilized to determine associations between ADHD medication use and race/ethnicity and other sociodemographic factors. A total of 62,699 individuals were included between 2003 and 2012. Rates of ADHD medication use increased for both teens (4.2%-6.0%) and young adults (1.2%-2.6%) between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. In adjusted analysis, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians had lower rates of use compared with whites. The decrease in use among young adults was more pronounced among blacks compared with whites. A usual source of care and health insurance were less common among young adults, and both were associated with ADHD medication use. Although there has been an increase in the use of ADHD medications in both teens and young adults, we found a drop-off in levels of ADHD treatment among young adults when compared with teens. A portion of this decrease appears to be related to race/ethnicity, usual source of care, and health insurance status. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Philip J; Stokley, Shannon; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B
Between 2010 and 2014, the percentage of 13-17 year-old girls administered ≥3 doses of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine ("fully vaccinated") increased by 7.7 percentage points to 39.7%, and the percentage not administered any doses of the HPV vaccine ("not immunized") decreased by 11.3 percentage points to 40.0%. To evaluate the complex interactions between parents' vaccine-related beliefs, demographic factors, and HPV immunization status. Vaccine-related parental beliefs and sociodemographic data collected by the 2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen among teen girls (n=8490) were analyzed. HPV vaccination status was determined from teens' health care provider (HCP) records. Among teen girls either unvaccinated or fully vaccinated against HPV, teen girls whose parent was positively influenced to vaccinate their teen daughter against HPV were 48.2 percentage points more likely to be fully vaccinated. Parents who reported being positively influenced to vaccinate against HPV were 28.9 percentage points more likely to report that their daughter's HCP talked about the HPV vaccine, 27.2 percentage points more likely to report that their daughter's HCP gave enough time to discuss the HPV shot, and 43.4 percentage points more likely to report that their daughter's HCP recommended the HPV vaccine (pteen girls administered 1-2 doses of the HPV vaccine, 87.0% had missed opportunities for HPV vaccine administration. Results suggest that an important pathway to achieving higher ≥3 dose HPV vaccine coverage is by increasing HPV vaccination series initiation though HCP talking to parents about the HPV vaccine, giving parents time to discuss the vaccine, and by making a strong recommendation for the HPV. Also, HPV vaccination series completion rates may be increased by eliminating missed opportunities to vaccinate against HPV and scheduling additional follow-up visits to administer missing HPV vaccine doses. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This podcast is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, in 2012, more than 86,000 teens ages 15 to 17 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy. Created: 4/8/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/8/2014.
Kane, Jennifer B.; Morgan, S. Philip; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Guilkey, David K.
A huge literature shows that teen mothers face a variety of detriments across the life course, including truncated educational attainment. To what extent is this association causal? The estimated effects of teen motherhood on schooling vary widely, ranging from no discernible difference to 2.6 fewer years among teen mothers. The magnitude of educational consequences is therefore uncertain, despite voluminous policy and prevention efforts that rest on the assumption of a negative and presumably causal effect. This study adjudicates between two potential sources of inconsistency in the literature—methodological differences or cohort differences—by using a single, high-quality data source: namely, The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We replicate analyses across four different statistical strategies: ordinary least squares regression; propensity score matching; and parametric and semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation. Results demonstrate educational consequences of teen childbearing, with estimated effects between 0.7 and 1.9 fewer years of schooling among teen mothers. We select our preferred estimate (0.7), derived from semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation, on the basis of weighing the strengths and limitations of each approach. Based on the range of estimated effects observed in our study, we speculate that variable statistical methods are the likely source of inconsistency in the past. We conclude by discussing implications for future research and policy, and recommend that future studies employ a similar multimethod approach to evaluate findings. PMID:24078155
Stonely, Heather M.; Klein, Shirley R.
Adolescent and parent focus groups were conducted to do a needs assessment and discover possible topics for a secondary school family class. Results included identifying teen and parent family-related needs and societal concerns; discovering where teens currently learn about family life; and receiving teen and parent feedback about a proposed…
Yang, Jingzhen; Campo, Shelly; Ramirez, Marizen; Krapfl, Julia Richards; Cheng, Gang; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Family communication patterns (FCPs) play an important role in reducing the risk-taking behaviors of teens, such as substance use and safer sex. However, little is known about the relationship between family communication and teen driving safety. We analyzed the baseline data from a randomized trial that included 163 parent-teen dyads, with teens who would be receiving their intermediate driver's license within 3 months. FCPs were divided into four types-pluralistic, protective, consensual, and laissez-faire-and were correlated with the frequency of parent-teen discussions and teens' driving safety attitudes. The ratings on four types of FCPs were distributed quite evenly among teens and parents. Parents and teens agreed on their FCP ratings (p = .64). In families with communication patterns that were laissez-faire, protective, and pluralistic, parents talked to their teens less about safe driving than did parents in families with a consensual communication pattern (p < .01). Moreover, the frequency of parent-teen communication about safe driving was positively associated with teen attitudes toward safe driving (adjusted β = 0.35, p = .03). Health care providers need to encourage parents, particularly those with non-consensual FCPs, to increase frequency of parent-teen interactions. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Shu Ching; Lin, Chia-Ying; Chen, An-Sing
This study examined several types of teen behaviors, specifically bullying, being bullied, and witnessing bullying, and analyzed teens' judgments of the seriousness of the bullying. A Bullying Behaviors Scale (BBS) was designed to investigate both traditional bullying (TB) and cyberbullying (CB) behaviors among teens in grades 5 through 11. The…
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.
Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…
Can, Elif; Richter, Felicitas; Valchanova, Ralitsa; Dewey, Marc
To identify underlying causes for failure of medical thesis projects and the constantly high drop-out rate in Germany from the supervisors' perspective and to compare the results with the students' perspective. Cross-sectional survey. Online questionnaire for survey of medical thesis supervisors among the staff of Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Published, earlier longitudinal survey among students for comparison. 1069 thesis supervisors participated. Data are presented using descriptive statistics, and the χ 2 test served to compare the results among supervisors with the earlier data from the longitudinal survey of doctoral students. Not applicable. This survey is an observational study. Of 3653 potential participants, 1069 (29.3%) supervising 3744 doctoral candidates participated in the study. Supervisors considered themselves to be highly motivated and to offer adequate supervision. On the other hand, 87% stated that they did not feel well prepared for thesis supervision. Supervisors gave lack of timeliness of doctoral students and personal differences (p=0.024 and p=0.001) as the main reasons for terminating thesis projects. Doctoral students predominantly mentioned methodological problems and difficult subjects as critical issues (p=0.001 and pthesis supervisors and medical students feel ill prepared for their roles in the process of a medical dissertation. Contradictory reasons for terminating medical thesis projects based on supervisors' and students' self-assessment suggest a lack of communication and true scientific collaboration between supervisors and doctoral students as the major underlying issue that requires resolution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Devine, Sharon; Bull, Sheana; Dreisbach, Susan; Shlay, Judith
To develop and pilot a theory-based, mobile phone texting component attractive to minority youth as a supplement to the Teen Outreach Program(®), a youth development program for reducing teen pregnancy and school dropout. We conducted iterative formative research with minority youth in multiple focus groups to explore interest in texting and reaction to text messages. We piloted a month-long version of TOP(®) Plus Text with 96 teens at four sites and conducted a computer-based survey immediately after enrollment and at the end of the pilot that collected information about teens' values, social support, self-efficacy, and behaviors relating to school performance, trouble with the law, and sexual activity. After each of the first three weekly sessions we collected satisfaction measures. Upon completion of the pilot we conducted exit interviews with twelve purposively selected pilot participants. We successfully recruited and enrolled minority youth into the pilot. Teens were enthusiastic about text messages complementing TOP(®). Results also revealed barriers: access to text-capable mobile phones, retention as measured by completion of the post-pilot survey, and a need to be attentive to teen literacy. Piloting helped identify improvements for implementation including offering text messages through multiple platforms so youth without access to a mobile phone could receive messages; rewording texts to allow youth to express opinions without feeling judged; and collecting multiple types of contact information to improve follow-up. Thoughtful attention to social and behavioral theory and investment in iterative formative research with extensive consultation with teens can lead to an engaging texting curriculum that enhances and complements TOP(®). Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wade, Shari L; Narad, Megan E; Kingery, Kathleen M; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W; Yeates, Keith O
To describe the Teen Online Problem Solving-Teen Only (TOPS-TO) intervention relative to the original Teen Online Problem Solving-Family (TOPS-F) intervention, to describe a randomized controlled trial to assess intervention efficacy, and to report feasibility and acceptability of the TOPS-TO intervention. Research method and design: This is a multisite randomized controlled trial, including 152 teens (49 TOPS-F, 51 TOPS-TO, 52 IRC) between the ages of 11-18 who were hospitalized for a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in the previous 18 months. Assessments were completed at baseline, 6-months post baseline, and 12-months post baseline. Data discussed include adherence and satisfaction data collected at the 6-month assessment (treatment completion) for TOPS-F and TOPS-TO. Adherence measures (sessions completed, dropout rates, duration of treatment engagement, and rates of program completion) were similar across treatment groups. Overall, teen and parent reported satisfaction was high and similar across groups. Teens spent a similar amount of time on the TOPS website across groups, and parents in the TOPS-F spent more time on the TOPS website than those in the TOPS-TO group (p = .002). Parents in the TOPS-F group rated the TOPS website as more helpful than those in the TOPS-TO group (p = .05). TOPS-TO intervention is a feasible and acceptable intervention approach. Parents may perceive greater benefit from the family based intervention. Further examination is required to understand the comparative efficacy in improving child and family outcomes, and who is likely to benefit from each approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg
We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term "systems omics."...
McDonald, Catherine C; Curry, Allison E; Kandadai, Venk; Sommers, Marilyn S; Winston, Flaura K
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and acquired disability during the first four decades of life. While teen drivers have the highest crash risk, few studies examine the similarities and differences in teen and adult driver crashes. We aimed to: (1) identify and compare the most frequent crash scenarios-integrated information on a vehicle's movement prior to crash, immediate pre-crash event, and crash configuration-for teen and adult drivers involved in serious crashes, and (2) for the most frequent scenarios, explore whether the distribution of driver critical errors differed for teens and adult drivers. We analyzed data from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey, a nationally representative study of serious crashes conducted by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration from 2005 to 2007. Our sample included 642 16- to 19-year-old and 1167 35- to 54-year-old crash-involved drivers (weighted n=296,482 and 439,356, respectively) who made a critical error that led to their crash's critical pre-crash event (i.e., event that made the crash inevitable). We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare the relative frequency of crash scenarios and driver critical errors. The top five crash scenarios among teen drivers, accounting for 37.3% of their crashes, included: (1) going straight, other vehicle stopped, rear end; (2) stopped in traffic lane, turning left at intersection, turn into path of other vehicle; (3) negotiating curve, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; (4) going straight, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; and (5) stopped in lane, turning left at intersection, turn across path of other vehicle. The top five crash scenarios among adult drivers, accounting for 33.9% of their crashes, included the same scenarios as the teen drivers with the exception of scenario (3) and the addition of going straight, crossing over an intersection, and continuing on a
Lenhart, Amanda; Madden, Mary; Smith, Aaron; Purcell, Kristen; Zickuhr, Kathryn; Rainie, Lee
Social media use has become so pervasive in the lives of American teens that having a presence on a social network site is almost synonymous with being online. Fully 95% of all teens ages 12-17 are now online and 80% of those online teens are users of social media sites. The authors focused their attention in this research on social network sites…
Lipman, Ellen L.; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.
Objective: Children of teen mothers exhibit adverse outcomes through adolescence. It is unclear whether these adverse outcomes extend to adulthood and apply to all of her children, or only those born when she was a teen. We examine the associations between young adult functioning and being born to a teen mother aged less than or equal to 20 years…
Wilkinson, Tracey A; Miller, Courtney; Rafie, Samantha; Landau, Sharon Cohen; Rafie, Sally
To examine adolescent attitudes toward accessing contraception through a new pharmacist prescribing model in the State of California. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted in summer 2015 with 30 females ages 18 to 19 in California. Participants were recruited using a social media advertisement. Semi-structured interviews utilized open-ended questions to understand teens' experiences with pharmacies, experiences obtaining contraception, and views on pharmacist prescribing of contraception. Responses were transcribed and qualitatively analyzed using an independent-coder method to identify salient themes. Participants were ethnically diverse and primarily living in suburban areas. All participants had completed high school and many had completed one year of college. Nearly all participants were supportive of California's new law allowing pharmacist prescribing of contraception. Thematic analyses revealed that while participants were satisfied with traditional service providers and valued those relationships, they appreciated the benefit of increased access and convenience of going directly to a pharmacy. Participants expected increased access to contraception in pharmacies would lead to both personal and societal benefits. They expressed concerns regarding parental involvement, as well as confidentiality in the pharmacy environment and with insurance disclosures. Older teens in California are very supportive of pharmacies and pharmacists as direct access points for contraception, but confidentiality concerns were noted. Policy makers and pharmacies can incorporate study findings when designing policies, services, and physical pharmacy spaces to better serve teens. Further research is warranted after pharmacies implement this new service to assess teen utilization and satisfaction as well as outcomes. Several states recently passed legislation enabling pharmacists to prescribe contraception and other states are considering similar legislation. Older teens are
Delgado, M Kit; McDonald, Catherine C; Winston, Flaura K; Halpern, Scott D; Buttenheim, Alison M; Setubal, Claudia; Huang, Yanlan; Saulsgiver, Kathryn A; Lee, Yi-Ching
The majority of U.S. teens admit to handheld cellphone use while driving, an increasingly common cause of crashes. Attitudes towards novel cellphone applications and settings that block use while driving are poorly understood, potentially limiting uptake. We examined teens' willingness to reduce cellphone use while driving and perceptions of potential strategies to limit this behavior. Teen drivers (n = 153) aged 16-17 who owned smartphones and admitted to texting while driving completed an online survey. Survey instruments measured willingness to give up cellphone use and perceptions of technological and behavioral economic strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving. We used Chi-square tests to test the hypothesis that willingness to give up certain types of cellphone use while driving and the perceptions of strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving would differ by self-reported frequency of texting while driving in the past 30 days (low [1-5 days] vs. high [6 or more days]. Most teens were willing or somewhat willing to give up reading texts (90%), sending texts (95%), and social media (99%) while driving. However they were not willing to give up navigation (59%) and music applications (43%). Those who engaged in high-frequency texting while driving were more likely to say they were not willing to give up navigation applications (73% vs. 44%, P distraction (86%). The predominant reason for not wanting to use this technology was not wanting parents to monitor their behavior (60%). Promising strategies for increasing acceptance of cellphone blocking technology among teen drivers include automated screen locking and permitting hands-free navigation and music combined with behavioral economic incentives to sustain engagement.
Hartman, Lauren B; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Pollack, Lance M; Wibbelsman, Charles; Chang, Fay; Tebb, Kathleen P
To examine parental acceptability of contraceptive methods offered confidentially to their adolescent daughter. A random sample of 261 parents/guardians with a daughter aged 12-17 years completed a telephone survey examining the relationship between parental acceptability of seven contraceptive methods and adolescents' likelihood to have sex, parenting beliefs, parents' sexual health as teens, sexually transmitted infection knowledge, and demographic factors. Acceptability was highest for oral contraceptive pills (59%) and lowest for intrauterine device (18%). Parental acceptance of teens' autonomy was significantly associated with increased acceptability of all methods. Parental knowledge of sexually transmitted infections was poor, and 51% found it acceptable for clinicians to provide their sexually active teen with condoms. Parents were more accepting of oral contraceptive pills and condoms compared with intrauterine devices and implants. Parental recognition of their teen's autonomy was associated with greater parental acceptability of clinicians providing their adolescent with contraceptives (regardless of the specific type of method being offered). Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mason, Michael J; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; Foster, Robin; Richards, Susan
Teen dating violence (TDV) is associated with multiple sequelae including substance use. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and association between levels of dating violence and substance use among urban adolescents presenting at a pediatric emergency department (ED). As part of standard practice, 282 adolescents were screened for relationship status, producing 135 dating violence screens. Scales from the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to capture variables of interest. Logistic regression was performed to test the influence of levels of dating violence on substance use, while controlling for gender, race, age, sexual orientation, and psychiatric symptoms. Over one-quarter of those teens (27.3%) within a current relationship reported experiencing any dating violence, 26.1% experienced psychological violence, and 11.9% experienced physical violence. Teens experiencing psychological violence were at twice the risk for any substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use) and specifically for alcohol and marijuana, whereas no increased risk was found for teens experiencing physical violence. This study contributes to the understanding of TDV within the context of high-risk, urban adolescents presenting at a pediatric ED. Identifying levels of TDV and understanding the association with substance use can provide an important foundation for prevention and early intervention for urban youth.
Masand, Prakash S; Tracy, Natasha
To look at the manner in which patients and caregivers perceive the treatment of bipolar disorder compared with the evidence base for bipolar treatment. Between April 2013 and March 2014, 469 respondents took a 14-question online survey on demographics, medications taken, and perspectives on bipolar treatment and medications. Participants were recruited through social media outlets (Facebook and Twitter accounts) of Global Medical Education (New York, New York) and the blog Bipolar Burble, which has a primary audience of people with bipolar disorder. There were no exclusion criteria to participation, and both patients and health care professionals were encouraged to participate. Most respondents were taking ≥ 3 medications, and the greatest unmet need in treatment was for bipolar depression. In general, respondent perspectives on the effectiveness of individual medication treatments did not align with the available literature. Weight gain was the greatest side effect concern for both antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Our survey demonstrates that there are still many unmet needs in the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is also a mismatch between the evidence base for treatments in bipolar disorder and patient perception of the relative efficacy of different medications. In order to achieve better outcomes, there is a need to provide patients and clinicians greater quality education with regard to the best evidence-based treatments for bipolar disorder.
Johnsen, Anna T; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten A
In order to improve advanced cancer care, evaluations are necessary. An important element of such evaluations is the perspective of the patient's relatives who have the role of being caregivers as well as co-users of the health care system. The aims were to investigate the scale structure of the ...
Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte
The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...
Standardized surveys are used in many contexts to measure people’s opinions and attitudes. Although it is widely assumed that survey answers represent the ‘true values’ of the concepts measured, a large body of research has shown that seemingly irrelevant question characteristics influence how
This paper describes an evaluation of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' American Time Use Survey (ATUS) for potential use in modeling human exposures to environmental pollutants. The ATUS is a large, on-going, cross-sectional survey of where Americans spend time and what activ...
Wildy, Helen; Clarke, Simon
This paper provides an example of the application of the cognitive interview, a qualitative tool for pre-testing a survey instrument to check its cognitive validity, that is, whether the items mean to respondents what they mean to the item designers. The instrument is the survey used in the final phase of the International Study of Principal…
Talbot, Dawn E.; Lowell, Gerald R.; Martin, Kerry
Discussion of a user-driven survey conducted at the University of California, San Diego libraries focuses on the methodology that resulted in a high response rate. Highlights goals for the survey, including acceptance of data by groups outside the library and for benchmarking data; planning; user population; and questionnaire development. (LRW)
Welton, Anjalé D.; Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Lee, Pei-Ling
There is limited research on quantitative differences between men and women's experiences in doctoral programs. We aim to fill that gap by sharing findings from a web-based exploratory survey of perceived gender differences on quality mentoring in educational leadership doctoral programs. According to survey results, there is limited…
Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin
This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…
Alexander, Linda B., Ed.; Kwon, Nahyun, Ed.
"Multicultural Programs for Tweens and Teens" is a one-stop resource that encourages children and young adults to explore different cultures. Dozens of flexible programming ideas allow you to: (1) Choose a program specific to your scheduling, budget, or age group requirements; (2) Create an event that reflects a specific culture; and (3) Recommend…
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Diabetes Be Prevented? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can Diabetes Be ... español ¿Es posible prevenir la diabetes? What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth / For Teens / Is My Penis Normal? Print en español ¿Es normal mi pene? ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...
As parents and caregivers, their job is to help their children become happy, healthy, and productive members of society. They try to balance the desire to protect their children with their need to become independent young adults. This can be a struggle for parents of teens with seizures, since there are so many challenges they may face. Teenagers…
... Endocrinology Products, warns teens and parents about the dangers of steroid use. Q: What are anabolic steroids ... ÙØ¹Ø±Ø¨ÙØ© | KreyÃ²l Ayisyen | FranÃ§ais | Polski | PortuguÃªs | Italiano | Deutsch | æ¥æ¬èª | Ù ...
... ePub Order a free hardcopy En Español Teen Depression Study: Understanding Depression in Teenagers Join a Research Study: Enrolling nationally ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...
Dailey, René M; Thompson, Charee M; Romo, Lynsey Kluever
Although research shows family members can influence each other's diet and exercise behaviors, the specific strategies that most effectively motivate individuals to enact healthy behaviors have not been revealed. Toward this goal, this study employed confirmation theory to assess how the quality of weight management (WM) communication between 107 mother-teen dyads was related to their diet and exercise behaviors as well as their subjective perceptions of the productivity of WM conversations. Confirmation theory proposes two components of confirmation: acceptance and challenge. Analyses revealed that accepting and challenging communication were both positively related to the perceived productivity of WM conversations. However, more complex associations emerged for diet and exercise. Acceptance was more helpful in motivating better eating habits for mothers with low health motivation and teens with high health motivation. For exercise, challenge was helpful in motivating teens with higher sensitivity about communicating about weight issues; however, counter to predictions, challenge was negatively related to exercise for teens with low health motivation and low sensitivity. These interactions, however, explained less variance than analyses for perceived effectiveness and satisfaction.
Teenagers love video games and other multimedia tools. Sometimes they love them too much, leading to addictive use. A child psychiatry team in Nancy has developed a therapeutic multimedia workshop to contribute to treating teens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wahlstrom, Kyla L.
Sleep studies have shown that teenagers' internal clocks are incompatible with most high schools' early hours. Research in two Minnesota districts indicates that later school starting times can benefit teens and everyone dealing with them. Student participation in sports and other afterschool activities remained high. (MLH)
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) KidsHealth / For Teens / Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) ... Print en español Sangrado uterino anormal What Is Abnormal Uterine Bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the name doctors ...
Toscano, Sharyl Eve
Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…
... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...
Marcotte, Dave E.
Understanding the relationship between high school dropout and teen childbearing is complicated because both are affected by a variety of difficult to control factors. In this paper, I use panel data on aggregate dropout and fertility rates by age for all fifty states to develop insight by instrumenting for dropout using information on state…
Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose
The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…
This podcast provides information about vaccine recommendations to help prevent meningococcal disease in preteens and teens. Created: 8/11/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB). Date Released: 8/11/2015.
Goode, Marsha; Broesamle, Barbara
Describes nine-day residential camp for Michigan teenage mothers/babies to enhance personal growth and develop responsible social skills. Outlines goals, pre-camp planning, staff, activities, evaluation. Reports 31 teen moms (ages 13-21) and 35 babies attended in 1986. Indicates participants were in therapy, experienced abuse, had low self-esteem,…
An article to discuss the difficulties of designing educational multimedia for the teen target audience (13 - 16 year olds). The report will assess techniques used in existing online artefacts and reveal major trends in the attempt to appeal to this notoriously hard to reach user group.
Lipman, Ellen L; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H
Children of teen mothers exhibit adverse outcomes through adolescence. It is unclear whether these adverse outcomes extend to adulthood and apply to all of her children, or only those born when she was a teen. We examine the associations between young adult functioning and being born to a teen mother aged ≤20 years at the time of birth (current teen), and being born to a teen mother later in her life (>21 years, prior teen). The 1983 Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS) and 2001 follow-up are used, including 2,355 participants 4 to 16 years old in 1983 with 2001 data. Using multilevel modeling we assessed the association between being born to a current versus prior teen mother, relative to a nonteen mother, and 2001 outcomes, controlling for individual and family level characteristics assessed in childhood. Being born to a teen mother (versus a nonteen mother) is associated with poorer educational achievement, life satisfaction, and personal income. Accounting for time of sample children's birth in teen mothers' lives, individuals born to current and prior teen mothers showed a ~0.8-year educational deficit, relative to individuals born to nonteen mothers in fully adjusted models. Individuals born to current teen mothers reported lower life satisfaction and personal income (-$7,262). There were no significant group differences at follow-up in mental or physical health between individuals born to nonteen mothers and those born to current or prior teen mothers. Although being born to a teen mother exerts a pervasive adverse effect on educational attainment, the adverse effects on life satisfaction and personal income appear to be selective for individuals born to a current teen mother. Further research is required to understand these differential effects. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Al-Shayea, Eman I
Objectives: This study aimed to outline orthodontists’ perspectives at what stage they would initiate orthodontic treatment and also sought to assess the relationship between orthodontists’ views and their genders, types of practice, and experience levels. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent electronically to 165 practicing orthodontists at different regions in Saudi Arabia. The orthodontists were asked to consider at what stage they would initiate orthodontic treatment for a chil...
Garcia, Danilo; Nima, Ali Al; Lindskär, Erik
The data pertains 448 Swedes' responses to questionnaires on time perspective (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory), temporal life satisfaction (Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale), affect (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule), and psychological well-being (Ryff׳s Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version). The data was collected among university students and individuals at a training facility (see U. Sailer, P. Rosenberg, A.A. Nima, A. Gamble, T. Gärling, T. Archer, D. Garcia, 2014; ). Since there were no differences in any of the other background variables, but exercise frequency, all subsequent analyses were conducted on the 448 participants as one single sample. In this article we include the Swedish versions of the questionnaires used to operationalize the time perspective and well-being variables. The data is available, SPSS file, as Supplementary material in this article. We used the Expectation-Maximization Algorithm to input missing values. Little׳s Chi-Square test for Missing Completely at Random showed a χ (2)=67.25 (df=53, p=.09) for men and χ (2)=77.65 (df=72, p=.31) for women. These values suggested that the Expectation-Maximization Algorithm was suitable to use on this data for missing data imputation.
Full Text Available provides an overview of the highlights from a comprehensive survey commissioned by Eskom regarding the feasibility of WSNs on the transmission and distribution network; the aim is to direct power utility investment and research and development effort...
Liu, Ning; Vigod, Simone N; Farrugia, M Michèle; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G
To estimate the intergenerational association in teenage pregnancy, and whether there is a coupling tendency between a mother and daughter in how their teen pregnancies end, such as an induced abortion (IA) vs. a livebirth. Population-based cohort study. Ontario, Canada. 15,097 mothers and their 16,177 daughters. Generalized estimating equations generated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of a daughter experiencing a teen pregnancy in relation to the number of teen pregnancies her mother had. Multinomial logistic regression estimated the odds that a teen pregnancy ended with IA among both mother and daughter. All models were adjusted for maternal age and world region of origin, the daughter's socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities, mother-daughter cohabitation, and neighborhood-level teen pregnancy rate. Teen pregnancy in the daughter, between ages 15-19 years, and also the nature of the daughter's teen pregnancy, categorized as i) no teen pregnancy, ii) at least one teen pregnancy, all exclusively ending with a livebirth, and iii) at least one teen pregnancy, with at least one teen pregnancy ending with an IA. The proportion of daughters having a teen pregnancy among those whose mother had 0, 1, 2, or ≥ 3 teen pregnancies was 16.3%, 24.9%, 33.5% and 36.3%, respectively. The aOR of a daughter having a teen pregnancy was 1.42 (95% CI 1.25-1.61) if her mother had 1, 1.97 (95% CI 1.71-2.26) if she had 2, and 2.17 (95% CI 1.84-2.56) if her mother had ≥ 3 teen pregnancies, relative to none. If a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy ending with IA, then her daughter had an aOR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.76-2.56) for having a teen pregnancy also ending with IA; whereas, if a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy, all ending with a livebirth, then her daughter had an aOR of 1.73 (95% CI 1.46-2.05) for that same outcome. There is a strong intergenerational occurrence of teenage pregnancy between a mother and daughter, including a coupling tendency in how the pregnancy ends. This
Standardized surveys are used in many contexts to measure people’s opinions and attitudes. Although it is widely assumed that survey answers represent the ‘true values’ of the concepts measured, a large body of research has shown that seemingly irrelevant question characteristics influence how respondents report their attitudes. The research presented in this dissertation revolved around on one of these characteristics: whether the question is worded positively (This is an interesting book. Y...
Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to discuss the advantages and problems of nearinfrared surveys in observing pulsating stars in the Milky Way. One of the advantages of near-infrared surveys, when compared to optical counterparts, is that the interstellar extinction is significantly smaller. As we see in this review, a significant volume of the Galactic disk can be reached by infrared surveys but not by optical ones. Towards highly obscured regions in the Galactic mid-plane, however, the interstellar extinction causes serious problems even with near-infrared data in understanding the observational results. After a review on previous and current near-infrared surveys, we discuss the effects of the interstellar extinction in optical (including Gaia to near-infrared broad bands based on a simple calculation using synthetic spectral energy distribution. We then review the recent results on classical Cepheids towards the Galactic center and the bulge, as a case study, to see the impact of the uncertainty in the extinction law. The extinction law, i.e. the wavelength dependency of the extinction, is not fully characterized, and its uncertainty makes it hard to make the correction. Its characterization is an urgent task in order to exploit the outcomes of ongoing large-scale surveys of pulsating stars, e.g. for drawing a map of pulsating stars across the Galactic disk.
Manski, Ruth; Dennis, Amanda
We explored the contraceptive experiences of female teens with epilepsy, including their knowledge and perceptions of interactions between antiepileptic drugs and hormonal contraception and contraceptive decision-making processes. From November 2012 to May 2013, we conducted one online survey (n=114) and 12 online focus group discussions (n=26) with female teens with epilepsy about their contraceptive experiences and unmet needs. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and focus group transcripts were analyzed thematically using modified grounded theory methods. Both survey and focus group participants reported believing that interactions between epilepsy medications and hormonal contraceptives could lead to reductions in contraceptive efficacy and seizure control. However, their knowledge about these types of medication interactions was often incomplete. Many study participants viewed contraceptive decision making as a difficult process, and some participants reported avoiding hormonal contraceptives because of potential interactions with antiepileptic drugs. Study participants reported relying on health care providers and parents for contraceptive decision-making support. Focus group participants also reported they wanted health care providers to provide more in-depth and comprehensive counseling about contraception, and that they desired peer support with contraceptive decisions. The ability to make informed contraceptive decisions is important for teens with epilepsy as interactions between anti-epileptic drugs and hormonal contraceptives can impact seizure occurrence and lead to an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy. Guidance for providers offering contraceptive care to this population is needed, as well as a contraceptive support tool that empowers teens with epilepsy to advocate for desired health care. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hall, M.; Mayhew, M.
It is well-known to those pursuing the quest to connect scientists to the public that an exceedingly hard-to- reach demographic is people of high school age. Typically, kids may tag along with their parents to museums until they reach adolescence, and then don't again appear in museums until they themselves have children. We have addressed this demographic challenge for free-choice-learning by developing a Cafe Scientifique program specifically for high school students. The Cafe Scientifique model for adults was developed in England and France, and has now spread like wildfire across the U.S. Typically, people come to a informal setting like a cafe, socialize and have food and drink, and then hear a short presentation by a scientist on a hot science topic in the news. This is followed by a period of lively discussion. We have followed this model for high school age students in four towns in northern New Mexico--Los Alamos, Santa Fe, Espanola, and Albuquerque--which represent a highly diverse demographic. We started this novel project with some trepidation, i.e. what if we build it and they don't come. But the program has proven popular beyond our expectations in all four towns. A part of the secret of success is the social setting, and-especially for this age group-the food provided. But we have also found that the kids are genuinely interested in the science topics, directing their own program, and interacting with scientists. We have often heard statements like, "I think it is important to be well-informed citizens". One of the most important aspects of the Cafes for the kids is to be able to discuss and argue about issues related to the science topic with the presenter and each other. It is an important part of the popularity that the Cafes do not involve school or parents, but also that we have strived to give the kids ownership of the program. Each town has a Youth Leadership Team-open to any teen-that discusses and prioritizes potential topics, conducts
Full Text Available In a globalized era where English keeps the position of an international language, learnt and spoken by lots of people from diverse linguistic, cultural and national backgrounds, there is a need for a new perspective towards English as an international language which can bridge notions and cultures. The appearance of varieties of English is the consequence of the global dissemination of English. Based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative data using a semi-structured questionnaire (see Appendix A administered to 60 Iranian learners from expanding circle and 60 Indian learners from outer circle, this study surveyed the developing picture of EIL pronunciation and evaluation of different varieties of English from the perspective of learners from two circles which include the most users of English in the globalized world. The results of the questionnaires supplemented by interviews with leaners from expanding and outer circles revealed that expanding-circle learners like more to have a native-like identity with their preference towards nativism. The implications on the findings on the spread of native speaker norms and the status of ELF and its reflections in learning and teaching in expanding and outer circle countries are discussed.
van Gennip, Isis E; Pasman, H Roeline W; Kaspers, Pam J; Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G; Willems, Dick L; Deeg, Dorly J H; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D
Death with dignity has been identified as important both to patients and their surviving family. While research results have been published on what patients themselves believe may affect the dignity of their deaths, little is known about what family caregivers consider to be a dignified death. (1) To assess the prevalence of death with dignity in older adults from the perspective of family caregivers, (2) to determine factors that diminish dignity during the dying phase according to family caregivers, and (3) to identify physical, psychosocial, and care factors associated with death with dignity. A survey study with a self-administered questionnaire. Family caregivers of 163 deceased older (>55 years of age) adults ("patients") who had participated in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Of the family caregivers, 69% reported that their relative had died with dignity. Factors associated with a dignified death in a multivariate regression model were patients feeling peaceful and ready to die, absence of anxiety and depressive mood, presence of fatigue, and a clear explanation by the physician of treatment options during the final months of life. The physical and psychosocial condition of the patient in combination with care factors contributed to death with dignity from the perspective of the family caregiver. The patient's state of mind during the last phase of life and clear communication on the part of the physician both seem to be of particular importance.
Full Text Available Nobutaka Hattori,1 Kenichi Fujimoto,2 Tomoyoshi Kondo,3 Miho Murata,4 Mark Stacy51Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo; 2Department of Neurology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi; 3Department of Neurology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama; 4Department of Neurology, National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; 5Division of Neurology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USABackground: Despite evidence suggesting that patient attitudes towards therapy may influence treatment outcomes, the impact of these factors on treatment for Parkinson’s disease is poorly understood. These two surveys, based in Japan and the US, investigated the attitudes of patients towards antiparkinsonian medications, the complications of these therapies, and how these differ across geographies.Methods: The US PRELUDE survey collected data from May 13 to May 20, 2003, from 300 interviews with patients with Parkinson’s disease from the National Parkinson Foundation. The Japanese survey was carried out from June to December 2008 in a stepwise manner using questionnaires (n = 3548 followed by interviews with those who had consented to participate in the questionnaire (n = 407. Both surveys assessed the attitudes of patients towards therapies for Parkinson’s disease and associated complications.Results: Dyskinesia was not a major challenge of therapy for Parkinson’s disease, and wearing-off caused greater concern in the US, while hallucinations had a greater emphasis in Japan. Patients who had previously experienced dyskinesia were less concerned about this side effect than those who had not. Although pill burden was thought to be a concern in the US, Japanese patients did not indicate that pill burden would limit their drug intake. There were also discrepancies between the perspectives and concerns of patients and those of their treating physicians.Conclusion: Recognizing patient perspectives regarding therapies for
Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. "Steering Teens Safe" is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills…
Papic, Ognjen; Malak, Ziad; Rosenberg, Ellen
Immigrants in Canada form a significant portion of the population and have unique and complex health needs. This study was undertaken to evaluate family physicians' perspectives on the care of this population. Questionnaires were distributed to family physicians in Montreal (n=598). The main outcomes of interest were attitudes of family physicians to care of immigrants including barriers perceived, resources and strategies used to accommodate immigrant patients, as well as physicians' training in immigrant care. Family physicians find communication difficulties to be the key barrier and would like to see the access to interpreters improved. Very few physicians make use of professional interpreters. Only a minority of physicians have received specific cross-cultural competence training but those who have seem to provide better quality of care. Knowledge of physician perspectives is an essential element on which to base interventions to improve the quality of care to this population. Physicians should be reminded of the importance of using professional interpretation services in multi-lingual encounters. Cross-cultural training should be further advanced in Canadian medical curricula. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stapleton, Paul; Shao, Qing
This article reports on a survey of 241 Master of Arts programs in TESOL (MATESOL) in 16 countries serving as a snapshot of second language teacher education in 2014. After an initial screening by a set of criteria, these programs were first identified, and their course offerings, among other criteria, such as entrance and capstone requirements,…
Editorial Projects in Education, 2015
To better understand educators' views of social and emotional learning, the Education Week Research Center invited users of edweek.org--"Education Week'"s flagship website--to participate in an online survey in April 2015. A total of 709 people participated, with 562 deemed qualified based on self-identification as a K-12 teacher or…
This article describes problems encountered with commercial survey meters. The desired qualities of such instruments for use around accelerators are listed. Attempts to meet the accelerator monitoring needs by modifying commercial instruments and by in-house research and development are described
J. Michael Bowker; Siew Hoon Lim; H. Ken Cordell; Gary T. Green; Sandra Rideout-Hanzak; Cassandra Y. Johnson
We used a national household survey to examine knowledge, attitudes, and preferences pertaining to wildland fire. First, we present nationwide results and trends. Then, we examine opinions across region and race. Despite some regional variation, respondents are fairly consistent in their beliefs about assuming personal responsibility for living in fire-prone areas and...
Creaser, Janet I; Edwards, Christopher J; Morris, Nichole L; Donath, Max
Distracted driving is a significant concern for novice teen drivers. Although cellular phone bans are applied in many jurisdictions to restrict cellular phone use, teen drivers often report making calls and texts while driving. The Minnesota Teen Driver Study incorporated cellular phone blocking functions via a software application for 182 novice teen drivers in two treatment conditions. The first condition included 92 teens who ran a driver support application on a smartphone that also blocked phone usage. The second condition included 90 teens who ran the same application with phone blocking but which also reported back to parents about monitored risky behaviors (e.g., speeding). A third control group consisting of 92 novice teen drivers had the application and phone-based software installed on the phones to record cellular phone (but not block it) use while driving. The two treatment groups made significantly fewer calls and texts per mile driven compared to the control group. The control group data also demonstrated a higher propensity to text while driving rather than making calls. Software that blocks cellular phone use (except 911) while driving can be effective at mitigating calling and texting for novice teen drivers. However, subjective data indicates that some teens were motivated to find ways around the software, as well as to use another teen's phone while driving when they were unable to use theirs. Cellular phone bans for calling and texting are the first step to changing behaviors associated with texting and driving, particularly among novice teen drivers. Blocking software has the additional potential to reduce impulsive calling and texting while driving among novice teen drivers who might logically know the risks, but for whom it is difficult to ignore calling or texting while driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.
Bruce A. Shindler; Eric Toman; Sarah M. McCaffrey
Relative to the western United States, where fire and fuel management programs have received greater emphasis, few community-based studies have focused on the Great Lakes region. The present paper describes public opinion research from counties surrounding National Forests inWisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan. Survey data address citizen perspectives on (1) fuel...
This article shows the perspective of this research and the result of the complete count survey performed from October to November in 2013 to examine the attitude toward the prevention and the resolution of the workplace harassment at the Japanese universities. The questionnaire was distributed to 1131 universities, two years colleges, and…
Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.
Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384
Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E
Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.
Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J
Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Temple, Jeff R; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A; Temple, Brian W
The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Temple, Jeff R.; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A.; Temple, Brian W.
The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. PMID:24331302
Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Reidy, Dennis E.; Cortina, Kai S.
The present research explores the additive and interactive effects of anger or hostility (A/H), acceptance of violence (AoV), and constructive conflict resolution strategies (CRS) on the perpetration of physical and sexual teen dating violence (TDV). Adolescents completed surveys assessing physical and sexual TDV perpetration, A/H, AoV, and positive CRS. While the findings require replication with longitudinal data, the results suggest that developing interventions to modify AoV and A/H may have the potential to prevent instances of TDV perpetration among both boys and girls. The results for CRS were mixed and necessitate further exploration. These cross-sectional data provide insight into potentially fruitful areas of exploration for the development and tailoring of prevention strategies for teens at risk for physical and sexual TDV perpetration. PMID:28876526
Rebecca L. Hagedorn
Full Text Available High school student researchers and teen leaders from the Health Science Technology Academy (HSTA, under the supervision of HSTA teachers, led a childhood obesity prevention (COP program (iCook 4-H. The objective was to evaluate the feasibility and perceptions of having teen leaders implement a COP program for dyads of youth (9–10 years old and their primary adult food preparer. Behavior change and perceptions were assessed through surveys and open-ended interviews. Across eight HSTA organizations, 43 teen leaders participated in teaching the iCook 4-H program to 24 dyads. Increased frequency of culinary skills, physical activity and mealtime behavior were reported by youth. Almost all adults (93% reported that their youth had learned kitchen skills and that the program provided youth-adult quality time and developed culinary skills. Youth echoed adult perceptions with additional themes of food safety and physical activity. HSTA teen leaders perceived the program to be successful and reported the training they received to implement the program was adequate 98% of the time. HSTA teachers found the program to be beneficial for HSTA students in improving leadership, confidence and responsibility. iCook 4-H was feasible to be disseminated through teen leaders in the HSTA program. This teen-led approach could serve as a model for youth health-related programming.
Janice K. Tucker
Full Text Available This research surveyed 170 school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs in one northeastern state, with only 1.8% reporting telepractice use in school-settings. These results were consistent with two ASHA surveys (2002; 2011 that reported limited use of telepractice for school-based speech-language pathology. In the present study, willingness to use telepractice was inversely related to age, perhaps because younger members of the profession are more accustomed to using technology. Overall, respondents were concerned about the validity of assessments administered via telepractice; whether clinicians can adequately establish rapport with clients via telepractice; and if therapy conducted via telepractice can be as effective as in-person speech-language therapy. Most respondents indicated the need to establish procedures and guidelines for school-based telepractice programs.
Lauria de Gentile, Patricia; Leiguarda de Orue, Ana Maria
Working with teenagers is not an easy task. This seems to be a notion shared by language teachers all over the world. While some instructors are very keen on working with this special age group, others are not fond of the challenge. The truth is that teaching English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) to teens has never been easy. According to…
The United States has a teenage birth rate that is high relative to that of other developed countries, and falling more slowly. Children of teenagers may experience difficult childhoods and hence be more likely to commit crimes subsequently. I assess to what extent lagged teen birth rates can explain why the United States had the highest developed country crime rates in the 1980s, and why US rates subsequently fell so much. For this purpose, I use internationally comparable crime rates measur...
Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). UNM Inst. for Public Policy
This is the third report in a series of studies to examine how US attitudes about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era and to identify trends in public perceptions and preferences relevant to the evolution of US nuclear security policy. It presents findings from three surveys: a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public; a written survey of randomly selected members of American Men and Women of Science; and a written survey of randomly selected state legislators from all fifty US states. Key areas of investigation included nuclear security, cooperation between US and Russian scientists about nuclear issues, vulnerabilities of critical US infrastructures and responsibilities for their protection, and broad areas of US national science policy. While international and US national security were seen to be slowly improving, the primary nuclear threat to the US was perceived to have shifted from Russia to China. Support was found for nuclear arms control measures, including mutual reductions in stockpiles. However, respondents were pessimistic about eliminating nuclear armaments, and nuclear deterrence continued to be highly values. Participants favored decreasing funding f/or developing and testing new nuclear weapons, but supported increased investments in nuclear weapons infrastructure. Strong concerns were expressed about nuclear proliferation and the potential for nuclear terrorism. Support was evident for US scientific cooperation with Russia to strengthen security of Russian nuclear assets. Elite and general public perceptions of external and domestic nuclear weapons risks and external and domestic nuclear weapons benefits were statistically significantly related to nuclear weapons policy options and investment preferences. Demographic variables and individual belief systems were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and to policy and spending preferences.
Said A. Salloum
Full Text Available Text mining has become one of the trendy fields that has been incorporated in several research fields such as computational linguistics, Information Retrieval (IR and data mining. Natural Language Processing (NLP techniques were used to extract knowledge from the textual text that is written by human beings. Text mining reads an unstructured form of data to provide meaningful information patterns in a shortest time period. Social networking sites are a great source of communication as most of the people in today’s world use these sites in their daily lives to keep connected to each other. It becomes a common practice to not write a sentence with correct grammar and spelling. This practice may lead to different kinds of ambiguities like lexical, syntactic, and semantic and due to this type of unclear data, it is hard to find out the actual data order. Accordingly, we are conducting an investigation with the aim of looking for different text mining methods to get various textual orders on social media websites. This survey aims to describe how studies in social media have used text analytics and text mining techniques for the purpose of identifying the key themes in the data. This survey focused on analyzing the text mining studies related to Facebook and Twitter; the two dominant social media in the world. Results of this survey can serve as the baselines for future text mining research.
Irene Hegeman Richard
Full Text Available Irene Hegeman Richard1, Kori A LaDonna1, Rosanne Hartman2, Carol Podgorski1, Roger Kurlan1, SAD-PD Study Group31University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Canisius College, Buffalo, NY, USA; 3Please see Appendix for members of the SAD-PD Study GroupAbstract: We report results of a survey assessing patients’ knowledge about and attitudes towards depression in Parkinson’s disease (PD. 345 patients from 8 tertiary care centers responded (43% response rate. Overall, patients were relatively knowledgeable about depression and its occurrence in PD. However, many patients believed that depression is a normal reaction to the illness. While many respondents would be reluctant to initiate a discussion of depression during a clinical evaluation, most would feel comfortable talking about depression with their physician if he or she asked them questions about their mood. Based on the results of this survey, we recommend the following approach for physicians: (1 inform PD patients that, although a frequent occurrence, depression need not be accepted as a “normal reaction” to PD; and (2 routinely inquire about depressive symptoms rather than waiting for the patient to spontaneously report them.Keywords: depression, Parkinson’s disease, survey
Peek-Asa, Corinne; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Yang, Jingzhen; Chande, Vidya; Young, Tracy; Ramirez, Marizen
Crashes are the leading cause of death for teens, and parent-based interventions are a promising approach. We assess the effectiveness of Steering Teens Safe, a parent-focused program to increase safe teen driving. Steering Teens Safe aimed to improve parental communication with teens about safe driving using motivational interviewing techniques in conjunction with 19 safe driving lessons. A randomized controlled trial involved 145 parent-teen dyads (70 intervention and 75 control). Intervention parents received a 45-minute session to learn the program with four follow-up phone sessions, a DVD, and a workbook. Control parents received a standard brochure about safe driving. Scores were developed to measure teen-reported quantity and quality of parental communication about safe driving. The main outcome measure was a previously validated Risky Driving Score reported by teens. Because the Score was highly skewed, a generalized linear model based on a gamma distribution was used for analysis. Intervention teens ranked their parent's success in talking about driving safety higher than control teens (p = 0.035) and reported that their parents talked about more topics (non-significant difference). The Risky Driving Score was 21% lower in intervention compared to control teens (85% CI = 0.60, 1.00). Interaction between communication quantity and the intervention was examined. Intervention teens who reported more successful communication had a 42% lower Risky Driving Score (95% CI = 0.37, 0.94) than control parents with less successful communication. This program had a positive although not strong effect, and it may hold the most promise in partnership with other programs, such as Driver's Education or Graduated Driver's License policies. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014923. Registered Nov. 16, 2009.
The Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago (MSI) is in the early stages of a NOAA supported Environmental Literacy Grant project that aims to engage high school age youth in the exploration of climate and Earth systems science. Participating youth are positioned as teen advocates for establishing resilient communities in the Midwest. The project utilizes a variety of resources, including NOAA Science On a Sphere® (SOS) technology and datasets, Great Lakes and local climate assets, and local municipal resiliency planning guides to develop museum-based youth programming. Teen participants in the project will share their learning through regular facilitated interactions with public visitors in the Museum and will bring learning experiences to Chicago Public Library sites throughout the city's neighborhoods. Project content will also be adapted for use in 100+ after-school science clubs to engage younger students from diverse communities across the Chicago area. Current strategies for supporting teen facilitation of public experiences, linkages to out of school time and summer learning programs, and connections to local resiliency planning agencies will be explored.
McPhail, Deborah; Chapman, Gwen E; Beagan, Brenda L
Recently, public health agents and the popular media have argued that rising levels of obesity are due, in part, to "obesogenic" environments, and in particular to the clustering of fast food establishments in Western urban centers that are poor and working class. Our findings from a multi-site, cross-national qualitative study of teenaged Canadians' eating practices in urban and rural areas offer another perspective on this topic, showing that fast food consumption is not simply a function of the location of fast food outlets, and that Canadian teens engage in complex ways with the varied dimensions of choosing (or rejecting) fast foods. Drawing on evidence gleaned from semi-structured interviews with 132 teenagers (77 girls and 55 boys, ages 13-19 years) carried out between 2007 and 2009, we maintain that no easy relationship exists between the geographical availability of fast food and teen eating behaviors. We use critical obesity literature that challenges widely accepted understandings about obesity prevalence and etiology, as well as Lamont's (1992, 2000) concept of "moral boundary work," to argue that teen fast food consumption and avoidance is multifaceted and does not stem exclusively nor directly from spatial proximity or social class. Through moral boundary work, in which teens negotiated with moralistic notions of healthy eating, participants made and re-made themselves as "good" and successful subjects by Othering those who were "bad" in references to socially derived discourses of healthy eating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lantz, Paula M; Rubin, Nicole; Mauery, D Richard
The purpose of this paper is to describe an international survey of hospital executives and administrators' perspectives on the contributions of their affiliation with a Ronald McDonald House (RMH) as an example of accommodation in family-centered care to the hospital's mission, operations and patient experience. RMHs worldwide provided the names and e-mail addresses of the people holding key leadership positions in their main hospital partner, who in turn were invited to complete an internet-based survey (530 participants; response rate of 54.5 percent). Hospital leaders reported very positive opinions about the contributions of their RMHs affiliation to their ability to serve seriously ill children and their families. This included such important outcomes as increasing family integrity and family participation in care decisions; and decreasing psychosocial stress and hospital social work resource burdens associated with lodging, food, transportation and sibling support. Hospital chief executive offices (CEOs) and medical directors reported very strong and positive opinions regarding the value-added of their RMHs affiliation in many areas, including enhanced marketing of hospital specialty services and reduced length of stay. Survey response bias is a limitation, although the results are still useful in terms of identifying multiple ways in which RMHs are perceived as contributing to hospitals' operations and provision of family-centered care. Overall, the results suggest that, internationally, hospital leaders believe that RMHs play a key and valued role in their provision of family-centered care to seriously ill children and their families. Family accommodation is more than the simple provision of lodging and plays an integral role how hospitals approach family-centered care. This international study contributes to the general literature on the role of family accommodation in hospitals' provision of family-centered care and the specific and very sparse
Anderson, Belinda J; Kligler, Benjamin; Cohen, Hillel W; Marantz, Paul R
Research literacy and the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are important initiatives in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), which requires cultural change within educational institutions for successful implementation. To determine the self-assessed research and EBM perspectives of Chinese medicine Masters degree students at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New York campus (PCOM-NY). A survey with 17 close-ended questions and one open-ended question was administered through Survey Monkey to students at PCOM-NY. The survey was sent to 420 Masters students and 176 (41.9%) responded. Students in all four years of the Masters degree indicated a generally high degree of interest in, and support for the value of research. However, increasing years (one to four years) in the program was associated with lower interest in post-graduation research participation and entering the doctoral program, and the fourth year students reported low levels of interest in having greater research content and training in their Masters degree programs. Students who responded to the open-ended question (23% of respondents) expressed enthusiasm for research and concerns about the relevance of research in Chinese medicine. Consistent with findings in similar studies at CAM colleges, interest in research, and EBM of the PCOM-NY Masters students appeared to decline with increasing years in the program. Concerns around paradigm and epistemological issues associated with research and EBM among Chinese medicine students and practitioners warrants further investigation, and may be an important challenge for integrative medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shults, Ruth A; Williams, Allan F
The Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey provides nationally-representative annual estimates of licensure and driving patterns among U.S. teens. A previous study using MTF data reported substantial declines in the proportion of high school seniors that were licensed to drive and increases in the proportion of nondrivers following the recent U.S. economic recession. To explore whether licensure and driving patterns among U.S. high school seniors have rebounded in the post-recession years, we analyzed MTF licensure and driving data for the decade of 2006-2015. We also examined trends in teen driver involvement in fatal and nonfatal injury crashes for that decade using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, respectively. During 2006-2015, the proportion of high school seniors that reported having a driver's license declined by 9 percentage points (11%) from 81% to 72% and the proportion that did not drive during an average week increased by 8 percentage points (44%) from 18% to 26%. The annual proportion of black seniors that did not drive was consistently greater than twice the proportion of nondriving white seniors. Overall during the decade, 17- and 18-year-old drivers experienced large declines in fatal and nonfatal injury crashes, although crashes increased in both 2014 and 2015. The MTF data indicate that licensure and driving patterns among U.S. high school seniors have not rebounded since the economic recession. The recession had marked negative effects on teen employment opportunities, which likely influenced teen driving patterns. Possible explanations for the apparent discrepancies between the MTF data and the 2014 and 2015 increases in crashes are explored. MTF will continue to be an important resource for clarifying teen driving trends in relation to crash trends and informing strategies to improve teen driver safety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G.
BACKGROUND Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. OBJECTIVE This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. METHODS Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). RESULTS The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. CONTRIBUTION This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and
Full Text Available Background: Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. Objective: This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Methods: Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529. Results: The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. Contribution: This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship
Monroe, Kathy; Irons, Elizabeth; Crew, Marie; Norris, Jesse; Nichols, Michele; King, William D
Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in teens. Alabama has been in the Top 5 states for MVC fatality rate among teens in the United States for several years. Twelve years of teen MVC deaths and injuries were evaluated. Our hypothesis is that the teen driving motor vehicle-related deaths and injuries have decreased related to legislative and community awareness activities. A retrospective analysis of Alabama teen MVC deaths and injury for the years 2000 to 2011 was conducted. MVC data were obtained from a Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set managed by the Center for Advanced Public Safety at the University of Alabama. A Lowess regression-scattergram analysis was used to identify period specific changes in deaths and injury over time. Statistical analysis was conducted using True Epistat 5.0 software. When the Lowess regression was applied, there was an obvious change in the trend line in 2007. To test that observation, we then compared medians in the pre-2007 and post-2007 periods, which validated our observation. Moreover, it provided a near-even number of observations for comparison. The Spearman rank correlation was used to test for correlation of deaths and injury over time. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate median differences in deaths and injury comparing pre-2007 and post-2007 data. Alabama teen MVC deaths and injury demonstrated a significant negative correlation over the 12-year period (Rs for deaths and injury, -0.87 [p teen driver deaths and injury have decreased during the 12-year study period, most notably after 2006. Factors that may have contributed to this trend may include stricter laws for teen drivers (enacted in 2002 and updated in 2010), less teen driving because of a nationwide economic downturn, delayed licensing in teens, steady improvements in overall seat belt use, and heightened public awareness of risky behaviors in teen driving.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G
Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking.
Prasada Kumari K.S.
Full Text Available The increasing demand for ultra-low power electronic systems has motivated research in device technology and hardware design techniques. Experimental studies have proved that the hardware innovations for power reduction are fully exploited only with the proper design of upper layer software. Also, the software power and energy modelling and analysis – the first step towards energy reduction is complex due to the inter and intra dependencies of processors, operating systems, application software, programming languages and compilers. The subject is too vast; the paper aims to give a consolidated view to researchers in arriving at solutions to power optimization problems from a software perspective. The review emphasizes the fact that software design and implementation is to be viewed from system energy conservation angle rather than as an isolated process. After covering a global view of end to end software based power reduction techniques for micro sensor nodes to High Performance Computing systems, specific design aspects related to battery powered Embedded computing for mobile and portable systems are addressed in detail. The findings are consolidated into 2 major categories – those related to research directions and those related to existing industry practices. The emerging concept of Green Software with specific focus on mainframe computing is also discussed in brief. Empirical results on power saving are included wherever available. The paper concludes that only with the close co-ordination between hardware architect, software architect and system architect low energy systems can be realized.
Karasik, Rona J; Kishimoto, Kyoko
The older population in the United States is becoming more diverse, bringing increasing attention to the ways in which diversity and multiculturalism are addressed in gerontological education. Although diversity and multiculturalism have long been recognized as important components of the aging experience, our approach to understanding their significance and impact continues to grow and change. Anti-racist pedagogy represents one catalyst to stimulate such change. To evaluate the potential for anti-racist pedagogy in gerontology, this study explored gerontological educators' (N = 121) current practices and perspectives regarding the inclusion of diversity content in their courses, as well as the extent to which they are familiar with and/or use anti-racist pedagogy in their classes. The findings suggest that greater attention to issues of race, ethnicity, and multicultural diversity throughout the gerontological curriculum is needed and wanted. Although respondents were generally unfamiliar with the name anti-racist pedagogy, many indicated that their current teaching practices employed select components of it. Overall, the findings point toward the need for continued exploration of how anti-racist pedagogy may be brought into the gerontological classroom, as well as its implications for future research, policy, and practice.
Obi, I E; Charles-Okoli, A N; Agunwa, C C; Omotowo, B I; Ndu, A C; Agwu-Umahi, O R
Learning in the medical school of the study university is still by the traditional face-to-face approach with minimal e-communication. This paper assesses student's perspectives of E-learning readiness, its predictors and presents a model for assessing them. A descriptive cross-sectional study of medical students. By proportional quota sampling 284 students responded to a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire adapted from literature. Ethical issues were given full consideration. Analysis was with SPSS version 20, using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Spearman's correlation, and multiple regression. Statistical significance was considered at P E-learning (Mlr = 3.8 > Melr = 3.4), beyond reliance on the face-to-face approach (69.7%), expecting effective (51.1%), and quality improvement in their learning (73.1%). Having basic information and communications technology skills (68.9%) (Mict = 3.7 > Melr = 3.4), access to laptops (76.1%), ability to use web browsers confidently (91.8%) (Mwb = 4.3 > Melr = 3.4), with only few able to use asynchronous tools (45.5%), they consider content design important to attract users (75.6%), and agree they need training on E-learning content (71.4%). They however do not believe the university has enough information technology infrastructure (62.4%) (Mi = 2.7 E-learning. Predicted by their attitude, content, technological and cultural readiness. Further study with qualitative methodology will help in preparing for this evolution in learning.
Lee, Si Hyung; Kang, Eun Min; Kim, Gyu Ah; Kwak, Seung Woo; Kim, Joon Mo; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun
Background To investigate the association between heavy metal levels and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low- and high-teen baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods This cross-sectional study included 5,198 participants older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2012 and had blood heavy metal levels available. The OAG with normal baseline IOP (IOP ? 21 mmHg) subjects...
Full Text Available Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. Although the response rate (28% was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62% have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99% considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77% indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco’s impact on the environment.
Cachat, Jonathan; Bandrowski, Anita; Grethe, Jeffery S; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim; Imam, Fahim; Larson, Stephen D; Martone, Maryann E
The number of available neuroscience resources (databases, tools, materials, and networks) available via the Web continues to expand, particularly in light of newly implemented data sharing policies required by funding agencies and journals. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of classic search engine systems make efficient, reliable, and relevant discovery of such resources a significant challenge. This challenge is especially pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is largely opaque to contemporary search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework was initiated to address this problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources. Since its first production release in 2008, NIF has been surveying the resource landscape for the neurosciences, identifying relevant resources and working to make them easily discoverable by the neuroscience community. In this chapter, we provide a survey of the resource landscape for neuroscience: what types of resources are available, how many there are, what they contain, and most importantly, ways in which these resources can be utilized by the research community to advance neuroscience research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ortiz, Robin; Chandros Hull, Sara; Colloca, Luana
To examine qualitative responses regarding the use of placebo treatments in medical care in a sample of US patients.Survey studies suggest a deliberate clinical use of placebos by physicians, and prior research has found that although most US patients find placebo use acceptable, the rationale for these beliefs is largely unknown. Members of the Outpatient Clinic at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California interviewed research participants who had been seen for a chronic health problem at least once in the prior 6 months. 853 women (61%) and men, white (58%) and non-white participants aged 18-75 years. Qualitative responses on perceptions of placebo use from one-time telephone surveys were analysed for common themes and associations with demographic variables. Prior results indicated that a majority of respondents felt it acceptable for doctors to recommend placebo treatments. Our study found that a lack of harm (n=291, 46.1%) and potential benefit (n=250, 39.6%) were the most common themes to justify acceptability of placebo use. Responses citing potential benefit were associated with higher education (r=0.787; pright to know and power of the mind. Older age was associated with likelihood to cite overall physician, as opposed to treatment, related themes (r=0.753; prights-and-licensing/
The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a long-standing proponent of using models as tools in geohydrologic investigations. These models vary from maps and core samples to elaborate digital computer algorithms, depending on the needed application and resources available. Being a non-regulatory scientific agency, the USGS uses models primarily for: improving modeling technology, testing hypotheses, management of water resources, providing technical advice to other agencies, parameter sensitivity analysis, and determination of parameter values (inverse problems). At low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, we are most interested in developing better capabilities for understanding the groundwater flor regime within and away from burial trenches, geochemical factors affecting nuclide concentration and mobility in groundwater, and the effects that various changes in the geohydrologic conditions have on groundwater flow and nuclide migration. Although the Geological Survey has modeling capabilities in a variety of complex problems, significant deficiencies and limitations remain in certain areas, such as fracture flow conditions and solute transport in the unsaturated zone. However, even more serious are the deficiencies in measuring or estimating adequate input data for models and verification of model utility on real problems. Flow and transport models are being used by the USGS in several low-level disposal site studies, with varying degrees of sucess
Lyshol, Heidi; Gissler, Mika; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn; Petzold, Max; Obel, Carsten
Background Survey response rates have been declining over the past decade. The more widespread use of the Internet and Web-based technologies among potential health survey participants suggests that Web-based questionnaires may be an alternative to paper questionnaires in future epidemiological studies. Objective To compare response rates in a population of parents by using 4 different modes of data collection for a questionnaire survey of which 1 involved a nonmonetary incentive. Methods A random sample of 3148 parents of Danish children aged 2-17 years were invited to participate in the Danish part of the NordChild 2011 survey on their children’s health and welfare. NordChild was conducted in 1984 and 1996 in collaboration with Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden using mailed paper questionnaires only. In 2011, all countries used conventional paper versions only except Denmark where the parents were randomized into 4 groups: (1) 789 received a paper questionnaire only (paper), (2) 786 received the paper questionnaire and a log-in code to the Web-based questionnaire (paper/Web), (3) 787 received a log-in code to the Web-based questionnaire (Web), and (4) 786 received log-in details to the Web-based questionnaire and were given an incentive consisting of a chance to win a tablet computer (Web/tablet). In connection with the first reminder, the nonresponders in the paper, paper/Web, and Web groups were also present with the opportunity to win a tablet computer as a means of motivation. Descriptive analysis was performed using chi-square tests. Odds ratios were used to estimate differences in response rates between the 4 modes. Results In 2011, 1704 of 3148 (54.13%) respondents answered the Danish questionnaire. The highest response rate was with the paper mode (n=443, 56.2%). The other groups had similar response rates: paper/Web (n=422, 53.7%), Web (n=420, 53.4%), and Web/tablet (n=419, 53.3%) modes. Compared to the paper mode, the odds for response rate in the
Frankel, David S; Parker, Sarah E; Rosenfeld, Lynda E; Gorelick, Philip B
The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is substantial and increasing. Stroke is common in AF and can have devastating consequences. Oral anticoagulants are effective in reducing stroke risk, but are underutilized. We sought to characterize the impact of stroke on AF patients and their caregivers, gaps in knowledge and perspective between physicians and patients, and barriers to effective communication and optimal anticoagulation use. A survey was administered to AF patients with and without history of stroke, caregivers of stroke survivors, and physicians across the range of specialties caring for AF and stroke patients. While AF patients (n = 499) had limited knowledge about stroke, they expressed great desire to learn more and take action to reduce their risk. They were often dissatisfied with the education they had received and desired high-quality written materials. Stroke survivors (n = 251) had poor functional outcomes and often underestimated the burden of caring for them. Caregivers (n = 203) also wished they had received more information about reducing stroke risk before their survivor's event. They commonly felt overwhelmed and socially isolated. Physicians (n = 504) did not prescribe anticoagulants as frequently as recommended by guidelines. Concerns about monitoring anticoagulation and patient compliance were commonly reported barriers. Physicians may underestimate patient willingness to take anticoagulants. We identified significant knowledge gaps among patients, caregivers, and physicians in relation to AF and stroke. Furthermore, gaps in perspective often lead to suboptimal communication and decision making. Increased education and better communication between all stakeholders are needed to reduce the impact of stroke in AF. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society and National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. Steering Teens Safe is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills with their teens. This implementation evaluation focuses on a sample of 83 parents who delivered Steering Teens Safe to their teens. One-, 2- and 3-month follow-up assessments were conducted with intervention parents to evaluate the self-reported quantity and quality of talking about, demonstrating, and practicing safe driving goals with teens; perceived success and benefit of the program; and barriers to implementation. Over 3 months of follow-up, parents discussed driving goals with their teens for a median of 101.5 minutes. The most frequently addressed topics were general safety principles, including distracted driving, driving in bad weather, wearing a seat belt, and being a safe passenger. Parents spent a median of 30 minutes practicing safe driving skills such as changing lanes. Sixty-seven percent of parents talked to their children about rural road safety, but just 36% demonstrated and half practiced these skills with their teens. Barriers to implementation include time and opportunity barriers and resistant attitudes of their teens. However, barriers neither affected frequency of engagement nor parents' perceived benefit and comfort in delivering the program. Parents with time/opportunity barriers also had higher practice and demonstration times than parents without these barriers. Findings indicate high acceptability among parent implementers and promise for real-world delivery. Future studies are needed to assess intervention impact.
Al-Shayea, Eman I
Objectives: This study aimed to outline orthodontists’ perspectives at what stage they would initiate orthodontic treatment and also sought to assess the relationship between orthodontists’ views and their genders, types of practice, and experience levels. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent electronically to 165 practicing orthodontists at different regions in Saudi Arabia. The orthodontists were asked to consider at what stage they would initiate orthodontic treatment for a child with one of 29 different types of occlusal deviations, functional problems, and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) listed in the questionnaire as their main orthodontic problem. Frequency distributions of all the variables were derived, and comparisons were made using the Chi-square tests. Results: Fifty-two electronically completed questionnaires were returned (31.5% response rate). The majority of the respondents were males (63.5%). The majority of respondents (90%) reported that they would treat most of the occlusal deviations in the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross-bite was the most frequent indication for treatment during the early mixed dentition stage (73.7%). Conditions rated as best treated during the late mixed, or the permanent dentition stages were; overjet > 6 mm with interdental spacing, maxillary midline diastema >2 mm and deep bite >5 mm without palatal impingement. The majority of respondents (86.6%) preferred to treat most of the functional problems in the deciduous or early mixed dentition stage. Orthodontists with more than 15 years of experience preferred to treat patients with TMDs, whereas those with <15 years of experience opted to refer such patients to TMD specialists. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that orthodontists should consider many factors, such as the risks, benefits, duration, and costs of early and late intervention, when deciding the best timing to begin orthodontic treatment. PMID:25426455
Al-Shayea, Eman I
This study aimed to outline orthodontists' perspectives at what stage they would initiate orthodontic treatment and also sought to assess the relationship between orthodontists' views and their genders, types of practice, and experience levels. A questionnaire was sent electronically to 165 practicing orthodontists at different regions in Saudi Arabia. The orthodontists were asked to consider at what stage they would initiate orthodontic treatment for a child with one of 29 different types of occlusal deviations, functional problems, and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) listed in the questionnaire as their main orthodontic problem. Frequency distributions of all the variables were derived, and comparisons were made using the Chi-square tests. Fifty-two electronically completed questionnaires were returned (31.5% response rate). The majority of the respondents were males (63.5%). The majority of respondents (90%) reported that they would treat most of the occlusal deviations in the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross-bite was the most frequent indication for treatment during the early mixed dentition stage (73.7%). Conditions rated as best treated during the late mixed, or the permanent dentition stages were; overjet > 6 mm with interdental spacing, maxillary midline diastema >2 mm and deep bite >5 mm without palatal impingement. The majority of respondents (86.6%) preferred to treat most of the functional problems in the deciduous or early mixed dentition stage. Orthodontists with more than 15 years of experience preferred to treat patients with TMDs, whereas those with <15 years of experience opted to refer such patients to TMD specialists. The findings of the present study suggest that orthodontists should consider many factors, such as the risks, benefits, duration, and costs of early and late intervention, when deciding the best timing to begin orthodontic treatment.
Joop J.C.M. Hox
Full Text Available Meuleman and Billiet (2009 have carried out a simulation study aimed at the question how many countries are needed for accurate multilevel SEM estimation in comparative studies. The authors concluded that a sample of 50 to 100 countries is needed for accurate estimation. Recently, Bayesian estimation methods have been introduced in structural equation modeling which should work well with much lower sample sizes. The current study reanalyzes the simulation of Meuleman and Billiet using Bayesian estimation to find the lowest number of countries needed when conducting multilevel SEM. The main result of our simulations is that a sample of about 20 countries is sufficient for accurate Bayesian estimation, which makes multilevel SEM practicable for the number of countries commonly available in large scale comparative surveys.
Jutte, Douglas P; Roos, Noralou P; Brownell, Marni D; Briggs, Gemma; MacWilliam, Leonard; Roos, Leslie L
We examined medical, educational and social risks to children of teen mothers and children of nonadolescent mothers with a history of teen birth (prior teen mothers) and considered these risks at both the individual and societal level. A population-based, retrospective cohort study tracked outcomes through young adulthood for children born in Manitoba, Canada (n = 32 179). chi(2) and logistic regression analyses examined risk of childhood death or hospitalization, failure to graduate high school, intervention by child protective services, becoming a teen mother, and welfare receipt as a young adult. For children of both teen and prior teen mothers, adjusted likelihoods of death during infancy, school-aged years, and adolescence were more than 2-fold higher than for other children. Risks for hospitalization, high hospital use, academic failure, and poor social outcomes were also substantially higher. At a societal level, only 16.5% of cohort children were born to teen and prior teen mothers. However, these children accounted for 27% of first-year hospitalizations, 34% of deaths (birth to 17 years), 30% of failures to graduate high school, 51% in foster care, 44% on welfare as young adults, and 56% of next-generation young teen mothers. Children of prior teen mothers had increased risks for poor health and for educational and social outcomes nearly equal to those seen in children of teen mothers. Combined, these relatively few children experienced a large share of the negative outcomes occurring among young people. Our results suggest the need to expand the definition of risk associated with adolescent motherhood and target their children for enhanced medical and social services. Copyright 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chaidez, Virginia; Palmer-Wackerly, Angela L; Trout, Kate E
A statewide Community Health Worker Employer Survey was administered to various clinical, community, and faith-based organizations (n = 240) across a range of rural and urban settings in the Midwest. At least 80% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that items characterized as supervisory support were present in their work environment. Thirty-six percent of respondents currently employed CHWs, over half (51%) of survey respondents reported seeing the need to hire/work with more CHWs, and 44% saw the need for CHWs increasing in the future. Regarding CHW support, a majority of respondents indicated networking opportunities (63%), paid time for networking (80%), adequate time for supervision (75%), orientation training (78%), mandatory training (78%), ongoing training (79%), and paid time for training (82%). Open-ended responses to the question "In your organization, what needs could CHWs meet?" resulted in the largest number of respondents reporting mental health issues as a priority, followed by connecting people with services or resources, educating the public on preventive health, family support, and home care/visitations. Our findings suggest that respondents, who largely have supervisory or managerial roles, view workplace environments in Nebraska favorably, despite the fact that nearly two-thirds of respondents typically work well over 40 h per week. In addition, CHWs could help address mental and physical health needs in a variety of community and clinical settings through primary and secondary prevention activities, such as provision of health screenings, health and nutrition education, connecting people to resources and empowering community members through these activities and more.
Agosto, Denise E., Ed.; Hughes-Hassell, Sandra, Ed.
"Urban Teens in the Library" is the perfect solution for the concerns and uncertainty many librarians face when supporting this group of patrons and students. From a team of experts who have researched the information habits and preferences of urban teens to build better and more effective school and public library programs, this book will show…
Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara
Teen childbearing affects young people at both ends of childhood. When teens have children, their own health may be jeopardized and their chances to build productive lives are often diminished. Compared to women who postpone childbearing until they are older, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and to live in poverty. At the same…
This podcast is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them. Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/2/2013.
Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.; Hebert, Luciana; Mellor, Ruth
Based on semistructured interviews with a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 58 U.S. high school students, this study examines teens' exposure to contraceptive information from a range of sources and the extent to which they trust this information. Teens report exposure to contraceptive information from many individuals and places, most…
Papillo, Angela Romano, Comp.; Franzetta, Kerry, Comp.; Manlove, Jennifer, Comp.; Moore, Kristin Anderson, Comp.; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth, Comp.; Ryan, Suzanne, Comp.
This publication reports trends in teen childbearing in the nation, in each state, and in large cities using data from the 2001 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Rates of teenage childbearing continue to steadily decline, and the 2001 rates are historic lows for each age group. NCHS data showed that almost 80% of teen births nationwide…
Layde, Molly M; Remington, Patrick L
Despite recent declines in teen birth rates, teenage pregnancy remains an important public health problem in Wisconsin with significant social, economic, and health-related effects. Compare and contrast teen birth rate trends by race, ethnicity, and county in Wisconsin. Teen (ages 15-19 years) birth rates (per 1000 teenage females) in Wisconsin from 2001-2010 were compared by racelethnicity and county of residence using data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health. Teen birth rates in Wisconsin have declined by 20% over the past decade, from 35.5/1000 teens in 2001 to 28.3/1000 teens in 2010-a relative decline of 20.3%. However, trends vary by race, with declines among blacks (-33%) and whites (-26%) and increases among American Indians (+21%) and Hispanics (+30%). Minority teen birth rates continue to be 3 to 5 times greater than birth rates among whites. Rates varied even more by county, with an over 14-fold difference between Ozaukee County (7.8/1000) and Menominee County (114.2). Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in Wisconsin. Pregnancy prevention programs should be targeted toward the populations and counties with the highest rates.
Young, Tamera; Turner, Jean; Denny, George; Young, Michael
Objectives: To identify antecedents of teen pregnancy. Methods: Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. This data set allowed us to identify eighth-grade antecedents of teen pregnancy/childbearing. Results: The variables that were found to be most predictive of later pregnancy were reflective of internal poverty (locus…
This 60 second PSA is based on the April, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Having a child during the teen years comes at a high cost to the young mother, her child, and the community. Get tips to help break the cycle of teen pregnancy.
Naughton, Robin Amanda
The main goal of this research study was to develop a conceptual model for the design of public library websites for teens (TLWs) that would enable designers and librarians to create library websites that better suit teens' information needs and practices. It bridges a gap in the research literature between user interface design in human-computer…
Using the Add Health data (N = 9,530 dyads), this study explores sexual socialization in the family using the theory of reasoned action by assessing how mothers' opinions are associated with their childrens' sexual behavior. Findings suggest that the more sexually liberal teens think their mothers are, the more likely the teens are to have higher…
Basch, Charles E.
Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of teen pregnancy among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which nonmarital teen births adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address this problem. Methods: Literature review. Results: In 2006, the birth rate among 15-…
... A-Glance Project Connect Sexual Health STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... their risk for HIV , other STDs , and unintended pregnancy . The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for all Americans to be ...
Weiss, Jeffrey C; O'Neil, Joseph; Shope, Jean T; O'Connor, Karen G; Levin, Rebecca A
Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of death among teenagers. Little is known about the content of US paediatrician counselling about teen driving. To examine US paediatrician knowledge, attitudes, and counselling patterns regarding teen driving. A random sample questionnaire was mailed to American Academy of Pediatrics members in 2009 (n=1606; response=875 (55%)). Analysis was limited to 596 paediatricians who provide adolescent checkups. Questions addressed counselling and attitudes towards roles in promoting safe driving. Logistic regression assessed the relationship between counselling topics and practice characteristics. Most (89%) respondents provide some counselling about driving. Two topics commonly discussed by paediatricians were seatbelts (87%) and alcohol use (82%). Less frequently discussed were: cell phones (47%), speeding (43%), and dangers of transporting teen passengers (41%). Topics rarely discussed were: night driving (21%), graduated driver licensing laws (13%), safe cars (9%), driver education (9%), fatigue (25%), and parental limit setting (23%). Only 10% ever recommend a parent-teen driver agreement. Paediatricians who had a patient injured or killed in an MVC were more likely to discuss night driving (OR=2.86). Physicians caring for a high proportion of adolescents (OR=1.83) or patients with private insurance (OR=1.85) counsel more about the risks of driving with teen passengers. Paediatricians in the USA support counselling on teen driving during routine office visits, but omit many important risk factors. Few recommend parent-teen driver agreements. Methods that help clinicians efficiently and effectively counsel families about teen driving should be developed.
Although teen drivers make up a small percentage of the U.S. driving population, they are at an especially high risk : of being involved in a crash. Factors that contribute to teen drivers risk include their lack of experience and their : tendency...
Flores, Fabrizio; Wyrick, Gabrielle; Zwicky, Calder
As a companion to more data-driven articles and studies that consider the long-term impact of art museum teen programs on alumni, this article takes the form of a person to person interview with two founding teen members of important programs that emerged in the 1990s. Talking candidly about the impact of their program participation, Calder Zwicky…
Herrman, Judith W.; Moore, Christopher C.; Anthony, Becky
Teaching pregnancy prevention to large groups offers many challenges. This article describes the use of film clips, with guided discussion, to teach pregnancy prevention. In order to analyze the costs associated with teen pregnancy, a film clip discussion session based with the film "The Gloucester 18" was the keynote of a youth summit. The lesson…
Deveny, Mary Alice
Provides excerpts from a presentation at a librarians' continuing education workshop on teen sexuality and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), together with participants questions and comments. Goals of an HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) education program are presented, and activities for librarians are suggested. (EAM)
Vickberg, Suzanne M. Johnson; Kohn, Julia E.; Franco, Lydia M.; Criniti, Shannon
In 1999 Planned Parenthood[R] Federation of America (PPFA[R]) launched teenwire.com[SM], a Web site for young people. This study was designed to determine teens' reproductive health information needs. Selected for analysis were 1,219 submissions to the Ask the Experts section of the Web site. Each submission was independently coded by three of the…
Selfridge, Peter; Osburn, Jennifer
Whether using a social networking site like MySpace or Facebook or building a Web page from scratch, millions of teens are actively creating a vibrant part of the Internet. This is the definitive teen''s guide to publishing exciting web pages and blogs on the Web. This easy-to-follow guide shows teenagers how to: Create great MySpace and Facebook pages Build their own unique, personalized Web site Share the latest news with exciting blogging ideas Protect themselves online with cyber-safety tips Written by a teenager for other teens, this book leads readers step-by-step through the basics of web and blog design. In this book, teens learn to go beyond clicking through web sites to learning winning strategies for web design and great ideas for writing blogs that attract attention and readership.
Full Text Available Objective: To explore healthcare professionals’ views about the benefits and challenges of using information technology (IT resources for educating patients about their warfarin therapy.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of both community and hospital-based healthcare professionals (e.g., doctors, pharmacists and nurses involved using a purpose-designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were distributed using a multi-modal approach to maximise response rates.Results: Of the total 300 questionnaires distributed, 109 completed surveys were received (43.3% response rate. Over half (53.2% of the healthcare participants were aged between 40-59 years, the majority (59.5% of whom were female. Fifty nine (54.1% participants reported having had no access to warfarin-specific IT-based patient education resources, and a further 19 (38.0% of the participants who had IT-access reported that they never used such resources. According to the healthcare participants, the main challenges associated with educating their patients about warfarin therapy included: patient-related factors, such as older age, language barriers, cognitive impairments and/or ethnic backgrounds or healthcare professional factors, such as time constraints. The healthcare professionals reported that there were several aspects about warfarin therapy which they found difficult to educate their patients about which is why they identified computers and interactive touch screen kiosks as preferred IT devices to deliver warfarin education resources in general practices, hospital-based clinics and community pharmacies. At the same time, the healthcare professionals also identified a number of facilitators (e.g., to reinforce warfarin education, to offer reliable and easily comprehensible information and barriers (e.g., time and costs of using IT resources, difficulty in operating the resources that could impact on the effective implementation of these devices in educating patients about their
Shah, Monisha K; Gee, Rebekah E; Theall, Katherine P
Despite hypothesized relationships between lack of partner support during a woman's pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, few studies have examined partner support among teens. We examined a potential proxy measure of partner support and its impact on adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB) and pregnancy loss) among women who have had a teenage pregnancy in the United States. In a secondary data analysis utilizing cross-sectional data from 5609 women who experienced a teen pregnancy from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), we examined an alternative measure of partner support and its impact on adverse birth outcomes. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess differences in women who were teens at time of conception who had partner support during their pregnancy and those who did not, and their birth outcomes. Even after controlling for potential confounding factors, women with a supportive partner were 63% less likely to experience LBW [aOR: 0.37, 95% CI: (0.26-0.54)] and nearly 2 times less likely to have pregnancy loss [aOR: 0.48, 95% CI: (0.32-0.72)] compared to those with no partner support. Having partner support or involvement during a teenager's pregnancy may reduce the likelihood of having a poor birth outcome. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sung Un; Syn, Sue Yeon
This study aims to examine trends in studies of teens' health information behaviour. Eighty-two articles published between 2000 and 2012 were selected and analysed in various aspects: health topics by year, information sources, data collection methods, use of theories and models, collaborative and interdisciplinary efforts and published journals. Fifty-seven per cent of the studies focused on specific health topics, such as sexual health, while the rest covered general health topics. Almost half of the studies examined how teens search for and use health information on the Internet. Surveys were the most popular data collection technique. Only 12.2% were based on a theory or model. About 42% were conducted collaboratively by authors from multiple disciplines. With the increasing attention to specific health topics and online resources, the health information behaviour of teens has been examined more frequently since the mid-2000s. Its interdisciplinary nature was evidently shown from various disciplines that the authors were affiliated with and the journals of the published studies represented. This study suggests that there should be efforts to reflect new technology tools, apply mixed methods and increase the engagement level of collaboration to evolve this research domain. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.
Senserrick, Teresa M; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K
Several international jurisdictions allow family exemptions to graduated driver licensing passenger restrictions. The objective of this research was to examine differences in injury risk to US child passengers in crashes involving sibling versus non-sibling teen drivers, and to compare outcomes with crashes involving adult drivers. Insurance claim and telephone survey data were collected on 16 233 child passengers (representing 289 329 children) in 17 US jurisdictions. There was a trend toward higher restraint non-use by child passengers in the non-sibling group than in the sibling group (9.6% vs 4.7%; p = 0.08). Children in the sibling group had a 40% lower risk of injury than those in the non-sibling group (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.90); however, injury risk was higher in the sibling group than in children traveling with adults (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.26). Child passengers riding with sibling teen drivers may be safer than those riding with non-sibling teens, but not as safe as those riding with adult drivers.
Dickson, Cheryl L.
Suggests that just as violence on television is hypothesized to increase real-life violence, television romance can likely affect views of real-life romance. Hypothesizes that literature could undo television's mistakes and bridge the gap between real love and fantasy love. (SG)
Examines the benefits of satellite television communications for urban and suburban schools. Suggests that satellite television is "globalizing" classrooms by exposing students to world events and cultures other than their own. Describes "CNN Newsroom," a commercial-free cable television news service intended for high school…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the impact of Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection on patient reported outcomes in Europe. This study was conducted to assess the burden of HCV infection in terms of work productivity loss, activity impairment, health-related quality of life, healthcare resource utilization, and associated costs. Methods The 2010 European National Health and Wellness Survey (n = 57,805 provided data. Patients reporting HCV infection in France, Germany, the UK, Italy, and Spain were matched to respondents without HCV using propensity scores. Outcome measures included the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12v2 questionnaire. Subgroup analyses focused on treatment-naïve patients. Results HCV Patients (n = 286 had more work impairment (30% vs. 18%, p p p p p n = 139 also reported higher work impairment (29% vs. 15%, p p p p Conclusion HCV infection in Europe is associated with considerable economic and humanistic burden. This is also true of diagnosed patients who have never been treated for HCV.
AlKot, Mohammad Mahmoud; Gouda, Mohamed Alaa; KhalafAllah, Mahmoud Tawfik; Zahran, Mohamed Salah; Kallaf, Mostafa Mohamed; Zayed, Ahmed Medhat
PHENOMENON: Attitudes of medical students toward family medicine as a specialty choice can provide information on the future supply of family physicians. Due to the current worldwide shortage of family physicians, these attitudes, with their subsequent effects on the state and dynamics of the healthcare system, are important to investigate. A web-based questionnaire was sent to 600 medical students, selected by a systematic random sampling technique, in 7 Egyptian medical schools. Participants were surveyed to assess their perception of the family medicine specialty as a future career and explore the impact of different factors, including undergraduate family medicine clerkships, on their attitudes toward family medicine. We had a response rate of 75.2% (n = 451). Although 90.7% of students believed in the vital role that family medicine can play in Egypt's healthcare system, only 4.7% showed an intention to choose it as a future career. Students choosing family medicine as a first-career choice were more likely to have a prior contact with family physicians as consumers. Exposure to an undergraduate family medicine curriculum was associated with increased knowledge about family medicine but not the intentions to pursue it as a career. INSIGHTS: Medical students in Egypt have a positive perception of family medicine as an important specialty but low interest in its choice as a future career.
Bücking, B; Walz, M; Hartwig, E; Friess, T; Liener, U; Knobe, M; Ruchholtz, S; Bliemel, C
Many patients treated on trauma surgery wards are geriatric trauma patients. To improve treatment of these often multimorbid patients, various interdisciplinary treatment concepts have been established in Germany between trauma surgeons and geriatricians. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dissemination and the impact of the different orthogeriatric treatment concepts for geriatric trauma in Germany. Material and methods In March and April 2014 an electronic questionnaire for assessing the interdisciplinary treatment of geriatric trauma patients was sent to 691 medical directors of trauma surgery departments in Germany. A total of 259 (37 %) fully answered questionnaires could be analyzed. The analysis revealed that 70 % of all responding trauma surgery departments had an orthogeriatric treatment cooperation. Most of them reported having patient discharge agreements to geriatric rehabilitation facilities (59 %). Geriatric counseling services were reported by 39 % while 24 % reported having regular interdisciplinary visits and orthogeriatric wards were available in 13 %. The need for orthogeriatric services was considered to be high by 79 % of the participants and benefits especially for the patients were expected. These expectations were largely fulfilled. More than 70 % of respondents planned to intensify the orthogeriatric cooperation. In this context difficulties were seen in the lack of personnel resources, especially in a lack of geriatricians. The results of this survey underline the impact and the positive experiences in orthogeriatric services. Solutions have to be found to address the emerging problem of capacity constraints.
Full Text Available Objective: To describe chronic disease management programs active in Switzerland in 2007, using an exploratory survey. Methods: We searched the internet (Swiss official websites and Swiss web-pages, using Google, a medical electronic database (Medline, reference lists of pertinent articles, and contacted key informants. Programs met our operational definition of chronic disease management if their interventions targeted a chronic disease, included a multidisciplinary team (≥2 healthcare professionals, lasted at least six months, and had already been implemented and were active in December 2007. We developed an extraction grid and collected data pertaining to eight domains (patient population, intervention recipient, intervention content, delivery personnel, method of communication, intensity and complexity, environment, clinical outcomes. Results: We identified seven programs fulfilling our operational definition of chronic disease management. Programs targeted patients with diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, obesity, psychosis and breast cancer. Interventions were multifaceted; all included education and half considered planned follow-ups. The recipients of the interventions were patients, and healthcare professionals involved were physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists and case managers of various backgrounds. Conclusions: In Switzerland, a country with universal healthcare insurance coverage and little incentive to develop new healthcare strategies, chronic disease management programs are scarce. For future developments, appropriate evaluations of existing programs, involvement of all healthcare stakeholders, strong leadership and political will are, at least, desirable.
Cofield, Stacey S; Salter, Amber; Tyry, Tuula; Crowe, Christina; Cutter, Gary R; Fox, Robert J; Marrie, Ruth Ann
Interest in and use of marijuana by persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) has increased. While potential benefits have been reported, so have concerns about potential risks. Few large studies have been conducted about the perceptions and current usage of marijuana and medical cannabinoids in persons with MS. Participants in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry were surveyed in 2014 regarding legality and history of marijuana usage, both before and after diagnosis with MS. A total of 5,481 participants responded, with 78.2% female, 90% relapsing disease at onset, and a current mean age of 55.5 (10.2) years. Sixty-four percent had tried marijuana prior to their MS diagnosis, 47% have considered using for their MS, 26% have used for their MS, 20% have spoken with their physician about use, and 16% are currently using marijuana. Ninety-one percent think marijuana should be legal in some form. Men, those with higher disability, current and past nicotine smokers, and younger age were associated with a higher likelihood of current use. The majority of responders favor legalization and report high interest in the use of marijuana for treatment of MS symptoms, but may be reluctant to discuss this with health care providers. Health care providers should systematically inquire about use of marijuana.
Hughes, Christine M; Kramer, Erich; Colamonico, Jennifer; Duszak, Richard
To understand perceptions of primary care physicians (PCPs) about the value of advanced medical imaging. A national quantitative survey of 500 PCPs was conducted using an online self-administered questionnaire. Questions focused on advanced medical imaging (CT, MRI, and PET) and its perceived impact on the delivery of patient care. Responses were stratified by physician demographics. Large majorities of the PCPs indicated that advanced imaging increases their diagnostic confidence (441; 88%); provides data not otherwise available (451; 90%); permits better clinical decision making (440; 88%); increases confidence in treatment choices (438; 88%), and shortens time to definitive diagnosis (430; 86%]). Most (424; 85%) believe that patient care would be negatively affected without access to advanced imaging. PCPs whose clinical careers predated the proliferation of advanced imaging modalities (>20 years of practice) assigned higher value to advanced imaging on several dimensions compared with younger physicians whose training overlapped widespread technology availability. By a variety of metrics, large majorities of PCPs believe that advanced medical imaging provides considerable value to patient care. Those whose careers predated the widespread availability of advanced imaging tended to associate it with even higher value. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.
This report discusses critical social issues linked to teen pregnancy, explaining that teen pregnancy prevention should be viewed as working to improve these social issues. After providing general background on teen pregnancy, the report offers five fact sheets: (1) "Teen Pregnancy, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty" (continuing to reduce…
Out, Jennifer W.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.
Examined the effectiveness of Baby Think It Over (BTIO), an infant simulation program that seeks to modify attitudes toward teen pregnancy and teen parenting. After experiencing BTIO, teens in the intervention group were more likely to accurately access their personal risk for an unplanned pregnancy than were teens in the comparison group. (Author)
Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.
Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…
Thomas, Charles L.; Dimitrov, Dimiter M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of program interventions in a school-based teen pregnancy program on hypothesized constructs underlying teens' attitudes toward sexuality. An important task related to this purpose was the validation of the constructs and their stability from pre- to postintervention measures. Data from 1,136…
Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela
To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…
Hayden, Mary H; Barrett, Erika; Bernard, Guyah; Toko, Eunice N; Agawo, Maurice; Okello, Amanda M; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Ernst, Kacey C
Increasing the active participation of professional women in vector control (VC) activities may help promote greater gender equity in the workplace and reduce the burden of vector-borne diseases. This stakeholder survey examined the current roles and perspective of professionals employed in the VC sector in Kenya, Indonesia, India, and other countries. The largest barriers that women face in pursuing leadership roles in the VC sector include lack of awareness of career opportunities, limitations based on cultural norms, and the belief that VC is men's work. These barriers could be addressed through improving education and recruitment campaigns, as well as supporting higher education and mentoring programs. Females were almost six times more likely to be encouraged to pursue leadership positions in their organization compared with male respondents (odds ratio = 5.9, P > 0.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 29.42). These findings suggest that once women are recruited into the VC workforce, they face minimal discrimination and have increased leadership opportunities.
Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Durbin, Dennis R; García-España, J Felipe; Kalicka, Ewa A; Winston, Flaura K
The goal was to explore the association between parenting style and driving behaviors. The 2006 National Young Driver Survey gathered data on driving safety behaviors from a nationally representative sample of 5665 ninth-, 10th-, and 11th-graders. A parenting style variable was based on adolescent reports and separated parents into 4 groups, (1) authoritative (high support and high rules/monitoring), (2) authoritarian (low support and high rules/monitoring), (3) permissive (high support and low rules/monitoring), and (4) uninvolved (low support and low rules/monitoring). Associations between parenting style and driving behaviors and attitudes were assessed. One half of parents were described as authoritative, 23% as permissive, 8% as authoritarian, and 19% as uninvolved. Compared with teens with uninvolved parents, those with authoritative parents reported one half the crash risk in the past year (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-0.87]), were 71% less likely to drive when intoxicated (OR: 0.29 [95% CI: 0.19-0.44]), and were less likely to use a cellular telephone while driving (OR: 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.99]). Teens with authoritative or authoritarian parents reported using seat belts nearly twice as often (authoritative: OR: 1.94 [95% CI: 1.49 -2.54]; authoritarian: OR: 1.85 [95% CI: 1.08 -3.18]) and speeding one half as often (authoritative: OR: 0.47 [95% CI: 0.36-0.61]; authoritarian: OR: 0.63 [95% CI: 0.40-0.99]) as teens with uninvolved parents. No significant differences in crash risk or seat belt use were found between permissive and uninvolved parents. Clinicians should encourage parents to set rules and to monitor teens' driving behaviors, in a supportive context.
Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Orr, Mark G; Sackoff, Judith; Santelli, John S
Disparities in teen pregnancy rates are explained by different rates of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Identifying other components of risk such as race/ethnicity and neighborhood can inform strategies for teen pregnancy prevention. Data from the 2005 and 2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to model demographic differences in odds of recent sexual activity and birth control use among black, white, and Hispanic public high school girls. Overall pregnancy risk was calculated using pregnancy risk index (PRI) methodology, which estimates probability of pregnancy based on current sexual activity and birth control method at last intercourse. Factors of race/ethnicity, grade level, age, borough, and school neighborhood were assessed. Whites reported lower rates of current sexual activity (23.4%) than blacks (35.4%) or Hispanics (32.7%), and had lower predicted pregnancy risk (PRI = 5.4% vs. 9.0% and 10.5%, respectively). Among sexually active females, hormonal contraception use rates were low in all groups (11.6% among whites, 7.8% among blacks, and 7.5% among Hispanics). Compared to white teens, much of the difference in PRI was attributable to poorer contraceptive use (19% among blacks and 50% among Hispanics). Significant differences in contraceptive use were also observed by school neighborhood after adjusting for age group and race/ethnicity. Interventions to reduce teen pregnancy among diverse populations should include messages promoting delayed sexual activity, condom use and use of highly effective birth control methods. Access to long-acting contraceptive methods must be expanded for all sexually active high school students.
Fidiniaina Mamy Randriantsarafara
Full Text Available Background: Teen pregnancy and abortion phenomena take an ever-growing magnitude in poor countries. Lack of knowledge about reproductive health could aggravate these problems. Methods: Across-sectional survey has been conducted in public, private and denominational high schools of the urban district of Antananarivo, Madagascar, on a sample of 248 students during schoolyear 2012-2013. Data was collected during the third quarter of the schoolyear. Results: Good knowledge about pregnancy and abortion was found in 14.5%, 95% CI [10.4% -19.5%] of students. The media represent almost 60% of the sources of information. Access to care is limited in 48% of cases by feeling shame. Nearly 11% would resort to abortion if an unplanned pregnancy happens. Nearly 6.5%, 95% CI [3.6% - 10.3%] had teen pregnancy problems: 9.6% of boys and 4.1% of girls came encountered these and all cases have ended in induced abortion among girls. The students from the denominational schools and the female gender have more knowledge of about sexuality. The level of knowledge does not significantly influence pregnancy. Female students (p = 0.07 are less prone to teen pregnancy, whereas dating a fixed boyfriend (p <10-4, a large sibship (p = 0.03 and parents in consensual union (p = 0.02 encourage its occurrence. Conclusions: Abortion does not actually represent a remedy in case of pregnancy. Nevertheless, prevention of teen pregnancy is suggested. The control strategy should be multidisciplinary and multisectoral, and focused on targeted information. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 240-246
Szumacher, Ewa; Warner, Eiran; Zhang Liying; Kane, Gabrielle; Ackerman, Ida; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Agboola, Olusegun; Metz, Catherine de; Rodrigues, George; Voruganti, Sachi; Rappolt, Susan
Purpose: To assess radiation oncology residents' needs and satisfaction in their first postgraduate year (PGY-1) in the province of Ontario. Methods and Materials: Of 62 radiation oncology residents, 58 who had completed their PGY-1 and were either enrolled or had graduated in 2006 were invited to participate in a 31-item survey. The questionnaire explored PGY-1 residents' needs and satisfaction in four domains: clinical workload, faculty/learning environment, stress level, and discrimination/harassment. The Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to determine relationships between covariate items and summary scores. Results: Of 58 eligible residents, 44 (75%) responded. Eighty-four percent of residents felt that their ward and call duties were appropriate. More than 50% of respondents indicated that they often felt isolated from their radiation oncology program. Only 77% agreed that they received adequate feedback, and 40% received sufficient counseling regarding career planning. More than 93% of respondents thought that faculty members had contributed significantly to their learning experience. Approximately 50% of residents experienced excessive stress and inadequate time for leisure or for reading the medical literature. Less than 10% of residents indicated that they had been harassed or experienced discrimination. Eighty-three percent agreed or strongly agreed that their PGY-1 experience had been outstanding. Conclusions: Most Ontario residents were satisfied with their PGY-1 training program. More counseling by radiation oncology faculty members should be offered to help residents with career planning. The residents might also benefit from more exposure to 'radiation oncology' and an introduction to stress management strategies
Bedard, Gillian; Hawley, Philippa; Zhang, Liying; Slaven, Marissa; Gagnon, Pierre; Bisland, Stuart; Bennett, Margaret; Tardif, Francois; Chow, Edward
Breakthrough pain is defined as a transient exacerbation of pain that occurs spontaneously or in response to a trigger despite stable and controlled background pain. The purpose of this study was to explore Canadian patients' awareness of and experience with breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc). Four Canadian cancer centers participated in a non-interventional survey recruiting cancer patients who experienced breakthrough pain. These patients were asked about their pain, its impact on functioning, current management and interest in new treatments of BTPc. Ninety-four Canadian cancer patients participated in this study, with 96% stating that cancer pain impacted their daily living with over half unable to go to work or shopping. Fifty percent of patients said that an episode of BTPc lasted greater than 60 minutes, with the pain score being on average 7.8/10, impacting normal work (7.2/10) and general activity (7.1/10). Only 35% of patients were very satisfied with the speed of relief of their medications. Those who did not take their breakthrough pain medication for every episode stated that was because the pain was not always severe (37%), or they were afraid of becoming tolerant (23%) or addicted (12%). Patients stated that the most important features of a new treatment for BTPc were the ability to relieve pain completely (47%), and quickly (43%). Patients expressed willingness to try transmucosal products (80%) or nasal products (59%). Breakthrough cancer pain in Canadian cancer patients greatly impacts their daily lives. There is room for improvement in the management of BTPc, and the majority of patients would be willing to try new treatments.
Fonseca, Annabelle L; Reddy, Vikram; Longo, Walter E; Gusberg, Richard J
General surgical training has changed significantly over the last decade with work hour restrictions, increasing subspecialization, the expanding use of minimally invasive techniques, and nonoperative management for solid organ trauma. Given these changes, this study was undertaken to assess the confidence of graduating general surgery residents in performing open surgical operations and to determine factors associated with increased confidence. A survey was developed and sent to general surgery residents nationally. We queried them regarding demographics and program characteristics, asked them to rate their confidence (rated 1-5 on a Likert scale) in performing open surgical procedures and compared those who indicated confidence with those who did not. We received 653 responses from the fifth year (postgraduate year 5) surgical residents: 69% male, 68% from university programs, and 51% from programs affiliated with a Veterans Affairs hospital; 22% from small programs, 34% from medium programs, and 44% from large programs. Anticipated postresidency operative confidence was 72%. More than 25% of residents reported a lack of confidence in performing eight of the 13 operations they were queried about. Training at a university program, a large program, dedicated research years, future fellowship plans, and training at a program that performed a large percentage of operations laparoscopically was associated with decreased confidence in performing a number of open surgical procedures. Increased surgical volume was associated with increased operative confidence. Confidence in performing open surgery also varied regionally. Graduating surgical residents indicated a significant lack of confidence in performing a variety of open surgical procedures. This decreased confidence was associated with age, operative volume as well as type, and location of training program. Analyzing and addressing this confidence deficit merits further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All
Virginia L.J. Bolshakova
Full Text Available The Healthy Living Ambassador Program brings health, teen leadership, and teamwork to California's elementary school gardens through interdisciplinary UC Cooperative Extension collaboration, community-based partnerships and teen teaching. During spring 2015, teen ambassadors trained by Extension educators and volunteers at UC Elkus Ranch in San Mateo County taught nutrition science, food cultivation and healthy living skills in an 8-week, garden-based, after-school nutrition and physical education program for elementary school children in an urban setting. We conducted a pilot study using a mixed-methods approach to measure and explore the program's impact on children's vegetable selection and consumption preferences, as well as perceived self-efficacy in teen healthy living behavior. The children trended toward an increased preference for gardening, cooking and science, and teens displayed an increase in perceived health self-efficacy.
Barrera, Lissette; Trumbo, Silas Pierson; Bravo-Alcántara, Pamela; Velandia-González, Martha; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina
Immunization coverage levels in Guatemala have increased over the last two decades, but national targets of ≥95% have yet to be reached. To determine factors related to undervaccination, Guatemala's National Immunization Program conducted a user-satisfaction survey of parents and guardians of children aged 0-5 years. Variables evaluated included parental immunization attitudes, preferences, and practices; the impact of immunization campaigns and marketing strategies; and factors inhibiting immunization. Based on administrative coverage levels and socio-demographic indicators in Guatemala's 22 geographical departments, five were designated as low-coverage and five as high-coverage areas. Overall, 1194 parents and guardians of children aged 0-5 years were interviewed in these 10 departments. We compared indicators between low- and high-coverage areas and identified risk factors associated with undervaccination. Of the 1593 children studied, 29 (1.8%) were determined to be unvaccinated, 458 (28.8%) undervaccinated, and 1106 (69.4%) fully vaccinated. In low-coverage areas, children of less educated (no education: RR=1.49, p=0.01; primary or less: 1.39, p=0.009), older (aged>39 years: RR=1.31, p=0.05), and single (RR=1.32, p=0.03) parents were more likely to have incomplete vaccination schedules. Similarly, factors associated with undervaccination in high-coverage areas included the caregiver's lack of education (none: RR=1.72, p=0.0007; primary or less: RR=1.30, p=0.05) and single marital status (RR=1.36, p=0.03), as well as the child's birth order (second: RR=1.68, p=0.003). Although users generally approved of immunization services, problems in service quality were identified. According to participants, topics such as the risk of adverse events (47.4%) and next vaccination appointments (32.3%) were inconsistently communicated to parents. Additionally, 179 (15.0%) participants reported the inability to vaccinate their child on at least one occasion. Compared to high
Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sansone, Genevieve; Borland, Ron; Siahpush, Mohammad
Personality factors such as time perspective and sensation-seeking have been shown to predict smoking uptake. However, little is known about the influences of these variables on quitting behavior, and no prior studies have examined the association cross-nationally in a large probability sample. In the current study it was hypothesized that future time perspective would enhance - while sensation-seeking would inhibit - quitting activity among smokers. It was anticipated that the effects would be similar across English speaking countries. Using a prospective cohort design, this cross-national study of adult smokers (N=8845) examined the associations among time perspective, sensation-seeking and quitting activity using the first three waves of data gathered from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), a random digit dialed telephone survey of adult smokers from the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia. Findings revealed that future time perspective (but not sensation-seeking) was a significant predictor of quitting attempts over the 8-month follow-up after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, factors known to inhibit quitting (e.g., perceived addiction, enjoyment of smoking, and perceived value of smoking), and factors known to enhance quitting (e.g., quit intention strength, perceived benefit of quitting, concerns about health effects of smoking). The latter, particularly intention, were significant mediators of the effect of time perspective on quitting activity. The effects of time perspective on quitting activity were similar across all four English speaking countries sampled. If these associations are causal in nature, it may be the case that interventions and health communications that enhance future-orientation may foster more quit attempts among current smokers. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Meng, Gang
Future oriented time perspective predicts a number of important health behaviors and outcomes, including smoking cessation. However, it is not known how future orientation exerts its effects on such outcomes, and no large scale cross-national studies have examined the question prospectively. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between time perspective and success in smoking cessation, and social cognitive mediators of the association. The ITC-4 is a multi-wave, four country survey (Australia, Canada, United States, United Kingdom) of current smokers (N=9772); the survey includes baseline measurements of time perspective, intentions, quit attempts, and self-reported quit status at follow-up over 8 years. We examined the predictive power of time perspective for smoking cessation, as mediated through strength of quit intentions and prior history of quit attempts. Findings indicated that those smokers with a stronger future orientation at baseline were more likely to have successfully quit at follow-up. This effect was partially explained by intention-mediated effects of future orientation on quit attempts. Future orientation predicts smoking cessation across four English-speaking countries; the cessation-facilitating effects of future orientation may be primarily due to future oriented individuals' motivated and sustained involvement in the quit cycle over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miron, Anca M; McFadden, Susan H; Hermus, Nathan J; Buelow, Jennifer; Nazario, Amanda S; Seelman, Katarena
No empirical work has systematically explored perceptions of humanness of people with dementia and of older adults and the variables that could improve these perceptions. We thus investigated the role of contact and perspective taking in improving perceptions of humanness of these social groups. To do so, we developed a new concept, humanness standards, defined as the amount of evidence of ability impairment needed to conclude that elderly people and those with dementia have lost personhood. We used a cross-sectional survey design (n = 619) to assess participants' humanness standards and perceptions of uniquely human characteristics and human nature characteristics of two social groups (people with dementia and older adults). Half the participants (n = 311) completed a survey about people with dementia and half (n = 308) assessed older adults. People with dementia were perceived as possessing humanness characteristics to a lesser extent than were older adults. For both groups, contact predicted enhanced perceptions of humanness characteristics. Participants' degree of contact with individuals with dementia also predicted humanness standards, but only under low perspective-taking conditions. As predicted, for older adults, participants set the highest humanness impairment thresholds in the high contact/high perspective-taking condition. We conclude that while social programs that bring persons with dementia and other individuals in contact could change humanness standards and perceptions of humanness characteristics of people with dementia, in the case of elderly adults, the contact must be supplemented by variables that facilitate taking the perspective of the person.
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This report describes research undertaken to assess the attitudes of teenagers and those who most influence them--their parents, teachers, and school principals. The research attempted to identify factors that could increase or diminish the likelihood teenagers would use cigarettes, alcohol, or illegal drugs. Parents were identified as the key to…
Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer
This research brief focuses on the birth, pregnancy, contraceptive, and relationship behaviors of Hispanic teens because they represent an important risk group. Teen pregnancy and birth rates for U.S. teens have declined dramatically in recent years. Yet for Hispanic teens, reductions in teen pregnancy and childbearing have lagged behind that of…
Bickel, R; Weaver, S; Williams, T; Lange, L
This study examines female adolescents' responses to opportunities, costs, and community in West Virginia. It is posited that adolescent women's responses to structurally determined contextual factors will be the most important determinant of the teen birth rate. It is posited that girls avoid becoming pregnant and work to stay in school as a wise investment in their future. The variation in males' participation in contributing to teen pregnancy is not considered due to data limitations. West Virginia is a state with low teen abortion rates and limited teen mobility out of state. Community is construed as having a positive sense of affiliation and value for adolescents. Community is measured by school size and a range of 7 measures of community social organization: percentage of urban population in the district, percentage Black, percentage neither Black nor White, level of educational attainment, percentage of college preparatory students, percentage of college students, and percentage of service employees. The 7 factors were reduced with principal component analysis to a measure of modernity. Findings indicate that the birth rate increased by 8% for every increase of 100 students in average school size. The modern variable, which indicates departures from traditional patterns of community organization, was positively, statistically significantly related to the teenage birth rate. The college degree variable was related to increased teen pregnancy as a departure from traditional norms and decreased teen pregnancy as a measure of opportunity. Findings contrast with traditional interpretations of teen pregnancy. Findings indicate that teen pregnancy reflects a lack of opportunity, a decline in traditional community patterns, and the replacement of traditional social relations by shifting labor market relations. Teen births are consequences of disadvantage and disruption as context-driven factors.
Valaitis, Ruta K; Sword, Wendy A
The Internet is an innovative strategy to increase public participation. It is important to include pregnant and parenting teens' perspectives when planning programs to meet their needs. This qualitative study explored online discussions as a strategy to enhance participation by this population. Findings showed that online communication was preferred over face-to-face group discussions. Being anonymous online encouraged open and honest feedback. Participants experienced various forms of social support, however, there was an overall lack of teen involvement online. Strategies to engage adolescents in online discussions and reduce barriers are discussed. Strategies included the use of teen moderators, home computer access, technical support, and engagement in naturally flowing online discussions to meet social support needs. Blending researchers' with teens' needs for social support in an online environment is encouraged. With careful planning and design, online communications can result in mutual benefits for researchers, service providers, and pregnant and parenting adolescents.
Teen dating violence is a pervasive problem that affects millions of adolescents worldwide. Although there have been various approaches to addressing this problem, using videogames had not been employed before 2008, when Jennifer Ann's Group, an Atlanta, GA-based nonprofit organization, created an annual competition. The Life.Love. Game Design Challenge rewards game developers for creating videogames about teen dating violence without using any violence in the games themselves. The resulting videogames have increased awareness about teen dating violence and provided educational information to assist adolescents, parents, and teachers in identifying abusive relationships.
Varcoe, Karen; Peterson, Shirley; Go, Charles; Johns, Margaret; René-Fitch, Paula; Powell, Carol; Costello, Connie
Teenagers have access to and spend a great deal of money each year, yet research indicates that their financial literacy is low. Many curricula for teaching money management exist, but we do not know if we are teaching teens what they want to know in a way that they want to learn. This study, conducted by the Money 2000+ for Teens Workgroup of the UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, sought to find out what teens want to know about financial management. Questionnaires were admini...
O'Dea, Bridianne; King, Catherine; Subotic-Kerry, Mirjana; O'Moore, Kathleen; Christensen, Helen
Mental health problems are common among youth in high school, and school counselors play a key role in the provision of school-based mental health care. However, school counselors occupy a multispecialist position that makes it difficult for them to provide care to all of those who are in need in a timely manner. A Web-based mental health service that offers screening, psychological therapy, and monitoring may help counselors manage time and provide additional oversight to students. However, for such a model to be implemented successfully, school counselors' attitudes toward Web-based resources and services need to be measured. This study aimed to examine the acceptability of a proposed Web-based mental health service, the feasibility of providing this type of service in the school context, and the barriers and facilitators to implementation as perceived by school counselors in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. This study utilized an online cross-sectional survey to measure school counselors' perspectives. A total of 145 school counselors completed the survey. Overall, 82.1% (119/145) thought that the proposed service would be helpful to students. One-third reported that they would recommend the proposed model, with the remaining reporting potential concerns. Years of experience was the only background factor associated with a higher level of comfort with the proposed service (P=.048). Personal beliefs, knowledge and awareness, Internet accessibility, privacy, and confidentiality were found to influence, both positively and negatively, the likelihood of school counselors implementing a Web-based school mental health service. The findings of this study confirmed that greater support and resources are needed to facilitate what is already a challenging and emotionally demanding role for school counselors. Although the school counselors in this study were open to the proposed service model, successful implementation will require that the issues outlined are carefully
Anabwani, Gabriel; Karugaba, Grace; Gabaitiri, Lesego
Antiretroviral treatment means many HIV infected children are surviving with a highly stigmatised condition. There is a paucity of data to inform policies for this growing cohort. Hence we carried out a study on the health, schooling, needs, aspirations, perspectives and knowledge of HIV infected and affected children in Botswana. A cross-sectional survey using interviews and focus group discussions among HIV infected children aged 6-18 years versus HIV aged matched HIV uninfected counterparts living in the same households between August 2010 and March 2011. Supplemental clinical data was abstracted from medical records for HIV infected participants. Nine hundred eighty-four HIV infected and 258 affected children completed the survey. Females predominated in the affected group (63.6 % versus 50.3 %, P School attendance was high in both groups (98.9 % versus 97.3 %, P = 0.057). HIV infected children were mostly in primary school (grades 3-7) while affected children were mostly in upper primary or secondary grades. Sixty percent HIV infected children reported having missed school at least 1 day in the preceding month. Significantly more infected than affected children reported experiencing problems at school (78 % versus 62.3 %, P School related problems included poor grades, poor health/school attendance, stigma and inadequate scholastic materials. The wish-list for improving the school environment was similar for both groups and included extra learning support; better meals; protection from bullying/teasing; more scholastic materials, extracurricular activities, love and care; structural improvements; improved teacher attendance and teaching approaches. Significantly more HIV infected children reported feeling hungry all the time (50.6 % versus 41 %, P = 0.007) and more trouble hearing (26.8 % versus 12.5 %, P = 0.028). The mean age for HIV disclosure 10 years was high. Sexual activity (9.2 % versus 3 %, P = 0.001) and emotions of
Aggarwal, Shilpa; Taljard, Lian; Wilson, Zane; Berk, Michael
Background: This report describes the findings of the survey conducted by South African Depression and Anxiety Group (SADAG) in a cohort of disadvantaged South African adolescent scholars in which PHQ-9 teen version was modified and adapted (PHQ-9M) to improve the response rate. Method: PHQ-9M was administered to 2025 secondary students of 35 schools over 2 years in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Results: The mean age was 15.8 years. 23% of respondents scored 9 or above, 26.7% reported suici...
Cutbush, Stacey; Williams, Jason; Miller, Shari; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique
We investigated rates and developmental trends of electronic teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration and victimization overall and by gender. Data were collected from a single cohort of seventh-grade students from four schools using paper-and-pencil surveys administered at 6-month intervals ( N = 795). Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and longitudinal growth models to estimate change over time in TDV. Overall, 32% of youth reported electronic TDV perpetration, and 51% reported electronic TDV victimization. Victimization was more prevalent for boys (42%) than for girls (31%) at baseline only ( t = 2.55, p prevention interventions.
Olsthoorn, Mark; Schleich, Joachim; Klobasa, Marian
As countries move toward larger shares of renewable electricity, the slow diffusion of active electricity load management should concern energy policy makers and users alike. Active load management can increase capacity factors and thereby reduce the need for new capacity, improve reliability, and lower electricity prices. This paper conceptually and empirically explores barriers to load shift in industry from an end-user perspective. An online survey, based on a taxonomy of barriers developed in the realm of energy efficiency, was carried out among manufacturing sites in mostly Southern Germany. Findings suggest that the most important barriers are risk of disruption of operations, impact on product quality, and uncertainty about cost savings. Of little concern are access to capital, lack of employee skills, and data security. Statistical tests suggest that companies for which electricity has higher strategic value rate financial and regulatory risk higher than smaller ones. Companies with a continuous production process report lower barrier scores than companies using batch or just-in-time production. A principal component analysis clusters the barriers and multivariate analysis with the factor scores confirms the prominence of technical risk as a barrier to load shift. The results provide guidance for policy making and future empirical studies. - Highlights: • We quantitatively assess barriers to load shift adoption among manufacturing firms. • Conceptually, we build on the literature on barriers to energy efficiency. • The most important barriers are interference with production and with product quality. • Companies with a continuous production process report lower barrier scores. • The barriers to load shift may be organized in distinct clusters via principal component analysis
Full Text Available Over the past few years there has been an exponential increase in the amount of multimedia data being streamed over the Internet. At the same time, we are also witnessing a change in the way quality of any particular service is interpreted, with more emphasis being given to the end-users. Thus, silently there has been a paradigm shift from the traditional Quality of Service approach (QoS towards a Quality of Experience (QoE model while evaluating the service quality. A lot of work that tries to evaluate the quality of audio, video, and multimedia services over the Internet has been done. At the same time, research is also going on trying to map the two different domains of quality metrics, i.e., the QoS and QoE domain. Apart from the work done by individual researchers, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU has been quite active in this area of quality assessment. This is obvious from the large number of ITU standards that are available for different application types. The sheer variety of techniques being employed by ITU as well as other researchers sometimes tends to be too complex and diversified. Although there are survey papers that try to present the current state of the art methodologies for video quality evaluation, none has focused on the ITU perspective. In this work, we try to fill up this void by presenting up-to-date information on the different measurement methods that are currently being employed by ITU for a video streaming scenario. We highlight the outline of each method with sufficient detail and try to analyze the challenges being faced along with the direction of future research.
Cabrini, Luca; Giannini, Alberto; Pintaudi, Margherita; Semeraro, Federico; Radeschi, Giulio; Borga, Sara; Landoni, Giovanni; Troiano, Herbert; Luchetti, Marco; Pellis, Thomas; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Minoja, Giulio; Mazzon, Davide; Alampi, Daniela
Medical Emergency Teams (METs) are frequently involved in ethical issues associated to in-hospital emergencies, like decisions about end-of-life care and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. MET involvement offers both advantages and disadvantages, especially when an immediate decision must be made. We performed a survey among Italian intensivists/anesthesiologists evaluating MET's perspective on the most relevant ethical aspects faced in daily practice. A questionnaire was developed on behalf of the Italian scientific society of anesthesia and intensive care (SIAARTI) and administered to its members. Decision making criteria applied by respondents when dealing with ethical aspects, the estimated incidence of conflicts due to ethical issues and the impact on the respondents' emotional and moral distress were explored. The questionnaire was completed by 327 intensivists/anesthesiologists. Patient life-expectancy, wishes, and the quality of life were the factors most considered for decisions. Conflicts with ward physicians were reported by most respondents; disagreement on appropriateness of ICU admission and family unpreparedness to the imminent patient death were the most frequent reasons. Half of respondents considered that in case of conflicts the final decision should be made by the MET. Conflicts were generally recognized as causing increased and moral distress within the MET members. Few respondents reported that dedicated protocols or training were locally available. Italian intensivists/anesthesiologists reported that ethical issues associated with in-hospital emergencies are occurring commonly and are having a significant negative impact on MET well-being. Conflicts with ward physicians happen frequently. They also conveyed that hospitals don't offer ethics training and have no protocols in place to address ethical issues.
Winston, Flaura K; Mirman, Jessica H; Curry, Allison E; Pfeiffer, Melissa R; Elliott, Michael R; Durbin, Dennis R
Inexperienced, less-skilled driving characterises many newly licensed drivers and contributes to high crash rates. A randomised trial of TeenDrivingPlan (TDP), a new learner driver phase internet-based intervention, demonstrated effectiveness in improving safety relevant, on-road driving behaviour, primarily through greater driving practice diversity. To inform future learner driver interventions, this analysis examined TDP use and its association with practice diversity. Posthoc analysis of data from teen/parent dyads (n=107), enrolled early in learner phase and assigned to treatment arm in randomised trial. Inserted software beacons captured TDP use data. Electronic surveys completed by parents and teens assessed diversity of practice driving and TDP usability ratings at 24 weeks (end of study period). Most families (84%) used TDP early in the learner period; however, the number of TDP sessions in the first week was three times higher among dyads who achieved greater practice diversity than those with less. By week five many families still engaged with TDP, but differences in TDP use could not be detected between families with high versus low practice diversity. Usability was not a major issue for this sample based on largely positive user ratings. An engaging internet-based intervention, such as TDP, can support families in achieving high practice diversity. Future learner driver interventions should provide important information early in the learner period when engagement is greatest, encourage continued learning as part of logging practice drives, and incorporate monitoring software for further personalisation to meet family needs. NCT01498575. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Chevrette, Marianne; Abenhaim, Haim Arie
The United States has one of the highest teen birth rates among developed countries. Interstate birth rates and abortion rates vary widely, as do policies on abortion and sex education. The objective of our study is to assess whether US state-level policies regarding abortion and sexual education are associated with different teen birth and teen abortion rates. We carried out a state-level (N = 51 [50 states plus the District of Columbia]) retrospective observational cross-sectional study, using data imported from the National Vital Statistics System. State policies were obtained from the Guttmacher Institute. We used descriptive statistics and regression analysis to study the association of different state policies with teen birth and teen abortion rates. The state-level mean birth rates, when stratifying between policies protective and nonprotective of teen births, were not statistically different-for sex education policies, 39.8 of 1000 vs 45.1 of 1000 (P = .2187); for mandatory parents' consent to abortion 45 of 1000, vs 38 of 1000 when the minor could consent (P = .0721); and for deterrents to abortion, 45.4 of 1000 vs 37.4 of 1000 (P = .0448). Political affiliation (35.1 of 1000 vs 49.6 of 1000, P births. Lower teen abortion rates were, however, associated with restrictive abortion policies, specifically lower in states with financial barriers, deterrents to abortion, and requirement for parental consent. While teen birth rates do not appear to be influenced by state-level sex education policies, state-level policies that restrict abortion appear to be associated with lower state teen abortion rates. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sansone, Genevieve; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hall, Peter A; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Mons, Ute; Pötschke-Langer, Martina; Yong, Hua-Hie; Thompson, Mary E; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan
Prior studies have demonstrated that time perspective-the propensity to consider short-versus long-term consequences of one's actions-is a potentially important predictor of health-related behaviors, including smoking. However, most prior studies have been conducted within single high-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine whether time perspective was associated with the likelihood of being a smoker or non-smoker across five countries that vary in smoking behavior and strength of tobacco control policies. The data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in five countries with large probability samples of both smokers (N=10,341) and non-smokers (N=4,955): Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia. The surveys were conducted between 2005-2008. Survey respondents indicated their smoking status (smoker vs. non-smoker) and time perspective (future oriented vs. not future-oriented) and provided demographic information. Across all five countries, non-smokers were significantly more likely to be future-oriented (66%) than were smokers (57%), χ(2)(1, N = 15,244) = 120.64, p perspective and smoking status held in a multivariate analysis. After controlling for country, age, sex, income, education, and ethnicity (language in France), those who were future-oriented had 36% greater odds of being a non-smoker than a smoker (95% CI: 1.22 to 1.51, pperspective as an important predictor of smoking status across multiple countries and suggest the potential value of incorporating material to enhance future orientation in smoking cessation interventions.
Dempsey, P L
The author finds that teenage pregnancy is more complicated than access to contraception or abortion. At risk teenagers are not identifiable, only at risk factors such as isolation, lack of perception of future opportunities, lack of self esteem, lack of self worth, poor performance in school, poor role models or lack of role models at home or in the community. There is indictment of parents who are just as much in need. The focus on teen pregnancy as one dimensional belies the reality that health, family, work, social and cultural experience affect people's decisions and sexual behavior. The recommendation is for a holistic approach, regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background. Adolescents need education and jobs as well as preventive health, body image, and nutrition in conjunction with contraceptives. Where success is defined by motherhood or fatherhood, birth control pills sit in drawers at home. Teenagers need to be convinced that there is some benefit in being connected to mainstream society. Support services need to help teenagers answer the question of what's in it for me? Why? Teenagers need assistance in attaining educational success, job success, the ability to handle anger, and leadership opportunities. A holistic approach is not only realistic but also is the most practical with the longest term benefit. With resources for teen pregnancy superseded by the problems of AIDs and crack gangs, there is a constantly changing political agenda for resource allocation. In fact, teenage pregnancy is reflective of social ills in an urban society simultaneous with drug abuse, school dropouts, juvenile crime and gang activity. The common denominator is that teens all need good educational opportunities, good health, and good housing. Parent involvement is needed, and it is presumptuous to believe that a couple of hours of contact a week can change lives. Parents need respect and understanding for their important role; they need information and a role
... Encourage your teen to do practice problems in math or science. If the material is beyond your ... can get involved by: serving as a grade-level chairperson organizing and/or working at fundraising activities ...
... Nutrition Celebrate the Beauty of Youth Changing Your Habits for Better Health Healthy Meals & Snacks for Teens ... Make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Power up with lean meats, chicken, seafood, eggs, beans, ...
To determine the effect cell phone conversation or text messaging has on motor : vehicle collision-related injury risk in teens with or without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity : Disorder Combined Type (ADHD-C) and whether a computerized cognitive...
In-vehicle feedback technologies, including some that use video, help parents monitor and mentor their young drivers. While different feedback technologies have been shown to reduce some risky driving behaviors, teens and parents cite privacy concern...
... fluids with each meal and snack. What about protein bars? Protein bars are another type of supplement. ... gain but remember to have discussions about school, sports, current events, and feelings with your teen. Related ...
Significant changes in Oregons teen licensing laws went into effect on March 1, 2000. The new laws expanded the provisional driving license program which had been in effect since October 1989 and established a graduated driver licensing (GDL) prog...
... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...
Reviews seven videos that involve some aspect of extreme sports, feature loud rock music, and are popular with teens. Includes snowboarding, Gravity Games, BMX bikes, skateboarding, and skydiving. (LRW)
... reviewed: October 2013 More on this topic for: Teens Can Diabetes Be Prevented? How Much Food Should I Eat? 5 Ways to Reach a Healthy Weight Body Image and Self-Esteem What's the Right Weight for My Height? Staying ...
Mulford, Carrie F; Blachman-Demner, Dara R
The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) has an emerging portfolio of research in the area of teen dating violence (also known as adolescent relationship abuse). This article begins with a discussion of the developments that prompted NIJ to focus on teen dating violence. Next, the article highlights specific accomplishments and contributions that NIJ has made to helping develop knowledge and scientific understanding of adolescent relationship abuse, particularly around the prevention of teen dating violence perpetration and victimization. This is followed by a presentation of some of the key findings from NIJ-funded research. We then move to a discussion of some of the complex issues around definition, measurement and research methods and how NIJ has been involved in addressing those issues. The article concludes with some thoughts about the intersection of teen dating violence research, policy, and practice and highlights several research gaps that are in need of additional attention.
Bernard, J-C; Boudokhane, S; Pujol, A; Chaléat-Valayer, E; Le Blay, G; Deceuninck, J
To assess with an isokinetic dynamometer the force and endurance of the spinal flexor and extensor muscles in pre-teens or teens aged 11 to 13 and 14 to 16 years with and without low back pain (LBP). The control group and the LBP group were homogeneous in terms of age, weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI). Assessment was carried out with the isokinetic dynamometer Cybex Norm®. The spinal flexors and extensors were explored concentrically at speeds of 60°, 90° and 120°/sec. The parameters chosen were: maximal moment of force (MMF), mean power (MP), total work (TW), F/E ratios (between the flexors and the extensors for the aforesaid parameters). In the LBP groups, clinical information (pain, extensibility of the spinal and sub-pelvic muscles, sports practice) and sagittal radiological data were all measured. While no significant difference in isokinetic performance was found between asymptomatic and LBP children in the 11-to-13-year-old group, the isokinetic performances of the LBP children were influenced positively by BMI value, number of hours of physical activity and radiologic value of the lumbar lordosis. As regards these pre-teens, assessment with an isokinetic dynamometer does not highlight muscle characteristics that might explain LBP occurrence. As regards the 14-to-16-year-old group, muscle strength has been found to be correlated with age. LBP teens were showed to have weaker extensors and stronger flexors than the healthy teens. It is with regard to this age group that assessment with an isokinetic dynamometer clearly yields interesting results. Since we have yet to standardize our evaluation criteria (working speed, number of trials…), it is difficult to compare our results with those reported in the literature. This is a preliminary study involving a relatively low number of patients. That said, given the fact that numerous parameters are connected with the age and height of the subjects, assessment with an isokinetic dynamometer can be
Macapagal, Kathryn; Coventry, Ryan; Arbeit, Miriam R; Fisher, Celia B; Mustanski, Brian
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents under age 18 are underrepresented in sexual health research. Exclusion of SGM minors from these studies has resulted in a lack of knowledge about the risks and benefits youth experience from sexual health research participation. Institutional Review Boards' (IRB) overprotective stances toward research risks and requirements for guardian consent for SGM research are significant barriers to participation, though few have investigated SGM youth's perspectives on these topics. This study aimed to empirically inform decisions about guardian consent for sexuality survey studies involving SGM youth. A total of 74 SGM youth aged 14-17 completed an online survey of sexual behavior and SGM identity, and a new measure that compared the discomfort of sexual health survey completion to everyday events and exemplars of minimal risk research (e.g., behavioral observation). Youth described survey benefits and drawbacks and perspectives on guardian permission during an online focus group. Participants felt about the same as or more comfortable completing the survey compared to other research procedures, and indicated that direct and indirect participation benefits outweighed concerns about privacy and emotional discomfort. Most would not have participated if guardian permission was required, citing negative parental attitudes about adolescent sexuality and SGM issues and not being "out" about their SGM identity. Findings suggest that sexual health survey studies meet minimal risk criteria, are appropriate for SGM youth, and that recruitment would not be possible without waivers of guardian consent. Decreasing barriers to research participation would dramatically improve our understanding of sexual health among SGM youth.
Abdelaal, Hala; Mohamed, Mohamed A; Aly, Hany
Objectives To examine the risk of premature delivery (PD) and small for gestational age (SGA) among pregnant teens with depressive disorders (DD), and the impact of race/ethnicity on these birth outcomes. Design/Methods We examined the hospital discharge records of pregnant mothers between the age of 13-18 year old who gave birth in the years 1994, 2000, 2006, and 2012 in the National Inpatient Sample database. We calculated the risk for PD and SGA among pregnant teens with and without DD in the overall population and within each race/ethnicity. Results Weighted sample included 1,023,586 pregnant teenage women. Prevalence of DD among teens was 0.93%, with a significantly increasing trend from 0.29% in 1994 to 2.01% in 2012 (p teens from 1994 to 2012. Prevalence of depression among teenage mothers was highest among Caucasians compared to other races. Prevalence of SGA among pregnant teens was 2.23% that significantly increased from 1.63% in 1994 to 3.44% in 2012 (p teens with DD had decreased risk for PD compared to AA without DD (OR 0.70; CI 0.57 - 0.387, p teens with DD had increased risk for SGA compared to Hispanics without DD (adjusted OR 1.53; CI 1.10-2.13, p teens. Less young teenage girls are giving birth in recent years. The impact of DD on PD and SGA differs according to race. More studies are warranted to examine underlining factors responsible for these findings.
This 60 second PSA is based on the April, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Having a child during the teen years comes at a high cost to the young mother, her child, and the community. Get tips to help break the cycle of teen pregnancy. Created: 4/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/5/2011.
Beltz, Martha A; Sacks, Vanessa H; Moore, Kristin A; Terzian, Mary
Teen childbearing is affected by many individual, family, and community factors; however, another potential influence is state policy. Rigorous studies of the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates are few in number but represent a body of knowledge that can inform policy and practice. This article reviews research assessing associations between state-level policies and teen birth rates, focusing on five policy areas: access to family planning, education, sex education, public assistance, and access to abortion services. Overall, several studies have found that measures related to access to and use of family planning services and contraceptives are related to lower state-level teen birth rates. These include adolescent enrollment in clinics, minors' access to contraception, conscience laws, family planning expenditures, and Medicaid waivers. Other studies, although largely cross-sectional analyses, have concluded that policies and practices to expand or improve public education are also associated with lower teen birth rates. These include expenditures on education, teacher-to-student ratios, and graduation requirements. However, the evidence regarding the role of public assistance, abortion access, and sex education policies in reducing teen birth rates is mixed and inconclusive. These conclusions must be viewed as tentative because of the limited number of rigorous studies that examine the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates over time. Many specific policies have only been analyzed by a single study, and few findings are based on recent data. As such, more research is needed to strengthen our understanding of the role of state policies in teen birth rates. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cota-Robles, Sonia; Pedersen, Laura; LeCroy, Craig Winston
The purpose of this study was to evaluate breastfeeding practices of teen mothers in a pre- and postnatal education and support program. We studied breastfeeding practices of primarily Hispanic and non-Hispanic White teen mothers who participated in the Teen Outreach Pregnancy Services (TOPS) program, which promoted breastfeeding through prenatal programming and postpartum support. Analyses identified the most common reasons participants had not breastfed and, for those who initiated breastfeeding, the most common reasons they stopped. Participants (g = 314) reported on whether and for how long they breastfed. Nearly all participants reported initiating breastfeeding but few breastfed to 6 months. For the most part, reasons they reported stopping breastfeeding paralleled those previously reported for adult mothers across the first several months of motherhood. We found that teen mothers can initiate breastfeeding at high rates. Results highlight areas in which teen mothers' knowledge and skills can be supported to promote breastfeeding duration, including pain management and better recognizing infant cues. Our findings expand limited previous research investigating reasons that teen mothers who initiate breastfeeding stop before 6 months.
Galloway, Charlotte T.; Duffy, Jennifer L.; Dixon, Rena P.; Fuller, Taleria R.
Purpose Reducing disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates among African American and Latina teens is a central focus of a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative implemented by the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates are driven, in part, by differential access to contraception and reproductive health care services. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand African American and Latino teens? 1) preferen...
Teenagers’ Public Library Needs are Difficult to Determine. A Review of: Howard, V. (2011. What do young teens think about the public library? The Library Quarterly, 81(3, 321-344. URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/660134
Full Text Available Objective – To discover the attitudes of twelve to fifteen year-olds toward the public library.Design – Mixed methodology consisting of a survey and focus groups.Setting – An Eastern Canadian regional municipality.Subjects – Twelve to fifteen year-old middle school students.Methods – Using a disproportionate stratified sample and multistage clustering, the author mailed 900 surveys to middle school students; 249 surveys were completed and usable. Those students who completed the survey and who also indicated they would be willing to participate in a focus group were randomly selected to participate in nine focus groups with between 7 to 12 students in each group.Main Results – Discrepancies exist between the teens’ level of satisfaction with the library indicated on the survey (high and expressed in the focus groups (low. Teens seldom use the public library due to: their non-existent relationship with library staff, although teens who were “active readers” used the library more; lack of appealing programs and program promotion; no teen-focused website; poor teen facilities within the library; and an overall failure of the public libraries to include teenagers.Conclusion – Public libraries need to be more responsive to teen needs to attract teens to use the library. To uncover these needs, libraries should use mixed methods of discovery.
Petty, Heather Keyronica
Heather K. Petty ABSTRACT Title: Evaluation of Teen Cuisine: An Extension-Based Cooking Program to Increase Self-efficacy in Teens Background: Childhood, adolescent, and adult obesity is a major health and economic concern affecting the United States and various countries across the globe. Obese children and adolescents are at a potential risk for developing certain chronic diseases as they transition into adulthood. There are community-based cooking intervention programs designed t...
Gisondi, Paolo; Girolomoni, Giampiero
The perspective of patients with psoriasis about medical care treatment goals and strategies is receiving increasing attention. Here, we performed a country-based analysis of the Multinational Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (MAPP) survey, in order to provide specific information on patients' perspective of treatment of psoriasis in Italy. This was a systematic household telephone survey recruiting subjects by random digit dialing. Household members ≥18 years were included if they had ever been diagnosed with psoriasis. About 12,785 households were screened in Italy. 132 patients were ineligible for the analysis, including patients with psoriatic arthritis. 359 patients were surveyed. About half of the patients had very mild disease with less than 1 palm skin involvement, and 38% had 1-10 palm skin disease. It is noteworthy that 48% of patients with widespread disease were not taking any medication. Patients indicated the relief of symptoms, including itching (54.9%), as the main goal for their current therapy, whereas 14.2% reported no specific expectation from their medication. Overall, 70% of patients declared to be satisfied by their therapy, in terms of primary goal reached. Our findings suggest that most psoriasis patients have mild/moderate disease in Italy, and that a portion of patients with severe disease does not receive an adequate treatment.
... behavioral approaches. With adults, both individual therapy and group counseling settings with peers are used. However, studies suggest ... Will a support group help my teen? While group counseling is sometimes discouraged for teens, peer support groups ...
Cohen, Marc L; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Yanovski, Jack A
To examine the relationship of body weight to satisfaction with care in adolescents, and to obtain qualitative data on preferences for general and weight-related medical care in normal weight and overweight adolescents. The Weight and its Relationship to Adolescent Perceptions of their Providers survey, a 4-page questionnaire containing previously validated satisfaction scales and open-ended qualitative questions regarding health care preferences, was administered to 62 severely overweight (body mass index [BMI] 38.9 +/- 8.4 kg/m2) and 29 normal weight (BMI 22.5 +/- 4.0 kg/m2) adolescents (age 13.9 +/- 1.7 years; 57% female; 50% Caucasian, 47% African-American, 3% Hispanic). The affective subscale of the medical satisfaction scale was negatively correlated with BMI standard deviation score (r = -.22, p teens. Seventy-nine percent of overweight adolescents stated their health care provider discussed their weight with them; however, only 41% of overweight adolescents desired to discuss their weight. Compared to normal-weight adolescents, overweight teens were more likely to report that their provider raised topics of weight (p teens expressed concerns regarding the public location of their provider's office scale. Satisfaction with affective aspects of the provider-patient relationship is negatively correlated with BMI standard deviation score. Length of experience with one's provider is also a strong predictor of teen satisfaction with their medical care. Teens prefer the term "overweight" for those with high body weight. Sensitivity to confidentiality, privacy, and embarrassment regarding physical examination and weight are important for teen satisfaction.
Cohen, Marc L.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Yanovski, Jack A.
Purpose To examine the relationship of body weight to satisfaction with care in adolescents, and to obtain qualitative data on preferences for general and weight-related medical care in normal weight and overweight adolescents. Methods The Weight and its Relationship to Adolescent Perceptions of their Providers survey, a 4-page questionnaire containing previously validated satisfaction scales and open-ended qualitative questions regarding health care preferences, was administered to 62 severely overweight (body mass index [BMI] 38.9 ± 8.4 kg/m2) and 29 normal weight (BMI 22.5 ± 4.0 kg/m2) adolescents (age 13.9 ± 1.7 years; 57% female; 50% Caucasian, 47% African-American, 3% Hispanic). Results The affective subscale of the medical satisfaction scale was negatively correlated with BMI standard deviation score (r = −.22, p teens. Seventy-nine percent of overweight adolescents stated their health care provider discussed their weight with them; however, only 41% of overweight adolescents desired to discuss their weight. Compared to normal-weight adolescents, overweight teens were more likely to report that their provider raised topics of weight (p teens expressed concerns regarding the public location of their provider’s office scale. Conclusions Satisfaction with affective aspects of the provider-patient relationship is negatively correlated with BMI standard deviation score. Length of experience with one’s provider is also a strong predictor of teen satisfaction with their medical care. Teens prefer the term “overweight” for those with high body weight. Sensitivity to confidentiality, privacy, and embarrassment regarding physical examination and weight are important for teen satisfaction. PMID:16026727
Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Ugalde, Jenny; Todic, Jelena
Few, if any, studies have systematically examined the relationship between substance use and teen pregnancy using population-based samples. We aim to provide a comprehensive examination of substance use among pregnant adolescents in the United States. Employing data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2012 (n=97,850), we examine the prevalence of the past 12-month and the past 30-day substance use and substance use disorders among pregnant and non-pregnant adolescents (ages 12-17). We also examine psychosocial and pregnancy-related correlates of current substance use among the subsample of pregnant adolescents (n=810). Pregnant teens were significantly more likely to have experimented with a variety of substances and meet criteria for alcohol (AOR=1.65, 95% CI=1.26-2.17), cannabis (AOR=2.29, 95% CI=1.72-3.04), and other illicit drug use disorders (AOR=2.84, 95% CI=1.92-4.19). Pregnant early adolescents (ages 12-14; AOR=4.34, 95% CI=2.28-8.26) were significantly more likely and pregnant late adolescents (ages 15-17; AOR=0.71, 95% CI=0.56-0.90) significantly less likely than their non-pregnant counterparts to be current substance users. Study findings point not only to a relationship between pregnancy and prior substance use, but also suggest that substance use continues for many teens during pregnancy. We found that substance use is particularly problematic among early adolescents and that the prevalence of substance use attenuates dramatically as youth progress from the first to the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kemper, Kathi J; Heyer, Geoffrey; Pakalnis, Ann; Binkley, Philip F
Our aim was to describe the relationship between risk factors, such as stress, depression, and anxiety, and potentially protective factors against pediatric headache-related disability, such as mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion, and to determine teens' interest in mind-body skills training to help reduce headache-related disability. This was a cross-sectional survey among adolescents seen in an academic neurology clinic reporting four or more headaches monthly using standardized instruments to determine the relationship between putative risk and protective factors as well as physiologic markers of inflammation and vagal tone and headache-related disability. Among the 29 participants, 31% were male, the average age was 14.8 years, average headache frequency was 11.6 per month, and the most commonly reported trigger was stress (86%). The only risk or protective factor significantly associated with headache-related disability was depression (r = 0.52, P = 0.004). Depression was negatively correlated with mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion (P stress, sleep disturbance, and anxiety (P headache-related disability or depression. There was strong interest in learning skills like slow, deep breathing practices supported by a smart phone application to reduce stress and the negative impact of headaches on daily life. Among teens with frequent migraine headaches, depression is the strongest risk factor for headache-related disability. Stress is viewed as a headache trigger, and teens reported wanting to learn simple stress management strategies supported by a smart phone application to help reduce headache-related disability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Temple, Jeff R.; van den Berg, Patricia; Thomas, John F. “Fred”; Northcutt, James; Thomas, Christopher; Freeman, Daniel H.
Objectives In September of 2008 the Texas coast was directly hit by Hurricane Ike. Galveston was flooded by 14 feet of storm surge, affecting most of the Island’s housing and infrastructure. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether youth who did not evacuate (11%), and subsequently were exposed to Hurricane Ike, exhibit higher rates of substance use and physical and sexual teen dating violence (both perpetration and victimization), relative to adolescents who did evacuate. Setting Public high school in southeast Texas that was in the direct path of Hurricane Ike. Participants An anonymous survey was administered in March 2009 to 1,048 high-school students who returned to Galveston post-storm (41% Hispanic, 23% African-American, 27% White). Main Outcome Measures Teen dating violence and substance use. Results Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios, adjusting for age and ethnicity, were computed. Compared to boys who evacuated, non-evacuating boys were more likely to perpetrate physical dating violence and sexual assault, and to be a victim of sexual assault. Non-evacuating boys and girls were more likely than those who did evacuate to report recent use of excessive alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Conclusions School personnel, medical personnel, and mental health service providers should consider screening for evacuation status in seeking to identify those adolescents who most need services after a natural disaster. Further, in addition to addressing internalized emotions and psychological symptoms associated with experiencing trauma, intervention programs should focus on reducing externalized behavior such as substance use and teen dating violence. PMID:22010597
Gavin, Lorrie; Warner, Lee; O’Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Duong, Linh M.; Marshall, Cassondra; Hastings, Philip A.; Harrison, Ayanna T.; Barfield, Wanda
Background Teen childbearing has potential negative health, economic, and social consequences for mother and child. Repeat teen childbearing further constrains the mother’s education and employment possibilities. Rates of preterm and low birth weight are higher in teens with a repeat birth, compared with first births. Methods To assess patterns of repeat childbearing and postpartum contraceptive use among teens, CDC analyzed natality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and t...
Perper, Kate; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer
Recently released government data show that in 2006, the U.S. teen birth rate began to increase, marking the end of a 14-year period of decline. More specifically, these data show that between 2005 and 2007, the teen birth rate climbed five percent. This trend reversal is a cause for concern, given the negative consequences of teen childbearing…
Provides annotated bibliographies for five books that are recommended professional reading for librarians serving teens. Topics include American Indian stereotypes in the media; a leadership guide for school library media specialists; views of teens; how teens who are different are often outcasts; and tips for public library young adult services.…
Willoughby, Jessica Fitts
Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual…
... one in four teens report being the victim of verbal, physical, emotional, or sexual violence. Abusive... National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month reflects our Nation's...
Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.
Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…
Kandakai, Tina L.; Smith, Leonie C. R.
Objective: To explore the impact of teen-adult sexual relationships as a public health threat and the effectiveness of statutory rape laws in protecting adolescent children. Methods: A comprehensive review of current literature surrounding child abuse, teen pregnancy, and statutory rape was conducted. Results: Of one million teen girls who become…
Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.
There is scant research of adolescents' understanding of abstinence. We conducted interviews with a sample of 58 teens to find out their exposure to abstinence information from a range of sources. Most teens had received abstinence information or messages from school, family members, and friends. For many teens, information about abstinence, or…
Manlove, Jennifer; Mariner, Carrie; Romano, Angela
A sample of high school-age mothers was followed from 1988 to 1994 in order to examine factors associated with having a second teen birth or closely spaced second teen birth. Factors associated with postponing a second teen birth included characteristics measured prior to the first birth, at the time of the first birth, and after the first birth.…
Franzetta, Kerry; Schelar, Erin; Manlove, Jennifer
Hispanics represent one of the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population, and this rapid growth is projected to be even more dramatic for Hispanic teens. The number of Hispanic teens is projected to increase by 50 percent by 2025, even though the total teen population is expected to increase by only 6 percent in the same time period.…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012
The percentage of teens in high school who drink and drive has decreased by more than half since 1991, but more can be done. Nearly one million high school teens drank alcohol and got behind the wheel in 2011. Teen drivers are 3 times more likely than more experienced drivers to be in a fatal crash. Drinking any alcohol greatly increases this risk…
Zimmermann, Karin; Bergstraesser, Eva; Engberg, Sandra; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Marfurt-Russenberger, Katrin; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Grandjean, Chantal; Fahrni-Nater, Patricia; Cignacco, Eva
Parents facing the death of their child have a strong need for compassionate professional support. Care services should be based on empirical evidence, be sensitive to the needs of the families concerned, take into account the heterogeneity within the medical field of paediatrics, and fit into the local health care system. We need to better understand the perspectives of parents facing the death of their child in order to guide further development and evaluation of specialised paediatric palliative and end-of-life (EOL) care services. Questionnaire survey to assess the EOL care perspectives of a Swiss population-based sample of bereaved parents who had lost a child due to a cardiac, neurological or oncological condition, or during the neonatal period in the years 2011 or 2012. The parental perspective was assessed with a newly developed and tested instrument that was structured according to six evidence-based quality domains. Responses regarding parental experiences and perceived satisfaction are described. Differences between the four diagnostic groups are analysed using a generalized estimation equation to account for the dyadic data structure. Of 307 eligible families, 267 could be contacted and 135 (51%) consented to participate in this questionnaire survey. Our findings show positive parental experiences of their child's EOL care and high perceived satisfaction with the care their child received. Parents of a child with cancer rated their experiences highest in most of the six quality domains and reported the highest satisfaction with care. The lowest scores were mainly reported by parents from the neurology group, with the exception of the shared decision making domain, where parents of neonates reported significantly less positive experiences. Although positive in general, our study results suggest some areas for improvement. The integration of specialised paediatric palliative care has the potential to minimise lost opportunities to support and assist
Bouwman, R.; Bomhoff, M.; Robben, P.; Friele, R.D.
Objectives: Internationally, healthcare quality regulators are criticized for failing to respond to patients' complaints. Patient involvement is, therefore, an important item on the policy agenda. However, it can be argued that there is a discrepancy between the patients' perspective and current