WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey techniques developed

  1. Photography equipment and techniques. A survey of NASA developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo program has been the most complex exploration ever attempted by man, requiring extensive research, development, and engineering in most of the sciences before the leap through space could begin. Photography has been used at each step of the way to document the efforts and activities, isolate mistakes, reveal new phenomena, and to record much that cannot be seen by the human eye. At the same time, the capabilities of photography were extended because of the need of meeting space requirements. The results of this work have been applied to community planning and ecology, for example, as well as to space and engineering. Special uses of standard equipment, modifications and new designs, as well as film combinations that indicate actual or potential ecological problems are described.

  2. Lot quality assurance sampling techniques in health surveys in developing countries: advantages and current constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, C F; Black, R E

    1991-01-01

    Traditional survey methods, which are generally costly and time-consuming, usually provide information at the regional or national level only. The utilization of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology, developed in industry for quality control, makes it possible to use small sample sizes when conducting surveys in small geographical or population-based areas (lots). This article describes the practical use of LQAS for conducting health surveys to monitor health programmes in developing countries. Following a brief description of the method, the article explains how to build a sample frame and conduct the sampling to apply LQAS under field conditions. A detailed description of the procedure for selecting a sampling unit to monitor the health programme and a sample size is given. The sampling schemes utilizing LQAS applicable to health surveys, such as simple- and double-sampling schemes, are discussed. The interpretation of the survey results and the planning of subsequent rounds of LQAS surveys are also discussed. When describing the applicability of LQAS in health surveys in developing countries, the article considers current limitations for its use by health planners in charge of health programmes, and suggests ways to overcome these limitations through future research. It is hoped that with increasing attention being given to industrial sampling plans in general, and LQAS in particular, their utilization to monitor health programmes will provide health planners in developing countries with powerful techniques to help them achieve their health programme targets.

  3. Survey on development of brown coal liquefaction techniques; Kattan ekika gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    Described herein are results of literature survey on brown coal liquefaction reactions and elementary techniques. Liquefaction of brown coal in the presence of CO and steam, or CO, H{sub 2} and steam has been investigated. It is not clear by the literature survey whether it is superior to the normal process which uses hydrogen. Brown coal contains moisture at high contents, and the drying techniques are necessary to be developed for its liquefaction. The future coal liquefaction plant will be much larger than the past one, and there are a number of problems to be solved, such as those involved in the designs of large-sized high-pressure slurry pumps, heat exchangers and preheaters. It is also necessary to develop the materials of and production techniques for large reactors which are serviceable under severe conditions. The solid-liquid separation for liquefaction products involves a number of the elementary techniques characteristic of coal liquefaction processes, and needs many technological developments. The one-stage brown coal liquefaction process is compared with the two-stage process for the secondary hydrogenation of SCR, but no clear conclusions are reached. (NEDO)

  4. Radon survey techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews radon measurement surveys in soils and in water. Special applications, and advantages and limitations of the radon measurement techniques are considered. The working group also gives some directions for further research in this field

  5. Automatic surveying techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of automatic surveying methods in a more systematic manner, the PEP organization signed a contract in late 1975 for TRW Systems Group to undertake a feasibility study. The completion of this study resulted in TRW Report 6452.10-75-101, dated December 29, 1975, which was largely devoted to an analysis of a survey system based on an Inertial Navigation System. This PEP note is a review and, in some instances, an extension of that TRW report. A second survey system which employed an ''Image Processing System'' was also considered by TRW, and it will be reviewed in the last section of this note. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Modern Surveying Techniques In National Infrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in National Development ... Modern Surveying Techniques In National Infrastructural Development: Case Study Of Roads ... Ways that Remote Sensing help to make highway construction easier were discussed.

  7. Use of cognitive interview techniques in the development of nutrition surveys and interactive nutrition messages for low-income populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Elena T; Campbell, Marci K; Honess-Morreale, Lauren

    2002-05-01

    The effectiveness of dietary surveys and educational messages is dependent in part on how well the target audience's information processing needs and abilities are addressed. Use of pilot testing is helpful; however, problems with wording and language are often not revealed. Cognitive interview techniques offer 1 approach to assist dietitians in understanding how audiences process information. With this method, respondents are led through a survey or message and asked to paraphrase items; discuss thoughts, feelings, and ideas that come to mind; and suggest alternative wording. As part of a US Department of Agriculture-funded nutrition education project, 23 cognitive interviews were conducted among technical community college students in North Carolina. Interview findings informed the development of tailored computer messages and survey questions. Better understanding of respondents' cognitive processes significantly improved the language and approach used in this intervention. Interview data indicated 4 problem areas: vague or ineffective instructions, confusing questions and response options, variable interpretation of terms, and misinterpretation of dietary recommendations. Interviews also provided insight into the meaning of diet-related stages of change. These findings concur with previous research suggesting that cognitive interview techniques are a valuable tool in the formative evaluation and development of nutrition surveys and materials.

  8. The Hannibal Community Survey; A Case Study in a Community Development Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, John A.

    Disturbed by the community's negative attitude toward its prospects for progress, the Hannibal (Missouri) Chamber of Commerce initiated a community self-survey to improve the situation. The questionnaire survey concentrated on felt needs relationg to city government, retail facilities and services, recreation, religion, education, industrial…

  9. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben; Egges, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  10. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  11. Survey of Verification and Validation Techniques for Small Satellite Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current trends and practices in small-satellite software verification and validation. This document is not intended to promote a specific software assurance method. Rather, it seeks to present an unbiased survey of software assurance methods used to verify and validate small satellite software and to make mention of the benefits and value of each approach. These methods include simulation and testing, verification and validation with model-based design, formal methods, and fault-tolerant software design with run-time monitoring. Although the literature reveals that simulation and testing has by far the longest legacy, model-based design methods are proving to be useful for software verification and validation. Some work in formal methods, though not widely used for any satellites, may offer new ways to improve small satellite software verification and validation. These methods need to be further advanced to deal with the state explosion problem and to make them more usable by small-satellite software engineers to be regularly applied to software verification. Last, it is explained how run-time monitoring, combined with fault-tolerant software design methods, provides an important means to detect and correct software errors that escape the verification process or those errors that are produced after launch through the effects of ionizing radiation.

  12. Development of Tools and Techniques to Survey, Assess, Stabilise, Monitor and Preserve Underwater Archaeological Sites: SASMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    SASMAP's purpose is to develop new technologies and best practices in order to locate, assess and manage Europe's underwater cultural heritage in a more effective way than is possible today. SASMAP has taken an holistic- and process- based approach to investigating underwater environments and the archaeological sites contained therein. End user of the results of SASMAP are severalfold; i) to benefiet the SMEs involved in the project and development of their products for the offshore industry (not just for archaeological purposes) ii) a better understanding of the marine environment and its effect on archaeological materials iii) the collation of the results from the project into guidelines that can be used by cultural resource managers to better administer and optimise developer lead underwater archaeological project within Europe in accordance with European legislation (Treaty of Valetta (1992). Summarily the project has utilised a down scaling approach to localise archaeological sites at a large scale regional level. This has involved using innovative satellite imagery to obtain seamless topography maps over coastal areas and the seabed (accurate to a depth of 6m) as well as the development of a 3D sub bottom profiler to look within the seabed. Results obtained from the downscaling approach at the study areas in the project (Greece and Denmark) have enabled geological models to be developed inorder to work towards predictive modelling of where submerged prehistoric sites may be encountered. Once sites have been located an upscaling approach has been taken to assessing an individual site and the materials on and within it in order to better understand the state of preservation and dynamic conditions of a site and how it can best be preserved through in situ preservation or excavation. This has involved the development of equipment to monitor the seabed environment (open water and in sediments), equipment for sampling sediments and assessing the state of

  13. Pretreatment techniques of biodegradable municipal wastewater for sustainable development of surface and groundwater resources: a survey/case studies (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, A.; Sajjad, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Water being a scarce commodity, recharge of groundwater with clean surface water is important to maintain good quality water resources. This paper reviews and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques for the treatment of municipal wastewater's in developing countries. Different processes discussed include from simple stabilization ponds and land treatment to aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. More sophisticated techniques of activated sludge and anaerobic digestion are also discussed. The feasibility of these techniques in terms of cost, land area, removal of pathogens, effluent quality and need of technical expertise is discussed. (author)

  14. Developing the online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffry S; McNew, Ryan

    2008-12-01

    Institutions of higher education are now using Internet-based technology tools to conduct surveys for data collection. Research shows that the type and quality of responses one receives with online surveys are comparable with what one receives in paper-based surveys. Data collection can take place on Web-based surveys, e-mail-based surveys, and personal digital assistants/Smartphone devices. Web surveys can be subscription templates, software packages installed on one's own server, or created from scratch using Web programming development tools. All of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The survey owner must make informed decisions as to the right technology to implement. The correct choice can save hours of work in sorting, organizing, and analyzing data.

  15. Underwater cutting techniques developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.-W.

    1990-01-01

    The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)

  16. Fiscal 1992 report on geothermal development promotion survey (Development of geothermal reservoir assessment technique); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa (Chinetsu choryusou hyoka shuho kaihatsu hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Efforts were exerted in fiscal 1984-1992 to develop techniques for appropriately assessing a geothermal reservoir for its productivity for duly predicting the optimum scale of power generation to be provided thereby. In the development of simulators, geothermal reservoir simulators (SING-1, -2, -3) and a geothermal well 2-phase flow simulator (WENG) were developed. As for the treatment of fractures in a reservoir and of substances soluble in the hot water, the methods for dealing with them were improved and augmented. In a model field study in a Hokkaido forest, reservoir pressure continuous observation and monitoring, temperature logging and pressure logging for existing wells, and geothermal fluid chemical analysis were performed for reservoir analysis, in which both natural state simulation and history mapping excellently reproduced the temperature and pressure distributions. The temperature and pressure distributions in a natural state simulation, out of the results of an analysis of the Oguni district model field, Kumamoto Prefecture, agreed not only with those in the natural state but also with the pressure transition data in the observation well. (NEDO)

  17. Survey of development work and problems with different collection techniques of food waste; Kartlaeggning av utvecklingsarbete samt problem vid olika insamlingstekniker foer matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksson, Gunilla

    2010-07-01

    In accordance with Sweden's environmental objectives it has been decided that, by 2010, 35 per cent of all food waste shall be recovered through biological treatment. In order to get there, the problems regarding collection methods needs to be solved. There are several different collection systems to choose between, but at the present time there is no complete list of the methods and techniques available on the market. Lists of advantages and disadvantages with each system, of potential improvements, and of completed or ongoing development projects are also missing, and creating difficulties for municipalities and businesses which are planning on introducing a system. The goal with this study is to provide a survey of technical problems with different systems and to identify previous studies as well as new innovations within collection techniques. The expectation is that this work eventually will lead to improved collection systems. The study will cover existing collection techniques in households, large-scale kitchens, restaurants and grocery stores in Sweden. The study will only cover the so called hard parameters, i.e. primarily technical issues. The target group is on the one hand municipalities planning on starting collection of food waste and on the other hand all actors in the area, such as innovators, producers and suppliers as well as Waste Refinery's organizations. Soft issues such as issues regarding information and quality are not included. The system limits of this project span between the recycling equipment of homes and businesses to the food waste's treatment at the biological treatment plant. The methods that have been used in this project are: questionnaire survey to 133 municipalities that today are recycling food waste, telephone interviews with a number of biological treatment plants and innovators in the business, and Internet searching for relevant reports and studies in the field. The results show that the paper bag and the

  18. Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. A Survey on different techniques of steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Harpreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is important due to the exponential development and secret communication of potential computer users over the internet. Steganography is the art of invisible communication to keep secret information inside other information. Steganalysis is the technology that attempts to ruin the Steganography by detecting the hidden information and extracting.Steganography is the process of Data embedding in the images, text/documented, audio and video files. The paper also highlights the security improved by applying various techniques of video steganography.

  20. Comparison of survey techniques on detection of northern flying squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggins, Corinne A.; Gilley, L. Michelle; Kelly, Christine A.; Ford, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect a species is central to the success of monitoring for conservation and management purposes, especially if the species is rare or endangered. Traditional methods, such as live capture, can be labor-intensive, invasive, and produce low detection rates. Technological advances and new approaches provide opportunities to more effectively survey for species both in terms of accuracy and efficiency than previous methods. We conducted a pilot comparison study of a traditional technique (live-trapping) and 2 novel noninvasive techniques (camera-trapping and ultrasonic acoustic surveys) on detection rates of the federally endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) in occupied habitat within the Roan Mountain Highlands of North Carolina, USA. In 2015, we established 3 5 × 5 live-trapping grids (6.5 ha) with 4 camera traps and 4 acoustic detectors systematically embedded in each grid. All 3 techniques were used simultaneously during 2 4-day survey periods. We compared techniques by assessing probability of detection (POD), latency to detection (LTD; i.e., no. of survey nights until initial detection), and survey effort. Acoustics had the greatest POD (0.37 ± 0.06 SE), followed by camera traps (0.30 ± 0.06) and live traps (0.01 ± 0.005). Acoustics had a lower LTD than camera traps (P = 0.017), where average LTD was 1.5 nights for acoustics and 3.25 nights for camera traps. Total field effort was greatest with live traps (111.9 hr) followed by acoustics (8.4 hr) and camera traps (9.6 hr), although processing and examination for data of noninvasive techniques made overall effort similar among the 3 methods. This pilot study demonstrated that both noninvasive methods were better rapid-assessment detection techniques for flying squirrels than live traps. However, determining seasonal effects between survey techniques and further development of protocols for both noninvasive techniques is

  1. Fuzzy Bi-level Decision-Making Techniques: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangquan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bi-level decision-making techniques aim to deal with decentralized management problems that feature interactive decision entities distributed throughout a bi-level hierarchy. A challenge in handling bi-level decision problems is that various uncertainties naturally appear in decision-making process. Significant efforts have been devoted that fuzzy set techniques can be used to effectively deal with uncertain issues in bi-level decision-making, known as fuzzy bi-level decision-making techniques, and researchers have successfully gained experience in this area. It is thus vital that an instructive review of current trends in this area should be conducted, not only of the theoretical research but also the practical developments. This paper systematically reviews up-to-date fuzzy bi-level decisionmaking techniques, including models, approaches, algorithms and systems. It also clusters related technique developments into four main categories: basic fuzzy bi-level decision-making, fuzzy bi-level decision-making with multiple optima, fuzzy random bi-level decision-making, and the applications of bi-level decision-making techniques in different domains. By providing state-of-the-art knowledge, this survey paper will directly support researchers and practitioners in their understanding of developments in theoretical research results and applications in relation to fuzzy bi-level decision-making techniques.

  2. Isotope techniques in a water survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-15

    The circulation of water is one of the most interesting of natural phenomena. Exact knowledge of fluctuations in precipitation and other factors in water circulation is extremely important for areas which have a very limited water supply. The information about the circulation of water is also important for the disposal of radioactive wastes on land and in the sea. Before satisfactory methods of disposal can be devised, it is essential to know precisely whether and to what extent the wastes can be transferred from one place to another as a result of the circulation of water. One of the most efficient ways of gathering such information is to study the isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in water in different areas. Tritium can serve a s a tracer in the study of water circulation. A variety of information can be obtained by measurements of isotopic composition of water, e.g. the average age of the water molecule in a lake or age, size, storage time and flow rate of a groundwater body. The modern tools of hydrological research cannot be employed by every country, because measurements of the isotopic composition of water require great technical skill and scientific knowledge. Besides, interpretation of isotope data in terms of hydrology and climatology requires the knowledge of certain basic data for the whole world or at least for large areas. A more complete knowledge of the worldwide variations in the isotopic composition of water would greatly facilitate the interpretation of local conditions. Guided by these considerations, the International Atomic Energy Agency has decided to initiate a study to determine the world-wide distribution of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in water. On the basis of this study, it will be possible to make available basic data for the use of any country that wishes to apply isotope techniques for hydrological and climatological research. Under this project, it is proposed to collect samples of rain, river and ocean water in different

  3. Energy supply/demand structure development survey project / comprehensive survey on energy supply/demand development. FY1997 survey on techniques for pyroelectric power generation systems; Energy jukyu kozo kodoka chosa jigyo / energy jukyu kodoka sogo chosa. 1997 nendo shoden hatsuden system no gijutsu chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Pyroelectric conversion systems were surveyed as the techniques for effective utilization of low-temperature waste heat sources. Described herein are the principle of pyroelectric power generation, including pyroelectric phenomenon, origin of pyroelectricity in polymers, and pyroelectric polymers and copolymers; utilization of the pyroelectric phenomenon, including hysteresis of pyroelectric materials, general pyroelectric conversion principle, pyroelectric conversion cycle, analysis of power output by an Olsen cycle, comparison with a steam engine, and power outputting methods; pyroelectric conversion systems, including heat regeneration method, plate type pyroelectric conversion devices using the heat regeneration method, and voltage controlling methods; and pyroelectric conversion outputting, including calculations of power output and loss, conduction-caused loss, pumping loss, and pyroelectric converter efficiency. Other items described herein include conceptual designs of 1 and 100 kW pyroelectric converters for utilization of waste heat, and current status of pyroelectric converter development at CANMET Energy Technology Center. (NEDO)

  4. Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusler, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented

  5. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  6. Survey as a group interactive teaching technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana GOREA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Smooth running of the educational process and the results depend a great deal on the methods used. The methodology of teaching offers a great variety of teaching techniques that the teacher can make use of in the teaching/learning process. Such techniques as brainstorming, the cube, KLW, case study, Venn diagram, and many other are familiar to the teachers and they use them effectively in the classroom. The present article proposes a technique called ‘survey’, which has been successfully used by the author as a student-centered speaking activity in foreign language classes. It has certain advantages especially if used in large groups. It can be adapted for any other discipline in the case when the teacher wishes to offer the students space for cooperative activity and creativity.

  7. Survey Of Lossless Image Coding Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnychuck, Paul W.; Rabbani, Majid

    1989-04-01

    Many image transmission/storage applications requiring some form of data compression additionally require that the decoded image be an exact replica of the original. Lossless image coding algorithms meet this requirement by generating a decoded image that is numerically identical to the original. Several lossless coding techniques are modifications of well-known lossy schemes, whereas others are new. Traditional Markov-based models and newer arithmetic coding techniques are applied to predictive coding, bit plane processing, and lossy plus residual coding. Generally speaking, the compression ratio offered by these techniques are in the area of 1.6:1 to 3:1 for 8-bit pictorial images. Compression ratios for 12-bit radiological images approach 3:1, as these images have less detailed structure, and hence, their higher pel correlation leads to a greater removal of image redundancy.

  8. Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aine, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain

  9. UAS Mapping as an alternative for land surveying techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Devriendt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Can a UAS mapping technique compete with standard surveying techniques? Since the boom in different RPAS (remotely piloted air system, UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle, or UAS (unmanned aerial system, this is one of the crucial questions when it comes to UAS mappings. Not the looks and feels are important but the reliability, ease-to-use, and accuracy that you get with a system based on hardware and corresponding software. This was also one of the issues that the Dutch Land Registry asked a few months ago aimed at achieving an effective and usable system for updating property boundaries in new-build districts. Orbit GT gave them a ready-made answer: a definitive outcome based on years of research and development in UAS mapping technology and software.

  10. Radiological survey techniques for decontamination and dismantlement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruesink, G.P.; Stempfley, D.H.; Pettit, P.J.; Warner, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is engaged in an aggressive Program to remove all above ground structures as part of the Fernald sites final remediation remedy. Through the complete removal of major facilities such as Plant 7, Plant 4, and Plant 1, the FEMP has developed radiological survey approaches that are effective for the different phases of the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D ampersand D) process. Some of the most pressing challenges facing the FEMP are implementing effective, low cost methods for the D ampersand D of former process buildings while minimizing environmental effects. One of the key components to ensure minimal impact on the environment is the collection of radiological contamination information during the D ampersand D process to facilitate the decision making process. Prior to the final demolition of any structure, radiological surveys of floors, walls, and ceilings must take place. These surveys must demonstrate that contamination levels am below 5000 dpm removable beta/gamma for non-porous surfaces and below 1000 dpm removable-beta/gamma for all porous surfaces. Technique which can perform these activities in a safe, effective, and cost efficient manner are greatly desired. The FEMP has investigated new approaches to address this need. These techniques include sampling approaches using standard baseline methodology as well as innovative approaches to accelerate final radiological clearance processes. To further improve upon this process, the FEMP has investigated several new technologies through the Fernald Plant 1 Large Scale Technology Demonstration Project. One of the most promising of these new technologies, Laser Induced Fluorescence, may significantly improve the radiological clearance survey process. This paper will present real world experiences in applying radiological control limits to D ampersand D projects as well as relate potential productivity and cost improvements with the

  11. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    A need exists for frequent and prompt updating of shoreline positions, rates of shoreline movement, and volumetric nearshore changes. To effectively monitor and predict these beach changes, accurate measurements of beach morphology incorporating both shore-parallel and shore-normal transects are required. Although it is possible to monitor beach dynamics using land-based surveying methods, it is generally not practical to collect data of sufficient density and resolution to satisfy a three-dimensional beach-change model of long segments of the coast. The challenge to coastal scientists is to devise new beach monitoring methods that address these needs and are rapid, reliable, relatively inexpensive, and maintain or improve measurement accuracy.

  12. The History of Electromagnetic Induction Techniques in Soil Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Doolittle, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to characterize the spatial variability of soil properties since the late 1970s. Initially used to assess soil salinity, the use of EMI in soil studies has expanded to include: mapping soil types; characterizing soil water content and flow patterns; assessing variations in soil texture, compaction, organic matter content, and pH; and determining the depth to subsurface horizons, stratigraphic layers or bedrock, among other uses. In all cases the soil property being investigated must influence soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) either directly or indirectly for EMI techniques to be effective. An increasing number and diversity of EMI sensors have been developed in response to users' needs and the availability of allied technologies, which have greatly improved the functionality of these tools. EMI investigations provide several benefits for soil studies. The large amount of georeferenced data that can be rapidly and inexpensively collected with EMI provides more complete characterization of the spatial variations in soil properties than traditional sampling techniques. In addition, compared to traditional soil survey methods, EMI can more effectively characterize diffuse soil boundaries and identify included areas of dissimilar soils within mapped soil units, giving soil scientists greater confidence when collecting spatial soil information. EMI techniques do have limitations; results are site-specific and can vary depending on the complex interactions among multiple and variable soil properties. Despite this, EMI techniques are increasingly being used to investigate the spatial variability of soil properties at field and landscape scales.

  13. A Survey of 2D Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejda Chihaoui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the existence of various biometric techniques, like fingerprints, iris scan, as well as hand geometry, the most efficient and more widely-used one is face recognition. This is because it is inexpensive, non-intrusive and natural. Therefore, researchers have developed dozens of face recognition techniques over the last few years. These techniques can generally be divided into three categories, based on the face data processing methodology. There are methods that use the entire face as input data for the proposed recognition system, methods that do not consider the whole face, but only some features or areas of the face and methods that use global and local face characteristics simultaneously. In this paper, we present an overview of some well-known methods in each of these categories. First, we expose the benefits of, as well as the challenges to the use of face recognition as a biometric tool. Then, we present a detailed survey of the well-known methods by expressing each method’s principle. After that, a comparison between the three categories of face recognition techniques is provided. Furthermore, the databases used in face recognition are mentioned, and some results of the applications of these methods on face recognition databases are presented. Finally, we highlight some new promising research directions that have recently appeared.

  14. A survey of statistical downscaling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E.; Storch, H. von [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1997-12-31

    The derivation of regional information from integrations of coarse-resolution General Circulation Models (GCM) is generally referred to as downscaling. The most relevant statistical downscaling techniques are described here and some particular examples are worked out in detail. They are classified into three main groups: linear methods, classification methods and deterministic non-linear methods. Their performance in a particular example, winter rainfall in the Iberian peninsula, is compared to a simple downscaling analog method. It is found that the analog method performs equally well than the more complicated methods. Downscaling analysis can be also used as a tool to validate regional performance of global climate models by analyzing the covariability of the simulated large-scale climate and the regional climates. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Ableitung regionaler Information aus Integrationen grob aufgeloester Klimamodelle wird als `Regionalisierung` bezeichnet. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt die wichtigsten statistischen Regionalisierungsverfahren und gibt darueberhinaus einige detaillierte Beispiele. Regionalisierungsverfahren lassen sich in drei Hauptgruppen klassifizieren: lineare Verfahren, Klassifikationsverfahren und nicht-lineare deterministische Verfahren. Diese Methoden werden auf den Niederschlag auf der iberischen Halbinsel angewandt und mit den Ergebnissen eines einfachen Analog-Modells verglichen. Es wird festgestellt, dass die Ergebnisse der komplizierteren Verfahren im wesentlichen auch mit der Analog-Methode erzielt werden koennen. Eine weitere Anwendung der Regionalisierungsmethoden besteht in der Validierung globaler Klimamodelle, indem die simulierte und die beobachtete Kovariabilitaet zwischen dem grosskaligen und dem regionalen Klima miteinander verglichen wird. (orig.)

  15. A survey of statistical downscaling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E; Storch, H von [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1998-12-31

    The derivation of regional information from integrations of coarse-resolution General Circulation Models (GCM) is generally referred to as downscaling. The most relevant statistical downscaling techniques are described here and some particular examples are worked out in detail. They are classified into three main groups: linear methods, classification methods and deterministic non-linear methods. Their performance in a particular example, winter rainfall in the Iberian peninsula, is compared to a simple downscaling analog method. It is found that the analog method performs equally well than the more complicated methods. Downscaling analysis can be also used as a tool to validate regional performance of global climate models by analyzing the covariability of the simulated large-scale climate and the regional climates. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Ableitung regionaler Information aus Integrationen grob aufgeloester Klimamodelle wird als `Regionalisierung` bezeichnet. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt die wichtigsten statistischen Regionalisierungsverfahren und gibt darueberhinaus einige detaillierte Beispiele. Regionalisierungsverfahren lassen sich in drei Hauptgruppen klassifizieren: lineare Verfahren, Klassifikationsverfahren und nicht-lineare deterministische Verfahren. Diese Methoden werden auf den Niederschlag auf der iberischen Halbinsel angewandt und mit den Ergebnissen eines einfachen Analog-Modells verglichen. Es wird festgestellt, dass die Ergebnisse der komplizierteren Verfahren im wesentlichen auch mit der Analog-Methode erzielt werden koennen. Eine weitere Anwendung der Regionalisierungsmethoden besteht in der Validierung globaler Klimamodelle, indem die simulierte und die beobachtete Kovariabilitaet zwischen dem grosskaligen und dem regionalen Klima miteinander verglichen wird. (orig.)

  16. Some developments in safeguards techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beets, C.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamental principles of safeguards and the research and development of safeguards techniques are described. Safeguard accountancy based upon the partition of the fuel cycle into suitable material balance areas will be further improved. Implementation of international safeguards in the European fuel fabrication and reprocessing facilities is described. The effectiveness of a material accounting system depends on the quality of the quantitative data. The allocation of the tasks in the framework of an integrated safeguards is concerned with R and D work only and has no bearing on the allocation of the implementation costs. Bulk measurements, sampling and destructive or non-destructive analysis of samples are described for the determination of batch data. Testing of the safeguards techniques as a keystone in relation to plant instrumentation programmes are still being developed throughout the world. In addition to accountancy and control, it also includes an effective physical security program. The system of international safeguards that prevailed in the sixties has been re-modelled to comply with the new requirements of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and with the growth of nuclear energy

  17. A Survey of Face Recognition Technique | Omidiora | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of face recognition techniques has been carried out. Face recognition has been an attractive field in the society of both biological and computer vision of research. It exhibits the characteristics of being natural and low-intrusive. In this paper, an updated survey of techniques for face recognition is made. Methods of ...

  18. Developments in medical imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Cornelis

    1979-01-01

    A review of the developments in medical imaging in the past 25 years shows a strong increase in the number of physical methods which have become available for obtaining images of diagnostic value. It is shown that despite this proliferation of methods the equipment used for obtaining the images can be based on a common structure. Also the resulting images can be characterized by a few relevant parameters which indicate their information content. On the basis of this common architecture a study is made of the potential capabilities of the large number of medical imaging techniques available now and in the future. Also the requirements and possibilities for handling the images obtained and for controlling the diagnostic systems are investigated [fr

  19. A survey of energy saving techniques for mobile computers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Portable products such as pagers, cordless and digital cellular telephones, personal audio equipment, and laptop computers are increasingly being used. Because these applications are battery powered, reducing power consumption is vital. In this report we first give a survey of techniques for

  20. Aerial radiation survey techniques for efficient characterization of large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydelko, T.; Riedhauser, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Accidental or intentional releases of radioactive isotopes over potentially very large surface areas can pose serious health risks to humans and ecological receptors. Timely and appropriate responses to these releases depend upon rapid and accurate characterization of impacted areas. These characterization efforts can be adversely impacted by heavy vegetation, rugged terrain, urban environments, and the presence of unknown levels of radioactivity. Aerial survey techniques have proven highly successful in measuring gamma emissions from radiological contaminates of concern quickly, efficiently, and safely. Examples of accidental releases include the unintentional distribution of uranium mining ores during transportation, the loss of uranium processing and waste materials, unintentional nuclear power plant emissions into the atmosphere, and the distribution of isotopes during major flooding events such as the one recently occurring in New Orleans. Intentional releases have occurred during the use of deleted uranium ammunition test firing and war time use by military organizations. The threat of radiological dispersion device (dirty bomb) use by terrorists is currently a major concern of many major cities worldwide. The U.S. Department of Energy, in cooperation with its Remote Sensing Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, has developed a sophisticated aerial measurement system for identifying the locations, types, and quantities of gamma emitting radionuclides over extremely large areas. Helicopter mounted Nal detectors are flown at low altitude and constant speed along parallel paths measuring the full spectrum of gamma activity. Analytical procedures are capable of distinguishing between radiological contamination and changes in natural background emissions. Mapped and tabular results of these accurate, timely and cost effective aerial gamma radiation surveys can be used to assist with emergency response actions, if necessary, and to focus more

  1. High precision survey and alignment techniques in accelerator construction

    CERN Document Server

    Gervaise, J

    1974-01-01

    Basic concepts of precision surveying are briefly reviewed, and an historical account is given of instruments and techniques used during the construction of the Proton Synchrotron (1954-59), the Intersecting Storage Rings (1966-71), and the Super Proton Synchrotron (1971). A nylon wire device, distinvar, invar wire and tape, and recent automation of the gyrotheodolite and distinvar as well as auxiliary equipment (polyurethane jacks, Centipede) are discussed in detail. The paper ends summarizing the present accuracy in accelerator metrology, giving an outlook of possible improvement, and some aspects of staffing for the CERN Survey Group. (0 refs).

  2. A survey of visual preprocessing and shape representation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshausen, Bruno A.

    1988-01-01

    Many recent theories and methods proposed for visual preprocessing and shape representation are summarized. The survey brings together research from the fields of biology, psychology, computer science, electrical engineering, and most recently, neural networks. It was motivated by the need to preprocess images for a sparse distributed memory (SDM), but the techniques presented may also prove useful for applying other associative memories to visual pattern recognition. The material of this survey is divided into three sections: an overview of biological visual processing; methods of preprocessing (extracting parts of shape, texture, motion, and depth); and shape representation and recognition (form invariance, primitives and structural descriptions, and theories of attention).

  3. The Development of Precise Engineering Surveying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Guangyun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the construction of big science projects in China, the precise engineering surveying technology developed rapidly in the 21th century. Firstly, the paper summarized up the current development situation for the precise engineering surveying instrument and theory. Then the three typical cases of the precise engineering surveying practice such as accelerator alignment, industry measurement and high-speed railway surveying technology are focused.

  4. Recent developments in building diagnosis techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of recent research on building diagnosis techniques related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behavior and durability, and diagnostic techniques. It highlights recent advances and new developments in the field of building physics, building anomalies in materials and components, new techniques for improved energy efficiency analysis, and diagnosis techniques such as infrared thermography. This book will be of interest to a wide readership of professionals, scientists, students, practitioners, and lecturers.

  5. Development of SYVAC sampling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prust, J.O.; Dalrymple, G.J.

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the requirements of a sampling scheme for use with the SYVAC radiological assessment model. The constraints on the number of samples that may be taken is considered. The conclusions from earlier studies using the deterministic generator sampling scheme are summarised. The method of Importance Sampling and a High Dose algorithm, which are designed to preferentially sample in the high dose region of the parameter space, are reviewed in the light of experience gained from earlier studies and the requirements of a site assessment and sensitivity analyses. In addition the use of an alternative numerical integration method for estimating risk is discussed. It is recommended that the method of Importance Sampling is developed and tested for use with SYVAC. An alternative numerical integration method is not recommended for investigation at this stage but should be the subject of future work. (author)

  6. Survey of intravitreal injection techniques among retina specialists in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segal O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ori Segal,1,2 Yael Segal-Trivitz,1,3 Arie Y Nemet,1,2 Noa Geffen,1,2 Ronit Nesher,1,2 Michael Mimouni4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 3Department of Psychiatry, Geha Psychiatric Hospital, Petah Tikva, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe antivascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injection techniques of retinal specialists in order to establish a cornerstone for future practice guidelines. Methods: All members of the Israeli Retina Society were contacted by email to complete an anonymous, 19-question, Internet-based survey regarding their intravitreal injection techniques. Results: Overall, 66% (52/79 completed the survey. Most (98% do not instruct patients to discontinue anticoagulant therapy and 92% prescribe treatment for patients in the waiting room. Three quarters wear sterile gloves and prepare the patient in the supine position. A majority (71% use sterile surgical draping. All respondents apply topical analgesics and a majority (69% measure the distance from the limbus to the injection site. A minority (21% displace the conjunctiva prior to injection. A majority of the survey participants use a 30-gauge needle and the most common quadrant for injection is superotemporal (33%. Less than half routinely assess postinjection optic nerve perfusion (44%. A majority (92% apply prophylactic antibiotics immediately after the injection. Conclusion: The majority of retina specialists perform intravitreal injections similarly. However, a relatively large minority performs this procedure differently. Due to the extremely low percentage of complications, it seems as though such differences do not increase the risk. However, more evidence-based medicine, a cornerstone for practice guidelines, is required in order to identify the intravitreal injection techniques

  7. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on survey of introduction of techniques for predicting impact on hot springs; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Onsen eikyo yosoku shuho donyu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    In an effort to find guidelines on how to proceed with geothermal energy development so that it may coexist with hot springs, investigations are conducted into cases of impacts on hot springs imposed by geothermal energy development activities. An impact is judged to exist when geothermal development results in a decrease or depletion of pumped or spontaneously welling hot spring water, change in the concentration of dissolved chemical ingredients, fall in water temperature, or in an increase in the amount of discharged steam. Keyword-aided retrieval of data from databases is performed, and geothermal magazines are referred to for information. There are articles reporting impacts imposed by geothermal development on hot springs in the Palinpinon area (Philippines) and 12 others and in the Corwin Springs area (U.S.) and 13 others. These articles carrying outlines and impacts of geothermal development are collected, put in order, and analyzed. Cases in which such impacts are found to exist are categorized into four groups and, in each group, episodes are differentiated from each other by the type of mechanism linking the aquifer and the reservoir which is the object of development. (NEDO)

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION USING EARTH OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we introduce to secondary education an Earth observation technique using synthetic aperture radar (SAR. The goal is to increase interest in and raise the awareness of students in the Earth observation technique through practical activities. A curriculum is developed based on the result of questionnaire surveys of school teachers. The curriculum is composed of 16 units. Teaching materials related to the Earth observation technique are researched and developed. We designed a visual SAR processor and a small corner reflector (CR as a new teaching technique. In teaching sessions at secondary school, the developed teaching materials and software were used effectively. In observation experiments, students set up CRs that they had built, and ALOS PALSAR was able to clearly observe all of the CRs. The proposed curriculum helped all of the students to understand the usefulness of the Earth observation technique.

  9. A Survey on Cloud Security Issues and Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Shubhanjali; Gupta, Garima; Laxmi, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Today, cloud computing is an emerging way of computing in computer science. Cloud computing is a set of resources and services that are offered by the network or internet. Cloud computing extends various computing techniques like grid computing, distributed computing. Today cloud computing is used in both industrial field and academic field. Cloud facilitates its users by providing virtual resources via internet. As the field of cloud computing is spreading the new techniques are developing. ...

  10. SURVEY ON CRIME ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Benjamin Fredrick David

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Data Mining is the procedure which includes evaluating and examining large pre-existing databases in order to generate new information which may be essential to the organization. The extraction of new information is predicted using the existing datasets. Many approaches for analysis and prediction in data mining had been performed. But, many few efforts has made in the criminology field. Many few have taken efforts for comparing the information all these approaches produce. The police stations and other similar criminal justice agencies hold many large databases of information which can be used to predict or analyze the criminal movements and criminal activity involvement in the society. The criminals can also be predicted based on the crime data. The main aim of this work is to perform a survey on the supervised learning and unsupervised learning techniques that has been applied towards criminal identification. This paper presents the survey on the Crime analysis and crime prediction using several Data Mining techniques.

  11. Survey on peripheral techniques of brown coal liquefaction techniques; Kattan ekika gijutsu ni kansuru shuhen gijutsu no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    Described herein are results of survey on brown coal liquefaction techniques and peripheral techniques, centered by COSTEAM process under development in USA, solubilization by alcohol and liquefaction and cracking with the aid of tetrahydroquinoline as the hydrogen donor under development in Japan, and low-temperature carbonization and new promising techniques. The COSTEAM process shows higher reaction rates, conversions and oil yields for brown coal liquefaction than the one using hydrogen gas. Some of the problems involved in this process high viscosity and oxygenated compound content of the product oil. The product oil is acceptable as fuel for power generating plants and can be produced at a moderate cost, but may be unsuitable as vehicle fuel. Coal liquefaction and solubilization processes are mainly represented by those which use hydrogen. The hydrogen cost, which is high, determines the product price. The processes which use alcohol or tetrahydroquinoline are still in the experimental stage. (NEDO)

  12. Artificial Intelligence Techniques: Applications for Courseware Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Brian L.

    1986-01-01

    Introduces some general concepts and techniques of artificial intelligence (natural language interfaces, expert systems, knowledge bases and knowledge representation, heuristics, user-interface metaphors, and object-based environments) and investigates ways these techniques might be applied to analysis, design, development, implementation, and…

  13. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-01

    Jan 1, 1991 ... The research established that quantity surveyors regarded handing in their CPD ... Surveying, Walter Sisulu University, PO Box 1421, East London, 5200, South Africa. ... Keywords: Continuing professional development, quantity surveying, perception .... In spite of this opportunity enshrined in the Act, the.

  14. A survey on reliability and safety analysis techniques of robot systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, H S; Kim, J H; Lee, J C; Choi, Y R; Moon, S S

    2000-12-01

    The reliability and safety analysis techniques was surveyed for the purpose of overall quality improvement of reactor inspection system which is under development in our current project. The contents of this report are : 1. Reliability and safety analysis techniques suvey - Reviewed reliability and safety analysis techniques are generally accepted techniques in many industries including nuclear industry. And we selected a few techniques which are suitable for our robot system. They are falut tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, reliability block diagram, markov model, combinational method, and simulation method. 2. Survey on the characteristics of robot systems which are distinguished from other systems and which are important to the analysis. 3. Survey on the nuclear environmental factors which affect the reliability and safety analysis of robot system 4. Collection of the case studies of robot reliability and safety analysis which are performed in foreign countries. The analysis results of this survey will be applied to the improvement of reliability and safety of our robot system and also will be used for the formal qualification and certification of our reactor inspection system.

  15. A survey on reliability and safety analysis techniques of robot systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H.S.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, J.C.; Choi, Y.R.; Moon, S.S.

    2000-12-01

    The reliability and safety analysis techniques was surveyed for the purpose of overall quality improvement of reactor inspection system which is under development in our current project. The contents of this report are : 1. Reliability and safety analysis techniques suvey - Reviewed reliability and safety analysis techniques are generally accepted techniques in many industries including nuclear industry. And we selected a few techniques which are suitable for our robot system. They are falut tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, reliability block diagram, markov model, combinational method, and simulation method. 2. Survey on the characteristics of robot systems which are distinguished from other systems and which are important to the analysis. 3. Survey on the nuclear environmental factors which affect the reliability and safety analysis of robot system 4. Collection of the case studies of robot reliability and safety analysis which are performed in foreign countries. The analysis results of this survey will be applied to the improvement of reliability and safety of our robot system and also will be used for the formal qualification and certification of our reactor inspection system

  16. Development and applications of microanalytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewa, M.

    2005-05-01

    The development of new analytical techniques is an essential part of our everyday life and is dictated by strong progress in modern science and technology. Both these areas require more precise information about materials and processes involved. Due to these requirements we have been observing a rapid growth in the development of techniques that require both a high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. Modern analytical techniques provide an important interface between science and applications. The works presented in this habilitation thesis span the period of almost 20 years. During this time the author has been leading the development and applications of several new analytical and micro analytical techniques which have been documented in this thesis. This development has required development of ideas, strong leadership, organisational skills, organisation of funds and groups to carry out the necessary work. In chapter 3 the use of the PIXE and XANES techniques described an investigation of permeability for selected elements inside cells. It was important to develop new protocols for sample preparation and analysis and a large number of cells were necessary in order to obtain meaningful data. This development was closely associated with work presented in chapter 4 where the role of sample damage under the MeV ion beam bombardment was investigated. At that time we were the leading group in the world to perform such studies. Chapter 5 describes development of new analytical techniques and its possible applications. Development of the SIHF has been probably the most demanding and difficult project and was described in chapter 6 and it was closely related with development of a diamond detector described in chapter 7. A great part of these works were performed by the author at the Micro Analytical Research Centre (MARC) in the School of Physics at the University of Melbourne in Australia. However, some works were performed at GSI in Germany and BNL in USA. (author)

  17. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results

  18. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results.

  19. Development of an evaluation technique for human-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Koo, Sang Hui; Ahn, Won Yeong; Ryu, Yeong Shin

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold : firstly to establish an evaluation technique for HMI(Human Machine Interface) in NPPs(Nuclear Power Plants) and secondly to develop an architecture of a support system which can be used for the evaluation of HMI. In order to establish an evaluation technique, this study conducted literature review on basic theories of cognitive science studies and summarized the cognitive characteristics of humans. This study also surveyed evaluation techniques of HMI in general, and reviewed studies on the evaluation of HMI in NPPs. On the basis of this survey, the study established a procedure for the evaluation of HMI in NPPs in Korea and laid a foundation for empirical verification

  20. Development of an evaluation technique for human-machine interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Koo, Sang Hui; Ahn, Won Yeong; Ryu, Yeong Shin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    The purpose of this study is two-fold : firstly to establish an evaluation technique for HMI(Human Machine Interface) in NPPs(Nuclear Power Plants) and secondly to develop an architecture of a support system which can be used for the evaluation of HMI. In order to establish an evaluation technique, this study conducted literature review on basic theories of cognitive science studies and summarized the cognitive characteristics of humans. This study also surveyed evaluation techniques of HMI in general, and reviewed studies on the evaluation of HMI in NPPs. On the basis of this survey, the study established a procedure for the evaluation of HMI in NPPs in Korea and laid a foundation for empirical verification.

  1. Developing remote techniques for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenemore, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Three devices have been designed in Britain to meet the need for special remote equipment and techniques required to inspect the reactor vessel and internals of liquid metal reactors. The ''Links Manipulator Under-Sodium Viewing System'' - a device to be used for the surveillance of reactor internals, which are submerged in sodium. An ''Automatic Guided Vehicle'' - a free roving vehicle to be used to survey the externals of the reactor vessel. The ''Snake Manipulator'' - an articulated arm used to gain access to restricted areas. (author)

  2. A critical survey of live virtual machine migration techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Choudhary

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virtualization techniques effectively handle the growing demand for computing, storage, and communication resources in large-scale Cloud Data Centers (CDC. It helps to achieve different resource management objectives like load balancing, online system maintenance, proactive fault tolerance, power management, and resource sharing through Virtual Machine (VM migration. VM migration is a resource-intensive procedure as VM’s continuously demand appropriate CPU cycles, cache memory, memory capacity, and communication bandwidth. Therefore, this process degrades the performance of running applications and adversely affects efficiency of the data centers, particularly when Service Level Agreements (SLA and critical business objectives are to be met. Live VM migration is frequently used because it allows the availability of application service, while migration is performed. In this paper, we make an exhaustive survey of the literature on live VM migration and analyze the various proposed mechanisms. We first classify the types of Live VM migration (single, multiple and hybrid. Next, we categorize VM migration techniques based on duplication mechanisms (replication, de-duplication, redundancy, and compression and awareness of context (dependency, soft page, dirty page, and page fault and evaluate the various Live VM migration techniques. We discuss various performance metrics like application service downtime, total migration time and amount of data transferred. CPU, memory and storage data is transferred during the process of VM migration and we identify the category of data that needs to be transferred in each case. We present a brief discussion on security threats in live VM migration and categories them in three different classes (control plane, data plane, and migration module. We also explain the security requirements and existing solutions to mitigate possible attacks. Specific gaps are identified and the research challenges in improving

  3. Principles of survey development for telemedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George

    2006-01-01

    Surveys can be used in the evaluation of telemedicine applications but they must be properly designed, consistent and accurate. The purpose of the survey and the resources available will determine the extent of testing that a survey instrument should undergo prior to its use. The validity of an instrument is the correspondence between what is being measured and what was intended to be measured. The reliability of an instrument describes the 'consistency' or 'repeatability' of the measurements made with it. Survey instruments should be designed and tested following basic principles of survey development. The actual survey administration also requires consideration, for example data collection and processing, as well as the interpretation of the findings. Surveys are of two different types. Either they are self-administered, or they are administered by interview. In the latter case, they may be administered by telephone or in a face-to-face meeting. It is important to design a survey instrument based on a detailed definition of what it intends to measure and to test it before administering it to the larger sample.

  4. Retinal Vessels Segmentation Techniques and Algorithms: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Almotiri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vessels identification and localization aim to separate the different retinal vasculature structure tissues, either wide or narrow ones, from the fundus image background and other retinal anatomical structures such as optic disc, macula, and abnormal lesions. Retinal vessels identification studies are attracting more and more attention in recent years due to non-invasive fundus imaging and the crucial information contained in vasculature structure which is helpful for the detection and diagnosis of a variety of retinal pathologies included but not limited to: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR, glaucoma, hypertension, and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD. With the development of almost two decades, the innovative approaches applying computer-aided techniques for segmenting retinal vessels are becoming more and more crucial and coming closer to routine clinical applications. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview for retinal vessels segmentation techniques. Firstly, a brief introduction to retinal fundus photography and imaging modalities of retinal images is given. Then, the preprocessing operations and the state of the art methods of retinal vessels identification are introduced. Moreover, the evaluation and validation of the results of retinal vessels segmentation are discussed. Finally, an objective assessment is presented and future developments and trends are addressed for retinal vessels identification techniques.

  5. The development of digital monitoring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, In Soo; Kim, D. H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, G. O.; Park, H. Y.; Suh, S. Y.; Sung, S. H.; Song, S. J.; Lee, C. K.; Jang, G. S.; Hur, S.

    1997-08-01

    A study has been performed for advanced DSP technology for the digital nuclear I and C systems for the monitoring and diagnosis techniques for high-pressurized structures integrity in NSSS. In the development of advanced DSP technology, real time process, communication network and signal validation were selected as the essential technologies of the digital signal process, and the requirements and methodology for the application of these technologies in NPP were established through technical analysis. Based on its results, the DPIS and the signal validation algorithm were developed. For the real-time process, the necessary requirements were define and the methodology of real-time software modeling was developed. For the communication network, the methodology of selection of the communication technique and developing procedure were established with an extraction of requirements. Functions, requirements, structure and technical specification were developed for the DPIS, and a real-time signal validation algorithm was developed and implemented for the signal validation. In a study on monitoring techniques for abnormal conditions, test and experimental facilities have been set up in order to carry out the required tests during research activities. Studies concentrated on how to acquire proper vibration or emission signals from mechanical structures and equipments, and to diagnose effectively the abnormal conditions of high pressure structure integrity. The algorithms of automatic signal analysis and diagnosis for abnormal conditions have been developed in this study to assist the operator's monitoring and diagnosis activities on structure integrity using new technologies. (author). 23 refs., 68 tabs., 196 figs

  6. The development of digital monitoring technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, In Soo; Kim, D. H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, G. O.; Park, H. Y.; Suh, S. Y.; Sung, S. H.; Song, S. J.; Lee, C. K.; Jang, G. S.; Hur, S.

    1997-08-01

    A study has been performed for advanced DSP technology for the digital nuclear I and C systems for the monitoring and diagnosis techniques for high-pressurized structures integrity in NSSS. In the development of advanced DSP technology, real time process, communication network and signal validation were selected as the essential technologies of the digital signal process, and the requirements and methodology for the application of these technologies in NPP were established through technical analysis. Based on its results, the DPIS and the signal validation algorithm were developed. For the real-time process, the necessary requirements were define and the methodology of real-time software modeling was developed. For the communication network, the methodology of selection of the communication technique and developing procedure were established with an extraction of requirements. Functions, requirements, structure and technical specification were developed for the DPIS, and a real-time signal validation algorithm was developed and implemented for the signal validation. In a study on monitoring techniques for abnormal conditions, test and experimental facilities have been set up in order to carry out the required tests during research activities. Studies concentrated on how to acquire proper vibration or emission signals from mechanical structures and equipments, and to diagnose effectively the abnormal conditions of high pressure structure integrity. The algorithms of automatic signal analysis and diagnosis for abnormal conditions have been developed in this study to assist the operator`s monitoring and diagnosis activities on structure integrity using new technologies. (author). 23 refs., 68 tabs., 196 figs.

  7. The developing technique for automated UT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Baek, C. H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an experiential summary of the developing technique for automated ultrasonic testing system that consists of an ultrasonic tester, mechanical moving and fixing parts, controller and testing software. The application knowledges and limitations on these items are helpful to prevent the misoperation, the unadequate test result analysis and to build up the own test system.

  8. New Developments and special NDT techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundry, E.

    1978-01-01

    New developments in measuring methods using non-destructive testing are reported. The following are discussed in various chapters: a) Mechanical and acoustic methods, b) thermal and optical methods, c) electric and magnetic methods, d) X-ray and gamma radiation methods, e) particle methods or particle radiation. Finally, method techniques are explained. An extensive bibliography (210 quotations) supplement the work. (RW) [de

  9. Research on polonium-218 survey technique for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, R.

    1985-01-01

    This article makes an exposition of the principles and procedures of 218 Po survey technique for uranium. The experiments done with 218 Po method on a large scale on the deposits of granite, volcanic rock and carbon-silliceous slate types showed that the method of not only as effective as track method and 210 Po method, but also has the characteristics of its own. The device has higher working efficiency with only 5 minutes needed at each measurement point, and its sensitivity is higher, about 0.7 pulse/136.S (P ci /L). The results of measurement by 218 Po method will not be affected by thorium emanation and there will be no contamination of the scintillation chamber by radon daughter. The ratio of anomalous peak value to the bottom for 218 Po method is proved to be higher than that for track method and 210 Po method. In order to avoid the influence of moisture, the measurement by 218 Po method should be planned to do when it is not a rainy day and the holes must be dug some distance off the ditches and rice fields, thus ensuring the success in applying the method

  10. Survey and assessment of conventional software verification and validation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Groundwater, E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1993-02-01

    Reliable software is required for nuclear power plant applications. Verification and validation (V ampersand V) techniques may be applied during software development to help eliminate errors that can inhibit the proper operation of digital systems and that may cause safety problems. EPRI and the NRC are cosponsoring this investigation to determine the best strategies for V ampersand V of expert system software. The strategy used for a particular system will depend on the complexity of the software and the level of integrity required. This report covers the first task in the investigation of reviewing methods for V ampersand V of conventional software systems and evaluating them for use with expert systems

  11. PRINTING TECHNIQUES: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, Witold; Kurek, Mateusz; Lyszczarz, Ewelina; Brniak, Witold; Jachowicz, Renata

    2017-05-01

    In the last few years there has been a huge progress in a development of printing techniques and their application in pharmaceutical sciences and particularly in the pharmaceutical technology. The variety of printing methods makes it necessary to systemize them, explain the principles of operation, and specify the possibilities of their use in pharmaceutical technology. This paper aims to review the printing techniques used in a drug development process. The growing interest in 2D and 3D printing methods results in continuously increasing number of scientific papers. Introduction of the first printed drug Spritam@ to the market seems to be a milestone of the 3D printing development. Thus, a particular aim of this review is to show the latest achievements of the researchers in the field of the printing medicines.

  12. Development of mechanoluminescence technique for impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique called, mechanoluminescence technique, is developed for measuring the parameters of impact. This technique is based on the phenomenon of mechanoluminescence (ML), in which light emission takes place during any mechanical action on solids. When a small solid ball makes an impact on the mechanoluminescent thin film coated on a solid, then initially the elastico ML (EML) intensity increases with time, attains a maximum value I m at a particular time t m , and later on it decreases with time. The contact time T c of ball, can be determined from the relation T c =2t c , where t c is the time at which the EML emission due to compression of the sample becomes negligible. The area from where the EML emission occurs can be taken as the contact area A c . The maximum compression h is given by h=A c /(πr), where r is the radius of the impacting ball, and thus, h can be determined from the known values of A c and r. The maximum force at contact is given by F m =(2mU 0 )/T c , where m is the mass of the impacting ball and U 0 is the velocity of the ball at impact. The maximum impact stress σ m can be obtained from the relation, σ m =F m /A c =(2mU 0 )/(T c A c ). Thus, ML provides a real-time technique for determining the impact parameters such as T c , A c , h, F m and σ m . Using the ML technique, the impact parameters of the SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu film and ZnS:Mn coating are determined. The ML technique can be used to determine the impact parameters in the elastic region and plastic region as well as fracture. ML can also be used to determine the impact parameters for the collision between solid and liquid, if the mechanoluminescent material is coated on the surface of the solid. The measurement of fracto ML in microsecond and nanosecond range may provide a tool for studying the fragmentations in solids by the impact. Using the fast camera the contact area and the depth of compression can be determined for different intervals of time. - Research highlights: → A

  13. Development of Radiotracer Techniques in Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardono

    2000-01-01

    Contribution of radiotracer techniques to solve problems in industrial process plants have been recognized since a long time. Radiotracer application was governed by three main components, namely radioisotopes, radiation detection and data interpretation of an experiment. The three main components mentioned above have been continually developed to overcome problems relating to the operation of industrial process plants. The availability of isotope generator is one of the development aspect in radiotracer technique. Radiation hazard in radiotracer experiment may be reduced by applying isotope generator and on the other hand the delivery of radiotracer to the plant site from the radioisotopes producer was made easier. The development of microprocessor in computer system has facilitated data recording, storing and retrieving. Development in mathematical model supported by radiotracer experiment enhance data interpretation and shed light on various phenomena of flow process. Generally a flow dynamic in a process plant in all kind of industries can be studied using radiotracer technique. However the main challenge coming from petroleum, petrochemical and mineral processing industries

  14. D Survey Techniques for the Architectutal Restoration: the Case of ST. Agata in Pisa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, M. G.; Caroti, G.; Piemonte, A.; Ruschi, P.; Tenchini, L.

    2017-05-01

    The historical architectural heritage may be considered as the product of a complex system of interaction between several factors - cultural, socio-economic, technical, aesthetic etc. The restoration and conservation of this important heritage, therefore, requires necessarily a multidisciplinary approach, both in the preliminary phase of knowledge and in the operative one, strictly connected to the first, regarding the development of the restoration works in all their steps, from the project to the realization. The historical-critical analysis of bibliographic, archival and iconographic sources, together with the architectural survey, aims at interpreting all the events that, from the initial project to all the eventual phases of transformation, have lead the monument in its current state. This is therefore a multi-temporal and multi-spatial study in which geomatics gives an innovative contribution for its capability of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering different levels of spatially referenced information. The current techniques of architectural survey, supported by specific methodological skills, are therefore not limited to a mere mathematical-geometrical description of the historical building, but are useful also for many other purposes, such as formal-linguistic analysis, interpretation of the historical phases of transformation, description of the state of degradation/conservation etc. In this interdisciplinary perspective, photogrammetry and laser scanner represent the two main techniques, as they offer the greatest potential of performing integrated surveys. In the last decades, we have witnessed the growth and development of these 3D-survey techniques as alternative or complementary tools to the traditional ones. In particular, in the field of architectural restoration, these techniques have made significant improvements not only in terms of measure precision or reduction of time for survey operations, but also for the possibility to represent

  15. GPR as a Low Impact Paleontogical Survey Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant, G. C.; Leverence, R.; Stewart, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Deweyville Formation, a Pleistocene fluvial sandstone, is a prolific source of megafaunal fossils from periods of low stand environmental conditions. GPR was employed in an environmentally sensitive area in close proximity to a salt dome in Northwest Harris County, Texas as a method of evaluating the probable paleo-depositional environment and to prospect for potential further site development of two distinct fossiliferous zones. The primary zone of interest is a lag gravel bounded sand responsible for producing a regionally unique fossil assemblage including South American megafauna (Lundelius et al, 2013). The secondary zone of interest contains undisturbed mammoth remains housed in coarse white sand emplaced on top of a clay drape which has been hypothesized to represent an oxbow lake formed by the meandering paleo-Brazos river. With an accurate map of the paleo-channel planning future activity can focus on maximizing fossil recovery and minimizing site impact. Pulse EKKO 250 MHz, 400MHz, and 1GHz system was employed in a prospect area proximal to the secondary site to calibrate and evaluate these systems for their resolution and penetration depth in the modern sediments. The data was processed using EKKO Mapper and EKKO View Deluxe software packages, 3d volumes were produced and sliced. Preliminary results from the 250 MHz demonstrate successful imaging of the sand-clay interface. After these surveys were run a small portion of the site was excavated to confirm the estimated velocities, the observed anomalies, and refine our modeling and interpretation, and improve grid design for further surveys. It was confirmed that the sand-clay interface was easily observable using GPR, however the grid spacing proved to be too wide, leading to artifacts in the 3d volume produced.

  16. Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mease, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Development of tritium-handling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Hiroshi; Hosaka, Akio; Okamoto, Takahumi

    1988-01-01

    The overview of developing activities for tritium-handling techniques in IHI are presented. To establish a fusion power plant, tritium handling is one of the key technologies. Recently in JAERI, conceptual design of FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor) has been carried out, and the FER system requires a processing system for a large amount of tritium. IHI concentrate on investigation of fuel gas purification, isotope separation and storage systems under contract with Toshiba Corporation. Design results of the systems and each components are reviewed. IHI has been developing fundamental handling techniques which are the ZrNi bed for hydrogen isotope storage and isotope separation by laser. The ZrNi bed with a tritium storage capacity of 1000 Ci has been constructed and recovery capability of the hydrogen isotope until 10 -4 Torr {0.013 Pa} was confirmed. In laser isotope separation, the optimum laser wave length has been determined. (author)

  18. Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mease, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs

  19. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang.

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator's physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs

  20. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  1. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was conducted in order to investigate Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the South African quantity surveying profession. The study further aimed to establish the reasons why some quantity surveyors do not acquire the required CPD hours and face losing their professional registration with ...

  2. Starting and developing a surveying business

    CERN Document Server

    Imber, Austen

    2013-01-01

    Starting and Developing a Surveying Business shows how surveyors can develop their own successful small business. For surveyors thinking of taking this step, guidance is provided on the pros and cons which will help the right decision to be made, and the key factors which help see the business through its early stages. For surveyors already running their own small business, consideration is given to factors which will help profitability and growth potential.

  3. Development of radioactive waste treatment technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Makoto; Amamiya, Shigeru; Yusa, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    The techniques of radioactive waste treatment are generally reviewed, placing emphasis on volume reduction and solidification techniques. After a brief description on the general process of radioactive waste treatment, some special technologies being developed by Hitachi Ltd. are explained. From the viewpoints of the volume reduction, long term management and final disposal of wastes, the pelletization of dried waste and the solidification with inorganic substances are considered. One of the features of the pelletization system is to treat various kinds of wastes such as concentrated liquid wastes and used resins by the same system. The flow diagram of the system and its special features are shown. The volume reduction achieved by this system as compared to the conventional method is about 1/7. The first commercial plant for the treatment of concentrated liquid waste is scheduled to begin operation in June, 1984. As for the solidification technique for waste disposal, the use of cement glass is considered. The solidification system being developed is shortly described. (Aoki, K.)

  4. Isotope techniques in water resources development 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Water resources are scarce in many parts of the world. Often, the only water resource is groundwater. Overuse usually invites a rapid decline in groundwater resources which are recharged insufficiently, or not at all, by prevailing climatic conditions. These and other problems currently encountered in hydrology and associated environmental fields have prompted an increasing demand for the utilization of isotope methods. Such methods have been recognized as being indispensable for solving problems such as the identification of pollution sources, characterization of palaeowater resources, evaluation of recharge and evaporative discharge under arid and semi-arid conditions, reconstruction of past climates, study of the interrelationships between surface and groundwater, dating of groundwater and validation of contaminant transport models. Moreover, in combination with other hydrogeological and geochemical methods, isotope techniques can provide useful hydrological information, such as data on the origin, replenishment and dynamics of groundwater. It was against this background that the International Atomic Energy Agency, in co-operation with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, organized this symposium on the Use of Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development, which took place in Vienna from 11 to 15 March 1991. The main themes of the symposium were the use of isotope techniques in solving practical problems of water resources assessment and development, particularly with respect to groundwater protection, and in studying environmental problems related to water, including palaeohydrological and palaeoclimatological problems. A substantial part of the oral presentations was concerned with the present state and trends in groundwater dating, and with some methodological aspects. These proceedings contain the papers of 37 oral and the extended synopses of 47 poster

  5. A survey on OFDM channel estimation techniques based on denoising strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallaviram Sure

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Channel estimation forms the heart of any orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM based wireless communication receiver. Frequency domain pilot aided channel estimation techniques are either least squares (LS based or minimum mean square error (MMSE based. LS based techniques are computationally less complex. Unlike MMSE ones, they do not require a priori knowledge of channel statistics (KCS. However, the mean square error (MSE performance of the channel estimator incorporating MMSE based techniques is better compared to that obtained with the incorporation of LS based techniques. To enhance the MSE performance using LS based techniques, a variety of denoising strategies have been developed in the literature, which are applied on the LS estimated channel impulse response (CIR. The advantage of denoising threshold based LS techniques is that, they do not require KCS but still render near optimal MMSE performance similar to MMSE based techniques. In this paper, a detailed survey on various existing denoising strategies, with a comparative discussion of these strategies is presented.

  6. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  7. Measurement technique developments for LBE flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenau, D., E-mail: d.buchenau@fzd.de [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), 01314 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), 01314 Dresden (Germany); Stieglitz, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dierckx, M. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2011-08-31

    We report on the development of measurement techniques for flows in lead-bismuth eutectic alloys (LBE). This paper covers the test results of newly developed contactless flow rate sensors as well as the development and test of the LIDAR technique for operational free surface level detection. The flow rate sensors are based on the flow-induced disturbance of an externally applied AC magnetic field which manifests itself by a modified amplitude or a modified phase of the AC field. Another concept of a force-free contactless flow meter uses a single cylindrical permanent magnet. The electromagnetic torque on the magnet caused by the liquid metal flow sets the magnet into rotation. The operation of those sensors has been demonstrated at liquid metal test loops for which comparative flow rate measurements are available, as well as at the LBE loops THESYS at KIT and WEBEXPIR at SCK-CEN. For the level detection a commercial LIDAR system was successfully tested at the WEBEXPIR facility in Mol and the THEADES loop in Karlsruhe.

  8. A Survey of Formal Methods in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2012-01-01

    The use of formal methods and formal techniques in industry is steadily growing. In this survey we shall characterise what we mean by software development and by a formal method; briefly overview a history of formal specification languages - some of which are: VDM (Vienna Development Method, 1974...... need for multi-language formalisation (Petri Nets, MSC, StateChart, Temporal Logics); the sociology of university and industry acceptance of formal methods; the inevitability of the use of formal software development methods; while referring to seminal monographs and textbooks on formal methods....

  9. ARDENT to develop advanced dosimetric techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Earlier this week, the EU-supported Marie Curie training network ARDENT kicked off at a meeting held at CERN. The overall aim of the project is the development of advanced instrumentation for radiation dosimetry. The applications range from radiation measurements around particle accelerators, onboard commercial flights and in space, to the characterization of radioactive waste and medicine, where accurate dosimetry is of vital importance.   The ARDENT (Advanced Radiation Dosimetry European Network Training) project is both a research and a training programme, which aims at developing new dosimetric techniques while providing 15 Early-Stage Researchers (ESR) with state-of-the-art training. The project, coordinated by CERN, is funded by the European Union with a contribution of about 3.9 million euros over four years. The ARDENT initiative will focus on three main technologies: gas detectors, in particular Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) and Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPC); solid stat...

  10. A survey of text clustering techniques used for web mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MUNTEANU

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains an overview of basic formulations and approaches to clustering. Then it presents two important clustering paradigms: a bottom-up agglomerative technique, which collects similar documents into larger and larger groups, and a top-down partitioning technique, which divides a corpus into topic-oriented partitions.

  11. Evaluating autonomous acoustic surveying techniques for rails in tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Lydia L.; Anderson, James T.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing interest toward the use of autonomous recording units (ARUs) for acoustic surveying of secretive marsh bird populations. However, there is little information on how ARUs compare to human surveyors or how best to use ARU data that can be collected continuously throughout the day. We used ARUs to conduct 2 acoustic surveys for king (Rallus elegans) and clapper rails (R. crepitans) within a tidal marsh complex along the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA, during May–July 2015. To determine the effectiveness of an ARU in replacing human personnel, we compared results of callback point‐count surveys with concurrent acoustic recordings and calculated estimates of detection probability for both rail species combined. The success of ARUs at detecting rails that human observers recorded decreased with distance (P ≤ 0.001), such that at 75 m, only 34.0% of human‐detected rails were detected by the ARU. To determine a subsampling scheme for continuous ARU data that allows for effective surveying of presence and call rates of rails, we used ARUs to conduct 15 continuous 48‐hr passive surveys, generating 720 hr of recordings. We established 5 subsampling periods of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min to evaluate ARU‐based presence and vocalization detections of rails compared with each of the full 60‐min sampling of ARU‐based detection of rails. All subsampling periods resulted in different (P ≤ 0.001) detection rates and unstandardized vocalization rates compared with the hourly sampling period. However, standardized vocalization counts from the 30‐min subsampling period were not different from vocalization counts of the full hourly sampling period. When surveying rail species in estuarine environments, species‐, habitat‐, and ARU‐specific limitations to ARU sampling should be considered when making inferences about abundances and distributions from ARU data. 

  12. MCNP Techniques for Modeling Sodium Iodide Spectra of Kiwi Surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert B Hayes

    2007-01-01

    This work demonstrates how MCNP can be used to predict the response of mobile search and survey equipment from base principles. The instrumentation evaluated comes from the U.S. Department of Energy's Aerial Measurement Systems. Through reconstructing detector responses to various point-source measurements, detector responses to distributed sources can be estimated through superposition. Use of this methodology for currently deployed systems allows predictive determinations of activity levels and distributions for common configurations of interest. This work helps determine the quality and efficacy of certain surveys in fully characterizing an effected site following a radiological event of national interest

  13. Development for advanced materials and testing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishinuma, Akimichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Recent studies using a JMTR and research reactors of JRR-2 and JRR-3 are briefly summarized. Small specimen testing techniques (SSTT) required for an effective use of irradiation volume and also irradiated specimens have been developed focussing on tensile test, fatigue test, Charpy test and small punch test. By using the small specimens of 0.1 - several mm in size, similar values of tensile and fatigue properties to those by standard size specimens can be taken, although the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) depends strongly on Charpy specimen size. As for advanced material development, R and D about low activation ferritic steels have been done to investigate irradiation response. The low activation ferritic steel, so-called F82H jointly-developed by JAERI and NKK for fusion, has been confirmed to have good irradiation resistance within a limited dose and now selected as a standard material in the fusion material community. It is also found that TiAi intermetallic compounds, which never been considered for nuclear application in the past, have an excellent irradiation resistance under an irradiation condition. Such knowledge can bring about a large expectation for developing advanced nuclear materials. (author)

  14. A Survey of Spatio-Temporal Grouping Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Megret, Remi; DeMenthon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    ...) segmentation by trajectory grouping, and (3) joint spatial and temporal segmentation. The first category is the broadest, as it inherits the legacy techniques of image segmentation and motion segmentation...

  15. Position fixing and surveying techniques for marine archaeological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    . This technical report is going to be of great help to marine archaeologists, who wants to know the capabilities of some of the most common available tools for position fixing, their accuracies and method of surveying, which in turn will help in selecting...

  16. Guidelines for a Training Course in Noise Survey Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadley, John; And Others

    The course is designed to train noise survey technicians during a 3-5 day period to make reliable measurements of 75 percent of the noise problems encountered in the community. The more complex noise problems remaining will continue to be handled by experienced specialists. These technicians will be trained to assist State and local governments in…

  17. Supply chain simulation tools and techniques: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is twofold: it surveys different types of simulation for supply chain management; it discusses several methodological issues. These different types of simulation are spreadsheet simulation, system dynamics, discrete-event simulation and business games. Which

  18. A Survey of Librarian Perceptions of Information Literacy Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearwood, Simone L.; Foasberg, Nancy M.; Rosenberg, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching research competencies and information literacy is an integral part of the academic librarian's role. There has long been debate among librarians over what are the most effective methods of instruction for college students. Library Faculty members at a large urban university system were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the…

  19. Survey on Chatbot Design Techniques in Speech Conversation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sameera A. Abdul-Kader; Dr. John Woods

    2015-01-01

    Human-Computer Speech is gaining momentum as a technique of computer interaction. There has been a recent upsurge in speech based search engines and assistants such as Siri, Google Chrome and Cortana. Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques such as NLTK for Python can be applied to analyse speech, and intelligent responses can be found by designing an engine to provide appropriate human like responses. This type of programme is called a Chatbot, which is the focus of this study. This pap...

  20. Survey of Green Radio Communications Networks: Techniques and Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency in cellular networks has received significant attention from both academia and industry because of the importance of reducing the operational expenditures and maintaining the profitability of cellular networks, in addition to making these networks “greener.” Because the base station is the primary energy consumer in the network, efforts have been made to study base station energy consumption and to find ways to improve energy efficiency. In this paper, we present a brief review of the techniques that have been used recently to improve energy efficiency, such as energy-efficient power amplifier techniques, time-domain techniques, cell switching, management of the physical layer through multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO management, heterogeneous network architectures based on Micro-Pico-Femtocells, cell zooming, and relay techniques. In addition, this paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each technique to contribute to a better understanding of each of the techniques and thereby offer clear insights to researchers about how to choose the best ways to reduce energy consumption in future green radio networks.

  1. Development of automatic techniques for GPS data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Pil Ho

    2001-06-01

    It is necessary for GPS center to establish automatization as effective management of GPS network including data gathering, data transformation, data backup, data sending to IGS (International GPS Service for geodynamics), and precise ephemerides gathering. The operating program of GPS center has been adopted at KCSC (Korea Cadastral Survey Corporation), NGI (National Geography Institute), MOMAF (Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries) without self-development of core technique. The automatic management of GPS network is consists of GPS data management and data processing. It is also fundamental technique, which should be accomplished by every GPS centers. Therefore, this study carried out analyzing of Japanese GPS center, which has accomplished automatization by module considering applicability for domestic GPS centers

  2. Evaluating autonomous acoustic surveying techniques for rails in tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Lydia L.; Anderson, James T.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing interest toward the use of autonomous recording units (ARUs) for acoustic surveying of secretive marsh bird populations. However, there is little information on how ARUs compare to human surveyors or how best to use ARU data that can be collected continuously throughout the day. We used ARUs to conduct 2 acoustic surveys for king (Rallus elegans) and clapper rails (R. crepitans) within a tidal marsh complex along the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA, during May–July 2015. To determine the effectiveness of an ARU in replacing human personnel, we compared results of callback point‐count surveys with concurrent acoustic recordings and calculated estimates of detection probability for both rail species combined. The success of ARUs at detecting rails that human observers recorded decreased with distance (P ≤ 0.001), such that at of human‐recorded rails also were detected by the ARU, but at >75 m, only 34.0% of human‐detected rails were detected by the ARU. To determine a subsampling scheme for continuous ARU data that allows for effective surveying of presence and call rates of rails, we used ARUs to conduct 15 continuous 48‐hr passive surveys, generating 720 hr of recordings. We established 5 subsampling periods of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min to evaluate ARU‐based presence and vocalization detections of rails compared with each of the full 60‐min sampling of ARU‐based detection of rails. All subsampling periods resulted in different (P ≤ 0.001) detection rates and unstandardized vocalization rates compared with the hourly sampling period. However, standardized vocalization counts from the 30‐min subsampling period were not different from vocalization counts of the full hourly sampling period. When surveying rail species in estuarine environments, species‐, habitat‐, and ARU‐specific limitations to ARU sampling should be considered when making inferences about abundances and distributions from ARU data. 

  3. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon

    1983-03-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  4. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA, HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM(reg s ign) system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m (328 ft) and 200 m (656 ft)) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  5. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  6. A survey of intrusion detection techniques in Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, C.; Patel, D.; Patel, H.; Borisaniya, B.; Patel, A.; Rajarajan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing provides scalable, virtualized on-demand services to the end users with greater flexibility and lesser infrastructural investment. These services are provided over the Internet using known networking protocols, standards and formats under the supervision of different managements. Existing bugs and vulnerabilities in underlying technologies and legacy protocols tend to open doors for intrusion. This paper, surveys different intrusions affecting availability, confidentiality and...

  7. FY 1998 annual report on the survey on development, introduction and promotion of urban type multipurpose geothermal utilization techniques; 1998 nendo toshigata tamokuteki chinetsu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu, donyu, sokushin ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Introduction of geothermal heat pump systems, which depend on temperature differential, is investigated for urban areas, which have large energy demands. Results of the surveys on the current situations of geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems indicate that they have already numbered 300,000 units in USA and totaled more than 50,000 units in Switzerland and Northern European countries, and that they are increasing at an annual rate of higher than 10%. The results also indicate that introduction of these systems are well feasible in Japan, which generally has better topographical conditions than American and European countries, and the GHP system with vertical ground heat exchanger is investigated for its topographical and environmental considerations. These systems could annually abate approximately 52 million tons of CO2 (4.3% decrease), if disseminated to all households. They are also expected to help control the heat island phenomenon, and reduce peak power consumption. The technological problems to be solved before these systems are massively disseminated including development of small scale drilling rigs and preparation of drilling manuals. System standardization and introduction of subsidy systems are also needed to massively disseminate these systems. (NEDO)

  8. Outlier Detection Techniques For Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the field of wireless sensor networks, measurements that significantly deviate from the normal pattern of sensed data are considered as outliers. The potential sources of outliers include noise and errors, events, and malicious attacks on the network. Traditional outlier detection techniques are

  9. Recent developments in airborne gamma ray surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Standardized procedures have been developed for converting airborne gamma ray measurements to ground concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. These procedures make use of an airborne calibration range whose ground concentrations should be measured with a calibrated portable spectrometer rather than by taking geochemical samples. Airborne sensitivities and height attenuation coefficients are normally determined from flights over the calibration range but may not be applicable in mountainous areas. Mathematical techniques have been now developed to reduce statistical noise in the airborne measurements by utilizing up to 256 channels of spectral information. (author)

  10. Investigation of individual radiation exposures from discharges to the aquatic environment: techniques used in habits surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.; Jones, P.G.W.

    1982-01-01

    The techniques used by the Fisheries Radiobiological Laboratory (FRL) in conducting habits surveys are described and discussed. The main objectives of these surveys are to investigate exposure pathways to the public resulting from radioactive discharges to the aquatic environment and to provide the basic data from which critical groups can be identified. Preparation, conduct and interpretation of the results of surveys are described and possible errors obtained by the interview technique are highlighted. A means of verifying the results of interviews by a logging technique has been devised and some comparative results are presented. (author)

  11. Searching for millisecond pulsars: surveys, techniques and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovall, K; Lorimer, D R; Lynch, R S

    2013-01-01

    Searches for millisecond pulsars (which we here loosely define as those with periods < 20 ms) in the galactic field have undergone a renaissance in the past five years. New or recently refurbished radio telescopes utilizing cooled receivers and state-of-the art digital data acquisition systems are carrying out surveys of the entire sky at a variety of radio frequencies. Targeted searches for millisecond pulsars in point sources identified by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have proved phenomenally successful, with over 50 discoveries in the past five years. The current sample of millisecond pulsars now numbers almost 200 and, for the first time in 25 years, now outnumbers their counterparts in galactic globular clusters. While many of these searches are motivated to find pulsars which form part of pulsar timing arrays, a wide variety of interesting systems are now being found. Following a brief overview of the millisecond pulsar phenomenon, we describe these searches and present some of the highlights of the new discoveries in the past decade. We conclude with predictions and prospects for ongoing and future surveys. (paper)

  12. A survey of reflectometry techniques with applications to TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo, I.; Stacey, W.M.; Wilgen, J.; Hanson, G.; Bigelow, T.; Thomas, C.E.; Bretz, N.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents a review of reflectometry with particular attention to eXtraordinary mode (X-mode) reflectometry using the novel technique of dual frequency differential phase. The advantage of using an X-mode wave is that it can probe the edge of the plasma with much higher resolution and using a much smaller frequency range than with the Ordinary mode (O-Mode). The general problem with previous full phase reflectometry techniques is that of keeping track of the phase (on the order of 1000 fringes) as the frequency is swept over the band. The dual frequency phase difference technique has the advantage that since it is keeping track of the phase difference of two frequencies with a constant frequency separation, the fringe counting is on the order of only 3 to 5 fringes. This fringe count, combined with the high resolution of the X-mode wave and the small plasma access requirements of reflectometry, make X-mode reflectometry a very attractive diagnostic for today's experiments and future fusion devices

  13. Poisson and negative binomial item count techniques for surveys with sensitive question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Liang; Tang, Man-Lai; Wu, Qin; Liu, Yin

    2017-04-01

    Although the item count technique is useful in surveys with sensitive questions, privacy of those respondents who possess the sensitive characteristic of interest may not be well protected due to a defect in its original design. In this article, we propose two new survey designs (namely the Poisson item count technique and negative binomial item count technique) which replace several independent Bernoulli random variables required by the original item count technique with a single Poisson or negative binomial random variable, respectively. The proposed models not only provide closed form variance estimate and confidence interval within [0, 1] for the sensitive proportion, but also simplify the survey design of the original item count technique. Most importantly, the new designs do not leak respondents' privacy. Empirical results show that the proposed techniques perform satisfactorily in the sense that it yields accurate parameter estimate and confidence interval.

  14. Vehicle-borne survey techniques for background radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Susumu

    1995-01-01

    This paper presented methods for converting count rates measured inside cars and trains in the natural environment into outdoor terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates. First, (1) the method of calibration for a survey meter is described to be applicable to various geological terrains. Next, the regression formulas were acquired experimentally to correct (2) the shielding effects of cars and trains, and (3) the influence of pavements and ballasts. Furthermore, (4) a new method for removing interfering radiation components emitted from cliffs and tunnels was proposed, and the errors in the calculations were evaluated with numerical experiments. In addition, the degree of influence from the cliff was represented with the angle of elevation subtended to the detector. For the items (2)-(4), in particular, it could be explained with simple models that those methods are reasonable. The method for evaluating simply and accurately cosmic-ray dose rates by means of a portable barometer was also described. (author)

  15. A history of engraving and etching techniques: developments of manual intaglio printmaking processes, 1400-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijnman, A.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    This book surveys the history of the techniques of engraving, etching and plate printing - i.e. that of manual intaglio printmaking processes - from its beginning in the 1430s until today. These developments are observed in the light of the coherence between the technique of the intaglio print (such

  16. A survey on multiproperty measurement techniques of solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi

    1989-01-01

    The term 'multiproperty measurement' has not as yet been widely used. It is defined as the simultaneous (or continuous) measurement of several properties of material using one sample and one set of equipment. It is highly advantageous to measure several properties of a sample simultaneously. Various aspects of the nature of a substance can be clarified by evaluating its nature in terms of many properties. In particular, advanced techniques for measuring thermal properties of material are needed in the fields of atomic energy industry, aerospace industry, energy industry, electronics industry and academic community. Conventional thermal property measurement techniques which can be applied to multiproperty measurement or minute test sample measurement are outlined focusing on measurement of the thermal conductivity (axial flow method, radial flow method, plate method, unsteady state heating coil method, direct current heating method), specific heat (adiabatic method, drop calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, AC calorimetric method, pulse heating method, and laser heating method), thermal diffusivity (laser-flash method), and emissivity (separated black body method, incorporated black body method). (N,K.)

  17. Development of custom LCD based portable survey/contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Equipments for carrying out radiation survey measurements for alpha, beta and gamma radiations have evolved considerably with the advancements in Electronics overtime. There are 2 major classes of portable instruments available from most manufacturers - (a) Analog indicator type (b) Direct digital readout type. Analog meters give a direct quantifying feel to radiation levels though they are not rich features nor they have smartness like a digital meter. Digital versions have advantages of direct readout numerically and configurable as per users requirements. To achieve best features of both the techniques a dual indicator type LCD module comprising of Analog indicating LCD segments and digital readout indicating 7 segments has been developed. This LCD comprising of LCD glass and its display driver has been deployed across various types of survey meters and contamination monitors manufactured by Nucleonix. This display now facilitates direct readout of dose rate/count rate in various units simultaneously in both analog LCD scale and direct digital indication. (author)

  18. Some fuzzy techniques for staff selection process: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Saad, R.; Ahmad, M. Z.; Abu, M. S.; Jusoh, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    With high level of business competition, it is vital to have flexible staff that are able to adapt themselves with work circumstances. However, staff selection process is not an easy task to be solved, even when it is tackled in a simplified version containing only a single criterion and a homogeneous skill. When multiple criteria and various skills are involved, the problem becomes much more complicated. In adddition, there are some information that could not be measured precisely. This is patently obvious when dealing with opinions, thoughts, feelings, believes, etc. One possible tool to handle this issue is by using fuzzy set theory. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the existing fuzzy techniques for solving staff selection process. It classifies several existing research methods and identifies areas where there is a gap and need further research. Finally, this paper concludes by suggesting new ideas for future research based on the gaps identified.

  19. Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1981-12-01

    A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial

  20. Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1981-12-01

    A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial.

  1. Survey on result promotion of the atomic force technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Masato; Okuno, Yumiko [Nikkei Research Inst. of Industry and Markets, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    By change of environment around research and development of atomic force, investigation has been recently executed not only on a theme directing a specific aim, but also on technical development considering some applications to the other field reflected by social needs. Therefore, an effective procedure and program capable of reflecting and promoting results of the atomic fore development to other industrial field were necessary. In this study, methods of evaluation and industrialization on study results of the atomic force were investigated. As a result, in order to promote the study results to other field, it was found to be important that some free reasons and concept engineering to mediate between developing and applying sides were to be present. In addition, it was suggested by some searches that a new atomic industry has a probability to be created by using potential energies such as heat, radiation, pulse, and so on. In this paper, evaluation on industrialization of the atomic force technical resources, and establishment of the industrialization program were described. (G.K.)

  2. Ion bombardment techniques - recent developments in SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, P.; Miśnik, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a short review of cluster ion bombardment technique recently applied in SIMS. Many advantages of using cluster ion beams are specified over monoatomic ion species. Cluster ions open really new perspectives especially in organic based structures analysis. Nevertheless cluster ions are not the perfect solution and still new ideas of ion erosion in SIMS are needed. Another issue discussed is 'storing matter' technique applied for quantitative analysis in SIMS. Simple idea of sputter deposition of eroded material onto rotating substrate and then analysing the stored material allows to avoid strong matrix effects in SIMS. Presented are the results performed in Tele and Radio Research Institute, Warszawa, Poland. These are the first results of ‘storing matter’ technique performed in one analytical chamber of SIMS instrument. (authors)

  3. Complete Denture Impression Techniques Practiced by Private Dental Practitioners: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kakatkar, Vinay R.

    2012-01-01

    Impression making is an important step in fabricating complete dentures. A survey to know the materials used and techniques practiced while recording complete denture impressions was conducted. It is disheartening to know that 33 % practitioners still use base plate custom trays to record final impressions. 8 % still use alginate for making final impressions. An acceptable technique for recording CD impressions is suggested.

  4. Big data for development : applications and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Anwaar; Qadir, Junaid; ur Rasool, Raihan; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Zwitter, Andrej; Crowcroft, Jon

    2016-01-01

    With the explosion of social media sites and proliferation of digital computing devices and Internet access, massive amounts of public data is being generated on a daily basis. Efficient techniques/algorithms to analyze this massive amount of data can provide near real-time information about

  5. The IGISOL technique : three decades of developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, I.D.; Dendooven, Peter; Ärje, J.

    The Ion Guide Isotope SeparatorOn-Line (IGISOL) technique, conceived in the early 1980s as a novel variation to the helium-jet method, has been used to provide radioactive ion beams of short-lived exotic nuclei for fundamental nuclear structure research and applications for three decades. This

  6. Technology, design and dementia: an exploratory survey of developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiancaro, Tizneem; Jaglal, Susan B; Mihailidis, Alex

    2017-08-01

    Despite worldwide surges in dementia, we still know relatively little about the design of home technologies that support this population. The purpose of this study was to investigate design considerations from the perspective of developers. Participants, including technical and clinical specialists, were recruited internationally and answered web-based survey questions comprising Likert-type responses with text entry options. Developers were queried on 23 technology acceptance characteristics and 24 design practices. In all, forty developers completed the survey. Concerning "technology acceptance", cost, learnability, self-confidence (during use) and usability were deemed very important. Concerning "design practice", developers overwhelmingly valued user-centred design (UCD). In terms of general assistive technology (AT) models, these were largely unknown by technical specialists compared to clinical specialists. Recommendations based on this study include incorporating "self-confidence" into design protocols; examining the implications of "usability" and UCD in this context; and considering empathy-based design approaches to suit a diverse user population. Moreover, clinical specialists have much to offer development teams, particularly concerning the use of conceptual AT models. Implications of rehabilitation Stipulate precise usability criteria. Consider "learnability" and "self-confidence" as technology adoption criteria. Recognize the important theoretical role that clinical specialists can fulfil concerning the use of design schemas. Acknowledge the diversity amongst users with dementia, potentially adopting techniques, such as designing for "extraordinary users".

  7. Development of the decommissioning techniques for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Ken-ichi; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Hara, Mitsuo; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Tobita, Hiroo; Enokido, Yuji

    1992-01-01

    Being developed the basement techniques such as measurement, decontamination, dismantling, remote handling and data base. For the elevating and systematizing the basement techniques, thinking over the application, forward to the facility decommissionings in the future, including the technique of waste treatment in WDF and the achievement using the dismantling and recycling technique in renewaling the research facilities. (author)

  8. Development of thermoluminescence dating techniques at Oxford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    The two-decade long history of thermoluminescene as a pottery dating method is surveyed with particular reference to the various problems that have been encountered in the Oxford Laboratory's research programme. Effects, such as supralinearity and radon emanation, are explained in terms of how they are measured and how their existence influences thermoluminescence (TL) dating accuracy (currently close to plus minus 7% per analysis). Illustrations of Thermoluminescence (TL) applications include a Nok culture terracotta from Nigeria and a Cambodia bronze Buddha figure of the Khmer period, dated ising the ceramic-like casting-core retained within it. (author)

  9. Privacy-preserving techniques of genomic data-a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Md Momin Al; Sadat, Md Nazmus; Alhadidi, Dima; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Brown, Cheryl L; Mohammed, Noman

    2017-11-07

    Genomic data hold salient information about the characteristics of a living organism. Throughout the past decade, pinnacle developments have given us more accurate and inexpensive methods to retrieve genome sequences of humans. However, with the advancement of genomic research, there is a growing privacy concern regarding the collection, storage and analysis of such sensitive human data. Recent results show that given some background information, it is possible for an adversary to reidentify an individual from a specific genomic data set. This can reveal the current association or future susceptibility of some diseases for that individual (and sometimes the kinship between individuals) resulting in a privacy violation. Regardless of these risks, our genomic data hold much importance in analyzing the well-being of us and the future generation. Thus, in this article, we discuss the different privacy and security-related problems revolving around human genomic data. In addition, we will explore some of the cardinal cryptographic concepts, which can bring efficacy in secure and private genomic data computation. This article will relate the gaps between these two research areas-Cryptography and Genomics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. EBR Strengthening Technique for Concrete, Long-Term Behaviour and Historical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czaderski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy bonded steel plates (externally bonded reinforcemen: EBR for the strengthening of concrete structures were introduced to the construction industry in the late 1960s, and the use of fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs was introduced in the 1990s, which means that these techniques have already been used in construction for 50 and 25 years, respectively. In the first part of the paper, a historical survey of the development and introduction of these strengthening techniques into the construction industry are presented. The monitoring of such applications in construction is very important and gives more confidence to this strengthening technique. Therefore, in the second part of the paper, two long-term monitoring campaigns over an extraordinarily long duration will be presented. Firstly, a 47-year monitoring campaign on a concrete beam with an epoxy bonded steel plate and, secondly, a 20-year monitoring campaign on a road bridge with epoxy bonded CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced polymers strips are described. The paper is an expanded version of the paper presented at the SMAR2017 Conference.

  11. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  12. Radio Astronomers Develop New Technique for Studying Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Pioneering observations with the National Science Foundation's giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have given astronomers a new tool for mapping large cosmic structures. The new tool promises to provide valuable clues about the nature of the mysterious "dark energy" believed to constitute nearly three-fourths of the mass and energy of the Universe. Dark energy is the label scientists have given to what is causing the Universe to expand at an accelerating rate. While the acceleration was discovered in 1998, its cause remains unknown. Physicists have advanced competing theories to explain the acceleration, and believe the best way to test those theories is to precisely measure large-scale cosmic structures. Sound waves in the matter-energy soup of the extremely early Universe are thought to have left detectable imprints on the large-scale distribution of galaxies in the Universe. The researchers developed a way to measure such imprints by observing the radio emission of hydrogen gas. Their technique, called intensity mapping, when applied to greater areas of the Universe, could reveal how such large-scale structure has changed over the last few billion years, giving insight into which theory of dark energy is the most accurate. "Our project mapped hydrogen gas to greater cosmic distances than ever before, and shows that the techniques we developed can be used to map huge volumes of the Universe in three dimensions and to test the competing theories of dark energy," said Tzu-Ching Chang, of the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the University of Toronto. To get their results, the researchers used the GBT to study a region of sky that previously had been surveyed in detail in visible light by the Keck II telescope in Hawaii. This optical survey used spectroscopy to map the locations of thousands of galaxies in three dimensions. With the GBT, instead of looking for hydrogen gas in these individual, distant galaxies -- a daunting challenge beyond the technical

  13. A Brief History of the use of Electromagnetic Induction Techniques in Soil Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Doolittle, James

    2017-04-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to characterize the spatial variability of soil properties since the late 1970s. Initially used to assess soil salinity, the use of EMI in soil studies has expanded to include: mapping soil types; characterizing soil water content and flow patterns; assessing variations in soil texture, compaction, organic matter content, and pH; and determining the depth to subsurface horizons, stratigraphic layers or bedrock, among other uses. In all cases the soil property being investigated must influence soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) either directly or indirectly for EMI techniques to be effective. An increasing number and diversity of EMI sensors have been developed in response to users' needs and the availability of allied technologies, which have greatly improved the functionality of these tools and increased the amount and types of data that can be gathered with a single pass. EMI investigations provide several benefits for soil studies. The large amount of georeferenced data that can be rapidly and inexpensively collected with EMI provides more complete characterization of the spatial variations in soil properties than traditional sampling techniques. In addition, compared to traditional soil survey methods, EMI can more effectively characterize diffuse soil boundaries and identify included areas of dissimilar soils within mapped soil units, giving soil scientists greater confidence when collecting spatial soil information. EMI techniques do have limitations; results are site-specific and can vary depending on the complex interactions among multiple and variable soil properties. Despite this, EMI techniques are increasingly being used to investigate the spatial variability of soil properties at field and landscape scales. The future should witness a greater use of multiple-frequency and multiple-coil EMI sensors and integration with other sensors to assess the spatial variability of soil properties. Data analysis

  14. Integrating Geological and Geodetic Surveying Techniques for Landslide Deformation Monitoring: Istanbul Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menteşe, E. Y.; Kilic, O.; BAS, M.; Tarih, A.; Duran, K.; Gumus, S.; Yapar, E. R.; Karasu, M. E.; Mehmetoğlu, H.; Karaman, A.; Edi˙ger, V.; Kosma, R. C.; Ozalaybey, S.; Zor, E.; Arpat, E.; Polat, F.; Dogan, U.; Cakir, Z.; Erkan, B.

    2017-12-01

    There are several methods that can be utilized for describing the landslide mechanisms. While some of them are commonly used, there are relatively new methods that have been proven to be useful. Obviously, each method has its own limitations and thus integrated use of these methods contributes to obtaining a realistic landslide model. The slopes of Küçükçekmece and Büyükçekmece Lagoons located at the Marmara Sea coast of İstanbul, Turkey, are among most specific examples of complex type landslides. The landslides in the area started developing at low sea level, and appears to ceased or at least slowed down to be at minimum after the sea level rise, as oppose to the still-active landslides that continue to cause damage especially in the valley slopes above the recent sea level between the two lagoons. To clarify the characteristics of these slope movements and classify them in most accurate way, Directorate of Earthquake and Ground Research of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality launched a project in cooperation with Marmara Research Center of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK). The project benefits the utility of the techniques of different disciplines such as geology, geophysics, geomorphology, hydrogeology, geotechnics, geodesy, remote sensing and meteorology. Specifically, this study focuses on two main axes of these techniques, namely: geological and geodetic. The reason for selecting these disciplines is because of their efficiency and power to understand the landslide mechanism in the area. Main approaches used in these studies are comprised of geological drills, inclinometer measurements, GPS surveys and SAR (both satellite and ground based) techniques. Integration of the results gathered from these techniques led the project team to comprehend critical aspects of landslide phenomenon in the area and produce precise landslide hazard maps that are basic instruments for a resilient urban development.

  15. A survey on the task analysis methods and techniques for nuclear power plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Heui; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Jung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-01

    We have surveyed techniques and methods of task analysis from very traditional ones to recently developed ones that are being applicated to various industrial fields. We compare each other and analyse their fundamental characteristics and methodological specification in order to find a proper one enough to apply to nuclear power plant operators tasks. Generally, the fundamental process of task analyses has well been understandable, but its process of application in practice has not been so simple due to the wide and varying range of applications according to specific domain. Operators` tasks in NPPs are supposed to be performed strictly according to operational procedures written in a text and well trained, so the method of task analysis for operators` tasks in NPPs can be established to have its unique characteristics of task analysis based on the operational procedures. 8 figs., 10 tabs., 18 refs. (Author).

  16. A survey on the task analysis methods and techniques for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Heui; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Jung Woon

    1994-04-01

    We have surveyed techniques and methods of task analysis from very traditional ones to recently developed ones that are being applicated to various industrial fields. We compare each other and analyse their fundamental characteristics and methodological specification in order to find a proper one enough to apply to nuclear power plant operators tasks. Generally, the fundamental process of task analyses has well been understandable, but its process of application in practice has not been so simple due to the wide and varying range of applications according to specific domain. Operators' tasks in NPPs are supposed to be performed strictly according to operational procedures written in a text and well trained, so the method of task analysis for operators' tasks in NPPs can be established to have its unique characteristics of task analysis based on the operational procedures. 8 figs., 10 tabs., 18 refs. (Author)

  17. Development of the dry decontamination technique using plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Seo, Yong Dae; Lee, Dong Uk; Jeon, Sang Hwan; Jung, Young Suk [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced dry decontamination method, dry decontamination technique using gaseous plasma is studied. Scopes of the research are 1) literature survey and case studies of the international R and D activities and industrial application, 2) contaminant characteristics analysis, 3) feasibility and applicability study of the unit techniques, 4) process development study on the plasma decontamination, 5) plasma diagnostics and quantitative analysis by QMS and OES, and 6) design of (microwave) plasma torch system. The major research results are as belows. The maximum etching rate of UO{sub 2} is achieved to be 0.8 {mu}m/min. under 300 deg C, 150 W CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} r.f. plasma maintaining the optimum ratio of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} of four, and that of Co and Mo is 0.06 {mu}m/min. and 1.9 {mu}m/min., respectively, under 380 deg C, 220 W CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} r.f. plasma. The optimum process for the dry decontamination of TRU, CP, and or FP nuclides, therefore, requires the optimum gas composition above 350 deg C and 220W power. It is also demonstrated that this optimum process can be extrapolated to atmospheric high power torch system. In conclusion, if plasma power and temperature increases with maintaining the optimum gas composition, this dry decontamination techniques must be definitely effective and efficient. 17 refs., 62 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  18. Research Resources Survey: Radiology Junior Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Votaw, John R

    2015-07-01

    To assess resources available to junior faculty in US academic radiology departments for research mentorship and funding opportunities and to determine if certain resources are more common in successful programs. An anonymous survey covering scientific environment and research mentorship and was sent to vice-chairs of research of radiology departments. Results were evaluated to identify practices of research programs with respect to mentorship, resources, and opportunities. Academy of Radiology Research's 2012 National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and awards list was used to determine if environment and practices correlate with funding. There was a 51% response rate. A greater fraction of clinical faculty gets promoted from assistant to associate professor than research faculty. Research faculty overall submits more funding applications. Most programs support start-up costs and K-awards. Over half of the departments have a vice-chair for faculty development, and most have formal mentorship programs. Faculty members are expected to teach, engage in service, publish, and apply for and get research funding within 3 years of hire. Top-tier programs as judged by NIH awards have a combination of MDs who devote >50% effort to research and PhD faculty. Key factors holding back both clinical and research junior faculty development were motivation, resources, and time, although programs reported high availability of resources and support at the department level. Better marketing of resources for junior faculty, effort devoted to mentoring clinical faculty in research, and explicit milestones/expectations for achievement could enhance junior faculty success, promote interest in the clinician–scientist career path for radiologists, and lead to greater research success.

  19. Recent developments in magnet measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billan, J.; Henrichsen, K.N.; Walckiers, L.

    1985-01-01

    The main problems related to magnetic measurements of particle accelerator components are discussed. Measurements of the properties of magnetic materials as well as the measurements of field distribution in the electromagnets for the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) are illustrated. The fluxmeter method is extensively employed in this work. The impact of recent advances in electronic technology on measurement techniques is explained. Magnetic measurements (including the harmonic coil method) can be performed with improved accuracy applying modern technology to the classical methods. New methods for the non-destructive testing of magnetic materials and for the measurement of magnetic geometry are described. (orig.) [de

  20. Development of an intertidal mangrove nursery and afforestation techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    The development of an intertidal mangrove nursery and afforestation technique for regeneration and restoration of mangroves of Goa is described. Site selection, source of plant material, nursery plantation, season of transplantation, technique...

  1. Development of radiation preservation technique in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongdi; Li Guixiang; Pang Mei

    1990-12-01

    The 60 Co radiation preservation technique which was used to preserve persimmons, green peppers and four varieties of apple was studied. Apples and persimmons were irradiated with 0.1 ∼ 0.7kGy and 0.1 ∼ 1.0kGy respectively, then they were stored under a constant environmental temperature. Green peppers were treated with heat, irradiated with low dose and stored at low temperature. After a certain time of storing, the results showed that the quality of irradiated groups was better than control group, and there was no difference of main nutrient components between the irradiated groups and the control group. Finally, the radiation processing does not cause radioactivity increasing and microelements decreasing in the food

  2. Development of PSI and ISI technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, M.K.; Park, D.Y.; Choi, S.P.; Kim, H.J.; Moon, Y.S.; Shon, G.H.; Kim, T.S.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the experimental results of the subjects selected from the PSI/ISI related problems which encountered by us in 1982. The main contents are 1) the characteristics of the typical ECT signals from the steam generator tubes of nuclear power plant and the results of ECT evaluation of Kori-1 steam generators, 2) the experimental result for the research for directional effects of ultrasonic transducers, 3) the basic experiment for the ultrasonic testing technique by immersion testing method, 4) how to write the scan plan of the mechanized ultrasonic testing for nuclear reactor. Attached appendix is a part of necessary materials for the scan plan of the mechanized ultrasonic testing for Kori-2 nuclear reactor. (Author)

  3. Development of material balance evaluation technique(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Doo

    2000-06-01

    IAEA considers that the evaluation on material balance is one of the important activities for detecting the diversion of nuclear materials as well as measurement uncertainties and measurement bias. Nuclear material accounting reports, the results of DA and NDA, the summarized lists of material stratified by inspector are necessary for the material balance evaluation. In this report, the concepts and evaluation methods of material balance evaluation such as the estimation techniques of random and systematic errors, MUF, D and MUF-D are described. As a conclusion, it is possible for national inspection to evaluate the material balance by applying the evaluation methods of the IAEA such as error estimation using operator-inspector paired data, inspector MUF(IMUF) evaluation

  4. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 1 - Studies of dismantling and surveys of techniques); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Kaitai kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    For the establishment of technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle, studies were made for the dismantling of the 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant and surveys were conducted of overseas technologies. In the gasification furnace facility, 40 devices were selected, and dismantled, from the locations corresponding to the factors of damage expected to occur involving important equipment. Although no significant damage was detected in the gasification pressure vessel, peripheral walls, or the like, malfunctions due to corrosion or abrasion were discovered in some pipes and members. In the dry type gas clean-up facility (desulfurization facility), damage due to heat stress or corrosion was detected in the regeneration tower inner cyclone, regeneration tower filter flexible tubes, and in circulation gas cooler cooling tubes. In the dry type gas clean-up facility (dedusting facility), damage was found in the dust collector gas seal valve, dust collector filter materials cut valve, and in the separator A/B. In the gas turbine facility, no abnormality was discovered but for some damage in some initial stage static vanes. (NEDO)

  5. Development of Radiation Technique for Environmental Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kuk, Il Hiun; Jin, Joon Ha

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to development of technologies for 1) the removal of toxic organic chemicals in sewage sludges and the volume reduction of the sewage sludge 2) the recycling/reuse of sewage sludge 3) the reconvey of resource from fishery waste by using radiation technologies. This research project focused on the study of treatment, disposal, and recycling/reuse of sewage sludge by radiation technology, and recovery of highly value-added resources from the wastes. As basic studies with a radiation technology, an enhancement of dewaterbilities of sewage sludge, development of dewatering conditioner, reduction of trace toxic organic chemicals, and the toxicities of the byproducts were studied. Based on the basic experimental results, we developed the pilot-scale system with the continuous e-beam and dewatering unit and the advanced treatment system with the use of carbon source recovered from sewage sludge

  6. Development of Radiation Technique for Environmental Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kuk, Il Hiun; Jin, Joon Ha [and others

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this research is to development of technologies for 1) the removal of toxic organic chemicals in sewage sludges and the volume reduction of the sewage sludge 2) the recycling/reuse of sewage sludge 3) the reconvey of resource from fishery waste by using radiation technologies. This research project focused on the study of treatment, disposal, and recycling/reuse of sewage sludge by radiation technology, and recovery of highly value-added resources from the wastes. As basic studies with a radiation technology, an enhancement of dewaterbilities of sewage sludge, development of dewatering conditioner, reduction of trace toxic organic chemicals, and the toxicities of the byproducts were studied. Based on the basic experimental results, we developed the pilot-scale system with the continuous e-beam and dewatering unit and the advanced treatment system with the use of carbon source recovered from sewage sludge.

  7. Development of lidar techniques for environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats

    1996-09-01

    The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system that was first described in 1987. The lidar system is based on a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser. During the last few years the lidar group has focused on fluorescence imaging and mercury measurements in the troposphere. In 1994 we performed two campaigns: one fluorescence imaging measurement campaign outside Avignon, France and one unique lidar campaign at a mercury mine in Almaden, Spain. Both campaigns are described in this thesis. This thesis also describes how the mobile lidar system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW to obtain a user friendly lidar system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measured data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. All electronics and the major parts of the program are described. A new graphical technique to estimate wind speed from plumes is also discussed. First measurements have been performed with the new system. 31 refs, 19 figs, 1 tab

  8. Gestalt Therapy: Development, Theory, and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witchel, Robert

    This paper presents a full review of the literature in the area of Gestalt Therapy and could be helpful in familiarizing people with this discipline. The roots contributing to the development of Gestalt therapy as presently practiced are explored briefly. Gestalt theory is presented in a developmental way, initially exploring the relationship…

  9. Developing an Online Curriculum: Technologies and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lynnette R.

    2004-01-01

    This book acts as a guidebook for teachers and administrators as they look for support with their online education programs. It offers teaching suggestions for everything from course development to time management and community building. The book is designed to provide information to help teachers work more effectively with online tools, develop…

  10. Survey of technology for decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 8. Remote handling and cutting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-03-01

    In nuclear fuel cycle facility decommissioning and refurbishment, the remote handling techniques such as dismantling, waste handling and decontamination are needed to reduce personnel radiation exposure. The survey research for the status of R and D activities on remote handling tools suitable for nuclear facilities in the world and domestic existing commercial cutting tools applicable to decommissioning of the facilities was conducted. In addition, the drive mechanism, sensing element and control system applicable to the remote handling devices were also surveyed. This report presents brief surveyed summaries. (H. Itami)

  11. Improvement and development of automatic detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyomi; Takai, Setsuo; Togashi, Chikako; Itami, Jun

    2000-01-01

    For detection of radiation-induced mutation, establishment of a new sample preparation method and its procedures suitable for its automation is thought to be the key step to improve the detection efficacy and save labor. In this study, an investigation was made on the sensitivity to radiation exposure in respect of the occurrence of chromosomal breakage by high precision chromosome coloring method utilizing FISH. The number of chromosome breakage per cell was determined in chromosome 1, 4, 5, 9, 11 and 13 prepared from an identical sample exposed to three different grays. The breakage number was found to increase linearly as an increase in the amount of chromosomal DNA and hotspots of the radiation-induced breakages tended to concentrate in R band and the position of R band was almost coincident with the sites of chromosomal translocation breakages specific to leukemia, showing a correlation of radiation exposure to leukemia. Chromosome 13, 14 and 15, which were different in band pattern but similar in its length taken from cells exposed to X-ray at 5 Gy were investigated in detail and it was found that the sensitivity of chromosome to radiation was depending on the quantity and the quality of R band in each chromosome. The benefits of this chromosome coloring method for the analysis of chromosome breakage were as follows: when compared with the conventional dicentric method, the kinds of chromosomal abnormalities to be detectable were much more and its detection rate as well as accuracy was higher. In addition, the time required for determination was loess than one tenth of the conventional one. A breakage site was detectable with differences in color tone and thus, any special technique was not necessary. Therefore, the chromosome coloring method by FISH was demonstrated to be much suitable for automatic image analysis by computer. (M.N.)

  12. Search Techniques for the Web of Things: A Taxonomy and Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuchao; De, Suparna; Wang, Wei; Moessner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The Web of Things aims to make physical world objects and their data accessible through standard Web technologies to enable intelligent applications and sophisticated data analytics. Due to the amount and heterogeneity of the data, it is challenging to perform data analysis directly; especially when the data is captured from a large number of distributed sources. However, the size and scope of the data can be reduced and narrowed down with search techniques, so that only the most relevant and useful data items are selected according to the application requirements. Search is fundamental to the Web of Things while challenging by nature in this context, e.g., mobility of the objects, opportunistic presence and sensing, continuous data streams with changing spatial and temporal properties, efficient indexing for historical and real time data. The research community has developed numerous techniques and methods to tackle these problems as reported by a large body of literature in the last few years. A comprehensive investigation of the current and past studies is necessary to gain a clear view of the research landscape and to identify promising future directions. This survey reviews the state-of-the-art search methods for the Web of Things, which are classified according to three different viewpoints: basic principles, data/knowledge representation, and contents being searched. Experiences and lessons learned from the existing work and some EU research projects related to Web of Things are discussed, and an outlook to the future research is presented. PMID:27128918

  13. Search Techniques for the Web of Things: A Taxonomy and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Web of Things aims to make physical world objects and their data accessible through standard Web technologies to enable intelligent applications and sophisticated data analytics. Due to the amount and heterogeneity of the data, it is challenging to perform data analysis directly; especially when the data is captured from a large number of distributed sources. However, the size and scope of the data can be reduced and narrowed down with search techniques, so that only the most relevant and useful data items are selected according to the application requirements. Search is fundamental to the Web of Things while challenging by nature in this context, e.g., mobility of the objects, opportunistic presence and sensing, continuous data streams with changing spatial and temporal properties, efficient indexing for historical and real time data. The research community has developed numerous techniques and methods to tackle these problems as reported by a large body of literature in the last few years. A comprehensive investigation of the current and past studies is necessary to gain a clear view of the research landscape and to identify promising future directions. This survey reviews the state-of-the-art search methods for the Web of Things, which are classified according to three different viewpoints: basic principles, data/knowledge representation, and contents being searched. Experiences and lessons learned from the existing work and some EU research projects related to Web of Things are discussed, and an outlook to the future research is presented.

  14. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance

  15. Using experts’ consensus (the Delphi method) to evaluate weighting techniques in web surveys not based on probability schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toepoel, V.; Emerson, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Weighting techniques in web surveys based on no probability schemes are devised to correct biases due to self-selection, undercoverage, and nonresponse. In an interactive panel, 38 survey experts addressed weighting techniques and auxiliary variables in web surveys. Most of them corrected all biases

  16. A SURVEY OF AUTOMATION TECHNIQUES COMING FORTH IN SHEET-FED OFFSET PRINTING ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Ramesh Kumar*, Mr. Bijender & Mr. Sandeep Boora

    2017-01-01

    Sheet-Fed offset is one of the premier processes in India as well as abroad. To cope up with customers large quantity demands automation has become mandatory. From prepress to post press a wide range of automation techniques exist and coming forth for sheet fed offset presses. Objective of this paper is to throw light on various sheet-fed offset automation techniques existing today and their futuristic implications. The data related to automation was collected with the help of survey conducte...

  17. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public

  18. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public.

  19. Development techniques of computerized maintenance Management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yon Woo; Kim, S D; Soong, W S; Kim, G H; Oh, W H; Kim, Y G

    2000-05-01

    Normal operation of the facility is one of the key factors in the accomplishments of research goals. As confirmed by a case study of the influence of the facility operation condition on the research results, emphasis should be put on the facility preserve management. Facilities should be maintained in solid operational condition and their malfunctions should be repaired as soon as possible. The purpose of this project is to make propositions on the development of the facility preserve management system which is to maximize the efficiency of the budget execution, manpower organization and maintenance planning, and is to minimize the duration of the operational pause due to malfunctions with the least disbursement.

  20. Development techniques of computerized maintenance Management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yon Woo; Kim, S.D.; Soong, W.S.; Kim, G.H.; Oh, W.H.; Kim, Y.G.

    2000-05-01

    Normal operation of the facility is one of the key factors in the accomplishments of research goals. As confirmed by a case study of the influence of the facility operation condition on the research results, emphasis should be put on the facility preserve management. Facilities should be maintained in solid operational condition and their malfunctions should be repaired as soon as possible. The purpose of this project is to make propositions on the development of the facility preserve management system which is to maximize the efficiency of the budget execution, manpower organization and maintenance planning, and is to minimize the duration of the operational pause due to malfunctions with the least disbursement

  1. Social Capital: Its Constructs and Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the…

  2. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1999-01-01

    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  3. Development of testing techniques for mine fan performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zheng-yan; JIANG Shu-guang; PENG Dan-ren

    2006-01-01

    Three progressive stages of testing techniques are elaborated, which are entirely manual operating, taking separate instruments testing and computer program controlling. The testing method and principle are detailed based on the testing process for meteorological parameters, air pressure, air quality and rotating velocity. And every testing technique is analyzed. Finally, the technique outlook is viewed. All this plays a leading role in development of the testing techniques.

  4. Development techniques of total product maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. D.; Oh, Y. W.; Soong, W. S.; Oh, W. H.

    2000-06-01

    Facilities should be maintained in solid operational condition and the time required for correcting the malfunctions should be minimized since the operational pause due to malfunctions would be one of the most influencing factors on the accomplishments of research goals. It is well-known that we are able to obtain about a 30% reduction of the disbursement through the scheduled pre-repairing processes and to minimize the duration of the malfunctions provided that the relevant factors were administered under systematic coordination. Hence, the development of the facility integrity management system is necessary in order to minimize the duration of the operational pause due to malfunctions with the least disbursement and to minimize the repair time, and also to maximize the efficiency of the budget execution, manpower organization and maintenance management

  5. Development techniques of total product maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. D.; Oh, Y. W.; Soong, W. S.; Oh, W. H

    2000-06-01

    Facilities should be maintained in solid operational condition and the time required for correcting the malfunctions should be minimized since the operational pause due to malfunctions would be one of the most influencing factors on the accomplishments of research goals. It is well-known that we are able to obtain about a 30% reduction of the disbursement through the scheduled pre-repairing processes and to minimize the duration of the malfunctions provided that the relevant factors were administered under systematic coordination. Hence, the development of the facility integrity management system is necessary in order to minimize the duration of the operational pause due to malfunctions with the least disbursement and to minimize the repair time, and also to maximize the efficiency of the budget execution, manpower organization and maintenance management.

  6. Capacity Building for Institutional Development in Surveying and Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    for developing the basic capacity in terms of educational programs and professional organizations; and 3) Global development through cooperation with other international NGO´s such as the UN agencies, the World Bank and sister organizations in surveying. FIG, this way, plays a strong role, in improving...... for institutional development within surveying and land management. Finally the paper discusses the role of FIG in this regard. Three areas are identified: 1) Professional development through providing a global forum for exchange of experiences and new developments; 2) Institutional development through support...... the capacity in surveying and land management at a global scale....

  7. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  8. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 4. Moisture determination in coal: survey of electromagnetic techniques. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, R.; Luckie, P.; Gozani, T.; Brown, D.R.; Bozorgmanesh, H.; Elias, E.

    1979-01-01

    This survey consists of two basic parts. The first consists of a survey of various non-nuclear moisture determination techniques. Three techniques are identified as promising for eventual on-line application with coal; these are the capacitance, microwave attenuation, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The second part is devoted to an in-depth analysis of these three techniques and the current extent to which they have been applied to coal. With a given coal type, accuracies of +- 1% absolute in moisture content are achievable with all three techniques. The accuracy of the two electromagnetic techniques has been demonstrated in the laboratory and on-line in coal burning plants, whereas only small samples have been analyzed with NMR. The current shortcoming of the simple electromagnetic techniques is the sensitivity of calibrations to physical parameters and coal type. NMR is currently limited by small sample sizes and non-rugged design. These findings are summarized and a list of manufacturers of moisture analyzers is given in the Appendix

  9. Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part II: tomographic imaging modalities--techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Najmaei, Nima; Khoshnam, Mahta; Patel, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative application of tomographic imaging techniques provides a means of visual servoing for objects beneath the surface of organs. The focus of this survey is on therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications where tomographic imaging is used in visual servoing. To this end, a comprehensive search of the electronic databases was completed for the period 2000-2013. Existing techniques and products are categorized and studied, based on the imaging modality and their medical applications. This part complements Part I of the survey, which covers visual servoing techniques using endoscopic imaging and direct vision. The main challenges in using visual servoing based on tomographic images have been identified. 'Supervised automation of medical robotics' is found to be a major trend in this field and ultrasound is the most commonly used tomographic modality for visual servoing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Development of hotcell non-destructive examination techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Uhn; Yu, S. C.; Kang, B. S.; Byun, K. S. [Chungbuk National University, Chungju (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to establish non-destructive examination techniques which needs to determine the status of spent nuclear fuel and/or bundles. Through the project, we will establish an image reconstruction tomography which is a kind of non-destructive techniques in Hotcell. The tomography technique can be used to identify the 2-dimensional density distribution of fission products in the spent fuel rods and/or bundles. And form results of the measurement and analysis of magnetic properties of neutron irradiated material in the press vessel and reactor, we will develop some techniques to test its hardness and defects. In 2001, the first year, we have established mathematical background and necessary data and informations to develop the techniques. We will try to find some experimental results that are necessary in developing the Hotcell non-destructive examination techniques in the coming year. 14 refs., 65 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  11. Development of recycling techniques on decommissioning concrete waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Oguri, Daiichiro; Sukekiyo, Mitsuaki

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has been developing decommissioning techniques, implemented under a contract with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), to verify and improve the performance of the key decommissioning techniques. One of main themes is on concrete recycling techniques, which deals with high quality aggregate retrieval from concrete waste, high efficient usage of the by-product powder to recycling products, and effective usage of radioactive concrete to filling material for waste form. This paper describes progress and accomplishment on the concrete recycling technique development which started in 1996. (author)

  12. Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey on Algorithms, Measurement Techniques, Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Paul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Localization is an important aspect in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs that has developed significant research interest among academia and research community. Wireless sensor network is formed by a large number of tiny, low energy, limited processing capability and low-cost sensors that communicate with each other in ad-hoc fashion. The task of determining physical coordinates of sensor nodes in WSNs is known as localization or positioning and is a key factor in today’s communication systems to estimate the place of origin of events. As the requirement of the positioning accuracy for different applications varies, different localization methods are used in different applications and there are several challenges in some special scenarios such as forest fire detection. In this paper, we survey different measurement techniques and strategies for range based and range free localization with an emphasis on the latter. Further, we discuss different localization-based applications, where the estimation of the location information is crucial. Finally, a comprehensive discussion of the challenges such as accuracy, cost, complexity, and scalability are given.

  13. Developing DIVE, a design-led futures technique for SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mejia Sarmiento, J.R.; Pasman, G.J.; Hultink, H.J.; Stappers, P.J.; Vogel, C.; Muratovski, G.

    2017-01-01

    Futures techniques have long been used in large enterprises as designerly means to explore the future and guide innovation. In the automotive industry, for instance, the development of concept cars is a technique which has repeatedly proven its value. However, while big companies have broadly

  14. Exploiting stock data: a survey of state of the art computational techniques aimed at producing beliefs regarding investment portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Linares Vásquez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting an investment portfolio has inspired several models aimed at optimising the set of securities which an in-vesttor may select according to a number of specific decision criteria such as risk, expected return and planning hori-zon. The classical approach has been developed for supporting the two stages of portfolio selection and is supported by disciplines such as econometrics, technical analysis and corporative finance. However, with the emerging field of computational finance, new and interesting techniques have arisen in line with the need for the automatic processing of vast volumes of information. This paper surveys such new techniques which belong to the body of knowledge con-cerning computing and systems engineering, focusing on techniques particularly aimed at producing beliefs regar-ding investment portfolios.

  15. Technical errors in complete mouth radiographic survey according to radiographic techniques and film holding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Karp Sik; Byun, Chong Soo; Choi, Soon Chul

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the numbers and causes of retakes in 300 complete mouth radiographic surveys made by 75 senior dental students. According to radiographic techniques and film holding methods, they were divided into 4 groups: Group I: Bisecting-angle technique with patient's fingers. Group II: Bisecting-angle technique with Rinn Snap-A-Ray device. Group III: Bisecting-angle technique with Rinn XCP instrument (short cone) Group IV: Bisecting-angle technique with Rinn XCP instrument (long cone). The most frequent cases of retakes, the most frequent tooth area examined, of retakes and average number of retakes per complete mouth survey were evaluated. The obtained results were as follows: Group I: Incorrect film placement (47.8), upper canine region, and 0.89. Group II: Incorrect film placement (44.0), upper canine region, and 1.12. Group III: Incorrect film placement (79.2), upper canine region, and 2.05. Group IV: Incorrect film placement (67.7), upper canine region, and 1.69.

  16. Developing survey grids to substantiate freedom from exotic pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Frank H. Koch; William D. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Systematic, hierarchical intensification of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program hexagon for North America yields a simple procedure for developing national-scale survey grids. In this article, we describe the steps to create a national-scale survey grid using a risk map as the starting point. We illustrate the steps using an exotic pest example in which...

  17. Knowledge based systems: A critical survey of major concepts, issues and techniques. Visuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, Knowledge Based Systems: A Critical Survey of Major Concepts, Issues, and Techniques, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-9. The objectives of the report are to: examine various techniques used to build the KBS; to examine at least one KBS in detail, i.e., a case study; to list and identify limitations and problems with the KBS; to suggest future areas of research; and to provide extensive reference materials.

  18. Food aid to developing countries: a survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S J; Singer, H W

    1979-03-01

    Food air currently constitutes nearly 15% of official development assistance and hence has considerable potential as a stimulant to growth in less-developed countries (LDCs). This paper reviews the evidence on the impact of food aid on growth and its associated factors. While recognizing that the use of food aid is influenced by a constellation of interests in recipient and donor countries, it identifies a set of guiding principles for maximizing the effectiveness of food aid. These include the need for food (relative to other development needs), its level of substitutability with commercial imports, its incorporation in a poverty-oriented development plan, its guaranteed availability and its complementarity with financial aid. Current food air programs recognize the relevance of some of these principles - e.g. the criteria of necessity - but ignore others - notably the need to situate food aid in a comprehensive plan for improving patterns of income distribution in LDCs. 203 notes, 203 references.

  19. mobile phone interaction techniques for rural economy development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    presented. KEY WORDS: Interaction Techniques, Mobile phone, User Interface, ICT, Rural Development. ... and services must be designed to use available facilities ... detachable memory cards. .... access health information from the Internet.

  20. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 10: Results from Canada Wide Survey on Total Body Irradiation Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studinski, Ryan; Fraser, Danielle; Samant, Rajiv; MacPherson, Miller [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is delivered to a relatively small number of patients with a variety of techniques; it has been a challenge to develop consensus studies for best practice. This survey was created to assess the current state of TBI in Canada. Methods: The survey was created with questions focusing on the radiation prescription, delivery technique and resources involved. The survey was circulated electronically to the heads of every clinical medical physics department in Canada. Responses were gathered and collated, and centres that were known to deliver TBI were urged to respond. Results: Responses from 20 centres were received, including 12 from centres that perform TBI. Although a variety of TBI dose prescriptions were reported, 12 Gy in 6 fractions was used in 11 centres while 5 centres use unique prescriptions. For dose rate, a range of 9 to 51 cGy/min was reported. Most centres use an extended SSD technique, with the patient standing or lying down against a wall. The rest use either a “sweeping” technique or a more complicated multi-field technique. All centres but one indicated that they shield the lungs, and only a minority shield other organs. The survey also showed that considerable resources are used for TBI including extra staffing, extended planning and treatment times and the use of locally developed hardware or software. Conclusions: This survey highlights that both similarities and important discrepancies exist between TBI techniques across the country, and is an opportunity to prompt more collaboration between centres.

  1. Trends in Orbital Decompression Techniques of Surveyed American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Shani S; Null, Robert C; Timoney, Peter J; Sokol, Jason A

    To assess current members of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) regarding preference in surgical techniques for orbital decompression in Graves' disease. A 10-question web-based, anonymous survey was distributed to oculoplastic surgeons utilizing the ASOPRS listserv. The questions addressed the number of years of experience performing orbital decompression surgery, preferred surgical techniques, and whether orbital decompression was performed in collaboration with an ENT surgeon. Ninety ASOPRS members participated in the study. Most that completed the survey have performed orbital decompression surgery for >15 years. The majority of responders preferred a combined approach of floor and medial wall decompression or balanced lateral and medial wall decompression; only a minority selected a technique limited to 1 wall. Those surgeons who perform fat decompression were more likely to operate in collaboration with ENT. Most surgeons rarely remove the orbital strut, citing risk of worsening diplopia or orbital dystopia except in cases of optic nerve compression or severe proptosis. The most common reason given for performing orbital decompression was exposure keratopathy. The majority of surgeons perform the surgery without ENT involvement, and number of years of experience did not correlate significantly with collaboration with ENT. The majority of surveyed ASOPRS surgeons prefer a combined wall approach over single wall approach to initial orbital decompression. Despite the technological advances made in the field of modern endoscopic surgery, no single approach has been adopted by the ASOPRS community as the gold standard.

  2. Alternative methods for developing external travel survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has a comprehensive on-going travel survey : program that supports the travel demand models being developed for transportation planning efforts in urban : areas throughout Texas. One component of the sur...

  3. Development of GPS survey data management protocols/policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This project developed a statewide policy and criteria for collecting, analyzing, and managing global position system (GPS) survey data. The research project determined the needs of the Department in adopting the GPS real time kinetic (GPS RTK) stake...

  4. Survey and analysis of federally developed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J.E.; Conrad, J.L.

    1983-02-01

    The methodology and results of a test effort to determine whether there exist unexpected opportunities for the direct transfer of technologies from federal laboratories to industry are presented. Specifically, the latest results of six federal laboratories with potential application in the pulp and paper industry, particularly those results applicable to improving energy productivity, were evaluated, cataloged, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. The principal methodological steps in this effort were the development of a taxonomy of the pulp and paper industry, identification of industry needs and laboratory capabilities, laboratory visits, review of technology findings with industry, and evaluation and compilation of industry responses.

  5. Improving Standard Poststratification Techniques For Random-Digit-Dialing Telephone Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Battaglia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Random-digit-dialing surveys in the United States such as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS typically poststratify on age, gender and race/ethnicity using control totals from an appropriate source such as the 2000 Census, the Current Population Survey, or the American Community Survey. Using logistic regression and interaction detection software we identified key "main effect" socio-demographic variables and important two-factor interactions associated with several health risk factor outcomes measured in the BRFSS, one of the largest annual RDD surveys in the United States. A procedure was developed to construct control totals, which were consistent with estimates of age, gender, and race/ethnicity obtained from a commercial source and distributions of other demographic variables from the Current Population Survey. Raking was used to incorporate main effects and two-factor interaction margins into the weighting of the BRFSS survey data. The resulting risk factor estimates were then compared with those based on the current BRFSS weighting methodology and mean squared error estimates were developed. The research demonstrates that by identifying socio-demographic variables associated with key outcome variables and including these variables in the weighting methodology, nonresponse bias can be substantially reduced.

  6. Problem-solving and developing quality management methods and techniques on the example of automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Łuczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about methods and techniques of quality management together with their effective use can be definitely regarded as an indication of high organisational culture. Using such methods and techniques in an effective way can be attributed to certain level of maturity, as far as the quality management system in an organisation is concerned. There is in the paper an analysis of problem-solving methods and techniques of quality management in the automotive sector in Poland. The survey was given to the general population, which in case of the study consisted of companies operating in Poland that had certified quality management systems against ISO/TS 16949. The results of the conducted survey and the conclusions of the author can show actual and potential OEM suppliers (both 1st and 2nd tier in which direction their strategies for development and improvement of quality management systems should go in order to be effective. When the universal character of methods and techniques used in the surveyed population of companies is taken into consideration, it can be assumed that the results of the survey are also universal for all organisations realising the TQM strategy. The results of the research confirmed that methods which are also the basis for creating key system documents are the most relevant ones, i.e. flowcharts and FMEA, and moreover process monitoring tools (SPC and problem solving methods -above all 8D.

  7. Survey on visualization and analysis techniques based on diffusion MRI for in-vivo anisotropic diffusion structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masutani, Yoshitaka; Sato, Tetsuo; Urayama, Shin-ichi; Bihan, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    In association with development of diffusion MR imaging technologies for anisotropic diffusion measurement in living body, related research is explosively increasing including research fields of applied mathematics and visualization in addition to MR imaging, biomedical image technology, and medical science. One of the reasons is that the diffusion MRI data set is a set of high dimensional image information beyond conventional scalar or vector images, and is attractive for the researchers in the related fields. This survey paper is mainly aimed at introducing state-of-the-art of post processing techniques reported in the literature for diffusion MRI data, such as analysis and visualization. (author)

  8. Involute Spur Gear Template Development by Parametric Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many methods available for developing profiles of gear and spline teeth. Most of the techniques are inaccurate because they use only an approximation of the involute curve profile. The parametric method developed in this paper provides accurate involute curve creation using formulas and exact geometric ...

  9. Mosquito Control Techniques Developed for the US Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA developed and field tested new techniques to reduce the risk to deployed military troops from vector-borne diseases. Some of the methods developed included (1) novel military personal protection methods, (2) barrier treatments of artificial materials and natural vegetation, and (3) ground a...

  10. Research and development of treatment techniques for LLW from decommissioning: Decontamination and volume reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, T.; Kameo, Y.; Nakashio, N.

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the amount and/or volume of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) arising from decommissioning of nuclear reactor, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing four decontamination techniques. They are: (a) Gas-carrying abrasive method, (b) In-situ remote electropolishing method for pipe system before dismantling, (c) Bead reaction - thermal shock method, and (d) Laser induced chemical method for components after dismantling. JAERI in developing techniques are also carrying out melting tests of metal and non-metal. Melting was confirmed to be effective in reducing the volume, homogenizing, and furthermore stabilizing non-metallic wastes. (author)

  11. Development of human factors evaluation techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Lee, J.W.; Sim, B.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes development of an operator task simulation analyzer and human factors evaluation techniques performed recently at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The first is the SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) for the assessment of task performance by simulating control room operation. The latter has two objectives: to establish a human factors experiment facility, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF), and to establish techniques for human factors experiments. (author)

  12. Nurse Practitioners' Use of Communication Techniques: Results of a Maryland Oral Health Literacy Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Laura W; Horowitz, Alice M; Radice, Sarah D; Wang, Min Q; Kleinman, Dushanka V

    2016-01-01

    We examined nurse practitioners' use and opinions of recommended communication techniques for the promotion of oral health as part of a Maryland state-wide oral health literacy assessment. Use of recommended health-literate and patient-centered communication techniques have demonstrated improved health outcomes. A 27-item self-report survey, containing 17 communication technique items, across 5 domains, was mailed to 1,410 licensed nurse practitioners (NPs) in Maryland in 2010. Use of communication techniques and opinions about their effectiveness were analyzed using descriptive statistics. General linear models explored provider and practice characteristics to predict differences in the total number and the mean number of communication techniques routinely used in a week. More than 80% of NPs (N = 194) routinely used 3 of the 7 basic communication techniques: simple language, limiting teaching to 2-3 concepts, and speaking slowly. More than 75% of respondents believed that 6 of the 7 basic communication techniques are effective. Sociodemographic provider characteristics and practice characteristics were not significant predictors of the mean number or the total number of communication techniques routinely used by NPs in a week. Potential predictors for using more of the 7 basic communication techniques, demonstrating significance in one general linear model each, were: assessing the office for user-friendliness and ever taking a communication course in addition to nursing school. NPs in Maryland self-reported routinely using some recommended health-literate communication techniques, with belief in their effectiveness. Our findings suggest that NPs who had assessed the office for patient-friendliness or who had taken a communication course beyond their initial education may be predictors for using more of the 7 basic communication techniques. These self-reported findings should be validated with observational studies. Graduate and continuing education for NPs

  13. Development and validation of Neonatal Satisfaction Survey--NSS-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Inger H; Vadset, Tove B; Barstad, Johan; Svindseth, Marit F

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a survey to investigate parents' satisfaction with neonatal wards in a population of parents of children with a gestation age of ≥24 weeks to 3 months after full-term birth. We explored the literature and conducted three focus groups: two with expert health personnel and one with parents. We tested the survey in a parent population (N = 105) and report the different stages in the validation process along with the full survey, the Neonatal Satisfaction Survey - 13 categories (NSS-13). We found 13 subcategories in the Neonatal Satisfaction Survey. The subcategories measure parents' satisfaction with neonatal units based on staff, admission, nurses, anxiety, siblings (parents' perceptions of caring for the siblings of the newborn), information, timeout, doctors, facilities, nutrition, preparation for discharge, trust and visitors. Each subcategory showed acceptable internal consistency. The full version of the Neonatal Satisfaction Survey presents 69 items, and each subcategory contains two to eleven items. The Neonatal Satisfaction Survey seems suitable to measure parents' satisfaction with neonatal units and can be used in full, but it can also measure subcategories. Parents' satisfaction with neonatal units can be used to improve the quality in such wards. We consider this study as the first in a series to validate the NSS-13. The full survey with subcategories is presented in this paper. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of international cooperation over energy use rationalization techniques; 1999 nendo energy shiyo gorika shuho kokusai kyoryoku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the past, studies have been conducted involving the possibility of development of information offering techniques for the realization of sustainable society, for which LCA (life cycle assessment) as a tool for reducing energy consumption and environmental impact is investigated and case studies are conducted in this connection. In this fiscal year, for the purpose of deliberating how to utilize the LCA results, a survey is conducted of how LCA is being used as a tool for constructing an environmental management system set forth in the ISO14000 series, by holding conferences with LCA researchers representing the respective countries involved. Investigations are conducted into the actualities of the environmental management system, environmental performance assessment, and environmental labelling whose standardization has been under way in compliance with the ISO14000 series, into the actualities of matters relating to assessment techniques and decision making such as environmentally-friendly designing, supply chain management, reports on environments, etc., which are becoming established in enterprises, and into the actualities of access to and disclosure of information. International cooperative researches are conducted, participated in by five leading organizations of Sweden, Germany, Denmark, and Canada, and Japan's National Institute for Resources and Development, where actual states of LCA utilization are introduced and improvement on LCA techniques are discussed. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of international cooperation over energy use rationalization techniques; 1999 nendo energy shiyo gorika shuho kokusai kyoryoku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the past, studies have been conducted involving the possibility of development of information offering techniques for the realization of sustainable society, for which LCA (life cycle assessment) as a tool for reducing energy consumption and environmental impact is investigated and case studies are conducted in this connection. In this fiscal year, for the purpose of deliberating how to utilize the LCA results, a survey is conducted of how LCA is being used as a tool for constructing an environmental management system set forth in the ISO14000 series, by holding conferences with LCA researchers representing the respective countries involved. Investigations are conducted into the actualities of the environmental management system, environmental performance assessment, and environmental labelling whose standardization has been under way in compliance with the ISO14000 series, into the actualities of matters relating to assessment techniques and decision making such as environmentally-friendly designing, supply chain management, reports on environments, etc., which are becoming established in enterprises, and into the actualities of access to and disclosure of information. International cooperative researches are conducted, participated in by five leading organizations of Sweden, Germany, Denmark, and Canada, and Japan's National Institute for Resources and Development, where actual states of LCA utilization are introduced and improvement on LCA techniques are discussed. (NEDO)

  16. Using Intelligent Techniques in Construction Project Cost Estimation: 10-Year Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Osman Elfaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation is the most important preliminary process in any construction project. Therefore, construction cost estimation has the lion’s share of the research effort in construction management. In this paper, we have analysed and studied proposals for construction cost estimation for the last 10 years. To implement this survey, we have proposed and applied a methodology that consists of two parts. The first part concerns data collection, for which we have chosen special journals as sources for the surveyed proposals. The second part concerns the analysis of the proposals. To analyse each proposal, the following four questions have been set. Which intelligent technique is used? How have data been collected? How are the results validated? And which construction cost estimation factors have been used? From the results of this survey, two main contributions have been produced. The first contribution is the defining of the research gap in this area, which has not been fully covered by previous proposals of construction cost estimation. The second contribution of this survey is the proposal and highlighting of future directions for forthcoming proposals, aimed ultimately at finding the optimal construction cost estimation. Moreover, we consider the second part of our methodology as one of our contributions in this paper. This methodology has been proposed as a standard benchmark for construction cost estimation proposals.

  17. Development and validation of the primary care team dynamics survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hummy; Chien, Alyna T; Fisher, Josephine; Martin, Julia; Peters, Antoinette S; Hacker, Karen; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Singer, Sara J

    2015-06-01

    To develop and validate a survey instrument designed to measure team dynamics in primary care. We studied 1,080 physician and nonphysician health care professionals working at 18 primary care practices participating in a learning collaborative aimed at improving team-based care. We developed a conceptual model and administered a cross-sectional survey addressing team dynamics, and we assessed reliability and discriminant validity of survey factors and the overall survey's goodness-of-fit using structural equation modeling. We administered the survey between September 2012 and March 2013. Overall response rate was 68 percent (732 respondents). Results support a seven-factor model of team dynamics, suggesting that conditions for team effectiveness, shared understanding, and three supportive processes are associated with acting and feeling like a team and, in turn, perceived team effectiveness. This model demonstrated adequate fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.91), scale reliability (Cronbach's alphas: 0.71-0.91), and discriminant validity (average factor correlations: 0.49). It is possible to measure primary care team dynamics reliably using a 29-item survey. This survey may be used in ambulatory settings to study teamwork and explore the effect of efforts to improve team-based care. Future studies should demonstrate the importance of team dynamics for markers of team effectiveness (e.g., work satisfaction, care quality, clinical outcomes). © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. A Technique for Developing Probabilistic Properties of Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    with those obtained from probabilistic predic- tion calculations was developed by Baladi and Barnes (Reference 11). By caloulating the magnitude and...Therefore, a technique to smooth the measured ddta without changing the intrinsic response is needed. Such a procedure was developed by Baladi and...2.2.2 Covariance Analysis of Smoothed Data A generic procedure for statistically analyzing nonlinear data was developed by Baladi and Rohani

  19. Status and developing of nuclear emergency response techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangang, Zhang; Bing, Zhao; Rongyao, Tang; Xiaoxiao, Xu

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Emergency preparedness and response in China is consistent with international basic principle of nuclear safety and emergency response. Nuclear emergency response techniques in China developed with nuclear power from 1980s. The status of nuclear emergency techniques in China are: 1) China have plentiful experiences and abilities in the fields of nuclear facility emergency planning and preparedness, nuclear accident consequence assessment, emergency monitoring, and emergency advisory; 2) Emergency assistance ability in China has a foundation, however it cannot satisfy national requirement; 3) Emergency planning and preparedness is not based on hazard assessment; 4) Remote monitoring and robot techniques in not adaptable to the requirements of nuclear emergency response; 5) A consistent emergency assessment system is lack in China. In this paper, it is analyzed what is the developing focal points of nuclear emergency response techniques in China, and it is proposed that the main points are: a) To develop the research of emergency preparedness on the base of hazard analysis; b) To improve remote monitoring and robot ability during nuclear emergency; c) To develop the response technique research with anti-terrorism. (author)

  20. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda.

  1. Test description and preliminary pitot-pressure surveys for Langley Test Technique Demonstrator at Mach 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Ashby, George C., Jr.; Monta, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A propulsion/airframe integration experiment conducted in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel using a 16.8-in.-long version of the Langley Test Technique Demonstrator configuration with simulated scramjet propulsion is described. Schlieren and vapor screen visualization of the nozzle flow field is presented and correlated with pitot-pressure flow-field surveys. The data were obtained at nominal free-stream conditions of Re = 2.8 x 10 exp 6 and a nominal engine total pressure of 100 psia. It is concluded that pitot-pressure surveys coupled to schlieren and vapor-screen photographs, and oil flows have revealed flow features including vortices, free shear layers, and shock waves occurring in the model flow field.

  2. A Survey of Soft-Error Mitigation Techniques for Non-Volatile Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparsh Mittal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-volatile memories (NVMs offer superior density and energy characteristics compared to the conventional memories; however, NVMs suffer from severe reliability issues that can easily eclipse their energy efficiency advantages. In this paper, we survey architectural techniques for improving the soft-error reliability of NVMs, specifically PCM (phase change memory and STT-RAM (spin transfer torque RAM. We focus on soft-errors, such as resistance drift and write disturbance, in PCM and read disturbance and write failures in STT-RAM. By classifying the research works based on key parameters, we highlight their similarities and distinctions. We hope that this survey will underline the crucial importance of addressing NVM reliability for ensuring their system integration and will be useful for researchers, computer architects and processor designers.

  3. Endplug Welding Techniques developed for SFR Metallic Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Soo Sung; Woo, Yoon Myeng; Kim, Hyung Tae; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Ki Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, the R and D on SFR has been begun since 1997, as one of the national long-term nuclear R and D programs. The international collaborative research is under way on fuel developments within Advanced Fuel Project for Gen-IV SFR with the closed fuel cycle of full actinide recycling, while TRU bearing metallic fuel, U-TRU-Zr alloy fuel, was selected and is being developed. For the fabrication of SFR metallic fuel elements, the endplug welding is a crucial process. The sealing of endplug to cladding tube should be hermetically perfect to prevent a leakage of fission gases and to maintain a good reactor performance. In this study, the welding technique, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed to make SFR metallic fuel elements. The TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established. In order to make SFR metallic fuel elements, the welding technique, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed. The TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established

  4. Endplug Welding Techniques developed for SFR Metallic Fuel Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Soo Sung; Woo, Yoon Myeng; Kim, Hyung Tae; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Ki Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In Korea, the R and D on SFR has been begun since 1997, as one of the national long-term nuclear R and D programs. The international collaborative research is under way on fuel developments within Advanced Fuel Project for Gen-IV SFR with the closed fuel cycle of full actinide recycling, while TRU bearing metallic fuel, U-TRU-Zr alloy fuel, was selected and is being developed. For the fabrication of SFR metallic fuel elements, the endplug welding is a crucial process. The sealing of endplug to cladding tube should be hermetically perfect to prevent a leakage of fission gases and to maintain a good reactor performance. In this study, the welding technique, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed to make SFR metallic fuel elements. The TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established. In order to make SFR metallic fuel elements, the welding technique, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed. The TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established.

  5. Development of assembly techniques for fire resistant aircraft interior panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C. S.

    1978-01-01

    Ten NASA Type A fire resistant aircraft interior panels were fabricated and tested to develop assembly techniques. These techiques were used in the construction of a full scale lavatory test structure for flame propagation testing. The Type A panel is of sandwich construction consisting of Nomex honeycomb filled with quinone dioxime foam, and bismaleimide/glass face sheets bonded to the core with polyimide film adhesive. The materials selected and the assembly techniques developed for the lavatory test structure were designed for obtaining maximum fire containment with minimum smoke and toxic emission.

  6. Survey of Analysis of Crime Detection Techniques Using Data Mining and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, S.; Mitra, Shilpa

    2018-04-01

    Data mining is the field containing procedures for finding designs or patterns in a huge dataset, it includes strategies at the convergence of machine learning and database framework. It can be applied to various fields like future healthcare, market basket analysis, education, manufacturing engineering, crime investigation etc. Among these, crime investigation is an interesting application to process crime characteristics to help the society for a better living. This paper survey various data mining techniques used in this domain. This study may be helpful in designing new strategies for crime prediction and analysis.

  7. A technique for reducing diverse habits survey data and its application to seafood consumption near Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.D.; Hunt, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Habits surveys provide basic information to enable doses to appropriate critical groups of members of the public to be assessed. In some cases, the relevant habits of those to be included in the critical group can be quite diverse, and a simplifying method may be needed. A technique for this is described, and exemplified in relation to liquid radioactive waste discharges from AEE Winfrith, an area where the range of seafoods and radionuclide concentrations in them result in a wide variation of doses. Weighted mean consumption rates are derived for the critical group, and an example of their application in setting a revised liquid discharge authorisation is given. (author)

  8. Development of Measurement Techniques For Strengthening Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    2007-01-01

    The strategy of nuclear safeguards is based on the accounting and control of nuclear materials, nuclear technologies and activities in a State in order to attain its ''Legal'' goals of the application of atomic energy. The present paper investigates the development in the measurement techniques used in the verification and control of NMs for the purpose of strengthening safeguards. Its focus is to review the recent nuclear measurement techniques used for the identification and verification of nuclear materials.The different levels of verification and the accuracy of these techniques are discussed. The implementation of stregthened safeguards; and nuclear materials verification and control in the world are mentioned. Also, the recently proposed measures to enhance the ability to detect undeclared nuclear materials, nuclear activities and facilities that would need advanced measurement techniques are indicated.

  9. Development of sampling techniques for ITER Type B radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwon Pyo; Kim, Sung Geun; Jung, Sang Hee; Oh, Wan Ho; Park, Myung Chul; Kim, Hee Moon; Ahn, Sang Bok

    2016-01-01

    There are several difficulties and limitation in sampling activities. As the Type B radwaste components are mostly metallic(mostly stainless steel) and bulk(∼ 1 m in size and ∼ 100 mm in thickness), it is difficult in taking samples from the surface of Type B radwaste by remote operation. But also, sampling should be performed without use of any liquid coolant to avoid the spread of contamination. And all sampling procedures are carried in the hot cell red zone with remote operation. Three kinds of sampling techniques are being developed. They are core sampling, chip sampling, and wedge sampling, which are the candidates of sampling techniques to be applied to ITER hot cell. Object materials for sampling are stainless steel or Cu alloy block in order to simulate ITER Type B radwaste. The best sampling technique for ITER Type B radwaste among the three sampling techniques will be suggested in several months after finishing the related experiment

  10. Development of sampling techniques for ITER Type B radwaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Kwon Pyo; Kim, Sung Geun; Jung, Sang Hee; Oh, Wan Ho; Park, Myung Chul; Kim, Hee Moon; Ahn, Sang Bok [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are several difficulties and limitation in sampling activities. As the Type B radwaste components are mostly metallic(mostly stainless steel) and bulk(∼ 1 m in size and ∼ 100 mm in thickness), it is difficult in taking samples from the surface of Type B radwaste by remote operation. But also, sampling should be performed without use of any liquid coolant to avoid the spread of contamination. And all sampling procedures are carried in the hot cell red zone with remote operation. Three kinds of sampling techniques are being developed. They are core sampling, chip sampling, and wedge sampling, which are the candidates of sampling techniques to be applied to ITER hot cell. Object materials for sampling are stainless steel or Cu alloy block in order to simulate ITER Type B radwaste. The best sampling technique for ITER Type B radwaste among the three sampling techniques will be suggested in several months after finishing the related experiment.

  11. Survey, design, development, and installation of micro hydel power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the survey, design, development and installation Of micro hydel power generation using low head Kaplan water turbine. Electricity production from hydro power has been and still is today, the first renewable source used to generate electricity. The development of energy from renewable is very important step in reduction of carbon emissions(CO/sub 2/).

  12. Large Scale Survey Data in Career Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale survey datasets have been underutilized but offer numerous advantages for career development scholars, as they contain numerous career development constructs with large and diverse samples that are followed longitudinally. Constructs such as work salience, vocational expectations, educational expectations, work satisfaction, and…

  13. A Survey on Modeling and Simulation of MEMS Switches and Its Application in Power Gating Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar M.P; A.S. Augustine Fletcher

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of techniques have been developed to reduce the leakage power, including supply voltage scaling, varying threshold voltages, smaller logic banks, etc. Power gating is a technique which is used to reduce the static power when the sleep transistor is in off condition. Micro Electro mechanical System (MEMS) switches have properties that are very close to an ideal switch, with infinite off-resistance due to an air gap and low on-resistance due to the ohmic metal to m...

  14. A Survey on Nickel Titanium Rotary Instruments and their Usage Techniques by Endodontists in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Thimmanagowda N; Saraf, Prahlad A; Penukonda, Raghavendra; Vanaki, Sneha S; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2017-05-01

    The preference and usage of nickel titanium rotary instruments varies from individual to individual based on their technique, experience with the rotary systems and the clinical situation. Very limited information is available to explain the adoption of changing concepts with respect to nickel titanium rotary instruments pertaining to the endodontists in India. The aim of this study was to conduct a questionnaire survey to acquire the knowledge concerning different NiTi rotary instruments and their usage techniques by endodontists in India. A Survey questionnaire was designed which consisted of 32 questions regarding designation, demographics, experience with rotary instruments, usage of different file systems, usage techniques, frequency of reuse, occurrence of file fracture, reasons and their management was distributed by hand in the national postgraduate convention and also disseminated via electronic medium to 400 and 600 endodontists respectively. Information was collected from each individual to gain insight into the experiences and beliefs of endodontists concerning the new endodontic technology of rotary NiTi instrumentation based on their clinical experience with the rotary systems. The questions were designed to ascertain the problems, patterns of use and to identify areas of perceived or potential concern regarding the rotary instruments and the data acquired was statistically evaluated using Fisher's-exact test and the Chi-Square test. Overall 63.8% (638) endodontists responded. ProTaper was one of the most commonly used file system followed by M two and ProTaper Next. There was a significant co relation between the years of experience and the file re use frequency, preparation technique, file separation, management of file separation. A large number of Endodontists prefer to reuse the rotary NiTi instruments. As there was an increase in the experience, the incidence of file separation reduced with increasing number of re use frequency and with

  15. Development of techniques for monitoring corrosion in Magnox plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, N.F.; Whittle, I.; Wilson, R.

    1974-01-01

    Steel oxidation in Magnox reactors has led to the development of techniques for measuring oxide thicknesses. An account is given of the methods used by the CEGB for making non-destructive measurements of oxide coatings both in the laboratory and remotely in the core regions of reactors. Specific techniques include β back-scattering which is compared with conventional microscope or weight gain methods for particular applications. The laser corrosion monitor and an ultrasonic method are described and compared as in-reactor techniques. An eddy current method is being developed for reactor regions where access is extremely restricted. A discussion considers the effect of oxide form upon the response of the instruments. The necessary further work is described which establishes the usefulness of each instrument over a range of oxide thicknesses and steels of different physical properties. (author)

  16. Development of XAFS Into a Structure Determination Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, E. A.

    After the detection of diffraction of x-rays by M. Laue in 1912, the technique was soon applied to structure determination by Bragg within a year. On the other hand, although the edge steps in X-Ray absorption were discovered even earlier by Barkla and both the near edge (XANES) and extended X-Ray fine structure (EXAFS) past the edge were detected by 1929, it still took over 40 years to realize the structure information contained in this X-Ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). To understand this delay a brief historical review of the development of the scientific ideas that transformed XAFS into the premiere technique for local structure determination is given. The development includes both advances in theoretical understanding and calculational capabilities, and in experimental facilities, especially synchrotron radiation sources. The present state of the XAFS technique and its capabilities are summarized.

  17. Development of ion beam sputtering techniques for actinide target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Zevenbergen, L.A.; Adair, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputtering is a routine method for the preparation of thin films used as targets because it allows the use of minimum quantity of starting material, and losses are much lower than most other vacuum deposition techniques. Work is underway in the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) at ORNL to develop the techniques that will make the preparation of actinide targets up to 100 μg/cm 2 by ion beam sputtering a routinely available service from IRML. The preparation of the actinide material in a form suitable for sputtering is a key to this technique, as is designing a sputtering system that allows the flexibility required for custom-ordered target production. At present, development work is being conducted on low-activity in a bench-top system. The system will then be installed in a hood or glove box approved for radioactive materials handling where processing of radium, actinium, and plutonium isotopes among others will be performed. (orig.)

  18. Advancing US GHG Inventory by Incorporating Survey Data using Machine-Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaker, C.; Ogle, S. M.; Breidt, J.

    2017-12-01

    Crop management data are used in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory that is compiled annually and reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Emissions for carbon stock change and N2O emissions for US agricultural soils are estimated using the USDA National Resources Inventory (NRI). NRI provides basic information on land use and cropping histories, but it does not provide much detail on other management practices. In contrast, the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) survey collects detailed crop management data that could be used in the GHG Inventory. The survey data were collected from NRI survey locations that are a subset of the NRI every 10 years. Therefore, imputation of the CEAP are needed to represent the management practices across all NRI survey locations both spatially and temporally. Predictive mean matching and an artificial neural network methods have been applied to develop imputation model under a multiple imputation framework. Temporal imputation involves adjusting the imputation model using state-level USDA Agricultural Resource Management Survey data. Distributional and predictive accuracy is assessed for the imputed data, providing not only management data needed for the inventory but also rigorous estimates of uncertainty.

  19. Development of three-dimensional radiotherapy techniques in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Charlotte E.

    Radiotherapy following conservation surgery decreases local relapse and death from breast cancer. Currently, the challenge is to minimise the morbidity caused by this treatment without losing efficacy. Despite many advances in radiation techniques in other sites of the body, the majority of breast cancer patients are still planned and treated using 2-dimensional simple radiotherapy techniques. In addition, breast irradiation currently consumes 30% of the UK's radiotherapy workload. Therefore, any change to more complex treatment should be of proven benefit. The primary objective of this research is to develop and evaluate novel radiotherapy techniques to decrease irradiation of normal structures and improve localisation of the tumour bed. I have developed a forward-planned intensity modulated (IMRT) breast radiotherapy technique, which has shown improved dosimetry results compared to standard breast radiotherapy. Subsequently, I have developed and implemented a phase III randomised controlled breast IMRT trial. This National Cancer Research Network adopted trial will answer an important question regarding the clinical benefit of breast IMRT. It will provide DNA samples linked with high quality clinical outcome data, for a national translational radiogenomics study investigating variation in normal tissue toxicity. Thus, patients with significant late normal tissue side effects despite good dose homogeneity will provide the best model for finding differences due to underlying genetics. I evaluated a novel technique using high definition free-hand 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound in a phantom study, and the results suggested that this is an accurate and reproducible method for tumour bed localisation. I then compared recognised methods of tumour bed localisation with the 3D ultrasound method in a clinical study. The 3D ultrasound technique appeared to accurately represent the shape and spatial position of the tumour cavity. This tumour bed localisation research

  20. Telephone survey to investigate relationships between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Amanda F; Larson, Mandy; Baldwin, Claudia J; Petersen, Christine

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether associations existed between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE 281 owners of 455 cats in Polk County, Iowa, identified via a list of randomly selected residential phone numbers of cat owners in that region. PROCEDURES A telephone survey was conducted to collect information from cat owners on factors hypothesized a priori to be associated with house soiling, including cat sex, reproductive status, medical history, and onychectomy history. When cats that had undergone onychectomy were identified, data were collected regarding the cat's age at the time of the procedure and whether a carbon dioxide laser (CDL) had been used. Information on history of house soiling behavior (urinating or defecating outside the litter box) was also collected. RESULTS Onychectomy technique was identified as a risk factor for house soiling. Cats for which a non-CDL technique was used had a higher risk of house soiling than cats for which the CDL technique was used. Cats that had undergone onychectomy and that lived in a multicat (3 to 5 cats) household were more than 3 times as likely to have house soiled as were single-housed cats with intact claws. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this cross-sectional study suggested that use of the CDL technique for onychectomy could decrease the risk of house soiling by cats relative to the risk associated with other techniques. This and other findings can be used to inform the decisions of owners and veterinarians when considering elective onychectomy for cats.

  1. The development and application of high-capacity thickening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhenwan; Song Yuejie

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of sedimentation theory and comparison between the high-capacity and conventional thickening techniques, the authors analyse the ways to increase capacity and to improve technological parameters of thickeners, describes the construction features, development, application, automatic control and test installations of high-capacity thickeners at home and abroad

  2. Nuclear and radiation techniques - state of art and development trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The state of art and development trends of nuclear and radiation techniques in Poland and worldwide have been presented. Among them the radiometric gages, radiation technologies, radiotracer methods and measuring systems for pipeline and vessels, brightness control have been described and their applications in industry, agriculture, health and environment protection have been shown and discussed. 35 refs, 1 fig

  3. Development of process diagnostic techniques for piping and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsutsuji, Mitoshi

    1987-01-01

    The thing required for using the facilities composing a plant for a long period without anxiety is to quantitatively grasp the quantities of the present condition of the facilities and to take the necessary measures beforehand. For this purpose, the diagnostic techniques for quickly and accurately detect the quantities of the condition of facilities are necessary, and the development of process diagnostic techniques has been desired. The process diagnostic techniques mentioned here mean those for diagnosing the contamination, clogging and performance of towers, tanks, heat exchangers and others. Idemitsu Engineering Co. had developed a simplified diagnostic equipment for detecting the state of fouling in piping in 1982, which is the gamma ray transmission diagnosis named Scale Checker. By further improving it, the process diagnostic techniques for piping and equipment were developed. In this report, the course of development and examination, the principle of detection, the constitution and the examination of remodeling of the Scale Checker are reported. As the cases of process diagnosis in plant facilities, the diagnosis of the clogging in process piping and the diagnosis of the performance of a distillation tower were carried out. The contents of the diagnosis and the results of those cases are explained. (Kako, I.)

  4. Development of revitalisation technique for impaired lithium doped germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.S.B.; Rafi Ahmed, A.G.; Balasubramanian, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors play very significant role in photon detection and are important tools in the field of gamma spectroscopy. Lithium doped germanium detectors belong to this category. The development of revitalisation technique for these impaired detectors are discussed in this report

  5. Developing and Implementing an Assessment Technique to Measure Linked Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Oueini, Razanne; Lewis, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The links students make among chemistry content is considered essential for a robust, enduring understanding in multiple learning theories. This article describes the development and implementation of an assessment technique, termed a Measure of Linked Concepts, designed to inform instructors on students' understanding of linking content…

  6. Mobile phone interaction techniques for rural economy development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to identify the various researches on interaction techniques and user interface design as a first step to the design of suitable mobile interactions and user interfaces for rural users. This research project is also aimed at socio-economic development and adding value to mobile phone users in ...

  7. Third molar development: evaluation of nine tooth development registration techniques for age estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, Patrick W; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Multiple third molar development registration techniques exist. Therefore the aim of this study was to detect which third molar development registration technique was most promising to use as a tool for subadult age estimation. On a collection of 1199 panoramic radiographs the development of all present third molars was registered following nine different registration techniques [Gleiser, Hunt (GH); Haavikko (HV); Demirjian (DM); Raungpaka (RA); Gustafson, Koch (GK); Harris, Nortje (HN); Kullman (KU); Moorrees (MO); Cameriere (CA)]. Regression models with age as response and the third molar registration as predictor were developed for each registration technique separately. The MO technique disclosed highest R(2) (F 51%, M 45%) and lowest root mean squared error (F 3.42 years; M 3.67 years) values, but differences with other techniques were small in magnitude. The amount of stages utilized in the explored staging techniques slightly influenced the age predictions. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Developing Cognitive Models for Social Simulation from Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jonathan K.; Lieberman, Stephen

    The representation of human behavior and cognition continues to challenge the modeling and simulation community. The use of survey and polling instruments to inform belief states, issue stances and action choice models provides a compelling means of developing models and simulations with empirical data. Using these types of data to population social simulations can greatly enhance the feasibility of validation efforts, the reusability of social and behavioral modeling frameworks, and the testable reliability of simulations. We provide a case study demonstrating these effects, document the use of survey data to develop cognitive models, and suggest future paths forward for social and behavioral modeling.

  9. A survey on the application of robot techniques to an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Tsutomu; Sato, Tomomasa; Hirai, Shigeoki; Suehiro, Takashi; Okada, Tokuji

    1982-01-01

    Tasks of workers in atomic power plants have been surveyed from the viewpoint of necessity and possibility of their robotization. The daily tasks are classified into the following: (1) plant operation; (2) periodical examination; (3) patrol and inspection; (4) in-service inspection; (5) maintenance and repaire; (6) examination and production of the fuel; (7) waste disposal; (8) decommission of the plant. The necessity and present status of the robotization in atomic power plants are investigated according to the following classification: (1) inspection robots; (2) patrol inspection/maintenance robots; (3) hot cell robots; (4) plant decommission robots. The following have been made clear through the survey: (1) Various kinds of tasks are necessary for an atomic power plant: (2) Because of most of the tasks taking place in intense radiation environments, it is necessary to introduce robots into atomic power plants: (3) In application of robots in atomic power plant systems, it is necessary to take account of various severe conditions concerning spatial restrictions, radioactive endurance and reliability. Lastly wide applicability of the techniques of knowledge robots, which operate interactively with men, has been confirmed as a result of the survey. (author)

  10. The quality of sample surveys in a developing nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2,3, Neva South-Bourne4, Chloe Morris1, Denise Eldemire-Shearer1, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell51Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York, USA; 4Research assistant for Paul A Bourne; 5Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, JamaicaBackground: In Jamaica, population census began in 1844, and many intercensal ratios obtained from the census data showed that there is a general high degree of accuracy of the data. However, statistics from the Jamaican Ministry of Health showed that there are inaccuracies in health data collected from males using sample surveys.Objectives: The objectives of the present research are to 1 investigate the accuracy of a national sample survey, 2 explore the feasibility and quality of using a subnational sample survey to represent a national survey, 3 aid other scholars in understanding the probability of using national sample surveys and subnational sample surveys, 4 assess older men’s ­evaluation of their health status, and 5 determine whether dichotomization changes self-evaluated health status.Methods: For the current study, the data used in the analysis were originally collected from 2 different sources: 1 the Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions (JSLC and 2 Survey of Older Men (SOM. Cross validation of self-evaluated data of men in Jamaica was done with comparable samples of the complete JSLC data and the SOM data, where men older than 55 years were selected from each sample.Results: In study 1, 50.2% of respondents indicated at least good self-evaluated health status compared with 74.0% in study 2. Statistical associations were found between health status and survey sample (Χ2 [df = 5

  11. Prognostic aspects on the development of imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biehl, H.

    1985-01-01

    The development of imaging techniques designed for medical diagnostics and their application within the health service system are forecast up to the year 2000. The changes in the structure of the imaging methods that are to be expected in the GDR are outlined. Considering the users' needs and demands to be met by the manufacturers, in the long-term forecast it is dealt with more specifically with X-ray techniques, computer tomography, ultrasonic diagnostics, video endoscopy and the use of expert systems. (author)

  12. Validity of the language development survey in infants born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Poulin, Camille; Simard, Marie-Noëlle; Babakissa, Hélène; Lefebvre, Francine; Luu, Thuy Mai

    2016-07-01

    Preterm infants are at greater risk of language delay. Early identification of language delay is essential to improve functional outcome in these children. To examine the concurrent validity of Rescorla's Language Development Survey and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) at 18months corrected age in preterm infants. Test accuracy study. 189 preterm infants born Language Development Survey, a parent-reported screening instrument, was administered in French concurrently with the Language Scales of the Bayley-III. Receiver-Operating-Characteristics curves were used to determine optimal cut-off score on the Language Development Survey to identify Bayley-III score language delay as per the Bayley-III. The optimal threshold was ≤10 words for both boys and girls. In girls, lowering the cut-off score decreased sensitivity (79%), but improved specificity (82%), thus lowering the number of false-positives. Our findings support using the Language Development Survey as an expressive language screener in preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  14. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Hak Soo; Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin; Kang, Il Jun; Kwon, Jung Ho

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity

  15. Development of analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Satoshi; Magara, Masaaki; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Esaka, Fumitaka; Hirayama, Fumio; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Inagawa, Jun; Suzuki, Daisuke; Iguchi, Kazunari; Kokubu, Yoko S.; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Ohzu, Akira

    2007-01-01

    JAEA has been developing, under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, analytical techniques for ultra-trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples in order to contribute to the strengthened safeguards system. Development of essential techniques for bulk and particle analysis, as well as screening, of the environmental swipe samples has been established as ultra-trace analytical methods of uranium and plutonium. In January 2003, JAEA was qualified, including its quality control system, as a member of the JAEA network analytical laboratories for environmental samples. Since 2004, JAEA has conducted the analysis of domestic and the IAEA samples, through which JAEA's analytical capability has been verified and improved. In parallel, advanced techniques have been developed in order to expand the applicability to the samples of various elemental composition and impurities and to improve analytical accuracy and efficiency. This paper summarizes the trace of the technical development in environmental sample analysis at JAEA, and refers to recent trends of research and development in this field. (author)

  16. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  17. Reconstructive techniques in transoral robotic surgery for head and neck cancer: a North American survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konofaos, Petros; Hammond, Sarah; Ver Halen, Jon P; Samant, Sandeep

    2013-02-01

    Although the use of transoral robotic surgery for tumor extirpation is expanding, little is known about national trends in the reconstruction of resultant defects. An 18-question electronic survey was created by an expert panel of surgeons from the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the University of Tennessee. Eligible participants were identified by the American Head and Neck Society Web site and from the Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Web site after review of surgeons trained in transoral robotic surgery techniques. Twenty-three of 27 preselected head and neck surgeons (85.18 percent) completed the survey. All respondents use transoral robotic surgery for head and neck tumor extirpation. The majority of the respondents [n = 17 (77.3 percent)] did not use any means of reconstruction. With respect to methods of reconstruction following transoral robotic surgery defects, the majority [n = 4 (80.0 percent)] used a free flap, a pedicled local flap [n = 3 (60.0 percent)], or a distant flap [n = 3 (60.0 percent)]. The radial forearm flap was the most commonly used free flap by all respondents. In general, the majority of survey respondents allow defects to heal secondarily or close primarily. Based on this survey, consensus indications for pedicled or free tissue transfer following transoral robotic surgery defects were primary head and neck tumors (stage T3 and T4a), pharyngeal defects with exposure of vital structures, and prior irradiation or chemoradiation to the operative site and neck.

  18. Development of FBR visual inspection technique in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Nagai, S.; Shioyama, T.; Sato, M.; Karasawa, H.; Maruyama, F.; Ota, S.; Hida, T.; Kai, M.

    1995-01-01

    Because the reactor vessel of Fast Breeder Reactor is filled with opaque liquid sodium, it is expected to develop an acoustic visual inspection technique in sodium. The acoustic 3 dimensional image processing technique and the elemental parts of the visual inspection equipment in sodium have been developed at the first stage of the in-sodium visual inspection technique development. The cross correlation processing has been applied to improve the S/N ratio in the acoustic echo that are deteriorated by wetting in sodium and the low sensitivity that are also deteriorated by rather smaller diameter to integrate the high density multiple acoustic sensors. The improvement of S/N ratio has been realized by the cross correlation between acoustic echo data that is reflected from the objects and M-series continuous wave that is transmitted from the acoustic transducer. The high speed parallel processing circuits, in which DSPs (Digital Signal Processors) are included, have been developed to realize high speed processing by employing (the circuits connected to) each of sensors in parallel. Synthetic Aperture Focussing Technique (SAFT) has been applied to the acoustic 3-dimensional image processing. The amounts of ellipsoids must be drawn into the 3-dimensional memory to compose the 3-dimensional image by SAFT. Then, a high performance work-station has been employed to deal with enormous data to compose the acoustic 3 dimensional image. Motors and cables, which can be operated under the condition of high-temperature and high-radiation environment, have been developed as the parts of the manipulator which will be used for visual inspection equipment in sodium. A prototype drive mechanism consists of the manipulator with three joints and a scanner with an arrayed acoustic sensors which a sweeps in fan-shape mechanically. The manipulatory type prototype drive mechanism and the signal processing device have been developed and tested, and the acoustic 3-dimensional image of pyramid

  19. Development of a tentacle propulsion technique for underwater application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, T; Rashid, M M; Khan, M R

    2013-01-01

    As robotic technology matures and more platforms are fielded in unstructured real-world situations, the more new areas of applications are being thought for robotic deployment. After successes in industrial robots, researchers are now trying to explore new robots with biological features of different biological creatures like, snake, bird, and spider for their stunning advantages. Underwater exploration using robots is a new avenue. Research on the tentacle robot for underwater application is a new field of research besides the other research in this arena. There are few researches on this topic are explored and mostly are on biological robot. Besides those researches this paper aims to propose and demonstrate another technique to build a tentacle for propulsion purposes. Therefore, in this paper will discuss more on mathematical development for the propulsion technique and its software verification technique in considering the environmental constrains

  20. Development of nuclear fuel microsphere handling techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.E.; Suchomel, R.R.; Angelini, P.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of microsphere handling techniques and equipment for nuclear applications. Work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with microspherical fuel forms dates back to the early sixties with the development of the sol-gel process. Since that time a number of equipment items and systems specifically related to microsphere handling and characterization have been identified and developed for eventual application in a remote recycle facility. These include positive and negative pressure transfer systems, samplers, weighers, a blender-dispenser, and automated devices for particle size distribution and crushing strength analysis. The current status of these and other components and systems is discussed

  1. Development of improved leaching techniques for vitrified radioactive waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaswani, G.A.; Yeotikar, R.G.; Rastogi, R.C.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.

    1979-01-01

    A critical review of the current techniques for evaluating the leach resistance of vitrified radioactive wastes has been made. Inadequacy of the available leaching techniques, with respect to their adoption as standard technique on an international scale, has been brought out for the three broad catagories of aqueous attack viz., (i) simple contact with leachant at a particular temperature, (ii) once-through or recirculatory flow of leachant at variable temperatures and flow rates, and (iii) contact with freshly distilled hot water in soxhelet type of extractor. In an effort to evolve a standard leaching technique in the latter two categories of aqueous attack, development of two leaching units viz., 'Dynamic Leaching Unit' and 'Modified Soxhlet Unit' is described. Both these units offer good control and wide flexibility on the important parameters affecting leaching such as leachant temperature, flow rate of residence time of leachant and ratio of leachant volume to sample surface area. The dynamic leaching units also offers a good control and flexibility on the two additional parameters viz., the composition and pH of the leachant. In the modified soxhlet unit the composition and pH of the leachant remains near to that of distilled water. The leach rate results have been found to be reproducible. A need for framing the set of standard conditions for adoption of these units in evolution of standard leaching techniques has been indicated. (auth.)

  2. Development and Validation of the Poverty Attributions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Raiz, Lisa; Davis, Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing and testing the Poverty Attribution Survey (PAS), a measure of poverty attributions. The PAS is theory based and includes original items as well as items from previously tested poverty attribution instruments. The PAS was electronically administered to a sample of state-licensed professional social…

  3. The sterile-insect technique for the control of fruit flies: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    Some advantages of the sterile-insect technique (SIT) are its minimum contribution to environmental pollution and its minimum adverse effect on non-target organisms. A review is made of the melon fly and sterile Mediterranean fruit fly release programmes, the accomplishments, and the implications. Recommendations are made for research leading to development of methods for practical use of the SIT. (author)

  4. Development of pulsation technique for single ion hit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takuro; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Hirao, Toshio; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    When a high energy heavy ion enters into a substance, high density of ionization and excitement occurrs along its flying trace. Especially, when such an ion enters into a semiconductor cell, a bit inversion called single event is occurred or a phenomenon destroyed element itself on case of the worst is formed. The present semiconductor cell is made in a size of some micron square, as different from its accumulated degree. In order to analyze the single event phenomenon formed by entering ion into such fine region in detail, a technique possible enter heavy ion beam with space resolution under 1 micron to each sample is necessary. In order to develop this technique, a static type high speed beam switch for control of entering a beam into a sample and a single ion detector for detecting entrance of ion into the sample were installed to heavy ion microbeam forming apparatus. The single ion hit system in Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, JAERI succeeded in detection and control technique of the single ion and control of noise due to pulsization and finished development of basic technique of the single ion hit, since now. After today, it is planned to hit actually the single ion onto the sample and evaluate its accuracy. (G.K.)

  5. Application of spectroscopic techniques to the study of illuminated manuscripts: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, S.; Manso, M.; Carvalho, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This work focused on the application of the most relevant spectroscopic techniques used for the characterization of illuminated manuscripts. The historical value of these unique and invaluable artworks, together with the increased awareness concerning the conservation of cultural heritage, prompted the application of analytical techniques to the study of these illuminations. This is essential for the understanding of the artist's working methods, which aids conservation–restoration. The characterization of the pigments may also help assign a probable date to the manuscript. For these purposes, the spectroscopic techniques used so far include those that provide information on the elemental content: X-ray fluorescence, total reflection X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Complementary techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, reveal information regarding the compounds present in the samples. The techniques, suitability, technological evolution and development of high-performance detectors, as well as the possibility of microanalysis and the higher sensitivity of the equipment, will also be discussed. Furthermore, issues such as the necessity of sampling, the portability of the equipment and the overall advantages and disadvantages of different techniques will be analyzed. - Highlights: ► The techniques used for studying illuminated manuscripts are described and compared. ► For in situ, non-destructive analysis the most suitable technique is EDXRF. ► For quantitative analysis TXRF is more appropriate. ► Raman spectroscopy is mostly used for pigments identification. ► FTIR was used for the characterization of binders and parchment.

  6. Development of gap filling technique in HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Saito, Akira; Ishii, Takashi; Toguri, Satohito; Okihara, Mitsunobu; Iwasa, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    HLW is supposed to be disposed underground at depths more than 300 m in Japan. Buffer is an artificial barrier that controls radionuclides migrating into the groundwater. The buffer would be made of a natural swelling clay, bentonite. Construction technology for the buffer has been studied for many years, but studies for the gaps surrounding the buffer are little. The proper handling of the gaps is important for guaranteeing the functions of the buffer. In this paper, gap filling techniques using bentonite pellets have been developed in order to the gap having the same performance as the buffer. A new method for manufacturing high-density spherical pellets has been developed to fill the gap higher density ever reported. For the bentonite pellets, the filling performance and how to use were determined. And full-scale filling tests provided availability of the bentonite pellets and filling techniques. (author)

  7. Development of ultrasonic immersion inspection technique for spent fuel canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schankula, J.J.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes ultrasonic nondestructive testing development for metal matrix supported spent fuel disposal canisters. The work has concentated in two areas: inspection for lack of bond at the shell/matrix interface and inspection for voids in the matrix. The capabilities and limitations of these techniques have been fully established. Unbonded areas as small as 4 mm in diameter and voids 6 mm in diameter, 25 mm deep in the matrix, can readily be detected

  8. Worldwide enucleation techniques and materials for treatment of retinoblastoma: an international survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne L Mourits

    Full Text Available To investigate the current practice of enucleation with or without orbital implant for retinoblastoma in countries across the world.A digital survey identifying operation techniques and material used for orbital implants after enucleation in patients with retinoblastoma.We received a response of 58 surgeons in 32 different countries. A primary artificial implant is routinely inserted by 42 (72.4% surgeons. Ten (17.2% surgeons leave the socket empty, three (5.2% decide per case. Other surgeons insert a dermis fat graft as a standard primary implant (n=1, or fill the socket in a standard secondary procedure (n=2; one uses dermis fat grafts and one artificial implants. The choice for porous implants was more frequent than for non-porous implants: 27 (58.7% and 15 (32.6%, respectively. Both porous and non-porous implant types are used by 4 (8.7% surgeons. Twenty-five surgeons (54.3% insert bare implants, 11 (23.9% use separate wrappings, eight (17.4% use implants with prefab wrapping and two insert implants with and without wrapping depending on type of implant. Attachment of the muscles to the wrapping or implant (at various locations is done by 31 (53.4% surgeons. Eleven (19.0% use a myoconjunctival technique, nine (15.5% suture the muscles to each other and seven (12.1% do not reattach the muscles. Measures to improve volume are implant exchange at an older age (n=4, the use of Restylane SQ (n=1 and osmotic expanders (n=1. Pegging is done by two surgeons.No (worldwide consensus exists about the use of material and techniques for enucleation for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Considerations for the use of different techniques are discussed.

  9. Development of terminology for mammographic techniques for radiological technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagahara, Ayako; Yokooka, Yuki; Tsuji, Shintaro; Nishimoto, Naoki; Uesugi, Masahito; Muto, Hiroshi; Ohba, Hisateru; Kurowarabi, Kunio; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2011-07-01

    We are developing a mammographic ontology to share knowledge of the mammographic domain for radiologic technologists, with the aim of improving mammographic techniques. As a first step in constructing the ontology, we used mammography reference books to establish mammographic terminology for identifying currently available knowledge. This study proceeded in three steps: (1) determination of the domain and scope of the terminology, (2) lexical extraction, and (3) construction of hierarchical structures. We extracted terms mainly from three reference books and constructed the hierarchical structures manually. We compared features of the terms extracted from the three reference books. We constructed a terminology consisting of 440 subclasses grouped into 19 top-level classes: anatomic entity, image quality factor, findings, material, risk, breast, histological classification of breast tumors, role, foreign body, mammographic technique, physics, purpose of mammography examination, explanation of mammography examination, image development, abbreviation, quality control, equipment, interpretation, and evaluation of clinical imaging. The number of terms that occurred in the subclasses varied depending on which reference book was used. We developed a terminology of mammographic techniques for radiologic technologists consisting of 440 terms.

  10. Development of fabrication technique of bulk high superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Chang Joong; Kim, Ki Baik; Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, Hee Gyoun; Kwon, Sun Chil.

    1997-05-01

    In order to realize the commercial application of HTSC materials, it is necessary to develop the fabrication process of high Tc oxide superconductor materials with desired shape and for practical application and high critical current density as well as good mechanical strength which critical current density as well as good mechanical strength which can withstand high lorenz force generated at high magnetic field. Much studies have been concentrated to develop the fabrication technique for high critical current density but still there are a lot of gap which should be overcome for large scale application of HTSC materials at liquid nitrogen temperature. Recently some new fabrication techniques have been developed for YBCO bulk superconductor with high mechanical strength and critical current density. In this project, plastic extrusion and melt process techniques were studied. The components materials for the current lead and the flywheel application were fabricated and their characteristics were investigated from the view point of microstructure and phase formation during heat treatment process. (author). 64 refs., 59 figs

  11. Environmental monitoring using autonomous vehicles: a survey of recent searching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Behzad; Crasta, Naveena; Crespi, Alessandro; Pascoal, António M; Ijspeert, Auke

    2017-06-01

    Autonomous vehicles are becoming an essential tool in a wide range of environmental applications that include ambient data acquisition, remote sensing, and mapping of the spatial extent of pollutant spills. Among these applications, pollution source localization has drawn increasing interest due to its scientific and commercial interest and the emergence of a new breed of robotic vehicles capable of operating in harsh environments without human supervision. The aim is to find the location of a region that is the source of a given substance of interest (e.g. a chemical pollutant at sea or a gas leakage in air) using a group of cooperative autonomous vehicles. Motivated by fast paced advances in this challenging area, this paper surveys recent advances in searching techniques that are at the core of environmental monitoring strategies using autonomous vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Survey of NDT techniques, services, qualifications and certification of NDT personnel-preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleta, C.R.; Kinilitan, V.E.; Lailo, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presented the results of a survey conducted to determine the profile of the NDT industry including its problems. A questionnaire designed in three parts 1) present practices on qualification and certification, 2) NDT equipment and 3) services and problems in NDT. Of the 36 firms contacted only 20 responded. Results indicated the following: a) most firms are engaged in four (4) main techniques, RT, UT, MT and PT. Only 2 indicated capability of ET. b) level III personnel are relatively few in number, c) most firms allow the ASNT recommendation as a basis for their qualifications and certification and are in favor of standardization of the qualification and certification process and supportive of a national center for training of NDT personnel and d) most firms perceived the lack of adequate repair/maintenance skills/facilities, followed by high cost of equipment and the lack of national standard for qualification and certification. (ELC)

  13. Customer Acceptance Survey On Chrysanthemum Mutant Developed By Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakinah Salleh; Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Hassan; Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Nurul Hidayah Mahmud; Salim Othman; Mohamed Najli Mohamed Yasin

    2014-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important temperate cut flower for Malaysian floriculture industry and the lack of new local-owned varieties has led to this mutation breeding research. The project was started in 2008 under bilateral cooperation between Nuclear Malaysia and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). Through this project, 8 new varieties of chrysanthemum were successfully developed, in which 4 varieties were from red cultivar and another 4 from pink cultivar. A preliminary survey on public perception and acceptance of these mutants was conducted on 7 January 2014 at Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The main objective of this survey was to gather information from the public on overall appearance of these new varieties and their potential for commercialization. Approximately 60 participants were involved in this survey, which include staff of Nuclear Malaysia, university students, plant growers/collectors and hobbyists. (author)

  14. Development of carborne gamma-ray survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro

    1999-01-01

    A carborne γ-ray survey system was developed aiming at implementation of environmental radiation investigation in and around Chernobyl area after the accident. This system consists of a dose rate meter, a GPS and a personal computer, and acquires γ-ray dose rates and positional data using two serial ports of the computer. It is indispensable to acquire these two kinds of data simultaneously for carborne γ-ray survey in a large area. A feature of the system is to be able to get these data continuously by means of a simple programming. This system has been used in and around Chernobyl area for a few years, and it has worked without any troubles. The outline of this survey system, which is applicable for configuration of environmental radiation data acquisition system is reported with some results in Chernobyl. (author)

  15. Development of environmental sample analysis techniques for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magara, Masaaki; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Esaka, Fumitaka

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been developing environmental sample analysis techniques for safeguards and preparing a clean chemistry laboratory with clean rooms. Methods to be developed are a bulk analysis and a particle analysis. In the bulk analysis, Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer or Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer are used to measure nuclear materials after chemical treatment of sample. In the particle analysis, Electron Probe Micro Analyzer and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer are used for elemental analysis and isotopic analysis, respectively. The design of the clean chemistry laboratory has been carried out and construction will be completed by the end of March, 2001. (author)

  16. Supply chain management under fuzziness recent developments and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Öztayşi, Başar

    2014-01-01

    Supply Chain Management Under Fuzziness presents recently developed fuzzy models and techniques for supply chain management. These include: fuzzy PROMETHEE, fuzzy AHP, fuzzy ANP, fuzzy VIKOR, fuzzy DEMATEL, fuzzy clustering, fuzzy linear programming, and fuzzy inference systems. The book covers both practical applications and new developments concerning these methods. This book offers an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners in supply chain management and logistics, and will provide them with new suggestions and directions for future research. Moreover, it will support graduate students in their university courses, such as specialized courses on supply chains and logistics, as well as related courses in the fields of industrial engineering, engineering management and business administration.

  17. Concept and development of information flow diagram for literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Masaru; Sato, Shoko; Ueda, Tadashi; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Koike, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    The Information Flow Diagram for Literature Survey (IFDLS) has been developed to manage information and procedure in the literature survey phase of the PTAs selection process. It is a tool utilizing information technology, which can organize, analyze, and evaluate information from literature survey and manage their process systematically. IFDLS is able to show the flow of information and data, and the history of information management processing. Information coverage and quality is not homogenous throughout the country and, in some areas, there may not even be sufficient data available to be able to reach a judgment on conformity with the site-specific evaluation factors (SSEF). Literature surveys could only be conducted on a volunteer area before it is nominated as a PIA. However, the absence of information on any factor mentioned will not constitute disqualification of the area. On the contrary, an attempt to compare these sites with analogous areas in Japan will be done to assemble sufficient data and consequently make a decision on whether to proceed further. The application of IFDLS to literature survey phase of the PIA selection process is being proposed. The concept, construction, application and evolution of IFDLS towards application phase on a trial basis are discussed. (authors)

  18. Analgesic techniques in minor painful procedures in neonatal units: a survey in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codipietro, Luigi; Bailo, Elena; Nangeroni, Marco; Ponzone, Alberto; Grazia, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to evaluate the current practice regarding pain assessment and pain management strategies adopted in commonly performed minor painful procedures in Northern Italian Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). A multicenter survey was conducted between 2008 and 2009 in 35 NICUs. The first part of the survey form covered pain assessment tools, the timing of analgesics, and the availability of written guidelines. A second section evaluated the analgesic strategies adopted in commonly performed painful procedures. The listed analgesic procedures were as follows: oral sweet solutions alone, non-nutritive sucking (NNS) alone, a combination of sweet solutions and NNS, breast-feeding where available, and topical anesthetics. Completed questionnaires were returned from 30 neonatal units (85.7% response rate). Ten of the 30 NICUs reported using pain assessment tools for minor invasive procedures. Neonatal Infant Pain Scale was the most frequently used pain scale (60%). Twenty neonatal units had written guidelines directing pain management practices. The most frequently used procedures were pacifiers alone (69%), followed by sweet-tasting solutions (58%). A 5% glucose solution was the most frequently utilized sweet-tasting solution (76.7%). A minority of NICUs (16.7%) administered 12% sucrose solutions for analgesia and the application of topical anesthetics was found in 27% of NICUs while breast-feeding was performed in 7% of NICUs. This study found a low adherence to national and international guidelines for analgesia in minor procedures: the underuse of neonatal pain scales (33%), sucrose solution administration before heel lance (23.3%), topical anesthetics before venipuncture, or other analgesic techniques. The presence of written pain control guidelines in these regions of Northern Italy increased in recent years (from 25% to 66%). © 2010 World Institute of Pain.

  19. Stereoscopic Visualization of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data: A Comparative Survey of Visualization Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raslan, O.; Debnam, J.M.; Ketonen, L.; Kumar, A.J.; Schellingerhout, D.; Wang, J.

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data has traditionally been displayed as a gray scale functional anisotropy map (GSFM) or color coded orientation map (CCOM). These methods use black and white or color with intensity values to map the complex multidimensional DTI data to a two-dimensional image. Alternative visualization techniques, such as V m ax maps utilize enhanced graphical representation of the principal eigenvector by means of a headless arrow on regular non stereoscopic (VM) or stereoscopic display (VMS). A survey of clinical utility of patients with intracranial neoplasms was carried out by 8 neuro radiologists using traditional and nontraditional methods of DTI display. Pairwise comparison studies of 5 intracranial neoplasms were performed with a structured questionnaire comparing GSFM, CCOM, VM, and VMS. Six of 8 neuro radiologists favored V m ax maps over traditional methods of display (GSFM and CCOM). When comparing the stereoscopic (VMS) and the non-stereoscopic (VM) modes, 4 favored VMS, 2 favored VM, and 2 had no preference. In conclusion, processing and visualizing DTI data stereoscopically is technically feasible. An initial survey of users indicated that V m ax based display methodology with or without stereoscopic visualization seems to be preferred over traditional methods to display DTI data.

  20. Supercritical fluid processing: a new dry technique for photoresist developing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher-Wetmore, Paula M.; Wallraff, Gregory M.; Allen, Robert D.

    1995-06-01

    Supercritical fluid (SCF) technology is investigated as a dry technique for photoresist developing. Because of their unique combination of gaseous and liquid-like properties, these fluids offer comparative or improved efficiencies over liquid developers and, particularly carbon dioxide, would have tremendous beneficial impact on the environment and on worker safety. Additionally, SCF technology offers the potential for processing advanced resist systems which are currently under investigation as well as those that may have been abandoned due to problems associated with conventional developers. An investigation of various negative and positive photoresist systems is ongoing. Initially, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) as a developer for polysilane resists was explored because the exposure products, polysiloxanes, are generally soluble in this fluid. These initial studies demonstrated the viability of the SCF technique with both single layer and bilayer systems. Subsequently, the investigation focused on using SC CO2 to produce negative images with polymers that would typically be considered positive resists. Polymers such as styrenes and methacrylates were chemically modified by fluorination and/or copolymerization to render them soluble in SC CO2. Siloxane copolymers and siloxane-modified methacrylates were examined as well. The preliminary findings reported here indicate the feasibility of using SC CO2 for photoresist developing.

  1. Nuclear techniques in the development of advanced ceramic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axe, J.D.; Hewat, A.W.; Maier, J.; Margaca, F.M.A.; Rauch, H.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of research, development and application of advanced materials is well understood by all developed and most developing countries. Amongst advanced materials, ceramics play a prominent role due to their specific chemical and physical properties. According to performance and importance, advanced ceramics can be classified as structural ceramics (mechanical function) and the so-called functional ceramics. In the latter class of materials, special electrical, chemical, thermal, magnetic and optical properties are of interest. The most valuable materials are multifunctional, for example, when structural ceramics combine beneficial mechanical properties with thermal and chemical sensitivity. Multifunctionality is characteristic of many composite materials (organic/inorganic composite). Additionally, properties of material can be changed by reducing its dimension (thin films, nanocrystalline ceramics). Nuclear techniques, found important applications in research and development of advanced ceramics. The use of neutron techniques has increased dramatically in recent years due to the development of advanced neutron sources, instrumentation and improved data analysis. Typical neutron techniques are neutron diffraction, neutron radiography, small angle neutron scattering and very small angle neutron scattering. Neutrons can penetrate deeply into most materials thus sampling their bulk properties. In determination of the crystal structure of HTSC, YBa 2 Cu 2 O 7 , XRD located the heavy metal atoms, but failed in finding many of the oxygen atoms, while the neutron diffraction located all atoms equally well in the crystal structure. Neutron diffraction is also unique for the determination of the magnetic structure of materials since the neutrons themselves have a magnetic moment. Application of small angle neutron scattering for the determination of the size of hydrocarbon aggregates within the zeolite channels is illustrated. (author)

  2. Development of PIC-based digital survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Taiman Kadni; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Chong Foh Yong

    2006-01-01

    The need of radiation monitoring and monitoring of radioactive contamination in the workplace is very important especially when x-ray machines, linear accelerators, electron beam machines and radioactive sources are present. The appropriate use of radiation detector is significant in order to maintain a radiation and contamination free workplace. This paper reports on the development of a prototype of PIC-based digital survey meter. This prototype of digital survey meter is a hand held instrument for general-purpose radiation monitoring and surface contamination meter. Generally, the device is able to detect some or all of the three major types of ionizing radiation, namely alpha, beta and gamma. It uses a Geiger-Muller tube as a radiation detector, which converts gamma radiation quanta to electric pulses and further processed by the electronic devices. The development involved the design of the controller, counter and high voltage circuit. All these circuit are assembled and enclosed in a plastic casing together with a GM detector and LCD display to form a prototype survey meter. The number of counts of the pulses detected by the survey meter varies due to the random nature of radioactivity. By averaging the reading over a time-period, more accurate and stable reading is achieved. To test the accuracy and the linearity of the design, the prototype was calibrated using standard procedure at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) in MINT. (Author)

  3. Development of fuel number reader by ultrasonic imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omote, T.; Yoshida, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a spent fuel ID number reader using ultrasonic imaging techniques that has been developed to realize efficient and automatic verification of fuel numbers, thereby to reduce mental load and radiation exposure for operators engaged in the verification task. The ultrasonic imaging techniques for automatic fuel number recognition are described. High-speed and high reliability imaging of the spent fuel ID number are obtained by using linear array type ultrasonic probe. The ultrasonic wave is scanned by switching array probe in vertical direction, and scanned mechanically in horizontal direction. Time for imaging of spent fuel ID number on assembly was confirmed less than three seconds by these techniques. And it can recognize spent fuel ID number even if spent fuel ID number can not be visualized by an optical method because of depositing fuel number regions by soft card. In order to recognize spent fuel ID number more rapidly and more reliably, coded fuel number expressed by plural separate recesses form is developed. Every coded fuel number consists of six small holes (about 1 mm dia.) and can be marked adjacent to the existing fuel number expressed by letters and numbers

  4. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B.

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  5. Development of the fundamental techniques for nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongho; Song, Kyuseok; Ha, Younggeun; Lee, Sunyoung; Choi, Heedong

    2013-08-15

    The main goal of this project is to develop the fundamental techniques of physical and chemical analysis of the target materials, and data interpretation methods to identify the origin and the production attributions of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive materials. This also includes production of analytical data for domestic nuclear materials to be used in establishment of national nuclear material data library. As the result of the R and D of this project, we developed the analytical techniques for H and O isotopes to identify the origin of the target samples, the techniques of chemical treatments of water type and soil type samples, and the fundamental research on the gamma spectroscopy for nuclear forensics. We also performed the study on the national collaboration plan on nuclear forensics, and fundamental research and the target materials and analytical requirements for analytical data production of domestic nuclear materials to construct a national data library. Most of the R and D's in the schedule of this project have not been performed due to the early termination of the project by the decision of the government.

  6. Development of ion beam sputtering techniques for actinide target preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, W. S.; Zevenbergen, L. A.; Adair, H. L.

    1985-06-01

    Ion beam sputtering is a routine method for the preparation of thin films used as targets because it allows the use of a minimum quantity of starting material, and losses are much lower than most other vacuum deposition techniques. Work is underway in the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) at ORNL to develop the techniques that will make the preparation of actinide targets up to 100 μg/cm 2 by ion beam sputtering a routinely available service from IRML. The preparation of the actinide material in a form suitable for sputtering is a key to this technique, as is designing a sputtering system that allows the flexibility required for custom-ordered target production. At present, development work is being conducted on low-activity actinides in a bench-top system. The system will then be installed in a hood or glove box approved for radioactive materials handling where processing of radium, actinium, and plutonium isotopes among others will be performed.

  7. Development and applications of the contact electric resistance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saario, T.

    1995-12-31

    At the moment both the scientific understanding of corrosion processes and the engineering practices of corrosion control in power plants can benefit considerably from the development of in situ on-line instruments for characterisation of the surface films on construction materials. In this work a new in situ Contact Electric Resistance (CER) technique has been developed for measurement of electric resistance of surface films on metals. The CER technique was applied in this work in several different research areas. These include e.g. localized corrosion of stainless steel in paper mill wet end environment, investigation of the effect of inhibitors in steam generator crevice environments, passivation of GaAs single crystals by sulphate treatment and monitoring of the kinetics of oxide growth on zirconium metals in high temperature water. The CER technique has a measurement capacity ranging from 10-9 {omega} to 105 {omega}. The lowest range of resistance is typical for metallic layers deposited on the surface in electrodeposition processes. The highest range of resistance is found for insulator type of films e.g. on zirconium metals. (author)

  8. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  9. Development of sensing techniques for weaponry health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Eugene; Ruffin, Paul B.; Walker, Ebonee A.; Brantley, Christina L.

    2013-04-01

    Due to the costliness of destructive evaluation methods for assessing the aging and shelf-life of missile and rocket components, the identification of nondestructive evaluation methods has become increasingly important to the Army. Verifying that there is a sufficient concentration of stabilizer is a dependable indicator that the missile's double-based solid propellant is viable. The research outlined in this paper summarizes the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center's (AMRDEC's) comparative use of nanoporous membranes, carbon nanotubes, and optical spectroscopic configured sensing techniques for detecting degradation in rocket motor propellant. The first sensing technique utilizes a gas collecting chamber consisting of nanoporous structures that trap the smaller solid propellant particles for measurement by a gas analysis device. In collaboration with NASA-Ames, sensing methods are developed that utilize functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes as the key sensing element. The optical spectroscopic sensing method is based on a unique light collecting optical fiber system designed to detect the concentration of the propellant stabilizer. Experimental setups, laboratory results, and overall effectiveness of each technique are presented in this paper. Expectations are for the three sensing mechanisms to provide nondestructive evaluation methods that will offer cost-savings and improved weaponry health monitoring.

  10. Using deliberative techniques to engage the community in policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Judy; Hartz-Karp, Janette; Watson, Rebecca

    2008-07-16

    This paper examines work in deliberative approaches to community engagement used in Western Australia by the Department of Planning and Infrastructure and other planning and infrastructure agencies between 2001 and 2005, and considers whether the techniques could be applied to the development of health policy in Australia. Deliberative processes were used in WA to address specific planning and infrastructure problems. Using deliberative techniques, community participants contributed to joint decision making and policy development. Outcomes from deliberative processes were seriously considered by the Minister and used to influence policy decisions. In many cases, the recommendations generated through deliberative processes were fully adopted by the Minister. The experiences in WA demonstrate that deliberative engagement processes can be successfully implemented by government and can be used to guide policy. The techniques can be adapted to suit the context and issues experienced by a portfolio, and the skills required to conduct deliberative processes can be fostered amongst the portfolio's staff. Health policy makers may be able to learn from the experiences in WA, and adopt approaches to community engagement that allow for informed deliberation and debate in the community about the future of Australia's health system.

  11. Development of the fundamental techniques for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongho; Song, Kyuseok; Ha, Younggeun; Lee, Sunyoung; Choi, Heedong

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this project is to develop the fundamental techniques of physical and chemical analysis of the target materials, and data interpretation methods to identify the origin and the production attributions of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive materials. This also includes production of analytical data for domestic nuclear materials to be used in establishment of national nuclear material data library. As the result of the R and D of this project, we developed the analytical techniques for H and O isotopes to identify the origin of the target samples, the techniques of chemical treatments of water type and soil type samples, and the fundamental research on the gamma spectroscopy for nuclear forensics. We also performed the study on the national collaboration plan on nuclear forensics, and fundamental research and the target materials and analytical requirements for analytical data production of domestic nuclear materials to construct a national data library. Most of the R and D's in the schedule of this project have not been performed due to the early termination of the project by the decision of the government

  12. Developing the EFL Students’ Reading Comprehension By Employing Herringbone Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out whether Herringbone Technique can developEFL students’ reading comprehension or not, especially in finding the main idea and supporting details in a recount text. The literature notes that Herringbone is known to be one of the techniques that can helpstudents to find important information and main idea in a text by seeking for answers on six comprehension questions on a diagram, viewed such as a fish’s skeleton. The sample of this research was 30 second grade junior high school students. The researchers employed simple random sampling to choose the sample. It further used the quantitative experimental approach with the pre-experimental design in the form of one group pre-test-post-test design.Pre-test was given before treatments, while post-test was given after the students were taught reading by using the Herringbone Technique. Each pre-test and post-test consisted of ten questions. The statistical formulas were used to analyze the data from the students tests’ scores. The mean score of pre-test was 59 and the post-test was 76. Futhermore, the result of t-test was 10.15, while the critical value of 0.05 significant level was 2.045, with the degree of freedom of 29. Since t-test (10.15 was higher than t-table (2.045, this study concludes that this technique could increase the EFL students’ reading comprehension.Despite in practice the researchers found that this technique decreased the students’ efforts in note-taking, however it did not inhibited them in obtaining improved scores in their reading tests.

  13. Application of ranging technique of radar level meter for draft survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Yijun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper aims to solve the problems of the high subjectivity and low accuracy and efficiency of draft surveying relying on human visual inspection.[Methods] Radar-level oil and liquid measurement technology products are widely used in the petrochemical industry. A device is developed that uses radar to survey the draft of a boat, designed with data series optimization formulae to ensure that the data results are true and correct. At the same time, a test is designed to prove the accuracy of the results.[Results] According to the conditions of the ship,the device is composed of a radar sensor, triangular bracket and display,and is put to use in the test.[Conclusions] With 15 vessels as the research objects,the comparison experiment shows a difference in range between 0.001-0.022 meters, with an average difference rate of 0.028%, which meets the requirements for ship draft survey accuracy.

  14. Devices development and techniques research for space life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A.; Liu, B.; Zheng, C.

    The development process and the status quo of the devices and techniques for space life science in China and the main research results in this field achieved by Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics SITP CAS are reviewed concisely in this paper On the base of analyzing the requirements of devices and techniques for supporting space life science experiments and researches one designment idea of developing different intelligent modules with professional function standard interface and easy to be integrated into system is put forward and the realization method of the experiment system with intelligent distributed control based on the field bus are discussed in three hierarchies Typical sensing or control function cells with certain self-determination control data management and communication abilities are designed and developed which are called Intelligent Agents Digital hardware network system which are consisted of the distributed Agents as the intelligent node is constructed with the normative opening field bus technology The multitask and real-time control application softwares are developed in the embedded RTOS circumstance which is implanted into the system hardware and space life science experiment system platform with characteristic of multitasks multi-courses professional and instant integration will be constructed

  15. Quality Management techniques embedded in Agile Project Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac Raluca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It used to be hard to make your dream come true and start a business but now, thanks to the dotcom boom and the rapid development of emerging technologies everybody has the chance to become the next Steve Jobs. Quality management tools and creativity techniques gave birth to the startup trend that transforms a brilliant idea into an innovative product. A common practice amongst startups is Agile development. In this paper, after analyzing the Agile approach and the tools used to ensure quality for every stage of a product’s development life cycle and the results of using the Agile approach looking out for advantages and short comings as well, we proposed a PDCA inspired tool which embeds both quality and creativity techniques to help developers ensure quality for each stage of a product’s life cycle as well as help them better organize their activities to reach the desired goals. We validated this approach by implementing it to the case of the Vitraly startup.

  16. Development of techniques for tagging precursor and essential chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansiger, W.A.; Shepodd, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, M.L.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The ability to identify the manufacturers and distributors of chemicals seized in raids of illicit drug labs would be of great value in controlling the diversion of these chemicals. We developed a tagging scheme based on the addition of sub-ppM concentrations of various combinations of rare-earth elements to the target chemicals and evaluated a number of techniques for detecting the tags. We developed soluble tags for tagging liquids and selected Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the preferred detection technique. We developed insoluble tags for tagging solids and developed methods to analyze them and mix them into solid precursors. We have successfully demonstrated the tagging of several solvents and two of the precursor chemicals used in one of the most popular clandestine methamphetamine syntheses (ephedrine reacting with hydriodic acid/red phosphorus). The tagging scheme is capable of yielding tens of thousands of signatures (using holmium as an internal standard and up to 9 rare-earths at up to 3 concentrations yields 3{sup 9} {minus} 1 = 19,682 signatures) and is applicable to most of the chemicals on the precursor and essential chemicals list. In the concentrations employed, the tags are safe enough to be added to pharmaceuticals and cheap enough to tag tanker loads of chemicals.

  17. Development of laser materials processing and laser metrology techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Jeong Mook; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Kwang Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seong Ouk; Park, Seung Kyu

    1997-09-01

    The applications of remote laser materials processing and metrology have been investigated in nuclear industry from the beginning of laser invention because they can reduce the risks of workers in the hostile environment by remote operation. The objective of this project is the development of laser material processing and metrology techniques for repairing and inspection to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As to repairing, we developed our own laser sleeve welding head and innovative optical laser weld monitoring techniques to control the sleeve welding process. Furthermore, we designed and fabricated a 800 W Nd:YAG and a 150 W Excimer laser systems for high power laser materials processing in nuclear industry such as cladding and decontamination. As to inspection, we developed an ESPI and a laser triangulation 3-D profile measurement system for defect detection which can complement ECT and UT inspections. We also developed a scanning laser vibrometer for remote vibration measurement of large structures and tested its performance. (author). 58 refs., 16 tabs., 137 figs

  18. Analytical techniques for in-line/on-line monitoring of uranium and plutonium in process solutions : a brief literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, S.G.; Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    In-line/on-line monitoring of various parameters such as uranium-plutonium-fission product concentration, acidity, density etc. plays an important role in quickly understanding the efficiency of processes in a reprocessing plant. Efforts in studying and installation of such analytical instruments are going on since more than three decades with adaptation of newer methods and technologies. A review on the developement of in-line analytical instrumentation was carried out in this laboratory about two decades ago. This report presents a very short literature survey of the work in the last two decades. The report includes an outline of principles of the main techniques employed in the in-line/on-line monitoring. (author). 77 refs., 6 tabs

  19. Development and efficacy of music therapy techniques within palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements-Cortés, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Music therapy is increasingly becoming an intervention used in palliative care settings around the globe. While the specialty of palliative care music therapy is relatively young having emerged in the late 1980s, there is a strong and growing body of evidence demonstrating its efficacy in assisting a variety of issues common at end-of-life. There are multiple music therapy techniques that are implemented with clients in palliative care and they can be categorized in four broad areas: receptive, creative, recreative and combined. These techniques will be presented with respect to their development by clinicians as supported by the descriptive and research literature. Information is also provided on the use of music therapy in facilitating the grieving and bereavement process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Some views about PET technique establish and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zuhan

    2001-01-01

    About 2100 patients had been performed in Nanfang PET center since its establish in November, 1999. The clinical practice showed that the positron emission tomography (PET) had unique value for the diagnosis of malignancy, cardiac coronal artery disease, myocardium viability and for lesion localization of epilepsy and other cerebral function diseases. It had important impact to treatment of these diseases and improved the treatment outcomes of them. It also promoted the scientific studies and other correlative subjects and enhanced the station of nuclear medicine. Its integrative benefit was very great. In order to develop this technique more smoothly, authors would give the views on some questions such as how to look on PET images, its clinical value, its price and its cost-effectiveness. The authors would also give some proposal which could not be neglectable for establish of PET technique

  1. Development of active neutron interrogation techniques at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, B.H.; Chard, P.M.J.; Packer, T.W.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Syme, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    Active neutron interrogation techniques capable of measuring the fissile content of a range of waste drum sizes and contents have been developed at Harwell. This paper describes measurements which have been made to investigate the behaviour of these assay systems for the difficult case of concreted waste in a heterogeneous matrix. The drums have been measured using a Cf shuffler and a differential die-away system, with supporting information obtained from a segmented gamma-scanner. Good correspondence has been observed between the two different neutron interrogation techniques. It was concluded that the measurement of highly heterogeneous wastes is likely to be more effective if calibration can be undertaken with representative artificial matrices. Further measurement and analysis remains to be undertaken

  2. Development of recycling techniques for nuclear power plant decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Oguri, Daiichiro; Abe, Seiji; Ohnishi, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of concrete and metal waste will provide solution to reduce waste volume, contributing to save the natural resources and to protect the environment. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation has developed techniques of concrete and metal recycling for decommissioning waste of commercial nuclear power plants. A process of radioactive concrete usage for mortar solidification was seen to reduce concrete waste volume by 2/3. A concrete reclamation process for high quality aggregate was confirmed that the reclaimed aggregate concrete is equivalent to ordinary concrete. Its byproduct powder was seen to be utilized various usage. A process of waste metal casting to use radioactive metal as filler could substantially decrease the waste metal volume when thinner containers are applied. A pyro-metallurgical separation process was seen to decrease cobalt concentration by 1/100. Some of these techniques are finished of demonstration tests for future decommissioning activity. (author)

  3. Welding techniques development of CLAM steel for Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chunjing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China)], E-mail: lcj@ipp.ac.cn; Huang Qunying; Wu Qingsheng; Liu Shaojun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Lei Yucheng [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Muroga, Takeo; Nagasaka, Takuya [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Jifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Zhang Jianxun [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shanxi, 710049 (China); Li Jinglong [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shanxi, 710072 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Fabrication techniques for Test Blanket Module (TBM) with CLAM are being under development. Effect of surface preparation on the HIP diffusion bonding joints was studied and good joints with Charpy impact absorbed energy close to that of base metal have been obtained. The mechanical properties test showed that effect of HIP process on the mechanical properties of base metal was little. Uniaxial diffusion bonding experiments were carried out to study the effect of temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties. And preliminary experiments on Electron Beam Welding (EBW), Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding and Laser Beam Welding (LBW) were performed to find proper welding techniques to assemble the TBM. In addition, the thermal processes assessed with a Gleeble thermal-mechanical machine were carried out as well to assist the fusion welding research.

  4. Isotope techniques in water resources development and management. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 10th International Symposium on Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development and Management was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with UNESCO, WMO and International Association of Hydrological Sciences and was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, during 10-14 May 1999. The symposium provided an international forum for assessing the status and recent advances in isotope applications to water resources and an exchange of information on the following main themes: processes at the interface between the atmosphere and hydrosphere; investigations in surface waters and groundwaters: their origin, dynamics, interrelations; problems and techniques for investigating sedimentation; water resources issues: pollution, source and transport of contaminants, salinization, water-rock interaction and processes in geothermal systems; isotope data interpretation and evaluation methodologies: modelling approaches. The proceedings contain the 46 papers presented and extended synopses of poster presentations; each of them was indexed individually

  5. Development of nuclear power plant diagnosis technique using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Masahiro; Fukawa, Naohiro; Nishimura, Kazuo

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear power plant diagnosis technique has been developed, called transient phenomena analysis, which employs neural network. The neural networks identify malfunctioning equipment by recognizing the pattern of main plant parameters, making it possible to locate the cause of an abnormality when a plant is in a transient state. In a case where some piece of equipment shows abnormal behavior, many plant parameters either directly or indirectly related to that equipment change simultaneously. When an abrupt change in a plant parameter is detected, changes in the 49 main plant parameters are classified into three types and a characteristic change pattern consisting of 49 data is defined. The neural networks then judge the cause of the abnormality from this pattern. This neural-network-based technique can recognize 100 patterns that are characterized by the causes of plant abnormality. (author)

  6. Development of Plant Application Technique of Low Dose Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Lim, Yong Taek (and others)

    2007-07-15

    The project was carried out to achieve three aims. First, development of application techniques of cell-stimulating effects by low-dose radiation. Following irradiation with gamma-rays of low doses, beneficial effects in crop germination, early growth, and yield were investigated using various plant species and experimental approaches. For the actual field application, corroborative studies were also carried out with a few concerned experimental stations and farmers. Moreover, we attempted to establish a new technique of cell cultivation for industrial mass-production of shikonin, a medicinal compound from Lithospermum erythrorhizon and thereby suggested new application fields for application techniques of low-dose radiation. Second, elucidation of action mechanisms of ionizing radiation in plants. By investigating changes in plant photosynthesis and physiological metabolism, we attempted to elucidate physiological activity-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation and to search for radiation-adaptive cellular components. Besides, analyses of biochemical and molecular biological mechanisms for stimulus-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation were accomplished by examining genes and proteins inducible by low-dose radiation. Third, development of functional crop plants using radiation-resistant factors. Changes in stress-tolerance of plants against environmental stress factors such as light, temperature, salinity and UV-B stress after exposed to low-dose gamma-rays were investigated. Concerned reactive oxygen species, antioxidative enzymes, and antioxidants were also analyzed to develop high value-added and environment-friendly functional plants using radiation-resistant factors. These researches are important to elucidate biological activities increased by low-dose radiation and help to provide leading technologies for improvement of domestic productivity in agriculture and development of high value-added genetic resources.

  7. Development of Plant Application Technique of Low Dose Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Lim, Yong Taek

    2007-07-01

    The project was carried out to achieve three aims. First, development of application techniques of cell-stimulating effects by low-dose radiation. Following irradiation with gamma-rays of low doses, beneficial effects in crop germination, early growth, and yield were investigated using various plant species and experimental approaches. For the actual field application, corroborative studies were also carried out with a few concerned experimental stations and farmers. Moreover, we attempted to establish a new technique of cell cultivation for industrial mass-production of shikonin, a medicinal compound from Lithospermum erythrorhizon and thereby suggested new application fields for application techniques of low-dose radiation. Second, elucidation of action mechanisms of ionizing radiation in plants. By investigating changes in plant photosynthesis and physiological metabolism, we attempted to elucidate physiological activity-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation and to search for radiation-adaptive cellular components. Besides, analyses of biochemical and molecular biological mechanisms for stimulus-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation were accomplished by examining genes and proteins inducible by low-dose radiation. Third, development of functional crop plants using radiation-resistant factors. Changes in stress-tolerance of plants against environmental stress factors such as light, temperature, salinity and UV-B stress after exposed to low-dose gamma-rays were investigated. Concerned reactive oxygen species, antioxidative enzymes, and antioxidants were also analyzed to develop high value-added and environment-friendly functional plants using radiation-resistant factors. These researches are important to elucidate biological activities increased by low-dose radiation and help to provide leading technologies for improvement of domestic productivity in agriculture and development of high value-added genetic resources

  8. Radiation techniques used in patients with breast cancer: Results of a survey in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algara, Manuel; Arenas, Meritxell; De las Peñas Eloisa Bayo, Dolores; Muñoz, Julia; Carceller, José Antonio; Salinas, Juan; Moreno, Ferran; Martínez, Francisco; González, Ezequiel; Montero, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the resources and techniques used in the irradiation of patients with breast cancer after lumpectomy or mastectomy and the status of implementation of new techniques and therapeutic schedules in our country. Background The demand for cancer care has increased among the Spanish population, as long as cancer treatment innovations have proliferated. Radiation therapy in breast cancer has evolved exponentially in recent years with the implementation of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy, image guided radiotherapy and hypofractionation. Material and Methods An original survey questionnaire was sent to institutions participating in the SEOR-Mama group (GEORM). In total, the standards of practice in 969 patients with breast cancer after surgery were evaluated. Results The response rate was 70% (28/40 centers). In 98.5% of cases 3D conformal treatment was used. All the institutions employed CT-based planning treatment. Boost was performed in 56.4% of patients: electrons in 59.8%, photons in 23.7% and HDR brachytherapy in 8.8%. Fractionation was standard in 93.1% of patients. Supine position was the most frequent. Only 3 centers used prone position. The common organs of risk delimited were: homolateral lung (80.8%) and heart (80.8%). In 84% histograms were used. An 80.8% of the centers used isocentric technique. In 62.5% asymmetric fields were employed. CTV was delimited in 46.2%, PTV in 65% and both in 38.5%. A 65% of the centers checked with portal films. IMRT and hypofractionation were used in 1% and in 5.5% respectively. Conclusion In most of centers, 3D conformal treatment and CT-based planning treatment were used. IMRT and hypofractionation are currently poorly implemented in Spain. PMID:24377012

  9. Development of urologic laparoscopy in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland: a survey among urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imkamp, Florian; Herrmann, Thomas R W; Stolzenburg, Jens U; Rassweiler, Jens; Sulser, Tullio; Zimmermann, Uwe; Dziuba, Sebastian; Kuczyk, Markus A; Burchardt, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Laparoscopy introduction has dramatically changed urology. Novel techniques, such as laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), might also have substantial influence. This 2012 survey evaluated present laparoscopy use, its appraisal among urologic surgeons, laparoscopy training, and use of new techniques. Results were compared to the previous surveys, demonstrating the 10-year development of laparoscopy. A detailed questionnaire regarding demographic data, laparoscopy use, attitudes concerning laparoscopy, and novel techniques was send to 424 departments in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Procedures performed in 25 indications were quantitatively evaluated. The response rate was 63 % (269). Eighty-six percent of the respondents reported performing laparoscopy, compared to 54 % in 2002. Only 16 % expected economic advantages with laparoscopy, whereas 67 % expected shorter hospitalization. Seventy percent of responders anticipated comparable functional and oncological results between laparoscopic procedures and open surgery. Slow learning curves (81 %) and insufficient training facilities (32 %) were reported to impair laparoscopic surgery. On average, laparoscopic and non-laparoscopic surgical teams consisted of 2.5 and 3.5 members, respectively. LESS procedures were performed at 15 % of institutions. Twenty-two percent of respondents considered NOTES techniques valuable for future urology. Few indications (laparoscopic prostatectomies or nephrectomies) were performed frequently in specialized centers, and the rapidly increasing procedure numbers observed between 2002 and 2007 had dropped to a mild accretion. The results demonstrate broad acceptance of laparoscopy in German urologic surgery, depict the need for structured training facilities, and indicate limited impact of novel techniques (LESS and NOTES). The survey demonstrates the 10-year development of urologic laparoscopy and the broad acceptance

  10. Development of fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Nishimura, Arata; Fujiwara, Masaharu; Hisaka, Tomoaki

    2012-01-01

    To develop the fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen, the investigation of the effect of specimen size and specimen shape on the fatigue life and the development of the fatigue testing machine, especially the extensometer, were carried out. The effect of specimen size on the fatigue life was almost negligible for the round-bar specimens. The shorter fatigue life at relatively low strain range conditions for the hourglass specimen that the standard specimen were observed. Therefore the miniature round-bar specimen was considered to be adequate for the fatigue life evaluation using small specimen. Several types of the extensometer system using a strain gauge and a laser has been developed for realizing the fatigue test of the miniature round-bar specimen at high temperature in vacuum. (author)

  11. Development of aerial gamma radiation survey system, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Saito, Komei; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Nagaoka, Toshi; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1986-05-01

    JAERI has started to develop an aerial gamma radiation survey system by a helicopter in 1980. The development of measuring instruments, the experiments in the field of natural and artificial radiation sources, and the imaginary emergency survey at a real site, were executed. This report describes mainly about the hardware and software of this system. The system consists of gamma-ray measuring instruments with NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors, microwave positioning instruments, and a data processing system for postflight data. A foreign-made geological survey system is improved on for radiation measurements. For covering the wide radiation range, detectors of various shapes and sizes are prepared, from a large volume detector, DET-1024 - four 4'' x 4'' x 16'' crystals assembly - to a 2'' diameter x 2'' NaI(Tl) crystal. Radiation and position data are recorded on a magnetic tape, and computer-processed afterwards. Moreover, scene below flight courses and internal communication are recorded on video tape with the information of clock and position superimposed. In consequence of field experiments carried out five times, basic radiation data for evaluating airborne acquired data are accumulated, and flight survey procedures are established. As more practical use, a system has been produced more compactly and functionally. Exposure rates (> 1 mR/h), energy distribution spectra, and energy window counts are obtained for radiation data. Using the Spectrum-Dose Conversion Method, the accurate exposure rates are directly calculated from pulse height spectra. Numerical tables of G(E) function converting pulse height spectra into exposures are shown in this report. As regards the analysis of survey data, process codes have been completed with either large-computer or mini-computer. (author)

  12. Mutation techniques for sustainable development in food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxiang; Guo Huijun; Zhao Linshu; Li Junhui; Gu Jiayu; Wang Jing

    2010-01-01

    Ever since 1938, induced mutations have played a very significant role in solving world food and nutritional security problems through mutant germplasm enhancement and new mutant variety development. According to incomplete statistics, as of September 2009, induced mutations have made significant contributions in development and release of 3 088 mutant cultivars by more than 60 countries in the world in more than 170 crop species. China is the first country of the world, which have released the largest number of 802 mutant cultivars in 45 crop species, equivalent to more than a quarter of the total number of mutant variety in the FAO/IAEA database. The total maximum annually accumulated planting area of the mutant varieties was 9 million hectares, with the 1.5 billion kilograms additional increase of national output of grain, cotton, oil, converting to more than 2 billion RMB of social and economic benefits. The recent development and application of accelerator ion beam irradiation, the spaceflight environment and the other new mutation means, as well as the effective use of traditional radiation mutagenesis are becoming increasingly active in crop mutation improvement and new gene discovery. The advent of plant genomics and high throughput DNA techniques, such as TILLING have opened a new era in molecular mutation breeding technique that will overcome the limitations of conventional mutation breeding and play a significant role in solving China and world food security. (authors)

  13. Development of techniques for fabrication of film probe sensor assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, A.J.

    1982-10-01

    Pulsed laser welding and brazing techniques were developed for fabrication of sensors designed to measure liquid film properties in out-of-reactor safety tests that simulate a loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized-water nuclear reactor. These sensors were made possible by a unique ceramic-to-metal seal system based on a cermet insulator and a brazing filler metal, both developed at ORNL. This seal system was shown to resist steam to an exposure of at least 100 h at 700 0 C (1292 0 F) and to resist repetitive thermal transients of 300 0 C/s (540 0 F). Procedures were also developed for induction brazing the instrumentation cables to a stainless steel end cap and for laser welding this component to the brazed sensor body itself. Cable end seals and sensor bodies fabricated with these designs and techniques maintained excellent helium leaktightness ( -6 cm 3 /s) after 20 severe thermal shock tests from 500 0 C air into water at 80 0 C

  14. Development status of ultrasonic test techniques for cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Yoshito

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing has been thought to be difficult to apply to cast stainless steel which is used as the material for the main coolant pipes in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). An ultrasonic testing technique using large aperture twin crystal transducers was developed in INSS for application to inspection of the main coolant pipes. The method was evaluated in an application to detect circumferential and axial defects in the cast stainless steel pipes. It was found that (1) the defects could be detected which had a depth that was so small that their evaluation was not required; and (2) depth sizing and length sizing of detected defects were also possible. (author)

  15. Development of computational technique for labeling magnetic flux-surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunami, Masanori; Kanno, Ryutaro; Satake, Shinsuke; Hayashi, Takaya; Takamaru, Hisanori

    2006-03-01

    In recent Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments, radial profiles of ion temperature, electric field, etc. are measured in the m/n=1/1 magnetic island produced by island control coils, where m is the poloidal mode number and n the toroidal mode number. When the transport of the plasma in the radial profiles is numerically analyzed, an average over a magnetic flux-surface in the island is a very useful concept to understand the transport. On averaging, a proper labeling of the flux-surfaces is necessary. In general, it is not easy to label the flux-surfaces in the magnetic field with the island, compared with the case of a magnetic field configuration having nested flux-surfaces. In the present paper, we have developed a new computational technique to label the magnetic flux-surfaces. This technique is constructed by using an optimization algorithm, which is known as an optimization method called the simulated annealing method. The flux-surfaces are discerned by using two labels: one is classification of the magnetic field structure, i.e., core, island, ergodic, and outside regions, and the other is a value of the toroidal magnetic flux. We have applied the technique to an LHD configuration with the m/n=1/1 island, and successfully obtained the discrimination of the magnetic field structure. (author)

  16. Development of optical techniques for chemical engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamadie, F.; Charton, S.; Langlard, M. de; Ouattara, M.; Sentis, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN,DTEC,SGCS, F-30207 Marcoule (France)

    2016-07-01

    The design of separation processes for nuclear spend fuel treatment, dedicated to either research studies or industrial applications, is currently based on a phenomenological approach, relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics, and complemented by validation tests performed at small-scale. Indeed, most of the steps of the Purex process involve multiphasic flows (dissolution, leaching, liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation, filtration, etc.). Therefore an accurate knowledge of the dispersed phase properties is required in order to assess their coupling with the flow features, to predict the process performance and efficiency and to achieve size reduction or extrapolation. Hence, the measurements of particulate flows properties, and especially the particles (or drops or bubbles) size distribution, concentration (i.e. hold-up) and velocity has become a growing issue. Relevant techniques for measuring these flow properties are multiple, from the high-speed video acquisition coupled to image processing to the laser-induced fluorescence, including the particle imaging velocimetry or interferometric techniques (digital in-line holography, rainbow refractometry, etc.). In this communication, different techniques developed at CEA Marcoule for the characterization of multiphase flows, will be introduced. The strong interaction with computational fluid dynamics, in the scope of a multi-scale approach, will be discussed through typical results of gas-liquid, liquid-liquid and solid-liquid flows possibly encountered in nuclear fuel reprocessing process. (authors)

  17. Toshiba's developments on construction techniques of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Itoh, N.

    1987-01-01

    Reliable and economic energy supplies are fundamental requirements of energy policies in Japan. To accomplish these needs, nuclear power plants are being increased in Japan. In recent years, construction cost increases and schedule extensions have affected the capital cost of nuclear energy, compared with fossil power plants, due to lower costs of oil and coal. On the other hand, several severe regulations have been applied to nuclear power plant designs. High-quality and cooperative engineering and harmonized design of equipment and parts are strongly required. Therefore, reduced construction costs and scheduling, as well as higher quality and reliability, are the most important items for nuclear industry. Toshiba has developed new construction techniques, as well as design and engineering tools for control and management, that demonstrate the positive results achieved in the shorter construction period of 1100-MW(electric) nuclear power plants. The normal construction period so far is 64 months, whereas the current construction period is 52 months. (New construction techniques are partially applied). In future years, the construction period will be lowered to 48 months. (New construction techniques are fully applied). A construction period is defined as time from the start of rock inspection to the start of commercial operation

  18. Promoting institutional and organisational development in surveying and land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Greenway, Iain

    2006-01-01

    development, and outlines some of the key tools and techniques to be used in the institutional reform process. This process will normally include four steps: Where are we now (assessment of the current situation and needs); Where do we want to be (design of vision and mission); How do we get there (strategies...

  19. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian de Ponte Müller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability.

  20. The Trauma Center Organizational Culture Survey: development and conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew L; Wehbe-Janek, Hania; Subacius, Haris; Pinto, Ruxandra; Nathens, Avery B

    2015-01-01

    The Trauma Center Organizational Culture Survey (TRACCS) instrument was developed to assess organizational culture of trauma centers enrolled in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Program (ACS TQIP). The objective is to provide evidence on the psychometric properties of the factors of TRACCS and describe the current organizational culture of TQIP-enrolled trauma centers. A cross-sectional study was conducted by surveying a sampling of employees at 174 TQIP-enrolled trauma centers. Data collection was preceded by multistep survey development. Psychometric properties were assessed by an exploratory factor analysis (construct validity) and the item-total correlations and Cronbach alpha were calculated (internal reliability). Statistical outcomes of the survey responses were measured by descriptive statistics and mixed effect models. The response rate for trauma center participation in the study was 78.7% (n = 137). The factor analysis resulted in 16 items clustered into three factors as described: opportunity, pride, and diversity, trauma center leadership, and employee respect and recognition. TRACCS was found to be highly reliable with a Cronbach alpha of 0.90 in addition to the three factors (0.91, 0.90, and 0.85). Considerable variability of TRACCS overall and factor score among hospitals was measured, with the largest interhospital deviations among trauma center leadership. More than 80% of the variability in the responses occurred within rather than between hospitals. TRACCS was developed as a reliable tool for measuring trauma center organizational culture. Relationships between TQIP outcomes and measured organizational culture are under investigation. Trauma centers could apply TRACCS to better understand current organizational culture and how change tools can impact culture and subsequent patient and process outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Embryo transfer techniques: an American Society for Reproductive Medicine survey of current Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Thomas L; Lee, Malinda S; Bendikson, Kristin A; Reindollar, Richard H

    2017-04-01

    To better understand practice patterns and opportunities for standardization of ET. Cross-sectional survey. Not applicable. Not applicable. An anonymous 82-question survey was emailed to the medical directors of 286 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member IVF practices. A follow-up survey composed of three questions specific to ET technique was emailed to the same medical directors. Descriptive statistics of the results were compiled. The survey assessed policies, protocols, restrictions, and specifics pertinent to the technique of ET. There were 117 (41%) responses; 32% practice in academic settings and 68% in private practice. Responders were experienced clinicians, half of whom had performed Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Farmer survey in the hinterland of Kisangani (Democratic Republic of Congo) on rodent crop damage and rodent control techniques used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drazo, Nicaise Amundala; Kennis, Jan; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a survey on rodent crop damage among farmers in the hinterland of Kisangani (Democratic Republic of Congo). We studied the amount of crop damage, the rodent groups causing crop damage, the growth stages affected and the control techniques used. We conducted this survey in three...... municipalities using a standard questionnaire form translated into local languages, between November 2005 and June 2006 and during July 2007. We used the Quotas method and interviewed 70 households per municipality. Farmers indicated rodent groups implicated in crop damage on color photographs. Two types...... of survey techniques were used: individual and focus-group surveys. The sugar cane rat, Thryonomys sp. and Lemniscomys striatus caused most damage to crops, but inside granaries, Rattus rattus was the primary pest species eating stored food supplies and causing damage to stored goods. Cassava and maize were...

  3. Absolute Paleointensity Techniques: Developments in the Last 10 Years (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, J. A.; Brown, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to determine variations in absolute intensity of the Earth’s paleomagnetic field has greatly enhanced our understanding of geodynamo processes, including secular variation and field reversals. Igneous rocks and baked clay artifacts that carry a thermal remanence (TRM) have allowed us to study field variations over timescales ranging from decades to billions of years. All absolute paleointensity techniques are fundamentally based on repeating the natural process by which the sample acquired its magnetization, i.e. a laboratory TRM is acquired in a controlled field, and the ratio of the natural TRM to that acquired in the laboratory is directly proportional to the ancient field. Techniques for recovering paleointensity have evolved since the 1930s from relatively unsophisticated (but revolutionary for their time) single step remagnetizations to the various complicated, multi-step procedures in use today. These procedures can be broadly grouped into two categories: 1) “Thellier-type” experiments that step-wise heat samples at a series of temperatures up to the maximum unblocking temperature of the sample, progressively removing the natural remanence (NRM) and acquiring a laboratory-induced TRM; and 2) “Shaw-type” experiments that combine alternating field demagnetization of the NRM and laboratory TRM with a single heating to a temperature above the sample’s Curie temperature, acquiring a total TRM in one step. Many modifications to these techniques have been developed over the years with the goal of identifying and/or accommodating non-ideal behavior, such as alteration and multi-domain (MD) remanence, which may lead to inaccurate paleofield estimates. From a technological standpoint, perhaps the most significant development in the last decade is the use of microwave (de)magnetization in both Thellier-type and Shaw-type experiments. By using microwaves to directly generate spin waves within the magnetic grains (rather than using phonons

  4. Development of infrared spectroscopy techniques for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandsten, Jonas

    2000-08-01

    Infrared spectroscopy techniques have long been utilized in identifying and quantifying species of interest to us. Many of the elementary molecules in the atmosphere interact with infrared radiation through their ability to absorb and emit energy in vibrational and rotational transitions. A large variety of methods for monitoring of molecules and aerosol particles by collecting samples or by using remote sensing methods are available. The objective of the work presented in this thesis was to develop infrared spectroscopic techniques to further enhance the amount of useful information obtained from gathering spectral data. A new method for visualization and quantification of gas flows based on gas-correlation techniques was developed. Real-time imaging of gas leaks and incomplete or erratic flare combustion of ethene was demonstrated. The method relies on the thermal background as a radiation source and the gas can be visualized in absorption or in emission depending on the temperature difference. Diode laser spectroscopy was utilized to monitor three molecular species at the same time and over the same path. Two near-infrared diode lasers beams were combined in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal and by difference-frequency generation a third beam was created, enabling simultaneous monitoring of oxygen, water vapor and methane. Models of aerosol particle cross sections were used to simulate the diffraction pattern of light scattered by fibers, spherical particles and real particles, such as pollen, through a new aerosol particle sensing prototype. The instrument, using a coupled cavity diode laser, has been designed with a ray-tracing program and the final prototype was employed for single aerosol particle sizing and identification.

  5. Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.

  6. New sensor and non-contact geometrical survey for the vibrating wire technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Renan [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Junqueira Leão, Rodrigo, E-mail: rodrigo.leao@lnls.br [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cernicchiaro, Geraldo [Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Terenzi Neuenschwander, Regis; Citadini, James Francisco; Droher Rodrigues, Antônio Ricardo [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-03-01

    The tolerances for the alignment of the magnets in the girders of the next machine of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Sirius, are as small as 40 µm for translations and 0.2 mrad for rotations. Therefore, a novel approach to the well-known vibrating wire technique has been developed and tested for the precise fiducialization of magnets. The alignment bench consists of four commercial linear stages, a stretched wire, a commercial lock-in amplifier working with phase-locked loop (PLL), a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a vibration sensor for the wire. This novel sensor has been designed for a larger linear region of operation. For the mechanical metrology step of the fiducialization of quadrupoles an innovative technique, using the vision system of the CMM, is presented. While the work with pitch and yaw orientations is still ongoing with promising partial results, the system already presents an uncertainty level below 10 µm for translational alignment.

  7. Development and industrial utilisation of rotor balancing techniques at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanton, J.P.; Rondelet, D.

    1997-01-01

    The object of this document is to present, on the one hand, the industrial practice that exists at EDF in the area of rotor balancing, and, on the other hand, some recent development works, also in this area. One describes in a first part, for different types of machines concerned, the tools of calculation used, the performances that are obtained, and the encountered problems. Considering developments, one reminds first the characteristics of the EQUILOP 3.0 software, then one describes the validation that has been realized for it under a new computer environment. Additional operational possibilities that would be foreseeable for a new version of this software are indicated. A study currently under way of a balancing process which makes use of active control techniques is briefly described. Perspectives open by the utilization of numerical models of the machines as deduced from a recent study are exposed, and illustrated by a very simple example. (authors)

  8. Recent developments in numerical simulation techniques of thermal recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamim, M. [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Bangladesh (Bangladesh); Abou-Kassem, J.H. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, UAE University, Al-Ain 17555 (United Arab Emirates); Farouq Ali, S.M. [University of Alberta, Alberta (Canada)

    2000-05-01

    Numerical simulation of thermal processes (steam flooding, steam stimulation, SAGD, in-situ combustion, electrical heating, etc.) is an integral part of a thermal project design. The general tendency in the last 10 years has been to use commercial simulators. During the last decade, only a few new models have been reported in the literature. More work has been done to modify and refine solutions to existing problems to improve the efficiency of simulators. The paper discusses some of the recent developments in simulation techniques of thermal processes such as grid refinement, grid orientation, effect of temperature on relative permeability, mathematical models, and solution methods. The various aspects of simulation discussed here promote better understanding of the problems encountered in the simulation of thermal processes and will be of value to both simulator users and developers.

  9. Development of remote handling techniques for the HLLW solidification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosha, Yoshitsugu; Iwata, Toshio; Inada, Eiichi; Nagaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masao

    1982-01-01

    To develop the techniques for the remote maintenance of the equipment in a HLLW (high-level liquid waste) solidification plant, the mock-up test facility (MTF) has been designed and constructed. Before its construction, the specific mock-up equipment was manufactured and tested. The results of the test and the outline of the MTF are described. As the mock-up equipment, a denitrater-concentrator, a ceramic melter and a canister handling equipment were selected. Remote operation was performed according to the maintenance program, and the evaluation of the component was conducted on the easiness of operation, performance, and the suitability to remote handling equipment. As a result of the test, four important elements were identified; they were guides, lifting fixtures, remote handling bolts, and remote pipe connectors. Many improvements of these elements were achieved, and reflected in the design of the MTF. The MTF is a steel-framed and slate-covered building (25 mL x 20 mW x 27 mH) with five storys of test bases. It contains the following four main systems: pretreatment and off-gas treatment system, glass melting system, canister handling system and secondary waste liquid recovery system. Further development of the remote maintenance techniques is expected through the test in the MTF. (Aoki, K.)

  10. Development of structural health monitoring techniques using dynamics testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.H. III [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1996-03-01

    Today`s society depends upon many structures (such as aircraft, bridges, wind turbines, offshore platforms, buildings, and nuclear weapons) which are nearing the end of their design lifetime. Since these structures cannot be economically replaced, techniques for structural health monitoring must be developed and implemented. Modal and structural dynamics measurements hold promise for the global non-destructive inspection of a variety of structures since surface measurements of a vibrating structure can provide information about the health of the internal members without costly (or impossible) dismantling of the structure. In order to develop structural health monitoring for application to operational structures, developments in four areas have been undertaken within this project: operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage identification. The developments in each of these four aspects of structural health monitoring have been exercised on a broad range of experimental data. This experimental data has been extracted from structures from several application areas which include aging aircraft, wind energy, aging bridges, offshore structures, structural supports, and mechanical parts. As a result of these advances, Sandia National Laboratories is in a position to perform further advanced development, operational implementation, and technical consulting for a broad class of the nation`s aging infrastructure problems.

  11. A systematic review of applying modern software engineering techniques to developing robotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Robots have become collaborators in our daily life. While robotic systems become more and more complex, the need to engineer their software development grows as well. The traditional approaches used in developing these software systems are reaching their limits; currently used methodologies and tools fall short of addressing the needs of such complex software development. Separating robotics’ knowledge from short-cycled implementation technologies is essential to foster reuse and maintenance. This paper presents a systematic review (SLR of the current use of modern software engineering techniques for developing robotic software systems and their actual automation level. The survey was aimed at summarizing existing evidence concerning applying such technologies to the field of robotic systems to identify any gaps in current research to suggest areas for further investigation and provide a background for positioning new research activities.

  12. LH2 Target Design & Position Survey Techniques for the MUSE experiment for Precise Proton Radius Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pottier, Luc; Roy, Pryiashee; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Raymond, Richard; Steinberg, Noah; Rossi de La Fuente, Erick; MUSE (MUon proton Scattering Experiment) Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The proton radius puzzle is a currently unresolved problem which has intrigued the scientific community, dealing with a 7 σ discrepancy between the proton radii determined from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy and electron scattering measurements. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) aims to resolve this puzzle by performing the first simultaneous elastic scattering measurements of both electrons and muons on the proton, which will allow the comparison of the radii from the two interactions with reduced systematic uncertainties. The data from this experiment is expected to provide the best test of lepton universality to date. The experiment will take place at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland in 2018. An essential component of the experiment is a liquid hydrogen (LH2) cryotarget system. Our group at the University of Michigan is responsible for the design, fabrication and installation of this system. Here we present our LH2 target cell design and fabrication techniques for successful operation at 20 K and 1 atm, and our computer vision-based target position survey system which will determine the position of the target, installed inside a vacuum chamber, with 0.01 mm or better precision at the height of the liquid hydrogen target and along the beam direction during the experiment.

  13. A survey on the state-of-the-technique on software based pipeline leak detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Renan Martins [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao]. E-mail: renan@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a general technical survey on software based leak detection systems (LDS), approaching its main technological features, the operational situations where they are feasible, and the scenarios within the Brazilian pipeline network. The decision on what LDS to choose for a given pipeline is a matter of cost, suitability and feasibility. A simpler low cost, less effective product, but with a fast installation and tuning procedure, may be more suitable for a given operational site (pipeline configuration, kind of fluid, quality of instrumentation and communication), than a complex, high cost, efficient product, but taking a long time to be properly installed. Some other may really have a level of complexity that will require a more sophisticated system. A few number of them will simply not be suitable to have a LDS: it may be caused by the poor quality or absence of instrumentation, or, the worst case, due to the lack of technology to approach that specific case, e. g., multiphase flow lines, or those lines that commonly operates in slack condition. It is intended to approach here the general state-of-the-technique and make some initial comments on the costs. (author)

  14. Statistical Techniques Applied to Aerial Radiometric Surveys (STAARS): cluster analysis. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirkle, F.L.; Stablein, N.K.; Howell, J.A.; Wecksung, G.W.; Duran, B.S.

    1982-11-01

    One objective of the aerial radiometric surveys flown as part of the US Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was to ascertain the regional distribution of near-surface radioelement abundances. Some method for identifying groups of observations with similar radioelement values was therefore required. It is shown in this report that cluster analysis can identify such groups even when no a priori knowledge of the geology of an area exists. A method of convergent k-means cluster analysis coupled with a hierarchical cluster analysis is used to classify 6991 observations (three radiometric variables at each observation location) from the Precambrian rocks of the Copper Mountain, Wyoming, area. Another method, one that combines a principal components analysis with a convergent k-means analysis, is applied to the same data. These two methods are compared with a convergent k-means analysis that utilizes available geologic knowledge. All three methods identify four clusters. Three of the clusters represent background values for the Precambrian rocks of the area, and one represents outliers (anomalously high 214 Bi). A segmentation of the data corresponding to geologic reality as discovered by other methods has been achieved based solely on analysis of aerial radiometric data. The techniques employed are composites of classical clustering methods designed to handle the special problems presented by large data sets. 20 figures, 7 tables

  15. Telemedicine for Developing Countries. A Survey and Some Design Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Pozzani, Gabriele; Pozzi, Giuseppe

    2016-11-02

    Developing countries need telemedicine applications that help in many situations, when physicians are a small number with respect to the population, when specialized physicians are not available, when patients and physicians in rural villages need assistance in the delivery of health care. Moreover, the requirements of telemedicine applications for developing countries are somewhat more demanding than for developed countries. Indeed, further social, organizational, and technical aspects need to be considered for successful telemedicine applications in developing countries. We consider all the major projects in telemedicine, devoted to developing countries, as described by the proper scientific literature. On the basis of such literature, we want to define a specific taxonomy that allows a proper classification and a fast overview of telemedicine projects in developing countries. Moreover, by considering both the literature and some recent direct experiences, we want to complete such overview by discussing some design issues to be taken into consideration when developing telemedicine software systems. We considered and reviewed the major conferences and journals in depth, and looked for reports on the telemedicine projects. We provide the reader with a survey of the main projects and systems, from which we derived a taxonomy of features of telemedicine systems for developing countries. We also propose and discuss some classification criteria for design issues, based on the lessons learned in this research area. We highlight some challenges and recommendations to be considered when designing a telemedicine system for developing countries.

  16. Statistical techniques applied to aerial radiometric surveys (STAARS): series introduction and the principal-components-analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirkle, F.L.

    1981-04-01

    STAARS is a new series which is being published to disseminate information concerning statistical procedures for interpreting aerial radiometric data. The application of a particular data interpretation technique to geologic understanding for delineating regions favorable to uranium deposition is the primary concern of STAARS. Statements concerning the utility of a technique on aerial reconnaissance data as well as detailed aerial survey data will be included

  17. Timing and technique impact the effectiveness of road-based, mobile acoustic surveys of bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Acunto, Laura E; Pauli, Benjamin P; Moy, Mikko; Johnson, Kiara; Abu-Omar, Jasmine; Zollner, Patrick A

    2018-03-01

    Mobile acoustic surveys are a common method of surveying bat communities. However, there is a paucity of empirical studies exploring different methods for conducting mobile road surveys of bats. During 2013, we conducted acoustic mobile surveys on three routes in north-central Indiana, U.S.A., using (1) a standard road survey, (2) a road survey where the vehicle stopped for 1 min at every half mile of the survey route (called a "start-stop method"), and (3) a road survey with an individual using a bicycle. Linear mixed models with multiple comparison procedures revealed that when all bat passes were analyzed, using a bike to conduct mobile surveys detected significantly more bat passes per unit time compared to other methods. However, incorporating genus-level comparisons revealed no advantage to using a bike over vehicle-based methods. We also found that survey method had a significant effect when analyses were limited to those bat passes that could be identified to genus, with the start-stop method generally detecting more identifiable passes than the standard protocol or bike survey. Additionally, we found that significantly more identifiable bat passes (particularly those of the Eptesicus and Lasiurus genera) were detected in surveys conducted immediately following sunset. As governing agencies, particularly in North America, implement vehicle-based bat monitoring programs, it is important for researchers to understand how variations on protocols influence the inference that can be gained from different monitoring schemes.

  18. Development of the armoring technique for ITER Divertor Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litunovsky, Nikolay, E-mail: nlitunovsky@sintez.niiefa.spb.su [D.V. Efremov Reseasch Institute, 3, Doroga na Metallostroy, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Alekseenko, Evgeny; Makhankov, Alexey; Mazul, Igor [D.V. Efremov Reseasch Institute, 3, Doroga na Metallostroy, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15

    This paper describes the current status of the technique for armoring of Plasma Facing Units (PFUs) of the ITER Divertor Dome with flat tungsten tiles planned for application at the procurement stage. Application of high-temperature vacuum brazing for armoring of High Heat Flux (HHF) plasma facing components was traditionally developed at the Efremov Institute and successfully tried out at the ITER R and D stage by manufacturing and HHF testing of a number of W- and Be-armored mock-ups . Nevertheless, the so-called 'fast brazing' technique successfully applied in the past was abandoned at the stage of manufacturing of the Dome Qualification Prototypes (Dome QPs), as it failed to retain the mechanical properties of CuCrZr heat sink of the substrate. Another problem was a substantially increased number of armoring tiles brazed onto one substrate. Severe ITER requirements for the joints quality have forced us to refuse from production of W/Cu joints by brazing in favor of casting. These modifications have allowed us to produce ITER Divertor Dome QPs with high-quality tungsten armor, which then passed successfully the HHF testing. Further preparation to the procurement stage is in progress.

  19. Development of flow injection analysis technique for uranium estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, A.H.; Pandit, S.S.; Shinde, S.S.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Flow injection analysis is increasingly used as a process control analytical technique in many industries. It involves injection of the sample at a constant rate into a steady flowing stream of reagent and passing this mixture through a suitable detector. This paper describes the development of such a system for the analysis of uranium (VI) and (IV) and its gross gamma activity. It is amenable for on-line or automated off-line monitoring of uranium and its activity in process streams. The sample injection port is suitable for automated injection of radioactive samples. The performance of the system has been tested for the colorimetric response of U(VI) samples at 410 nm in the range of 35 to 360mg/ml in nitric acid medium using Metrohm 662 Photometer and a recorder as detector assembly. The precision of the method is found to be better than +/- 0.5%. This technique with certain modifications is used for the analysis of U(VI) in the range 0.1-3mg/ailq. by alcoholic thiocynate procedure within +/- 1.5% precision. Similarly the precision for the determination of U(IV) in the range 15-120 mg at 650 nm is found to be better than 5%. With NaI well-type detector in the flow line, the gross gamma counting of the solution under flow is found to be within a precision of +/- 5%. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Development of oil hydrocarbon fingerprinting and identification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhendi; Fingas, Merv F.

    2003-01-01

    Oil, refined product, and pyrogenic hydrocarbons are the most frequently discovered contaminants in the environment. To effectively determine the fate of spilled oil in the environment and to successfully identify source(s) of spilled oil and petroleum products is, therefore, extremely important in many oil-related environmental studies and liability cases. This article briefly reviews the recent development of chemical analysis methodologies which are most frequently used in oil spill characterization and identification studies and environmental forensic investigations. The fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques discussed include oil spill identification protocol, tiered analytical approach, generic features and chemical composition of oils, effects of weathering on hydrocarbon fingerprinting, recognition of distribution patterns of petroleum hydrocarbons, oil type screening and differentiation, analysis of 'source-specific marker' compounds, determination of diagnostic ratios of specific oil constituents, stable isotopic analysis, application of various statistical and numerical analysis tools, and application of other analytical techniques. The issue of how biogenic and pyrogenic hydrocarbons are distinguished from petrogenic hydrocarbons is also addressed

  1. A review of recent developments in schlieren and shadowgraph techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settles, Gary S; Hargather, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques are used around the world for imaging and measuring phenomena in transparent media. These optical methods originated long ago in parallel with telescopes and microscopes, and although it might seem that little new could be expected of them on the timescale of 15 years, in fact several important things have happened that are reviewed here. The digital revolution has had a transformative effect, replacing clumsy photographic film methods with excellent—though expensive—high-speed video cameras, making digital correlation and processing of shadow and schlieren images routine, and providing an entirely-new synthetic schlieren technique that has attracted a lot of attention: background-oriented schlieren or BOS. Several aspects of modern schlieren and shadowgraphy depend upon laptop-scale computer processing of images using an image-capable language such as MATLAB ™ . BOS, shock-wave tracking, schlieren velocimetry, synthetic streak-schlieren, and straightforward quantitative density measurements in 2D flows are all recent developments empowered by this digital and computational capability. (topical review)

  2. A review of recent developments in schlieren and shadowgraph techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Gary S.; Hargather, Michael J.

    2017-04-01

    Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques are used around the world for imaging and measuring phenomena in transparent media. These optical methods originated long ago in parallel with telescopes and microscopes, and although it might seem that little new could be expected of them on the timescale of 15 years, in fact several important things have happened that are reviewed here. The digital revolution has had a transformative effect, replacing clumsy photographic film methods with excellent—though expensive—high-speed video cameras, making digital correlation and processing of shadow and schlieren images routine, and providing an entirely-new synthetic schlieren technique that has attracted a lot of attention: background-oriented schlieren or BOS. Several aspects of modern schlieren and shadowgraphy depend upon laptop-scale computer processing of images using an image-capable language such as MATLAB™. BOS, shock-wave tracking, schlieren velocimetry, synthetic streak-schlieren, and straightforward quantitative density measurements in 2D flows are all recent developments empowered by this digital and computational capability.

  3. Survey of the University "Luis Vargas Torres" through Econometric Techniques. Comprehensive Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Rodríguez-Betancourt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Government Programme 2013-2017 defines in higher education, the principles of the curriculum proposals of much public interest careers. In this regard the authorities of the Technical University "Luis Vargas Torres" of Esmeraldas, have taken the decision to evaluate its management and action against the development of the province and the country. Therefore, the objective of this research is the application of a survey of students of different specialties, Faculty of Engineering and Technology to explore their views on the educational process, research, outreach, culture and sport, stratified random sampling with results showing that key processes are completed by 66% on average is applied, indicating that the authority still has to set goals to overcome the short comings that have an emphasis on research.

  4. Development of evaluation techniques for electrochemical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, L. H.; Nazimek, K.

    1980-03-01

    The development of standardized techniques for the comparative evaluation of electric vehicle battery technologies is summarized. The methodology considers both the traditional measures of battery performance (energy density, energy storage costs, and cycle life) and the equally important usage related battery characteristics (probability of technical success, operating and maintenance parameters, and safety/environmental impact). This comparative rationale is supplemented by the ability to generate battery test programs normalized to specific technologies and electric vehicle mission specifications. These test programs allow the evaluation of different battery technologies at comparable levels of electric vehicle performance. It was found that cost optimized electric passenger vehicles will have range specifications of 100 to 110 KM, depending on the specific performance of the battery. Longer range vehicles are penalized by higher first costs while shorter range vehicles suffer from reduced battery life and the need for more frequent alternative car rentals (presumably petroleum fueled) for trips which exceed the EV's range capability.

  5. Development of a useful technique for analyzing behavioral teratologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Two measures of postnatal development are described in this paper: the PAC50 and AD50. These measures proved to be more sensitive than the use of means in the evaluation of three radiation studies involving postnatal developmental evaluation. PAC50 is the percent of achievement of a goal by litters or offspring in an experimental group at the age when 50% of the control litters or offspring attain that goal. AD50 is the age (acquisition day) at which 50% of the litters or offspring in each group attain a specified developmental goal. This methodology is a useful technique for analyzing selected behavioral data following in utero X-irradiation and may prove to be a sensitive means of determining postnatal alteration due to prenatal exposure to a variety of suspect agents

  6. Development of techniques for radwaste systems in CANDU power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourns, W.T.; Buckley, L.P.; Burrill, K.A.

    1979-04-01

    Techniques to reduce the volume of CANDU reactor wastes and to bitumenize them are being developed at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Reverse osmosis is suitable for initial purification of dilute radioactive aqueous wastes. Tubular membranes are used to concentrate wastes to 5 weight percent solids, and while the membranes do foul, they may be cleaned mechanically, chemically, or with fresh feed. A wiped-film evaporator then concentrates the retentate to a 20 weight-percent slurry. A twin-screw extruder-evaporator has been used to bitumenize this slurry, and it will also handle ion exchange resin and dry incinerator ash. Work on a wiped-film evaporator as a bitumenizer for various feeds is in progress. More experience in handling solid feeds is needed before work can proceed to the demonstraton phase. (auth)

  7. Development of density and moisture gauge by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangelaviraj, V.; Karasuddhi, P.; Banchornthevakal, V.; Punyachaiya, S.

    1981-08-01

    A combined soil moisture/density gauge using nuclear technique was developed. Simultaneous density and moisture measurements can take place by means of gamma and neutron sources which are attached to the moisture probe. Backscattered gamma radiation giving information on density is detected by a G.M. counter while slow neutron radiation containing moisture information is detected by a boron-lined proportional counter. The instrument makes use of a 30 mCi americium 241-beryllium neutron source and a 10 mCi cesium 137 gamma source. The instrument was calibrated using soil and sand filled in a 200 litre-barrel in laboratory and field work which was carried out to check the correctness of the calibration curves. (author)

  8. Nuclear techniques for food and agricultural development: 1964-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Vose, P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, programmes of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have helped countries solve practical, and costly, problems in areas of soil fertility, irrigation, and crop production; plant breeding and genetics; animal production and health; insect and pest control; agrochemicals and residues; and food preservation. The Division's overall objectives are to exploit the potential for application of isotopes and radiation techniques in agricultural research and development; to increase and stabilize agricultural production; to reduce production costs; to improve the quality of food; to protect agricultural products from spoilage and losses; and to minimize pollution of food and the agricultural environment. On the occasion of the Joint Division's 30th anniversary year, this article highlights selected achievements over the past three decades

  9. Surface crack testing - state of technique and trends in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Seminar contains 12 lectures on the following subjects: State of technique in magnetic powder testing (K. Goebbels); Recognisability of faults and probability of faults in surface crack testing (W. Morgner); Requirements for picture processing systems for proving and assessing crack indications (M. Stadthaus); Possibilities and limits of automatic crack recognition in magnetic powder testing (V. Deutsch); Development of equipment for eddy current testing (M. Junger); Signal processing - a way of improving the recognisability of faults in eddy current testing (R. Becker); Methods of testing steel products for surface faults and their practical limits of fault recognisability (D. Thiery); Surface crack testing in pipe manufacture (R. Pawelletz); Surface crack testing in powerstation construction (L. v. Bernus); Trends in automation in surface crack testing (G. Maier); Eddy current testing in engine construction (E. Dickhaut); Eddy current testing in aircraft repair (F. Schur). (orig.) [de

  10. Communication methods and production techniques in fixed prosthesis fabrication: a UK based survey. Part 2: Production techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J.; Nesbit, M.; Saberi, S.; Petridis, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify the communication methods and production techniques used by dentists and dental technicians for the fabrication of fixed prostheses within the UK from the dental technicians' perspective. This second paper reports on the production techniques utilised. Materials and methods Seven hundred and eighty-two online questionnaires were distributed to the Dental Laboratories Association membership and included a broad range of topics, such as demographics, impression disinfection and suitability, and various production techniques. Settings were managed in order to ensure anonymity of respondents. Statistical analysis was undertaken to test the influence of various demographic variables such as the source of information, the location, and the size of the dental laboratory. Results The number of completed responses totalled 248 (32% response rate). Ninety percent of the respondents were based in England and the majority of dental laboratories were categorised as small sized (working with up to 25 dentists). Concerns were raised regarding inadequate disinfection protocols between dentists and dental laboratories and the poor quality of master impressions. Full arch plastic trays were the most popular impression tray used by dentists in the fabrication of crowns (61%) and bridgework (68%). The majority (89%) of jaw registration records were considered inaccurate. Forty-four percent of dental laboratories preferred using semi-adjustable articulators. Axial and occlusal under-preparation of abutment teeth was reported as an issue in about 25% of cases. Base metal alloy was the most (52%) commonly used alloy material. Metal-ceramic crowns were the most popular choice for anterior (69%) and posterior (70%) cases. The various factors considered did not have any statistically significant effect on the answers provided. The only notable exception was the fact that more methods of communicating the size and shape of crowns were utilised for

  11. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    1999-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamma irradiation at 2-10 kGy is considered to be an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria in species including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in beef. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Gamma irradiation on pre-rigor beef shortens the aging-period, improves tenderness and enhances the beef quality. And, a new beef processing method using gamma irradiation, such as in the low salt sausage and hygienic beef patty was developed. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats(beefs: 0-5 kGy; porks: 0-30 kGy) in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepato carcinogenesis and the anti oxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide, which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnuts, acorns, red beans and mung beans, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach.Current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfecting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of agricultural produce. However, irradiation doses suitable for controlling pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. (author)

  12. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. Development of the technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafailovici, L.; Alva, R.; Chiozza, J.; Donato, H.; Falomo, S.; Cardiello, C.; Furia, O.; Martinez, A.; Filomia, M.L.; Sansogne, R.; Arbiser, S.; Dosoretz, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a result of advances in computer sciences that allowed the development of new technology related to planning and radiation therapy. IMRT was developed to homogenize the dose in the target volumes and decrease the dose in the surrounding healthy tissue. Using a software with high calculation capacity a simultaneous irradiation with different doses in a given volume is achieved. IMRT is based on internal planning. Material and methods: 628 patients were treated with IMRT in prostate lesions, head and neck, breast, thorax, abdomen and brain since August 2008. The software for IMRT is the XIO CMS and the accelerator used is a Varian Clinac 6 / 100. IMRT requires a first simulation, where immobilization systems are selected (mats, thermoplastic masks, among others) and the demarcation of the target structures, healthy tissue and dose prescription by a tattoo. Images of CT / MRI are merged when necessary. Once the system made the treatment optimization, this one is regulated by modulators. These are produced by numerical control machines from digital files produced by software. In a second modulation the planned irradiation is checked and tattoo is carried out according with this. We have a strict process of quality assurance to assess the viability of the plan before its implementation. We use the Map Check it possible to compare the dose on the central axis and the distribution in the whole plane regarding to that generated by the planning system. From 03/2008 the virtual simulation process was implemented integrating the described stages. Results and Conclusions: IMRT is a complex technique. The meticulous planning, implementation of process and quality control allows the use of this technique in a reliable and secure way. With IMRT we achieved a high level of dose conformation, less irradiation of healthy tissue, lower rates of complications and the dose escalation for some tumors. (authors) [es

  13. Development of techniques for electrochemical studies in power plant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.

    2000-01-01

    The properties of the oxide films on the engineering alloys used as construction materials in power plants change as a result of exposure to aqueous environments. The susceptibility of the materials to different forms of corrosion is influenced by the properties of these oxide films. The structure and electrochemical properties of the oxide films are in turn dependent on the applied water chemistry. Therefore, water chemistry control has been used in minimising the impact of different corrosion phenomena in operating power plants. Since there is not only one ideal operational specification for all light water reactors, individually designed water chemistry programs are needed to take into account plant-specific design features and particular problem areas. The applicability of alternative water chemistry practices require fast and reliable in-line electrochemical techniques to monitor possible changes in the oxidation behaviour of nuclear power plant materials. This thesis summarises the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland over the past 10 years to increase the knowledge of factors affecting the oxidation behaviour of construction materials in aqueous coolants at high temperatures. The work started with the development of electrodes for measurement of high temperature water chemistry parameters such as pH and the corrosion potential of construction materials. After laboratory testing these electrodes were used both in test reactors and in operating nuclear power plants. These measurements showed that high temperature water chemistry monitoring may be more accurate than corresponding room temperature measurements, particularly during transient situations. However, it was also found that understanding the processes taking place within and on oxide films requires a combination of electrochemical techniques enabling characterisation of the electronic properties of these films. This conclusion resulted in development of a controlled

  14. The technique of participatory research in community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, C N

    1988-01-01

    The technique of participatory research in community development is based on the involvement of the beneficiaries of the research in the entire research process, including the formulation of the research design, the collection of data, interpretation of information collected, and the analysis of findings. Thus, research teams utilizing this approach are composed of villagers, farmers, unemployed people, local leaders, and educators. The research process thus offers an educational experience that helps to identify community needs and motivate community members to become committed to the solution of their own problems. Moreover, this approach challenges the prevalent notion that only professional researchers can generate knowledge for meaningful social reform. A participatory research technique, based on the concept of citizen enlightenment for community development, was adopted by the Department of Adult Education at the University of Ibadan in a study of rural poverty in Oyo State's Apasan villages. The research team, comprised of local leaders, peasant farmers, teachers, local students, and university students, identified the villages' isolation and food scarcity as major causes of poverty. 2 actions were taken in response to these findings: 1) the construction of a road linking the Apasan communities with the State capital, enabling villagers to travel to the town, sell their goods, and purchase needed items; and 2) formation of a primary cooperative society for multipurpose farming. These actions have solved the food problem, improved the villagers' earning capacity, and resulted in the return of numerous villagers who had migrated to towns to find wage employment. Because the villagers were directly involved in the study of their problems, they were able to become more aware of their social reality and make the changes needed to lift them out of poverty.

  15. Development and application of the electrochemical etching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    This report documents the advances achieved in the development and application of several etched damage track plastic dosimeters that can be used to measure dose-equivalent from neutrons with energies from thermal to 20 MeV. The project was initiated with the design of a rem-responding dosimeter that measured fast (> 1 MeV) neutron dose-equivalent as a function of the damage track density directly induced within the volume of polycarbonate foils amplified by electrochemical etching. Stillwagon (1978) adapted electrochemical etching of polycarbonate foils (ECEPF) to alpha dosimetry and used the technique to determine Pu-239 uptake in human bone. Su (1979) extended the usefulness of the ECEPF neutron dosimetry technique to encompass thermal neutron dose measurement. The thermal neutron dosimeter was composed of an external radiator tablet made of 7 LiF in contact with a polycarbonate foil and utilized the thermal neutron-induced 6 Li(n, α) 3 H reaction to give a dose-equivalent response as a function of alpha track density registered in the detector foil. An intermediate (1 eV-1 MeV) neutron dosimeter was developed and has been shown to give an approximately dose-equivalent response to neutrons with energies from 1 eV to 17 MeV. The intermediate neutron dosimeter consists of 6 LiF-Teflon/CR-39 Polymer foil assembly which is enclosed by a (Cd + In) neutron filter. The neutron dose-equivalent is measured as a variable function of the damage track density registered in the CR-39 detector foil due to alpha particles from the 1/v dependent 6 Li(n, α) 3 H reaction, recoil H, C, O nuclei from neutron-induced elastic scattering within the foil volume, and protons from the 6 Li(n, p) reaction for neutron energies above 2 MeV. 46 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Development of versatile universal reagent immunoradiometric assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, D.K.

    1982-10-01

    Immunoradiometric assays, which make use of labelled antibodies, potentially offer better sensitivity and specificity than do radioimmunoassays, which use labelled antigens. In addition, they can in principle be performed in a particularly convenient scheme wherein the same labelled reagent may be used for many different analytes - thus serving as a ''universal'' labelled reagent. Thus if the specific antibody for every analyte is raised in rabbits, and an anti-rabbit antibody is labelled, the latter may be added after the specific antibody to quantify the amount of specific antibody bound to analyte and thereby the amount of analyte present. The potential greater sensitivity and specificity of the immunoradiometric procedure, coupled with the potential convenience of the ''universal'' labelled reagent, might allow such immunoradiometric techniques to be used effectively in the study of communicable diseases in developing countries. Development of these procedures was the subject of this investigation. Many components of these procedures had to be explored and provisionally optimized, including coating of assay tubes with ''extraction'' antibody, immunological purification of antibodies, labelling of antibodies, and intermediate steps toward these goals. Applications were thereupon tested using those provisionally optimized components. The ''universal'' labelled reagent, a donkey anti-rabbit antiserum, was successfully used in the assay of TSH; however, cross reactions of the reagent with non-rabbit immunoglobulins and other materials present seriously limited the sensitivity of the method. Using conventional immunoradiometric procedures, circulating TB and amoebic antibodies could be detected in patients suffering from these diseases. Similarly, circulating antigens in the same patients could also be detected, but not with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to provide a reliable analytical system. Numerous improvements will be required before these techniques

  17. Development of remote vibration measurement technique through turbulent media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Min Suk; Park, Seung Kyu; Chung, Heung Jone

    2002-12-01

    The effect of wavefront distortion of laser beam of a LDV(Laser Doppler Vibrometer) in the turbulence media was investigated for application of adaptive optics to LDV. The high-speed tip/tilt adaptive optics system and closed-loop steering algorithm were developed for real-time correction of the direction fluctuation of the laser beam of LDV. The measuring performance of the LDV was improved when the steering system was applied to LDV at the vibration frequency range of 10 Hz - 30 Hz. The high-speed Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor(400 Hz) was developed to measure the performance of the LDV due to wavefront distortion. The wavefront distortion due to the turbulence media induced low visibility and degraded the performance of the vibrometer. From the experiments, when the wavefront distortion is above 2 wavelengths in the cross section of the laser beam(dia. 20 mm), the vibration signal from laser vibrometer was severely degraded. When the wavefront distortion is smaller than one wave, the vibration signal was good. From the this research, high-speed closed-loop tip/tilt control technique of the laser beam was developed and applied to the laser metrology area. In the future, the adaptive optics system for wavefront correction will be applied to other research area.

  18. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon

    1997-07-01

    New human factors issues, such as evaluation of information navigation, the consideration of operator characteristics, and operator performance assessment, related to the HMI design based on VDUs are being risen. Thus, in order to solve these human factors issues, this project aims to establish the experimental technologies including the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement, data collection and analysis, and to develop ITF (Integrated Test Facility) suitable for the experiment of HMI design evaluation. For the establish of the experimental data analysis and evaluation methodologies, we developed as the following: (1) a paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analysis. (2) the methods for the assessment of operator`s mental workload (3) DAEXESS (data analysis and experiment evaluation supporting system). Also, we have established a experiment execution technologies through the preliminary experiments, such as the suitability evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of computerized operation procedure and an experiment of advanced alarm system (ADIOS). Finally, we developed the ITF including human machine simulator, telemetry system, an eye tracking system, an audio/video data measurement system, and three dimensional micro behaviour analysis system. (author). 81 refs., 68 tabs., 73 figs.

  19. Survey of image quality and radiographic technique of pediatric chest examinations performed in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.; Mora, P.; Defaz, M.Y.; Blanco, S.; Leyton, F.; Benavente, T.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Ramirez, R.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the results of a survey of entrance surface air kerma values (K e ), image quality and radiographic exposure parameters used in pediatric chest examinations performed in Latin America. This study is part of the activities of the IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/057 whose objective is to optimize the radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The survey was performed in nine hospitals in Argentina (1), Brazil (4), Chile (1), Costa Rica (1), Peru (1) and Ecuador (1). The study group consisted of 462 pediatric patients (Group I- from two days to one year, Group II- from four to six years of age) undergoing chest PA/AP examinations. At the time of the examination the exposure parameters (kVp, mAs, focal-spot-to-film distance, etc.) and patient information (gender, height, weight and age) were recorded. The radiographic image quality was evaluated by the local radiologist based on the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images in Pediatrics. The results showed that the exposure parameters used on newborn patients were in the majority outside the 60-65kV range recommended by the European Guidelines for a good radiographic practice. In the case of examinations of patients with age between 4 to 6 years, 80% were performed with a peak tube voltage within the 60-80 kV range, as recommended by the European Guidelines. It was found that none of countries fully comply with the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria and those criteria No. 2 and No. 3 (reproduction of the chest without rotation) received the lowest scores. Probably this occurs because there are no proper patient immobilization devices. The Ke values, for both patient groups, showed a wide dispersion, ranged from 10 μGy to 160μGy for the newborn patients and from 20μGy to 240μGy for infant patients. It is possible to conclude that, in the participating Latin American countries on this project

  20. Comparative cost assessment of the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis in epidemiological surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speich Benjamin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in epidemiological surveys and is believed to be an inexpensive method. The FLOTAC technique shows a higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of light-intensity soil-transmitted helminth infections but is reported to be more complex and expensive. We assessed the costs related to the collection, processing and microscopic examination of stool samples using the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques in an epidemiological survey carried out in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Methods We measured the time for the collection of a single stool specimen in the field, transfer to a laboratory, preparation and microscopic examination using standard protocols for the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques. Salaries of health workers, life expectancy and asset costs of materials, and infrastructure costs were determined. The average cost for a single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the FLOTAC dual or double technique were calculated. Results The average time needed to collect a stool specimen and perform a single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears or the FLOTAC dual or double technique was 20 min and 34 sec (20:34 min, 27:21 min, 28:14 min and 36:44 min, respectively. The total costs for a single and duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were US$ 1.73 and US$ 2.06, respectively, and for the FLOTAC double and dual technique US$ 2.35 and US$ 2.83, respectively. Salaries impacted most on the total costs of either method. Conclusions The time and cost for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis using either the Kato-Katz or FLOTAC method in epidemiological surveys are considerable. Our results can help to guide healthcare decision makers and scientists in budget planning and funding for epidemiological surveys, anthelminthic drug efficacy trials and monitoring of control interventions.

  1. Basin Visual Estimation Technique (BVET) and Representative Reach Approaches to Wadeable Stream Surveys: Methodological Limitations and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance R. Williams; Melvin L. Warren; Susan B. Adams; Joseph L. Arvai; Christopher M. Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Basin Visual Estimation Techniques (BVET) are used to estimate abundance for fish populations in small streams. With BVET, independent samples are drawn from natural habitat units in the stream rather than sampling "representative reaches." This sampling protocol provides an alternative to traditional reach-level surveys, which are criticized for their lack...

  2. Comparison of passive soil vapor survey techniques at a Tijeras Arroyo site, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, C.S.; Wade, W.M.; Tharp, T.; Brinkman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Soil vapor surveys were performed to characterize the approximate location of soil contaminants at a hazardous waste site. The samplers were from two separate companies and a comparison was made between the results of the two techniques. These results will be used to design further investigations at the site

  3. Development and Validation of a Novice Teacher and Supervisor Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    This brief presents initial evidence about the reliability and validity of a novice teacher survey and a novice teacher supervisor survey. The novice teacher and novice teacher supervisor surveys assess how well prepared novice teachers are to meet the job requirements of teaching. The surveys are designed to provide educator preparation programs…

  4. Development of aerial gamma radiation survey system III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Saito, Kimiaki; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru; Miyasaka, Satoshi.

    1985-01-01

    An aerial gamma-ray survey system using a helicopter has been developed since 1980 in order to perform quick gamma-ray survey covering a wide area. To form a line in the chain of the development, a series of flight measurements were conducted in Watarase reservoir, Tochigi prefecture, in which artificial gamma-ray fields were realized using 60 Co (100 and 400 mCi) and 137 Cs (100 and 300 mCi) point sources located on the ground. For the purpose of obtaining gamma-ray pulse height spectra in the field, 6 sets of NaI(Tl) scientillation detectors were prepared. These sets of detectors consist of ones for evaluation with high accuracy as the standard, for intercomparison with other authors' results, and for practical use. Two sets of them were boarded for each flight considering the exposure rate level and detector's sensitivity. The flight measurements were performed in a space of 20 m to 500 m in altitude, and 0 m to 500 m in horizontal distance from the source. The experimental results of the spatial gamma-ray distribution for each gamma-ray field satisfactorily agreed with calculational results by Monte Carlo method. Throughout this experiment, characteristics of this survey system and detectors were clarified, and versatile data processing and analysis code was completed. Also, a method for subtraction of background exposure rate in a field including artificial radiation component was discussed using energy band information, and the coefficients for this method were determined. These data obtained are expected to be used as widely applicable data not only for the interpretation of measured value, but also for analysis of environmental gamma-ray field. (author)

  5. Development of a technique for environmental treatment by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Jin, J. H.; Jung, Y. D. and others

    2000-04-01

    This study was carried out for the development of pilot plant which can produce industrial water from effluent of sewage treatment plant by irradiation. As a basic study, the characteristics on decomposition of organic compounds, decoloration and sterilization of bacteria were evaluated. An additive mainly composed by sponge type of TiO{sub 2} was developed for reduction of irradiation dose and enhancement of removal efficiency of organic compounds. The optimum pilot plant was composed of sysem with gamma irradiation/ozone/additive/ion exchange. The effluent with BOD 20 ppm, COD 25 ppm and color 25 ADMI could be treated to less than 5 ppm and 5 ADMI under the irradiation of 5 kGy. The disinfection of microorganism also could be done perfectively under the same irradiation. A small amount of heavy metal ions and inorganic ions, nitrogen, contained in effluent were removed by ion exchanger. From the operation of pilot plant it could be concluded that irradiation technique can be a good method for the produce of industrial water from effluent.

  6. Development of a technique for environmental treatment by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Jin, J. H.; Jung, Y. D. and others

    2000-04-01

    This study was carried out for the development of pilot plant which can produce industrial water from effluent of sewage treatment plant by irradiation. As a basic study, the characteristics on decomposition of organic compounds, decoloration and sterilization of bacteria were evaluated. An additive mainly composed by sponge type of TiO 2 was developed for reduction of irradiation dose and enhancement of removal efficiency of organic compounds. The optimum pilot plant was composed of sysem with gamma irradiation/ozone/additive/ion exchange. The effluent with BOD 20 ppm, COD 25 ppm and color 25 ADMI could be treated to less than 5 ppm and 5 ADMI under the irradiation of 5 kGy. The disinfection of microorganism also could be done perfectively under the same irradiation. A small amount of heavy metal ions and inorganic ions, nitrogen, contained in effluent were removed by ion exchanger. From the operation of pilot plant it could be concluded that irradiation technique can be a good method for the produce of industrial water from effluent

  7. Developing a Virtual Teach-To-Goal™ Inhaler Technique Learning Module: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Woodrick, Nicole M; Arora, Vineet M; Farnan, Jeanne M; Press, Valerie G

    Most hospitalized patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease misuse respiratory inhalers. An in-person educational strategy, teach-to-goal (TTG), improves inpatients' inhaler technique. To develop an effective, portable education intervention that remains accessible to hospitalized patients postdischarge for reinforcement of proper inhaler technique. A mixed methods approach at an urban academic hospital was used to iteratively develop, modify, and test a virtual teach-to-goal ™ (V-TTG ™ ) educational intervention using patient end-user feedback. A survey examined access and willingness to use technology for self-management education. Focus groups evaluated patients' feedback on access, functionality, and quality of V-TTG ™ . Forty-eight participants completed the survey, with most reporting having Internet access; 77% used the Internet at home and 82% used the Internet at least once every few weeks. More than 80% reported that they were somewhat or very likely to use V-TTG ™ to gain skills to improve their health. Most participants reported smartphone access (73%); half owned laptop computers (52%). Participants with asthma versus chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were more likely to own a smartphone, have a data plan, and have daily Internet use (P platform and delivery, Internet access, and technological literacy; functionality-usefulness, content, and teaching strategy; and quality-clarity, ease of use, length, and likability. V-TTG ™ is a promising educational tool for improving patients' inhaler technique, iteratively developed and refined with patient input. Patients in our urban, academic hospital overwhelmingly reported access to platforms and willingness to use V-TTG ™ for health education. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of analytical techniques for water and environmental samples (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Chul Hun; Jeon, Chi Wan; Jung, Kang Sup; Song, Kyung Sun; Kim, Sang Yeon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop new analytical methods with good detection limit for toxic inorganic and organic compounds. The analyses of CN, organic acids, particulate materials in environmental samples have been done using several methods such as Ion Chromatography, SPE, SPME, GC/MS, GC/FID, SPLITT (split-flow thin cell fractionation) during the second year of this project. Advantage and disadvantage of several distillation method (by KS, JIS, EPA) for CN analysis in wastewater were investigated. As the results, we proposed new distillation apparatus for CN analysis, which was proved to be simpler, faster and to get better recovery than conventional apparatus. And ion chromatograph/pulsed amperometric detector (IC/PAD) system instead of colorimetry for CN detection was setup to solve matrix interference. And SPE(solid phase extraction) and SPME (solid phase micro extraction) as liquid-solid extraction technique were applied to the analysis of phenols in wastewater. Optimum experimental conditions and factors influencing analytical results were determined. From these results, It could be concluded that C{sub 18} cartridge and polystyrene-divinylbenzene disk in SPE method, polyacrylate fiber in SPME were proper solid phase adsorbent for phenol. Optimum conditions to analyze phenol derivatives simultaneously were established. Also, Continuous SPLITT (Split-flow thin cell) Fractionation (CSF) is a new preparative separation technique that is useful for fractionation of particulate and macromolecular materials. CSF is carried out in a thin ribbon-like channel equipped with two splitters at both inlet and outlet of the channel. In this work, we set up a new CSF system, and tested using polystyrene latex standard particles. And then we fractionated particles contained in air and underground water based on their sedimentation coefficients using CSF. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 31 figs.

  9. Developing isotope techniques for water exploration in the Sahel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranyossy, J.F.; Louvat, D.; Maksoudi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA in the early 1980s started its first activities on hydrogeology in Mali, Niger, and Senegal through its technical co-operation programme. These activities included, first of all, local aquifer studies with environmental isotopes. The studies were found to be particularly useful for obtaining specific information on, for example, relationships between aquifers and between surface water and groundwater, and the existence or absence of recent recharge. Moreover, the IAEA established the basic infrastructures needed for the application of artificial tracer techniques and the use of nuclear instrumentation in hydrology and hydrosedimentology. Several factors underscored the need for co-ordinating the scientific activities already being carried out under existing bilateral projects. Firstly, the ''horizontal'' flow of information was very poor in spite of the similarity between the hydrological and hydrogeological problems encountered in the three countries. Secondly, political frontiers do not generally follow the boundaries of the hydrological basins, so that the same aquifer can be shared between several countries. Thirdly, the costly infrastructure established by the IAEA in certain countries deserved to be utilized at the regional level. To meet these concerns, an African regional project was launched 4 years ago on the development of isotope and nuclear techniques in hydrology in the Sahelian countries. Its main objectives were to further broaden ongoing studies in the participating countries; to strengthen training; to promote exchange of information on various previous studies; to foster co-operation between the different institutes involved in these studies; and to reinforce the infrastructures established by the IAEA and their utilization in the region

  10. Illumination Sufficiency Survey Techniques: In-situ Measurements of Lighting System Performance and a User Preference Survey for Illuminance in an Off-Grid, African Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-08-26

    Efforts to promote rechargeable electric lighting as a replacement for fuel-based light sources in developing countries are typically predicated on the notion that lighting service levels can be maintained or improved while reducing the costs and environmental impacts of existing practices. However, the extremely low incomes of those who depend on fuel-based lighting create a need to balance the hypothetically possible or desirable levels of light with those that are sufficient and affordable. In a pilot study of four night vendors in Kenya, we document a field technique we developed to simultaneously measure the effectiveness of lighting service provided by a lighting system and conduct a survey of lighting service demand by end-users. We took gridded illuminance measurements across each vendor's working and selling area, with users indicating the sufficiency of light at each point. User light sources included a mix of kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns, pressure lamps, and LED lanterns.We observed illuminance levels ranging from just above zero to 150 lux. The LED systems markedly improved the lighting service levels over those provided by kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns. Users reported that the minimum acceptable threshold was about 2 lux. The results also indicated that the LED lamps in use by the subjects did not always provide sufficient illumination over the desired retail areas. Our sample size is much too small, however, to reach any conclusions about requirements in the broader population. Given the small number of subjects and very specific type of user, our results should be regarded as indicative rather than conclusive. We recommend replicating the method at larger scales and across a variety of user types and contexts. Policymakers should revisit the subject of recommended illuminance levels regularly as LED technology advances and the price/service balance point evolves.

  11. TECHNIQUES AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Glukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author gives the reasoned proving that it’s necessary to set up the creative educational environment and adjustment of positive dialogue between the teacher and the trainee for education of such person, development of abilities of an objective reflection, interpretation of the phenomena, formulations of adequate conclusions, well-founded evaluating. Methods. The methods involve the analysis of the philosophical, psychology-pedagogical, methodical literature and the scientific periodical publications; generalisation of the Russian and foreign background, classification and arrangement of the considered issues, supervision. Results. Current approaches to the rendering of critical thinking and a problem of its formation in the scientific literature are considered; the concept «the creative educational environment» is specified; the ways of increasing the educational process efficiency are shown. Scientific novelty. The complex of procedures and the conditions promoting effective development of critical thinking skills is theoretically proved on the basis of the analysis of various information sources. Practical significance. The research outcomes and the recommended methods of critical thinking skills formation can be useful for the professors and lecturers of higher education institutions to optimize subject matter selection, techniques and methods of education under the conditions of dynamically updated educational process. 

  12. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, 2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, 3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, 4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, 5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). 6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: 1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, 2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, 3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, 4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, 5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, 6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  13. Lateral Violence in Nursing Survey: Instrument Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne S. Nemeth

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An examination of the psychometric properties of the Lateral Violence in Nursing Survey (LVNS, an instrument previously developed to measure the perceived incidence and severity of lateral violence (LV in the nursing workplace, was carried out. Conceptual clustering and principal components analysis were used with survey responses from 663 registered nurses and ancillary nursing staff in a southeastern tertiary care medical center. Where appropriate, Cronbach’s alpha (α evaluated internal consistency. The prevalence/severity of lateral violence items constitute two distinct subscales (LV by self and others with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.74 and 0.86, respectively. The items asking about potential causes of LV are unidimensional and internally consistent (alpha = 0.77 but there is no conceptually coherent theme underlying the various causes. Respondents rating a potential LV cause as “major” scored higher on both prevalence/severity subscales than those rating it a “minor” cause or not a cause. Subsets of items on the LVNS are internally reliable, supporting construct validity. Revisions of the original LVNS instrument will improve its use in future work.

  14. TIGER: Development of Thermal Gradient Compensation Algorithms and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, James; Parker, Peter A.; Rhew, Ray D.

    2004-01-01

    In a wind tunnel facility, the direct measurement of forces and moments induced on the model are performed by a force measurement balance. The measurement balance is a precision-machined device that has strain gages at strategic locations to measure the strain (i.e., deformations) due to applied forces and moments. The strain gages convert the strain (and hence the applied force) to an electrical voltage that is measured by external instruments. To address the problem of thermal gradients on the force measurement balance NASA-LaRC has initiated a research program called TIGER - Thermally-Induced Gradients Effects Research. The ultimate goals of the TIGER program are to: (a) understand the physics of the thermally-induced strain and its subsequent impact on load measurements and (b) develop a robust thermal gradient compensation technique. This paper will discuss the impact of thermal gradients on force measurement balances, specific aspects of the TIGER program (the design of a special-purpose balance, data acquisition and data analysis challenges), and give an overall summary.

  15. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  16. New developments in particle acceleration techniques. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1987-01-01

    A Workshop organised jointly by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA), the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3), the Institut pour la Recherche Fondamentale/Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (IRF/CEA) and the European Physical Society (EPS) was held at the Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire (LAL), Orsay, from 29 June to 4 July 1987. Its purpose was to review current experimental and theoretical developments in charged-particle accelerator techniques and to address problems related to future very-high-energy machines. These proceedings contain the great majority of the papers presented at the Workshop, the corresponding questions and answers, and the round-table discussion. The principal topics were semi-conventional high-frequency linacs, transformer acceleration mechanisms, acceleration using plasma, e + e - sources, including low-emittance production and preservation, final focus and interaction point, and other new ideas. Among the latter were open accelerating structures, crystal X-ray accelerators, ferroelectrics, and acceleration using lasers. (orig.)

  17. Developement of leakage localization technique by using acoustic signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. H.; Jeon, J. H.; Seo, D. H.; Kim, K. W. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-15

    The objective of this research is to develop a leakage monitoring system for pipelines or valves in the secondary water system of a nuclear power plant. The system aims to detect the existence of leakage and to estimate the leak location, especially by utilizing the noise generated from the leak. It is safe, precise real-time alert system compared with the previous monitoring methods and tools such as the visual test and the thermal imaging camera. When there exists leakage in the pipeline or valves of nuclear power plant, the noise due to gas flow is radiated through leak region. That is, the secondary water system with leakage generates different noise from the system without leakage. This motivates us to measure and analyze the noise generated from the secondary water system, so as firstly to detect the existence of leakage, and secondly to estimate the leak location by using the noise source identification technique such as beamforming and acoustic holography. Especially the beamforming method models the signal from the noise source to estimate the location of source. Therefore, it is necessary to model the noise due to leakage which is dependent upon parameters. In the process of leak localization, the reflected wave due to interior walls and the measurement noise should be removed for the precise estimation. Therefore, we attempt to characterize the reflected wave and the measurement noise by modeling the interior sound field, thus to remove them and to localize the leak location with high precision

  18. New developments in particle acceleration techniques. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1987-01-01

    A Workshop organised jointly by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA), the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3), the Institut pour la Recherche Fondamentale/Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (IRF/CEA) and the European Physical Society (EPS) was held at the Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire (LAL), Orsay, from 29 June to 4 July 1987. Its purpose was to review current experimental and theoretical developments in charged-particle accelerator techniques and to address problems related to future very-high-energy machines. These proceedings contain the great majority of the papers presented at the Workshop, the corresponding questions and answers, and the round-table discussion. The principal topics were semi-conventional high-frequency linacs, transformer acceleration mechanisms, acceleration using plasma, e + e - sources including low-emittance production and preservation, final focus and interaction point, and other new ideas. Among the latter were open accelerating structures, crystal X-ray accelerators, ferroelectrics, and acceleration using lasers. (orig.)

  19. Practical guidelines for developing a smartphone-based survey instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes Holger; Albæk, Erik

    The increasing relevance of mobile surveys makes it important to gather empirical evidence on designs of such surveys. This research note presents the results of a test study conducted to identify the best set-up for a smartphone-based survey. We base our analysis on a random sample of Danish...

  20. Annual Survey of Significant Developments in General Economic Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1934-01-01

    textabstractThis survey may be opened with some apologetic remarks. The first is that to write a complete survey would mean to write a book. This has not been the intention of the editor, nor does it lie within the power of the present writer. Therefore, this survey is, in principle, incomplete, as

  1. Development and Use of Tide Models in Alaska Supporting VDatum and Hydrographic Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Ocean Service uses observations, hydrodynamic models and interpolation techniques to develop many of its products and services. We examine how two projects, computation of tidal datums for vertical datum transformation and the estimation of tidal characteristics for hydrographic surveys, are being developed in Alaska and how they may be more seamlessly integrated. Preliminary VDatum development for Alaska is in progress for the Alaska Panhandle through the setup of a high resolution tide model that will be used to compute spatially varying tidal datums. Tide models such as these can be used for other projects that traditionally rely on estimation of tides in between data locations, such as the planning for hydrographic surveys that need correctors to adjust bathymetry to the chart datum. We therefore also examine how an existing model in western Alaska can be used for better supporting hydrographic survey planning. The results show that integration of tide models with nearshore observations can provide improved information for these correctors and future work will further evaluate this methodology with existing VDatum tide models.

  2. A survey of oil product demand elasticities for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Carol

    1994-01-01

    As more and more developing countries join the ranks of the rich they will consume both more oil and higher percentage of the lighter products. To satisfy this growing demand oil production and refinery capacity that can provide the right quantity and mix of products must be developed. In a companion piece, Dahl (1993) found the total demand for oil to be price inelastic (-0.34) and income elastic (1.32) These elasticities can give information on the total quantity of oil that might be demanded, the total amount of distillation capacity that might be needed and the overall increases in product prices that might be necessary to choke off demand growth. However, with this overall growth in product demand, the more the shift towards the lighter portion of the barrel, the more complex the refinery and the greater the demand for downstream capital. To provide information on this mix in developing countries in the coming years, this paper surveys the available work on econometric demand elasticities by oil product. (author)

  3. Survey of renewable energy utilization and development potential in Oceania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports fiscal 2000 survey of renewable energy utilization and development potential in Oceania. In Australia and New Zealand, renewable energy has already fairly been used. In Australia, it is promoted on the government policy level, with cost reduction and improved reliability in progress. The growth of 2% is set as a target in the year 2010. Promising are biomass and wind, while contributory in the long run are photovoltaic energies. New installations of hydraulic power generation are few, but potential is high for mini hydraulic power generation. Social interest is also comparatively high in renewable energies and greenhouse effect gas. However, further technological development is necessary for a full-scale contribution to global environmental problems. The situation in other south Pacific nations depends on their policy, economic condition and level of industrialization; each country heavily imports diesel oil for power generation, is under-developed industry-wise, and is a low income nation. The countries are desperately in need of foreign investment for the purpose of solving these problems. (NEDO)

  4. A Survey on Optimal Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Improve the Performance of Mechanical Sensors in Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Wilmar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a survey on recent applications of optimal signal processing techniques to improve the performance of mechanical sensors is made. Here, a comparison between classical filters and optimal filters for automotive sensors is made, and the current state of the art of the application of robust and optimal control and signal processing techniques to the design of the intelligent (or smart) sensors that today's cars need is presented through several experimental results that show that the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques is the clear way to go. However, the switch between the traditional methods of designing automotive sensors and the new ones cannot be done overnight because there are some open research issues that have to be solved. This paper draws attention to one of the open research issues and tries to arouse researcher's interest in the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques.

  5. Software safety analysis techniques for developing safety critical software in the digital protection system of the LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Cheon, Se Woo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Sim, Yun Sub

    2001-02-01

    This report has described the software safety analysis techniques and the engineering guidelines for developing safety critical software to identify the state of the art in this field and to give the software safety engineer a trail map between the code and standards layer and the design methodology and documents layer. We have surveyed the management aspects of software safety activities during the software lifecycle in order to improve the safety. After identifying the conventional safety analysis techniques for systems, we have surveyed in details the software safety analysis techniques, software FMEA(Failure Mode and Effects Analysis), software HAZOP(Hazard and Operability Analysis), and software FTA(Fault Tree Analysis). We have also surveyed the state of the art in the software reliability assessment techniques. The most important results from the reliability techniques are not the specific probability numbers generated, but the insights into the risk importance of software features. To defend against potential common-mode failures, high quality, defense-in-depth, and diversity are considered to be key elements in digital I and C system design. To minimize the possibility of CMFs and thus increase the plant reliability, we have provided D-in-D and D analysis guidelines.

  6. Software safety analysis techniques for developing safety critical software in the digital protection system of the LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Cheon, Se Woo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Sim, Yun Sub

    2001-02-01

    This report has described the software safety analysis techniques and the engineering guidelines for developing safety critical software to identify the state of the art in this field and to give the software safety engineer a trail map between the code and standards layer and the design methodology and documents layer. We have surveyed the management aspects of software safety activities during the software lifecycle in order to improve the safety. After identifying the conventional safety analysis techniques for systems, we have surveyed in details the software safety analysis techniques, software FMEA(Failure Mode and Effects Analysis), software HAZOP(Hazard and Operability Analysis), and software FTA(Fault Tree Analysis). We have also surveyed the state of the art in the software reliability assessment techniques. The most important results from the reliability techniques are not the specific probability numbers generated, but the insights into the risk importance of software features. To defend against potential common-mode failures, high quality, defense-in-depth, and diversity are considered to be key elements in digital I and C system design. To minimize the possibility of CMFs and thus increase the plant reliability, we have provided D-in-D and D analysis guidelines

  7. Vocabulary Development in European Portuguese: A Replication Study Using the Language Development Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Nyame, Josephine; Dias, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective was to replicate previous cross­linguistic findings by comparing Portuguese and U.S. children with respect to (a) effects of language, gender, and age on vocabulary size; (b) lexical composition; and (c) late talking. Method: We used the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) with children (18-35 months) learning…

  8. An integrated technique for developing real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooman, J.J.M.; Vain, J.

    1995-01-01

    The integration of conceptual modeling techniques, formal specification, and compositional verification is considered for real time systems within the knowledge engineering context. We define constructive transformations from a conceptual meta model to a real time specification language and give

  9. Development of Novel Corrosion Techniques for a Green Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Zaki; Patel, Faheemuddin

    2012-01-01

    The synergistic effect of air pollution, brown clouds and greenhouse gasses is deleterious to human health and industrial products. The use of toxic inhibitors, chemicals in water treatment plants, and anti-fouling agents in desalination plants has contributed to the greenhouse effect. Conventional anti-corrosion techniques such as paints, coatings, inhibitor treatments, and cathodic protection paid no regard to greenhouse effect. Work on eco-friendly anti-corrosion techniques is scanty and l...

  10. Development of evaluation method for software safety analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Tu, W.; Shih, C.; Chen, C.; Yang, W.; Yih, S.; Kuo, C.; Chen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Following the massive adoption of digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system for nuclear power plant (NPP), various Software Safety Analysis (SSA) techniques are used to evaluate the NPP safety for adopting appropriate digital I and C system, and then to reduce risk to acceptable level. However, each technique has its specific advantage and disadvantage. If the two or more techniques can be complementarily incorporated, the SSA combination would be more acceptable. As a result, if proper evaluation criteria are available, the analyst can then choose appropriate technique combination to perform analysis on the basis of resources. This research evaluated the applicable software safety analysis techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/ noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. These indexes may help the decision makers and the software safety analysts to choose the best SSA combination arrange their own software safety plan. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various SSA combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (without transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and Simulation-based model analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantage are the completeness complexity

  11. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahr Weiss

    Full Text Available Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers.432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62% participating. The survey assessed participants' (A demographic and global health background, (B perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D potential solutions.Thirty-four (of 66 barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale, Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness.That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional

  12. Problem-solving and developing quality management methods and techniques on the example of automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Łuczak; Radoslaw Wolniak

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge about methods and techniques of quality management together with their effective use can be definitely regarded as an indication of high organisational culture. Using such methods and techniques in an effective way can be attributed to certain level of maturity, as far as the quality management system in an organisation is concerned. There is in the paper an analysis of problem-solving methods and techniques of quality management in the automotive sector in Poland. The survey wa...

  13. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: development of SACOM> (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. development of human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  14. Development of aerial gamma radiation survey system, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1985-02-01

    Field experiments have been performed by JAERI since 1982 to obtain fundamental data required for development of aerial radiation survey system. In order to supplement the fundamental radiation data, theoretical calculations have been carried out. The utilized Monte Carlo transport program was verified by simulative calculations of the field experiments, and characteristics data on environmental gamma rays have been accumulated. In this report, the field experiments in 1981 and 1982 were simulated making use of the Monte Carlo transport calculation code YURI developed in JAERI. Comparisons were made between experimental and calculated results for exposure rate and flux density originated from terrestrial sources, and from a point source at height of 2.5 m above the ground. Good agreements between the data verified the transport program. As fundamental characteristics data on environmental gamma rays, spatial distributions of exposure, fluence, energy spectra, angular spectra and average energy were reported and discussed, for terrestrial sources of 40 K, 232 Th-series and 238 U-series, for a plane source on the ground and for a point source at 2.5 m above the ground. (author)

  15. Entrepreneurship development policymaking factors: An exploratory survey of tourism in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jafari Moghaddam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread presence of small and medium enterprise (SME and entrepreneurial businesses (EB as well as governments' key role in tourism sphere, especially in developing countries. As a result, the importance of policymaking in SME and EB has been growing through last decade. This study is trying to identify and prioritize the factors influencing SME and EB policy in Iran tourism scope. For this research, data were collected via exploratory mixed method in two steps. Firstly, qualitative techniques such as literature review has been done to find all scholarly work and then using qualitative content analysis, factors influencing SME policy in tourism has been identified. In second step, quantitative methods, namely survey and Statistical techniques were used for analysis. Population of this study comprised policymaking and tourism entrepreneurship experts of Iran. The survey results showed there were 40 variables into six factors under two main dimensions influence on SME and EB. Factors identified in this study can be used to formulate macro policies in the tourism industry and national policymakers can utilize these concepts for entrepreneurship and SME's development in tourism. This research contributes to the existing literature in the field of entrepreneurship policymaking by introduce a systematic framework. This new framework can provide better insights and inform thinking in the area of entrepreneurship policymaking.

  16. Entrepreneurship development policymaking factors: An exploratory survey of tourism in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jafari Moghaddam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread presence of small and medium enterprise (SME and entrepreneurial businesses (EB as well as governments' key role in tourism sphere, especially in developing countries. As a result, the importance of policymaking in SME and EB has been growing through last decade. This study is trying to identify and prioritize the factors influencing SME and EB policy in Iran tourism scope. For this research, data were collected via exploratory mixed method in two steps. Firstly, qualitative techniques such as literature review has been done to find all scholarly work and then using qualitative content analysis, factors influencing SME policy in tourism has been identified. In second step, quantitative methods, namely survey and Statistical techniques were used for analysis. Population of this study comprised policymaking and tourism entrepreneurship experts of Iran. The survey results showed there were 40 variables into six factors under two main dimensions influence on SME and EB. Factors identified in this study can be used to formulate macro policies in the tourism industry and national policymakers can utilize these concepts for entrepreneurship and SME's development in tourism. This research contributes to the existing literature in the field of entrepreneurship policymaking by introduce a systematic framework. This new framework can provide better insights and inform thinking in the area of entrepreneurship policymaking.

  17. A Survey on Voltage Boosting Techniques for Step-Up DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Gorji, Saman Asghari

    2016-01-01

    boosting techniques and topologies are large, which at times may be confusing and difficult to follow/adapt for different applications. Considering these aspects and in order to make a clear sketch of the general law and framework of various voltage boosting techniques, this paper comprehensively reviews...

  18. A survey of compiler development aids. [concerning lexical, syntax, and semantic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, B. P.; Hodges, B. C.; Hsia, P.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical background was established for the compilation process by dividing it into five phases and explaining the concepts and algorithms that underpin each. The five selected phases were lexical analysis, syntax analysis, semantic analysis, optimization, and code generation. Graph theoretical optimization techniques were presented, and approaches to code generation were described for both one-pass and multipass compilation environments. Following the initial tutorial sections, more than 20 tools that were developed to aid in the process of writing compilers were surveyed. Eight of the more recent compiler development aids were selected for special attention - SIMCMP/STAGE2, LANG-PAK, COGENT, XPL, AED, CWIC, LIS, and JOCIT. The impact of compiler development aids were assessed some of their shortcomings and some of the areas of research currently in progress were inspected.

  19. Development of a hand-held fast neutron survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Yamano, T.

    2011-01-01

    A neutron survey meter with a ZnS(Ag) scintillator to measure recoil protons was built. The detection probe weighs ∼2 kg, therefore providing us with true portability. Performance tests exhibited satisfactory neutron dosimetry characteristics in unmoderated or lightly moderated fission neutron fields and in particular work environments at a mixed oxide fuel facility. This new survey meter will augment a routine of neutron monitoring that is inconveniently being carried out by moderator-based neutron survey meters. (authors)

  20. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Site investigation of operator tasks, 2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, 3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, 4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. 1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, 2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, 3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, 4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author)

  1. Development of in-situ trap characterisation techniques for EMCCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, N.; Hall, D.; Holland, A.; Burgon, R.; Jordan, D.; Morrissey, P.; Demers, R.; Harding, L. K.; Nemati, B.; Effinger, R.; Bottom, M.

    2018-02-01

    The "trap pumping" technique has seen considerable use over recent years as a means to probe the intrinsic properties of silicon defects that can impact charge transfer performance within CCD-based technologies. While the theory behind the technique is reasonably well understood, it has to date only been applied to relatively simple pixel designs where the motion of charge between pixel phases is fairly easy to predict. For some devices, the intrinsic pixel architecture is more complex and can consist of unequal phase sizes and additional implants that deform the electronic potential. Here, we present the implementation of the trap pumping technique for the CCD201-20, a 2-phase Teledyne e2v EMCCD. Clocking schemes are presented that can provide the location of silicon defects to sub-micron resolution. Experimental techniques that allow determination of trap energy levels and emission cross sections are presented. These are then implemented on an irradiated CCD201-20 to determine the energy level and emission cross section for defects thought to be the double acceptor state of the silicon divacancy (VV--) and carbon-phosphorus (CiPs) pairs. An improvement in charge transfer performance through optimised parallel clock delay is demonstrated and found to correlate with the properties of defects found using the trap pumping technique.

  2. Several problems and their countermeasures of recent developments in nuclear techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuanfu

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear technique that is developing at top speed in China is introduced. Several characteristics of recent international developments in nuclear techniques are discussed and a precise classification is suggested. Particularly the present problems and their countermeasures of recent developments in nuclear techniques in China are explored

  3. Robustness Area Technique Developing Guidelines for Power System Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Murinelli Pesoti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel energy based technique called the Robustness Area (RA technique that measures power system robustness levels, as a helper for planning Power System Restorations (PSRs. The motivation is on account of the latest blackouts in Brazil, where the local Independent System Operator (ISO encountered difficulties related to circuit disconnections during the restoration. The technique identifies vulnerable and robust buses, pointing out system areas that should be firstly reinforced during PSR, in order to enhance system stability. A Brazilian power system restoration area is used to compare the guidelines adopted by the ISO with a more suitable new plan indicated by the RA tool. Active power and reactive power load margin and standing phase angle show the method efficiency as a result of a well balanced system configuration, enhancing the restoration performance. Time domain simulations for loop closures and severe events also show the positive impact that the proposed tool brings to PSRs.

  4. Treatment of AKI in developing and developed countries: An international survey of pediatric dialysis modalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Raina

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a pediatric incidence ranging from 19.3% to 24.1%. Treatment of pediatric AKI is a source of debate in varying geographical regions. Currently CRRT is the treatment for pediatric AKI, but limitations due to cost and accessibility force use of adult equipment and other therapeutic options such as peritoneal dialysis (PD and hemodialysis (HD. It was hypothesized that more cost-effective measures would likely be used in developing countries due to lesser resource availability.A 26-question internet-based survey was distributed to 650 pediatric Nephrologists. There was a response rate of 34.3% (223 responses. The survey was distributed via pedneph and pcrrt email servers, inquiring about demographics, technology, resources, pediatric-specific supplies, and preference in renal replacement therapy (RRT in pediatric AKI. The main method of analysis was to compare responses about treatments between nephrologists in developed countries and nephrologists in developing countries using difference-of-proportions tests.PD was available in all centers surveyed, while HD was available in 85.1% and 54.1% (p = 0.00, CRRT was available in 60% and 33.3% (p = 0.001, and SLED was available in 20% and 25% (p = 0.45 centers of developed and developing world respectively. In developing countries, 68.5% (p = 0.000 of physicians preferred PD to costlier therapies, while in developed countries it was found that physicians favored HD (72%, p = 0.00 or CRRT (24%, p = 0.041 in infants.Lack of availability of resources, trained physicians and funds often preclude standards of care in developing countries, and there is much development needed in terms of meeting higher global standards for treating pediatric AKI patients. PD remains the main modality of choice for treatment of AKI in infants in developing world.

  5. Development of a computational technique to measure cartilage contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Ryan; Lapner, Michael; Lalone, Emily A; King, Graham J W; Johnson, James A

    2014-03-21

    Computational measurement of joint contact distributions offers the benefit of non-invasive measurements of joint contact without the use of interpositional sensors or casting materials. This paper describes a technique for indirectly measuring joint contact based on overlapping of articular cartilage computer models derived from CT images and positioned using in vitro motion capture data. The accuracy of this technique when using the physiological nonuniform cartilage thickness distribution, or simplified uniform cartilage thickness distributions, is quantified through comparison with direct measurements of contact area made using a casting technique. The efficacy of using indirect contact measurement techniques for measuring the changes in contact area resulting from hemiarthroplasty at the elbow is also quantified. Using the physiological nonuniform cartilage thickness distribution reliably measured contact area (ICC=0.727), but not better than the assumed bone specific uniform cartilage thicknesses (ICC=0.673). When a contact pattern agreement score (s(agree)) was used to assess the accuracy of cartilage contact measurements made using physiological nonuniform or simplified uniform cartilage thickness distributions in terms of size, shape and location, their accuracies were not significantly different (p>0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that cartilage contact can be measured indirectly based on the overlapping of cartilage contact models. However, the results also suggest that in some situations, inter-bone distance measurement and an assumed cartilage thickness may suffice for predicting joint contact patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a liquid filter testing technique using radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Surender; Ramarathinam, K.; Khan, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Efficient removal of suspended matter from liquids was always in demand in industries as a process requirement for the recovery of suspended materials. In nuclear industry the filters are required to remove fine suspended matter from water in reactors, effluent treatment plants, fuel reprocessing plants etc. The filters are used to maintain clarity and to limit the activity level to a minimum. In effluent treatment plants low level liquid waste is discharged to the environment after removing active suspended matter by filters. Various type of liquid filters are available in the market to meet the demands of different industries. These filters must be evaluated for their removal effectiveness for particulate matter from liquids. The filters are evaluated using several techniques like gravimetric analysis, turbidity measurement, direct counting of particles using optical and electronic instruments etc. All the techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. Counting of radioactive particles using radiation counters is a simple and sensitive technique. It involves the neutron activation of selected test powders which are dispersed in the liquid and led through the test filter; the up-stream and down-stream concentrations are measured using GM counter. This technique was found to be consistent and reproducible in the low, middle and high ranges of efficiency. Selection of a test powder, its activation and use for evaluating liquid filters are dealt with. (auth.)

  7. Development of techniques for furthering the use of isotope radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamorkar, R.R.; Singh, G.; Kalurkar, A.R.; Jagasia, N.S.; Malhotra, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    Isotope radiography techniques in the non-conventional applications such as : (a) hot radiography - a method for examination of radioactive materials, and (b) thin section radiography for inspection of biological specimen and non-metallic specimen are described. Also, a process used for the reproduction of gamma-graphs of welds and castings has been discussed in detail. (author)

  8. Development of evaluation method for software hazard identification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H. W.; Chen, M. H.; Shih, C.; Yih, S.; Kuo, C. T.; Wang, L. H.; Yu, Y. C.; Chen, C. W.

    2006-01-01

    This research evaluated the applicable software hazard identification techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flow-graph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various software hazard identification combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (with transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and simulation-based model-analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantages are the completeness complexity and implementation cost. This evaluation method can be a platform to reach common consensus for the stakeholders. Following the evolution of software hazard identification techniques, the evaluation results could be changed. However, the insight of software hazard identification techniques is much more important than the numbers obtained by the evaluation. (authors)

  9. Development of technique for diagnostics of social reserves of development of collective labour potential

    OpenAIRE

    Голубєв, Станіслав Миколайович

    2015-01-01

    The problems of diagnostics of social reserves of the collective labour potential are considered in the article. The aim of this study is to develop diagnostic techniques of social reserves of the collective labour potential in the work and the essence of the concept of "social reserves" as a subject of study of economics and their features in the study of collective labour potential. The use of these reserves can increase the efficiency of the labour collective processes by improving coopera...

  10. Broadcast Expenses Controlling Techniques in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The blind flooding of query packets in route discovery more often characterizes the broadcast storm problem, exponentially increases energy consumption of intermediate nodes and congests the entire network. In such a congested network, the task of establishing the path between resources may become very complex and unwieldy. An extensive research work has been done in this area to improve the route discovery phase of routing protocols by reducing broadcast expenses. The purpose of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of existing broadcasting techniques for the route discovery phase, in order to bring about an efficient broadcasting technique for determining the route with minimum conveying nodes in ad-hoc networks. The study is designed to highlight the collective merits and demerits of such broadcasting techniques along with certain conclusions that would contribute to the choice of broadcasting techniques.

  11. SELF-ASSEMBLED ROV AND PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SURVEYS WITH LOW COST TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Costa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In last years, ROVs, have been employed to explore underwater environments and have played an important role for documentation and surveys in different fields of scientific application. In 2017, the Laboratorio di Fotogrammetria of Iuav University of Venice has decided to buy an OpenRov, a low cost ROV that could be assembled by ourselves to add some external components for our necessities, to document archaeological sites. The paper is related to the photogrammetric survey for the documentation of underwater environments and to the comparison between different solutions applied on a case studio, five marble columns on a sandy bottom at 5 meters deep. On the lateral sides of the ROV, we have applied two GoPro Hero4 Session, which have documented the items both with a series of images and with a video. The geometric accuracy of the obtained 3D model has been evaluated through comparison with a photogrammetric model realized with a professional reflex camera, Nikon D610. Some targets have been topographically surveyed with a trilateration and have been used to connected in the same reference system the different models, allowing the comparisons of the point clouds. Remote Operating Vehicles offer not only safety for their operators, but are also a relatively low cost alternative. The employment of a low-cost vehicle adapted to the necessities of surveys support a request for safer, cheaper and efficient methods for exploring underwater environments.

  12. Developing and testing the CHORDS: Characteristics of Responsible Drinking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Goodson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Report on the development and psychometric testing of a theoretically and evidence-grounded instrument, the Characteristics of Responsible Drinking Survey (CHORDS). Instrument subjected to four phases of pretesting (cognitive validity, cognitive and motivational qualities, pilot test, and item evaluation) and a final posttest implementation. Large public university in Texas. Randomly selected convenience sample (n  =  729) of currently enrolled students. This 78-item questionnaire measures individuals' responsible drinking beliefs, motivations, intentions, and behaviors. Cronbach α, split-half reliability, principal components analysis and Spearman ρ were conducted to investigate reliability, stability, and validity. Measures in the CHORDS exhibited high internal consistency reliability and strong correlations of split-half reliability. Factor analyses indicated five distinct scales were present, as proposed in the theoretical model. Subscale composite scores also exhibited a correlation to alcohol consumption behaviors, indicating concurrent validity. The CHORDS represents the first instrument specifically designed to assess responsible drinking beliefs and behaviors. It was found to elicit valid and reliable data among a college student sample. This instrument holds much promise for practitioners who desire to empirically investigate dimensions of responsible drinking.

  13. A global survey of hydrogen energy research, development and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    Several factors have led to growing interest in a hydrogen energy economy, especially for transportation. A successful transition to a major role for hydrogen will require much greater cost-effectiveness, fueling infrastructure, consumer acceptance, and a strategy for its basis in renewable energy feedstocks. Despite modest attention to the need for a sustainable hydrogen energy system in several countries, in most cases in the short to mid term hydrogen will be produced from fossil fuels. This paper surveys the global status of hydrogen energy research and development (R and D) and public policy, along with the likely energy mix for making it. The current state of hydrogen energy R and D among auto, energy and fuel-cell companies is also briefly reviewed. Just two major auto companies and two nations have specific targets and timetables for hydrogen fuel cells or vehicle production, although the EU also has an aggressive, less specific strategy. Iceland and Brazil are the only nations where renewable energy feedstocks are envisioned as the major or sole future source of hydrogen. None of these plans, however, are very certain. Thus, serious questions about the sustainability of a hydrogen economy can be raised

  14. Harassment in workplace among school teachers: development of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Milić, Ranko; Knezević, Bojana; Mulić, Rosanda; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2008-08-01

    To develop a questionnaire on harassment in the workplace among teachers at primary and secondary schools. We analyzed the existing questionnaires on harassment in the workplace and developed a new one was to specifically address harassment of teachers in the public education sector. The questionnaire was then experimentally applied to a sample of 764 primary and secondary school teachers in Split Dalmatia County, Croatia. It included three scales -exposure to harassment, witnessing harassment, and disturbance by harassment. Validity of the three scales was examined by factor analysis. All three scales showed satisfactory metric characteristics: Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.93 for exposure scale, 0.95 for witnessing scale, and 0.97 for disturbance scale. Out of 764 teachers surveyed, 164 (22.4%) were exposed to and 192 (31.7%) witnessed different kinds of harassment in the previous 12 months. There were significantly more of those who experienced harassment as witnesses (chi(2)(1)=249.301; Pharassment disturbed women more than men (chi(2)(1)=5.27; P=0.022). Those who were exposed to harassment had significantly lower median age (42; range 23-68) than those who were not exposed (45; range 23-65) (U=31401.50; z=2.129; P=0.033). The questionnaire registered wide spectrum of harassment types, indicating the need for continuous monitoring and systematic work on the prevention of these phenomena. The study showed that exposure to harassment is associated with age, indicating that younger teachers should be the target population for detection and prevention of workplace harassment.

  15. Comprehensive geophysical survey technique in exploration for deep-buried hydrothermal type uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, D.

    2014-01-01

    According to recent drilling results, uranium mineralization has been found underground more than 1000 m deep in the Xiangshan volcanic basin, in where uranium exploration has been carried out for over 50 years. This paper presents a comprehensive geophysical survey technique, including audio magnetotelluric method (AMT), high resolution ground magnetic and radon survey, which aim to prospect deep-buried and concealed uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin. Based on research and application, a comprehensive geophysical technique consisting of data acquisition, processing and interpretation has been established. Concealed rock and ore-controlling structure buried deeper than 1000 m can be detected by using this technique. Moreover, one kind of anti-interference technique of AMT survey is presented, which can eliminate the interference induced by the high-voltage power lines. Result of AMT in Xiangshan volcanic basin is demonstrated as high-low-high mode, which indicates there are three layers in geology. The upper layer with high resistivity is mainly the react of porphyroclastic lava. The middle layer with low resistivity is metamorphic schists or dellenite whereas the lower layer with high resistivity is inferred as granite. The interface between middle and lower layer is recognized as the potential zone for occurrence of uranium deposits. According to the corresponding relation of the resistivity and magnetic anomaly with uranium ore bodies, the tracing model of faults and interfaces between the different rocks, and the forecasting model of advantageous area for uranium deposits have been established. In terms of the forecasting model, some significant sections for uranium deposits were delineated in the west of the Xiangshan volcanic basin. As a result, some achievements on uranium prospecting have been acquired. High grade economic uranium ore bodies have been found in several boreholes, which are located in the forecasted zones. (author)

  16. Method development for arsenic analysis by modification in spectrophotometric technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a non-metallic constituent, present naturally in groundwater due to some minerals and rocks. Arsenic is not geologically uncommon and occurs in natural water as arsenate and arsenite. Additionally, arsenic may occur from industrial discharges or insecticide application. World Health Organization (WHO and Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority have recommended a permissible limit of 10 ppb for arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic at lower concentrations can be determined in water by using high tech instruments like the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (hydride generation. Because arsenic concentration at low limits of 1 ppb can not be determined easily with simple spectrophotometric technique, the spectrophotometric technique using silver diethyldithiocarbamate was modified to achieve better results, up to the extent of 1 ppb arsenic concentration.

  17. The generalized multipole technique for light scattering recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Yuri

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the Generalized Multipole Technique as a fast and powerful theoretical and computation tool to simulate light scattering by nonspherical particles. It also demonstrates the considerable potential of the method. In recent years, the concept has been applied in new fields, such as simulation of electron energy loss spectroscopy and has been used to extend other methods, like the null-field method, making it more widely applicable. The authors discuss particular implementations of the GMT methods, such as the Discrete Sources Method (DSM), Multiple Multipole Program (MMP), the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS), the Filamentary Current Method (FCM), the Method of Fictitious Sources (MFS) and the Null-Field Method with Discrete Sources (NFM-DS). The Generalized Multipole Technique is a surface-based method to find the solution of a boundary-value problem for a given differential equation by expanding the fields in terms of fundamental or other singular solutions of this equation. The amplitudes ...

  18. Strategy Development through Interview Technique from Narrative Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the successful strategy formulation process of a new purchasing department at an international engineering group. Design/methodology/approach: The strategy formulation was co-created by the department manager and employees at a storytelling...... workshop, facilitated with interview technique from narrative therapy, and later authorized by the business area director. The organizational intervention preceded the scholarly inquiry. Findings: Employees’ retrospective storytelling about working at the company enabled them to formulate a joint mission...... statement using words and expressions from their own stories. Prospective storytelling enabled them to formulate a joint medium- and long-term vision and a corresponding action plan. This paper proposes interview technique from narrative therapy as a new practice-oriented strategic management tool and calls...

  19. Development of irradiation technique on controlling food contamination residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Xiong Shanbai; Xiong Guangquan; Cheng Wei; Chen Yuxia; Liao Tao; Li Xin; Lin Ruotai

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the researches of irradiation technology on controlling food mycotoxin, pesticide, veterinary drugs and fishery drugs residue was summarized. And the degradation rate, mechanism, products and toxicities of food contamination were expatiated. The free radical from irradiation attack the site of weaker bond, and the less or more toxic substances were produced, which lead to the degradation of the food contamination. The limitations and future application of irradiation technique on controlling food contamination were also analyzed. (authors)

  20. Further contribution to the development of nuclear stethoscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, M.; Nemeth, L.; Kantor, E.; Kiss, J.; Bocsa, Z.; Sziberth, P.; Karman, M.

    1991-01-01

    After the introduction of radiocardiography (RCG) function analysis, the method has gradually been improved by applying scintillation probes, semiconductor detectors and computer evaluation. Miniature semiconductor detectors were fixed onto the chest, the detection efficiency and energy resolution was clarified to further improve the RCG technique. Various semiconductor devices were tested and compared. The RCG was combined with Holter monitoring and ECG. Photodiode RCG was extended to ergometric measurements. These new improvements were evaluated. (R.P.) 8 refs.; 8 figs

  1. New developments in techniques for information processing in radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, R.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1981-01-01

    Processing of scintigraphic data has passed through different stages in the past fifteen years. After an 'euphoric' era when large off-line computer facilities were used to process very low-quality rectilinear scan pictures, a much more critical period followed the introduction of on-line minicomputer systems to acquire, process and visualize scintillation camera data. A selection of some of the available techniques that could improve the extraction of information from scintigraphic examinations in routine is presented. Tomography has been excluded. As examples, the different techniques of (a) inhomogeneity correction of camera response and (b) respiratory motion corrections are used to show one evolutionary process in the use of computer systems. Filtering has been for a long time the major area of research in scintigraphic image processing. Only very simple (usually smoothing) filters are widely distributed. Little use of more 'powerful' filters in clinical data has been made, and very few serious evaluations have been published. Nevertheless, the number of installed minicomputer and microprocessor systems is increasing rapidly, but in general performing tasks other than filtering. The reasons for this (relative) failure are examined. Some 'new' techniques of image processing are presented. The compression of scintigraphic information is important because of the expected need in the near future for handling of large numbers of static pictures as in dynamic and tomographic studies. For dynamic information processing, the present methodology has been narrowed to those techniques that permit the entire 'data space' to be manipulated (as opposed to curve fitting after region of interest definition). 'Functional' imaging was the first step in this process. 'Factor analysis' could be the next. The results obtained by various research laboratories are reviewed. (author)

  2. Development of Novel Corrosion Techniques for a Green Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of air pollution, brown clouds and greenhouse gasses is deleterious to human health and industrial products. The use of toxic inhibitors, chemicals in water treatment plants, and anti-fouling agents in desalination plants has contributed to the greenhouse effect. Conventional anti-corrosion techniques such as paints, coatings, inhibitor treatments, and cathodic protection paid no regard to greenhouse effect. Work on eco-friendly anti-corrosion techniques is scanty and largely proprietary. The use of nano-TiO2 particles introduced in alkyds and polyurethane-based coatings showed a higher corrosion resistance compared to conventional TiO2 coatings with significant photocatalytic activity to kill bacteria. The use of UV radiations for photo-inhibition of stainless steel in chloride solution can replace toxic inhibitors. Corrosion inhibition has also been achieved by using natural materials such as polymers instead of toxic chemical inhibitors, without adverse environmental impact. TiO2 films exposed to UV radiation have shown the capability to protect the steel without sacrificing the film. Self-healing materials with encapsulated nanoparticles in paints and coatings have shown to heal the defects caused by corrosion. These innovative techniques provide a direction to the corrosion scientists, engineers, and environmentalists who are concerned about the increasing contamination of the planet and maintaining a green environment.

  3. Development of residential-conservation-survey methodology for the US Air Force. Interim report. Task two

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, D. W.; Hartman, T. L.; Lau, A. S.

    1981-11-13

    A US Air Force (USAF) Residential Energy Conservation Methodology was developed to compare USAF needs and available data to the procedures of the Residential Conservation Service (RCS) program as developed for general use by utility companies serving civilian customers. Attention was given to the data implications related to group housing, climatic data requirements, life-cycle cost analysis, energy saving modifications beyond those covered by RCS, and methods for utilizing existing energy consumption data in approaching the USAF survey program. Detailed information and summaries are given on the five subtasks of the program. Energy conservation alternatives are listed and the basic analysis techniques to be used in evaluating their thermal performane are described. (MCW)

  4. Mammalian Survey Techniques for Level II Natural Resource Inventories on Corps of Engineers Projects (Part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    sheep (Ovis dalli dalli), mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) and other hoofed animals are often surveyed using aerial counts from fixed-wing...Society Bulletin 34:69-73. Hilty, J. A., and A. M. Merenlender. 2004. Use of riparian corridors and vineyards by mammalian preda- tors in northern...Witmer, and R. M. Engeman. 2004. Feral swine impacts on agriculture and the environment. Sheep and Goat Research Journal 19:34-40. Slade, N. A., and

  5. Polish Vocabulary Development in 2-Year-Olds: Comparisons with English Using the Language Development Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Constants, Holly; Bialecka-Pikul, Marta; Stepien-Nycz, Malgorzata; Ochal, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare vocabulary size and composition in 2-year-olds learning Polish or English as measured by the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Method: Participants were 199 Polish toddlers (M = 24.14 months, SD = 0.35) and 422 U.S. toddlers (M = 24.69 months, SD = 0.78). Results: Test-retest…

  6. Oak Ridge TNS program: study of fueling techniques in support of TNS development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.

    1979-12-01

    The objective of this study was to survey fueling techniques and determine which approaches were compatible with the TNS requirements. Specifically, the following tasks were undertaken: survey of existing fueling concepts for use in TNS, determination of available physical properties for D-T fuel pellets, performance of preliminary load analysis of selected pellet acceleration machines, preparation of conceptual designs, and recommendations for follow-up work

  7. Fiscal 1995 geothermal development promotion survey. Natural environment survey report; 1995 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Shizen kankyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In Candidate C area for the geothermal development survey, the natural environment was surveyed and `the secondary landscape assessment` was summed up in which places proposed for drilling of large-size wells and for construction of power generation facilities are extracted and a simulation of the landscape is conducted. The area for survey is the Shiramizu-gawa region in the south of Lake Akan, Akan-cho, Akan-gun, Hokkaido. The field survey was carried out about three items of landscape, plants and animals during the June-November period, 1995. As to the flora, diverse florae including vegetation unique to alpine areas, wetlands, and fumarole surrounding areas were found in the region, which is covered with summer-green broad-leaved forests or mixed forests of coniferous and broad-leaved trees. As to the fauna, faunae inhabitant of the highly natural forests were found including black woodpeckers and mountain hawk eagles. As a result of studying the places proposed for geothermal development from the above-mentioned survey, two places were picked up in the west of the survey area, where geothermal development is comparatively less influential in the natural environment and landscape and there is a high locational adaptability. 19 refs., 56 figs., 49 tabs.

  8. Survey indicated that core outcome set development is increasingly including patients, being conducted internationally and using Delphi surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggane, Alice M; Brading, Lucy; Ravaud, Philippe; Young, Bridget; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-02-17

    There are numerous challenges in including patients in a core outcome set (COS) study, these can vary depending on the patient group. This study describes current efforts to include patients in the development of COS, with the aim of identifying areas for further improvement and study. Using the COMET database, corresponding authors of COS projects registered or published from 1 January 2013 to 2 February 2017 were invited via a personalised email to participate in a short online survey. The survey and emails were constructed to maximise the response rate by following the academic literature on enhancing survey responses. Personalised reminder emails were sent to non-responders. This survey explored the frequency of patient input in COS studies, who was involved, what methods were used and whether or not the COS development was international. One hundred and ninety-two COS developers were sent the survey. Responses were collected from 21 February 2017 until 7 May 2017. One hundred and forty-six unique developers responded, yielding a 76% response rate and data in relation to 195 unique COSs (as some developers had worked on multiple COSs). Of focus here are their responses regarding 162 COSs at the published, completed or ongoing stages of development. Inclusion of patient participants was indicated in 87% (141/162) of COSs in the published completed or ongoing stages and over 94% (65/69) of ongoing COS projects. Nearly half (65/135) of COSs included patient participants from two or more countries and 22% (30/135) included patient participants from five or more countries. The Delphi survey was reported as being used singularly or in combination with other methods in 85% (119/140) of projects. Almost a quarter (16/65) of ongoing studies reported using a combination of qualitative interviews, Delphi survey and consensus meeting. These findings indicated that the Delphi survey is the most popular method of facilitating patient participation, while the combination of

  9. The development of advanced instrumentation and control technology -The development of digital monitoring technique-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jong Sun; Lee, Byung Sun; Han, Sang Joon; Shin, Yong Chul; Kim, Yung Baek; Kim, Dong Hoon; Oh, Yang Kyoon; Suh, Yung; Choi, Chan Duk; Kang, Byung Hun; Hong, Hyung Pyo; Shin, Jee Tae; Moon, Kwon Kee; Lee, Soon Sung; Kim, Sung Hoh; Koo, In Soo; Kim, Dong Wan; Huh, Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    A study has been performed for the advanced DSP technology for digital nuclear I and C systems and its prototype, and for the monitoring and diagnosing techniques for the highly-pressurized components in NSSS. In the DSP part, the DSP requirements for NPPs have been induced for the performance of the DSP systems and the functional analysis for Reactor Coolant System (RCS) has been performed as the embodied target system. Total quantities of the I and C signals, signal types, and signal functions were also investigated in Ulchin NPP units 3 and 4. From these basis, the prototype facility was configured for performance validation and algorithm implementation. In order to develop the methods of DSP techniques and algorithms, the current signal validation methods have been studied and analyzed. In the analysis for the communication networks in NPP, the basic technique for the configuration of communication networks and the important considerations for applying to NPPs have been reviewed. Test and experimental facilities have been set up in order to carry out the required tests during research activities on the monitoring techniques for abnormal conditions. Studies were concentrated on methods how to acquire vibration signals from the mechanical structures and equipment including rotating machinery and reactor, and analyses for the characteristics of the signals. Fuzzy logic was evaluated as a good technique to improve the reliability of the monitoring and diagnosing algorithm through the application of the theory such as the automatic pattern recognition algorithm of the vibration spectrum, the alarm detection and diagnosis for collisions of loose parts. 71 figs, 32 tabs, 64 refs. (Author).

  10. The development of advanced instrumentation and control technology -The development of digital monitoring technique-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Jong Sun; Lee, Byung Sun; Han, Sang Joon; Shin, Yong Chul; Kim, Yung Baek; Kim, Dong Hoon; Oh, Yang Kyoon; Suh, Yung; Choi, Chan Duk; Kang, Byung Hun; Hong, Hyung Pyo; Shin, Jee Tae; Moon, Kwon Kee; Lee, Soon Sung; Kim, Sung Hoh; Koo, In Soo; Kim, Dong Wan; Huh, Sub

    1995-07-01

    A study has been performed for the advanced DSP technology for digital nuclear I and C systems and its prototype, and for the monitoring and diagnosing techniques for the highly-pressurized components in NSSS. In the DSP part, the DSP requirements for NPPs have been induced for the performance of the DSP systems and the functional analysis for Reactor Coolant System (RCS) has been performed as the embodied target system. Total quantities of the I and C signals, signal types, and signal functions were also investigated in Ulchin NPP units 3 and 4. From these basis, the prototype facility was configured for performance validation and algorithm implementation. In order to develop the methods of DSP techniques and algorithms, the current signal validation methods have been studied and analyzed. In the analysis for the communication networks in NPP, the basic technique for the configuration of communication networks and the important considerations for applying to NPPs have been reviewed. Test and experimental facilities have been set up in order to carry out the required tests during research activities on the monitoring techniques for abnormal conditions. Studies were concentrated on methods how to acquire vibration signals from the mechanical structures and equipment including rotating machinery and reactor, and analyses for the characteristics of the signals. Fuzzy logic was evaluated as a good technique to improve the reliability of the monitoring and diagnosing algorithm through the application of the theory such as the automatic pattern recognition algorithm of the vibration spectrum, the alarm detection and diagnosis for collisions of loose parts. 71 figs, 32 tabs, 64 refs. (Author)

  11. Acoustic, finite-difference, time-domain technique development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, K.

    1994-01-01

    A close analog exists between the behavior of sound waves in an ideal gas and the radiated waves of electromagnetics. This analog has been exploited to obtain an acoustic, finite-difference, time-domain (AFDTD) technique capable of treating small signal vibrations in elastic media, such as air, water, and metal, with the important feature of bending motion included in the behavior of the metal. This bending motion is particularly important when the metal is formed into sheets or plates. Bending motion does not have an analog in electromagnetics, but can be readily appended to the acoustic treatment since it appears as a single additional term in the force equation for plate motion, which is otherwise analogous to the electromagnetic wave equation. The AFDTD technique has been implemented in a code architecture that duplicates the electromagnetic, finite-difference, time-domain technique code. The main difference in the implementation is the form of the first-order coupled differential equations obtained from the wave equation. The gradient of pressure and divergence of velocity appear in these equations in the place of curls of the electric and magnetic fields. Other small changes exist as well, but the codes are essentially interchangeable. The pre- and post-processing for model construction and response-data evaluation of the electromagnetic code, in the form of the TSAR code at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, can be used for the acoustic version. A variety of applications is possible, pending validation of the bending phenomenon. The applications include acoustic-radiation-pattern predictions for a submerged object; mine detection analysis; structural noise analysis for cars; acoustic barrier analysis; and symphonic hall/auditorium predictions and speaker enclosure modeling

  12. Harassment in Workplace Among School Teachers: Development of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Milić, Ranko; Knežević, Bojana; Mulić, Rosanda; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2008-01-01

    Aim To study the incidence of harassment in the workplace among teachers at primary and secondary schools. Methods We analyzed the existing questionnaires on harassment in the workplace and developed a new one was to specifically address harassment of teachers in the public education sector. The questionnaire was then experimentally applied to a sample of 764 primary and secondary school teachers in Split Dalmatia County, Croatia. It included three scales –exposure to harassment, witnessing harassment, and disturbance by harassment. Validity of the three scales was examined by factor analysis. Results All three scales showed satisfactory metric characteristics: Cronbach α coefficient was 0.93 for exposure scale, 0.95 for witnessing scale, and 0.97 for disturbance scale. Out of 764 teachers surveyed, 164 (22.4%) were exposed to and 192 (31.7%) witnessed different kinds of harassment in the previous 12 months. There were significantly more of those who experienced harassment as witnesses (χ21 = 249.301; P harassment disturbed women more than men (χ21 = 5.27; P = 0.022). Those who were exposed to harassment had significantly lower median age (42; range 23-68) than those who were not exposed (45; range 23-65) (U = 31401.50; z = 2.129; P = 0.033). Conclusion The questionnaire registered wide spectrum of harassment types, indicating the need for continuous monitoring and systematic work on the prevention of these phenomena. The study showed that exposure to harassment is associated with age, indicating that younger teachers should be the target population for detection and prevention of workplace harassment. PMID:18717002

  13. Development of nuclear microfilters using the fission tracks registration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, I.M.; Geraldo, L.P.

    1990-10-01

    Nuclear microfilters with mean pores diameter in the range from 1.9 to 10.6 μm have been produced using the fission tracks registration technique in Makrofol KG (8 μm thickness). Fluctuations around 11% and 10% were obtained respectively for the pores size and pores uniformity in the analysis of a typical sample of microfilter. The essential features of the microfilters were similar to those ones, commercially known as Nuclepore and thus they may be routinely employed in the several applications areas of the Industry and Biology. (author)

  14. Development of a micro-tomography technique by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, Ph.; Michelet, C.

    1997-01-01

    The capability for an ion beam to penetrate easily the matter is an original feature for the nuclear microprobe analysis when compared to other techniques. Information in death of the sample can thus be obtained. Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) takes advantage of this capability to provide two dimensional maps of the sample thickness. Cross-sectional images of an object may be calculated from a set of STIM projections allowing the determination of the three-dimensional structure. This is the principle of STIM-Tomography. When PIXE analysis is carried out rotating the object under investigation, the elemental 3-D chemical distribution may also be elucidated at a microscopic scale. (authors)

  15. The possibility of using photogrammetric and remote sensing techniques to model lavaka (gully erosion) development in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveloson, Andrea; Székely, Balázs; Molnár, Gábor; Rasztovits, Sascha

    2013-04-01

    Gully erosion is a worldwide problem for it has a number of undesirable effects and their development is hard to follow. Madagascar is one of the most affected countries for its highlands are densely covered with gullies named lavakas. Lavaka formation and development seems to be triggered by many regional and local causes but the actual reasons are still poorly understood. Furthermore lavakas differ from normal gullies due to their enormous size and special shape. Field surveys are time consuming and data from two-dimensional measurements and pictures (even aerial) might lack major information for morphologic studies. Therefore close range surveying technologies should be used to get three-dimensional information about these unusual and complex features. This contribution discusses which remote sensing and photogrammetric techniques are adequate to survey the development of lavakas, their volume change and sediment budget. Depending on the types and properties (such as volume, depth, shape, vegetation) of the lavaka different methods will be proposed showing pros and cons of each one of them. Our goal is to review techniques to model, survey and analyze lavakas development to better understand the cause of their formation, special size and shape. Different methods are evaluated and compared from field survey through data processing, analyzing cost-effectiveness, potential errors and accuracy for each one of them. For this purpose we will also consider time- and cost-effectiveness of the softwares able to render the images into 3D model as well as the resolution and accuracy of the outputs. Further studies will concentrate on using the three dimensional models of lavakas which will be later on used for geomorphological studies in order to understand their special shape and size. This is ILARG-contribution #07.

  16. Combination of multielement technique (INAA and ICP-MS) for a French air pollution bio-monitoring survey using mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayrault, S.; Deschamps, C.; Amblard, G.; Galsomies, L.; Letrouit-Galinou, M.A.; Bonhomme, P.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents the use of two trace analysis techniques through the data obtained for a significant part of the 557 mosses sampled in France. Sampling were made within the framework of European survey carried out in 1995-1996 and proposed by the Nordic Council. The analyses were produced with a combination of two multielement analysis techniques: INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). Theses two techniques were suitable for trace analyses in mosses. They were clearly complementary and provided for 36 elements including the heavy metals of key interest in air pollution studies. The choice of the technique for a given element depended on the feasibility (e g. Pb is not attainable by INAA), the detection limit, the analytical variability, the preparation procedures and the concentration ranges (5-100 μg/g for Pb, 0.5-5 μg/g for As). INAA measured the total content in the sample, while ICP-MS demanded a mineralization procedure resulting in losses/contamination hazards. Thus, INAA results were preferred, although this technique was time consuming. However the ICP-MS results for Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb were retained, for different reasons: detection limits (Cd, Cu), no convenient INAA conditions (Ni), and feasibility (Pb). (authors)

  17. Survey to explore understanding of the principles of aseptic technique: Qualitative content analysis with descriptive analysis of confidence and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah J; Chudleigh, Jane; Purssell, Edward; Hawker, Clare; Gaze, Sarah; James, Deborah; Lynch, Mary; Pope, Nicola; Drey, Nicholas

    2018-04-01

    In many countries, aseptic procedures are undertaken by nurses in the general ward setting, but variation in practice has been reported, and evidence indicates that the principles underpinning aseptic technique are not well understood. A survey was conducted, employing a brief, purpose-designed, self-reported questionnaire. The response rate was 72%. Of those responding, 65% of nurses described aseptic technique in terms of the procedure used to undertake it, and 46% understood the principles of asepsis. The related concepts of cleanliness and sterilization were frequently confused with one another. Additionally, 72% reported that they not had received training for at least 5 years; 92% were confident of their ability to apply aseptic technique; and 90% reported that they had not been reassessed since their initial training. Qualitative analysis confirmed a lack of clarity about the meaning of aseptic technique. Nurses' understanding of aseptic technique and the concepts of sterility and cleanliness is inadequate, a finding in line with results of previous studies. This knowledge gap potentially places patients at risk. Nurses' understanding of the principles of asepsis could be improved. Further studies should establish the generalizability of the study findings. Possible improvements include renewed emphasis during initial nurse education, greater opportunity for updating knowledge and skills post-qualification, and audit of practice. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIME FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the development of techniques for quantitative analysis of lime flower in order to make amendments to existing pharmacopoeian monographs for this herbal drug. Lime inflorescences contain lipophilic biologically active substances (BAS causing notable antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects and also more polar phenolic compounds with antiulcer activity. Considering this, it’s necessary to regulate all these groups of BAS quantitatively. Materials and methods. For this study six batches of lime flowers harvested in 2008-2009 yrs. in Kharkiv, Rivno and Zhitomir regions were used as crude herbal drug. Loss on drying was determined by routine pharmacopoeian procedures. Total content of lipophilic substances was determined gravimetrically after Soxhlet extraction of samples 1, 5, 7 and 10 g in weight with methylene chloride, considering that by its extracting ability this solvent is close to liquefied difluorochloromethane (freon R22 used by us for obtaining of lipophilic complexes. The duration of complete analytical extraction was determined by infusion of six 10 g assays of lime flowers during 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours, then quantity of lipophilic extractives was revealed gravimetrically. Quantity of essential oil in lime flowers was evaluated under the procedure of ЕР7, 2.8.12. Weight of the herbal drug sample was 200 g, distillation rate – 2,5- 3,5 ml/min, volume of distillation liquid (water – 500 ml, volume of xylene in the graduated tube – 0,50 ml. Total flavonoid content recalculated to quercetin was determined after hydrolysis with acidified acetone, withdrawing of flavonoid aglycones with ethylacetate and by further spectrophotometry of their complexes with aluminium chloride. All quantitative determinations were replicated five times for each assay. All chemicals and reagents were of analytical grade. Results and discussion. It was found that adequate accuracy of the analysis of lipophilic

  19. Results and analysis of the 2008-2009 Insulin Injection Technique Questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Coninck, Carina; Frid, Anders; Gaspar, Ruth; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Larry; Kreugel, Gillian; Liersch, Jutta; Letondeur, Corinne; Sauvanet, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Nadia; Strauss, Kenneth

    Background: The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique and, to provide patients with guidance in this area, we must understand how they currently inject. Methods: From September 2008 to June 2009, 4352 insulin-injecting Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients

  20. Situation and development of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaiwen.

    1986-01-01

    The situation of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China is described. The main experiences in production and management are introduced. Meanwhile the suggestions about the further development of uranium open-pit mining techniques are also proposed

  1. Development of object-oriented software technique in field of high energy and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yanlin; Ying Jun; Chen Tao

    1997-01-01

    The background for developing object-oriented software technique in high energy and nuclear physics has been introduced. The progress made at CERN and US has been outlined. The merit and future of various software techniques have been commented

  2. The development of PSI, ISI technique for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Day-Young; Kwak, Kyung-Jin; Chang, Kee-Ok; Hong, Soon-Shin; Lee, Jong-Po; Chung, Tae-Eon

    1985-01-01

    The analysis and sizing of detect signal is the most essential in PSI/ISI technique. Ultrasonic testing is the most versatile technique, and the knowledge of ultrsonic attenuation of metal component examined by ultrasonic testing is important to evaluate the signal appeared and to size the flaw of the component. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements were made by using the specimens made of AISI 4140 Carbon Steel with different grain size. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were also taken. This report also describes about the principle of multifrequency eddy current test method using two or more operating frequencies simultaneously, and about the simple experiment to read and identify precisely the combined signal caused by more test parameters. It was found that ultrasonic attenuation was increased with increasing grain size and ultrasonic frequency, and yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were decreased with increasing grain size. The results are applicable for ultrasonic testing of carbon steel components as reactor vessel or pressured vessel. The complicated eddy current signal outputs caused by more test parameters and undesirables variables can be identified using multifrequency eddy current test method. It is intended to use multifrequency ECT method for ISI and PSI of steam generator tubes from 1985. (Author)

  3. Alarm handling systems and techniques developed to match operator tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bye, A; Moum, B R [Institutt for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reaktor Projekt

    1997-09-01

    This paper covers alarm handling methods and techniques explored at the Halden Project, and describes current status on the research activities on alarm systems. Alarm systems are often designed by application of a bottom-up strategy, generating alarms at component level. If no structuring of the alarms is applied, this may result in alarm avalanches in major plant disturbances, causing cognitive overload of the operator. An alarm structuring module should be designed using a top-down approach, analysing operator`s tasks, plant states, events and disturbances. One of the operator`s main tasks during plant disturbances is status identification, including determination of plant status and detection of plant anomalies. The main support of this is provided through the alarm systems, the process formats, the trends and possible diagnosis systems. The alarm system should both physically and conceptually be integrated with all these systems. 9 refs, 5 figs.

  4. Alarm handling systems and techniques developed to match operator tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, A.; Moum, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers alarm handling methods and techniques explored at the Halden Project, and describes current status on the research activities on alarm systems. Alarm systems are often designed by application of a bottom-up strategy, generating alarms at component level. If no structuring of the alarms is applied, this may result in alarm avalanches in major plant disturbances, causing cognitive overload of the operator. An alarm structuring module should be designed using a top-down approach, analysing operator's tasks, plant states, events and disturbances. One of the operator's main tasks during plant disturbances is status identification, including determination of plant status and detection of plant anomalies. The main support of this is provided through the alarm systems, the process formats, the trends and possible diagnosis systems. The alarm system should both physically and conceptually be integrated with all these systems. 9 refs, 5 figs

  5. Development of photo stimulated luminescence technique for detecting irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests and to extend shelf-life of food. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled. The availability of a reliable method to detect irradiated food is important to enforce legal controls on labeling requirements, ensure proper distribution and increase consumer confidence. This paper reports on the preliminary application of photo stimulated luminescence technique (PSL) as a potential method to detect irradiated food and perhaps be used for monitoring irradiated food on sale locally in the near future. Thus this study will be beneficial and relevant for application of food irradiation towards improving food safety and security in Malaysia. (author)

  6. Development of Photostimulated Luminescence Technique for Detecting Irradiated Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Muhamad Samudi Yasir

    2015-01-01

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests and to extend shelf-life of food. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled. The availability of a reliable method to detect irradiated food is important to enforce legal controls on labeling requirements, ensure proper distribution and increase consumer confidence. This paper reports on the preliminary application of photostimulated luminescence technique (PSL) as a potential method to detect irradiated food and perhaps be used for monitoring irradiated food on sale locally in the near future. Thus this study will be beneficial and relevant for application of food irradiation towards improving food safety and security in Malaysia. (author)

  7. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  8. Development of an advanced educational system using AI techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an advanced educational system that realizes effective education using AI techniques. The system is composed of three devices. One is a knowledge-processing computer that evaluates the operator's knowledge level and presents educational materials. Another is a computer for displaying transients. The other is a computer for voice input and output. The educational materials utilize cause-and-effect relationships. The relationships enable to perform effective education by pointing out the parts the operator failed to understand. An evaluation test was performed by actually operating the system. As a result, the system's fundamental characteristics, such as the ease of understanding the relationships, and the usefulness of the advanced evaluation of the operator's knowledge level, were evaluated highly. (author)

  9. Equipment and techniques developed for the repair of reactor standpipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnell, P.; Kirton-Darling, H.F.R.; Walton, D.N.

    1993-01-01

    In-service cracks had developed in welds in the fabrication at the bottom of the standpipe liner at Hinkley Point-B and Hunterston-B reactors. A joint team investigating these cracks determined that the hot gas flow patterns in the plug unit to standpipe liner annulus were unstable. This had led to thermal stressing and consequent cracking of the standpipe liner welds. In developing a solution consideration was to be given to access down the standpipe for equipment, ambient temperatures, radiation levels and safety considerations. The procedures and equipment developed are described. (author)

  10. Mass spectrometry techniques in the survey of steroid metabolites as potential disease biomarkers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Maria João; Brindley, Paul J; Santos, Lúcio Lara; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Gomes, Paula; Vale, Nuno

    2013-09-01

    Mass spectrometric approaches have been fundamental to the identification of metabolites associated with steroid hormones, yet this topic has not been reviewed in depth in recent years. To this end, and given the increasing relevance of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies on steroid hormones and their metabolites, the present review addresses this subject. This review provides a timely summary of the use of various mass spectrometry-based analytical techniques during the evaluation of steroidal biomarkers in a range of human disease settings. The sensitivity and specificity of these technologies are clearly providing valuable new insights into breast cancer and cardiovascular disease. We aim to contribute to an enhanced understanding of steroid metabolism and how it can be profiled by LC-MS techniques. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Survey of Techniques for Deep Web Source Selection and Surfacing the Hidden Web Content

    OpenAIRE

    Khushboo Khurana; M.B. Chandak

    2016-01-01

    Large and continuously growing dynamic web content has created new opportunities for large-scale data analysis in the recent years. There is huge amount of information that the traditional web crawlers cannot access, since they use link analysis technique by which only the surface web can be accessed. Traditional search engine crawlers require the web pages to be linked to other pages via hyperlinks causing large amount of web data to be hidden from the crawlers. Enormous data is available in...

  12. A Survey of Congestion Control Techniques and Data Link Protocols in Satellite Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fahmy, Sonia; Jain, Raj; Lu, Fang; Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

    1998-01-01

    Satellite communication systems are the means of realizing a global broadband integrated services digital network. Due to the statistical nature of the integrated services traffic, the resulting rate fluctuations and burstiness render congestion control a complicated, yet indispensable function. The long propagation delay of the earth-satellite link further imposes severe demands and constraints on the congestion control schemes, as well as the media access control techniques and retransmissi...

  13. Survey of geophysical techniques for site characterization in basalt, salt and tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.M.; Blackey, M.E.; Rice, J.E.; Murphy, V.J.; Levine, E.N.; Fisk, P.S.; Bromery, R.W.

    1987-07-01

    Geophysical techniques may help determine the nature and extent of faulting in the target areas, along with structural information that would be relevant to questions concerning the future integrity of a high-level-waste repository. Chapters focus on particular geophysical applications to four rock types - basalt, bedded salt, domal salt and tuff - characteristic of the sites originally proposed for site characterization. No one geophysical method can adequately characterize the geological structure beneath any site. The seismic reflection method, which is generally considered to be the most incisive of the geophysical techniques, has to date provided only marginal information on structure at the depth of the proposed repository at the Hanford, Washington, site, and no useful results at all at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site. This result is partially due to geological complexity beneath these sites, but may also be partially attributed to the use of inappropriate acquisition and processing parameters. To adequately characterize a site using geophysics, modifications will have to be made to standard techniques to emphasize structural details at the depths of interest. 137 refs., 43 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Contextualising Water Use in Residential Settings: A Survey of Non-Intrusive Techniques and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Carboni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water monitoring in households is important to ensure the sustainability of fresh water reserves on our planet. It provides stakeholders with the statistics required to formulate optimal strategies in residential water management. However, this should not be prohibitive and appliance-level water monitoring cannot practically be achieved by deploying sensors on every faucet or water-consuming device of interest due to the higher hardware costs and complexity, not to mention the risk of accidental leakages that can derive from the extra plumbing needed. Machine learning and data mining techniques are promising techniques to analyse monitored data to obtain non-intrusive water usage disaggregation. This is because they can discern water usage from the aggregated data acquired from a single point of observation. This paper provides an overview of water usage disaggregation systems and related techniques adopted for water event classification. The state-of-the art of algorithms and testbeds used for fixture recognition are reviewed and a discussion on the prominent challenges and future research are also included.

  15. Application of spectroscopic techniques for the study of paper documents: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manso, M.; Carvalho, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    For many centuries paper was the main material for recording cultural achievements all over the world. Paper is mostly made from cellulose with small amounts of organic and inorganic additives, which allow its identification and characterization and may also contribute to its degradation. Prior to 1850, paper was made entirely from rags, using hemp, flax and cotton fibres. After this period, due to the enormous increase in demand, wood pulp began to be commonly used as raw material, resulting in rapid degradation of paper. Spectroscopic techniques represent one of the most powerful tools to investigate the constituents of paper documents in order to establish its identification and its state of degradation. This review describes the application of selected spectroscopic techniques used for paper characterization and conservation. The spectroscopic techniques that have been used and will be reviewed include: Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, X-Ray spectroscopy, Laser-based Spectroscopy, Inductively Coupled Mass Spectroscopy, Laser ablation, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

  16. Uncovering product development competence by applying the laddering technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Harmsen, Hanne

    This paper addresses companies' lack of implementation of success factors in new product development. Drawing on theories in the competence perspective and an exploratory empirical study, the paper points to two major areas that have not been covered by previous studies on new product development...... success factors. The two areas are individual employees' knowledge, skills, and values and norms. It is suggested that increased understanding of these two areas hold potential in making identified success factors more accessible to companies.......This paper addresses companies' lack of implementation of success factors in new product development. Drawing on theories in the competence perspective and an exploratory empirical study, the paper points to two major areas that have not been covered by previous studies on new product development...

  17. Innovate and Develop by Depending on the Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xilin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Founded in October 1987, Jiaozuo Huafei Electronic & Electric Apparatus Industrial Co., Ltd. has been pursuing advanced technology and outstanding quality, and has carved out a successful road of relying on technological innovation to construct, develop and expand.

  18. Involute Spur Gear Template Development by Parametric Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    cylindrical coordinate systems to create the involute curve profile. Since spur gear ... Template gear development using parametric method means that the dimensions control the ... and rapid prototyping of interlocking gears. Excel is a common ...

  19. Cross-Platform Development Techniques for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    solutions. Mobile devices run on diverse platforms requiring differing constraints that the developer must adhere to. Thus, extra time and resources...and growing market for providing solutions. Mobile devices run on diverse platforms requiring differing constraints that the developer must adhere...testing are an iOS- based Apple iPhone 4 and an Android-based Samsung Galaxy S III. For user interface analysis this chapter also includes, from both

  20. Development of optical surface contouring technique using laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Min Suk; Park, Seung Kyu

    1998-12-01

    Laser contouring system capable of measuring relief profiles using a line-shaped laser beam with anisotropic magnification optics composed with two cylindrical lenses was developed. The anisotropic magnification optical system allows it to obtain higher resolution in the relief profile measurements. The image processing and 3-D display software are developed to reconstruct 3-D shape. The power supply of laser diode with adaptive current control circuit is designed. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 33 figs.

  1. Exploring the Development of Symbolic Function of Consciousness: A Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov A.M.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes studying method which developed the symbolic function mind. It is defined as a functional unit providing the solution of problems by understanding and expression of the reality of the subject-subject relationship using symbols. The symbol understood as a cultural form of presen- tation of subjective reality, mediating the relationship and interaction between two or more subjects. The symbol consists of sense-perception of form and meaning, expressing a subjective reality. The structure of the symbolic function includes the following components: generation and implementation plan, the transformation of symbolic forms, the awareness of the antinomic character, character interpretation. Investigation techiques was developed in accordance with the principles of construction of experimental-genetic method. Empirical criteria for evaluating the level of its development was based on the structure of the symbolic function, and developed a system of assistance for the realization of symbolic meaning. The method allows determine the dynamics and conditions for the development of the symbolic function, its genetic makeup, as well as the form and content of cooperation with con- temporaries.

  2. Development of engineering scale HLLW vitrification technique at PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaki, H.; Oguino, N.; Tsunoda, N.; Segawa, T.

    1979-01-01

    Some processes have been investigated to develop the technology of solidification of the high-level radioactive liquid waste generated from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) at Tokai-mura. This report covers the present state of development of a Joule-heated ceramic melter and a direct megahertz induction-heated melter. Engineering-scale tests have been performed with both melters. The Joule-heated melter could produce 45 kg or 16 liters of glass per hour. The direct-induction furnace was able to melt 5 kg or 1.8 liters of glass per hour. Both melters were composed of electrofused cast refractory brick. Thus it was possible to melt the glass at above 1200 0 C. Glass produced at higher melting temperatures is generally superior. 3 figures, 2 tables

  3. A Survey on Optimal Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Improve the Performance of Mechanical Sensors in Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a survey on recent applications of optimal signal processing techniques to improve the performance of mechanical sensors is made. Here, a comparison between classical filters and optimal filters for automotive sensors is made, and the current state of the art of the application of robust and optimal control and signal processing techniques to the design of the intelligent (or smart sensors that today’s cars need is presented through several experimental results that show that the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques is the clear way to go. However, the switch between the traditional methods of designing automotive sensors and the new ones cannot be done overnight because there are some open research issues that have to be solved. This paper draws attention to one of the open research issues and tries to arouse researcher’s interest in the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques.

  4. The development of an alternative thermoplastic powder prepregging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, A. L.; Hyer, M. W.; Wilkes, G. L.; Loos, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    An alternative powder prepregging technique is discussed that is based on the deposition of powder onto carbon fibers that have been moistened using an ultrasonic humidifier. The dry fiber tow is initially spread to allow a greater amount of the fiber surface to be exposed to the powder, thus ensuring a significant amount of intimate contact between the fiber and the matrix. Moisture in the form of ultrafine water droplets is then deposited onto the spread fiber tow. The moisture promotes adhesion to the fiber until the powder can be tacked to the fibers by melting. Powdered resin is then sieved onto the fibers and then tacked onto the fibers by quick heating in a convective oven. This study focuses on the production of prepregs and laminates made with LaRC-TPI (thermoplastic polyimide) using this process. Although the process appears to be successful, early evaluation was hampered by poor interfacial adhesion. The adhesion problem, however, seems to be the result of a material system incompatibility, rather than being influenced by the process.

  5. Development of core sampling technique for ITER Type B radwaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. G.; Hong, K. P.; Oh, W. H.; Park, M. C.; Jung, S. H.; Ahn, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Type B radwaste (intermediate level and long lived radioactive waste) imported from ITER vacuum vessel are to be treated and stored in basement of hot cell building. The Type B radwaste treatment process is composed of buffer storage, cutting, sampling/tritium measurement, tritium removal, characterization, pre-packaging, inspection/decontamination, and storage etc. The cut slices of Type B radwaste components generated from cutting process undergo sampling process before and after tritium removal process. The purpose of sampling is to obtain small pieces of samples in order to investigate the tritium content and concentration of Type B radwaste. Core sampling, which is the candidates of sampling technique to be applied to ITER hot cell, is available for not thick (less than 50 mm) metal without use of coolant. Experimented materials were SS316L and CuCrZr in order to simulate ITER Type B radwaste. In core sampling, substantial secondary wastes from cutting chips will be produced unavoidably. Thus, core sampling machine will have to be equipped with disposal system such as suction equipment. Core sampling is considered an unfavorable method for tool wear compared to conventional drilling.

  6. Development of joining techniques for fabrication of fuel rod simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, A.J.; McCulloch, R.W.; Reed, R.W.; Woodhouse, J.J.

    1980-10-01

    Much of the safety-related thermal-hydraulic tests on nuclear reactors are conducted not in the reactor itself, but in mockup segments of a core that uses resistance-heated fuel rod simulators (FRS) in place of the radioactive fuel rods. Laser welding and furnace brazing techniques are described for joining subassemblies for FRS that have survived up to 1000 h steady-state operation at 700 to 1100 0 C cladding temperatures and over 5000 thermal transients, ranging from 10 to 100 0 C/s. A pulsed-laser welding procedure that includes use of small-diameter filler wire is used to join one end of a resistance heating element of Pt-8 W, Fe-22 Cr-5.5 Al-0.5 Co, or 80 Ni-20 Cr (wt %) to a tubular conductor of an appropriate intermediate material. The other end of the heating element is laser welded to an end plug, which in turn is welded to a central conductor rod

  7. Development of radiation techniques in the 80's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, L.

    1990-01-01

    The application of radiation for the purpose of sterilisation in the medical field and for the enhancement of material properties, particularly for polymer products, has been in operation for decades. Electron accelerators and gamma radiation devices are the radiation sources. The technology is clearly concentrated in Asia, especially Japan, (surface coatings and crosslinking for cable insulators). In industry, the process is commonly used in curing, drying, crosslinking, grafting and vulcanisation. Radiation technology is an increasingly important factor in the low-cost production of top quality advanced products for sophisticated areas of manufacturing. It has already been introduced in high-tech applications in the manufacture of megabit chips, which are undoubtedly one of the main reasons for Japan's leading position in that field. The Japanese industry has already set out along the road towards the manufacture of ultra-highly integrated circuits, which open up completely new opportunities in the field of data and information processing. This has been made possible by Japanese mastery of the technique of building and operating electron accelerators to provide synchrotron beams. (orig./DG) [de

  8. Some essential techniques for developing efficient petascale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, L V

    2008-01-01

    Multiple petaflops-lass machines will appear during the coming year, and many multipetaflops machines are on the anvil. It will be a substantial challenge to make existing parallel CSE applications run efficiently on them, and even more challenging to design new applications that can effectively leverage the large computational power of these machines. Multicore chips and SMP nodes are becoming popular and pose challenges of their own. Further, a new set of challenges in productivity arise, especially if we wish to have a broader set of applications and people to use these machines. Reviewed here is a set of techniques that have proved useful in multiple parallel applications that have scaled to tens of thousands of processors, on machines such as the Blue Gene/L, Blue Gene/P, Cray XT3, and XT4. New challenges and potential solutions for the performance issues are identified. Issues presented by multicore chips and SMP nodes also rre addressed. Also reviewed are some new and old ideas for increasing productivity in parallel programming substantially

  9. The development of the Patient Expectations of Shoulder Surgery survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorevaar, Rinco C T; Haanstra, Tsjitske; Van't Riet, Esther; Lambers Heerspink, Okke F O; Bulstra, Sjoerd K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction after a surgical procedure is dependent on meeting preoperative expectations. There is currently no patient expectations survey available for patients undergoing shoulder surgery that is validated, reliable, and easy to use in daily practice. The aim of this study

  10. Recent Developments in Astrophysical and Cosmological Exploitation of Microwave Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burigana, Carlo; Davies, Rodney D.; De Bernardis, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the astrophysical results and the related cosmological implications derived from recent microwave surveys, with emphasis to those coming from the Planck mission. We critically discuss the impact of systematic effects and the role of methods to separate the cosmic...

  11. Survey: technique of performing intravitreal injection among members of the Brazilian Retina and Vitreous Society (SBRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio F. Shiroma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate and describe the precautions involved in the technique of intravitreal injection of antiangiogenic drugs adopted by the ophthalmologists who are members of the Brazilian Society of Retina and Vitreous (SBRV. Methods: A questionnaire containing 22 questions related to precautions taken before, during, and after intravitreal injection was sent electronically to 920 members of SBRV between November 15, 2013 and April 31, 2014. Results: 352 responses (38% were obtained. There was a predominance of men (76% from the southwest region of Brazil (51%. The professional experience varied between 6 and 15 years after medical specialization (50%. Most professionals (76% performed an average of 1 to 10 intravitreal injections a week, and 88% of the procedures were performed in the operating room using povidone iodine (99%, sterile gloves, and blepharostat (94%. For inducing topical anesthesia, usage of anesthetic eye drops was the most used technique (65%. Ranibizumab (Lucentis® was the most common drug (55%, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD was the most treated disease (57%. Regarding the complications treated, 6% of the ophthalmologists had treated at least one case of retinal detachment, 20% had treated cases of endophthalmitis, 9% had treated cases of vitreous hemorrhage, and 12% had encountered cases of crystalline lens touch. Conclusion: Intravitreal injection is a procedure routinely performed by retina specialists and has a low incidence of complications. Performing the procedure in the operating room using an aseptic technique was preferred by most of the respondents. Ranibizumab was the most used drug, and AMD was the most treated disease.

  12. Using SERVQUAL and Kano research techniques in a patient service quality survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoglou, Konstantinos; Vassiliadis, Chris; Sigalas, Ioakim

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a service quality study. After an introduction to the SERVQUAL and the Kano research techniques, a Kano analysis of 75 patients from the General Hospital of Katerini in Greece is presented. The service quality criterion used satisfaction and dissatisfaction indices. The Kano statistical analysis process results strengthened the hypothesis of previous research regarding the importance of personal knowledge, the courtesy of the hospital employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence (assurance dimension). Managerial suggestions are made regarding the best way of acting and approaching hospital patients based on the basic SERVQUAL model.

  13. Innovate and Develop by Depending on the Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Xilin

    2006-01-01

      Founded in October 1987, Jiaozuo Huafei Electronic & Electric Apparatus Industrial Co., Ltd. has been pursuing advanced technology and outstanding quality, and has carved out a successful road of relying on technological innovation to construct, develop and expand.……

  14. European wind turbine procedure development blade test methods and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulder, B H; Dam, J J.D. van; Delft, D R.V. van [and others

    1999-03-01

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by performing the second task of the `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development` project are presented. This project is performed within and with financial support of the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme of the European Commission. (au)

  15. The development of computer industry and applications of its relevant techniques in nuclear research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Guiliang

    1988-01-01

    The increasing needs for computers in the area of nuclear science and technology are described. The current status of commerical availabe computer products of different scale in world market are briefly reviewed. A survey of some noticeable techniques is given from the view point of computer applications in nuclear science research laboratories

  16. Application of geoinformation techniques in sustainable development of marginal rural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynska, G.

    2009-04-01

    The basic objective of the studies is to create a geographic information system that would assure integration of activities aimed at protecting biological diversity with sustainable development of marginal rural areas through defining the conditions for development of tourism and recreation in the identified areas. The choice of that solution is a consequence of the fact that numerous phenomena and processes presented in maps are linked to functional relations or they can be viewed as functions of space, time and attributes. The paper presents the system development stage aimed at elaborating the template for the system serving solution of the above-presented problem. In case of this issue the geographic information system will be developed to support development of marginal rural areas through selection of appropriate forms of tourism for the endangered areas including indication of locations for development of appropriate tourist infrastructure. Selection of the appropriate form of tourism will depend on natural, tourist and infrastructure values present in a given area and conditioned by the need to present the biodiversity component present in those areas together with elements of traditional agricultural landscape. The most important problem is to reconcile two seemingly contradictory aims: 1. Preventing social and economic marginalization of the restructured rural areas. 2. Preserving biological diversity in the restructured areas.Agriculture influences many aspects of the natural environment such as water resources, biodiversity and status of natural habitats, status of soils, landscape and, in a wider context, the climate. Project implementation will involve application of technologies allowing analysis of the systems for managing marginal rural areas as spatial models based on geographic information systems. Modelling of marginal rural areas management using the GIS technologies will involve creating spatial models of actual objects. On the basis of data

  17. A Survey on Formal Verification Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Grimm

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The high degree of miniaturization in the electronics industry has been, for several years, a driver to push embedded systems to different fields and applications. One example is safety-critical systems, where the compactness in the form factor helps to reduce the costs and allows for the implementation of new techniques. The automotive industry is a great example of a safety-critical area with a great rise in the adoption of microelectronics. With it came the creation of the ISO 26262 standard with the goal of guaranteeing a high level of dependability in the designs. Other areas in the safety-critical applications domain have similar standards. However, these standards are mostly guidelines to make sure that designs reach the desired dependability level without explicit instructions. In the end, the success of the design to fulfill the standard is the result of a thorough verification process. Naturally, the goal of any verification team dealing with such important designs is complete coverage as well as standards conformity, but as these are complex hardware, complete functional verification is a difficult task. From the several techniques that exist to verify hardware, where each has its pros and cons, we studied six well-established in academia and in industry. We can divide them into two categories: simulation, which needs extremely large amounts of time, and formal verification, which needs unrealistic amounts of resources. Therefore, we conclude that a hybrid approach offers the best balance between simulation (time and formal verification (resources.

  18. Survey on Prognostics Techniques for Updating Initiating Event Frequency in PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    One of the applications using PSA is a risk monito. The risk monitoring is real-time analysis tool to decide real-time risk based on real state of components and systems. In order to utilize more effective, the methodologies that manipulate the data from Prognostics was suggested. Generally, Prognostic comprehensively includes not only prognostic but also monitoring and diagnostic. The prognostic method must need condition monitoring. In case of applying PHM to a PSA model, the latest condition of NPPs can be identified more clearly. For reducing the conservatism and uncertainties, we suggested the concept that updates the initiating event frequency in a PSA model by using Bayesian approach which is one of the prognostics techniques before. From previous research, the possibility that PSA is updated by using data more correctly was found. In reliability theory, the Bathtub curve divides three parts (infant failure, constant and random failure, wareout failure). In this paper, in order to investigate the applicability of prognostic methods in updating quantitative data in a PSA model, the OLM acceptance criteria from NUREG, the concept of how to using prognostic in PSA, and the enabling prognostic techniques are suggested. The prognostic has the motivation that improved the predictive capabilities using existing monitoring systems, data, and information will enable more accurate equipment risk assessment for improved decision-making.

  19. Survey on Prognostics Techniques for Updating Initiating Event Frequency in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2015-01-01

    One of the applications using PSA is a risk monito. The risk monitoring is real-time analysis tool to decide real-time risk based on real state of components and systems. In order to utilize more effective, the methodologies that manipulate the data from Prognostics was suggested. Generally, Prognostic comprehensively includes not only prognostic but also monitoring and diagnostic. The prognostic method must need condition monitoring. In case of applying PHM to a PSA model, the latest condition of NPPs can be identified more clearly. For reducing the conservatism and uncertainties, we suggested the concept that updates the initiating event frequency in a PSA model by using Bayesian approach which is one of the prognostics techniques before. From previous research, the possibility that PSA is updated by using data more correctly was found. In reliability theory, the Bathtub curve divides three parts (infant failure, constant and random failure, wareout failure). In this paper, in order to investigate the applicability of prognostic methods in updating quantitative data in a PSA model, the OLM acceptance criteria from NUREG, the concept of how to using prognostic in PSA, and the enabling prognostic techniques are suggested. The prognostic has the motivation that improved the predictive capabilities using existing monitoring systems, data, and information will enable more accurate equipment risk assessment for improved decision-making

  20. DSCu/SS joining techniques development and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi; Hatano, Toshihisa; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1998-01-01

    Joining techniques of alumina dispersion strengthened copper alloy (DSCu) and type 316L stainless steel (SS) has been investigated aiming at applying to the fabrication of the ITER first wall/blanket. As the joining method, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) of solid plates and/or blocks has been pursued. By a screening test including HIP temperatures of 980-1050degC, it was concluded that the HIP temperature of 1050degC would be optimum for the simultaneous HIPping of DSCu/DSCu, DSCu/SS and SS/SS. With DSCu/SS joint specimens HIPped at 1050degC, tensile, impact, fatigue, crack propagation, and fracture toughness tests were performed as well as mechanical test of structural model with one SS circular tube embedded. Typically, the properties of the joints were almost the same as those of DSCu or SS base metal with the same heat treatment of the HIP process, thus good joints were obtained, though parts of properties were decreased at elevated test temperature. Typical results of the mechanical test of structural mode indicated that a crack initiated at the inner surface of the SS tube under cyclic operation, and the lifetime of the first wall structure could be evaluated by existing SS fatigue data. Two HIPped first wall panel mock-ups were successfully fabricated with built-in coolant tubes: one was 300 mm long and the other 800 mm long. The former was thermo-mechanically tested with high heat fluxes corresponding to the ITER operation conditions. The mock-up showed good heat removal performance during the high heat flux tests. In addition, there were no cracks and delaminations found at HIPped interfaces by microscopic observation after all tests. Ultrasonic testing have been tried as a non-destructive examination method, and detectable defect size at SS/SS, DSCu/DSCu and DSCu/SS joint interfaces were estimated. (author)

  1. Development of silicon growth techniques from melt with surface heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly

    2018-05-01

    The paper contains literary and personal data on the development history of silicon-growing technology with volumetric and surface melt heating. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of surface-heating technology. Examples are given of the implementation of such processes in the 60s-70s of the last century, and the reasons for the discontinuation of the relevant work. It describes the main solutions for the implementation of crystal growth process with the electron-beam heating of the melt surface, implemented by KEPP EU (Latvia). It discusses differences in the management of the growth process for the crystals with constant diameters compared to the Czochralski method. It lists geometrical and electro-physical properties of the obtained crystals. It describes the possible use of such crystals and the immediate challenges of technology development.

  2. Development of PIE techniques for irradiated LWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Masahiro; Kizaki, Minoru; Sukegawa, Tomohide

    1999-01-01

    For the evaluation of safety and integrity of light water reactors (LWRs), various post irradiation examinations (PIEs) of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and fuel claddings have been carried out in the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL). In recent years, the instrumented Charpy impact testing machine was remodeled aiming at the improvement of accuracy and reliability. By this remodeling, absorbed energy and other useful information on impact properties can be delivered from the force-displacement curve for the evaluation of neutron irradiation embrittlement behavior of LWR-RPV steels at one-time striking. In addition, two advanced PIE technologies are now under development. One is the remote machining of mechanical test pieces from actual irradiated pressure vessel steels. The other is development of low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue test technology in order to clarify the post-irradiation fatigue characteristics of structural and fuel cladding materials. (author)

  3. Developing Tools and Techniques to Increase Communication Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Linda A.; Peterson, Doug

    1997-01-01

    The Public Affairs Office (PAO) of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for communicating current JSC Space Program activities as well as goals and objectives to the American Public. As part of the 1996 Strategic Communications Plan, a review of PAO' s current communication procedures was conducted. The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellow performed research activities to support this effort by reviewing current research concerning NASA/JSC's customers' perceptions and interests, developing communications tools which enable PAO to more effectively inform JSC customers about the Space Program, and proposing a process for developing and using consistent messages throughout PAO. Note that this research does not attempt to change or influence customer perceptions or interests but, instead, incorporates current customer interests into PAO's communication process.

  4. Development of compaction technique for spent fuel skeletons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Kim, Young Hwan; Jung, Jae Hoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    To increase the utilization of uranium resources contained in the spent fuel, the spent fuel is reused. For this, the spent fuel is dismantled or spent fuel rod is extracted from the spent fuel assembly. When the rod is extracted, the remaining components of spent fuel assembly, so called a NFBC(Non-Fuel Bearing Components), should be compacted for the final disposal. To this end, several companies developed the NFBC compactors. German company, named as GNS has developed the direct compression devices of the NFBCs for the rod consolidation and installed it at the PKA(2) of pilot conditioning plant. B and W (Babcock and Wilcox) in USA adopted cutting method rather than the compression method and developed the special cutting devices of NFBC which can be applied underwater environment. In this study the characteristics of these two methods was investigated, in terms of fabrication cost of devices, maintainability in a high radioactive environment, required power and work volume for operation. Also, the optimal power source is selected by comparing the maximum power versus the work volume for operation. In addition to these, the reduction ratio of the bulk volume is obtained while varying the cutting length of the NFBC through a series of experiments. Based on the results of analysis and experiments, the cutting method after compression is selected as an optimal volume reduction method and its design specification is obtained. 8 refs., 62 figs., 32 tabs. (Author)

  5. Development of Improved Caprock Integrity and Risk Assessment Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Michael [Geomechanics Technologies, Incorporated, Monrovia, CA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    GeoMechanics Technologies has completed a geomechanical caprock integrity analysis and risk assessment study funded through the US Department of Energy. The project included: a detailed review of historical caprock integrity problems experienced in the natural gas storage industry; a theoretical description and documentation of caprock integrity issues; advanced coupled transport flow modelling and geomechanical simulation of three large-scale potential geologic sequestration sites to estimate geomechanical effects from CO₂ injection; development of a quantitative risk and decision analysis tool to assess caprock integrity risks; and, ultimately the development of recommendations and guidelines for caprock characterization and CO₂ injection operating practices. Historical data from gas storage operations and CO₂ sequestration projects suggest that leakage and containment incident risks are on the order of 10-1 to 10-2, which is higher risk than some previous studies have suggested for CO₂. Geomechanical analysis, as described herein, can be applied to quantify risks and to provide operating guidelines to reduce risks. The risk assessment tool developed for this project has been applied to five areas: The Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California, Kevin Dome in Montana, the Louden Field in Illinois, the Sleipner CO₂ sequestration operation in the North Sea, and the In Salah CO₂ sequestration operation in North Africa. Of these five, the Wilmington Graben area represents the highest relative risk while the Kevin Dome area represents the lowest relative risk.

  6. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques -The development of human factors technologies-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Seok; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1994-04-01

    In the 2nd year of the research project for the development of human factors evaluation techniques, we first defined the experimental target systems by the comparison study of the advanced control rooms proposed by foreign countries in order to make the experiment feasible and realistic for the 10 experimental items selected in the first year of the project. Then we have decided to confine our research on the big board overview panel and operator workstations. Following the development of selection criteria for our research interest, we have identified the design variables which may influence the performance of the operator by the functional analysis. The experimental variables which will be used for the evaluation of the proposed items are then defined by the relational analysis between evaluation items and design variables and they are classified by the characteristics of the measurement data. The functional requirements of ITF are developed to accommodate the necessary functions for carrying out the 10 evaluation items. The functional requirements for each sub-system of ITF have been developed with the experimental paradigm of APTEA. Finally we have reviewed the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) at KAERI from the point of view of jyman factors guidelines/principles and proposed the two possible layouts for the experimental apparatus for the evaluation of display alternative and operational procedure. (Author)

  7. Survey on Security Issues in Cloud Computing and Associated Mitigation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Rohit; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-06-01

    Cloud Computing holds the potential to eliminate the requirements for setting up of high-cost computing infrastructure for IT-based solutions and services that the industry uses. It promises to provide a flexible IT architecture, accessible through internet for lightweight portable devices. This would allow multi-fold increase in the capacity or capabilities of the existing and new software. In a cloud computing environment, the entire data reside over a set of networked resources, enabling the data to be accessed through virtual machines. Since these data-centers may lie in any corner of the world beyond the reach and control of users, there are multifarious security and privacy challenges that need to be understood and taken care of. Also, one can never deny the possibility of a server breakdown that has been witnessed, rather quite often in the recent times. There are various issues that need to be dealt with respect to security and privacy in a cloud computing scenario. This extensive survey paper aims to elaborate and analyze the numerous unresolved issues threatening the cloud computing adoption and diffusion affecting the various stake-holders linked to it.

  8. Proximal occlusion of hydrosalpinges by Essure(®) before assisted reproduction techniques: a French survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Guillaume; Moulin, Julie; Vialard, Jean; Ziegler, Dominique D E; Fanchin, Renato; Pouly, Jean Luc; Watrelot, Antoine; Belaisch Allart, Joëlle; Massin, Nathalie; Fernandez, Hervé

    2014-10-01

    To study the feasibility and results (live-birth and complication rates) of placement of Essure(®) microinserts before assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment of women with hydrosalpinx when laparoscopy should be avoided. Study design National survey of 45 French hospital centres providing ART reporting a retrospective analysis of 43 women with unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinges and Essure(®) placement. The results of the following ART cycle were studied for 54 embryo transfers. The placement success rate reached 92.8% (65/70 tubes), and the mean number of visible intrauterine coils was 1.61 (range: 0-6). Pyosalpinx occurred in one case, and expulsion of the device into the uterus in two others. Of 43 women, 29 (67.4%) had a total of 54 fresh or frozen embryos transferred. The clinical pregnancy rate was 40.7% (22/54) and the live-birth rate 25.9% (14/54). The implantation rate was 29.3% (27/92). Essure(®) placement is an effective method for occlusion of hydrosalpinges before IVF. Monitoring the live-birth rate confirms that this option is the strongest in cases when laparoscopy is impossible or contraindicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dealing with Magnetic Disturbances in Human Motion Capture: A Survey of Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ligorio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic-Inertial Measurement Units (MIMUs based on microelectromechanical (MEMS technologies are widespread in contexts such as human motion tracking. Although they present several advantages (lightweight, size, cost, their orientation estimation accuracy might be poor. Indoor magnetic disturbances represent one of the limiting factors for their accuracy, and, therefore, a variety of work was done to characterize and compensate them. In this paper, the main compensation strategies included within Kalman-based orientation estimators are surveyed and classified according to which degrees of freedom are affected by the magnetic data and to the magnetic disturbance rejection methods implemented. By selecting a representative method from each category, four algorithms were obtained and compared in two different magnetic environments: (1 small workspace with an active magnetic source; (2 large workspace without active magnetic sources. A wrist-worn MIMU was used to acquire data from a healthy subject, whereas a stereophotogrammetric system was adopted to obtain ground-truth data. The results suggested that the model-based approaches represent the best compromise between the two testbeds. This is particularly true when the magnetic data are prevented to affect the estimation of the angles with respect to the vertical direction.

  10. Development of high-energy resolution inverse photoemission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, D.; Fujii, Y.; Mizokawa, T.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a new inverse photoemission (IPES) machine based on a new idea to improve the energy resolution: off-plane Eagle mounting of the optical system in combination with dispersion matching between incoming electron and outgoing photon. In order to achieve dispersion matching, we have employed a parallel plate electron source and have investigated whether the electron beam is obtained as expected. In this paper, we present the principle and design of the new IPES method and report the current status of the high-energy resolution IPES machine

  11. X-ray technique and technology development trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.V.; Chikirdin, Eh.G.

    1994-01-01

    Application of new types of x-ray devices for diagnosis of diseases was described. Modern roentgenological devices (Rentgen-60) were supplied by remote handling unit with the help of roentgen television. Roentgen television is based on transmission of image from the output of the screen of amplifier of x-ray image on the input of transmitting television camera. Scanning of input image accurred inside the camera, analog videosignal was amplified and reproduced on the display. The prospects of development of such roentgen equipment was emphasized

  12. Computational techniques used in the development of coprocessing flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenier, W.S.; Mitchell, A.D.; Jubin, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    The computer program SEPHIS, developed to aid in determining optimum solvent extraction conditions for the reprocessing of nuclear power reactor fuels by the Purex method, is described. The program employs a combination of approximate mathematical equilibrium expressions and a transient, stagewise-process calculational method to allow stage and product-stream concentrations to be predicted with accuracy and reliability. The possible applications to inventory control for nuclear material safeguards, nuclear criticality analysis, and process analysis and control are of special interest. The method is also applicable to other counntercurrent liquid--liquid solvent extraction processes having known chemical kinetics, that may involve multiple solutes and are performed in conventional contacting equipment

  13. World wide developments in shortwall and wide web mining techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, T

    1975-11-01

    The paper describes the progress to date with continuous pillar extraction, and how the typical longwall powered support has been modified to be both strong enough and stable enough to provide roof support for very wide webs. It also describes the operating systems which have been specially designed. The next stages of development are discussed, particularly the provision of continuous conveyor haulage in place of the present-day shuttle car. The author suggests that marrying American coal-getting technology and British roof support technology might increase productivity.

  14. Survey of Noncommissioned Officer Academies for Criterion Development Purposes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-12-01

    Inspection, Fitting and Wearing of the Uniform, Ceremonies, Customs and Courtesies, Conduct of Physical Training Program, etc. )--minimum of 15 hours. 3...in a course and covers the general responsibilities of leadership, problems of leader- subordinate relationships , and some of the leader’s specific...OPERATION AT INSTALLATIONS SURVEYED 3Y DA MILITARY PERSONNEL MANAGMNT TEAMS Type of Training Program Installation Refresher Leadership Instructor

  15. Developing an International Survey of Teachers' Assessment Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renken, Maggie; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Cowie, Bronwen

    teacher education into the first years as teachers across six countries. We target the nature of programmes and changes in understanding assessment purposes, practices, principles and policy. This project builds on the ACT survey of student-teacher understandings of assessment conducted over three years......Professional standards require teachers to be assessment literate - to construct, administer, and score reliable, valid assessments, communicate interpretations and use evidence to adjust teaching to support students. This project investigates student-teachers’ assessment literacy throughout...

  16. State of the art survey of network operating systems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the State-of-the-Art Survey of Network Operating Systems (NOS) performed for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. NOS functional characteristics are presented in terms of user communication data migration, job migration, network control, and common functional categories. Products (current or future) as well as research and prototyping efforts are summarized. The NOS products which are revelant to the space station and its activities are evaluated.

  17. Development of dose audits for complex treatment techniques in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanic, A. M.; Molina, L.; Vallejos, M.; Montano, G.; Zaretzky, A.; Saravi, M., E-mail: stefanic@cae.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Regional de Referencia con Patrones Secundarios para Dosimetria - CNEA, Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon 15, B1802AYA Ezeiza (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    This work was performed in the frame of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) with IAEA whose objective was to extend the scope of activities carried out by national TLD-based networks from dosimetry audit for rectangular radiation fields to irregular and small fields relevant to modern radiotherapy. External audit is a crucial element in QA programmes for clinical dosimetry in radiotherapy, therefore a methodology and procedures were developed and were made available for dose measurement of complex radiotherapy parameters used for cancer treatment. There were three audit steps involved in this CRP: TLD based dosimetry for irregular MLC fields for conformal radiotherapy, dosimetry in the presence of heterogeneities and 2D MLC shaped fields relevant to stereotactic radiotherapy and applicable to dosimetry for IMRT. In addition, a new development of film-based 2D dosimetry for testing dose distributions in small field geometry was included. The plan for each audit step involved a pilot study and a trial audit run with a few local hospitals. The pilot study focused on conducting and evaluation of the audit procedures with all participants. The trial audit run was the running of the audit procedures by the participants to test them with a few local radiotherapy hospitals. This work intends to provide audits which are much nearer clinical practice than previous audits as they involve significant testing of Tps methods, as well as verifications to determinate whether hospitals can correctly calculate dose delivery in radiation treatments. (author)

  18. Development of dose audits for complex treatment techniques in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanic, A. M.; Molina, L.; Vallejos, M.; Montano, G.; Zaretzky, A.; Saravi, M.

    2014-08-01

    This work was performed in the frame of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) with IAEA whose objective was to extend the scope of activities carried out by national TLD-based networks from dosimetry audit for rectangular radiation fields to irregular and small fields relevant to modern radiotherapy. External audit is a crucial element in QA programmes for clinical dosimetry in radiotherapy, therefore a methodology and procedures were developed and were made available for dose measurement of complex radiotherapy parameters used for cancer treatment. There were three audit steps involved in this CRP: TLD based dosimetry for irregular MLC fields for conformal radiotherapy, dosimetry in the presence of heterogeneities and 2D MLC shaped fields relevant to stereotactic radiotherapy and applicable to dosimetry for IMRT. In addition, a new development of film-based 2D dosimetry for testing dose distributions in small field geometry was included. The plan for each audit step involved a pilot study and a trial audit run with a few local hospitals. The pilot study focused on conducting and evaluation of the audit procedures with all participants. The trial audit run was the running of the audit procedures by the participants to test them with a few local radiotherapy hospitals. This work intends to provide audits which are much nearer clinical practice than previous audits as they involve significant testing of Tps methods, as well as verifications to determinate whether hospitals can correctly calculate dose delivery in radiation treatments. (author)

  19. Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

  20. Development of 40m SANS and Its Utilization Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Min; Kim, Tae Hwan

    2010-06-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been a very powerful tool to study nanoscale (1-100 nm) bulk structures in various materials such as polymer, self assembled materials, nano-porous materials, nano-magnetic materials, metal and ceramics. Understanding the importance of the SANS instrument, the 8m SANS instrument was installed at the CN beam port of HANARO in 2001. However, without having a cold neutron source, the beam intensity is fairly low and the Q-range is rather limited due to short instrument length. In July 1, 2003, therefore, the HANARO cold neutron research facility project was launched and a state of the art 40m SANS instrument was selected as top-priority instrument. The development of the 40m SANS instrument was completed as a joint project between Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and the HANARO in 2010. Here, we report the specification of a state of art 40m SANS instrument at HANARO

  1. Cladding technique for development of Ag-In-Cd decoupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Saito, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Kogawa, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Kawai, M.; Kurishita, H.; Konashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    To develop a Ag (silver)-In (indium)-Cd (cadmium) alloy decoupler, a method is needed to bond the decoupler between two plates of the Al alloy (A6061-T6). We found that a better HIP condition was temperature, pressure and holding time at 803 K, 100 MPa and 1 h, respectively, for small test pieces (φ 22 mm in diam. x 5 mm in height). Especially, a sandwich case (a Ag-In plate with thickness of 0.5 mm between two Ag-Cd plates with thickness of 1.25 mm) gave easier (or better) bonding results. Though a hardened layer is found in the bonding layer, the rupture strength of the bonding layer is more than 30 MPa, which is higher than the design stress in our application

  2. Market survey for nuclear power in developing countries. Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-09-01

    Fourteen Country Reports, one for each of the developing countries that took part in the Survey, have been prepared. These fourteen Country Reports are summarized in the General Report. Sections 1-8 of each Report contain data gathered during the visit of the team of experts and other data gathered for general accuracy. Sections 9-17 present the method of approach, the data used in the analyses, the analyses made and the results of the studies. General data and methodology common to the studies for all countries are given in the Appendixes. Section 1 concerns general economics and contains data on population, gross national product, mineral resources and energy consumption. Data on the national energy resources such as hydro potential, fossil fuel reserves, refinery capacity and production, and nuclear materials resources are given in Section 2. The electricity supply system, its development, generating and transmission facilities, costs of existing plants and plants under construction, various system operating and economic criteria, and technical data on existing generating units are given in Section 3. The historical growth of the electrical demand is described in Section 4, together with historical data on per-capita consumption, installed capacity, energy generated, load factor, and system load characteristics. Data are also given on system reliability, reliability criteria, and outage experience. The future system requirements are described in Section 5 including projections of maximum demand, generated energy, load factor and future reserve capacity. Also included are data on generating units and transmission facilities planned, under construction or projected, and on future sites. Section 6 contains data on local material and labour costs, labour practices, and the participation of local industry in the manufacture of power system components. Economic and financial aspects such as the method of evaluating the economic merit of projects, sources of funds

  3. Market survey for nuclear power in developing countries. Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-15

    Fourteen Country Reports, one for each of the developing countries that took part in the Survey, have been prepared. These fourteen Country Reports are summarized in the General Report. Sections 1-8 of each Report contain data gathered during the visit of the team of experts and other data gathered for general accuracy. Sections 9-17 present the method of approach, the data used in the analyses, the analyses made and the results of the studies. General data and methodology common to the studies for all countries are given in the Appendixes. Section 1 concerns general economics and contains data on population, gross national product, mineral resources and energy consumption. Data on the national energy resources such as hydro potential, fossil fuel reserves, refinery capacity and production, and nuclear materials resources are given in Section 2. The electricity supply system, its development, generating and transmission facilities, costs of existing plants and plants under construction, various system operating and economic criteria, and technical data on existing generating units are given in Section 3. The historical growth of the electrical demand is described in Section 4, together with historical data on per-capita consumption, installed capacity, energy generated, load factor, and system load characteristics. Data are also given on system reliability, reliability criteria, and outage experience. The future system requirements are described in Section 5 including projections of maximum demand, generated energy, load factor and future reserve capacity. Also included are data on generating units and transmission facilities planned, under construction or projected, and on future sites. Section 6 contains data on local material and labour costs, labour practices, and the participation of local industry in the manufacture of power system components. Economic and financial aspects such as the method of evaluating the economic merit of projects, sources of funds

  4. Market survey for nuclear power in developing countries. Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-15

    Fourteen Country Reports, one for each of the developing countries that took part in the Survey, have been prepared. These fourteen Country Reports are summarized in the General Report. Sections 1-8 of each Report contain data gathered during the visit of the team of experts and other data gathered for general accuracy. Sections 9-17 present the method of approach, the data used in the analyses, the analyses made and the results of the studies. General data and methodology common to the studies for all countries are given in the Appendixes. Section 1 concerns general economics and contains data on population, gross national product, mineral resources and energy consumption. Data on the national energy resources such as hydro potential, fossil fuel reserves, refinery capacity and production, and nuclear materials resources are given in Section 2. The electricity supply system, its development, generating and transmission facilities, costs of existing plants and plants under construction, various system operating and economic criteria, and technical data on existing generating units are given in Section 3. The historical growth of the electrical demand is described in Section 4, together with historical data on per-capita consumption, installed capacity, energy generated, load factor, and system load characteristics. Data are also given on system reliability, reliability criteria, and outage experience. The future system requirements are described in Section 5 including projections of maximum demand, generated energy, load factor and future reserve capacity. Also included are data on generating units and transmission facilities planned, under construction or projected, and on future sites. Section 6 contains data on local material and labour costs, labour practices, and the participation of local industry in the manufacture of power system components. Economic and financial aspects such as the method of evaluating the economic merit of projects, sources of funds

  5. Market survey for nuclear power in developing countries. Jamaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-15

    Fourteen Country Reports, one for each of the developing countries that took part in the Survey, have been prepared. These fourteen Country Reports are summarized in the General Report. Sections 1-8 of each Report contain data gathered during the visit of the team of experts and other data gathered for general accuracy. Sections 9-17 present the method of approach, the data used in the analyses, the analyses made and the results of the studies. General data and methodology common to the studies for all countries are given in the Appendixes. Section 1 concerns general economics and contains data on population, gross national product, mineral resources and energy consumption. Data on the national energy resources such as hydro potential, fossil fuel reserves, refinery capacity and production, and nuclear materials resources are given in Section 2. The electricity supply system, its development, generating and transmission facilities, costs of existing plants and plants under construction, various system operating and economic criteria, and technical data on existing generating units are given in Section 3. The historical growth of the electrical demand is described in Section 4, together with historical data on per-capita consumption, installed capacity, energy generated, load factor, and system load characteristics. Data are also given on system reliability, reliability criteria, and outage experience. The future system requirements are described in Section 5 including projections of maximum demand, generated energy, load factor and future reserve capacity. Also included are data on generating units and transmission facilities planned, under construction or projected, and on future sites. Section 6 contains data on local material and labour costs, labour practices, and the participation of local industry in the manufacture of power system components. Economic and financial aspects such as the method of evaluating the economic merit of projects, sources of funds

  6. Market survey for nuclear power in developing countries. Singapore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-15

    Fourteen Country Reports, one for each of the developing countries that took part in the Survey, have been prepared. These fourteen Country Reports are summarized in the General Report. Sections 1-8 of each Report contain data gathered during the visit of the team of experts and other data gathered for general accuracy. Sections 9-17 present the method of approach, the data used in the analyses, the analyses made and the results of the studies. General data and methodology common to the studies for all countries are given in the Appendixes. Section 1 concerns general economics and contains data on population, gross national product, mineral resources and energy consumption. Data on the national energy resources such as hydro potential, fossil fuel reserves, refinery capacity and production, and nuclear materials resources are given in Section 2. The electricity supply system, its development, generating and transmission facilities, costs of existing plants and plants under construction, various system operating and economic criteria, and technical data on existing generating units are given in Section 3. The historical growth of the electrical demand is described in Section 4, together with historical data on per-capita consumption, installed capacity, energy generated, load factor, and system load characteristics. Data are also given on system reliability, reliability criteria, and outage experience. The future system requirements are described in Section 5 including projections of maximum demand, generated energy, load factor and future reserve capacity. Also included are data on generating units and transmission facilities planned, under construction or projected, and on future sites. Section 6 contains data on local material and labour costs, labour practices, and the participation of local industry in the manufacture of power system components. Economic and financial aspects such as the method of evaluating the economic merit of projects, sources of funds

  7. Market survey for nuclear power in developing countries. Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-15

    Fourteen Country Reports, one for each of the developing countries that took part in the Survey, have been prepared. These fourteen Country Reports are summarized in the General Report. Sections 1-8 of each Report contain data gathered during the visit of the team of experts and other data gathered for general accuracy. Sections 9-17 present the method of approach, the data used in the analyses, the analyses made and the results of the studies. General data and methodology common to the studies for all countries are given in the Appendixes. Section 1 concerns general economics and contains data on population, gross national product, mineral resources and energy consumption. Data on the national energy resources such as hydro potential, fossil fuel reserves, refinery capacity and production, and nuclear materials resources are given in Section 2. The electricity supply system, its development, generating and transmission facilities, costs of existing plants and plants under construction, various system operating and economic criteria, and technical data on existing generating units are given in Section 3. The historical growth of the electrical demand is described in Section 4, together with historical data on per-capita consumption, installed capacity, energy generated, load factor, and system load characteristics. Data are also given on system reliability, reliability criteria, and outage experience. The future system requirements are described in Section 5 including projections of maximum demand, generated energy, load factor and future reserve capacity. Also included are data on generating units and transmission facilities planned, under construction or projected, and on future sites. Section 6 contains data on local material and labour costs, labour practices, and the participation of local industry in the manufacture of power system components. Economic and financial aspects such as the method of evaluating the economic merit of projects, sources of funds

  8. Market survey for nuclear power in developing countries. Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-09-01

    Fourteen Country Reports, one for each of the developing countries that took part in the Survey, have been prepared. These fourteen Country Reports are summarized in the General Report. Sections 1-8 of each Report contain data gathered during the visit of the team of experts and other data gathered for general accuracy. Sections 9-17 present the method of approach, the data used in the analyses, the analyses made and the results of the studies. General data and methodology common to the studies for all countries are given in the Appendixes. Section 1 concerns general economics and contains data on population, gross national product, mineral resources and energy consumption. Data on the national energy resources such as hydro potential, fossil fuel reserves, refinery capacity and production, and nuclear materials resources are given in Section 2. The electricity supply system, its development, generating and transmission facilities, costs of existing plants and plants under construction, various system operating and economic criteria, and technical data on existing generating units are given in Section 3. The historical growth of the electrical demand is described in Section 4, together with historical data on per-capita consumption, installed capacity, energy generated, load factor, and system load characteristics. Data are also given on system reliability, reliability criteria, and outage experience. The future system requirements are described in Section 5 including projections of maximum demand, generated energy, load factor and future reserve capacity. Also included are data on generating units and transmission facilities planned, under construction or projected, and on future sites. Section 6 contains data on local material and labour costs, labour practices, and the participation of local industry in the manufacture of power system components. Economic and financial aspects such as the method of evaluating the economic merit of projects, sources of funds

  9. Market survey for nuclear power in developing countries. Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-09-01

    Fourteen Country Reports, one for each of the developing countries that took part in the Survey, have been prepared. These fourteen Country Reports are summarized in the General Report. Sections 1-8 of each Report contain data gathered during the visit of the team of experts and other data gathered for general accuracy. Sections 9-17 present the method of approach, the data used in the analyses, the analyses made and the results of the studies. General data and methodology common to the studies for all countries are given in the Appendixes. Section 1 concerns general economics and contains data on population, gross national product, mineral resources and energy consumption. Data on the national energy resources such as hydro potential, fossil fuel reserves, refinery capacity and production, and nuclear materials resources are given in Section 2. The electricity supply system, its development, generating and transmission facilities, costs of existing plants and plants under construction, various system operating and economic criteria, and technical data on existing generating units are given in Section 3. The historical growth of the electrical demand is described in Section 4, together with historical data on per-capita consumption, installed capacity, energy generated, load factor, and system load characteristics. Data are also given on system reliability, reliability criteria, and outage experience. The future system requirements are described in Section 5 including projections of maximum demand, generated energy, load factor and future reserve capacity. Also included are data on generating units and transmission facilities planned, under construction or projected, and on future sites. Section 6 contains data on local material and labour costs, labour practices, and the participation of local industry in the manufacture of power system components. Economic and financial aspects such as the method of evaluating the economic merit of projects, sources of funds

  10. Market survey for nuclear power in developing countries. Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-09-01

    Fourteen Country Reports, one for each of the developing countries that took part in the Survey, have been prepared. These fourteen Country Reports are summarized in the General Report. Sections 1-8 of each Report contain data gathered during the visit of the team of experts and other data gathered for general accuracy. Sections 9-17 present the method of approach, the data used in the analyses, the analyses made and the results of the studies. General data and methodology common to the studies for all countries are given in the Appendixes. Section 1 concerns general economics and contains data on population, gross national product, mineral resources and energy consumption. Data on the national energy resources such as hydro potential, fossil fuel reserves, refinery capacity and production, and nuclear materials resources are given in Section 2. The electricity supply system, its development, generating and transmission facilities, costs of existing plants and plants under construction, various system operating and economic criteria, and technical data on existing generating units are given in Section 3. The historical growth of the electrical demand is described in Section 4, together with historical data on per-capita consumption, installed capacity, energy generated, load factor, and system load characteristics. Data are also given on system reliability, reliability criteria, and outage experience. The future system requirements are described in Section 5 including projections of maximum demand, generated energy, load factor and future reserve capacity. Also included are data on generating units and transmission facilities planned, under construction or projected, and on future sites. Section 6 contains data on local material and labour costs, labour practices, and the participation of local industry in the manufacture of power system components. Economic and financial aspects such as the method of evaluating the economic merit of projects, sources of funds

  11. Market survey for nuclear power in developing countries. Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-09-01

    Fourteen Country Reports, one for each of the developing countries that took part in the Survey, have been prepared. These fourteen Country Reports are summarized in the General Report. Sections 1-8 of each Report contain data gathered during the visit of the team of experts and other data gathered for general accuracy. Sections 9-17 present the method of approach, the data used in the analyses, the analyses made and the results of the studies. General data and methodology common to the studies for all countries are given in the Appendixes. Section 1 concerns general economics and contains data on population, gross national product, mineral resources and energy consumption. Data on the national energy resources such as hydro potential, fossil fuel reserves, refinery capacity and production, and nuclear materials resources are given in Section 2. The electricity supply system, its development, generating and transmission facilities, costs of existing plants and plants under construction, various system operating and economic criteria, and technical data on existing generating units are given in Section 3. The historical growth of the electrical demand is described in Section 4, together with historical data on per-capita consumption, installed capacity, energy generated, load factor, and system load characteristics. Data are also given on system reliability, reliability criteria, and outage experience. The future system requirements are described in Section 5 including projections of maximum demand, generated energy, load factor and future reserve capacity. Also included are data on generating units and transmission facilities planned, under construction or projected, and on future sites. Section 6 contains data on local material and labour costs, labour practices, and the participation of local industry in the manufacture of power system components. Economic and financial aspects such as the method of evaluating the economic merit of projects, sources of funds

  12. Fiscal 1999 geothermal development promotion survey. Development potentiality survey - Strategic survey/nation-wide survey (Report on districts in Fukushima Prefecture); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kaihatsu kanosei chosa - senryakuteki chosa zenkoku chosa (Fukushimaken chiiki hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    For the effective implementation of the survey, data in existence were reanalyzed for the Bandai-Azuma district and Minami-Aizu/Nasu district, and a wide area geothermal model was built. Using the model, exploitable resources were assessed and a prioritized survey introduction program was worked out for the promotion of geothermal development. In compliance with the strategic survey implementation manual, the Bandai-Azuma district was assessed, and the northeastern-eastern foot area of Azuma Volcano and the northern foot area of Adatara Volcano were extracted as areas promising geothermal energy development. The Monte Carlo method was applied to the prioritized survey area at the northeastern foot of Azuma Volcano, and then it was estimated that, with a probability of not less than 90%, the exploitable resources would be 6.4MWe in the case of data accuracy of 0.5 or more and 12.0MWe in the case of data accuracy of 0.4 or more. Selected as promising areas in the Minami-Aizu/Nasu district were the Yanaizu-Nishiyama area, the neighborhood of Nasudake-Chausudake, and the neighborhood of Shiobara-Fuji. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1999 geothermal development promotion survey. Development potentiality survey - Strategic survey/nation-wide survey (Report on Hokkaido region); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kaihatsu kanosei chosa - senryakuteki chosa zenkoku chosa (Hokkaido chiiki hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    For the effective implementation of the survey, an analysis was conducted into areas expected to be successfully developed for geothermal energy, and promising areas and prioritized survey areas were selected. Data then in existence were collected at the Doto district 1, Doto district 2, Toyoha-Niseko district, and the Iburi district and subjected to reanalysis, and a wide area geothermal system conceptual model was built. Using the model, development-promising areas were extracted, the amount of resources was assessed, and an optimum survey program was prepared. One promising area was selected in the Doto district 1, four in the Doto district 2, two in the Toyoha-Niseko district, and one in the Iburi district. As prioritized survey areas, Musadake was selected in the Doto district 1; Yoichidake, Yunosawa, and Takinosawa in the Toyoha-Niseko district; and Raibadake in the Iburi district. A Monte Carlo analysis was conducted, and the result indicated that Musakake had 93-121MWe in resources of which 55MWe would be exploitable with a probability of not less than 90%. (NEDO)

  14. Rising to the Challenge: Developing a Survey of Workplace Skills, Civic Engagement, and Global Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Judith A.; Pike, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the ongoing development of a survey of students' workplace skills, civic engagement, and global awareness that colleges and universities can use to document their contributions to the public good. The student growth survey currently under development offers colleges and universities an opportunity to refocus the attention of…

  15. The development of machine technology processing for earth resource survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1970-01-01

    The following technologies are considered for automatic processing of earth resources data: (1) registration of multispectral and multitemporal images, (2) digital image display systems, (3) data system parameter effects on satellite remote sensing systems, and (4) data compression techniques based on spectral redundancy. The importance of proper spectral band and compression algorithm selections is pointed out.

  16. Development of Mo recycle technique from generator materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Masataka; Kurosawa, Makoto; Kimura, Akihiro; Nishikata, Kaori; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kakei, Sadanori; Yoshinaga, Hideo [Taiyo Koko Corp., Ako Laboratory, Ako, Hyogo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    The domestic {sup 99}Mo production by the (n,{gamma}) method is proposed in JMTR because of low amount of radioactive wastes and easy {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc production process. For the development of domestic production, it is necessary to use the enriched {sup 98}MoO{sub 3}, which is very expensive, for high specific activity of {sup 99}Mo. A large amount of used PZC/PTC embraced {sup 98}Mo is also generated after the decay of {sup 99}Mo. JAEA and Taiyo Koko is proposed to recover molybdenum from the used PZC/PTC for an effective use of resources and reduction of radioactive wastes. Preliminary experiments of Mo recycling with un-irradiated MoO{sub 3} were carried out by the elution and sublimation methods. From the results, Mo recovery rate from the PZC/PTC was more than 95% by two kinds of methods. The prospects are bright for Mo recycle and reduction of radioactive wastes using these methods. (author)

  17. Further developments in performance prediction techniques of adiabatic diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasihhan, Y

    1990-01-01

    The engine cycle simulation program 'SPICE', developed at Bath University, has been used extensively for insulated diesel engine research. The present study introduces more comprehensive engine heat transfer models thus enabling us to study the insulated engine heat transfer and performance characteristics in more detail. The new version of 'SPICE' separates the gas to wall heat transfer into two parts, convective and radiative. For this purpose, a detailed radiative heat transfer model which considers both the flame (gas and soot) and wall to wall radiative heat transfer is written. The previous engine resistance model is refined and replaced by a more detailed resistance model which considers piston-liner conduction heat transfer and 2-D heat flow in the liner. The wall surface temperature swing is also included in the engine heat transfer calculations which is quite significant in low conductivity ceramic insulated engines. A 1-D finite difference model is written for the transient heat transfer region of the wall and linked to the engine resistance model. This new version of 'SPICE' is used to predict the insulated engine heat transfer and performance for the experimental Petter PH1W engine for various insulation levels and schemes. An answer to the controversy of increase in engine heat loss with insulation is looked for. The effect of wall deposits on engine heat transfer and its significance for the insulated engine is highlighted. (Author).

  18. Developing powerful tritide technique: Organic and biological molecule labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Complex hydrides are very important reagents in organic synthesis due to the range of reducing powers and selectivities available from different agents. Unfortunately, the availability of these compounds for radiosynthesis has been extremely limited due to the difficulty of making them with adequate levels of tritium. Investigators at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) National Tritium Labeling Facility have developed a new addition to the repertoire of the tritium-labeling chemist. The new method allows site-specific incorporation of tritium into organic and biological molecules by efficient reduction processes. Exceptionally reactive and selective reducing agents are prepared and used for labeling in a on-pot process. Three new tritide reagents - supertritide (lithium triethyl borotritide), LiAlT 4 (lithium aluminum tritide), and L-Selectride (sterically hindered lithium tri-sec-butyl borotritide) - have been synthesized at carrier-free levels, and have been demonstrated to be fully reactive. The availability of these versatile and reactive reagents gives the tritium radiochemist great control over chemoselectivity and stereoselectivity. The LBL tritide reagents can drive numerous conventional chemical reactions, and have been used to reduce p-toluene sulfonates, amides, lactones, esters, and aldehydes. These reactions produce good yields and result in products with maximum specific activities. The reagents clearly exhibit superior reactivity and may be used in many more synthetic processes than sodium borohydride, which is the currently used reagent. In addition, tritide reagents such as L-selectride have been shown to give greater control over stereochemistry and selectivity than sodium borohydride

  19. Development of cutting techniques of steel pipe by wire sawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Yoshinori; Inai, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    A cutting method has a high cutting efficiency and enable cutting in safe. A wire saw cutting method is used for dismantling of massive concrete structures such as nuclear power plants with an effective and safe mean. In the case of dismantling of structures with multiple pipes installed at these facilities, an effective method is also demanded. If a wire saw method to remotely cut target objects in a large block in bulk is applicable, it will be expected an effective dismantling work under severe conditions with radioactivity. Although the wire saw method has adaptability for any shapes of cutting target objects and is widely adopted in dismantling of concrete constructs, it has few actual achievements in dismantling of steel structures such as steel pipe bundle. This study aims to verify its cutting characteristics and adaptability as a cutting method by conducting a cutting basic test to develop a diamond wire saw method to efficiently cut constructs with multiple pipes in a bundle. The test proved that a wire saw cutting method apply to dismantle structures with steel pipe bundle. A wire saw for metal cutting is adaptable in dismantling of bundle of thick carbon steel and stainless steel pipes. And also a wire saw for concrete cutting is adaptable in dismantling of pipe bundle structure with a mortar. (author)

  20. Development of sea water pipe thickness measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Kazuo; Wakayama, Seiichi; Takeuchi, Iwao; Masamori, Sigero; Yamasita, Takesi.

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear and thermal power plants, wall wear of sea water pipes is reported to occur in the inner surface due to corrosion and erosion. From the viewpoint of improving the equipments reliability, it is desirable that wall thickness should be measured from the outer surface of the pipe during operation. In the conventional method, paint on the outer surface of the pipe was locally removed at each point of a 20 by 50 mm grid, and inspection was carried out at these spots. However, this method had some problems, such as (1) it was necessary to replace the paint, and (2) it was difficult to obtain the precise distribution of wall thickness. Therefore, we have developed a wall thickness measuring system which has the following features. (1) It is possible to perform inspection from the outer surface without removing paint during operation. (2) It is possible to measure the distribution of wall thickness and display it as color contour map simultaneously. (3) The work of inspectors can be alleviated by the automatic recording of measured data. (author)