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Sample records for survey study examines

  1. Vision Test Validation Study for the Health Examination Survey Among Youths 12-17 years.

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    Roberts, Jean

    A validation study of the vision test battery used in the Health Examination Survey of 1966-1970 was conducted among 210 youths 12-17 years-old who had been part of the larger survey. The study was designed to discover the degree of correspondence between survey test results and clinical examination by an opthalmologist in determining the…

  2. A Study to Examine Differences Between In Person and Online Survey Data Collection Methodologies.

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    ROBERT CASE,

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences between the results of an in person or face-to-face direct spending survey and a post-event online direct spending survey. Participants in a large annual marathon held in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States were used as subjects for the study. The research methodology selected for this study included an in person survey instrument administered to out-of-town marathon participants prior to the start of the event during the race number and race timing chip pick-up period. The same survey instrument was administered online four days after the conclusion of the marathon to the same group of out-of-town marathon participants who did not previously respond to the in person survey. Analysis of data and results revealed that average direct spending for the online respondents was consistently and significantly higher than spending for the in person respondents on direct spending questions. Spending on lodging for both groups showed no significant differences. It was recommended that the use of online survey methods be considered when conducting direct spending studies for participant oriented sporting events when adequate e-mail addresses are available and the potential respondents have a certain level of computer literacy.

  3. Findings from the oral health study of the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aims of the oral part of the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) were (1) to establish an oral health database for adult Danes and (2) to explore the influence of general diseases and lifestyle on oral health. This paper presents the study population....... The validated questionnaire and the clinical characteristics enable robust analyses, although the conclusions may be hampered by limited external validity....

  4. Cancer patients' perceptions regarding the value of the physical examination: a survey study.

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    Kadakia, Kunal C; Hui, David; Chisholm, Gary B; Frisbee-Hume, Susan E; Williams, Janet L; Bruera, Eduardo

    2014-07-15

    Despite its clinical utility, progressive reliance on technology can lead to devaluing the physical examination in patients with advanced cancer. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether these patients have a positive or negative perception of the physical examination. A secondary objective was to determine whether these perceptions are related to interpersonal/relational values (symbolic) or diagnostic/objective values (pragmatic). One hundred fifty patients with cancer who were receiving concurrent oncology and palliative care were administered a 26-item survey regarding their overall perception of the physical examination. The primary outcome-patient responses to "In the last 3 months, I believe my experience while being examined has been overall: very negative (a score of -5) to very positive (a score of +5),"-was analyzed using the Sign test. Other items were predefined as either symbolic or pragmatic statements, and patient responses from strongly disagree (a score of 1) to strongly agree (a score of 5) were further analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test for associations between baseline characteristics and the primary outcome. Most patients (83%) indicated that the overall experience of being examined was highly positive (median score, 4; interquartile range [IQR], 2-5; P ≤ .0001). Patients valued both the pragmatic aspects (median score, 5; IQR, 4-5) and symbolic aspects (median score, 4; IQR, 4-5) of the physical examination. Increasing age was independently associated with a more positive perception of the physical examination (odds ratio, 1.07 per year; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.12 per year; P = .01). Patients with advanced cancer indicate that the physical examination is a highly positive aspect of their care. These benefits are perceived as having both symbolic and pragmatic value. The physical examination should remain a cornerstone of clinical encounters. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  5. The Mississippi Delta Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey: Study Design and Methods

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    Short, Vanessa L.; Ivory-Walls, Tameka; Smith, Larry; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in subnational areas is limited. A model for regional CVD surveillance is needed, particularly among vulnerable populations underrepresented in current monitoring systems. The Mississippi Delta Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey (CHES) is a population-based, cross-sectional study on a representative sample of adults living in the 18-county Mississippi Delta region, a rural, impoverished area with high rates of poor health outcomes and marked health disparities. The primary objectives of Delta CHES are to (1) determine the prevalence and distribution of CVD and CVD risk factors using self-reported and directly measured health metrics and (2) to assess environmental perceptions and existing policies that support or deter healthy choices. An address-based sampling frame is used for household enumeration and participant recruitment and an in-home data collection model is used to collect survey data, anthropometric measures, and blood samples from participants. Data from all sources will be merged into one analytic dataset and sample weights developed to ensure data are representative of the Mississippi Delta region adult population. Information gathered will be used to assess the burden of CVD and guide the development, implementation, and evaluation of cardiovascular health promotion and risk factor control strategies. PMID:25844257

  6. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  7. Actinic skin damage and mortality--the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to sunlight may decrease the risk of several diseases through the synthesis of vitamin D, whereas solar radiation is the main cause of some skin and eye diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association of sun-induced skin damage with mortality remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were 8472 white participants aged 25-74 years in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Cardiovascular disease mortality, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality were obtained by either a death certificate or a proxy interview, or both. Actinic skin damage was examined and recorded by the presence and severity (absent, minimal, moderate, or severe of overall actinic skin damage and its components (i.e., fine telangiectasia, solar elastosis, and actinic keratoses. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier methods were applied to explore the associations. A total of 672 cancer deaths, 1500 cardiovascular disease deaths, and 2969 deaths from all causes were documented through the follow-up between 1971 and 1992. After controlling for potential confounding variables, severe overall actinic skin damage was associated with a 45% higher risk for all-cause mortality (95% CI: 1.22, 1.72; P<0.001, moderate overall skin damage with a 20% higher risk (95% CI: 1.08., 1.32; P<0.001, and minimal overall skin damage with no significant mortality difference, when compared to those with no skin damage. Similar results were obtained for all-cause mortality with fine telangiectasia, solar elastosis, and actinic keratoses. The results were similar for cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The present study gives an indication of an association of actinic skin damage with cardiovascular disease, cancer and all-cause mortality in white subjects. Given the lack of support in the scientific literature and potential unmeasured confounding factors, this finding should be

  8. Pharmacogenetic profile of a South Portuguese population: results from the pilot study of the European Health Examination Survey in Portugal.

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    Gaio, Vânia; Picanço, Isabel; Nunes, Baltazar; Fernandes, Aida; Mendonça, Francisco; Horta Correia, Filomena; Beleza, Álvaro; Gil, Ana Paula; Bourbon, Mafalda; Vicente, Astrid; Matias Dias, Carlos; Barreto da Silva, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The genetic inter-individual variability of drug response can lead to therapeutic failure or adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The aims of this study were to assess the pharmacogenetic profile of a South Portuguese population according to established dosing guidelines for commonly prescribed drugs and to compare it with that of previously genotyped populations. A cross-sectional study was developed in the context of the Portuguese Component of the European Health Examination Survey (EHES). A total of 47 pharmacogenetically relevant variants in 23 different genes were genotyped in 208 participants. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were calculated, and the pharmacogenetic profile of the participants was defined. A comparative analysis was conducted through electronic database search. Pairwise Fst calculations were performed to assess the genetic distance between populations. We found a significant small differentiation between the Portuguese regional populations regarding CYP2C9 rs1057910, CYP2D6 rs3892097, MTHFR rs1801133 and F5 rs6025. When consid-ering 4 HapMap populations, ADH1B rs2066702, ADH1B rs1229984, NAT2 rs1799931 and VKORC1 rs9923231 displayed a significant population differentiation. We found that 18.9% of the participants are intermediate or poor metabolizers for at least 3 drugs simultaneously and that 84.6% of the participants have at least one therapeutic failure or ADR risk allele for the considered drugs. There is a high prevalence of risk alleles associated with an altered drug metabolism regarding drugs largely used by the South Portuguese population. This knowledge contributes to the prediction of their clinical efficacy and/or toxicity, optimizing therapeutic response while improving cost-effectiveness. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The mental health module (BELLA study) within the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): study design and methods.

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    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2008-12-01

    The BELLA study on mental health and well-being in children and adolescents is the mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The cross-sectional KiGGS survey collected comprehensive data on the health status of 17,641 children and adolescents, aged 0-17 years, living in Germany. The survey included physical examinations and tests, questionnaires filled in by parents and equivalent questionnaires for children aged 11 years or older. A computer-assisted personal interview was conducted by study physicians, and various laboratory tests, e.g. on blood and urine samples, were performed. The longitudinal BELLA study collected initial cross-sectional data from a representative KiGGS sub-sample of families with children aged 7-17 years. Of the 4,199 randomly selected families invited to participate in the BELLA study, 2,863 took part. A total of 48.5% of the participating children and adolescents were girls, 51.5% were boys. Within the BELLA study, trained interviewers conducted standardised telephone interviews with one parent and also the child, if it was at least 11 years old. Afterwards the families received additional questionnaires. The interviews and questionnaires included various standardised and ICD-10-oriented instruments examining overall mental health problems and associated burden, depression, anxiety, attention deficit-/hyperactivity and conduct disorders. Furthermore they covered a broad spectrum of aspects related to mental health and well-being, such as risk and protective factors and health-related quality of life. An analysis of the non-responders showed that the families who agreed to participate form a representative sample with respect to the German population. The sample deviated only slightly from the KiGGS sample structure regarding socioeconomic status and regarding parent-reported mental health problems. No such difference was observed for the children's self-reported mental

  10. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  11. Conducting a statewide health examination survey: the Arkansas Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey (ARCHES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohoori, Namvar; Pulley, LeaVonne; Jones, Camille; Senner, John; Shoob, Hylan; Merritt, Robert K

    2011-05-01

    The Arkansas Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey is a health and nutrition examination survey designed to serve as a demonstration project for collection of data on the prevalence of chronic diseases and their risk factors at the state level. The survey was conducted from mid-2006 through early 2008. We chose a cross-sectional representative sample of adult residents in Arkansas by using a 3-stage, cluster sample design. Trained interviewers conducted interviews and examinations in respondents' homes, collecting data on risk factors and diseases, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and blood and urine samples for analysis and storage. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary and nutrient intake data. We accomplished the project using a collaborative model among several programs and partners within the state. A total of 4,894 eligible households were contacted by telephone. Of these, refusals accounted for 2,748, and 2,146 gave initial consent to participate, for an initial response rate of 44%. The final number of completed household visits was 1,385, resulting in a final response rate of 28.3%. The Arkansas Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey is among the first state-level health and nutrition examination surveys to be conducted in the United States. By using a collaborative model and leveraging federal funds, we engaged several partners who provided additional resources to complete the project. The survey provides the state with valuable state-level data and information for program design and delivery.

  12. Weight Fluctuation and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study

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    Marina Komaroff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate if weight fluctuation is an independent risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (PBC among women who gained weight in adult years. Methods. NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study (NHEFS database was used in the study. Women that were cancers-free at enrollment and diagnosed for the first time with breast cancer at age 50 or greater were considered cases. Controls were chosen from the subset of cancers-free women and matched to cases by years of follow-up and status of body mass index (BMI at 25 years of age. Weight fluctuation was measured by the root-mean-square-error (RMSE from a simple linear regression model for each woman with their body mass index (BMI regressed on age (started at 25 years while women with the positive slope from this regression were defined as weight gainers. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Results. A total of 158 women were included into the study. The conditional logistic regression adjusted for weight gain demonstrated positive association between weight fluctuation in adult years and postmenopausal breast cancers (odds ratio/OR = 1.67; 95% confidence interval/CI: 1.06–2.66. Conclusions. The data suggested that long-term weight fluctuation was significant risk factor for PBC among women who gained weight in adult years. This finding underscores the importance of maintaining lost weight and avoiding weight fluctuation.

  13. The impact of parental history on children's risk of asthma: a study based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rengyi Xu,1 Sara B DeMauro,2 Rui Feng1 1Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Division of Neonatology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA Purpose: This study aimed to examine the separate effects of maternal and paternal history on the onset of asthma in children and evaluate the relationship between age of asthma onset in parents and risk of asthma in their children. Methods: We used data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We developed new continuous standardized scores for survey data to quantify parental history that incorporated both the occurrence of asthma and the age at onset, and associated these scores with asthma risk in the children. The association analysis was adjusted for sex and obesity status. Results: Children with maternal history have elevated asthma risk (hazard ratio of 3.71, 95% CI: 1.19–11.60 than those without, and those whose mothers had earlier age of onset have increased risk of asthma compared to those whose mothers had later age of onset. On the contrary, paternal history had a relatively smaller effect that may be only detectable in larger samples (hazard ratio of 2.17, 95% CI: 0.69–6.79. Conclusion: Maternal asthma history was strongly associated with the onset of asthma in the second generation, and children whose mother had an earlier age of onset had an increased risk of 3.71. For an approximately 10-year decrease in mother’s age at onset of asthma, the risk of asthma for the offspring increased by 1.37-fold. Using our new risk scores led to smaller standard errors and thus more precise estimates than using a binary indicator. Keywords: parental history, asthma risk, maternal history, survey, family data

  14. European Health Examination Survey--towards a sustainable monitoring system.

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    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Mindell, Jennifer; Männistö, Satu; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2014-04-01

     Health examination surveys (HESs), including both questionnaire and physical measurements, and in most cases also collection of biological samples, can provide objective health indicators. This information complements data from health interview surveys and administrative registers, and is important for evidence-based planning of health policies and prevention activities. HESs are valuable data sources for research. The first national HESs in Europe were conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s. They have recently been carried out in an increasing number of countries, but there has been no joint standardization between the countries. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project was conducted in 2009-2012. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Reference Centre was established and pilot surveys were conducted in 12 countries.  European standardized protocols for key measurements on main chronic disease risk factors (height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids and fasting glucose or HbA1c) were prepared. European-level training and external quality assessment were organized. Although the level of earlier experience, infrastructures, economic status and cultural settings varied between the pilot countries, it was possible to standardize measurements of HESs across the populations. Obtaining high participation rates was challenging.  HESs provide high-quality and representative population data to support policy decisions and research. For future national HESs, centralized coordination, training and external quality assessment are needed to ensure comparability of the results. Further studies on effects of different survey methods on comparability of the results and on recruitment and motivation of survey participants are needed.

  15. Association of internal exposure of cadmium and lead with periodontal disease: a study of the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Won, Young-Soon; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Young-Soo; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2013-02-01

    This study was performed to examine the association of the internal exposure of cadmium and lead with periodontitis in a representative sample of adults, who were involved in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). One thousand nine hundred and sixty-six subjects over the age of 19 who participated in KNHANES were examined. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) exposure were grouped into three categories: low (periodontal status was assessed by the Community Periodontal Index. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to get the adjusted odds ratio (OR), and subgroup analysis was also performed. All analyses considered a complex sampling design. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed associations of Cd with periodontitis. Subjects with a high Cd had a 1.57 (95% CI: 1.03-2.38) times higher OR for periodontitis than those with a low Cd. In the subgroup analysis, the association of Pb and Cd with periodontitis was different according to the strata of gender and smoking. High Cd could be associated with periodontitis in females and current smokers, and middle Pb showed associations in females and non-smokers among a representative sample of adults in Korea. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  17. Engineering surveying theory and examination problems for students

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2013-01-01

    Engineering Surveying: Theory and Examination Problems for Students, Volume 1, Third Edition discusses topics concerning engineering surveying techniques and instrumentations. The book is comprised of eight chapters that cover several concerns in engineering survey. Chapter 1 discusses the basic concepts of surveying. Chapter 2 deals with simple and precise leveling, while Chapter 3 covers earthworks. The book also talks about the theodolite and its applications, and then discusses optical distance measurement. Curves, underground and hydrographic surveying, and aspects of dimensional control

  18. Blood Lead Levels and Learning Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Study of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Geier, Mark R

    2017-10-10

    Difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities are present among persons diagnosed with learning disabilities (LDs). Previous studies suggest a significant relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and LDs. This study evaluated the potential dose-response relationship between blood Pb levels and the risk of LDs. This cross-sectional study examined 1411 children (32,788,743 weighted-persons) between 6 and 15 years old from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) by analyzing demographics, health related-questions, and laboratory tests using survey logistic and frequency modeling in SAS. On a µg Pb/dL basis, a significant dose-dependent relationship between increasing blood Pb levels and increasing risk of LDs was observed (odds ratio (OR) = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.43). The relationship remained significant when examining covariates such as gender and race (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.00-1.40). By contrast, no dose-dependence was observed between increasing blood Pb levels and the risk of hay fever in the last year (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.56-1.056), a non-plausibly biologically related outcome of blood Pb levels. Persons in the 50th-75th (12.80%) and 75th-100th (17.14%) percentiles of blood Pb were significantly more likely to have LDs than persons in the 0-50th percentile of blood Pb (8.78%). An estimated 1 million persons born in the US from 1989 to 1998 developed LDs from elevated blood Pb levels. Overall, this study revealed a significant dose-dependent association between increasing childhood blood Pb levels and the risk of a LD diagnosis, but it was not possible to ascribe a direct cause-effect relationship between blood Pb exposure and LD diagnosis. Childhood Pb exposure should be considered when evaluating children with LDs, and continuing efforts should be made to reduce Pb exposure.

  19. Dietary fiber intake and reduced risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Lydia A; He, Jiang; Ogden, Lorraine G; Loria, Catherine M; Whelton, Paul K

    2003-09-08

    Prospective studies suggest that dietary fiber intake, especially water-soluble fiber, may be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined the relationship between total and soluble dietary fiber intake and the risk of CHD and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 9776 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study and were free of CVD at baseline. A 24-hour dietary recall was conducted at the baseline examination, and nutrient intakes were calculated using Food Processor software. Incidence and mortality data for CHD and CVD were obtained from medical records and death certificates during follow-up. During an average of 19 years of follow-up, 1843 incident cases of CHD and 3762 incident cases of CVD were documented. Compared with the lowest quartile of dietary fiber intake (median, 5.9 g/d), participants in the highest quartile (median, 20.7 g/d) had an adjusted relative risk of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-1.04; P =.05 for trend) for CHD events and of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.80-0.99; P =.01 for trend) for CVD events. The relative risks for those in the highest (median, 5.9 g/d) compared with those in the lowest (median, 0.9 g/d) quartile of water-soluble dietary fiber intake were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.74-0.98; P =.004 for trend) for CHD events and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.99; P =.01 for trend) for CVD events. A higher intake of dietary fiber, particularly water-soluble fiber, reduces the risk of CHD.

  20. Associations of smoking with overall obesity, and central obesity: a cross-sectional study from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonjung; Jeong, Seong Min; Yoo, Bora; Oh, Bitna; Kang, Hee-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The association between smoking and obesity is a significant public health concern. Both are preventable risk factors of cardiovascular disease and a range of other conditions. However, despite numerous previous studies, no consensus has emerged regarding the effect of smoking on obesity. We therefore carried out a novel study evaluating the relationship between smoking and obesity. A total of 5,254 subjects aged 19 years or older drawn from the 2010-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking was examined both in terms of smoking status and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by current smokers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and obesity. Overall obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2), and central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for males and ≥85 cm for females. We adjusted for the possible confounding effects of age, sex, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and the presence of hypertension or diabetes. A statistically significant difference in central obesity according to smoking status was identified. Current smokers were more likely to be centrally obese than never-smokers (adjusted odds ratio,1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.67). However, no significant association was found between smoking and obesity defined by BMI. Moreover, among current smokers, no statistically significant association was found between the daily amount of smoking and obesity or central obesity. Smoking was positively associated with central obesity. Current smokers should be acquainted that they may be more prone to central obesity.

  1. The Status of Maculopathy in Diabetes and Prediabetes Patients in a Population-Based Study Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography: The 2011 Health Examination Survey in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi; Xin, Zhong; Li, Shiming; Qi, Yue; Yuan, Mingxia; Zhu, Xiaorong; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of maculopathy detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a Chinese population with diabetes or prediabetes. Methods. 8,155 people were randomly selected to participate in the 2011 annual Health Examination Survey in Beijing. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was tested in 3760 subjects with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 5.6 mmol/L. Of 3,760 subjects, 583 were also randomly selected to take OCT. In this study population, 21 (3.95%) patients had maculopathy. Eight patients had diabetes macular edema (DME) and the prevalence was 6.72% in diabetes patients and 1.51% in all subjects. Eleven patients had age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the prevalence was 3.36% in diabetes patients and 2.07% in all subjects. Logistic regression model confirmed that elevated HbA1c (p maculopathy was found in patients with diabetes in a Chinese population. Maculopathy poses a significant public health problem in China with rapid rising trend of diabetes.

  2. Inflammatory potential of diet and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Nitin; Steck, Susan E; Hussey, James R; Ma, Yunsheng; Hebert, James R

    2017-03-01

    Various dietary components have been studied in relation to overall mortality; however, little is known about the relationship between the inflammatory potential of overall diet and mortality. We examined the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and mortality in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III follow-up study. The DII was computed from baseline dietary intake assessed using 24-h dietary recalls (1988-1994). Mortality was determined from the National Death Index records through 2006. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). During the follow-up, 2795 deaths were identified, including 1233 due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), and 615 due to cancer, 158 of which were due to digestive-tract cancers. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, diabetes status, hypertension, physical activity, body mass index, poverty index, and smoking, revealed positive associations between higher DII scores and mortality. Comparing subjects in DII tertile 3 versus tertile 1, significant associations were noted for all-cause mortality (HRTertile3vs1 1.34; 95 % CI 1.19-1.51, P trend cancer mortality (HRTertile3vs1 1.46; 95 % CI 1.10-1.96, P trend = 0.01), and digestive-tract cancer mortality (HRTertile3vs1 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15-3.84, P trend = 0.03). These results indicate that a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by higher DII scores, was associated with higher risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality.

  3. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers. Part 3: evaluation and comparison with the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Marano, Kristin M; Kathman, Steven J; Jones, Bobbette A; Nordskog, Brian K; Brown, Buddy G; Borgerding, Michael F

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE), including hematologic biomarkers, serum lipid-related biomarkers, other serum BoBE, and one physiological biomarker, were evaluated in adult cigarette smokers (SMK), smokeless tobacco consumers (STC), and non-consumers of tobacco (NTC). Data from adult males and females in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and a single site, cross-sectional study of healthy US males were analyzed and compared. Within normal clinical reference ranges, statistically significant differences were observed consistently for fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, hemoglobin, white blood cells, monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in comparisons between SMK and NTC; for CRP, white blood cells, monocytes, and lymphocytes in comparisons between SMK and STC; and for folate in comparisons with STC and NTC. Results provide evidence for differences in CVD BoBE associated with the use of different tobacco products, and provide evidence of a risk continuum among tobacco products and support for the concept of tobacco harm reduction.

  4. Association of hemoglobin levels with blood pressure and hypertension in a large population-based study: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Guk; Rim, John Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association of hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations with blood pressure (BP) and hypertension in the full range of Hb concentrations, after adjusting for other hypertension risk factors. The study population consisted of a total of 20,076 subjects (8721 men, 11,355 women) aged ≥20 y who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 2008 and 2011. The systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) increased by 2.6mmHg and 3.2mmHg with 1mmol/l increase in the Hb concentration, respectively, after adjusting for age, body mass index, total cholesterol, alcohol drinking, current smoking, mild renal dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus both in men with Hb concentrations of ≥8.1mmol/l (13.0g/dl) and women with a hemoglobin concentration ≥6.8mmol/l (11.0g/dl). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the Hb concentration showed significant positive association with hypertension independently of other confounding factors both in men and women. Hb concentration was positively associated with SBP and DBP in men with Hb concentrations ≥8.1mmol/l (13.0g/dl) and women with Hb concentrations ≥6.8mmol/l (11.0g/dl) in the general Korean population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex differences in the association between obesity and albuminuria among Korean adults: a cross-sectional study using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hye-Mi; Kim, Un-Young; Park, Yong Soon; Song, Young Rim; Oh, Hye-Young; Park, Kyung-Hee; Paek, Yu-Jin; Roh, Yong Kyun; Song, Hong Ji

    2017-02-01

    The association between obesity and albuminuria in the general population remains unclear. We aimed to identify the association between obesity and albuminuria as well as sex differences regarding the associations using several obesity indices, including waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHR). This study included 3841 subjects (1730 males and 2111 females; age 20-80 years) who participated in the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2011. Subjects with hypertension, diabetes, renal failure, or a malignant tumor and those who were pregnant or menstruating were excluded. Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Anthropometric parameters were categorized into sex-specific quartiles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between each anthropometric parameter and albuminuria. All of the obesity indices of the fourth quartile group of females showed a twofold higher risk for albuminuria than the second quartile group, and it was persistently significant after adjusting for age, smoking, and physical activity. After further adjustment for high blood pressure and impaired fasting glucose and triglyceride levels, WC and BMI of the fourth quartile group of females still showed a significantly higher risk for albuminuria than the second quartile group (odds ratios 1.96 and 2.24; 95 % confidence intervals 1.03-3.74 and 1.15-4.37). None of the associations between albuminuria and the obesity indices were significant in males. Higher WC and BMI were significantly associated with the risk of albuminuria among females, but not males.

  6. Association between dental pain and tooth loss with health-related quality of life: the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Sin-Young

    2016-08-01

    Dental pain and tooth loss are global public health concerns. However, there have been no large cross-sectional epidemiologic studies of a representative sample of an entire country's populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dental pain and tooth loss with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using a well characterized, nationally representative, population-based study.This study analyzed data of 3924, representing 21,836,566 adults from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were divided into 4 groups as follows: tooth loss of up to 8 teeth without dental pain, tooth loss of up to 8 teeth with dental pain, tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth without dental pain, and tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates.Among the 3924 subjects, representing an estimated 21,836,566 adults, the prevalence of tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth was 24.6% and the prevalence of dental pain was 35%. The tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain group showed the highest level of impaired HRQOL in all 5 dimensions, and the tooth loss up to 8 teeth without dental pain group showed the lowest level. The proportion of both groups without dental pain decreased significantly from the younger age to older age group. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, the ORs (95% CI) of mobility, self-case, usual activity, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression were 1.93 (1.32-2.84), 1.90 (1.25-2.90), 1.46 (0.88-2.43), 1.48 (0.88-2.49), and 1.46 (0.85-2.51) in tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain group. Although the ORs of tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth without dental pain group did not significantly increase.Dental pain and tooth loss has a considerable impact of HRQOL in the Korean adult population. In our study, HRQOL is more closely associated with dental pain than with

  7. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun-Hee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified that environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status, but few studies have been conducted in South Korea. In this study, the authors investigated the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and factors related in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Methods The data of 7,801 adults aged 19 years and over collected during the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Information on smoking habits and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was obtained by self-reports using a standardized questionnaire. Risks of environmental tobacco smoke exposure conferred by sociodemographic variables and behavioral risk factors were evaluated using logistic regression methods. Results Overall, 36.1% of nonsmokers (defined as those not currently smoking and 50.1% of current smokers were found to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke either at work or at home. Among the nonsmokers, women were more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 5.22, 95%CI, 4.08-6.67. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between education level and the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home (OR = 1.73, 95%CI, 1.38-2.17 for those with a high school education; OR = 2.30, 95%CI, 1.68-3.16 for those with a middle school education; and OR = 2.58, 95%CI, 1.85-3.59 for those with less than an elementary school education vs. those with a college education or more. In addition, those with office, sales service, or manual labor jobs were found to be at significantly higher risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work than those with professional, administrative, or managerial jobs. Also, the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the workplace was significantly higher for alcohol drinkers than non-drinkers (OR = 1.23, 95%CI, 1.07-1.47. After adjusting

  8. Adjusting for nonresponse bias in a health examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, M L; Forthofer, R N

    1993-01-01

    There is a potential for nonresponse bias in most population studies using health examinations. This is true of the Mexican American portion of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES), conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, in which unit nonresponse to the examination accounted for 24 percent of the sample. Even though the full effect of nonresponse can never be really known, ancillary information from the interview sample can be used in an attempt to adjust for bias in estimates. Two techniques for nonresponse bias adjustment are presented and illustrated using health status level and hypertension status from published studies based on the HHANES of 1982-84. The first approach uses conditional probabilities and the second approach uses direct standardization. The examples examine whether or not an adjustment for socioeconomic status, sex, and age--variables related to both response status and the conditions under study--changes the prevalence estimates of (a) Mexican Americans who report poor, fair, or good health status and (b) hypertension among Mexican Americans. PMID:8497577

  9. A possible association between dysphonia and sleep duration: A cross-sectional study based on the Korean National Health and nutrition examination surveys from 2010 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hae Cho

    Full Text Available Sleep is important in terms of good general health and appropriate sleep duration has been linked to quality-of-life. Dysphonia may impair communication and social relationships, and is thus also closely related to quality-of-life. No large-scale, cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample representative of the population of an entire country has yet assessed the possible existence of a relationship between sleep duration and dysphonia.We investigated a possible association between subjective voice problems and self-reported sleep duration in South Korean subjects using 2010-2012 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. Cross-sectional data on 17,806 adults (7,578 males and 10,228 females over the age of 19 years who completed the KNHANES were analyzed. All participants reported voice problems (if present and their daily average sleep duration using a self-reporting questionnaire. Sleep duration was classified into five categories as follows: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9 h/day.The overall prevalence of dysphonia was 6.8%; 5.7% in males and 7.7% in females. The prevalence for dysphonia by sleep duration exhibited a U-shape, with the lowest point being at sleep duration of 7-8h. After adjustment for covariates (age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, low income, high-level education, a sleep duration of ≤5 h (OR = 1.454; 95% CI, 1.153-1.832 and a sleep duration of ≥9 h (OR = 1.365; 95% CI, 1.017-1.832 were significantly associated with dysphonia, compared to a sleep duration of 7 h. In terms of gender, males who slept for ≥9 h were at a 2-fold (OR = 2.028; 95% CI, 1.22-3.35 higher odds for dysphonia (p<0.05 compared to those who slept for 7 h. A sleep duration ≤5 h was associated with a 1.6-fold (OR = 1.574; 95% CI, 1.203-2.247 higher odds of dysphonia ≥3 weeks in duration (long-term dysphonia.This is the first study to show that both short and long sleep duration were

  10. Association of APOE polymorphism with chronic kidney disease in a nationally representative sample: a Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III Genetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthier-Schaad Yvette

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms (APOE have been associated with lowered glomerular filtration rate (GFR and chronic kidney disease (CKD with e2 allele conferring risk and e4 providing protection. However, few data are available in non-European ethnic groups or in a population-based cohort. Methods The authors analyzed 5,583 individuals from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III to determine association with estimated GFR by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation and low-GFR cases. Low-GFR cases were defined as GFR 2; additionally, GFR was analyzed continuously. Results In univariate analysis, the e4 allele was negatively associated with low-GFR cases in non-Hispanic whites, odds ratio (OR: 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60, 0.97. In whites, there was a significant association between increasing APOE score (indicating greater number of e2 alleles and higher prevalence of low-GFR cases (OR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.45. Analysis of continuous GFR in whites found the e4 allele was associated with higher levels of continuous GFR (β-coefficient: 2.57 ml/min/1.73 m2, 95%CI: 0.005, 5.14; in non-Hispanic blacks the e2 allele was associated with lower levels of continuous GFR (β-coefficient: -3.73 ml/min/1.73 m2, 95%CI: -6.61, -0.84. APOE e2 and e4 alleles were rare and not associated with low-GFR cases or continuous GFR in Mexican Americans. Conclusion In conclusion, the authors observed a weak association between the APOE e4 allele and low-GFR cases and continuous GFR in non-Hispanic whites, and the APOE e2 allele and continuous GFR in non-Hispanic blacks, but found no association with either measure of kidney function in Mexican Americans. Larger studies including multiethnic groups are needed to determine the significance of this association.

  11. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to examine enrolled nursing students' intention to care for patients with alcohol dependence: A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Anna-Lisa; Dorrian, Jillian; Chapman, Janine

    2015-11-01

    Nurses are often the first point of contact for patients hospitalized due to alcohol-related causes. Alcohol dependence is highly stigmatized and as a result healthcare professionals often have low behavioural intentions, meaning low willingness to care for these patients. This can have a direct influence on quality of care. The purpose of this study was to explore enrolled nursing students' intention to care for patients with alcohol dependence and the antecedents, preliminary factors, that predict this within the Theory of Planned Behaviour; specifically attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and controllability. The study was a cross-sectional survey using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Two Technical and Further Education South Australia campuses across metropolitan Adelaide. n=86 enrolled nursing students completed the survey (62% response rate). Enrolled nursing students' intention, attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and controllability were measured using a Theory of Planned Behaviour Questionnaire. The Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire investigated attitudes in more detail and a short knowledge scale assessed alcohol-related knowledge. Subjective norms and attitudes had a significant, positive effect on intention to care within the final model, accounting for 22.6% of the variance, F2,83=12.12, penrolled nursing students' intention to care for alcohol dependent patients. These findings can assist in developing tailored alcohol training for students, to increase attitudes and foster behavioural change, in order to improve the quality of care for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining the Challenges of Cadastral Surveying Practice in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition the paper also examines the challenges faced by surveyors in the existing cadastral management with regard to legislation, archiving of cadastral information, quality control, and delivery period of cadastral survey services, professionalism and continuous professional development. The paper offers a modest ...

  13. Mammography examination in Ghana: preliminary survey of patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammography examination in Ghana: preliminary survey of patients' profiles. ... The probability of an obese individual to develop breast cancer out of the entire population was p = 0.004. The profiles indicated that breast screening awareness programmes should be targeted towards women between ages of 41 - 60 years.

  14. Increasing health examination survey participation rates by SMS reminders and flexible examination times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Aistrich, Anna; Borodulin, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Declining participation rates are an increasing problem in population surveys. Different kinds of methods have been used to ensure participation rates as high as possible. Monetary incentives and reminders have been found to be effective ways to increase participation rates, but these are rather expensive to implement in large population surveys. There is a need for cheaper ways to motivate survey invitees to participate. The Kuusamo Health Examination Survey was conducted in May-June 2011. A random sample of 250 people was selected for the survey. Mobile phone numbers, when available, were obtained for people within the sample. For a random sample of 50% of survey invitees with a mobile phone number, a short message service (SMS) reminder was sent prior to their appointment. All survey participants were asked to fill in a feedback questionnaire. Participation rate was 58% for men and 74% for women. Mobile phone numbers were available for 66% of the sample. Among those receiving an SMS reminder about their appointment, participation rates were up to 25 percentage points higher than among the group not receiving a reminder. In the feedback questionnaire, 9% of the survey participants reported that they would not have participated without the SMS reminder they received. Participants preferred morning hours and Monday-Tuesday as time and day options for the examinations. SMS reminder about the appointment time was an effective way to increase participation rate, especially among the youngest age groups also, providing flexible office hours for the examination clinic may increase participation rate. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  15. Nephroid metaplasia of the urinary tract. A survey of the literature, with the contribution of 5 new immunohistochemically studied cases, including one case examined by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Jacobsen, F; Nielsen, J B

    1987-01-01

    the histogenesis of the condition have been proposed: embryonic origin, or metaplasia. Five cases of nephroid metaplasia were studied light-microscopically and by immunohistochemistry for the content of Tamm Horsfall's uromucoprotein. In addition, one case was examined by electron microscopy. The results were...... always in previously traumatized urothelial mucosa. The natural history of the typical nephroid metaplasia is benign, but a possible relationship to mesonephroid adenocarcinoma, representing the malignant counterpart of the lesion, is discussed in relation to the histological findings, suggesting a rare...

  16. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  17. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-15

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  18. Associations of smoking with overall obesity, and central obesity: a cross-sectional study from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeonjung; Jeong, Seong Min; Yoo, Bora; Oh, Bitna; Kang, Hee-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between smoking and obesity is a significant public health concern. Both are preventable risk factors of cardiovascular disease and a range of other conditions. However, despite numerous previous studies, no consensus has emerged regarding the effect of smoking on obesity. We therefore carried out a novel study evaluating the relationship between smoking and obesity. METHODS: A total of 5,254 subjects aged 19 years or older drawn from the 2010-2013 Korea National H...

  19. The Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents--ERICA: rationale, design and sample characteristics of a national survey examining cardiovascular risk factor profile in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Vasconcelos, Maurício T L; da Veiga, Glória Valéria; Figueiredo, Valeska C; Dias, Adriano; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Souza, Ana Luiza Lima; de Oliveira, Ana Mayra Andrade; Schaan, Beatriz D'Argord; Tavares, Bruno Mendes; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; Giannini, Denise Tavares; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; Ribas, Dulce Lopes Barboza; Santos, Eduardo Lima; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Azevedo, George Dantas; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Dias, Glauber Monteiro; Filho, Heleno R Correa; Monteiro, Maria Inês; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara B; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Santos, Marize M; Muniz, Pascoal Torres; Jardim, Paulo César B Veiga; Ferreira, Pedro Antônio Muniz; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary; da Matta, Sandro Silva; Martins, Stella Maris Seixas; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira

    2015-02-07

    The Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents (Portuguese acronym, "ERICA") is a multicenter, school-based country-wide cross-sectional study funded by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, which aims at estimating the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including those included in the definition of the metabolic syndrome, in a random sample of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. Approximately 85,000 students were assessed in public and private schools. Brazil is a continental country with a heterogeneous population of 190 million living in its five main geographic regions (North, Northeast, Midwest, South and Southeast). ERICA is a pioneering study that will assess the prevalence rates of cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian adolescents using a sample with national and regional representativeness. This paper describes the rationale, design and procedures of ERICA. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire using an electronic device, in order to obtain information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics, including physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, sleeping hours, common mental disorders and reproductive and oral health. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. Anthropometric measures (weight, height and waist circumference) and blood pressure were also be measured. Blood was collected from a subsample of approximately 44,000 adolescents for measurements of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin. The study findings will be instrumental to the development of public policies aiming at the prevention of obesity, atherosclerotic diseases and diabetes in an adolescent population.

  20. Reasons for non-participation and ways to enhance participation in health examination surveys-the Health 2011 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Lundqvist, Annamari; Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Koponen, Päivikki

    2017-10-01

    High-participation rates to the health examination surveys are needed to obtain representative information about population health. This study aimed to examine reasons for non-participation and factors that could enhance participation using data from the Health 2011 Survey, conducted in 2011-12 in Finland (N = 8135). The most common reason for non-participation was unsuitable timing or location of the health examinations. Older persons also reported that they were too sick to participate. Flexibility on selection of examination times and places and getting feedback on the measurements were most often mentioned as factors which would increase willingness to participate in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in 2012... of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for...

  2. Survey of medical examiner office computerization. From the National Association of Medical Examiners (N.A.M.E.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlick, R

    1994-06-01

    Following a suggestion that the National Association of Medical Examiners (N.A.M.E.) develop a N.A.M.E. Information Center (NIC), N.A.M.E. conducted a survey to evaluate the current status of medical examiner office automation (computerization) in the United States. Responses were received from 80 unique reporting areas, including 75 medical examiner offices, which represent approximately 30% of the 258 medical examiner jurisdictions in the country. A total of 58 responders (65%) indicated that their office was automated. At least 38 states have one or more automated death investigation office, and electronic data exist for approximately 145,000 deaths per year, or approximately 30% of all deaths certified by medical examiners and coroners annually and approximately 6% of all deaths per year in the United States. Although computerized offices vary substantially in size and in their choice of hardware and software, a typical computerized medical examiner office (a) is in a single county with 1,000-6,000 death reports per year, (b) keeps electronic records on all cases reported, (c) uses an IBM or compatible personal computer (PC) or PC network with off-the-shelf software, (d) stores data on cause of death, manner of death, how injuries occur, and toxicology results, and (e) is interested in sharing its data. Considerable electronic death investigation data exist that can provide timely and valuable information for mortality and public health studies.

  3. 46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal..., and underwater surveys required by this section. (b) If your vessel is operated on international..., and underwater survey intervals. 115.600 Section 115.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  4. Is breakfast skipping associated with physical activity among U.S. adolescents? A cross-sectional study of adolescents aged 12-19 years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Jordan E; Huber, Larissa R; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Racine, Elizabeth F; Dmochowski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    To examine the association between breakfast skipping and physical activity among US adolescents aged 12-19 years. A cross-sectional study of nationally representative 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Breakfast skipping was assessed by two 24 h dietary recalls. Physical activity was self-reported by participants and classified based on meeting national recommendations for physical activity for the appropriate age group. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between breakfast skipping and physical activity while controlling for confounders. A total of 936 adolescents aged 12-19 years in the USA. After adjusting for family income, there was no association between breakfast skipping and meeting physical activity guidelines for age among adolescents aged 12-19 years (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.56, 1.32). Findings from the study differ from previous research findings on breakfast skipping and physical activity. Therefore, further research that uses large, nationally representative US samples and national recommended guidelines for physical activity is needed.

  5. What is the most appropriate lipid profile ratio predictor for insulin resistance in each sex? A cross-sectional study in Korean populations (The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, A Ri; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) reduces reactivity of the target organ to blood insulin. Researchers have attempted to evaluate IR using various serum lipid concentration ratios. We aimed to determine the most strongly IR-predictive lipid profile ratios for each sex by studying associations between lipid concentration ratios and IR using data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1) 2010. Overall, 8958 individuals participated in health interview and examination surveys. Among them, 1910 individuals who completed physical examinations and 8-h fasting blood tests and were older than 20 years of age were enrolled (929 men and 981 women). The lipid-ratio-related study outcomes were the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C), triglyceride (TG)/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C (LDL-C + TG/5)/HDL-C ratios. We divided subjects into 4 groups according to lipid profile ratio quartiles for a comparison of homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR values. Regression analyses were performed after adjusting for the confounding factors of age, body mass index, and diabetes mellitus history. HOMA-IR values tended to increase significantly along with LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios in both sexes. In men, multiple linear regression analyses showed that after adjusting for confounding factors, a significant positive association remained only with the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (p = 0.0238, R(2) = 0.3605, root mean squared error [MSE] =0.3512). In women, multiple linear regression analyses showed that after adjusting for confounding factors, significant positive associations remained with the LDL-C/HDL-C (p < 0.0001, R-square = 0.2329, root MSE = 0.3776), TG/HDL-C (p = 0.0001, R(2) = 0.2373, root MSE = 0.3766), and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios (p < 0.0001, R(2) = 0.2456, root MSE = 0.3745). The LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in men and LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and non

  6. Language as a determinant of participation rates in Finnish health examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Borodulin, Katja; Männistö, Satu; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2017-08-01

    A high participation rate is considered as a prerequisite for representative survey results, especially when it is known that non-participation is selective. In many countries migration is increasing and the proportion of people speaking other language(s) than the official language(s) of the country is also increasing. How does this affect survey participation rates? Data from four cross-sectional health examination surveys (the FINRISK Study) were used to evaluate the effect of the registered mother tongue to participation in the survey. Finland has two official languages (Finnish and Swedish). Between 1997 and 2012, the proportion of the population with some other language as their registered mother tongue has increased significantly. Participation rates in the health surveys have been highest among the Finnish language group (68% in men in 1997 and 76% in women in 1997), while lowest among the foreign language group (43% in men in 1997 and 57% in women in 1997). In 2012, the participation rates had declined in all language groups: for men, 58%, 62% and 41% for Finnish, Swedish and foreign groups respectively, and for women 68%, 75% and 56%. The participation rate for the foreign language group was significantly lower than for the Finnish and Swedish groups. In future surveys it will be important to include actions to promote participation, e.g. providing survey material in several languages. These actions will increase costs but will be essential to ensure high participation rates and reliable results for the total population.

  7. The happy docs study: a Canadian Association of Internes and Residents well-being survey examining resident physician health and satisfaction within and outside of residency training in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandar Kevin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few Canadian studies have examined stress in residency and none have included a large sample of resident physicians. Previous studies have also not examined well-being resources nor found significant concerns with perceived stress levels in residency. The goal of "The Happy Docs Study" was to increase knowledge of current stressors affecting the health of residents and to gather information regarding the well-being resources available to them. Findings A questionnaire was distributed to all residents attending all medical schools in Canada outside of Quebec through the Canadian Association of Internes and Residents (CAIR during the 2004–2005 academic years. In total 1999 resident physicians responded to the survey (35%, N = 5784 residents. One third of residents reported their life as "quite a bit" to "extremely" stressful (33%, N = 656. Time pressure was the most significant factor associated with stress (49%, N = 978. Intimidation and harassment was experienced by more than half of all residents (52%, N = 1050 with training status (30%, N = 599 and gender (18%, N = 364 being the main perceived sources. Eighteen percent of residents (N = 356 reported their mental health as either "fair" or "poor". The top two resources that residents wished to have available were career counseling (39%, N = 777 and financial counseling (37%, N = 741. Conclusion Although many Canadian resident physicians have a positive outlook on their well-being, residents experience significant stressors during their training and a significant portion are at risk for emotional and mental health problems. This study can serve as a basis for future research, advocacy and resource application for overall improvements to well-being during residency.

  8. An overview of the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Joint Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuulasmaa, Kari; Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Kilpeläinen, Katri; Avdicová, Mária; Broda, Grazyna; Calleja, Neville; Dias, Carlos; Gösswald, Antje; Kubinova, Ruzena; Mindell, Jennifer; Männistö, Satu; Palmieri, Luigi; Tell, Grethe S; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Verschuren, Wm Monique

    2012-08-28

    Health Examination Surveys (HESs) can provide essential information on the health and health determinants of a population, which is not available from other data sources. Nevertheless, only some European countries have systems of national HESs. A study conducted in 2006-2008 concluded that it is feasible to organize national HESs using standardized measurement procedures in nearly all EU countries. The feasibility study also outlined a structure for a European Health Examination Survey (EHES), which is a collaboration to organize standardized HESs in countries across Europe.To facilitate setting up national surveys and to gain experience in applying the EHES methods in different cultures, EHES Joint Action (2010-2011) planned and piloted standardized HESs in the working age population in 12 countries. This included countries with earlier national HESs and countries which were planning their first national HES. The core measurements included in all surveys were weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure, and blood samples were taken to measure lipid profiles and glucose or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). These are modifiable determinants of major chronic diseases not identified in health interview surveys. There was a questionnaire to complement the data on the examination measurements. Evaluation of the pilot surveys was based on review of national manuals and evaluation reports of survey organizers; observations and discussions of survey procedures during site visits and training seminars; and other communication with the survey organizers. Despite unavoidable differences in the ways HESs are organized in the various countries, high quality and comparability of the data seems achievable. The biggest challenge in each country was obtaining high participation rate. Most of the pilot countries are now ready to start their full-size national HES, and six of them have already started. The EHES Pilot Project has set up the structure for obtaining comparable

  9. An examination of responses to surveys among Filipino-Australian migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneze, Della; Everett, Bronwyn; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Davidson, Patricia M; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-11-18

    Background Surveys are frequently used to collect data. Although paper surveys are commonly used, online surveys are gaining in popularity, with the inclusion of open-ended questions (OEQs) allowing respondents to freely express their views. Little is known about how Filipino-Australian migrants respond to surveys. There is some concern about the usefulness of OEQs administered to culturally and linguistically diverse migrants, who may have limited capacity to articulate their thoughts in writing. Aim To examine the responses of Filipino-Australian migrants to a survey. Discussion A total of 552 respondents were recruited, of whom 428 (78%) completed the questionnaire online. The overall response rate to the OEQs was 69%, with higher completion rates among those given a paper-based questionnaire and those with university educations. Conclusion Filipino migrants with functional English language skills responded well to the online survey. Paper-based administration elicited more OEQ responses, which is attributed to greater interaction between participants and researchers. Those with university educations may have more capacity to express themselves in English and were therefore more likely to complete the OEQs. Implications for practice The high response rate obtained in this study suggests that among Filipino-Australian migrants who rated their English language skills and educational level highly, the translation of OEQs may not be necessary. This has important implications for resources in research. Face-to-face interaction between participants and researchers is an important strategy for increasing the rates of response to OEQs.

  10. Perception survey on the introduction of clinical performance examination as part of the national nursing licensing examination in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze opinions about the action plan for implementation of clinical performance exam as part of the national nursing licensing examination and presents the expected effects of the performance exam and aspects to consider regarding its implementation. Methods This study used a mixed-methods design. Quantitative data were collected by a questionnaire survey, while qualitative data were collected by focus group interviews with experts. The survey targeted 200 nursing professors and clinical nurses with more than 5 years of work experience, and the focus group interviews were conducted with 28 of professors, clinical instructors, and nurses at hospitals. Results First, nursing professors and clinical specialists agreed that the current written tests have limitations in evaluating examinees’ ability, and that the introduction of a clinical performance exam will yield positive results. Clinical performance exam is necessary to evaluate and improve nurses’ work ability, which means that the implementation of a performance exam is advisable if its credibility and validity can be verified. Second, most respondents chose direct performance exams using simulators or standardized patients as the most suitable format of the test. Conclusion In conclusion, the current national nursing licensing exam is somewhat limited in its ability to identify competent nurses. Thus, the time has come for us to seriously consider the introduction of a performance exam. The prerequisites for successfully implementing clinical performance exam as part of the national nursing licensing exam are a professional training process and forming a consortium to standardize practical training.

  11. Examining gender bias in studies of innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Crowden, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the presence of a gender bias in studies of innovation. Using the Innovation Systems Research Network (ISRN) and its interview guide as a case study, this research project examines how accurately and completely such innovation studies present gender differences in the innovation process.

  12. [The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): data management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölle, R; Schaffrath Rosario, A; Stolzenberg, H

    2007-01-01

    In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), comprehensive, nationwide representative data on the state of health of children and adolescents were collected for the first time. During the 3-year data collection phase of the survey, 17,641 subjects were examined and interviewed and approx. 1,500 items were recorded. Data management was not limited to survey data collection, administration and quality assurance alone, but also comprised the provision of tools for the management and control of process data, as well as for managing survey-specific business processes. In the context of the KiGGS study, numerous components for supporting the extensive and complex processes were developed for the study staff. Here the primary focus was on subject and sample point administration, scheduling, sampling, reporting, field logistics and laboratory data management. Thanks to the computer-based processing of routine tasks involved in the organisation of the field work, ease of work and project progress control were enhanced significantly. To some extent, KiGGS-specific components have already been used in other studies and only minor adaptations were needed for the transfer. The main emphasis with regards to survey data management was on the standardisation of methods for data processing, data control and data cleaning. Here, a wealth of previous experiences was available as a starting point. The established quality assurance methods were standardised to a large extent and partly automated and complemented by data base tools for the management and documentation of survey instruments and quality assurance measures. All these measures combined made it possible to provide data users with a controlled and cleaned final data set, including a detailed documentation.

  13. Comparison of the MDRD Study and CKD-EPI Equations for the Estimation of the Glomerular Filtration Rate in the Korean General Population: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Dong Jeong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compared the accuracy of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD study and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equations in Korean patients and evaluated the difference in CKD prevalence determined using the two equations in the Korean general population. Methods: The accuracy of the two equations was evaluated in 607 patients who underwent a chromium-51-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid GFR measurement. Additionally, we compared the difference in CKD prevalence determined by the two equations among 5,822 participants in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010. Results: Among the 607 subjects, the median bias of the CKD-EPI equation was significantly lower than that of the MDRD study equation (0.9 vs. 2.2, p=0.020. The accuracy of the two equations was not significantly different in patients with mGFR 2; however, the accuracy of the CKD-EPI equation was significantly higher than that of the MDRD study equation in patients with GFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2. The prevalences of the CKD stages 1, 2 and 3 in the Korean general population were 47.56, 49.23, and 3.07%, respectively, for the MDRD study equation; and were 68.48, 28.89, and 2.49%, respectively, for the CKD-EPI equation. Conclusions: These data suggest that the CKD-EPI equation might be more useful in clinical practice than the MDRD study equation in Koreans.

  14. Iodine status in pregnant women in the National Children's Study and in U.S. women (15-44 years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Kathleen L; Pan, Yi; Mortensen, Mary E; Makhmudov, Amir; Merrill, Lori; Moye, John

    2013-08-01

    This report presents iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and from a sample of pregnant women in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. Urinary iodine (UI) was measured in a one third subsample of NHANES 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 participants and in all 2007-2008 participants age 6 years and older. These measurements are representative of the general U.S. population. UI was also measured in a convenience sample of 501 pregnant women enrolled in the NCS initial Vanguard Study from seven study sites across the United States. NHANES median UI concentration in 2009-2010 (144 μg/L) was significantly lower than in 2007-2008 (164 μg/L). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest UI concentrations (131 μg/L) compared with non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics (147 and 148 μg/L, respectively). The median for all pregnant women in NHANES 2005-2010 was less than adequate (129 μg/L), while third trimester women had UI concentrations that were adequate (median UI 172 μg/L). Third trimester women participating in the NCS similarly had an adequate level of iodine intake, with a median UI concentration of 167 μg/L. Furthermore, NCS median UI concentrations varied by geographic location. Dairy, but not salt, seafood, or grain consumption, was significantly positively associated with median UI concentration in women of childbearing age. Pregnant women in their third trimester in the NHANES 2005-2010 had adequate median UI concentrations, but pregnant women in NHANES who were in their first or second trimesters had median UI concentrations that were less than adequate. Non-Hispanic black pregnant women from both the NHANES 2005-20010 and the NCS consistently had lower UI median concentrations than non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics.

  15. The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 (DANHES 2007-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Curtis, Tine

    2011-03-01

    The Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) was carried out by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, in 13 Danish municipalities in 2007-2008. The focus of the survey was diet, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity. The aim of the survey was to establish a research database for future cross-sectional and follow-up studies. DANHES 2007-2008 included internet-based questionnaires and a health examination. There were two different questionnaires: a basic questionnaire on socio-demography, health behaviour, self-reported health status, and living conditions, and a supplementary food frequency questionnaire. The health examination contained measurements of blood pressure, resting heart rate, height, weight, fat percentage, waist and hip circumference, blood and hair samples, spirometry, bone mineral density, physical performance, muscle strength, and aerobic fitness. A total of 76,484 people completed the basic questionnaire, and 18,065 adult individuals participated in the health examination, corresponding to a response rate of 14% and a participation rate of 10%, respectively. The database from DANHES 2007-2008 is unique in its size and diversity of measurements and questionnaire contents. Data can be linked to various registers through the Danish civil registration system, and blood samples are stored in a biobank allowing for genetic analyses. Hence, DANHES 2007-2008 forms the basis for future research projects with a focus on health behaviour and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.

  16. The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 (DANHES 2007-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) was carried out by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, in 13 Danish municipalities in 2007-2008. The focus of the survey was diet, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity. The aim of the survey...

  17. Sample Design and Estimation Procedures for a National Health Examination Survey of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, E. Earl; And Others

    This report presents considerations for sample design and estimation procedures for the Health Examination Survey, one of the major survey programs employed by the National Center for Health Statistics. The survey collects data which provide national estimates and distributions of various health characteristics related to the growth and…

  18. Validation of a survey to examine drinking-water access, practices and policies in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Amelie A; Grumbach, Jacob M; Hampton, Karla E; Hecht, Kenneth; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D; McCulloch, Charles E; Patel, Anisha I

    2017-12-01

    Ensuring ready access to free drinking-water in schools is an important strategy for prevention of obesity and dental caries, and for improving student learning. Yet to date, there are no validated instruments to examine water access in schools. The present study aimed to develop and validate a survey of school administrators to examine school access to beverages, including water and sports drinks, and school and district-level water-related policies and practices. Survey validity was measured by comparing results of telephone surveys of school administrators with on-site observations of beverage access and reviews of school policy documents for any references to beverages. The semi-structured telephone survey included items about free drinking-water access (sixty-four items), commonly available competitive beverages (twenty-nine items) and water-related policies and practices (twenty-eight items). Agreement between administrator surveys and observation/document review was calculated using kappa statistics for categorical variables, and Pearson correlation coefficients and t tests for continuous variables. Public schools in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. School administrators (n 24). Eighty-one per cent of questions related to school beverage access yielded κ values indicating substantial or almost perfect agreement (κ>0·60). However, only one of twenty-eight questions related to drinking-water practices and policies yielded a κ value representing substantial or almost perfect agreement. This school administrator survey appears reasonably valid for questions related to beverage access, but less valid for questions on water-related practices and policies. This tool provides policy makers, researchers and advocates with a low-cost, efficient method to gather national data on school-level beverage access.

  19. Serum vitamins A and E as modifiers of lipid trait genetics in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Logan; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Mayo, Ping; Allen, Melissa; Jin, Hailing; Gillani, Niloufar B; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie; Dilks, Holli H; Crawford, Dana C

    2012-11-01

    Both environmental and genetic factors impact lipid traits. Environmental modifiers of known genotype-phenotype associations may account for some of the "missing heritability" of these traits. To identify such modifiers, we genotyped 23 lipid-associated variants identified previously through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 2,435 non-Hispanic white, 1,407 non-Hispanic black, and 1,734 Mexican-American samples collected for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Along with lipid levels, NHANES collected environmental variables, including fat-soluble macronutrient serum levels of vitamin A and E levels. As part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study, we modeled gene-environment interactions between vitamin A or vitamin E and 23 variants previously associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels. We identified three SNP × vitamin A and six SNP × vitamin E interactions at a significance threshold of p < 2.2 × 10(-3). The most significant interaction was APOB rs693 × vitamin E (p = 8.9 × 10(-7)) for LDL-C levels among Mexican-Americans. The nine significant interaction models individually explained 0.35-1.61% of the variation in any one of the lipid traits. Our results suggest that vitamins A and E may modify known genotype-phenotype associations; however, these interactions account for only a fraction of the overall variability observed for HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG levels in the general population.

  20. Examining the medical blogosphere: an online survey of medical bloggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovic, Ivor; Lulic, Ileana; Brumini, Gordana

    2008-09-23

    Blogs are the major contributors to the large increase of new websites created each year. Most blogs allow readers to leave comments and, in this way, generate both conversation and encourage collaboration. Despite their popularity, however, little is known about blogs or their creators. To contribute to a better understanding of the medical blogosphere by investigating the characteristics of medical bloggers and their blogs, including bloggers' Internet and blogging habits, their motivations for blogging, and whether or not they follow practices associated with journalism. We approached 197 medical bloggers of English-language medical blogs which provided direct contact information, with posts published within the past month. The survey included 37 items designed to evaluate data about Internet and blogging habits, blog characteristics, blogging motivations, and, finally, the demographic data of bloggers. Pearson's Chi-Square test was used to assess the significance of an association between 2 categorical variables. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was utilized to reveal the relationship between participants' ages, as well as the number of maintained blogs, and their motivation for blogging. The Mann-Whitney U test was employed to reveal relationships between practices associated with journalism and participants' characteristics like gender and pseudonym use. A total of 80 (42%) of 197 eligible participants responded. The majority of responding bloggers were white (75%), highly educated (71% with a Masters degree or doctorate), male (59%), residents of the United States (72%), between the ages of 30 and 49 (58%), and working in the healthcare industry (67%). Most of them were experienced bloggers, with 23% (18/80) blogging for 4 or more years, 38% (30/80) for 2 or 3 years, 32% (26/80) for about a year, and only 7% (6/80) for 6 months or less. Those who received attention from the news media numbered 66% (53/80). When it comes to best practices associated

  1. Participation rates by educational levels have diverged during 25 years in Finnish health examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Jaakko; Tolonen, Hanna; Borodulin, Katja; Härkänen, Tommi; Jousilahti, Pekka; Karvanen, Juha; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Männistö, Satu; Rissanen, Harri; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2017-10-03

    Declining participation rates in health examination surveys may impair the representativeness of surveys and introduce bias into the comparison of results between population groups if participation rates differ between them. Changes in the characteristics of non-participants over time may also limit comparability with earlier surveys. We studied the association of socio-economic position with participation, and its changes over the past 25 years. Occupational class and educational level are used as indicators of socio-economic position. Data from six cross-sectional FINRISK surveys conducted between 1987 and 2012 in Finland were linked to national administrative registers, which allowed investigation of the differences between survey participants and non-participants. Our results show that individuals with low occupational class or low level of education were less likely to participate than individuals with high occupational class or high level of education. Participation rates decreased in all subgroups of the population but the decline was fastest among those with low level of education. The differences in participation rates must be taken into account to avoid biased estimates because socio-economic position has also been shown to be strongly related to health, health behaviour and biological risk factors. Particular attention should be paid to the recruitment of the less-educated population groups.

  2. Examining Elementary Social Studies Marginalization: A Multilevel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.; Lambert, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing data from the National Center for Education Statistics Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), a multilevel model (Hierarchical Linear Model) was developed to examine the association of teacher/classroom and state level indicators on reported elementary social studies instructional time. Findings indicated that state testing policy was a…

  3. Eugene Ogoh Abstract The study examined the relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ijomone

    Abstract. The study examined the relationship between project abandonment and the socio economic lives of the people of Niger Delta. In conducting this survey research, 220 questionnaires were administered to respondent and 132 were correctly filled, returned and used for analysis. The. Pearson's product moment ...

  4. Disparities in the experience and treatment of dental caries among children aged 9-18 years: the cross-sectional study of Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyeong; Choi, Young; Park, Sohee; Kim, Jeong Lim; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-06-07

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and the experience as well as treatment of dental caries among children aged 9 to 18 years. Data from 1253 children aged 9-18 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2013) were analyzed. Parental socioeconomic status was measured using household income level and maternal educational level. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to measure experience of dental caries (DMFT ≥ 1). Non-treatment of dental caries was measured according to whether the participants who experienced dental caries used a dental service at a dental clinic to treat caries during the previous year. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between parental socioeconomic status and the experience of dental caries as well as the association between parental socioeconomic status and the non-treatment of dental caries among children that have experienced caries. A total of 808 subjects (64.5 %) experienced dental caries among 1253 participants, and 582 of these 808 subjects (72.0 %) did not receive treatment among those having experience of dental caries. Parental socioeconomic status was not associated with experience of dental caries. However, those from low- and middle-income households were less likely to receive treatment than those from high-income households (odds ratio [OR] 2.11 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.16-3.86], OR 2.14 [95 % CI 1.27-3.62]). In particular, those from low- and middle-income households who had regular dental checkups were more likely to have untreated caries than those from high-income households (OR 3.58 [95 % CI 1.25-10.24]). This study demonstrates the parental household income-related disparities in children's dental health treatment. Efforts should be made to lower financial barriers to dental health services, particularly among those from low-income households, in order to reduce

  5. A survey of patient doses from conventional diagnostic radiology examinations: first results from Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraj, Olivera; Kosutic, Dusko; Kovacevic, Milojko; Markovic, Srpko

    Diagnostic reference levels provide framework to reduce variability. The aim of this study is to establish, for the first time, a baseline for national diagnostic reference levels in Serbia and Montenegro for the most common X-ray examination types. Measurements of patient dose using kerma-area product meter and entrance surface air kerma assessment were performed on at least ten patients for each examination type, in each of 16 randomly selected hospitals in Serbia and Montenegro, so that a total of 3,026 procedures for nine different examination categories were included in the survey. Exposure settings and individual data were recorded for each patient. Mean, median and third quartile values of patient doses are reported. Results have shown wide variation of mean hospital doses, with factor of four for barium enema to 23 for thoracic spine radiography. Entrance surface air kerma were compared with previously published diagnostic reference levels (DRL) proposed by Commission of European Communities (CEC). Doses for all studied examination types except chest radiography were within European DRL. The reasons for dose variation are discussed. Survey data are aimed to help in development of an on-going national quality assurance and quality control programme in diagnostic radiology. The findings emphasize the importance of regular patient dose measurement to ensure that patient doses are kept as low as reasonable achievable.

  6. Inappropriate survey design analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey may produce biased results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangho; Park, Sunmin; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-03-01

    The inherent nature of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) design requires special analysis by incorporating sample weights, stratification, and clustering not used in ordinary statistical procedures. This study investigated the proportion of research papers that have used an appropriate statistical methodology out of the research papers analyzing the KNHANES cited in the PubMed online system from 2007 to 2012. We also compared differences in mean and regression estimates between the ordinary statistical data analyses without sampling weight and design-based data analyses using the KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Of the 247 research articles cited in PubMed, only 19.8% of all articles used survey design analysis, compared with 80.2% of articles that used ordinary statistical analysis, treating KNHANES data as if it were collected using a simple random sampling method. Means and standard errors differed between the ordinary statistical data analyses and design-based analyses, and the standard errors in the design-based analyses tended to be larger than those in the ordinary statistical data analyses. Ignoring complex survey design can result in biased estimates and overstated significance levels. Sample weights, stratification, and clustering of the design must be incorporated into analyses to ensure the development of appropriate estimates and standard errors of these estimates.

  7. Sociodemographic characteristics of underweight korean adults: Korea national health and nutrition examination survey, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Il; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Kang, Hye Jin

    2013-11-01

    Underweight is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. It is reported that the prevalence of underweight is increasing among Korean young women. However, there have been few studies on sociodemographic factors related to being underweight. This study was conducted to elucidate the sociodemographic characteristics of Korean underweight adults. This study is a cross-sectional study of 7,776 adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. Study subjects were composed of underweight and normal-weight adults excluding overweight adults. Body mass index was calculated from measured height and weight. Health behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and physical activity were surveyed through self-administered questionnaires, and socioeconomic status, marital status, and history of morbidity were surveyed through face-to-face interviews. Women had a higher frequency of underweight (10.4% vs. 7.0%, P sociodemographic factors were associated with underweight. It was ascertained that there were differences in the sociodemographic factors related to underweight between Korean men and women.

  8. Serum Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and risk of death from cardiovascular diseases among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balluz Lina S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C measures all atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and predicts risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The association of non-HDL-C with risk of death from CVD in diabetes is not well understood. This study assessed the hypothesis that, among adults with diabetes, non-HDL-C may be related to the risk of death from CVD. Methods We analyzed data from 1,122 adults aged 20 years and older with diagnosed diabetes who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study (299 deaths from CVD according to underlying cause of death; median follow-up length, 12.4 years. Results Compared to participants with serum non-HDL-C concentrations of 35 to 129 mg/dL, those with higher serum levels had a higher risk of death from total CVD: the RRs were 1.34 (95% CI: 0.75-2.39 and 2.25 (95% CI: 1.30-3.91 for non-HDL-C concentrations of 130-189 mg/dL and 190-403 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.003 for linear trend after adjustment for demographic characteristics and selected risk factors. In subgroup analyses, significant linear trends were identified for the risk of death from ischemic heart disease: the RRs were 1.59 (95% CI: 0.76-3.32 and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.28-4.89 (P = 0.006 for linear trend, and stroke: the RRs were 3.37 (95% CI: 0.95-11.90 and 5.81 (95% CI: 1.96-17.25 (P = 0.001 for linear trend. Conclusions In diabetics, higher serum non-HDL-C concentrations were significantly associated with increased risk of death from CVD. Our prospective data support the notion that reducing serum non-HDL-C concentrations may be beneficial in the prevention of excess death from CVD among affected adults.

  9. 77 FR 34387 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination... Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Health and Nutrition Examination...: Geraldine McQuillan, Ph.D., Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health...

  10. Evaluation of Psychological Measures Used in the Health Examination Survey of Children Ages 6-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, S. B.

    In this report the psychological procedures used in the Health Examination Survey conducted between June 1963 and December 1965 for children ages 6 through 11 are critically evaluated. In his analysis, the author combines his own professional competence with the information obtained in an extensive survey of literature pertaining to the four…

  11. Blood Organic Mercury and Dietary Mercury Intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathryn R. Mahaffey; Robert P. Clickner; Catherine C. Bodurow

    Blood organic mercury (i.e., methyl mercury) concentrations among 1,709 women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999 and 2000 (1999-2000 NHANES) were 0.6...

  12. Sample selection, recruitment and participation rates in health examination surveys in Europe--experience from seven national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Giampaoli, Simona; Goesswald, Antje; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Mann, Charlotte; Männistö, Satu; Morgan, Karen; Shelton, Nicola J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Tolonen, Hanna

    2015-10-05

    Health examination surveys (HESs), carried out in Europe since the 1950's, provide valuable information about the general population's health for health monitoring, policy making, and research. Survey participation rates, important for representativeness, have been falling. International comparisons are hampered by differing exclusion criteria and definitions for non-response. Information was collected about seven national HESs in Europe conducted in 2007-2012. These surveys can be classified into household and individual-based surveys, depending on the sampling frames used. Participation rates of randomly selected adult samples were calculated for four survey modules using standardised definitions and compared by sex, age-group, geographical areas within countries, and over time, where possible. All surveys covered residents not just citizens; three countries excluded those in institutions. In two surveys, physical examinations and blood sample collection were conducted at the participants' home; the others occurred at examination clinics. Recruitment processes varied considerably between surveys. Monetary incentives were used in four surveys. Initial participation rates aged 35-64 were 45% in the Netherlands (phase II), 54% in Germany (new and previous participants combined), 55% in Italy, and 65% in Finland. In Ireland, England and Scotland, household participation rates were 66%, 66% and 63% respectively. Participation rates were generally higher in women and increased with age. Almost all participants attending an examination centre agreed to all modules but surveys conducted in the participants' home had falling responses to each stage. Participation rates in most primate cities were substantially lower than the national average. Age-standardized response rates to blood pressure measurement among those aged 35-64 in Finland, Germany and England fell by 0.7-1.5 percentage points p.a. between 1998-2002 and 2010-2012. Longer trends in some countries show a more

  13. Non-participation modestly increased with distance to the examination clinic among adults in Finnish health examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Jaakko; Saarsalmi, Perttu; Härkänen, Tommi; Jousilahti, Pekka; Karvanen, Juha; Männistö, Satu; Tolonen, Hanna

    2017-11-01

    Health examination surveys (HES) provide important information about population health and health-related factors, but declining participation rates threaten the representativeness of collected data. It is hard to conduct national HESs at examination clinics near to every sampled individual. Thus, it is interesting to look into the possible association between the distance from home to the examination clinic and non-participation, and whether there is a certain distance after which the participation activity decreases considerably. Data from two national HESs conducted in Finland in 2011 and 2012 were used and a logistic regression model was fitted to investigate how distance was related to non-participation. We found out that non-participation modestly increased with distance to the examination clinic. An additional analysis indicated that the option of having an examination at home may decrease the effect of distance to participation. Long distances from home to the examination clinic are one reason for low participation activity. Possible bias caused by these differences in participation could be decreased by providing the option of a home examination.

  14. [Measurement of socioeconomic status in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, T; Kroll, L; Müters, S; Stolzenberg, H

    2013-05-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) constitutes a central analysis category of epidemiological research and health reporting. As part of the German cardiovascular disease prevention study 1984-1991, a multi-dimensional aggregated index was developed for the purpose of measuring SES. This index continues to be used in numerous studies to this day. For the purpose of health monitoring at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the index was fundamentally revised following critical assessment. This article describes the basic concepts underlying the revision and how they were implemented in relation to the "German health interview and examination survey for adults" (DEGS1). In addition, the results of the age and sex-specific distribution of the values of the revised SES index and those relating to the connection with other measurements of socioeconomic status are reported. The results are based on the data of DEGS1 2012 and the German national health interview and examination survey 1998 (GNHIES98). An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  15. Relationship between anthropometric parameters and open angle glaucoma: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yeun Lee

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relationships between open-angle glaucoma (OAG and various anthropometric measurements.Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, a population-based cross-sectional study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey.A total of 5,255 participants including 247 glaucoma patients, aged ≥ 19 years were included from the KNHANES V database. Glaucoma diagnosis was based on International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Various anthropometric data regarding obesity were analyzed including body mass index (BMI, total body fat mass, total body muscle mass (lean body mass, non-bone lean body mass, and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM mass, and waist circumference (WC. The differences in OAG prevalence with respect to anthropometric parameter quartiles were examined.In males, the multivariate general linear model adjusted for age, alcohol, smoking, exercise, systemic hypertension, diabetes, and intraocular pressure (IOP showed the quartiles for the anthropometric parameters BMI, fat mass/weight ratio and fat mass/muscle mass ratio were negatively associated with OAG. However, muscle mass parameter/BMI ratio was significantly positively associated with OAG (P for trend<0.05. In females, height and fat mass/BMI showed a significant relationship with the risk of OAG. (P value<0.05.In the present study, high fat mass was associated with low OAG risk. Body composition seemed to affect the prevalence of OAG, but further evaluation is needed.

  16. An Overview of Ophthalmologic Survey Methodology in the 2008-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Chul; Choi, Won; Lee, Hyo Seok; Kim, Sang-Duck; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, Ki Ho; Park, Young Jeung; Baek, Seung-Hee; Song, Su Jeong; Shin, Jae Pil; Yang, Suk-Woo; Yu, Seung-Young; Lee, Jong Soo; Lim, Key Hwan; Oh, Kyung Won; Kang, Se Woong

    2015-12-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national program designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized population of South Korea. The KNHANES was initiated in 1998 and has been conducted annually since 2007. Starting in the latter half of 2008, ophthalmologic examinations were included in the survey in order to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of common eye diseases such as visual impairment, refractive errors, strabismus, blepharoptosis, cataract, pterygium, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, dry eye disease, and color vision deficiency. The measurements included in the ophthalmic questionnaire and examination methods were modified in the KNHANES IV, V, and VI. In this article, we provide detailed information about the methodology of the ophthalmic examinations in KNHANES in order to aid in further investigations related to major eye diseases in South Korea.

  17. Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John MESSING

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study Jason HOWARTH John MESSING Irfan ALTAS Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga-AUSTRALIA ABSTRACT This paper represents a brief case study of delivering online examinations to a worldwide audience. These examinations are delivered in partnership with a commercial online testing company as part of the Industry Master’s degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU. The Industry Master’s degree is an academic program for students currently employed in the IT industry. Using Internet Based Testing (IBT, these students are examined in test centres throughout the world. This offers many benefits. For example, students have the freedom of sitting exams at any time during a designated interval. Computer-based testing also provides instructors with valuable feedback through test statistics and student comments. In this paper, we document CSU’s use of the IBT system, including how tests are built and delivered, and how both human and statistical feedback is used to evaluate and enhance the testing process.

  18. Routine pelvic examinations: A descriptive cross-sectional survey of women's attitudes and beliefs after new guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Juliana M; Vegunta, Suneela; Al-Badri, Mina; Faubion, Stephanie S; Fields, Heather E; Shah, Amit A; Wallace, Mark R; Ruddy, Barbara E; Bryan, Michael J; Temkit, M'hamed; MacLaughlin, Kathy L

    2017-01-01

    Routine pelvic examinations have been a fundamental part of the annual female examination. The 2014 American College of Physicians (ACP) guideline recommends against routine pelvic examinations in asymptomatic, nonpregnant, average-risk women. Our aim was to evaluate women's attitudes and beliefs about pelvic examinations and how knowledge of the new guidelines contributes to attitudes and beliefs. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administered written survey developed through literature review and pretested and revised on the basis of staff suggestions. Nonpregnant women age≥21years presenting to outpatient clinics at Mayo Clinic in Arizona or Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, received the survey. After being asked about pelvic examination practices and beliefs, participants were informed of the ACP guideline, to determine effect on attitudes and beliefs. Demographic characteristics and pertinent medical history questions were collected from participants. In total, 671 women who were predominantly white, married, and educated completed surveys. Participants described pelvic examinations as reassuring, and a majority believed the examinations were useful in detecting ovarian cancer (74.6%), necessary for screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (71.0%), or necessary before initiating contraception (67.0%). After reading the 2014 ACP guideline, significantly fewer women planned to continue yearly pelvic examinations (Ppelvic examinations were necessary for STI screening, contraception initiation, and ovarian cancer detection. After education on the ACP screening guideline, fewer women planned to continue yearly pelvic examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Health Examination Survey Methods in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, England, Scotland, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Moody, Alison; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Alfaro, Tania; Frenz, Patricia; Scholes, Shaun; Gonzalez, Silvia A; Margozzini, Paula; de Oliveira, Cesar; Sanchez Romero, Luz Maria; Alvarado, Andres; Cabrera, Sebastián; Sarmiento, Olga L; Triana, Camilo A; Barquera, Simón

    2017-09-15

    Comparability of population surveys across countries is key to appraising trends in population health. Achieving this requires deep understanding of the methods used in these surveys to examine the extent to which the measurements are comparable. In this study, we obtained detailed protocols of 8 nationally representative surveys from 2007-2013 from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the United Kingdom (England and Scotland), and the United States-countries that that differ in economic and inequity indicators. Data were collected on sampling frame, sample selection procedures, recruitment, data collection methods, content of interview and examination modules, and measurement protocols. We also assessed their adherence to the World Health Organization's "STEPwise Approach to Surveillance" framework for population health surveys. The surveys, which included half a million participants, were highly comparable on sampling methodology, survey questions, and anthropometric measurements. Heterogeneity was found for physical activity questionnaires and biological samples collection. The common age range included by the surveys was adults aged 18-64 years. The methods used in these surveys were similar enough to enable comparative analyses of the data across the 7 countries. This comparability is crucial in assessing and comparing national and subgroup population health, and to assisting the transfer of research and policy knowledge across countries. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Elevated cardiovascular risk among adults with obstructive and restrictive airway functioning in the United States: a cross-sectional study of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Earl S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reasons for the excess risk for cardiovascular disease among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the cardiovascular risk profile for adults with obstructive and restrictive impairments of lung functioning in a representative sample of adults from the United States. Methods We used data from adults aged 20–79 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2010 and had a pulmonary function test. The severity of obstructive impairment was defined by adapting the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Results Among 7249 participants, 80.9% had a normal pulmonary function test, 5.7% had a restrictive impairment, 7.9% had mild obstructive impairment, and 5.5% had moderate or severe/very severe obstructive impairment. Participants with obstructive impairment had high rates of smoking and increased serum concentrations of cotinine. Compared to participants with normal pulmonary functioning, participants with at least moderate obstructive impairment had elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein but lower concentrations of total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Among participants aged 50–74 years, participants with at least a moderate obstructive impairment or a restrictive impairment had an elevated predicted 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The high rates of smoking among adults with impaired pulmonary functioning, particularly those with obstructive impairment, point to a need for aggressive efforts to promote smoking cessation in these adults. In addition, adults with restrictive impairment may require increased attention to and fine-tuning of their cardiovascular risk profile.

  1. Incidence of isolated dipstick hematuria and its association with the glomerular filtration rate: a cross-sectional study from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hanna; Lee, Dong-Gi; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Jun Ho

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the incidence of isolated hematuria and its relationship to the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V were used. A stratified, three-stage, clustered probability design was used to collect representative data on the Korean population. Ultimately, 18,587 participants were included. The incidence of isolated dipstick hematuria and its relationship with the GFR (estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation) were evaluated. The analysis showed that 31.8% of the population had isolated hematuria, the incidence of which significantly increased with age (P trend hematuria increased, the ratio of GFR hematuria group was significantly reduced compared to that of the negative, grade 1, and grade 2 hematuria groups (with an adjusted mean ± standard error of 94.0 ± 0.8 vs. 97.2 ± 0.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), P hematuria group for a GFR hematuria groups after adjusting for the confounders (adjusted odds ratio 1.468, 95% confidence interval 1.049-2.054, P = 0.025). An effective health policy for hematuria screening is needed for older age groups. A strategy of careful checkups and counseling regarding renal function is necessary for patients with isolated hematuria.

  2. Student Engagement and Student Learning: Examining the Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the Revised National Survey of Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilvinskis, John; Masseria, Anthony A.; Pike, Gary R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between student engagement, represented by two versions of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) and self-reported gains in learning. The study drew on institutional-level data from participating institutions in 2011 and 2013. The objective of the research was to compare evidence of…

  3. [The physical examination within the scope of The Child and Adolescent Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippelhofer, A; Bergmann, K E; Kahl, H; Lange, M

    2002-12-01

    The National Health Survey for Children and Adolescents intends a comprehensive description of the health status of children and adolescents. In this context physical examination of children and adolescents permits collection of objective data concerning physical development, certain body functions and selected performance parameters. Most important are indicators pointing towards increasing developmental and health problems in children and adolescents, which are partly predictive for the health status as an adult. Body measurements including stages of puberty will be taken, the blood pressure measured, vision tests carried out, coordination skills and endurance tested. Besides, if acute symptoms are detected, severity of atopic dermatitis is recorded. The methods and instruments have been tested in a pilot study over a period of one year and were optimised for the main study.

  4. Groundwater studies: principal aquifer surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Congress established the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop nationally consistent long-term datasets and provide information about the quality of the Nation’s streams and groundwater. The USGS uses objective and reliable data, water-quality models, and systematic scientific studies to assess current water-quality conditions, to identify changes in water quality over time, and to determine how natural factors and human activities affect the quality of streams and groundwater. NAWQA is the only non-regulatory Federal program to perform these types of studies; participation is voluntary. In the third decade (Cycle 3) of the NAWQA program (2013–2023), the USGS will evaluate the quality and availability of groundwater for drinking supply, improve our understanding of where and why water quality is degraded, and assess how groundwater quality could respond to changes in climate and land use. These goals will be addressed through the implementation of a new monitoring component in Cycle 3: Principal Aquifer Surveys.

  5. The FRCR 2B examination: a survey of candidate perceptions and experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, A., E-mail: andrewyeung@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Booth, T.C. [Department of Radiology, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Jacob, K. [Department of Radiology, Weston General Hospital, Weston-super-Mare (United Kingdom); McCoubrie, P. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom); McKnight, L. [Department of Radiology, Morriston Hospital, Swansea (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Aim: To survey the views of recent candidates of the Fellowship of the Royal College of Radiologists (FRCR) 2B examination with reference to assessment validity, reliability, and acceptability. Materials and methods: One thousand, two hundred and four UK radiology trainees and consultants were invited to complete an automated internet questionnaire regarding their experiences and perceptions of the FRCR 2B examination. The questionnaire was informed by a review of the literature. Eligible participants were candidates who had taken the examination within the previous 3 years. Results: Four hundred and ninety-seven out of 1204 (41%) responses were received; of which 258/497 (52% of respondents) were eligible for inclusion into the study. The rapid reporting component is perceived to be significantly fairer than the oral section (82 versus 70% agree; p < 0.001). The oral component fared poorly in perceived performance-reducing anxiety levels but well in questions relating to validity and reliability. Female candidates are more likely to find the FRCR 2B unfair (p = 0.01) and experience performance-reducing anxiety (p < 0.001) than males. No gender differences were observed in first-time pass rates (p = 0.6). Candidate first language did not affect anxiety levels (p = 0.9) or first-time pass rates (p = 0.06). Only 12% of candidates agreed that the oral examination should move to an objective structured clinical format. Conclusion: Candidates score the FRCR 2B examination well in test validity with little desire for change to the oral examination format. Efforts to help reduce anxiety levels in the oral component would improve perceived fairness.

  6. Review of survey and experimental research that examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E; Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sectional surveys have demonstrated that distal and proximal measures of men's alcohol consumption are positively associated with sexual assault perpetration, although very few of these studies evaluated how alcohol interacts with other risk and protective factors to exacerbate or inhibit sexual aggression. There are surprisingly few surveys that examine alcohol's effects at the event level and over short-time intervals to identify how changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in perpetration status. Alcohol administration studies suggest some important mechanisms that warrant additional investigation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Review of Survey and Experimental Research That Examines the Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Men's Sexual Aggression Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E.; Pierce, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sectional surveys have demonstrated that distal and proximal measures of men's alcohol consumption are positively associated with sexual assault perpetration, although very few of these studies evaluated how alcohol interacts with other risk and protective factors to exacerbate or inhibit sexual aggression. There are surprisingly few surveys that examine alcohol's effects at the event level and over short-time intervals to identify how changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in perpetration status. Alcohol administration studies suggest some important mechanisms that warrant additional investigation. PMID:24776459

  8. Relationship between parents' occupational characteristics and untreated dental caries in offspring: A population-based study of data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung-Shil; Kim, Byurira; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Song, Je Seon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Jang, Sung-In

    2018-02-02

    Objectives We investigated the association between parents' occupational characteristics and untreated dental caries in their children. Methods We analyzed the data of 4764 and 5862 children merged with data of their mothers and fathers, respectively, derived from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2015. Dentists assessed untreated dental caries, and occupational characteristics were self-reported. The associations between untreated dental caries in children and their parents' occupational characteristics were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of untreated dental caries was 18.58% and 16.39% in the mother- and father-matched data, respectively. Compared to children whose mothers worked regular hours, those whose mothers worked overtime had increased odds of untreated dental caries [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.39]. Children of female self-employed workers/employers/unpaid family workers had higher odds of untreated dental caries than those of wage earners (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.39). The OR of untreated dental caries was higher among children with shift-working parents than those whose parents worked daytime hours (mother: OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.51; father: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.18-1.58). Conclusions The children of non-white-collar workers, non-wage earners, and workers working overtime or doing shift work had higher odds of untreated dental caries. The effects of parental occupational characteristics on untreated dental caries differed by sex (mother versus father). Public health programs targeting the prevention of dental caries among children should consider parental occupational characteristics.

  9. Survey of Forensic Document Examination Habit Areas: Degree of Use and Discriminatory Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G Sperry; PA Manzolillo; RC Hanlan; RJ Muehlberger

    1999-09-07

    Beginning in 1998, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL), US Postal Inspection Service Forensic Laboratory (USPIS), and the Data Fusion Laboratory, Drexel University (DFL) have been collaborating on a large scale research project ''Handwriting Individuality--Moving From Art to Science''. In April 1998 a survey was distributed to the community of forensic document examiners (FDEs) requesting input on the habit areas used and their utility in distinguishing handwriting. The information obtained from this survey was intended to provide the data necessary to select the criteria and begin the evaluation of the handwriting samples currently in the project. Preliminary results of the survey were made available to the community at the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (ASQDE) meeting in August 1998 and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) meeting in February 1999. This report provides final documentation of the survey and its results. This survey has two objectives: (1) to compile a list of handwriting features and characteristics used by professional forensic document examiners in the examination and comparison of handwriting and (2) to gather information about the significance of these features and characteristics. These objectives are met by having the FDEs provide an indication of their experience in the frequency of habit area evaluation and the utility of the habit area for discrimination.

  10. Survey of Handwriting Habit Areas Used by Forensic Document Examiners: Degree of Use and Discriminatory Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlen, Richard C.; Manzolillo, Patricia A.; Muehlberger, Robert J.; Sperry, Grant R.

    1999-11-15

    In April 1998, a survey was distributed to Forensic Document Examiners (FDEs) requesting an evaluation of the habit areas used and their utility in distinguishing handwriting. The information obtained from this survey was intended to provide the data necessary to select a preliminary set of characteristics for analysis. It is important to use these relative rankings as an indication of general tendency and possible discriminatory dominance as compared to an absolute ranking of discriminatory dominance over the other habit areas. The particular circumstances surrounding the examination of handwriting can dictate a far different ordering of habit areas.

  11. Methodological issues in estimating sodium intake in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Oh, Kyungwon

    2014-01-01

    For policy goal setting, efficacy evaluations, and the development of related programs for reducing sodium intake, it is essential to accurately identify the amount of sodium intake in South Korea and constantly monitor its trends. The present study aimed to identify the status of sodium intake in South Korea and to review the methods and their validity for estimating sodium intake in each country; through this, we aim to determine more accurate methods for determining sodium intake and to monitor the trend in sodium intake for Korean citizens in the future. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to estimate daily sodium intake, the average daily sodium intake among Koreans was 4,546 mg (men, 5,212 mg; women, 3,868 mg). In addition to the nutrition survey that uses the 24-hour dietary recall method, sodium intake can also be calculated from the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine, 8-hour overnight urine, and spot urine samples. Although KNHANES uses the 24-hour dietary recall method to estimate the sodium intake, the 24-hour dietary recall method has the disadvantage of not being able to accurately determine the amount of sodium intake owing to its unique characteristics of the research method and in the processing of data. Although measuring the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine is known to be the most accurate method, because collecting 24-hour urine from the general population is difficult, using spot urine samples to estimate sodium intake has been suggested to be useful for examining the trend of sodium intake in the general population. Therefore, we planned to conduct a study for estimating of 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine and 8-hour overnight urine samples and testing the validity among subsamples in the KNHANES. Based on this result, we will adopt the most appropriate urine collection method for estimating population sodium intake in South Korea.

  12. Methodological issues in estimating sodium intake in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ja Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For policy goal setting, efficacy evaluations, and the development of related programs for reducing sodium intake, it is essential to accurately identify the amount of sodium intake in South Korea and constantly monitor its trends. The present study aimed to identify the status of sodium intake in South Korea and to review the methods and their validity for estimating sodium intake in each country; through this, we aim to determine more accurate methods for determining sodium intake and to monitor the trend in sodium intake for Korean citizens in the future. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES to estimate daily sodium intake, the average daily sodium intake among Koreans was 4,546 mg (men, 5,212 mg; women, 3,868 mg. In addition to the nutrition survey that uses the 24-hour dietary recall method, sodium intake can also be calculated from the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine, 8-hour overnight urine, and spot urine samples. Although KNHANES uses the 24-hour dietary recall method to estimate the sodium intake, the 24-hour dietary recall method has the disadvantage of not being able to accurately determine the amount of sodium intake owing to its unique characteristics of the research method and in the processing of data. Although measuring the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine is known to be the most accurate method, because collecting 24-hour urine from the general population is difficult, using spot urine samples to estimate sodium intake has been suggested to be useful for examining the trend of sodium intake in the general population. Therefore, we planned to conduct a study for estimating of 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine and 8-hour overnight urine samples and testing the validity among subsamples in the KNHANES. Based on this result, we will adopt the most appropriate urine collection method for estimating population sodium intake in South

  13. Coffee and depression in Korea: the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R J; Moon, J D

    2015-04-01

    There is substantial interest in the health effects of coffee because it is the leading worldwide beverage after water. Existing literature on the connection between depression and coffee is scarce, and studies have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to examine the association between coffee consumption and depression in the Korean population. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 10,177 Korean individuals aged 20-97 years who participated in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Consumption of coffee and depression were assessed using a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for depression. The lifetime prevalence of self-reported depression was 14.0% and that of self-reported clinical depression was 3.7%. After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted ORs for self-reported depression across coffee consumption categories were 1.00 (reference) for less than one cup/week, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.07) for one to six cups/week, 0.63 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.79) for one cup/day, 0.69 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.88) for two cups/day and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.76) for three or more cups/day (P for trend, coffee on the risk of depression.

  14. Association between physical activity and kidney function: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis S; Sevick, Mary Ann; Richardson, Caroline R; Fried, Linda F; Arena, Vincent C; Kriska, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a condition characterized by the deterioration of the kidney's ability to remove waste products from the body. Although treatments to slow the progression of the disease are available, chronic kidney disease may eventually lead to a complete loss of kidney function. Previous studies have shown that physical activities of moderate intensity may have renal benefits. Few studies have examined the effects of total movement on kidney function. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between time spent at all levels of physical activity intensity and sedentary behavior and kidney function. Data were obtained from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the US population. Physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer and questionnaire. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study formula. To assess linear associations between levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior with log-transformed estimated GFR (eGFR), linear regression was used. In general, physical activity (light and total) was related to log eGFR in females and males. For females, the association between light and total physical activity with log eGFR was consistent regardless of diabetes status. For males, the association between light and total physical activity and log eGFR was only significant in males without diabetes. When examining the association between physical activity, measured objectively with an accelerometer, and kidney function, total and light physical activities were found to be positively associated with kidney function.

  15. A survey of digital rectal examination training in Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nensi, Alysha; Chande, Nilesh

    2012-07-01

    The digital rectal examination (DRE) is important for the diagnosis of a variety of gastrointestinal, urological and gynecological disorders. However, it appears that Canadian medical students may not be adequately taught nor provided the opportunity to practice their skills often enough. The present study was an analysis of the current practices in DRE teaching and evaluation in undergraduate medicine programs across Canada. Clinical skills coordinators from the 14 English-speaking medical schools in Canada were invited to participate in the survey and to respond to questions regarding DRE teaching at their respective schools. Thirteen of the 14 schools (93%) responded to the survey. The DRE is taught in various ways: 69% of schools use anatomical rectal models, 62% use video tutorials and 62% involve physician instruction. Most schools (85%) offer one formal teaching session before clerkship. Generally, there is no formal DRE teaching session during clerkship. Preclerkship students in 62% of the schools perform competence in their students as well as provide more opportunities for students to obtain the necessary experience performing DREs during their clinical training.

  16. The physical examination content of the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey: temporal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hisako; Imai, Shino; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2016-12-01

    Survey items of the Japan National Nutrition Survey (J-NNS) have changed over time. Several papers on dietary surveys have been published; however, to date, there are no in-depth papers regarding physical examinations. Therefore, we investigated changes in the survey items in the physical examinations performed in the J-NNS and the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS), with the aim of incorporating useful data for future policy decisions. We summarized the description of physical examinations and marshalled the changes of survey items from the J-NNS and NHNS from 1946 to 2012. The physical examination is roughly classified into the following six components: some are relevant to anthropometric measurements, clinical measurements, physical symptoms, blood tests, lifestyle and medication by interview, and others. Items related to nutritional deficiency, such as anaemia and tendon reflex disappearance, and body weight measurements were collected during the early period, according to the instructions of the General Headquarters. From 1989, blood tests and measurement of physical activity were added, and serum total protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood glucose, red blood corpuscles and haemoglobin measurements have been performed continuously for more than 20 years. This is the first report on the items of physical examination in the J-NNS and NHNS. Our research results provide basic information for the utilization of the J-NNS and NHNS, to researchers, clinicians or policy makers. Monitoring the current state correctly is essential for national health promotion, and also for improvement of the investigation methods to apply country-by-country comparisons.

  17. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  18. Bisphenol-A and Sleep Adequacy among Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, Hind A; Beydoun, May A; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Zonderman, Alan B; Eid, Shaker M

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate bisphenol-A (BPA) level and its relationship to sleep adequacy in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey whereby data were collected using in-person interviews, physical examination and laboratory testing. BPA level was measured in urine samples and analyzed as loge-transformed variable and in quartiles (Sleep adequacy was operationalized with three questions: "How much sleep do you usually get at night on weekdays or workdays?", "Have you ever told a doctor or other health professionals that you have trouble sleeping?" and "Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you have a sleep disorder?" Sleep duration was further categorized as ( 8 h); (sleep duration defined, in hours, as a continuous variable, a dichotomous variable (≥ 6, sleep problems and diagnosis with sleep disorders were not significantly associated with loge-transformed BPA level in fully adjusted models. Loge-transformed BPA level may be associated with fewer hours of sleep among U.S. adults, with implications for prevention. Further research involving diverse populations are needed to confirm these study findings. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Improving on analyses of self-reported data in a large-scale health survey by using information from an examination-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Nathaniel; Raghunathan, Trivellore E; Bondarenko, Irina

    2010-02-28

    Common data sources for assessing the health of a population of interest include large-scale surveys based on interviews that often pose questions requiring a self-report, such as, 'Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you that you have health condition of interest?' or 'What is your (height/weight)?' Answers to such questions might not always reflect the true prevalences of health conditions (for example, if a respondent misreports height/weight or does not have access to a doctor or other health professional). Such 'measurement error' in health data could affect inferences about measures of health and health disparities. Drawing on two surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, this paper describes an imputation-based strategy for using clinical information from an examination-based health survey to improve on analyses of self-reported data in a larger interview-based health survey. Models predicting clinical values from self-reported values and covariates are fitted to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which asks self-report questions during an interview component and also obtains clinical measurements during a physical examination component. The fitted models are used to multiply impute clinical values for the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a larger survey that obtains data solely via interviews. Illustrations involving hypertension, diabetes, and obesity suggest that estimates of health measures based on the multiply imputed clinical values are different from those based on the NHIS self-reported data alone and have smaller estimated standard errors than those based solely on the NHANES clinical data. The paper discusses the relationship of the methods used in the study to two-phase/two-stage/validation sampling and estimation, along with limitations, practical considerations, and areas for future research. Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Laboratorial training of examiners for using a visual caries detection system in epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Moro, Bruna Lp; Lara, Juan S; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Guedes, Renata S; Haddad, Ana E; Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M

    2013-10-03

    In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). Regarding the reproducibility, the mean (range) of kappa values was 0.781 (0.529-0.927) for occlusal surfaces, 0.568 (0.191-0.881) for smooth surfaces, and 0.844 (0.698-0.971) for proximal surfaces. Considering all lesions, sensitivity and specificity mean values were respectively 0.724 and 0.844 for occlusal, 0.635 and 0.943 for smooth and 0.658 and 0.927 for proximal surfaces. For detecting advanced lesions, sensitivities and

  1. Melanoma awareness and prevalence of dermoscopic examination among internet users: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Kaminska-Winciorek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Melanoma presents the greater threat to health the later the disease is detected and treated, although treatment results can be improved by the widespread use of dermoscopy. However, scarce data are available concerning the awareness of dermoscopy and the frequency of its performance in the non-patient population. Aim: To assess the awareness of melanoma detection by dermoscopic examination among the audience of a scientific website. Material and methods : Respondents were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey. They were asked to complete an online questionnaire designed by the authors. The preliminary analysis of 5,154 collected forms and the exclusion of incomplete forms yielded 4,919 fully completed questionnaires; the resulting database was analyzed statistically using logistic regression with the R software program (95% CI. Results: Less than two-fifths (39.2% of respondents reported ever having sought the advice of a medical professional (dermatologist or other specialist, and 25.4% of the respondents had undergone dermoscopy at least once in their life. Furthermore, approximately one-tenth of respondents (10.7% were not aware of this detection tool. The study respondents gained knowledge about dermoscopic examination from television and magazines. The performance of dermoscopy was more increasingly associated with inhabitants of larger locales, the use of higher-SPF sunscreens, and greater awareness of the relationship between the risk of melanoma and sunburn. Conclusions : Awareness of melanoma and sun care varied within the analyzed population. A subset of individuals at high risk of melanoma was identified. This group included those who engaged in risky sun exposure behaviors and who had never been examined by dermoscopy.

  2. Serum Phosphorus Concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ian H.; Rue, Tessa C.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher serum phosphorus concentrations within the normal laboratory range have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in large prospective cohort studies of individuals with and without kidney disease. Reasons for interindividual variation in steady-state serum phosphorus concentrations are largely unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 15,513 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictors Demographic data, dietary intake measured by means of 24-hour dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire, and established cardiovascular risk factors. Outcome & Measurements Serum phosphorus concentration. Results Mean serum phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in women (+0.16 mg/dL versus men; P phosphorus and phosphorus-rich foods were associated only weakly with circulating serum phosphorus concentrations, if at all. Higher serum phosphorus levels were associated with lower calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores, which are based on traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. In aggregate, demographic, nutritional, cardiovascular, and kidney function variables explained only 12% of the variation in circulating serum phosphorus concentrations. Limitations Results may differ with advanced kidney disease. Conclusions Serum phosphorus concentration is weakly related to dietary phosphorus and not related to a diverse array of phosphorus-rich foods in the general population. Factors determining serum phosphorus concentration are largely unknown. Previously observed associations of serum phosphorus concentrations with cardiovascular events are unlikely to be a result of differences in dietary intake or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18992979

  3. Relationship Between Sarcopenia and Albuminuria: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jae Won; Kim, Jung Min; Won, Jong Chul; Kim, Mi Kyung; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that albuminuria, obesity, and sarcopenia may share pathophysiological processes related to cardiovascular disease risk. Their direct relationships, however, have not been examined. This study investigated the association between albuminuria and sarcopenia in a representative fraction of the Korean population.Of the 10,589 people who participated in the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2158 participants aged over 19 years had been tested for albumin-to-creatinine ratio and for body composition data using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Albuminuria was defined as an albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index (SMI) (SMI (%) = total appendicular skeletal muscle mass [kg]/weight [kg] × 100) of less than 1 standard deviation (SD) (grade 1) or 2 SD (grade 2) below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group.The prevalence of albuminuria was higher in those with grade 2 sarcopenia than in those with a normal SMI or grade 1 sarcopenia (33.3% versus 8.4% and 8.9%; P albuminuria than in those with the upper tertile of normoalbuminuria. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis showed the odds ratio for albuminuria risk in the grade 2 sarcopenia group was 2.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-5.88), compared with normal SMI after adjusting for potential confounding factors, including the presence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Moreover, individuals with albuminuria had an odds ratio of 3.39 (95% [confidence interval], 1.38-8.37) for grade 2 sarcopenia compared with those in the lowest tertile of normoalbuminuria.This is the first study to demonstrate that individuals with sarcopenia exhibited increased risk of albuminuria and vice versa.

  4. Review of Survey and Experimental Research That Examines the Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Men's Sexual Aggression Perpetration

    OpenAIRE

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E.; Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sect...

  5. Androgens and diabetes in men: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selvin, Elizabeth; Feinleib, Manning; Zhang, Lei; Rohrmann, Sabine; Rifai, Nader; Nelson, William G; Dobs, Adrian; Basaria, Shehzad; Golden, Sherita Hill; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    ... Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the U.S. Bioavailable and free testosterone levels were calculated from serum total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin...

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Roma: a comparative health examination survey in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósa, Zsigmond; Moravcsik-Kornyicki, Ágota; Diószegi, Judit; Roberts, Bayard; Szabó, Zoltán; Sándor, János; Ádány, Róza

    2015-04-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the health status of the Roma people with that of the general population in Hungary. A health examination survey to define the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components was performed in a representative random sample (n = 646) of the Roma population aged 20-64 years living in segregated colonies, and data were compared with that obtained in a representative random sample (n = 1819) of the Hungarian population. The risks for central obesity, hypertension and raised triglyceride level among Roma adults were not different from the Hungarian references, while raised fasting plasma glucose or known type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.65, 95%CI 1.90-3.69), reduced HDL cholesterol level or treated lipid disorder (OR = 2.15, 95%CI 1.65-2.79) were significantly more frequent in all age groups in the Roma sample. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.37, 95%CI 1.03-1.83) was also significantly higher among Roma than in the general Hungarian population. Besides tackling the socio-economic determinants of the poor health of Roma people, specific public health interventions considering increased genetic susceptibility to metabolic disturbances are needed to improve their health status. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Retrospective Reports of Weight Change and Inflammation in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarinnapha Vasunilashorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigated the association between weight change and inflammation in a nationally representative population of US adults aged 40 and older. Methods. Using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008, logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between high levels of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] and infection (white blood cell count [WBC] with 1- and 10-year change in self-reported weight status. Results. Change in 1- and 10-year weight was associated with high CRP but not high WBC. Individuals who gained or lost ≥10 kg had an odds of having high CRP that was 1.96 (95% CI 1.11–3.50 and 1.61 (95% CI 1.02–2.46 as high, respectively, as those who maintained a stable weight (<4 kg change in the past year. The increased risk of elevated CRP among individuals who experienced at least 10 kg of weight loss or weight gain was also observed for weight change that occurred over the past 10 years; however, weight loss over the 10-year period was no longer associated with high inflammation. Conclusions. These results suggest that adult respondents who retrospectively self-reported weight loss or gain had higher levels of inflammation relative to their weight stable counterparts.

  8. Diabetes, glucose metabolism, and glaucoma: the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes may affect vascular autoregulation of the retina and optic nerve and may be associated with an increased risk of glaucoma,but the association of prediabetes, insulin resistance, markers of glucose metabolismwith glaucoma has not beenevaluated in general population samples. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome and its components and the levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR with the prevalence of glaucoma in the general U.S. population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 3,299 adult men and women from the 2005-2008 National Health and NutritionExamination Survey (NHANES. The presence of diabetes, prediabetes, the metabolic syndrome and its individual components and biomarkers of glucose metabolisms were based on standardized questionnaire and physical exam data and laboratory tests. The history of glaucoma was assessed through questionnaire during the home interview. RESULTS: Diabetes was strongly associated with prevalent glaucoma.In fully adjusted models, the odds ratiofor glaucoma comparing participants with diabetes with participants in the reference group with neither pre-diabetes nor diabetes was 2.12 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.67. The corresponding odd ratio comparing participants with pre-diabetes to those in the reference group was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.82. Patients with 5 or more years of diabetes duration hadan OR for glaucoma of 3.90 (95% CI: 1.63, 9.32 compared with patients with <5 years of diabetes duration. We also found a hockey-stick shaped associations between biomarkers of glucose metabolisms and the prevalence of glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was associated with higher risk of glaucoma. Participants without diabetes but at the higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR spectrum may also be at greater risk of glaucoma.

  9. Alcohol drinking patterns and diet quality: the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Rosalind A; Guenther, Patricia M; Smothers, Barbara A

    2006-02-15

    Associations between alcohol drinking and cardiovascular disease mortality could be confounded by diet if alcohol drinking and diet are related. Depending on the alcohol measure, alcohol-diet relations may or may not be observed. The authors examined associations between alcohol and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores) using cross-sectional, nationally representative data from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weighted analyses included 3,729 participants aged > or =20 years. In adjusted analyses among current alcohol drinkers, as quantity increased from 1 to > or =3 drinks/drinking day, the mean HEI score decreased from 65.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 63.4, 67.1) to 61.9 (95% CI: 60.5, 63.2). As frequency increased from the lowest quartile to the highest, the mean HEI score increased from 60.9 (95% CI: 58.7, 63.2) to 64.9 (95% CI: 63.4, 66.4). As average volume ((quantity x frequency)/365.25) increased from or =3 drinks/day, the mean HEI score increased from 62.9 (95% CI: 61.2, 64.5) to 65.2 (95% CI: 62.7, 67.8). In stratified analyses, the lowest HEI score, 58.5 (95% CI: 55.5, 61.5), occurred among drinkers who consumed the highest quantity at the lowest frequency. Average volume of alcohol consumed is driven by and masks the contributions of its components. These results suggest the importance of measuring drinking patterns (quantity, frequency, and stratified combinations) in epidemiologic alcohol-diet studies.

  10. Food Insecurity is Associated with Diabetes Mellitus: Results from the National Health Examination and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seligman, Hilary K; Bindman, Andrew B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Kanaya, Alka M; Kushel, Margot B

    2007-01-01

    ... diabetes.To evaluate whether there is an independent association between food insecurity and diabetes.Cross-sectional analysis of the nationally representative, population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2002 waves...

  11. The Relationship between Health Behavior and General Health Status: Based on 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Chunhoo; Oh, So-Mi; Jang, Soobin; Park, Jeong-Su; Park, Sunju; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; SHIN, YONG-CHEOL; KO, SEONG-GYU

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between health behavior and general health status. Methods We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mental health was measured by stress recognition and depression. Dietary habit was measured by mixed grain diet. Life pattern was measured by sleeping time and working pattern. Physical activity was measured by walking and exercise. We defined general health status as Euro Qualit...

  12. Examining impacts of allergic diseases on psychological problems and tobacco use in Korean adolescents: the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hong Chun

    Full Text Available Asthma during adolescence can induce social, psychological, and behavioral problems. We examined the impact of asthma and other allergic diseases on psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors among South Korean adolescents.In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3192 adolescents (10-18 years of age participating in the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Psychological problems associated with clinically diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data was analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of depression with allergic disease while controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking experience, and alcohol use.Asthma and atopic dermatitis were associated with a higher prevalence of depression (17.2% and 13%, respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, asthma patients were approximately two times as likely to have depression as non-allergic participants (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.68. Psychosocial stress significantly increased in the following order: no allergy, any allergy without asthma, asthma only, and asthma with any allergy (p for linear trend = 0.01. The asthma without other allergies group showed the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (p = 0.007.In this study, asthma with or without other allergies was significantly related to increases in depression, psychosocial stress, and smoking experience. Thus, care should be taken to adjust treatment to account for the psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors common among asthmatic adolescents.

  13. This study examined hourly temperature data of

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    17

    . India Meteorological department New Delhi. Abstract: This study ... The main cause of the urban heat island is modification of the land surface by urban development, which uses materials that effectively retain heat and the emission of heat by ...

  14. The National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Commons Revision Survey: Final Report of the Results of a National Survey to Review Proposed Specifications for the Revised Commons Examinations of the NTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Frieda; Grandy, Jerilee

    In July of 1981, the Policy Council of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE), in conjunction with the Educational Testing Service in Princeton, New Jersey, completed a series of national surveys to review proposed changes in the NTE Commons Examinations. The survey was designed to tap varying perspectives on the proposed test content and its…

  15. Examining Elementary Teachers' Use of Online Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that examined elementary teachers' use of online learning environments for their informal professional learning in literacy instruction. Forty-five elementary teachers from a metropolitan area in Ontario, Canada, completed an online survey and participated in a semistructured interview. Survey and…

  16. Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Jae Hee Ahn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Korean patients with diabetes.MethodsThe Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652, and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011 was used to define CKD (n=21,521. Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.ResultsAmong subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes.ConclusionKorean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.

  17. Metabolic syndrome and total cancer mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathirua-Mwangi, Wambui G; Monahan, Patrick O; Murage, Mwangi J; Zhang, Jianjun

    2017-02-01

    Although metabolic syndrome incidence has substantially increased during the last few decades, it largely remains unclear whether this metabolic disorder is associated with total cancer mortality. The present study was carried out to investigate this important question. A total of 687 cancer deaths were identified from 14,916 participants in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey by linking them to the National Death Index database through December 31, 2006. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total cancer mortality in relation to metabolic syndrome and its individual components. After adjustment for confounders, a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was associated with 33% elevated total cancer mortality. Compared with individuals without metabolic syndrome, those with 3, 4 and 5 abnormal components had HRs (95% CIs) of 1.28 (1.03-1.59), 1.24 (0.96-1.60), and 1.87 (1.34-2.63), respectively (p-trend = 0.0003). Systolic blood pressure and serum glucose were associated with an increased risk of death from total cancer [HR (95% CI) for highest vs. lowest quartiles: 1.67 (1.19-2.33), p-trend = 0.002 and 1.34 (1.04-1.74), p-trend = 0.003, respectively]. Overall null results were obtained for lung cancer mortality. The effects of metabolic syndrome and its components on non-lung cancer mortality were generally similar to, but somewhat larger than, those for total cancer mortality. Our study is among the first to reveal that metabolic syndrome is associated with increased total cancer mortality.

  18. Antioxidants and self-reported history of kidney stones: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoch, Peter A; Tracy, Chad R

    2011-12-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated the likely role of oxidative tissue damage in the pathophysiology of stone disease; however, the effect of antioxidants on stone formation in the human population is unknown. We evaluated the association between serum antioxidant levels and the self-reported prevalence of kidney stones in a large cross-sectional population in a retrospective cohort study. Serum levels of antioxidants among adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994 were compared between those with and without a self-reported history of kidney stones, adjusting for covariates of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, diabetes, and hypertension. The prevalence of kidney stones was 5.25% (95% confidence interval: 4.60%, 5.90%). The prevalence of kidney stones was higher in males, white/non-Hispanics, diabetics, and those with hypertension. The prevalence of kidney stones increased with BMI. After adjusting for covariates, mean levels of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin were significantly lower in those with kidney stones (-9.36%, -10.79%, and -8.48%, respectively). When analyzed by quartile, higher serum levels of beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin,, trended toward a decreasing prevalence of stones (P=0.007 and P=0.03, respectively), indicating that the highest levels of these antioxidants may protect against the formation of kidney stones. Lower levels of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin are associated with a history of kidney stones and may indicate a role for these antioxidants in preventing stone formation.

  19. Reviewing the Research on Mail Survey Response Rates: Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    One approach to examining the findings of multiple studies is descriptive. This descriptive review of the research on increasing the response rates to mail surveys is based on studies also subjected to a meta-analysis. An initial narrative review identified the studies to be used in both analyses, and results will allow the possibility of…

  20. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  1. Comorbidities of rheumatoid arthritis: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyemin Jeong

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA compared with the non-RA population. The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, which assesses the general health status of populations in South Korea using interviews and basic health assessment, was analyzed retrospectively. Weighted prevalence and odds ratio (OR of comorbidities were analyzed in patients with RA compared with the non-RA population. The overall weighted (n = 37,453,158 prevalence of RA was 1.5%. Patients with RA were older and more female predominant than subjects without RA. The prevalence of living in an urban area, college graduation, alcohol consumption and smoking was lower in patients with RA than non-RA. Patients with RA had more comorbidities including hypertension, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction (MI or angina, stoke, osteoarthritis, lung cancer, colon cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, asthma, diabetes, depression, thyroid disease and chronic kidney disease. After adjusting socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, RA was associated with an increased prevalence of MI or angina (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.17-2.96, p = 0.009, pulmonary TB (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.24-3.09, p = 0.004, asthma (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.05-3.71, p = 0.036, thyroid disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.77, depression (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.47-3.85, p < 0.001 and hepatitis B (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-4.80, p = 0.020 compared with the non-RA population. Prevalence of solid cancer was not significantly associated with RA after adjustment.

  2. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Management in the Thai Population, National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Putwatana, Panwadee; Sritara, Piyamitr; Sangwatanaroj, Somkiat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence and management of dyslipidemia in Thai adults using data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV in 2009. Dyslipidemia was defined based on the Third Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. A total of 19,021 adults aged 20 yr and over were included. Mean (SE) levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 206.4 (1.03), 46.9 (0.34), 128.7 (1.09), and 131.4 (2.20) mg/dL, respectively. Prevalence of high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and high triglycerides were 29.6 %, 47.1 %, and 38.6%, respectively. Compared with individuals in the north and northeast, residents in Bangkok and Central region had significant higher levels of LDL-C but lower level of HDL-C. Triglyceride level was the highest in the northeast residents. Overall, 66.5% of Thais had some forms of dyslipidemia. Awareness and treatment of high LDL-C among those with high LDL-C were 17.8% and 11.7%, respectively. Among individuals aware of high LDL-C, those at highest CHD risk compared with those at low risk had higher percentage of treatment (73.1% versus 51.7%, resp.) but lower percentage of control at goal (32.9% versus 76.4%, resp.). Various forms of dyslipidemia are common in Thai adults, with a low level of awareness and treatment of high LDL-C.

  3. Standardization of physical measurements in European health examination surveys-experiences from the site visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Mäki-Opas, Johanna; Mindell, Jennifer S; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Männistö, Satu; Giampaoli, Simona; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Koponen, Päivikki

    2017-10-01

    Health examination surveys (HESs) provide valuable data on health and its determinants at the population level. Comparison of HES results within and between countries and over time requires measurements which are free of bias due to differences in or adherence to measurement procedures and/or measurement devices. In the European HES (EHES) Pilot Project, 12 countries conducted a pilot HES in 2010-11 using standardized measurement protocols and centralized training. External evaluation visits (site visits) were performed by the EHES Reference Centre staff to evaluate the success of standardization and quality of data collection. In general, standardized EHES protocols were followed adequately in all the pilot surveys. Small deviations were observed in the posture of participants during the blood pressure and height measurement; in the use of a tourniquet when drawing blood samples; and in the calibration of measurement devices. Occasionally, problems with disturbing noise from outside or people coming into the room during the measurements were observed. In countries with an ongoing national HES or a long tradition of conducting national HESs at regular intervals, it was more difficult to modify national protocols to fulfil EHES requirements. The EHES protocols to standardize HES measurements and procedures for collection of blood samples are feasible in cross-country settings. The prerequisite for successful standardization is adequate training. External and internal evaluation activities during the survey fieldwork are also needed to monitor compliance to standards.

  4. A database of human exposomes and phenomes from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag J; Pho, Nam; McDuffie, Michael; Easton-Marks, Jeremy; Kothari, Cartik; Kohane, Isaac S; Avillach, Paul

    2016-10-25

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a population survey implemented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to monitor the health of the United States whose data is publicly available in hundreds of files. This Data Descriptor describes a single unified and universally accessible data file, merging across 255 separate files and stitching data across 4 surveys, encompassing 41,474 individuals and 1,191 variables. The variables consist of phenotype and environmental exposure information on each individual, specifically (1) demographic information, physical exam results (e.g., height, body mass index), laboratory results (e.g., cholesterol, glucose, and environmental exposures), and (4) questionnaire items. Second, the data descriptor describes a dictionary to enable analysts find variables by category and human-readable description. The datasets are available on DataDryad and a hands-on analytics tutorial is available on GitHub. Through a new big data platform, BD2K Patient Centered Information Commons (http://pic-sure.org), we provide a new way to browse the dataset via a web browser (https://nhanes.hms.harvard.edu) and provide application programming interface for programmatic access.

  5. Effects of exercise on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Koreans: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Young-Eun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise on glycemic control using data from fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and to provide appropriate exercise guidelines for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea. [Subjects and Methods] We selected 1,328 patients from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database who had type 2 diabetes and ranged in age from 30 to 90?years. Statistical analyses included ?2 t...

  6. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  7. [Eating behaviours of italian adults: results of the Osservatorio epidemiologico cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaoli, Simona; Krogh, Vittorio; Grioni, Sara; Palmieri, Luigi; Gulizia, Massimo Michele; Stamler, Jeremiah; Vanuzzo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    to describe eating behaviours of the Italian adult population collected by the Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey during 2008- 2012. cross-sectional survey conducted in all Italian regions; random samples of the general population, stratified by age and sex, in 23 municipalities, 220 persons every 1.5 million people. 9,111 persons examined, aged 25-79 years; participation rate of 53%; data of 8,462 persons were used in this analysis. lifestyles, risk factors, and high risk conditions were measured. Eating behaviours were assessed by the EPIC questionnaire, which includes principal foods, portions, and eating patterns; principal health eating behaviours and nutrients were described by macroareas; sodium and potassium intake were measured also by 24h urine collection; data were compared to the Mediterranean model described in the Sixties nutritional survey carried out in Nicotera, a municipality of Calabria Region, Southern Italy. the eating behaviours are healthy only in a part of the population: 30% have adequate intake of vegetables and fish; only 10% use cakes/sweets/desserts once a week as recommended. Energy intake from saturated fat and sugars are high. Compared to the Sixties Mediterranean model, consumption of cereals, potatoes, and legumes are reduced by half, while meats, cheeses, milk, and in particular sweets are more than doubled. taking into account the distribution of risk factors and high risk conditions as overweight/obesity, which affects almost 75% of the adult population, physical inactivity (30-40%), hypertension (50%), hypercholesterolemia (35%), and diabetes (7-11%), community actions for improving diet in the population are urgent. Education of the population is also needed to reduce portions and salt intake, and to use less olive oil and wine given their high caloric values, as recommended by the modern Mediterranean diet.

  8. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Gößwald, Antje; Hölling, Heike; Lange, Michael; Busch, Markus A; Dahm, Stefan; Dölle, Rüdiger; Ellert, Ute; Fuchs, Judith; Hapke, Ulfert; Heidemann, Christin; Knopf, Hildtraud; Laussmann, Detlef; Mensink, Gert B M; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Richter, Almut; Sass, Anke-Christine; Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath; Stolzenberg, Heribert; Thamm, Michael; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2012-09-01

    The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18-79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18-79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008-2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18-79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma, allergies, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes

  9. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidt-Nave Christa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1 extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98 at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic

  10. Serum Lipid Levels in Relation to Consumption of Yogurt: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bong-Kyung; Kim, Nam-Eun; Park, Kyong-Min; Park, Kye-Yeung; Park, Hoon-Ki; Hwang, Hwan-Sik

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum lipid levels in Korean adults after consumption of different types of yogurt. Study subjects were 3,038 individuals (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Yogurt intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire by using the 24-hour recall method. We conducted complex samples general linear analysis with adjustment for covariates. The serum triglyceride levels in the group consuming viscous yogurt were lower than those in the group consuming non-viscous yogurt. Consumption of viscous yogurt is associated with low serum triglyceride levels in Korean adults.

  11. Examination of the equivalence of self-report survey-based paper-and-pencil and internet data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigold, Arne; Weigold, Ingrid K; Russell, Elizabeth J

    2013-03-01

    Self-report survey-based data collection is increasingly carried out using the Internet, as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, previous research on the equivalence of these methods has yielded inconsistent findings. This may be due to methodological and statistical issues present in much of the literature, such as nonequivalent samples in different conditions due to recruitment, participant self-selection to conditions, and data collection procedures, as well as incomplete or inappropriate statistical procedures for examining equivalence. We conducted 2 studies examining the equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet data collection that accounted for these issues. In both studies, we used measures of personality, social desirability, and computer self-efficacy, and, in Study 2, we used personal growth initiative to assess quantitative equivalence (i.e., mean equivalence), qualitative equivalence (i.e., internal consistency and intercorrelations), and auxiliary equivalence (i.e., response rates, missing data, completion time, and comfort completing questionnaires using paper-and-pencil and the Internet). Study 1 investigated the effects of completing surveys via paper-and-pencil or the Internet in both traditional (i.e., lab) and natural (i.e., take-home) settings. Results indicated equivalence across conditions, except for auxiliary equivalence aspects of missing data and completion time. Study 2 examined mailed paper-and-pencil and Internet surveys without contact between experimenter and participants. Results indicated equivalence between conditions, except for auxiliary equivalence aspects of response rate for providing an address and completion time. Overall, the findings show that paper-and-pencil and Internet data collection methods are generally equivalent, particularly for quantitative and qualitative equivalence, with nonequivalence only for some aspects of auxiliary equivalence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all

  12. The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotouhi Akbar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample. Methods Design Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described. Conclusion We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs.

  13. Prevalence of Comorbidity among People with Hypertension: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Juhwan; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Shin, Anna; Yeom, Hyungseon; Jang, Suk-Yong; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kim, Changsoo; Suh, Il

    2016-09-01

    Joint National Committee guidelines attempt to vary treatment recommendations for patients based on considerations of their comorbidities. The aim of the present study is to estimate the age-standardized prevalence of common comorbidities among Korean hypertension patients. We analyzed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2013. Among the 58423 participants, 30092 adults, aged ≥30 yrs who completed a health examination and interview survey, were selected. The survey procedures were used to estimate weighted prevalence and odds ratios for 8 comorbidities, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and thyroid disease. Most chronic conditions were more prevalent in adults with hypertension than in those without hypertension. Common comorbidities were obesity (60.1%), dyslipidemia (57.6%), and impaired fasting glucose (45.1%). Hypertensive patients with two or more comorbid diseases were 42.2% and those with three or more diseases were 17.7%. The age- and sex-specific prevalence of three or more comorbid diseases among male hypertension patients was significantly higher than those patients in the 30-59 (p<0.05) age group. Comorbidity is highly prevalent in Korean patients with hypertension.

  14. Pulmonary Impairment in Tuberculosis Survivors: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Choi, Jae-Chol; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Choi, Byoung-Whui; Park, In-Won

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can affect lung function, but studies regarding long-term follow-up in patients with no sequelae on chest X-ray (CXR) have not been performed. We evaluated lung functional impairment and persistent respiratory symptoms in those with prior pulmonary TB and those with prior pulmonary TB with no residual sequelae on CXR, and determined risk factors for airflow obstruction. We used data from adults aged ≥ 40 years from the annual Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 2008 and 2012. P values for comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. In total of 14,967 adults, 822 subjects (5.5%) had diagnosed and treated pulmonary TB (mean 29.0 years ago). The FVC% (84.9 vs. 92.6), FEV1% (83.4 vs. 92.4), and FEV1/FVC% (73.4 vs. 77.9) were significantly decreased in subjects with prior pulmonary TB compared to those without (p pulmonary TB (296, 2.3%) had significantly lower FEV1% (90.9 vs. 93.4, p = 0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (76.6 vs. 78.4, p pulmonary TB as well as subjects with no sequalae on CXR were more likely to experience cough and physical activity limitations due to pulmonary symptoms than those without prior pulmonary TB (p pulmonary TB (OR, 2.314; 95% CI, 1.922-2.785), along with age, male, asthma, and smoking mount was risk factor for airflow obstruction. In subjects with prior pulmonary tuberculosis, inactive TB lesion on chest x-ray (OR, 2.300; 95% CI, 1.606-3.294) were risk factors of airflow obstruction. In addition to subjects with inactive TB lesion on CXR, subjects with no sequelae on CXR can show impaired pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms. Prior TB is a risk factor for airflow obstruction and that the risk is more important when they have inactive lesions on chest X-ray. Hence, the patients with treated TB should need to have regular follow-up of lung function and stop smoking for early detection and prevention of the chronic airway disease.

  15. Differences in participation rates and lessons learned about recruitment of participants--the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Ahonen, Sanna; Jentoft, Susie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Heldal, Johan

    2015-03-01

    In the 1980s, participation rates in health interview and health examination surveys were around 80% while now they are around 50-60%. There is also evidence that non-participation is selective. Low participation rates and selective non-participation may cause bias to our survey results based on participants alone. We aim to increase knowledge on cultural differences in acceptance and feasibility of different recruitment methods. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project, conducted in 2009-2012, included pilot surveys in 12 countries among people aged 25-64 years. Information about recruitment methods and participation rates in these surveys was collected. Participation rates ranged from 16% to 57% for men and from 31% to 74% for women, where in most surveys women had higher participation rates than men. A variety of recruitment and promotion methods were used to obtain as high participation rates as possible. Combinations of phone calls, invitation letter and home visits were used to recruit invitees. Obtaining valid phone numbers for survey invitees was difficult in several countries. Incentives, websites and promotion in local media were used to promote the surveys. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot surveys showed that obtaining a participation rate above 50% for a representative population sample is possible but it requires hard work and a well-planned recruitment strategy. Recruitment methods used in one country may not be possible to use in another country due to cultural norms and national regulations. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. The protocol and preliminary baseline survey results of the thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima [Rapid Communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Nakano, Keiichi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsunori; Kamiya, Kenji; Shimura, Hiroki; Suzuki, Satoru; Nakamura, Izumi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011, the public of Japan became particularly concerned about the possibility of an increased risk of childhood thyroid cancer, similar to what was observed after the Chernobyl's accident. Due to serious public health perception, there was an urgency to evaluate the baseline levels of childhood thyroid status in Fukushima prefecture. Therefore we have commenced a thyroid ultrasound examination (TUE) survey of the approximately 360,000 pediatric inhabitants (0 to 18 years of age) who lived in Fukushima at the time of the accident in October 2011. The subjects were divided into three categories according to the standardized diagnostic criteria of ultrasound findings. Category A contained the subjects whose TUE findings were intact or benign. Category B were recommended a confirmatory TUE. Category C was recommended an immediate confirmatory TUE. The survey of 40,302 subjects in the first year was completed in March, 2013. There were 40,097 (99.5%), 205 (0.50%) and 0 subjects in categories A, B and C, respectively. Of the 82 category B subjects who underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), 12 were diagnosed with a malignant tumor or were suspected to have malignancy. The 12 subjects received thyroid surgery and 11 thyroid cancers and one benign nodule were confirmed histologically after surgery. This is the first large-scaled TUE survey to employ sophisticated ultrasound screening and aim to evaluate the baseline frequency of childhood thyroid nodules and cysts. The results will become the golden standard of future comparative TUE in Fukushima, Japan.

  17. High alcohol consumption in Germany: results of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martina; Mensink, Gert B M

    2004-10-01

    To analyse the alcohol consumption behaviour of the German adult population, with a focus on the characteristics of persons drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL) of 10-12 g day(-1) for healthy adult women and 20-24 g day(-1) for healthy adult men. For the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, a representative sample of free-living adults was drawn. A total of 7124 participants were interviewed comprehensively about their sociodemographic background, lifestyle and eating habits including alcohol consumption. A sub-sample of 4030 women and men, 18-79 years old, who were involved in the integrated German Nutrition Survey. About 16% of women and 31% of men had mean alcohol consumption above the TUAL. Among other factors, the inclination to exceed the TUAL was related to middle-age, high socio-economic status, smoking and use of soft drugs. Among both women and men, a high proportion of persons drinking above the TUAL was observed among those consuming low amounts of soft drinks, fruit, poultry, milk products, bread and cake/biscuits. Women preferred to drink wine, whereas men preferred to drink beer. Many Germans have an alcohol consumption level above the TUAL and thus are supposed to be at increased risk for alcohol-associated diseases.

  18. [Asbestos clinics and asbestos health examinations--findings from a questionnaire survey of implementing organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Norihisa; Nishikawa, Kunihito; Kiyomoto, Yoshihumi; Todoroki, Miwako; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Ken

    2008-09-01

    In June 2005 the press reported that many former employees of a company which used asbestos, and individuals who lived near the company's factory, had been diagnosed with mesothelioma. This finding triggered concern and alarm in Japan. In response, many "asbestos clinics" were formed, and recognized medical institutions began to implement asbestos-related health examinations. We conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey to evaluate the activities in, and the challenges for, these medical institutions. We received 137 valid responses, more than half of which were from clinics and hospital-based "asbestos clinics" instigated after the "Kubota shock." Among the asbestos exposure history interviewing practices, job histories of the interviewee were prioritized, over place of residence, and possible exposure of family members. Standard questionnaires were utilized by over 70% of respondents. The practitioners reported problems with lack of manpower and evaluation of asbestos exposure. Examinees consulted attending physicians on a wide range of matters including asbestos-related diseases, asbestos exposure, and financial compensation. It is predicted that asbestos-related diseases in general, and mesothelioma in particular, will increase in the future. Accordingly, early detection and treatment should be accorded high priority. The organizations we surveyed have important roles to play. Although resources are limited, effective diagnosis and treatment are essential, and a system assisting organizations to make accurate and efficient identification of asbestos exposure hazards is imperative.

  19. Factors Affecting Examination Attrition: Does Academic Support Help? A Survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) Students at Unisa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tladi, Lerato Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the attributing and contributing factors to examination absence as well as whether the academic and social support available to students had a role to play in discouraging or reducing absence from examinations using results from a quantitative survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) students who were admitted…

  20. Obesity in Korean Men: Results from the Fourth through Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007~2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yeon Won; Choi, Kwi Bok; Kim, Soon Ki; Lee, Dong-Gi; Lee, Jun Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Obesity is related to many diseases, including urological conditions. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of male obesity. Materials and Methods: This study included 17,485 men older than 20 years of age who participated in the fourth, fifth, and sixth administrations of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Two main cutoff points for obesity were defined: a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 and a BMI≥30 kg/m2. Additionally, we...

  1. Prenatal examination behavior of Southeast Asian pregnant women in Taiwan: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Miao-Ling; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2008-05-01

    There is growing concern about the factors affecting the prenatal examinations of immigrant women. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the knowledge of pregnancy, attitude toward pregnancy and experience of medical services, and prenatal examination behavior of pregnant Southeast Asian women in Taiwan. This was a cross-sectional study with a structured questionnaire administered to participants. Participants were recruited from the community health centers in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. The sampling criteria were as follows: each subject was to (a) have come from a Southeast Asian country, (b) be over 28 weeks pregnant to less than one year postpartum, (c) be able to communicate either in Mandarin or Taiwanese, and (d) be willing to participate in the research after hearing an explanation of it. As a result, 140 participants were recruited. A total of 132 participants completed the questionnaire and were used for data analysis. The participants completed structured questionnaires, which included the Demographic Inventory Scale, Knowledge of Pregnancy Scale, Attitudes toward Pregnancy Scale, Experience of Medical Services Scale and the Prenatal Examination Behavior Scale. Findings show that 80.3% of the subjects attended their first-time prenatal examination during the first trimester and 59.1% of the subjects evaluated their prenatal examinations as being adequate. Their attitude toward childbearing was significantly correlated with their prenatal examination behavior, including the initial time of prenatal examination and frequencies of prenatal examinations during pregnancy. Positive attitudes toward childbearing and prenatal examination, and the number of years spent in Taiwan were all significant predictive factors of frequencies of prenatal examinations during pregnancy. The findings of this study can not only help healthcare professionals understand the prenatal examination behavior and related factors of the participants, but

  2. Physical activity and depression symptoms among pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2012-03-01

    To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and depression symptoms among a nationally representative sample of pregnant women to provide a more accurate understanding of the relationship between physical activity and depression symptoms. We employed a cross-sectional study design. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were used for this study. One-hundred and forty-one pregnant women wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to assess depression status. More than 19% of the participants experienced some depression symptoms, and compared to their counterparts not having depression symptoms, they were less physically active. An inverse association was found between physical activity and depression symptoms among pregnant women. When feasible, nurses are encouraged to help facilitate physical activity among pregnant women, assuming an uncomplicated pregnancy. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study Summarized Data - HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.

  4. Adherence to diabetic eye examination guidelines in Australia: the National Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Joshua; Keel, Stuart; Xie, Jing; Van Wijngaarden, Peter; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-05-15

    To determine adherence to NHMRC eye examination guidelines for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian people with diabetes. Cross-sectional survey using multistage, random cluster sampling. Thirty randomly selected geographic sites in the five mainland Australian states and the Northern Territory, stratified by remoteness. 1738 Indigenous Australians aged 40-92 years and 3098 non-Indigenous Australians aged 50-98 years were recruited and examined between March 2015 and April 2016 according to a standardised protocol that included a questionnaire (administered by an interviewer) and a series of standard eye tests. Adherence rates to NHMRC eye examination guidelines; factors influencing adherence. Adherence to screening recommendations was significantly greater among non-Indigenous Australians (biennial screening; 77.5%) than Indigenous Australians (annual screening; 52.7%; P < 0.001). Greater adherence by non-Indigenous Australians was associated with longer duration of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.19 per 5 years; P = 0.018), while increasing age was associated with poorer adherence in non-Indigenous Australians (aOR, 0.70 per decade; P = 0.011). For Indigenous Australians, residing in inner regional areas (aOR, 1.66; P = 0.007) and being male (aOR, 1.46; P = 0.018) were significant factors positively associated with adherence. More than three-quarters of non-Indigenous Australians with diabetes and more than half of Indigenous Australians with diabetes adhere to the NHMRC eye examination guidelines. The discrepancy between the adherence rates may point to gaps in the provision or uptake of screening services in Indigenous communities, or a lack of awareness of the guidelines. A carefully integrated diabetic retinopathy screening service is needed, particularly in remote areas, to improve adherence rates.

  5. Examining Capacity and Functioning of Bicycle Coalitions: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBicycle coalitions represent a strong partner in creating bike-friendly communities through advocacy for physical infrastructure, encouragement for biking, or education about safety. Despite their versatility, little is known about their functioning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine capacity, strengths, and weaknesses of these organizations.MethodsBicycle coalitions/advocacy groups from English-speaking countries were recruited to take part in an online survey via email invitation. The survey addressed basic information about the coalition (community demographics, location, leadership, communication strategies, coalition priorities, barriers to programming/activities, and partners.ResultsCoalitions (n = 56 from four countries completed the survey. Most coalitions operated as a non-profit (n = 44, 95.7%, 45% (n = 21 have paid staff as leaders, while 37% (n = 17 have volunteers as leaders. The following skills were represented in coalitions’ leadership: fundraising (n = 31, 53.4%, event planning (n = 31, 53.4%, urban planning (n = 26, 44%, and policy/legislation expertise (n = 26, 44.8%. Education (n = 26, 63.4% and encouragement (n = 25, 61.6% were viewed as top priorities and the safety of bicyclists (n = 21, 46.7% and advocacy for infrastructure and policy (n = 22, 48.9% is the focus of most activities. A lack of financial resources (n = 36, 81.8% and capable personnel (n = 25, 56.8% were significant barriers to offering programming in the community and that the availability of grants to address issues (n = 38, 86.4% would be the top motivator for improvements.ConclusionBike coalitions represent a critical partner in creating activity-friendly environments and understanding their capacity allows for creating skill/capacity building intervention programs, development of effective toolkits and fostering strong collaborations to address physical inactivity.

  6. Survey of SNMP performance analysis studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrey, Laurent; Festor, Olivier; Lahmadi, Abdelkader; Pras, Aiko; Schönwälder, Jürgen

    This paper provides a survey of Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)-related performance studies. Over the last 10 years, a variety of such studies have been published. Performance benchmarking of SNMP, like all benchmarking studies, is a non-trivial task that requires substantial effort to be

  7. Physical activity patterns and socioeconomic position: the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the associations between education and leisure-time, occupational, sedentary and total physical-activity levels based on data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98...

  8. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:26927164

  9. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portugal: Results from the First Portuguese Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaio, Vânia; Antunes, Liliana; Namorado, Sónia; Barreto, Marta; Gil, Ana; Kyslaya, Irina; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana; Bøhler, Linn; Castilho, Emília; Vargas, Patrícia; do Carmo, Isabel; Nunes, Baltazar; Dias, Carlos Matias

    Obesity is recognised as a serious public health issue, due to its associated morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population through direct measurements obtained by the 1st National Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015) and to identify its associated sociodemographic factors. INSEF was a nationally representative cross-sectional prevalence study conducted on 4911 Portuguese adults aged 25-74 years, in 2015. Height and weight were measured according to the European Health Examination Survey procedures. Poisson regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of overweight and obesity according to age, marital status, occupational activity, education, urbanization of living area and smoking status. Overall prevalences of overweight and obesity were 39.1% and 28.6%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was higher among men (45.5% vs 33.2%) while the prevalence of obesity was higher among women (32% vs 25%). The sociodemographic factors associated with overweight and obesity were age, marital status and education. Smoking status was associated with overweight and obesity but only in women. INSEF suggests that a high prevalences of overweight and obesity are found in older individuals, married, with lower education levels and non-smoking women. Public health interventions are urgently required for obesity prevention, namely throughout health literacy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Algae consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Ju; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Vitek, Libor; Nam, Chung Mo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between dietary algae (seaweed) consumption and the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Korean population. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005, a nationally representative survey. The study participants included 3,405 males and females aged 20-65 y. Participants were classified into four groups according to the quartiles of total algae consumption frequencies. Proportional odds models were used to assess the relationship between algae consumption and the risk of having diabetes or prediabetes, after adjustment for age, family history of diabetes, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total energy intake and food group intakes. The frequency of algae consumption was positively correlated to the consumption of legumes, fruits, fish, and dairy products in both genders (palgae consumption compared to the lowest quartile. Our results suggest that dietary algae consumption may decrease the risk of diabetes mellitus in Korean men. A well-designed prospective study is needed to confirm this association.

  11. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle.

  12. Examining gender salary disparities: an analysis of the 2003 multistate salary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence M; Schommer, Jon C; Mott, Dave; Gaither, Caroline A; Doucette, William R; Zgarrick, Dave P; Droege, Marcus

    2006-09-01

    Pharmacist salary and wage surveys have been conducted at the state and national level for more than 20 years; however, it is not known to what extent, if any, wage disparities due to gender still exist. The overall objective of this study was to determine if wage disparities exist among male and female pharmacists at the multistate and individual state level for each of 6 states studied. A secondary objective was to explore the effect of various demographic variables on the hourly wages of pharmacists. Data were collected from 1,688 pharmacists in 6 states during 2003 using a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A multiple regression analysis on hourly wage testing the effects of state of practice, practice setting, position, terminal degree, and years in practice was conducted. Subsequent multiple regression analyses were conducted individually for each of the 6 states to test the effects of the above variables on hourly wage for both male and female pharmacists, followed by state-level analyses for male and female pharmacists, respectively. For the pooled data, all variables were found to be significant predictors of hourly wage, except for earning a PharmD degree without a residency or graduate degree. Gender was not a significant predictor of wage disparities in the state-level analyses. Position was the only significant predictor of wage disparities in all states (except Tennessee) such that pharmacists in management positions make significantly higher salaries than those in staff positions. The results of these analyses suggest that wage disparities due to gender do not exist at the state level for the 6 states surveyed, when controlling for practice setting, position, terminal degree, and years in practice. The larger number of men in management positions may explain lower wages for female pharmacists.

  13. Findings of thyroid ultrasound examination within three years after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hiroki; Sobue, Tomotaka; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2017-12-14

    Childhood thyroid cancer is of great concern after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. The baseline analytical data on thyroid ultrasound examination in children is quite important for future examination. We analyzed the age and sex distribution of findings from the thyroid ultrasound examinations of children and adolescents in the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS). From October 2011 through March 2014, 294,905 participants aged 18 years or younger at the earthquake voluntarily had thyroid ultrasound examinations in the first round of the FHMS. A secondary confirmatory examination was performed in 2,032 subjects. Age- and sex-dependent prevalence and size of thyroid cysts, nodules, and caners were analyzed. Age, sex, and size distribution of findings were analyzed. Thyroid cysts, nodules, and cytologically suspected cancers were detected in 68,009, 1,415, and 38 subjects in males and 73,014, 2455, and 74 subjects in females, respectively. There was an age-dependent increase in the detection rate of thyroid nodules and cancer, but that of cysts reached a peak at 11-12 years. Sex affected the prevalence of thyroid nodules and cancers after the onset of puberty, but only a small difference was exhibited in that of cysts. The thyroid cancer detection rate in Fukushima was clarified and the proportion of those with thyroid nodules and cysts varied substantially by age. The results of this study will make a valid contribution to future epidemiological researches on nodular thyroid diseases in children and adolescents.

  14. A Novel Survey to Examine the Relationship between Health IT Adoption and Nurse-Physician Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, A Jay; Pfeifer, Eric; Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2016-12-21

    As EHR adoption in US hospitals becomes ubiquitous, a wide range of IT options are theoretically available to facilitate physician-nurse communication, but we know little about the adoption rate of specific technologies or the impact of their use. To measure adoption of hardware, software, and telephony relevant to nurse-physician communication in US hospitals. To assess the relationship between non-IT communication practices and hardware, software, and telephony adoption. To identify hospital characteristics associated with greater adoption of hardware, software, telephony, and non-IT communication practices. We conducted a survey of 105 hospitals in the National Nursing Practice Network. The survey captured adoption of hardware, software, and telephony to support nurse-physician communication, along with non-IT communication practices. We calculated descriptive statistics and then created four indices, one for each category, by scoring degree of adoption of technologies or practices within each category. Next, we examined correlations between the three technology indices and the non-IT communication practices index. We used multivariate OLS regression to assess whether certain types of hospitals had higher index scores. The majority of hospitals surveyed have a range of hardware, software, and telephony tools available to support nurse-physician communication; we found substantial heterogeneity across hospitals in non-IT communication practices. More intensive non-IT communication was associated with greater adoption of software (r=0.31, p=0.01), but was not correlated with hardware or telephony. Medium-sized hospitals had lower adoption of software (r =-1.14,p=0.04) in comparison to small hospitals, while federally-owned hospitals had lower software (r=-2.57, p=0.02) and hardware adoption (r=-1.63, p=0.01). The positive relationship between non-IT communication and level of software adoption suggests that there is a complementary, rather than substitutive

  15. Survey on th incidence of homeless pulmonary tuberculosis infection rate through chest x-ray examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Shin, Sung Rae [Dept. of Nursing, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hwan Yeal [Dept. of Medical Business Administration, U1 University, Yeongdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study, Seoul City shelter, you are trying to seek medical cooperation and cure rate increase proposal Yu fndings’s current situation and tuberculosis of homeless tuberculosis. Inspector, and has a total 591 people is targeted to implement an interview after acquiring utilization agreement in studies conducted chest X-ray photography. Of the interview questions, three or more protons, it is determined that the TB symptomatic conducted sputum examination, chest X-ray examination confrms the physician radiology, when sputum examination primarily chromatic fndings the double implemented and conducted by requesting the ship inspection also said inspection sputum acid-fast bacteria if it is true one, respectively. confrmed case result of checking whether there is a difference due to risk factors (Jb) at the chi square black, it was found that there is no statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level. (χ{sup 2}=0.276, p>0.05), suspected case (Ac, Ae) results of examining whether there is a difference due to risk factors in chi square black, that there is a statistically significant difference at 99% confidence level is I found (χ{sup 2}=9.414, p<0.01). The nature of the homeless tuberculosis screening and directed to the distance homeless specifc location are likely to evaluate the actual incidence low and aggressive or management needs, the rationale is allowed insufficient reality is. Through this research, future, for tuberculosis high risk tuberculosis patient, such as homeless to expand the tuberculosis screening of infectious tuberculosis patients in private medical institutions, and one-stop service that chest X-ray examination and sputum examination is carried out at the same time introduced immediately to prevent the inspection and examination, cure, and should establish a foundation that can be up to post administration.

  16. A comparison of survey methods in studies of the nurse workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, O Ed; Anderson, Mary Ann

    2013-03-01

    To compare and contrast postal and internet surveys in studies of nurse workforces. There is little research that examines the advantages and disadvantages of different surveys in studies of nurse workforces. Previous studies that used different approaches to disseminate surveys. There are advantages and disadvantages to using postal or internet surveys for nurse workforce studies. Factors researchers may wish to consider in selecting survey methods include research topic, costs, coverage, timing and the characteristics of potential respondents. Response rate, data quality and adequate coverage of the population being studied can be optimised if the researcher selects an appropriate survey method.

  17. Systematic determination of thyroid volume by ultrasound examination from infancy to adolescence in Japan: the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Midorikawa, Sanae; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Shibata, Yoshisada; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Although several reports have defined normal thyroid volume depending on either age or body surface, there are no sequential reference values on childhood thyroid volume evaluated by using ultrasonography and epidemiological analysis in Japan. The aim of the present study was to establish updated reference values for thyroid volume by ultrasound examination and epidemiological analysis in 0-19 year-old Japanese children. It is based on a cross-sectional study conducted from October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The subjects were 38,063 children who were examined by ultrasonography as the initial preliminary survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey in October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The width, thickness, and height of each lobe were measured and the volume of each lobe was calculated by the mean of the elliptical shape volume formula. The values of thyroid volume at the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of age and body surface area for each gender group were obtained from 0-19 year-old children. Positive correlation was observed between thyroid volume and either age or body surface. The right lobe was significantly larger than the left lobe. The thyroid volume in females was larger than that in males after adjusting body surface area. The reference values of childhood thyroid for each age or body surface area were obtained by this extensive survey using ultrasound. These reference values may be used to define the normal size of thyroid gland by echosonography in Japanese children, although thyroid volume may be affected by dimorphic factors such as sex hormones.

  18. A Catalog of Rules, Variables, and Definitions Applied to Accelerometer Data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Camhi, Sarah M.; Troiano, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) included accelerometry in the 2003–2006 data collection cycles. Researchers have used these data since their release in 2007, but the data have not been consistently treated, examined, or reported. The objective of this study was to aggregate data from studies using NHANES accelerometry data and to catalogue study decision rules, derived variables, and cut point definitions to facilitate a more uniform approach to thes...

  19. Adjusting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sample weights for women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer; Branum, Amy; Axelrad, Daniel; Cohen, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Maternal risk factors have been tabulated for women of childbearing age using defined age ranges. However, statistics for factors strongly related to age may be overly influenced by values for the youngest and oldest women in a range, because pregnancies are most likely for ages 20-35. This report evaluates adjustment methods, based on the probability of pregnancy, for calculating estimates of risk factors for women of childbearing age. Adjusted and unadjusted estimates for environmental and nutritional variables were calculated from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for women aged 16-49. U.S. births were used to determine the probability of pregnancy. Adjusted and unadjusted estimates differed for some, but not all, examined variables. More marked differences were observed for the environmental variables compared with the nutritional variables. Adjusted estimates were within about 5% of the unadjusted estimates for the nutritional variables. Adjusted geometric means for lead and mercury were about 7%-10% lower, and for polychlorinated biphenyl (or PCB) about 25% lower, than their respective unadjusted geometric means. With few exceptions, different adjustment methods led to similar estimates. When calculating statistics for women of childbearing age, the decision to adjust for age or not to adjust appears to be more important than the choice of adjustment method. Although the results suggest only small differences among adjustment methods, approaches based on the NHANES design and sample weighting methodology may be the most robust for other applications. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  20. The Prevalence of Open-Angle Glaucoma by Age in Myopia: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Seong Hee; Sung, Kyung Rim; Kim, Joon Mo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Jeong, Jinho; Kim, Chan Yun; Lee, Mi Yeon; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in myopia by age. A cross-sectional study using a stratified, multistage, probability cluster survey. Participants in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011 were included. A standardized protocol was used to interview every participant and perform comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. Glaucoma was diagnosed according to the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO) criteria. After adjusting for age and sex, there was a positive correlation between OAG prevalence and increasing myopic refractive error except in participants with hyperopia. Younger participants with higher myopic refractive error had higher OAG prevalence than older participants with lower myopic refractive error. Participants with high myopia (OR 3.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30-6.59) had significantly greater age- and sex-adjusted odd ratios (ORs) than did those with emmetropia who were younger than 60 years. These data suggest that OAG develops earlier in participants with high myopia than in others. There was a high prevalence of OAG in participants with high myopia, even in those 19-29 years of age. Therefore, OAG screening should be performed earlier in participants with high myopia than is suggested by traditional guidelines.

  1. Trends in energy intake among Korean adults, 1998-2015: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sungha; Kim, Hyun Ja; Oh, Kyungwon

    2017-04-01

    Assessing changes in energy intake and dietary sources is important to understand trends in the prevalence of obesity. Thus, we examined trends in energy intake and its nutrient and food sources in Korean adults from 1998 through 2015. This study included 70,769 subjects aged ≥ 19 years who completed a nutrition survey. Subject data were obtained from the 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007-2009, 2010-2012, and 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dietary intake was assessed by a 1-day 24-hour recall method. In men, the daily energy intake significantly increased from 2,196 kcal in 1998 to 2,489 kcal in 2013-2015 (P for trend 1998, energy intake has increased among Korean adult men, but not among women. However, the composition of food and nutrient sources of energy intake has changed in both men and women. Energy intake and its nutrient and food sources should continue to be monitored regularly in the Korean adult population.

  2. Untreated, Uncontrolled, and Apparent Resistant Hypertension: Results of the German Health Examination Survey 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarganas, Giselle; Neuhauser, Hannelore K

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and associated factors of untreated, uncontrolled, and apparent-resistant hypertension (RH) in Germany are unknown. Based on European Society of Hypertension criteria, apparent RH was defined as blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 mm Hg in diabetics) under treatment with three different classes of antihypertensive agents including a diuretic. Data from the German Health Examination Survey (2008-2011; n=7115, age 18-79 years) including standardized BP measurements and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical-coded taken medications were analyzed. Among patients aware of their hypertensive status (n=2205), 37.9% were uncontrolled and, among those, 33.4% were untreated. Being aware and having untreated and uncontrolled BP was associated with male sex, young age, not having cardiovascular disease, not performing BP self-measurement, not being obese, and not smoking. Apparent RH occurred in 6.8% of treated aware hypertensive patients and was positively associated with having diabetes. The proportion of uncontrolled BP is still high. Not having "obvious risk factors" has become a risk itself for having untreated and uncontrolled hypertension. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Who tended to continue smoking after cancer diagnosis: the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Tung-Sung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that there are approximately 12 million cancer survivors in the United States. Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis is linked to adverse effects among cancer survivors on overall survival, treatment effectiveness, and quality of life. Little is known about who is more likely to quit smoking after his/her cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study is to evaluate factors associated with smoking cessation in cancer survivors, which to date has not been well studied. Method The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2008 surveys were used in this study. A total of 2,374 cancer survivors aged 20 and over with valid smoking status in the NHANES 99–08 survey were included in this study. Among them, 566 cancer survivors who regularly smoked at the time of their cancer diagnosis were included in the analyses. Results Around 50.6% of cancer survivors smoked regularly prior to their cancer diagnosis and only 36.1% of them quit smoking after their cancer diagnosis. Racial disparity was observed in smoking cessation among cancer survivors. Hispanics (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.10-0.57 were less likely to quit smoking than Whites after their cancer diagnosis. Conclusion Two-thirds of cancer survivors continued smoking after cancer diagnosis. Our study observed that the high risk group of continued smokers among cancer survivors is made up of those who are female, younger, Hispanic, with longer smoking history, underweight or with normal weight and without smoking-related cancer. These findings suggest that smoking cessation for cancer survivors should target on the high risk subgroups.

  4. Family Consumer Behaviors, Adolescent Prediabetes and Diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sairaman; Khokhar, Aditi; Holmes, Danielle Sweetnam; Chandwani, Sheenu

    2017-01-01

    Prediabetes or diabetes (characterized by hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] levels ≥ 5.7 gm%) has been associated with numerous long-term complications. Family consumer behaviors are important risk factors that lead to impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. However, few studies have studied the association between the family consumer environment and prediabetes and diabetes in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association between family consumer behaviors (healthy food availability and supermarket spending) and adolescent prediabetes and diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier #NCT03136289.) Methods: Data from a nationwide survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] 2007-2010 data) were used for these analyses. Adolescents aged 12-19 years were selected for this study. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models assessed the relationship between family consumer behaviors and the prevalence of adolescent prediabetes and diabetes. Multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, physical activity, education, income, and household size. A total of 2520 adolescents were eligible for this study. Adolescents with healthier household food availability had negative odds (odds ratio [OR] = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-1.00), as did higher log supermarket spending (OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85). Interaction models demonstrated that adolescent females had more negative odds of prediabetes/diabetes for both healthier food availability (OR = 0.79, 95% CI, 0.39-1.29) and for greater log supermarket spending (OR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.57-0.85). This study shows that both healthy food availability and an increase in supermarket spending were associated with a decreased adjusted prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes in adolescents, with a greater effect in females. These results suggest the need for policy and dietary interventions targeting the consumer

  5. Use of the nutrition facts label in chronic disease management: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert E; Mainous, Arch G; Diaz, Vanessa A; Matheson, Eric M; Everett, Charles J

    2010-04-01

    Dietary modifications are common treatment strategies for patients with various chronic diseases, but it is unclear how often these individuals read food labels. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with chronic disease who are advised to change their eating habits read nutrition labels more than patients who have not been so advised, and whether that impacts their energy and nutrient intake. Analysis of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of the United States population, was performed. Adults (20 years of age or older) who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and who had type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and/or hyperlipidemia were included for analysis. There were 3,748 unweighted participants, which represents 170,958,166 in the US population. Proportions of patients with chronic disease who read nutrition labels were compared by chi(2) analysis, mean values of various components of their diet were compared by the two-sample independent t test, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined by logistic regression. Among patients with chronic disease, the odds of reading food labels when told by their doctor or another health professional to reduce calories or weight was 50% higher than in those without physician intervention (odds ratio=1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 2.00). Those who read food labels consumed less energy, saturated fat, carbohydrates, and sugar, and more fiber than those who did not. These findings point to the value of dietary counseling in chronic disease management. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammation, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in depression: analysis of the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethorst, Chad D; Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2014-12-01

    To describe the rates of elevated inflammation, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) within a large cohort of individuals with depression and to examine the interrelationships of inflammation and MetS in depressed individuals. Analyses were conducted on study participants from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) depression scores ≥ 10 to (1) examine the relationship of inflammation (C-reactive protein; CRP) with demographic and clinical characteristics and (2) examine the prevalence of MetS criteria within CRP groups. 5,579 participants provided PHQ-9 data; of those, 606 had PHQ-9 scores ≥ 10 and were included in further analysis. Of the 606 depressed participants, 585 participants had valid CRP data; 275 participants (47.01%) had CRP levels ≥ 3.0 mg/L, while 170 (29.06%) had CRP levels ≥ 5.0 mg/L. Elevated inflammation was significantly correlated with body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, insulin, 2-hour glucose tolerance, and self-report general health (P values inflammation are more likely to be obese and meet criteria for MetS. These results highlight the significant inflammatory and metabolic burden of individuals with depression. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. The relationship between blood pressure and cognitive performance in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie A; Stewart, Jesse C; France, Christopher R

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between blood pressure and cognitive performance in 2727 healthy men and women between the ages of 20 and 59 years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Participants were selected from a subsample of 5662 NHANES III respondents who completed an initial home interview, a medical examination, and a series of computerized cognitive tests of visuomotor reaction time, complex psychomotor speed (ie, symbol digit substitution), and verbal learning/attention (ie, serial digit learning). Hierarchical regressions tested the contribution of resting blood pressure to the prediction of performance on each of the cognitive tests. Results indicated that, after controlling for demographic variables (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education) and resting blood pressure, the interaction of systolic blood pressure by age was a significant predictor of performance on the test of verbal learning/attention. Follow-up analyses revealed that higher systolic blood pressure was associated with poorer performance in those younger than 40 years. Expanding on findings from previous epidemiological studies, the present study reports a small but significant relationship between resting blood pressure and cognitive performance that is particularly evident in younger healthy adults.

  8. Association between Chronic Laryngitis and Particulate Matter Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

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    Young-Hoon Joo

    Full Text Available Chronic laryngitis (CL has been described as chronic inflammation of the larynx. CL have various causes such as long-term smoking, acid reflux, voice overuse, bronchitis, allergies, pneumonia, excessive exposure to toxic chemicals and complications from the flu or a chronic cold. However, the prevalence of CL and role of air pollution in the etiology is uncertain.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CL and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10 in South Korea using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES during 2008-2012.KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21,116. A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. The mean annual concentrations of ambient PM10, SO2, O3, NO2, and CO levels in Korea were determined from monitoring station data. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of air pollution to CL.Among the population ≥ 19 years of age, the weighted prevalence of CL was 3.37 ± 0.30% (95% confidence interval, 2.79-3.95%. CL was more prevalent in men, current smokers, and those with lower household income and prevalence increased with age. A significant decrease over time was observed in the prevalence of CL (P for trend = 0.0049 and the annual average concentrations of PM10 (P for trend < 0.0001 from 2008 to 2012. In a multivariate model, the factors associated with CL included PM10 (odds ratio [OR], 1.378, p = 0.0457, age (OR, 1.020, p<0.0001, sex (OR, 0.734, p = 0.0179, and smoking status (OR, 1.438, p = 0.0054.Elevated PM10 exposures could be associated with increased risk of CL in South Koreans. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the impact of chronic PM10 exposure on CL.

  9. Popcorn consumption and dietary and physiological parameters of US children and adults: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 dietary survey data.

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    Grandjean, Ann C; Fulgoni, Victor L; Reimers, Kristin J; Agarwal, Sanjiv

    2008-05-01

    Popcorn is a whole-grain food/snack that is included among foods recommended in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPyramid to increase whole-grain consumption. The purpose of the present study was to use 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recall data to determine the average popcorn intake among Americans, and whether popcorn consumers exhibited different dietary intake patterns or physiological biomarkers of cardiovascular disease compared with popcorn non-consumers. Mean intake among consumers of popcorn was 38.8 g/day. Compared with non-consumers, popcorn consumers had approximately 250% higher (Ppopcorn consumers), protein, niacin, and folate (lower intake in popcorn consumers). In addition, popcorn consumers had a greater (PPopcorn consumption was associated with increased intake of whole grains, dietary fiber, and certain other nutrients.

  10. Study protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long

  11. Study on Accuracy of Judgments by Chinese Fingerprint Examiners

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    Shiquan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of fingerprint evidence depends on the judgments of fingerprint examiners. This study assessed the accuracy of different judgments made by fingerprint examiners following the Analysis, Comparison, and Evaluation (ACE process. Each examiner was given five marks for analysis, comparison, and evaluation. We compared the experts′ judgments against the ground truth and used an annotation platform to evaluate how Chinese fingerprint examiners document their comparisons during the identification process. The results showed that different examiners demonstrated different accuracy of judgments and different mechanisms to reach them.

  12. A Survey of Digital Rectal Examination Training in Canadian Medical Schools

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    Alysha Nensi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The digital rectal examination (DRE is important for the diagnosis of a variety of gastrointestinal, urological and gynecological disorders. However, it appears that Canadian medical students may not be adequately taught nor provided the opportunity to practice their skills often enough. The present study was an analysis of the current practices in DRE teaching and evaluation in undergraduate medicine programs across Canada.

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus unawareness, prevalence, trends and risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010.

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    Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi; Ji, Qiuhe

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999-2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk.

  14. Serum Lipid Levels in Relation to Consumption of Yogurt: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Seo, Bong-Kyung; Kim, Nam-Eun; Park, Kyong-Min; Park, Kye-Yeung; Park, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum lipid levels in Korean adults after consumption of different types of yogurt. Methods Study subjects were 3,038 individuals (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Yogurt intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire by using the 24-hour recall method. We conducted complex samples general linear analysis with adjustment for covariates. Results The serum triglyceride levels in the group consuming viscous yogurt were lower than those in the group consuming non-viscous yogurt. Conclusion Consumption of viscous yogurt is associated with low serum triglyceride levels in Korean adults. PMID:29026484

  15. Relationship between Chronic Kidney Disease and Depression in Elderly Koreans Using the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

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    Kim, Ji Woon; Moon, Sung Jin; Kim, Hyun Ja; Lee, Dae Geun

    2017-01-01

    Background Depression is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and continues to increase in elderly adults. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the relationship between CKD and depression in older patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. In total, data of 973 subjects aged ?65 years were analyzed, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Chr...

  16. An action research study on the effect of an examination preparation course on Veterinary Technology National Examination scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Jennifer S.

    The action research project used for this dissertation was intended to examine the effect of implementing an examination preparation course for graduates taking the Veterinary Technology National Examination in Louisiana. Previous data showed that scores on the VTNE were declining at not only the state, but also the national level, thus allowing less graduates to enter the workforce as Registered Veterinary Technicians in Louisiana. The research question was "What impact did the exam prep course have on VTNE test scores?" The researcher focused on helping to better prepare graduates from a local community college Veterinary Technology program to take the VTNE by implementing an exam review course in the semester prior to graduation from the program. The focus of the review course was not only content review, but also test taking techniques, help with study habits, as well as presentation of techniques to help deal with test anxiety. Three sources of data were collected by the researcher including pre and post intervention VTNE scores, as well as survey results completed by the graduates participating in the study. There were 13 graduates who participated in the study, and the data for 50 prior graduates was used as a comparison for score improvement. Upon completion of the intervention, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that while the intervention did have a positive effect on the graduates in terms of feeling prepared for the exam, it did not improve VTNE scores. A survey was administered to the participants upon completion of the course, and thematic coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. Overall the results indicated the learners felt the course helped prepare them for the VTNE, and the majority recommended implementing it for future learners.

  17. A Survey of the Students' Perspectives of Open-Book Examinations in the Histology/Embryology Course

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    Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: An open-book exam permits the examinees to consult some specific selected reference sources or materials while answering the exam questions. This study focused on the students' perspectives of open-book examinations in the histology/embryology courses, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS, Zahedan, Iran. Methods: The survey was conducted via a questionnaire after open-book examinations had been conducted in the histology and embryology courses, between 2009 and 2010. Of the 254 students who entered the new education system, 160 students were selected at random. Results: The results revealed that 72% of the students preferred the open-book type to the closed-book kind of examinations. Most of the students voiced that this type of examination was more suited to test high cognitive learning skills and solving real life situation problems, involving less stress while preparing for and taking the exam. They also mentioned that their marks in these examinations were not higher than those from the closed-book examinations. The overall satisfaction scores of the students of the biological sciences were significantly (p<0.001 higher than those of the medical sciences students (16.28±4.17 vs. 12.65±5.16; in the government run university students it was significantly (P<0.001 higher than in the international university students (14.93±4.53 vs. 10.24±5.08; the embryology course results were significantly (p<0.001 higher than the histology course (15.23 ± 4.07 vs. 12.79±5.4 and among the MD students it was significantly (p<0.001 lower than those of the BSc students (12±5.1 vs. 15.93±4.29. There was a positive correlation between the scores they acquired in their course and the overall satisfaction scores with the open-book type of examinations (r=0.46, p value=0.01. Conclusions: The finding of a positive response towards the open-book examination augurs well for extending such a type of examination to other subjects in

  18. A Quantitative Study Examining Teacher Stress, Burnout, and Self-Efficacy

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    Stephenson, Timar D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationships between stress, burnout, and self-efficacy in public school teachers in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Teacher Stress Inventory was used to collect data on teacher stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey was used to obtain data on teacher…

  19. Dietary vitamin intake correlates with hearing thresholds in the older population: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Kang, Ju Wan; Choi, Hyun Seung; Kim, Kyubo; Choi, Jae Young

    2014-06-01

    Previous animal studies have shown that vitamins may prevent age-related hearing loss. However, no concrete conclusions have been reached about the association between vitamin intake and presbycusis in humans. We investigated the association between dietary vitamin intake and hearing thresholds in adults between 50 and 80 y of age by using data from a large population-based survey. We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A pure-tone audiogram and physical examination of the ear were performed, and vitamin intake was calculated by using the 24-h recall method. Data from 1910 participants were analyzed through univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and exposure to occupational and explosive noise, intake of vitamin C correlated with better hearing at midfrequency (2000 and 3000 Hz) (coefficient: -0.012; 95% CI: -0.022, -0.002). Dietary supplement use was positively associated with better hearing at all frequencies. The univariate analysis indicated that dietary intakes of retinol, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C were positively correlated with better hearing at most frequencies. In contrast, serum concentrations of vitamin D were associated with worse hearing at mid and high (4000 and 6000 Hz) frequencies. Dietary intake of vitamin C was associated with better hearing in the older population. Because less than one-half of elderly participants in this study consumed a sufficient amount of vitamins, and vitamin intake decreased with age, we should consider proper diet counseling to prevent hearing decline. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Tuberculosis Infection in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Roque; Hill, Andrew N; Yelk Woodruff, Rachel S; Lambert, Lauren A; Navin, Thomas R; Castro, Kenneth G; LoBue, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    Reexamining the prevalence of persons infected with tuberculosis (TB) is important to determine trends over time. In 2011-2012 a TB component was included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the reservoir of persons infected with TB. Civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population survey participants aged 6 years and older were interviewed regarding their TB history and eligibility for the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) blood test. Once eligibility was confirmed, both tests were conducted. Prevalence and numbers of TST positive (10 mm or greater), IGRA positive, and both TST and IGRA positive were calculated by adjusting for the complex survey design after applying corrections for item nonresponse and digit preference in TST induration measurements. To examine TST positivity over time, data from NHANES 1999-2000 were reanalyzed using the same statistical methods. The TST was performed using Tubersol, a commercially available purified protein derivative (PPD), rather than PPD-S, which was the antigen used in NHANES 1999-2000. Prior patient history of TB vaccination was not collected in this study nor were patients examined for the presence of a Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) vaccine scar. For NHANES 2011-2012, TST and IGRA results were available for 6,128 (78.4%) and 7,107 (90.9%) eligible participants, respectively. There was no significant difference between the percentage of the U.S. population that was TST positive in 2011-2012 (4.7% [95% CI 3.4-6.3]; 13,276,000 persons) compared with 1999-2000 (4.3%; 3.5-5.3). In 2011-2012 the percentage that was IGRA positive was 5.0% (4.2-5.8) and double TST and IGRA positivity was 2.1% (1.5-2.8). The point estimate of IGRA positivity prevalence in foreign-born persons (15.9%; 13.5-18.7) was lower than for TST (20.5%; 16.1-25.8) in 2011-2012. The point estimate of IGRA positivity prevalence in U.S.-born persons (2.8%; 2.0-3.8) was higher than

  1. Associations Between Periodontitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Chung, Jae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Tae Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether oral hygiene and self-care, particularly in periodontal health, are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Korean population. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012 were used to assess the community periodontal index (CPI) of 5,878 participants (normal lung function: n = 5,181; obstructive spirometric pattern: n = 697) aged ≥40 years, who underwent spirometry. Participants with COPD brushed their teeth less frequently and used the following less frequently: 1) dental floss and/or interdental brush; 2) mouthwash; and 3) electric toothbrush (P teeth was significantly lower in patients with COPD compared with controls. Decayed-missing-filled tooth index was significantly lower in patients with COPD. This study shows risk of COPD by periodontal severity. Periodontitis (CPI 3 and 4) was associated in males with COPD after adjustment for: 1) age; 2) income; 3) education; 4) smoking; 5) alcohol consumption; 6) exercise; 7) body mass index; 8) toothbrushing frequency; 9) diabetes mellitus; and 10) number of teeth (CPI 3: relative risk [RR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12 to 2.05; CPI 4: RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.56). Findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that COPD in males may be associated with severe periodontitis and indicates the importance of promoting dental care in patients with COPD.

  2. Examining Student Attitudes in Introductory Physics via the Math Attitude and Expectations Survey (MAX)

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    Hemingway, Deborah; Eichenlaub, Mark; Losert, Wolfgang; Redish, Edward F.

    2017-01-01

    Student often face difficulties with using math in science, and this exploratory project seeks to address the underlying mechanisms that lead to these difficulties. This mixed-methods project includes the creation of two novel assessment surveys, the Mathematical Epistemic Games Survey (MEGS) and the Math Attitude and Expectations Survey (MAX). The MAX, a 30-question Likert-scale survey, focuses on the attitudes towards using mathematics of the students in a reformed introductory physics course for the life sciences (IPLS) which is part of the National Experiment in Undergraduate Education (NEXUS/Physics) developed at the University of Maryland (UMD). Preliminary results from the MAX are discussed with specific attention given to students' attitudes towards math and physics, opinions about interdisciplinarity, and the usefulness of physics in academic settings as well as in professional biological research and modern medicine settings.

  3. Is vaccine type seropositivity a marker for human papillomavirus vaccination? National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

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    Petrosky, Emiko Y; Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E; Panicker, Gitika; Unger, Elizabeth R; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-04-01

    Since 2006, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been routinely recommended for adolescent females in the USA. The quadrivalent vaccine induces long-term seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16, which may be useful as a marker for HPV vaccine coverage. We evaluated vaccine type seropositivity (i.e., seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 with or without HPV18) among females aged 14-59 years participating in the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys). We compared pre-vaccine era (2003-2006) to vaccine era (2007-2010) seropositivity and assessed agreement between vaccine era seropositivity and reported vaccination by kappa statistic. Seropositivity was 1.0% among 2151 females in the pre-vaccine era and 22.1% among 1420 females in the vaccine era (p vaccine era females reported receipt of one or more HPV vaccine dose. Seropositivity and reported vaccination had high agreement (kappa = 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.74-0.84). Among seropositive females, 14.5% reported no vaccination. The increase in vaccine era seropositivity likely reflects vaccination uptake. Our study suggests seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 may be a useful marker for vaccination coverage in adolescent and young adult females. Discordance between seropositivity and reported vaccination may be explained by inaccurate reporting and/or natural exposure to HPV. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Development of a Survey to Examine the Factors That Motivate Secondary Education Teachers' Use of Problem-Based Learning (PBL)

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    Lao, Huei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    In this quantitative study, a survey was developed and administered to middle and high school teachers to examine what factors motivated them to implement problem-based learning (PBL). Using Expectancy-Value Theory by Eccles et al. (1983) and Self-Determination Theory by Ryan and Deci (2000b) as the theoretical framework, this instrument measured…

  5. Iron status and reproduction in US women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006.

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    Elizabeth M Miller

    Full Text Available Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18-49 were taken from the 1999-2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health.

  6. Suicidal ideation in underweight adults who attempt to lose weight: Korea national health and nutrition examination survey, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Shin, Jinyoung; Kim, Yun A; Lee, Jungkwon

    2015-03-01

    Being underweight has been related to health risks. However, little is known about the relationship between suicidal ideation and attempting to lose weight. This study was conducted to examine if there is an association between suicidal ideation and attempting to lose weight among underweight adults. A cross-sectional study of 1,122 underweight adults (range, 19 to 69 years) was conducted based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012. We examined suicidal ideation, doctor-diagnosed depression, depressive mood, stress, physical activity, health-related behavior, comorbidity, and socioeconomic status by weight loss attempts. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between suicidal ideation and weight loss attempts. The following covariates were controlled for: age, sex, physical activity, alcohol problem, marital status, education, income, occupation, self-perception of body image, chronic disease, and body mass index. There were 101 subjects in the weight loss attempt group and 1,021 in the non-attempt group. The attempt group had a higher risk of suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 4.53) and depressive symptoms (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.98). After depressive symptoms were added to the covariates, the risk of suicidal ideation was also significant (OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.03 to 4.35). The two groups did not significantly differ in doctor-diagnosed depression and stress. Weight loss attempts were associated with suicidal ideation in underweight Korean adults.

  7. Weight loss from maximum body weight and mortality: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File.

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    Ingram, D D; Mussolino, M E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationship between weight loss from maximum body weight, body mass index (BMI), and mortality in a nationally representative sample of men and women. Longitudinal cohort study. In all, 6117 whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans 50 years and over at baseline who survived at least 3 years of follow-up, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality Files (1988-1994 with passive mortality follow-up through 2000), were included. Measured body weight and self-reported maximum body weight obtained at baseline. Weight loss (maximum body weight minus baseline weight) was categorized as or=15%. Maximum BMI (reported maximum weight (kg)/measured baseline height (m)(2)) was categorized as healthy weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (>or=30.0). In all, 1602 deaths were identified. After adjusting for age, race, smoking, health status, and preexisting illness, overweight men with weight loss of 15% or more, overweight women with weight loss of 5-women in all BMI categories with weight loss of 15% or more were at increased risk of death from all causes compared with those in the same BMI category who lost Weight loss of 5-Weight loss of 15% or more from maximum body weight is associated with increased risk of death from all causes among overweight men and among women regardless of maximum BMI.

  8. Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Youjin; Jeong, Seonghyun; Park, Taeyoung

    2014-01-01

    We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; pcoffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; pcoffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (>=40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits.

  9. Health behaviors among short- and long- term ex-smokers: results from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Rassamee; Wichaidit, Wit; McNeil, Edward; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Putwatana, Panwadee; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2012-07-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the health behaviors of ex-smokers to be better than those in regular smokers, the differences in health behaviors among ex-smokers at varying durations of cessation have not been investigated. This study aims to examine the relationship between different durations of smoking cessation and health behaviors. Data on dietary intake, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and smoking behavior from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV for subjects aged 15-98 years (n=19 371) were included in the analysis. Trends between health behaviors among regular smokers, ex-smokers with different durations of smoking (10 years), and never smokers were tested. Logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age, and economic status were used. The prevalences of regular smoking, ex-smoking, and never smoking were 22.3%, 12% , and 65.7%, respectively. A trend was found for consumption of fruit, beans and meats, dairy and soy milk, whole-grain products, nutritional supplements, and eating habits. Average daily alcohol consumption (g) was lowest among ex-smokers who had quit for>10 years ex-smokers (16.4) followed by 1-10 years ex-smokers (27.2), and <1 year ex-smokers (33.7). A longer duration of smoking cessation correlated with better health behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining the Cultural Validity of Fear Survey Schedule for Children: The Contemporary Fears of Turkish Children and Adolescents

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    Serim-Yildiz, Begum; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the cultural validity of Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM) developed by J. J. Burnham (2005) with Turkish children. The relationships between demographic variables and the level of fear were also tested. Three independent data sets were used. The first data set comprised 676 participants (321 women and 355 men) and…

  11. Teaching musculoskeletal examination skills to UK medical students: a comparative survey of Rheumatology and Orthopaedic education practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Tim

    2014-03-28

    Specialists in Rheumatology and Orthopaedics are frequently involved in undergraduate teaching of musculoskeletal (MSK) examination skills. Students often report that specialty-led teaching is inconsistent, confusing and bears little resemblance to the curricula. The Gait, Arms, Legs and Spine (GALS) is a MSK screening tool that provides a standardised approach to examination despite it being fraught with disapproval and low uptake. Recent studies would appear to support innovative instructional methods of engaging learners such as patient educators and interactive small group teaching. This comparative cross-sectional survey evaluates the current state of undergraduate teaching in Rheumatology and Orthopaedics, including preferred teaching methods, attitudes towards GALS, and barriers to effective teaching. An electronic questionnaire was sent to specialist trainees and Consultants in the East and West Midlands region, representing 5 UK medical schools. Descriptive statistical data analysis was performed. There were 76 respondents representing 5 medical schools. There was a request for newer teaching methodologies to be used: multi-media computer-assisted learning (35.5%), audio-visual aids (31.6%), role-playing (19.7%), and social media (3.9%). It is evident that GALS is under-utilised with 50% of clinicians not using GALS in their teaching. There is a genuine desire for clinical educators to improve their teaching ability, collaborate more with curriculum planners, and feel valued by institutions. There remains a call for implementing a standardised approach to MSK clinical teaching to supersede GALS.

  12. Depression, anxiety and telomere length in young adults: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, B L; Mezuk, B; Bareis, N; Lin, J; Blackburn, E H; Epel, E S

    2015-04-01

    Telomere length has been hypothesized to be a marker of cumulative exposure to stress, and stress is an established cause of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between depression, anxiety and telomere length, and to assess whether this relationship is moderated by race/ethnicity, gender and/or antidepressant use. Data were from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Telomere length was assessed using the quantitative PCR method of telomere length relative to standard reference DNA. Past-year major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD), as well as depressed affect and anxious affect, were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Inventory (N=1290). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between depression and anxiety disorders and telomere length. Among women, those with GAD or PD had shorter telomeres than those with no anxious affect (β: -0.07, P0.05). Among respondents currently taking an antidepressant, those with MD had shorter telomeres than those without (β: -0.26, P0.05). Neither depressive nor anxiety disorders were directly associated with telomere length in young adults. There was suggestive evidence that pharmacologically treated MD is associated with shorter telomere length, likely reflecting the more severe nature of MD that has come to clinical attention.

  13. Association between leukocyte count and sarcopenia in postmenopausal women: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ha; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the association between leukocyte counts and sarcopenia according in postmenopausal women. Cross-sectional study. We examined the relationship between leukocyte counts and sarcopenia in 2152 post-menopausal Korean women who participated in the 2010-2011 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by weight (%) that was greater than 1SD below the mean of young adults. The odds ratios (ORs) for sarcopenia were calculated using multiple logistic regression across leukocyte count quartiles (Q1:≤4710, Q2:4720-5600, Q3:5610-6600, and Q4:≥6610cells/μL) after adjusting for confounding variables. The prevalence of sarcopenia gradually increased in accordance with leukocyte quartiles. Compared with the lowest quartile of leukocyte counts, the corresponding OR (95% CI) of the highest quartile of leukocyte counts for sarcopenia was 2.41 (1.12-5.22) after adjusting for age, waist circumference, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, regular exercise, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol. Leukocyte counts were positively related to a higher risk of sarcopenia in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary responses to a hypertension diagnosis: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Alexander N; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Dietary modification has been shown to substantially reduce blood pressure among people with hypertension. This article uses data from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 cross-sections of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the extent to which a hypertension diagnosis can influence individuals' dietary choices. Several models were estimated to clarify the association of a hypertension diagnosis with dietary factors related to hypertension management. A comparison group of individuals at risk for developing hypertension was used. Results suggest that individuals who received a recent diagnosis of hypertension are more likely to have lower intakes of some dietary factors important in blood pressure management, including sodium. The results also highlight a discrepancy between added salt use and dietary sodium intake. While more recent hypertensive patients tended to consume lower levels of dietary sodium, patients diagnosed longer ago tended to use less added salt. Given that those diagnosed were more likely to have lower blood pressure profiles and improved diets, especially close to the time of diagnosis, the results of this study underscore the need for a prompt and accurate diagnosis of hypertension.

  15. Plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the US population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martha Savaria; Picciano, Mary Frances; Jacques, Paul F; Selhub, Jacob

    2008-05-01

    No large-scale, population-based study has considered the descriptive epidemiology of vitamin B-6 status with use of plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the indicator of vitamin B-6 adequacy used to set the current Recommended Dietary Allowance, which is 6000 participants aged > or = 1 y in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2004), we considered relations between plasma PLP and various subject characteristics and examined trends in plasma PLP and homocysteine with vitamin B-6 intake, both overall and in selected subgroups. In males, plasma PLP decreased with age after adolescence only in nonusers of supplemental vitamin B-6. Regardless of supplement use, plasma PLP concentrations of women of childbearing age were significantly lower than those of comparably aged men, and most oral contraceptive users had plasma PLP 3% at vitamin B-6 intakes from 2 to 2.9 mg/d in all subgroups and at intakes from 3 to 4.9 mg/d in smokers, the elderly, non-Hispanic blacks, and current and former oral contraceptive users. Intakes from 3 to 4.9 mg/d compared with Allowance for most Americans. However, at that intake level, substantial proportions of some population subgroups may not meet accepted criteria for adequate vitamin B-6 status.

  16. Prevalence, risk factors and comorbidities of allergic rhinitis in South Korea: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chae-Seo; Wee, Jee Hye; Ahn, Jae-Cheul; Lee, Woo Hyun; Tan, Keng Lu; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Lee, Chul-Hee; Cho, Yang-Sun; Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Kyung-Su; Lee, Ari; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2014-01-01

    There has been no nationwide epidemiological investigation of allergic rhinitis (AR) that was diagnosed by both questionnaires and laboratory tests in Korea. This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of AR in South Korea. The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey examined a representative sample of the Korean population. A total of 2305 participants underwent immunoradiometric assay for specific IgE antibodies against common indoor allergens. Healthy, atopy only, and AR groups were defined according to the results of allergen test. The weighted prevalence for each group was calculated. Risk factors including food and comorbidities were identified using univariate or multivariate analyses. The patients were also categorized into four subgroups according to the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification and associated comorbidities were analyzed. The prevalence of atopy only and AR was 30.0 ± 1.2% and 16.2 ± 1.0%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that the prevalence was influenced by sex (p rhinitis was most common (58.1%). Asthma was correlated to severity and atopic dermatitis and NPs was associated with persistency. Daily intake of less mackerel and more carrots, bread, and bean curd were associated with the increased risk of AR. Prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of AR were evaluated in the general Korean population, which will contribute to prevention and treatment of AR and its comorbidities in Koreans.

  17. Consolation through music: A survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Hanser, W. E.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.; van den Tol, Annemieke; Mark, R.E.; A.J.J.M. Vingerhoets

    2016-01-01

    Even though music is widely used as a source of solace, the question as to how and why music offers consolation remains largely unexplored. The aims of the present study are as follows: (a) to compare listening to music versus other self-soothing behaviors, (b) to explore when music is used as a means for solace, (c) to identify aspects of music that are important for providing solace, and (d) to explore behavior while listening to consoling music. Participants completed an internet survey di...

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Dietary Index with Calorie-Based Standards in Equivalent Units: A Cross-Sectional Study with 24-Hour Dietary Recalls from Adult Participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masako; Hurwitz, Eric L; Li, Dongmei

    2018-01-01

    Dietary indexes to assess accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern are useful tools in studies with health-related outcomes. However, scoring algorithms of the dietary index can affect the range of its applications. The purposes of this study were to develop a DASH dietary index with calorie-based standards in equivalent units and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the index. Calorie-based standards for nine components were determined based on recommended intakes in the DASH eating plan and dietary intakes estimated from two 24-hour dietary recalls of adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008, 2009-2010 (n=9,720). Evaluation tests included descriptive analyses of index scores among US adults stratified by sex and smoking status. Spearman's rank correlations were used to examine the relationships among components and total scores. The developed index was compared with two DASH dietary indexes that use different scoring algorithms to examine the association between total scores and blood pressure status through multivariable regression models. The newly developed index consisted of seven food group and two nutrient components. The mean and median of total scores among US adults were 42.3 (95% CI 41.6 to 43.0) and 41.6 of 90 points, respectively. The mean total scores among adult women and non-current smokers were higher than their counterparts (P<0.001). The absolute correlation coefficients among the components and between each component and the sum of other components were ≤0.33 and ≤0.35, respectively. After adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, an association between total scores and blood pressure status was found in adult women (P<0.001), but not in adult men. The same pattern was found when the two indexes were used, but the strength of the association varied across the three indexes. The developed index appeared to measure accordance with the DASH dietary pattern

  19. Reimagining infertility: a critical examination of fertility norms, geopolitics and survey bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Barnes, Liberty Walther

    2018-01-01

    While it is estimated that 15% of couples worldwide are infertile, this figure hinges critically on the quality, inclusiveness and availability of infertility data sources. Current infertility data and statistics fail to account for the infertility experiences of some social groups. We identify these people as the invisible infertile, and refer to their omission from infertility data and statistics-whether intentional or unintentional-as the process of invisibilization. We identify two processes through which invisibilization in survey data is produced: sampling, with focus on exclusionary definitions of the population at-risk, and survey instrument design, with focus on skip patterns and question wording. Illustrative examples of these processes are drawn from the Integrated Fertility Survey Series and the Demographic and Health Surveys. Empirical research is not designed in an objective vacuum. Rather, survey instruments and sampling techniques are shaped and influenced by the sociocultural norms and geopolitical context of the time and place in which they are created and conducted, reflecting broader social beliefs about family building and reproduction. Furthermore, population policy singularly aimed at curbing overpopulation in high fertility parts of the world limits the type of reproduction data collected, effectively rendering the infertility of some groups epidemiologically unfathomable. In light of these sociocultural and geopolitical forces, many marginalized groups are missing from reproductive health (RH) statistics. The omission of entire groups from the scientific discourse casts doubt on the quality of research questions, validity of the analytic tools, and accuracy of scientific findings. Invisibility may also misguide evidence-based RH and family planning policies and deter equitable access to reproductive healthcare for some social groups, perpetuating social inequalities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association

  20. Association between Coffee Consumption and Renal Impairment in Korean Women with and without Diabetes: Analysis of the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bo Ha; Park, Yong Soon; Noh, Hye Mi; Sung, Ji Sun; Lee, Jung Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that coffee consumption has an influence on kidney function. This study investigated the relationship between habitual coffee consumption and renal impairment in Korean women, in consideration of diabetic status. Methods This study involved 2,673 women aged 35 to 84 years who had participated in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, conducted in 2008. Habitual coffee consumption was classified into three categories: less than 1 c...

  1. Examining Teacher Burnout Using Emotional Intelligence Quotients: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discern if there are significant differences in a teacher's level of burnout based on his or her emotional intelligence quotient. This quantitative study examined the relationship between demographic characteristics, an emotional quotient inventory, and a burnout inventory to find significant relationships between…

  2. Examining Variation in Surveying Attitudes on Same-Sex Marriage: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    Recent polls report majorities of the public supporting marriage recognition for same-sex couples. These reports are not uniform, with some polling organizations still reporting less than a majority in favor. I examine variation in these results using meta-analysis to examine variation among organizations (norg=21) and question wordings (nqw=36) . I also examine direct effects that explain variation based on question framing from 1996 to 2014 (npoll=138) . The results show that after accounti...

  3. Chaperone use during intimate examinations in primary care: postal survey of family physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Upshur Ross EG; Tracy C Shawn; Price David H

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Physicians have long been advised to have a third party present during certain parts of a physical examination; however, little is known about the frequency of chaperone use for those specific intimate examinations regularly performed in primary care. We aimed to determine the frequency of chaperone use among family physicians across a variety of intimate physical examinations for both male and female patients, and also to identify the factors associated with chaperone use...

  4. Fruit and vegetable consumption and hypertriglyceridemia: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C; Lee, H-J; Shin, H J; Stampfer, M J; Cho, E

    2015-11-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the association between intake of fruits and vegetables and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate the association between total fruit and vegetable intake, as well as subgroups of fruit and vegetable intake, with hypertriglyceridemia among Korean adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7934 adults aged 19-64 years from the fourth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Fruit and vegetable intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Subgroups of fruits and vegetables included citrus, non-citrus and carotene-rich fruits and cruciferous, green leafy and carotene-rich vegetables. Hypertriglyceridemia (plasma triglyceride ⩾150 mg/dl) was diagnosed using a blood sample drawn after 12+ hours of fasting. There were 2001 (25.2%) cases of hypertriglyceridemia among the participants. Total fruit intake was significantly inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia; the multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of hypertriglyceridemia across increasing quintiles were 1.00 (ref), 0.76 (0.62, 0.92), 0.72 (0.58, 0.90), 0.68 (0.54, 0.85) and 0.64 (0.49, 0.82; Ptrend=0.001) after controlling for survey year, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, education and income. Similar inverse associations were found for all fruit subgroups. However, we found no significant association between intakes of total or subgroups of vegetable and hypertriglyceridemia; the odds ratio for top vs bottom quintile was 1.00 (0.81-1.24) for total vegetable intake. Our findings support a potential beneficial role of fruit consumption to reduce blood triglyceride levels in Asian populations.

  5. Five heavy metallic elements and age-related macular degeneration: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Ju Hyun; Woo, Se Joon; Kang, Se Woong; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and 5 heavy metallic elements (lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc). A cross-sectional study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster survey. Participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Using a standardized protocol, AMD was determined by fundus photograph grading. Blood concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc were measured. Associations between AMD and these 5 elements were estimated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The distributions of the 5 metallic elements in blood were analyzed, and the same set of LRAs estimating the association between AMD and logarithmic-transformed blood concentrations of the 5 elements were also conducted. Association between AMD and 5 heavy metals. Lead was positively associated with both early AMD and late AMD in all LRAs. Mercury and cadmium also had a positive association with late AMD in all LRAs, but not with early AMD. In contrast, manganese and zinc had an inverse association with late AMD in all LRAs. Manganese and zinc were not associated with early AMD. Using logarithmic-transformed blood concentrations for each metallic element, the LRAs showed similar results compared with those of the LRAs using nontransformed blood concentrations, despite the skewed distribution of these metallic elements in the blood. This study suggests that the toxic heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium) may negatively influence late AMD, whereas essential heavy metals (manganese and zinc) may favorably influence late AMD. Lead may widely affect the pathogenesis of both early and late AMD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Is human cytomegalovirus infection associated with hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Samaranayake, Nithushi R; Ong, Kwok Leung; Wong, Hoi Kin; Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999-2002. We included participants aged 16-49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001) and hypertension (P<0.001). The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001). Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.25-2.13, P=0.001) but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR=1.55, 95% CI=1.20-2.02, P=0.002). Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.10-1.90, P=0.010). However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR=1.24, 95% CI=0.91-1.67, P=0.162). In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age.

  7. Is Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Associated with Hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Samaranayake, Nithushi R.; Ong, Kwok Leung; Wong, Hoi Kin; Cheung, Bernard M. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999–2002. We included participants aged 16–49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. Results Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001) and hypertension (P<0.001). The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001). Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.25–2.13, P = 0.001) but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.20–2.02, P = 0.002). Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.10–1.90, P = 0.010). However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.91–1.67, P = 0.162). Conclusions In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age. PMID:22768311

  8. Is human cytomegalovirus infection associated with hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. METHODS: We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999-2002. We included participants aged 16-49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. RESULTS: Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001 and hypertension (P<0.001. The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001. Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.25-2.13, P=0.001 but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR=1.55, 95% CI=1.20-2.02, P=0.002. Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.10-1.90, P=0.010. However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR=1.24, 95% CI=0.91-1.67, P=0.162. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age.

  9. Depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiting; Lopez, Janice M S; Bolge, Susan C; Zhu, Vivienne J; Stang, Paul E

    2016-04-05

    Depression in people with diabetes can result in increased risk for diabetes-related complications. The prevalence of depression has been estimated to be 17.6 % in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), based on studies published between 1980 and 2005. There is a lack of more recent estimates of depression prevalence among the US general T2DM population. The present study used the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2012 data to provide an updated, population-based estimate for the prevalence of depression in people with T2DM. NHANES is a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Starting from 2005, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was included to measure signs and symptoms of depression. We defined PHQ-9 total scores ≥ 10 as clinically relevant depression (CRD), and ≥ 15 as clinically significant depression (CSD). Self-reported current antidepressant use was also combined to estimate overall burden of depression. Predictors of CRD and CSD were investigated using survey logistic regression models. A total of 2182 participants with T2DM were identified. The overall prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM is 10.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 8.9-12.2 %), and 4.2 % (95 % CI 3.4-5.1 %), respectively. The combined burden of depressive symptoms and antidepressants may be as high as 25.4 % (95 % CI 23.0-27.9 %). Significant predictors of CRD include age (younger than 65), sex (women), income (lower than 130 % of poverty level), education (below college), smoking (current or former smoker), body mass index (≥30 kg/m(2)), sleep problems, hospitalization in the past year, and total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dl). Significant predictors of CSD also include physical activity (below guideline) and cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM in the US may be lower than in earlier studies, however, the burden of

  10. Self-reported study habits for enhancing medical students? performance in the National Medical Unified Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Amr; Al Saadi, Tareq; Edris, Basel; Sawaf, Bisher; Zakaria, Mhd. Ismael; Alkhatib, Mahmoud; Turk, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Background: The National Medical Unified Examination (NMUE) is currently required for graduation, joining postgraduate medical training, and practicing medicine in Syria. Objective: To investigate self-reported study habits that correlate with high performance on the NMUE. Methods: First through 3rd year residents at the three main hospitals in Damascus, Syria, were asked to complete a retrospective cross-sectional survey investigating their study habits and previous scores. Results: Signific...

  11. Race and health profiles in the United States: an examination of the social gradient through the 2009 CHIS adult survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A B; Moser, R; Chou, W-Y

    2014-12-01

    To examine the role of the social gradient on multiple health outcomes and behaviors. It was predicted that higher levels of SES, measured by educational attainment and family income, would be associated with positive health behaviors (i.e., smoking, drinking, physical activity, and diet) and health status (i.e., limited physical activity due to chronic condition, blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, BMI, and perceived health condition). The study also examined the differential effects of the social gradient in health among different racial/ethnic groups (i.e., non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, Asian, Hispanics, and American Indians). Cross-sectional study. The data were from the adult 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Weighted multivariable linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine trends found between SES and health conditions and health behaviors. Polynomial trends were examined for all linear and logistic models to test for the possible effects (linear, quadratic, and cubic) of the social gradient on health behaviors and outcomes stratified by race/ethnicity. Findings indicated that, in general, Whites had more favorable health profiles in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups with the exception of Asians who were likely to be as healthy as or healthier than Whites. Predicted marginals indicated that Asians in the upper two strata of social class display the healthiest outcomes of health status among all other racial/ethnic groups. Also, the social gradient was differentially associated with health outcomes across race/ethnicity groups. While the social gradient was most consistently observed for Whites, education did not have the same protective effect on health among Blacks and American Indians. Also, compared to other minority groups, Hispanics and Asians were more likely to display curvilinear trends of the social gradient: an initial increase from low SES to mid-level SES was associated with worse health outcomes and

  12. Serum phosphorus and mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III): effect modification by fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-10-01

    Serum phosphorus levels have been associated with mortality in some but not all studies. Because dietary intake prior to measurement can affect serum phosphorus levels, we hypothesized that the association between serum phosphorus level and mortality is strongest in those who have fasted longer. Prospective cohort study. Nationally representative sample of 12,984 participants 20 years or older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Serum phosphorus level, fasting duration (dichotomized as ≥ 12 or fasting duration recorded as time since food or drink other than water was consumed. Individuals fasting 12 or more hours had lower serum phosphorus levels than those fasting less than 12 hours (3.34 vs 3.55 mg/dL; P fasting 12 or more hours (adjusted HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.38-2.20; reference, lowest quartile) but not in participants fasting less than 12 hours (adjusted HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89-1.32; P for interaction = 0.002). Relationships were consistent using 8 hours as the fasting cutoff point or cardiovascular mortality as the outcome. Observational study, lack of fibroblast growth factor 23 or intact parathyroid hormone measurements. Fasting but not nonfasting serum phosphorus levels were associated with increased mortality. Risk prognostication based on serum phosphorus may be improved using fasting levels. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Low Rice Intake Is Associated with Proteinuria in Participants of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se Jin; Lee, So Young; Sung, Su Ah; Chin, Ho Jun; Lee, Sung Woo

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of proteinuria in the Asian population. On the basis of the association between rice intake patterns and chronic diseases, we hypothesized that rice intake patterns are associated with proteinuria in the Asian population. Data, including data regarding rice intake frequency and dipstick urinalysis results, from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007 were analyzed. The study involved 19,824 participants who were older than 20 years of age. Low rice intake was defined as consumption of rice ≤ 1 time/day. Proteinuria was defined as dipstick urinalysis protein ≥ 1 positive. Among the 19,824 participants, the prevalence of low rice intake and proteinuria were 17.3% and 2.9%, respectively. The low rice intake group showed a higher rate of proteinuria than the non-low rice intake group did (3.8% vs. 2.7%, P proteinuria was 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-1.89; P proteinuria in the Asian population, which might have been affected by the associations of low rice intake with high blood pressure and diabetes. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the results of this study.

  14. Serum Phosphorus and Mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III): Effect Modification by Fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R.; Grams, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum phosphorus levels have been associated with mortality in some but not all studies. Since dietary intake prior to measurement can affect serum phosphorus levels, we hypothesized that the association between serum phosphorus and mortality is strongest in those who have fasted for longer duration. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants Nationally representative sample of 12,984 participants aged 20 years or older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Factors Serum phosphorus, fasting duration (dichotomized as ≥12 or phosphorus measured in a central laboratory and fasting duration recorded as amount of time since food or drink other than water was consumed. Results Individuals fasting ≥12 hours had lower serum phosphorus levels than those fasting phosphorus was associated with increased mortality in participants fasting ≥12 hours (adjusted HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.38–2.20; reference, lowest quartile) but not in participants fasting phosphorus levels were associated with increased mortality. Risk prognostication based on serum phosphorus may be improved using fasting levels. PMID:24935232

  15. The relationship between hand osteoarthritis and serum leptin concentration in participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massengale, Mei; Reichmann, William M; Losina, Elena; Solomon, Daniel H; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-05-31

    Leptin has been suspected to contribute to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). However, this hypothesis has not been tested in large-scale hand OA cohorts. Our study aimed to determine whether there is a cross-sectional relationship between serum leptin levels and hand OA in a population-based sample of US adults. We used the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a national cross-sectional population-based survey, to study the relationship between hand OA and serum leptin concentration. We applied previously established classification criteria for hand OA. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Potential confounders included sex, body mass index, the presence of polyarticular OA, diabetes, and total cholesterol. We estimated unadjusted mean leptin concentration by hand OA status and by all confounders. We further developed a linear regression model to assess mean leptin levels, adjusted for appropriate confounders. Of 2,477 subjects in the NHANES III sample that had a hand examination and did not have rheumatoid arthritis, 1,056 (42.6%) had a leptin measurement and were included in the analysis. Subjects with and without leptin measurement had similar demographic characteristics. We did not find any significant differences in mean serum leptin levels in subjects with symptomatic hand OA (7.38 ng/ml in males (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.31, 9.46) and 21.55 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 17.08, 26.02)), asymptomatic hand OA (6.69 ng/ml in males (95% CI = 5.19, 8.18) and 17.09 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 15.00, 19.18)), and no hand OA (8.22 ng/ml in males (95% CI = 7.47, 8.97) and 20.77 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 18.01, 23.53)) in the unadjusted analysis. In a multivariable linear regression model that included variables of hand OA status, age, race/ethnicity, and obesity status, we found no statistically significant association between serum leptin and hand OA status. In this cross-sectional study of a large

  16. HIV testing during the Canadian immigration medical examination: a national survey of designated medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jennifer M; Li, Alan; Owino, Maureen; English, Ken; Mascarenhas, Lyndon; Tan, Darrell H S

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing is mandatory for individuals wishing to immigrate to Canada. Since the Designated Medical Practitioners (DMPs) who perform these tests may have varying experience in HIV and time constraints in their clinical practices, there may be variability in the quality of pre- and posttest counseling provided. We surveyed DMPs regarding HIV testing, counseling, and immigration inadmissibility. A 16-item survey was mailed to all DMPs across Canada (N = 203). The survey inquired about DMP characteristics, knowledge of HIV, attitudes and practices regarding inadmissibility and counseling, and interest in continuing medical education. There were a total of 83 respondents (41%). Participants frequently rated their knowledge of HIV diagnostics, cultural competency, and HIV/AIDS service organizations as "fair" (40%, 43%, and 44%, respectively). About 25%, 46%, and 11% of the respondents agreed/strongly agreed with the statements "HIV infected individuals pose a danger to public health and safety," "HIV-positive immigrants cause excessive demand on the healthcare system," and "HIV seropositivity is a reasonable ground for denial into Canada," respectively. Language was cited as a barrier to counseling, which focused on transmission risks (46% discussed this as "always" or "often") more than coping and social support (37%). There was a high level of interest (47%) in continuing medical education in this area. There are areas for improvement regarding DMPs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices about HIV infection, counseling, and immigration criteria. Continuing medical education and support for DMPs to facilitate practice changes could benefit newcomers who test positive through the immigration process.

  17. Alcohol-drinking patterns and metabolic syndrome risk: the 2007 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Won; Park, Byoung-Jin; Kang, Hee-Taik; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol consumption has been known to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Although some studies have revealed that mild to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of MS, most of these studies have focused the effect of alcohol consumption amount on MS. We examined the association between alcohol-drinking patterns and MS by using the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire to study 1,768 alcohol drinkers (847 men, 921 women) aged 20-75 years from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2007. When compared with the subjects in the reference group (AUDIT score ≤ 7), the odds ratios (ORs, 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for MS of subjects in the highest group (AUDIT score ≥ 16) were 3.92 (2.40-6.22) in men and 2.27 (0.87-5.89) in women after adjusting for confounding variables. Among the items of the AUDIT score, several alcohol-drinking patterns, including "drinking frequency," "usual drinking quantity," "frequency of high-risk drinking," "frequency of inability to stop drinking," "frequency of feeling guilty after drinking," and "frequency of inability to remember after drinking" were strongly associated with the prevalence of MS in men. In women, there were significant relationships between MS and "usual drinking quantity," "frequency of feeling guilty after drinking," and "frequency of inability to stop drinking." In summary, AUDIT score was strongly associated with MS in Korean adults, particularly in men. Accordingly, in addition to the amount of daily alcohol consumption, alcohol-drinking patterns should be addressed in the prevention and treatment of MS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-01-01

    several studies have found nutrients, including antioxidants, to be associated with sarcopenia. However, whether specific foods, such as vegetables and fruits, are associated with sarcopenia has not been studied. to examine the association of the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older people. this study used cross-sectional data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-09. Subjects were community-dwelling 823 men and 1,089 women aged ≥65 years. Frequency of food group consumption was obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for height and fat mass. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of the frequency of food group consumption with sarcopenia, controlling for sociodemographics and health-related variables. dietary intake of vegetables, fruits and both vegetables and fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of sarcopenia after controlling for covariates in men (P = 0.026 for trend, P = 0.012 for trend, P = 0.003 for trend, respectively). Men in the highest quintile, compared with those in the lowest quintile, of vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.95], fruits (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) and vegetables and fruits consumption (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16-0.67) demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia. In women, high consumption of fruits demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.83). frequent vegetables and fruits consumption was inversely associated with sarcopenia in older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Coping with examination stress through hypnosis: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, B M; Chandwani, S

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-six volunteer medical students participated in three groups balanced for number of subjects, performance at last examination, and hypnotizability. The hypnosis and waking groups attended eight group sessions once a week with general ego-strengthening and specific suggestions for study habits, with a ninth session of age progression and mental rehearsal. Subjects in these two groups practiced self-suggestions (in self-hypnosis or waking respectively) daily for the study period of 9 weeks. The control group experienced sessions of passive relaxation induced by light reading for the same period of time. The hypnosis group improved significantly in coping with examination stress, but there was no significant change in performance on examinations by any of the groups.

  1. Vitamin D status and community-acquired pneumonia: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Sadeq A Quraishi

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level and history of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP.We identified 16,975 individuals (≥17 years from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III with documented 25(OHD levels. To investigate the association of 25(OHD with history of CAP in these participants, we developed a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for demographic factors (age, sex, race, poverty-to-income ratio, and geographic location, clinical data (body mass index, smoking status, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke, chronic kidney disease, neutropenia, and alcohol consumption, and season. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS was used to depict the relationship between increasing 25(OHD levels and the cumulative frequency of CAP in the study cohort.The median [interquartile range (IQR] serum 25(OHD level was 24 (IQR 18-32 ng/mL. 2.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.9-2.3] of participants reported experiencing a CAP within one year of their participation in the national survey. After adjusting for demographic factors, clinical data, and season, 25(OHD levels <30 ng/mL were associated with 56% higher odds of CAP [odds ratio 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.07] compared to levels ≥30 ng/mL. LOWESS analysis revealed a near linear relationship between vitamin D status and the cumulative frequency of CAP up to 25(OHD levels around 30 ng/mL.Among 16,975 participants in NHANES III, 25(OHD levels were inversely associated with history of CAP. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to determine the effect of optimizing vitamin D status on the risk of CAP.

  2. Activity change in response to bad air quality, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

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    Ellen M Wells

    Full Text Available Air pollution contributes to poor respiratory and cardiovascular health. Susceptible individuals may be advised to mitigate effects of air pollution through actions such as reducing outdoor physical activity on days with high pollution. Our analysis identifies the extent to which susceptible individuals changed activities due to bad air quality. This cross-sectional study included 10,898 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2010. Participants reported if they did something differently when air quality was bad. Susceptible categories included respiratory conditions, cardiovascular conditions and older age (≥ 65 years. Analyses accounted for complex survey design; logistic regression models controlled for gender, race, education, smoking, and body mass index. 1305 individuals reported doing something differently (12.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 10.9, 13.1. This percentage was 14.2% (95% CI: 11.6, 16.8, 25.1% (95% CI: 21.7, 28.6, and 15.5% (95% CI: 12.2, 18.9 among older adults, those with a respiratory condition, and those with a cardiovascular condition, respectively. In adjusted regression models the following were significantly more likely to have changed activity compared to those who did not belong to any susceptible group: respiratory conditions (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 2.61, 95% CI: 2.03, 3.35; respiratory and cardiovascular conditions (aOR: 4.36, 95% CI: 2.47, 7.69; respiratory conditions and older age (aOR: 3.83; 95% CI: 2.47, 5.96; or all three groups (aOR: 3.52; 95% CI: (2.33, 5.32. Having cardiovascular conditions alone was not statistically significant. Some individuals, especially those with a respiratory condition, reported changing activities due to poor air quality. However, efforts should continue to educate the public about air quality and health.

  3. Association between body size phenotype and sleep duration: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (KNHANES V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ja Young; Lee, Ji Sung; Hong, Ho Cheol; Choi, Hae Yoon; Yoo, Hye Jin; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Sin Gon; Kim, Nan Hee; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies reported the presence of unique subsets of body size phenotypes that are more susceptible or more resistant to the development of obesity-associated metabolic disorders, although the underlying mechanism is not yet fully elucidated. We investigated the association between body size phenotypes and sleep duration after adjusting potential confounding factors. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (KNHANES V), a nation-wide, population-based health survey including 9077 Korean adults. The average amount of sleep per night was categorized as: ≤6, 7, 8, and ≥9 h. Body size phenotypes were classified based on body mass index (BMI) and presence of metabolic syndrome; metabolically healthy and normal weight (MHNW), metabolically abnormal but normal weight (MANW), metabolically healthy but obese (MHO), and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO). According to sleep duration, there were significant differences in age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure (all P sleep durations than non-obese groups (MHNW and MANW) (6.78±0.04 vs. 6.93±0.03, P Sleep duration was significantly different according to body size phenotype, irrespective of confounding factors, such as age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, and education (MHO; 6.73±0.05, MAO; 6.82±0.05, MHNW; 6.94±0.04, and MANW; 6.91±0.05; P Sleep duration is independently associated with body size phenotype after adjusting for confounding factors in the Korean population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between HSV1 seropositivity and obesity: data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

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    Zuzana Karjala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV is among the most common sexually transmitted pathogens in the United States and worldwide. HSV has a high incidence of undetected cases. In addition, there is no treatment, and there is a lack of knowledge why disparities among populations exist. Research studies suggest that fat tissue may participate in body's immune responses, and the impact of obesity on susceptibility to HSV1 infection is not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether obesity is a risk factor for HSV1 infection using a large sample from the general population. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Health and Examination and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES from 2007-2008. Variables, gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, poverty level, and diabetes represented potential confounders and were included in analyses. The two-tailed Pearson's chi square, student's t test, and a multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to evaluate associations using a significance value of p≤0.05. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval represented the degree of these associations. The prevalence of HSV1 infection in US population between 20 and 49 years old was 60.3% (n = 1,536. In this study, having a BMI classified as the obese group (BMI 30-39.9 was significantly associated with HSV1 infection before [unadjusted OR = 1.74 (95% CI 1.20-2.51, p = 0.006] and after controlling for socio-demographic factors [adjusted OR = 1.50 (95%CI 1.06-2.13], p = 0.026]. This association was stronger than three already established risk factors of age, female gender, and poverty level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that obesity may play a role in the susceptibility to HSV1 infection. Findings from this study suggest that obesity should be considered when designing preventive measures for HSV1 infection. These results may also

  5. Genetic variants associated with fasting blood lipids in the U.S. population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Man-huei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Ned, Renée M; Mueller, Patricia W; Dowling, Nicole F

    2010-04-20

    The identification of genetic variants related to blood lipid levels within a large, population-based and nationally representative study might lead to a better understanding of the genetic contribution to serum lipid levels in the major race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population. Using data from the second phase (1991-1994) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), we examined associations between 22 polymorphisms in 13 candidate genes and four serum lipids: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). Univariate and multivariable linear regression and within-gene haplotype trend regression were used to test for genetic associations assuming an additive mode of inheritance for each of the three major race/ethnic groups in the United States (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American). Variants within APOE (rs7412, rs429358), PON1 (rs854560), ITGB3 (rs5918), and NOS3 (rs2070744) were found to be associated with one or more blood lipids in at least one race/ethnic group in crude and adjusted analyses. In non-Hispanic whites, no individual polymorphisms were associated with any lipid trait. However, the PON1 A-G haplotype was significantly associated with LDL-C and TC. In non-Hispanic blacks, APOE variant rs7412 and haplotype T-T were strongly associated with LDL-C and TC; whereas, rs5918 of ITGB3 was significantly associated with TG. Several variants and haplotypes of three genes were significantly related to lipids in Mexican Americans: PON1 in relation to HDL-C; APOE and NOS3 in relation to LDL-C; and APOE in relation to TC. We report the significant associations of blood lipids with variants and haplotypes in APOE, ITGB3, NOS3, and PON1 in the three main race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population using a large, nationally representative and population-based sample survey. Results from our study contribute to a growing

  6. Blood cadmium concentrations in Korean adolescents: From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Borami; Kim, Shin-Hye; Park, Mi-Jung

    2017-01-01

    To assess blood cadmium levels in Korean adolescents with respect to demographic and lifestyle factors. We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2013, totaling 1472 adolescents aged 10-18 years. Geometric means of blood cadmium were calculated using a complex samples general linear model to compare blood levels in different demographic and lifestyle groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were also used to find predictors for high blood cadmium (>90th percentile). The geometric mean of the blood cadmium concentrations was 0.30μg/L in Korean adolescents. Older age, type of housing (multifamily house and commercial building), smoking and alcohol consumption, and iron deficiency/iron deficiency anemia (IDA) were significantly associated with higher blood cadmium concentrations (Pmultifamily house or commercial building (OR=3.11-3.46), and IDA (OR=2.64). Possible associations between blood cadmium levels and type of housing or alcohol consumption in adolescents are suggested for the first time in this study. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between dyslipidemia and albuminuria in prediabetic adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Yong Gyu; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Kim, Young Eun; Lee, Sangsu; Lee, Sungho; Roh, Yong Kyun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to estimate the relationship between various lipid abnormalities and albuminuria in Korean prediabetic adults. Data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2011-2012 were analyzed. The study consisted of 4,811 subjects in the normal glucose group and 3,872 in the prediabetic group. Prediabetes was defined by the fasting plasma glucose or hemoglobin A1c level. Albuminuria was defined as a urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥30 mg/g. Various parameters of dyslipidemia were assessed. No differences were observed in the prevalence of lipid abnormalities in prediabetic men with different values of UACR. Prediabetic women with increased urinary albumin excretion showed a significantly higher prevalence of lipid abnormalities. The proportion of mixed dyslipidemia was significantly higher in prediabetic women with albuminuria. Higher levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and TC to HDL-C ratio, TG to HDL-C ratio, and LDL-C to HDL-C ratio were significantly associated with increased risk of albuminuria in prediabetic women. Several lipid abnormalities were significantly associated with the increased risk of albuminuria in prediabetic women. Hence, screening for lipid abnormalities may be helpful for identification of risk for albuminuria in prediabetic subjects.

  8. Blood levels of lead and mercury and celiac disease seropositivity: the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamycheva, Elena; Goto, Tadahiro; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-03-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease with increasing prevalence in the USA. CD leads to decreased absorption of many nutrients including certain divalent metals. On the other hand, recent cross-sectional studies suggest the associations between trace heavy metal exposure and autoimmunity. We aimed to determine if there is an association between CD autoimmunity and blood levels of heavy metals in the general US population. We used nationally representative data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012. Our study comprised 3643 children (ages 6-17 years) and 11,040 adults (age ≥18 years). Children with CD seropositivity had significantly lower blood lead (0.56 versus 0.80 μg/dL, P = 0.001) and mercury levels (0.47 versus 0.64 μg/L, P = 0.001). In the linear regression model, CD seropositivity was associated with lower levels of blood lead and mercury in children (β = -0.14, P = 0.03 for lead and β = -0.22, P = 0.008 for mercury), but not in adults. These findings of CD-heavy metals association are, to our knowledge, novel, and we conclude that decreased levels of heavy metals in blood are most likely a consequence of CD in the US children.

  9. Acculturation and the Prevalence of Diabetes in US Latino Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alos, Victor A.; Davey, Adam; Bueno, Angeli; Whitaker, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction US Latinos are growing at the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes. Acculturation may increase the risk of diabetes among all Latinos, but this hypothesis has not been studied in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acculturation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in such a sample. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis including 3,165 Latino participants in the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and participants without diagnosed diabetes who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values of 6.5% or higher were classified as having diabetes. An acculturation score, ranging from 0 (lowest) to 3 (highest), was calculated by giving 1 point for each of 3 characteristics: being born in the United States, speaking predominantly English, and living in the United States for 20 years or more. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between acculturation and diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in our sample was 12.4%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the likelihood of diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased with level of acculturation— 1.71 (95% CI, 1.31–2.23), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.11–2.39), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.27–3.29) for scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This association persisted after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total dietary calories, and physical inactivity. Conclusion Acculturation was associated with a higher risk of diabetes among US Latinos, and this risk was only partly explained by BMI and weight-related behaviors. Future research should examine the bio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie the relationship between acculturation and diabetes in Latinos. PMID:25299982

  10. Acculturation and the prevalence of diabetes in US Latino Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Matthew J; Alos, Victor A; Davey, Adam; Bueno, Angeli; Whitaker, Robert C

    2014-10-09

    US Latinos are growing at the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes. Acculturation may increase the risk of diabetes among all Latinos, but this hypothesis has not been studied in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acculturation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in such a sample. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis including 3,165 Latino participants in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and participants without diagnosed diabetes who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values of 6.5% or higher were classified as having diabetes. An acculturation score, ranging from 0 (lowest) to 3 (highest), was calculated by giving 1 point for each of 3 characteristics: being born in the United States, speaking predominantly English, and living in the United States for 20 years or more. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between acculturation and diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in our sample was 12.4%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the likelihood of diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased with level of acculturation- 1.71 (95% CI, 1.31-2.23), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.11-2.39), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.27-3.29) for scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This association persisted after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total dietary calories, and physical inactivity. Acculturation was associated with a higher risk of diabetes among US Latinos, and this risk was only partly explained by BMI and weight-related behaviors. Future research should examine the bio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie the relationship between acculturation and diabetes in Latinos.

  11. What is the viva experience of phase 2 Radiation Oncology examination candidates? Survey and advice for future candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiven, Hilde M; Tejani, Neetu; Sullivan, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Medical speciality examination is a very stressful event in medical careers. We aimed to determine the subjective experience of Radiation Oncology Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) oral examination candidates. It was hoped the results would provide reassurance and advice for future candidates. We distributed an anonymous online survey through the RANZCR membership database to Radiation Oncology Trainees and fellows who may have sat their oral examination within the last 3 years. There were 21 responses, yielding a response rate of 21%. Nineteen percent of respondents were moderately or very surprised during their viva and the most frequently noted cause was the demeanour of the examiners. The clinical cases and clinical examination station were rated very fair by over 80% of responders while the planning cases were rated very fair by 57%. During the viva, 33% thought they passed and 71% of these candidates were successful. Forty-three percent felt they were borderline, and all of these respondents passed. Five participants (24%) failed in the first attempt and four described being unable to convey their actual knowledge. Candidates found mock examinations to be the most useful examination preparation activity. The most frequently given advice was to focus on the planning examination. The majority of this select group of candidates indicated that the oral examination cases were very fair. Candidates rated the planning exam as least fair, indicating this may be the area that would benefit most from better preparation. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  12. Chaperone use during intimate examinations in primary care: postal survey of family physicians

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    Upshur Ross EG

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians have long been advised to have a third party present during certain parts of a physical examination; however, little is known about the frequency of chaperone use for those specific intimate examinations regularly performed in primary care. We aimed to determine the frequency of chaperone use among family physicians across a variety of intimate physical examinations for both male and female patients, and also to identify the factors associated with chaperone use. Methods Questionnaires were mailed to a randomly selected sample of 500 Ontario members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Participants were asked about their use of chaperones when performing a variety of intimate examinations, namely female pelvic, breast, and rectal exams and male genital and rectal exams. Results 276 of 500 were returned (56%, of which 257 were useable. Chaperones were more commonly used with female patients than with males (t = 9.09 [df = 249], p Conclusion Clinical practice concerning the use of chaperones during intimate exams continues to be discordant with the recommendations of medical associations and medico-legal societies. Chaperones are used by only a minority of Ontario family physicians. Chaperone use is higher for examinations of female patients than of male patients and is highest for female pelvic exams. The availability of a nurse in the clinic to act as a chaperone is associated with more frequent use of chaperones.

  13. Serum C3 epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and its determinants in adults: a national health examination survey in Thais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailurkit, L; Aekplakorn, W; Ongphiphadhanakul, B

    2015-09-01

    A high percentage have detectable C3 epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (3-epi-25(OH)D3) in the population of Thai National Health Examination Survey IV. C3 epimers of vitamin D have recently been shown to contribute significantly to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in an infant population. However, the findings in the general adult population are unclear. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to determine the percentage of the C3 epimer of 25(OH)D (3-epi-25(OH)D) and its determinants in an adult population. A subsample of 1148 sera randomly selected from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV (2009) samples were measured for serum 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D2, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 by LC-MS/MS method. The relative 3-epimer contribution (%) was used to express the amount of 3-epimer-25(OH)D3 as a percentage of total 25(OH)D3 (the sum of 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3). A high proportion of subjects had detectable 3-epi-25(OH)D3 that was <10 % of the total 25(OH)D levels. Since the level of total 25(OH)D2 is low, only a minority of subjects had detectable 3-epi-25(OH)D2. Multivariate analysis suggested that age, male gender, and rural residence were independently related to the 3-epi-25(OH)D3/total 25(OH)D3 ratio. A high percentage of Thai adults had detectable 3-epi-25(OH)D3 that was <10 % of the total 25(OH)D levels. Age, gender, and living in a rural area were associated with the relative amount of 3-epi-25(OH)D3 to total 25(OH)D3.

  14. [Survey on status of staff for Plasmodium microscopy examinations in Changzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Qing; He, Ming-Zhen; Zhu, Shi-Ying; Zou, Yong-Gen; Chen, Hong

    2014-02-01

    To understand the current state of staff for Plasmodium microscopy examinations in Changzhou City in the early stage of eliminating malaria action, so as to provide the evidence for achieving the target of malaria elimination. The staff for Plasmodium microscopy examinations from medical institutions and centers for disease control and prevention at different levels were investigated by questionnaires and tests of the malaria related theory and microscopic operation. Totally 95 people were investigated, and among them, 40.0% had college degree and 45.3% were university educated. There were 18.9% of them working on Plasmodium microscopy examinations for less than 1 year, 40.0% for 2-5 years, 18.9% for 6-10 years and 22.1% for more than 10 years. The numbers of person-time of provincial and municipal level training, district-level training, and unit-level training in the last year were 0.57, 0.59, and 0.14, respectively. Totally 18.9% of them had the experience of finding Plasmodium at work, and 97.9% of them considered it was necessary or very necessary to do Plasmodium microscopy examinations. However, 57.9% and 8.4% of them considered Plasmodium microscopy examinations increased their work load and work difficulty, respectively. The average correct rates of knowledge tests on malaria before and after training were 72.5% and 91.6% respectively (P Plasmodium microscopic tests was 25.3 points (full mark being 50 points), and the passing rate (> or = 30 points) was 58.9%. The working experience of staff for Plasmodium microscopy examinations in Changzhou City is relatively poor, and the related training should be enhanced.

  15. Effect of maternal age at childbirth on insulin resistance: the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kyung-Jin; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Young-Moon; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Kil, Kicheol; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess insulin resistance according to maternal age at childbirth. The data used in this study were obtained from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This study included a total of 2233 nondiabetic female subjects ≥30 years of age that were subdivided into groups according to their obesity and abdominal obesity (AOB) statuses. The homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to quantify the insulin resistance according to age at first childbirth and last childbirth. Age at first childbirth showed a negative relationship with HOMA-IR in both the nonobese and non-AOB groups, while age at last childbirth showed a positive relationship with HOMA-IR in both the nonobese and non-AOB groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that ages at first and last childbirth were significantly associated with the highest HOMA-IR quartile. The odds ratio was 0·9 (95% confidence interval: 0·82-0·98) for age at first childbirth, and 1·07 (95% confidence interval: 1·01-1·14) for age at last childbirth in the nonobese and non-AOB groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that insulin resistance is increased in females who experienced their first childbirth at a younger age or their last childbirth at a later age, particularly in nonobese individuals. Because these data suggest that childbearing age could be an independent risk factor for diabetes, a high-quality prospective study assessing the relationship between childbearing age and insulin resistance should be performed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Otitis Media: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mina; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Moo Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The performance of nationwide studies of chronic otitis media (COM) in adults has been insufficient in Korea. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of COM in Korea. Methods This study was conducted using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 23,621). After excluding the subjects under 20 year old and suffered from cancers, 16,063 patients were evaluated for COM. Participants underwent a medical interview, physical examination, endoscopic examination, and blood and urine test. COM was diagnosed by trained residents in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology using an ear, nose, and throat questionnaire and otoendoscopy findings. Data on the presence and absence of COM were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results Of the 16,063 participants aged above 20 year old, the weighted prevalence of COM was 3.8%. In the multivariate analyses, the following factors showed high odds ratios (ORs) for COM: pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted OR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.01), chronic rhinosinusitis (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-2.98), mild hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.34-2.85), moderate hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 2.21-7.22), tinnitus (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34-2.49), increased hearing thresholds in pure tone audiometry in the right ear (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and left ear (adjusted OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04). The following factors showed low odds ratios for COM: hepatitis B (adjusted OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.94) and rhinitis (adjusted OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88). In addition, high levels of vitamin D, lead, and cadmium, EQ-5D index; and low red blood cell counts were associated with development of COM (Student’s t-test, P < 0.01). Conclusions Our population-based study showed that COM is not rare in Korea, and its development may be associated with various host and

  17. Periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness in younger adults: results from continuous national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Thai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies report associations between periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness but no study has examined the association among younger adults. Our objective was to study the association between clinical measures of periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among a population-based sample of younger adults. METHODS: The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 enrolled 2,863 participants (46% women who received a partial-mouth periodontal examination and completed a submaximal treadmill test for the assessment of estimated VO2 max(eVO2 max . Participants were mean±SD age 33±9 years (range = 20-49 years, 30% Hispanic, 48% White, 19% Black, and 3% other. Mean eVO2 max (mL/kg/minute as well as eVO2 max≤32 mL/kg/minute (20th percentile were regressed across quartiles of mean probing depth and mean attachment loss in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, mean eVO2 max levels±SE across quartiles of attachment loss were 39.72±0.37, 39.64±0.34, 39.59±0.36, and 39.85±0.39 (P = 0.99. Mean eVO2 max±SE across quartiles of probing depth were 39.57±0.32, 39.78±0.38, 39.19±0.25, and 40.37±0.53 (P = 0.28. Similarly, multivariable adjusted mean eVO2 max values were similar between healthy participants vs. those with moderate/severe periodontitis: 39.70±0.21 vs. 39.70±0.90 (P = 1.00. The odds ratio (OR for low eVO2 max comparing highest vs. lowest quartile of attachment loss = 0.89[95% CI 0.64-1.24]. The OR for comparing highest vs. lowest probing depth quartile = 0.77[95% CI 0.51-1.15]. CONCLUSION: Clinical measures of periodontal infection were not related to cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of generally healthy younger adults.

  18. A survey examining the attitudes of general dental practitioners toward change in undergraduate dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, H; Ireland, R; Bligh, J

    1998-04-25

    To determine the attitudes of general dental practitioners toward aspects of change in undergraduate dental education. Descriptive postal survey using a cross-sectional random sample of general dental practitioners administered in 1997. 689 general dental practitioners practising in five regions of England with close proximity to a dental school selected by a one in two stratified random sample. Response rate: 70%. The questionnaire was both valid and reliable with an internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.84. Responses identified strong support for preparing dental students for the wider role of the dentist and an emphasis toward self-directed learning. Other themes emerging from the investigation included support for learning to work as part of a dental team and for students to have experience of general dental practice early on in the undergraduate course. These responses have implications for curriculum design, syllabus, teaching methods, resources and staff development for dental schools in the UK.

  19. Cardiovascular health metrics and accelerometer-measured physical activity levels: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Tiago V; Harrington, Deirdre M; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether relationships exist between accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and other cardiovascular (CV) health metrics in a large sample. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006, were used. Overall, 3454 nonpregnant adults 20 years or older who fasted for 6 hours or longer, with valid accelerometer data and with CV health metrics, were included in the study. Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, diet, fasting plasma glucose level, and total cholesterol level were defined as ideal, intermediate, and poor on the basis of American Heart Association criteria. Results were weighted to account for sampling design, oversampling, and nonresponse. Significant increasing linear trends in mean daily MVPA were observed across CV health levels for BMI, BP, and fasting plasma glucose (Phealth metrics (Phealth metrics in this large sample. These results support the inclusion of physical activity in the overall definition of ideal CV health. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Illicit drug use and cardiometabolic disease risk: an analysis of 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidot, D C; Arheart, K L; Prado, G; Bandstra, E S; Messiah, S E

    2013-11-01

    To explore the association between illicit drug use (IDU) and cardiometabolic disease risk factors (CDRF) in a nationally representative sample of adults. The 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data from 20- to 45-year-old adults (n = 8738) were utilised to analyze the relationship between IDU (ever used, repeated use and current use) and CDRF (hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, elevated C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference and cigarette use) via chi square and logistic regression analyses. Age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, poverty to income ratio (PIR), and alcohol use were included as confounders in the models. Individuals who reported drug use (DU) at least once in lifetime were more likely to have CDRF than non-DU (NDU) (OR = 1.3, p = 0.004). Females with DU, IDU at least once in lifetime, and with repeated IDU were about 1.5 times more likely than their NDU counterparts to have CDRF (p < 0.0001, p = 0.02, p = 0.02, respectively). Results from this study suggest that healthcare professionals should be aware that patients with a history of DU may be at heightened risk for cardiometabolic disease. Females in particular have a heightened cluster of CDRF across drug-use categories. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Caffeine consumption and telomere length in men and women of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A

    2017-01-01

    The investigation evaluated the relationship between caffeine intake and coffee consumption and leukocyte telomere length, a biomarker of the senescence of cells. A total of 5826 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were studied cross-sectionally. Using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, telomere length was compared to standard reference DNA. Caffeine intake from foods and beverages and coffee consumption were measured using a validated, multi-pass, computer-assisted, 24-h recall system administered by NHANES interviewers. The following covariates were controlled: age, gender, race, marital status, education, housing, smoking, BMI, physical activity, alcohol use, and coffee intake (or caffeine consumption). Caffeine consumption was inversely related to telomere length (F = 15.1, P = 0.0005). For each 100 mg of caffeine consumed, telomeres were 35.4 base pairs shorter, after adjusting for the covariates. For each 100 mg of caffeine consumed among coffee drinkers only, telomeres were 36.7 base pairs shorter (F = 9.0, P = 0.0054), and among non-coffee drinkers only, 40.0 base pairs shorter (F = 8.5, P = 0.0067). Conversely, coffee intake was positively related to telomere length (F = 12.6, P = 0.0013), independent of the covariates. Results suggest that caffeine consumption accounts for shorter telomeres in U.S. adults, independent of numerous covariates, whereas coffee intake predicts longer telomeres.

  2. The Relationship between Health Behavior and General Health Status: Based on 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Chunhoo; Oh, So-Mi; Jang, Soobin; Park, Jeong-Su; Park, Sunju; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between health behavior and general health status. We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mental health was measured by stress recognition and depression. Dietary habit was measured by mixed grain diet. Life pattern was measured by sleeping time and working pattern. Physical activity was measured by walking and exercise. We defined general health status as Euro Quality of Life-5 Dimension (EQ-5Dindex), Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-5Dvas), number of people experienced lying in a sickbed for the last one month, number of days lying in a sickbed for the last one month, and activity limitations. Mental health, dietary habit, life pattern, and physical activity have seven factors. Most of the factors have a significant correlation with EQ-5Dindex, EQ-5Dvas, number of people experienced lying in a sickbed for the last one month, number of days lying in a sickbed for the last one month, and activity limitations. Health behavior and general health status have a positive correlation.

  3. Sex differences in hypertension prevalence and control: Analysis of the 2010-2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hayon Michelle; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2017-01-01

    Although not fully understood, sex may affect both the prevalence and control rate of hypertension. The present study was designed to investigate factors associated with hypertension prevalence and control among Korean adults. We analyzed 27,887 individuals (12,089 males and 15,798 females) aged 30 years or older who participated in the fifth (2010-2012) and sixth (2013-2014) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to delineate factors associated with the prevalence and control of hypertension separately for men and women. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension was higher in men (34.6%) than in women (30.8%). However, after the age of 60 years, hypertension was more prevalent in females than in males. Regardless of sex, the older the participants were, the more likely they were to have hypertension. Factors positively associated with hypertension prevalence were old age, low education, and high BMI in women (pFactors decreasing hypertension control were white-collared women and young age, alcohol consumption in men. Sex differences in hypertension prevalence and control were discovered among Korean adults. After the age of 60, females were more likely to have hypertension and less likely to maintain hypertension control than males of the same age range. Accordingly, sex-specific approaches are recommended for effective blood pressure management.

  4. The relationship between anemia and pulse pressure and hypertension: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Yu Jeong; Hwang, Eun Young; Park, Chang Eun; Park, Jong

    2018-01-10

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between anemia and pulse pressure (PP) and hypertension (HTN). Data from 16,060 adults (aged ≥20 years) in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) were analyzed. Several key findings were identified. First, after adjusting for related variables, the odds ratio (OR) of anemia (hemoglobin 61 mmHg; OR, 1.517; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.270-1.812). Second, after adjusting for related variables (except body mass index [BMI] and waist measurement [WM]), the OR of anemia, with a normal blood pressure group as a reference, was significant for the HTN group (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or use of HTN medications; OR, 0.835; 95% CI, 0.709-0.983). However, when further adjusted for BMI and WM, anemia was not associated with HTN (OR, 0.884; 95% CI, 0.750-1.042). In conclusion, anemia was positively associated with high PP, but was not associated with HTN.

  5. Prevalence, treatment, and control of metabolic risk factors by BMI status in Thai adults: National Health Examination Survey III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, diabetes, and high total cholesterol (TC) by BMI categories. Data from the National Health Examination Survey III of Thai adults aged≥18 years were used. Age and sex-adjusted prevalence and awareness of the 3 risk factors increased with increases in BMI categories. Proportions of awareness of hypertension, diabetes, and high TC were 27.9%, 33.4%, and 13.6%, respectively, in the BMI≥30 kg/m2 group. The highest treatment rates of 19.0% for hypertension and 10.1% for high TC were found in the BMI≥30 kg/m2 group and the highest treatment rate of 33.6% for diabetes in the 25 to 30 kg/m2 BMI group. There were no significant differences in the control rates of these risk factors across BMI groups. Improvement in detection, treatment, and control of these metabolic risk factors in all BMI subgroups is critical.

  6. Body fat distribution and job stress in Mexican-American men of the hispanic health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Eugenia; Wear, Mary L; Mueller, William H

    1992-01-01

    A positive relationship between psychosocial stress and central body fat distribution has been hypothesized. To test this hypothesis, two indices derived from principal components analysis of four skinfold measurements were studied in relation to imputed job stress characteristics (decision latitude, skill discretion, decision authority, and psychological demands) in Mexican-American men of the U.S. Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES). The two indices were fatness and central body fat distribution. Fatness was not significantly associated with any of the job stress characteristics before controlling for education. Once education was included in the equations, however, the relationship between fatness and two of the four job stress variables (decision authority and psychological demands) became statistically significant. Thus, for a given level of education, increasing job stress was associated with increasing fatness. Three of the four job stress characteristics were significantly associated with central body fat distribution before controlling for education. However, after education was entered into the regression equations as a proxy for social class, the relationships between central body fat distribution and the job stress variables were no longer significant. It thus appears that aspects of social class other than job stress are of equal or greater importance in predicting body fat distribution. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  7. Sarcopenia and Hearing Loss in Older Koreans: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010.

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    Jieun Lee

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is becoming a more significant issue as geriatric population increases. Sarcopenia in older people is known to have a diverse health problem in various circumstances in recent studies. We assessed whether the decrease in muscle mass is related to ARHI. We used the 2010 data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES to examine the associations between sarcopenia and ARHI. A total number of participants was 1,622 including 746 males and 876 females aged 60 years or older. Muscle mass was assessed as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone averages (PTA of test frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz at a threshold of 40 dB or higher in worse hearing side of the ear. Among 1,622 participants, 298 men and 256 women had hearing loss. Appendicular muscle mass (ASM, expressed as kg, was categorized in tertiles. In female population, after adjusting for age, smoking, drinking, amount of exercise, total body fat, education level, income level, and tinnitus, the odds ratio (OR for hearing loss was 1.57 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-2.68 in the middle tertile and 1.79 (1.03-3.08 in the lowest tertile, compared with the highest tertile. P for trend in this model was 0.036. Controlling further for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and three types of noise exposure did not change the association. Larger muscle mass is associated with lower prevalence of hearing loss in elderly Korean females.

  8. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  9. Gender-specific relationships between alcohol drinking patterns and metabolic syndrome: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung

    2012-10-01

    To examine gender-specific relationships between alcohol drinking patterns (average drinking frequency, typical drinking quantity and frequency of binge drinking) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in the Korean population. Cross-sectional study using complex sampling design analyses. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, which was conducted in 2008. Current drinkers (n 3793, 1963 men and 1830 women). After adjusting for confounders (age, educational level, income, physical activity, smoking, energy intake and drinking frequency in the analysis for drinking quantity), the associations of drinking quantity and frequency of binge drinking with the prevalence of MetS were gender-specific. Seven or more drinks for men and ≥ 3 drinks for women per typical occasion and binge drinking ≥ 1 time/week for both sexes resulted in significantly higher odds for the prevalence of MetS compared with men and women who had 1 or 2 drinks and no instances of binge drinking. The association of drinking quantity and the criteria of MetS was stronger for men with high blood pressure and abdominal obesity, whereas it was stronger for women with high glucose. Binge drinking frequency was dose-dependently associated with high TAG, high glucose, high blood pressure and abdominal obesity in men, and with high glucose and high blood pressure in women. Interestingly, average drinking frequency was not associated with the prevalence of MetS in either sex. Higher drinking quantity and frequent binge drinking are indicators of a higher prevalence of MetS, and the association strength is thought to be gender-specific.

  10. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Matsubara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. Methods: The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1 children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43–48 months of age, 2 children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19–24 months of age, and 3 children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred.We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Results: Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. Conclusions: The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster.

  12. A re-examination of risk estimates from the NIOSH Occupational Noise and Hearing Survey (ONHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, M M; Stayner, L T; Smith, R J; Gilbert, S J

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a new analysis of data from the 1968-72 National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) Occupational Noise and Hearing Survey (ONHS). The population consisted of 1172 (792 noise-exposed and 380 "controls") predominately white male workers from a cross section of industries within the United States. The analysis focused on how risk estimates vary according to various model assumptions, including shape of the dose-response curve and the amount of noise exposure among low-noise exposed workers (or controls). Logistic regression models were used to describe the risk of hearing handicap in relation to age, occupational noise exposure, and duration exposed. Excess risk estimates were generated for several definitions of hearing handicap. Hearing handicap is usually denoted as an average hearing threshold level (HTL) of greater than 25 dB for both ears at selected frequencies. The frequencies included in the biaural averages were (1) the articulation-weighted average over 1-4 kHz, (2) the unweighted average over 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz, and (3) the unweighted average over 1, 2, and 3 kHz. The results show that excess risk estimates for time-weighted average sound levels below 85 dB were sensitive to statistical model form and assumptions regarding the sound level to which the "control" group was exposed. The choice of frequencies used in the hearing handicap definition affected the magnitude of excess risk estimates, which depended on age and duration of exposure. Although data were limited below 85 dB, an age-stratified analysis provided evidence of excess risks at levels ranging from 80 to 84 dB, 85-89 dB, and 90-102 dB. Due to uncertainty in quantifying risks below 85 dB, new data collection efforts should focus on better characterization of dose-response and longitudinal hearing surveys that include workers exposed to 8-hour time-weighted noise levels below 85 dB. Results are compared to excess risk estimates generated using methods given by

  13. Associations between dietary patterns and hypertension among Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Ye; Kim, Ji-Myung; Kim, Yuri

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the dietary patterns associated with the risk of hypertensions among Korean adults using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2010). This study analyzes data from 11,883 subjects who participated in the health and nutrition survey, aging from 20 to 64 years. We performed factor analysis based on the weekly mean intake frequencies of 36 food groups to identify major dietary patterns. We identified three major dietary patterns in both sexes, namely "traditional", "western" and "dairy and carbohydrate" patterns. Participants in the highest quartile of western pattern scores had significantly higher blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels than those in the lowest quartile. Although not statistically significant, a trend (P for trend = 0.0732) toward a positive association between the western dietary pattern and hypertension risk was observed after adjustments for age, sex, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, and energy intake. The dairy and carbohydrate pattern was inversely related with BMI and blood pressures and positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. After adjusting the age, sex, education, income, BMI, smoking, physical activity and energy intake, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern showed inverse associations with hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.55-0.75; P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber, sodium, and antioxidant vitamins were significantly higher in the top quartile for the traditional pattern than in the lowest quartile for the traditional pattern (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber (P for trend < 0.0001), calcium (P for trend < 0.0001), retinol (P for trend = 0.0164), vitamin B1 (P for trend = 0.001), vitamin B2 (P for trend < 0.0001), niacin (P for trend = 0.0025), and vitamin C (P for trend < 0.0001) were significantly increased across quartiles for

  14. Sex- and age-differences in blood manganese levels in the U.S. general population: national health and nutrition examination survey 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2014-10-24

    Manganese is an essential element, but excessive manganese exposure has neurotoxic effects. To examine blood manganese levels in the general population with respect to sex, age, race/ethnicity, pregnancy and menauposal status, as well as levels of trace elements in blood. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a national survey of U.S. residents (n = 7720 participants, ages 1 to 80 years). General linear models and generalized additive models were used to examine the association between blood manganese concentration and participants' characterisics, accounting for the complex survey design. Blood manganese levels ranged from 1.6 to 62.5 μg/L, with arithmetic means of 10.6 and 9.2 μg/L for women and men, respectively. The following characteristics were significantly associated with higher blood manganese levels: female sex, younger age, Asian origin, and being pregnant. In addition, there were non-linear relationships between blood manganese levels and cadmium, iron, lead, and mercury levels. The higher blood manganese levels observed among females suggest sex-related metabolic differences in the regulation of manganese, and elevated levels among pregnant women suggest an important role of manganese in reproduction. The present study supports the need to take into consideration age- and sex-related differences in blood manganese levels, as well as pregnancy status when examining manganese essentiality or toxicity.

  15. The Relationship between Metabolically Obese Non-Obese Weight and Stroke: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Young-Gyun Seo

    Full Text Available Both metabolic syndrome (MetS and obesity increase the risk of stroke. However, few studies have compared the risks of stroke associated with metabolically obese non-obese weight (MONW and metabolically healthy obesity (MHO. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of stroke in MONW and MHO individuals.A total of 25,744 subjects aged ≥40 years were selected from the 2007-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. MetS was defined using 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III and 2005 American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. Non-obese weight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2, respectively. MONW was defined as meeting the MetS criteria with a BMI <25 kg/m2 and MHO was defined as not meeting the MetS criteria with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2.Women with MONW had a higher prevalence of stroke than those with MHO (odds ratio [OR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-3.57. The prevalence of stroke increased as the number of MetS components increased. The ORs for MONW with 3, 4, and 5 MetS components were 1.95 (95% CI: 1.19-3.21, 2.49 (95% CI: 1.46-4.24 and 2.74 (95% CI: 1.39-5.40, respectively.Our study findings may better emphasize the risk of stroke among more lean but unhealthy individuals, who appear healthy but may be suffering from MetS. These findings also highlight the need for stroke risk factor assessment in non-obese weight individuals.

  16. Gender differences in marital disruption among patients with cancer: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-Yan; Kwon, Jeoung-A; Choi, Jae-Woo; Kim, Sun-Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major life event that imposes huge economic and mental burdens on patients and families. In addition, the diagnosis of cancer also causes significant family discordance that can lead to marital problems such as divorce or separation. The aim of this study was to investigate the association and any related gender differences between cancer diagnosis and marital disruption among cancer survivors. We used the recent cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (4th and 5th; Years 2008-2012). The study participants were 623 married cancer survivors over the age of 19. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate odds ratios. After adjusting for socioeconomic status and health-related behaviors, the odds ratio of marital disruption among female cancer survivors compared with male cancer survivors was 3.94 (95%CI 1.30-11.94; p=0.02). The odds ratio of marital disruption for the below-average economic level compared with the above-average economic level was 5.64 (95%CI: 1.03-31.02; p=0.05). When compared with the non-smoking cancer survivors, the smoking cancer survivors had an OR of marital disruption equal to 2.94 (95%CI: 1.08-8.00; p=0.03). The findings of this study suggest that the odds of marital disruption among female cancer survivors are higher than those among their male counterparts. Medical practitioners should be sensitive to early signs of marital discord in couples affected by a cancer diagnosis. Early identification and psychosocial intervention might reduce the frequency of divorce and separation and thus improve quality of life and quality of care for cancer survivors.

  17. Cost and performance tradeoffs between mail and internet survey modes in a nonmarket valuation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Campbell; Tyron Venn; Nathaniel M. Anderson

    2018-01-01

    Using the results of a choice modeling survey, internet, mail-only and mixed internet and mail survey modes were examined with regards to their cost-effectiveness, representativeness, and willingness to pay (WTP). The topical focus of the study was biomass energy generation preferences of the residents of Montana, Colorado and Arizona, USA. Compared to the mail and...

  18. The incidence of hypertension and its risk factors in the German adult population: results from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 and the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Claudia; Neuhauser, Hannelore

    2017-02-01

    To analyze incident hypertension and its risk factors based on 11.9 years follow-up of a recent National Examination Survey cohort in Germany. Out of 7124 participants of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98), 640 had died at follow-up 2008-2011 and 3045 were reexamined as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011 (DEGS1). Baseline and follow-up included standardized blood pressure (BP) measurements. Hypertension was defined as BP of at least 140/90 mmHg or intake of antihypertensive medication in participants with known hypertension. Out of 2231 GNHIES98-DEGS1 participants aged 18-79 years without hypertension in 1998, 26.2% developed hypertension within a mean of 11.9 (range 10.0-14.1) years (men 29.0%, women 23.4%). In univariate analysis, hypertension incidence was positively associated with age, BMI, initial BP levels, pulse pressure, and alcohol consumption. Comorbidities such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia increased the chance to develop hypertension. In the multivariate model, initial SBP and DBP levels had the strongest influence on the development of future hypertension (7% increase in men and 5% in women per mmHg SBP). The percentage of aware, treated, and controlled hypertensive patients were 75.8, 62.1, and 50.3% in men and 83.8, 73.3, and 59.0% in women. The high 11.9-year incidence in all age groups points to the lifelong potential for prevention of hypertension.

  19. Diet and nutrition in psoriasis: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J A; Ma, C; Kanada, K N; Armstrong, A W

    2014-03-01

    There is limited research examining the association between psoriasis, dietary intake and nutritional status in the general U.S. population. This study aimed to compare levels of vitamins and carotenoids as well as intake of protein, fats, sugar, carbohydrates and total calories between individuals with and without psoriasis. We used data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the U.S. Demographic information, physical examination, serum laboratory values and questionnaires on past medical history and dietary intake were used to determine the relationship between psoriasis and nutritional status and diet. The cohort consisted of 6260 participants who provided responses to their psoriasis status. Prior psoriasis diagnosis was reported in 156 (2.49%) of the respondents. Based on multivariate regression analysis, psoriasis was significantly associated with increased vitamin A level (OR: 1.01; CI: 1.00-1.02; P = 0.03), increased α-carotene level (OR: 1.02; CI: 1.01-1.04; P = 0.01), lower sugar intake (OR: 0.998; CI: 0.996-1; P = 0.04), increased body mass index (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02-1.07; P = 0.0003) and arthritis (OR: 2.31; CI: 1.37-3.90; P = 0.002). Non-Hispanic black (OR: 0.56; CI: 0.34-0.96; P = 0.03) and Hispanic race (OR: 0.37; CI: 0.19-0.75; P = 0.005) were inversely associated with a diagnosis of psoriasis compared with non-Hispanic white race. Psoriasis is significantly associated with elevated serum levels of vitamin A and α-carotene and reduced intake of sugar. Longitudinal monitoring of nutritional status in psoriasis patients is necessary to determine the effect of nutrition on psoriasis progression and the modifying role of treatments. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Relationship Between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers, and Hearing Sensitivity Using Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Joyner, Chelsea

    2017-06-13

    Limited research has examined the interrelationships among cardiometabolic parameters, physical activity, and hearing function, which was this study's purpose. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006 were used in the path analyses. Physical activity and hearing function were both objectively measured. Various cardiometabolic parameters were assessed from a blood sample. Adults 30-85 years (N = 1,070) constituted the analytic sample. Physical activity was negatively associated with triglycerides (β = -0.11, p physical activity to HPTA was nonsignificant (β = 0.01, p = .99). Physical activity was associated with select cardiovascular disease risk factors. Several cardiovascular disease risk factors were associated with hearing function.

  1. Ecosystems Surveys Branch Gear Efficiency Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An experiment aimed at quantifying the herding efficiency of flatfish for the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC) survey trawl bridles was conducted during...

  2. Evaluation of the acceptability of Peer Physical Examination (PPE) in medical and osteopathic students: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consorti, Fabrizio; Mancuso, Rosaria; Piccolo, Annalisa; Consorti, Giacomo; Zurlo, Joseph

    2013-08-22

    Peer physical examination (PPE) is a method of training in medical and osteopathic curricula. The aim of this study was to compare the acceptability of PPE in two classes of medical and osteopathic students after their first experience, to obtain comparative information useful for an understanding of the different professional approaches. The leading hypothesis was that osteopathic students enter the curriculum with a more positive attitude to bodily contact.As a secondary aim, this study validated the new version of a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of PPE. A new version of a previously validated questionnaire and an instrument from the literature (the Examining Fellow Student [EFS] questionnaire) were used for a cross-sectional survey in a class of 129 3rd year medical students and in two parallel classes of 1st year osteopathic students (total of 112 students). The mean score of the new questionnaire was significantly higher for the osteopathic students than for the medical students (53.4 ± 6.3 vs. 43.4 ± 8.9; p osteopathic student. The EFS mean score also showed a significant difference between the osteopathic and medical students (30.76 ± 2.9 vs. 27.85 ± 4.3; p < 0.01).Factor analysis of the new questionnaire identified three factors (appropriateness and usefulness, sexual implications and passive role) accounting for 62.8% of the variance. Criterion validity was assessed by correlation with the EFS (Pearson's r coefficient = 0.61). Reliability was expressed in terms of Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which equals 0.86. These quantitative results are consistent with previous qualitative research on the process of embodiment both in medicine and osteopathy. The new questionnaire proved to be valid and reliable. The objective assessment of the acceptability of PPE is a way to determine differences in students' attitudes towards contact with the body and can be used for counselling students regarding career choice. This study can also highlight

  3. Relationship of serum bisphenol A with diabetes in the Thai population, National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Chailurkit, La-Or; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiological studies of the association between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and diabetes have been inconsistent. The present study determined serum BPA concentrations in the Thai population and their association with hyperglycemia and diabetes. In all, 2581 serum samples from the Thai National Health Examination Survey (2009) were used to determine BPA levels. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥100 and <126 mg/dL. Diabetes was defined as a history of a physician's diagnosis or fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association of serum BPA with IFG and diabetes. Of 2581 samples tested, BPA was detected in 2135 samples (weighted percentage 78.1%), with a geometric mean concentration of 0.34 ng/mL BPA. Serum BPA levels were significantly higher among those with diabetes or IFG compared with normoglycemic individuals (0.52 and 0.38 vs 0.33 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with the first quartile (≤0.071 ng/mL), the overall adjusted odds ratios (OR) of serum BPA concentration in the third and fourth quartiles (0.319-0.745 and ≥0.746 ng/mL, respectively) for IFG were 1.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19, 2.49) and 1.23 (95% CI 0.80, 1.89), respectively; for diabetes, the adjusted OR were 1.88 (95% CI 1.18, 2.99) and 1.83 (95% CI 1.12, 2.95), respectively, with a slightly stronger association among men than in women. Serum BPA concentrations were not associated with IFG, but were positively associated with diabetes in the Thai population. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the relationship. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Il; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Kang, Hye Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background Underweight is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. It is reported that the prevalence of underweight is increasing among Korean young women. However, there have been few studies on sociodemographic factors related to being underweight. This study was conducted to elucidate the sociodemographic characteristics of Korean underweight adults. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of 7,776 adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Healt...

  5. Poor Adherence to US Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Emilyn C; Liu, Yan; Davis, Jennifer S; Chang, Shine; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-01-01

    Poor diet quality in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse health outcomes throughout life, yet the dietary habits of American children and how they change across childhood and adolescence are unknown. This study sought to describe diet quality among children and adolescents by assessing adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) and to determine whether any differences in adherence occurred across childhood. We employed a cross-sectional design using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Of 9,280 children aged 4 to 18 years who participated in NHANES from 2005 to 2010, those with insufficient data on dietary recall (n=852) or who were pregnant or lactating during the time of interview (n=38) were excluded from the final study sample (n=8,390). We measured adherence to the DGA using the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and stratified participants into three age groups (4 to 8, 9 to 13, and 14 to 18 years of age). We analyzed each of 12 HEI-2010 components and total HEI-2010 score. The youngest children had the highest overall diet quality due to significantly greater scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dairy, and whole grains. These children also had the highest scores for sodium, refined grains, and empty calories. Total HEI-2010 scores ranged from 43.59 to 52.11 out of 100, much lower than the minimum score of 80 that is thought to indicate a diet associated with good health. Overall, children and adolescents are failing to meet the DGA and may be at an increased risk of chronic diseases throughout life. By analyzing which food groups show differences between age groups, we provide data that can inform the development of dietary interventions to promote specific food groups targeting specific ages and improve diet quality among children and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity plays an important role in preventing further progression of metabolic syndrome conditions to cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. This study investigated physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients. The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) data were analyzed (n=19,831). A revised definition of the US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III was used for screening metabolic syndrome patients. Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire, physical activity adherence was defined as participating in 150+ minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, 75+ minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week. Socioeconomic status was measured by level of education and house-hold income. Among metabolic syndrome patients, physical activity adherence rate of first (lowest), second, third, and fourth quartile house-hold income group were 28.31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.14-30.28%), 34.68% (95% CI, 32.71-36.70), 37.44% (95% CI, 35.66-39.25), and 43.79% (95% CI, 41.85-45.75). Physical activity adherence rate of groups with elementary or lower, middle-school, high-school, and college or higher education degree were 25.17% (95% CI, 22.95-27.54), 38.2% (95% CI, 35.13-41.00), 39.60% (95% CI, 38.24-41.77), and 36.89% (95% CI, 35.77-38.03), respectively. This study found that physical activity adherence rate was lower in socioeconomically disadvantaged metabolic syndrome patients, which may aggravate health inequity status of Korean society.

  7. Intake and major sources of dietary flavonoid in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Jin; Park, Min Young; Chang, Namsoo; Kwon, Oran

    2015-01-01

    With an effort to investigate possible relationship between flavonoids and health, an accurate estimation of flavonoid intake is valuable. We estimated dietary flavonoid intake and identified the major food sources. Subjects were healthy adults aged >=19 y (n=11,474) who completed the 24-h dietary recall of the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012). The US Department of Agriculture and newly estimated or published values for typical Korean foods were combined into a Korean-targeted flavonoid database. The mean intake of total flavonoid was 107±1.47 mg/d, with a higher intake in women than in men after energy-adjustment. Quercetin, cyanidin, genistein, daidzein, epigallocatechin 3-gallate, epicatechin, hesperetin, and luteolin were identified as major flavonoid compounds. Across the age range studied, flavonols and flavones showed a reversed U-shape curve; flavan-3-ol and flavanones showed a decreasing pattern; and anthocyanidins and isoflavones showed an increasing pattern. Forty-five food items were identified as contributing >2% of at least one flavonoid compound's intake. Kimchi was the major food source of total flavonoids, followed by green tea, persimmons, and soybeans. Single food items accounting for more than 50% of the intake of a specific flavonoid included persimmons (cyanidin), green tea (epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate), black tea (thearubigin), tangerines (hesperetin and naringenin), and onions (isorhamnetin). This study provides information on Korean flavonoid intake to enable international comparisons, along with insight into how the sources and intake of various flavonoids vary according to age and gender. This work should facilitate future investigations of the association between flavonoid intake and health.

  8. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Srikanthan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528. Sarcopenia was identified from bioelectrical impedance measurement of muscle mass. Obesity was identified from body mass index. Outcomes were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C, and prevalence of pre-diabetes (6.0≤ HbA1C<6.5 and not on medication and type 2 diabetes. Covariates in multiple regression were age, educational level, ethnicity and sex.Sarcopenia was associated with insulin resistance in non-obese (HOMA IR ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26 to 1.52 and obese individuals (HOMA-IR ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18. Sarcopenia was associated with dysglycemia in obese individuals (HbA1C ratio 1.021, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.043 but not in non-obese individuals. Associations were stronger in those under 60 years of age. We acknowledge that the cross-sectional study design limits our ability to draw causal inferences.Sarcopenia, independent of obesity, is associated with adverse glucose metabolism, and the association is strongest in individuals under 60 years of age, which suggests that low muscle mass may be an early predictor of diabetes susceptibility. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, further research is urgently needed to develop interventions to prevent sarcopenic obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  9. Abdominal obesity is associated with albuminuria in women: the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong Gyu; Kim, Yang Hyun; Lee, Kyung Shik; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Do Hoon

    2014-03-01

    The effects of obesity on the kidney, apart from diabetes or hypertension, have not drawn much attention. Moreover, only a few studies have reported the relationship between obesity status and albuminuria in Asian countries, including South Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between obesity status and albuminuria in Korean adults. We analyzed data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Of the 4,979 subjects included in the general-population group, 3,274 were sorted into a nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population group. Obesity status was measured by body mass index and waist circumference. Albuminuria was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Abdominally obese women were at higher risk for albuminuria than were women without abdominal obesity both in the general population (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.08 [1.04-4.16]) and in the nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population (OR [95% CI]: 6.96 [2.34-20.64]) after further adjustment for confounders. Among generally nonobese women, abdominally obese women were at higher risk for albuminuria than were women without abdominal obesity both in the general population (OR [95% CI]: 2.82 [1.51-5.29]) and in the nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population (OR [95% CI]: 5.32 [1.47-19.22]). Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk for albuminuria in Korean women, independently of diabetes or hypertension. Screening for abdominal obesity, especially in women, may therefore provide earlier identification of individuals at risk for developing renal disease and cardiovascular disease, even those who are nondiabetic and nonhypertensive.

  10. Factors associated with alcohol drinking behavior of cancer survivors: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyeonyoung; Song, Yun-Mi; Shin, Jin-Young

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with drinking behavior of cancer survivors after cancer diagnosis. The study subjects were 906 adult cancer survivors who had reportedly drunk alcohol before cancer diagnosis and participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2007 to 2013. Among them, 360 abstained from alcohol drinking after cancer diagnosis. We categorized remaining 546 persistent drinkers into high-risk drinker (consuming≥7 glasses of alcohol for men and≥5 glasses of alcohol for women at one sitting at the frequency of at least once a month) or moderate drinker. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate risk factors associated with drinking behavior. The high-risk drinkers occupied 27.1% (148 survivors) of the persistent alcohol drinking survivors. Age increase (OR=0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.99), female sex (OR=0.15; 95% CI 0.08-0.28), and increase of time lapse (by 1-year) after cancer diagnosis (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.92-0.97) were associated with a lower risk of high-risk drinking as compared with moderate drinking. Meanwhile,≤9years of education (OR=1.99; 95% CI 1.10-3.60), alcohol-related cancer (OR=2.09; 95% CI 1.23-3.56), and current smoking (OR=1.92; 95% CI 1.03-3.59) were associated with increased risk of high-risk drinking of cancer survivors. These findings suggest that greater efforts for preventing high-risk drinking should be laid on the cancer survivors, with consideration of individual sociodemographic characteristics, especially when the survivors had been diagnosed with alcohol-related cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Prevalence of Glaucoma in the United States: The 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priya; Zhao, Di; Guallar, Eliseo; Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V.; Friedman, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in the US population based on optic nerve head photography, to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma awareness, and to identify demographic and ocular risk factors for being unaware of having glaucoma. Methods The study included 5746 men and women 40 years of age and older participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008. Each participant had 45° photographs of the macula and optic disc of both eyes. Fundus photographs were first graded by a reading center, and those with a cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) ≥ 0.6 were regraded by three glaucoma specialists to determine the presence or absence of glaucoma. Analyses were performed using NHANES weights to account for the complex multistage probability sampling design. Results The estimated overall prevalence of glaucoma in the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population 40 years of age and older was 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%–2.6%). Glaucoma affected 2.9 million individuals, including 1.4 million women; 1.5 million men; 2.3 million people 60 years of age and older; and 0.9 million blacks, Mexican Americans, and people of other races. The prevalence of glaucoma was highest in non-Hispanic blacks, followed by non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and others. Over half of participants with glaucoma were unaware that they had the disease. Conclusions The prevalence of glaucoma based on optic nerve fundus photography assessment in the general US population 40 years of age and older was 2.1%. Approximately half of glaucoma cases were previously undiagnosed. Studies to determine whether and how to identify undiagnosed glaucoma are an important next step. PMID:27168366

  12. Urine arsenic and hypertension in US adults: the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Miranda R; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Sharrett, A Richey; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2011-03-01

    High chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may contribute to the development of hypertension. Limited information is available, however, on the association of low to moderate exposure to inorganic arsenic with blood pressure levels and hypertension. We investigated the association of exposure to inorganic arsenic (as measured in urine) with systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension in US adults. We studied 4167 adults 20 years of age or older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 through 2008 and for whom total arsenic, dimethylarsinate (DMA), and arsenobetaine had been assessed in urine. The median (interquartile range) urine concentrations were 8.3 μg/L (4.2-17.1) for total arsenic, 3.6 μg/L (2.0-6.0) for DMA, and 1.4 μg/L (0.3-6.3) for arsenobetaine. The weighted prevalence of hypertension in the study population was 36%. After multivariable adjustment, a 2-fold increase in total arsenic was associated with a hypertension odds ratio of 0.98 (95% confidence interval = 0.86-1.11). A doubling of total arsenic minus arsenobetaine was associated with a hypertension OR of 1.03 (0.94-1.14) and a doubling of DMA concentrations was associated with a hypertension OR of 1.11 (0.99-1.24). Total arsenic, total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, or DMA levels were not associated with systolic or diastolic blood pressure. At the low to moderate levels, typical of the US population, total arsenic, total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, and DMA concentrations in urine were not associated with the prevalence of hypertension or with systolic or diastolic blood pressure levels. A weak association of DMA with hypertension could not be ruled out.

  13. Phenotypic characteristics of adolescents with concave and convex facial profiles - The National Health Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujoel, P P; Bollen, A-M; Yuen, K C J; Hujoel, I A

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that facial traits are informative on the inherited susceptibility to tuberculosis and obesity, two current global health issues. Our aim was to compare the phenotypic characteristics of adolescents with dental markers for a concave (n=420), a convex (n=978), and a straight (n=3542) facial profile in a nationally representative sample of United States adolescents. The results show that adolescents with a concave facial profile, when compared to a straight facial profile, had an increased waist-to-height ratio (Δ, 1.1 [95% CI 0.5-1.7], p<0.003) and an increased acne prevalence (OR, 1.5 [95% CI 1.2-1.9], p<0.001). Adolescents with a convex facial profile, when compared to a straight facial profile, had an increased prevalence of tuberculosis (OR, 4.3 [95% CI 1.4-13.1], p<0.02), increased ectomorphy (Δ, 0.3 [95% CI 0.2-0.4], p<0.0001), increased left-handedness (OR, 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.7], p<0.007), increased color-blindness (OR, 1.7 [95% CI 1.3-2.3], p<0.004), and rhesus ee phenotype (OR, 1.3 [95% CI 1.1-1.5], p<0.008). Adolescents with a concave facial profile, when compared to a convex profile, had increased mesomorphy (Δ, 1.3 [95% CI 1.1-1.5], p<0.0001), increased endomorphy (Δ, 0.5 [95% CI 0.4-0.6], p<0.0001), lower ectomorphy (Δ, 0.5 [95% CI 0.4-0.6], p<0.0001), and lower vocabulary test scores (Δ, 2.3 [95% CI 0.8-3.8], p<0.008). It is concluded that population-based survey data confirm that distinct facial features are associated with distinct somatotypes and distinct disease susceptibilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. How Well Do Survey Studies Capture Alcohol's Harm to Others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies assessing alcohol's harm to others very often rely on population survey data. This study addresses some of the problems and challenges in using survey data for this purpose. Such problems include the limited capacity of population surveys in identifying infrequent harm and long-term consequences of drinking. Moreover, the drinker may report the alcohol-related harm or the person being harmed may report the damage. However, irrespective of who reports the harm, causal attribution to drinking is problematic. Challenges for future population surveys to address alcohol's harm to others include the need for improved models and understanding of complex mechanisms to guide empirical studies within the broad range of harm. Study designs other than cross-sectional surveys, such as longitudinal study designs and combinations of population surveys and other data sources, are likely to overcome some of the identified problems in current population surveys of alcohol's harm to others.

  15. Serum lipid levels in depression and suicidality: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jihoon; Kim, Tae-Suk

    2017-04-15

    The level of serum lipids has been reported to be associated with depression and suicidality, but the exact relationship between these factors remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between lipid levels and depression with suicidality in large sample. We examined the association between serum lipid levels and the existence of mild depression measured using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) in a national sample of Korean. The data of 2055 men and 2894 women who participated in the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES VI) were used. The serum concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride, and total cholesterol were dichotomized and complex samples logistic regression was employed in the analysis. There was a significant association between high level of HDL-C (≥40mg/dl) and depression in adult men, and between high level of triglyceride (≥150mg/dl) and depression in adult women. In middle-aged adults 45-64 year), increased level of depression and suicidality was related to high level of triglyceride, respectively. (depression, OR=2.20 (95% CI 1.26-3.85); suicidality, OR=3.66 (95% CI 1.41-9.51). Furthermore, we found that the increased number of abnormal lipids level was significantly associated with the increased prevalence of depression in women (OR =1.34, 95% CI =1.12-1.60) and in middle-aged adults (OR=1.43, 95% CI =1.12-1.82). As this study had a cross-sectional design, it was hard to investigate causation between lipid levels and depression, and the assessment of suicidality needs more validation. Our findings support a significant association between the high level of HDL-C, triglyceride and depression in large sample data. Triglyceride was highly associated with suicidality in younger and middle-aged adults, but not in elderly adults. Further assessment could delineate relationship between serum lipid levels

  16. Is vaccine type seropositivity a marker for human papillomavirus vaccination? National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003?2010 ?

    OpenAIRE

    Petrosky, Emiko Y.; Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Panicker, Gitika; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Eileen F. Dunne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Since 2006, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been routinely recommended for adolescent females in the USA. The quadrivalent vaccine induces long-term seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16, which may be useful as a marker for HPV vaccine coverage. Methods: We evaluated vaccine type seropositivity (i.e., seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 with or without HPV18) among females aged 14–59 years participating in the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (cross-sectio...

  17. Obesity in Korean Men: Results from the Fourth through Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007∼2014

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    Yeon Won Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Obesity is related to many diseases, including urological conditions. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of male obesity. Materials and Methods: This study included 17,485 men older than 20 years of age who participated in the fourth, fifth, and sixth administrations of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Two main cutoff points for obesity were defined: a body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and a BMI≥30 kg/m2. Additionally, we defined obesity requiring pharmacotherapy as the presence of a BMI≥30 kg/m2 or a BMI≥27 kg/m2 co-occurring with at least one associated comorbid medical condition, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. Results: The prevalence rates of a BMI≥25 kg/m2, a BMI≥30 kg/m2, and obesity requiring pharmacotherapy were 35.7%, 3.4%, and 10.5%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity increased over time for all definitions of obesity. The prevalence of obesity requiring pharmacotherapy was highest in Jeju (12.5% and lowest in Gangwon-do (7.7%. Having a higher income, being a non-manual worker, and having completed a high level of education were significantly related to obesity requiring pharmacotherapy. More than 70% of patients with obesity requiring pharmacotherapy reported taking diet pills, eating functional foods, or consuming a one-food diet for weight reduction, but only 13.9% reported exercising for this purpose. Conclusions: Male obesity is a common condition, the prevalence of which is expected to continue to increase over time. A better strategy is required to manage male obesity in Korea.

  18. Association between sleep quality and C-reactive protein: results from national health and nutrition examination survey, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Liu, Xin; Zee, Phyllis C; Hou, Lifang; Zheng, Zheng; Wei, Yongxiang; Du, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the association between poor sleep quality and hs_CRP in an adult U.S. population. This study focused on 9,317 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005-2008 who were aged 20-85 years, completed a sleep disorder questionnaire, and had available information on serum hs_CRP. Sleep quality was classified into three categories (good, moderate, poor) based on the responses of participants to the NHANES sleep disorder questionnaire. High CRP was defined as hs-CRP >1 md/dL. Linear regression model was applied to investigate the association between poor sleep quality and log-transformed hs_CRP. And logistic regression model was fitted to evaluate the association between sleep quality and the risk of high CRP. Females were more likely to report poor sleep quality than males (26% vs. 19%, psleep disorder was significantly associated with increased hs_CRP and correlative to other sleep disorders. In fully-adjusted linear regression model, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with elevated hs_CRP (log transformed) among the overall sample and in females only (β = 0.10, se = 0.03, psleep quality was linked with risk of high CRP(OR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.15-1.76 in overall sample and OR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.18-2.14 in females, respectively). We found that poor sleep quality was independently associated with elevated hs_CRP in females but not in males in a U.S. adult population.

  19. Workplace noise exposure and serum testosterone in men enrolled in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Dzhambov, Angel M

    2016-09-01

    There is compelling evidence from animal experiments that noise exposure suppresses testosterone in males by affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Virtually nothing is known about its effect in humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between occupational noise exposure and serum testosterone in a representative sample of the general population. The sample has been taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for the period between 1999 and 2004 and is limited to employed men aged 16-85+ years at the time. The associations between noise exposure (either established according to the Occupational Information Network - O*NET categories or self-reported) and total and free testosterone (TT and FT, respectively) were analysed using linear regression models with increasing adjustments. In the fully adjusted model (n=414), the third quartile of the O*NET noise exposure was associated with lower TT and FT, which reached statistically significant decrease of -58.32 ng dL-1 (95 % CI: -111.22, -5.42) and -1.58 ng dL-1 (95 % CI: -2.98, -0.18), respectively. In stratified analyses, younger, lower income, normal weight, better hearing, and workers not using hearing protection at work experienced significantly more severe adverse effects than the rest. The odds for hypogonadism (TTnoise exposure (OR=1.24, 95 % CI: 0.64, 2.39). Self-reported loud noise exposure did not significantly decrease TT when all men were considered (n=214) and only in the men ≥37 years did it decrease TT significantly by -87.55 ng dL-1 (95 % CI: -158.35, -16.74). In conclusion, noise exposure was associated with lower TT and FT only in some population subgroups and these associations were non-linear.

  20. Vestibular Dysfunction and Difficulty with Driving: Data from the 2001–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

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    Eric X. Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectiveThere is growing understanding of the role of vestibular function in spatial navigation and orientation. Individuals with vestibular dysfunction demonstrate impaired performance on static and dynamic tests of spatial cognition, but there is sparse literature characterizing how these impairments might affect individuals in the real-world. Given the important role of visuospatial ability in driving a motor vehicle, we sought to evaluate whether individuals with vestibular dysfunction might have increased driving difficulty.Materials and methodsWe used data from the 2001–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys to evaluate the influence of vestibular dysfunction in driving difficulty in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged ≥50 years (n = 3,071. Vestibular function was measured with the modified Romberg test. Furthermore, since vestibular dysfunction is a known contributor to falls risk, we assessed whether individuals with vestibular dysfunction and concomitant driving difficulty were at an increased risk of falls.ResultsIn multivariate analyses, vestibular dysfunction was associated with a twofold increased odd of driving difficulty (odds ratio 2.16, 95% CI 1.57, 2.98. Among participants with vestibular dysfunction, concomitant driving difficulty predicted an increased risk of falls that was significantly higher than in participants with vestibular dysfunction only (odds ratio 13.01 vs. 2.91, p < 0.0001.ConclusionThis study suggests that difficulty driving may be a real-world manifestation of impaired spatial cognition associated with vestibular loss. Moreover, driving difficulty may be a marker of more severe vestibular dysfunction.

  1. Adolescent nutritional awareness and use of food labels: Results from the national nutrition health and examination survey

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    Wojcicki Janet M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness of federal nutrition programs and use of the nutrition facts label are associated with reduced risk for obesity and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Relationships between nutrition programs, use of food labels and risk for overweight and obesity have rarely been evaluated in adolescents. Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005–6, we evaluated the frequency of nutrition awareness of USDA and CDC nutrition programs and use of food labels in adolescents. Risk for overweight (BMI ≥ 85-94th percentile and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile was assessed in relation to nutrition awareness and label reading. Results Most adolescents (92.4% were aware of the Food Guide Pyramid. Fewer (43.5% were aware of the 5-A-Day Program, and even less (29.3% were aware of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Less than 25% of adolescents decided which foods to purchase by reading material on the nutrition facts label. There were significant racial and ethnic differences in awareness of federal nutrition programs with Mexican-Americans having the lowest levels of awareness of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid in comparison with other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had higher and African-American adolescents had lower frequencies of reading fat information on the nutrition label in comparison to Mexican-American and other Hispanics. Awareness of other nutrition programs or of other information on the nutrition facts label was not associated with increased or decreased risk for overweight or obesity. Conclusions Use of the nutrition facts panel information is low among US adolescents. Additionally, less than half of adolescents are aware of federal nutrition programs including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Future studies should evaluate avenues to make nutrition information more accessible to young Americans.

  2. Relationship between Regional Body Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus: 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

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    Soo In Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the association between regional body fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM in adult populations.MethodsA total of 3,181 men and 3,827 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older were analyzed based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008 to 2010. Body compositions including muscle mass and regional fat mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.ResultsThe odds ratios (ORs for DM was higher with increasing truncal fat mass and arm fat mass, while it was lower with increasing leg fat mass. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, leg fat mass was negatively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin in both sexes and fasting glucose in women. Leg fat mass was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis model assessment of β cell. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for DM decreased gradually with increasing leg fat mass quartiles in both genders. When we subdivided the participants into four groups based on the median values of leg fat mass and leg muscle mass, higher leg fat mass significantly lowered the risk of DM even though they have smaller leg muscle mass in both genders (P<0.001.ConclusionThe relationship between fat mass and the prevalence of DM is different according to regional body fat distribution. Higher leg fat mass was associated with a lower risk of DM in Korean populations. Maintaining leg fat mass may be important in preventing impaired glucose tolerance.

  3. High total serum cholesterol, medication coverage and therapeutic control: an analysis of national health examination survey data from eight countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihn, Stephan D; Mokdad, Ali H; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Hasegawa, Toshihiko; Lim, Stephen S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the fraction of individuals with high total serum cholesterol who get diagnosed and effectively treated in eight high- and middle-income countries. Methods Using data from nationally representative health examination surveys conducted in 1998–2007, we studied a probability sample of 79 039 adults aged 40–79 years from England, Germany, Japan, Jordan, Mexico, Scotland, Thailand and the United States of America. For each country we calculated the prevalence of high total serum cholesterol (total serum cholesterol ≥ 6.2 mmol/l or ≥ 240 mg/dl) and the mean total serum cholesterol level. We also determined the fractions of individuals being diagnosed, treated with cholesterol-lowering medication and effectively controlled (total serum cholesterol < 6.2 mmol/l or < 240 mg/dl). Findings The proportion of undiagnosed individuals was highest in Thailand (78%; 95% confidence interval, CI: 74–82) and lowest in the United States (16%; 95% CI: 13–19). The fraction diagnosed but untreated ranged from 9% in Thailand (95% CI: 8–11) to 53% in Japan (95% CI: 50–57). The proportion being treated who had attained evidence of control ranged from 4% in Germany (95% CI: 3–5) to 58% in Mexico (95% CI: 54–63). Time series estimates showed improved control of high total serum cholesterol over the past two decades in England and the United States. Conclusion The percentage of people with high total serum cholesterol who are effectively treated remains small in selected high- and middle-income countries. Many of those affected are unaware of their condition. Untreated high blood cholesterol represents a missed opportunity in the face of a global epidemic of chronic diseases. PMID:21346920

  4. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

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    Kyung Min Ko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMenstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women.MethodsA total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity.ResultsSignificantly higher ORs (95% CI were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48 and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86 after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity.ConclusionWe found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

  5. Sex differences in hypertension prevalence and control: Analysis of the 2010-2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Hayon Michelle Choi

    Full Text Available Although not fully understood, sex may affect both the prevalence and control rate of hypertension. The present study was designed to investigate factors associated with hypertension prevalence and control among Korean adults. We analyzed 27,887 individuals (12,089 males and 15,798 females aged 30 years or older who participated in the fifth (2010-2012 and sixth (2013-2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to delineate factors associated with the prevalence and control of hypertension separately for men and women. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension was higher in men (34.6% than in women (30.8%. However, after the age of 60 years, hypertension was more prevalent in females than in males. Regardless of sex, the older the participants were, the more likely they were to have hypertension. Factors positively associated with hypertension prevalence were old age, low education, and high BMI in women (p<0.001 and increasing age, low income, alcohol intake, and high BMI in men (p<0.001. The overall control rate of hypertension was higher in women (51.3% than in men (44.8%. However, after the age of 60 years, hypertension control rates were higher in men than in women. Factors decreasing hypertension control were white-collared women and young age, alcohol consumption in men. Sex differences in hypertension prevalence and control were discovered among Korean adults. After the age of 60, females were more likely to have hypertension and less likely to maintain hypertension control than males of the same age range. Accordingly, sex-specific approaches are recommended for effective blood pressure management.

  6. The impact of a dedicated training program for oral examiners at a medical school in Germany: a survey among participants from operative and non-operative disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechsner, Wolfgang; Geiler, Sandra; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2013-07-03

    Oral examinations have been a crucial format in ancient and modern assessment to evaluate and guarantee quality of medical education and thereby to secure patient safety. To achieve a high level of quality in the oral part of the final examination of medical students, a training program for oral examiners at the Medical Faculty of Ulm (Germany) has been established since 2007.However, little is known about the attitude of the examiners in regard to the impact of this training program and of oral examinations as instruments to ensure patient safety. All 367 academic clinicians from operative and non-operative disciplines, attending the one-day examiner training program at the University of Ulm between 2007 and 2012 have been asked to answer an online survey (EvaSys 5.0). Focus of the survey was to find out in which respect the examiners profited from the trainings, if the training effects were discipline-dependent, and to which degree the oral examinations could contribute to patient safety. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test for independent samples. Results were considered statistically significant when p exam successfully. The majority of participants were convinced that oral examinations using concrete clinical cases could significantly contribute to patient safety, if grading is based on clear criteria and if examinations as well as grading are performed more critically. The impact of the training program was rated significantly stronger by surgeons than by non-surgeons in several categories. These categories included "strengths and weaknesses of oral examinations", "reliability", "validity", "competence in grading", "critical grading", and "departmental improvements" concerning oral examinations. In respect to patient safety, it seems crucial to prevent incompetent candidates from passing the oral examination. The present study indicates the importance to continue and to develop our examiner trainings, with main emphasis on concrete clinical

  7.   Information and acceptance of prenatal examinations - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Stina Lou; Dahl, Katja; Risør, Mette Bech

      Background:In 2004 The Danish National Board of Health issued new guidelines on prenatal examinations. The importance of informed decision making is strongly emphasised and any acceptance of the screenings tests offered should be based on thorough and adequate information. Objective...... and hypothesis:To explore the influence of information in the decision-making process of prenatal screenings tests offered, the relation between information, knowledge and up-take rates and reasons for accepting or declining the screenings tests offered.  Methods:The study is based on a qualitative approach...... using a semi-structured interview guide and includes 26 pregnant women each interviewed shortly after having received information at their general practitioner, and again after having completed prenatal screenings tests.   Results:Only very few of the pregnant women in this study remember having...

  8. National Survey of Radionuclide Gastric Emptying Studies

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    A House

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was mailed to all institutions in Canada licensed to use radiopharmaceuticals. Questions addressed meal type; mode of preparation; and means, ranges and SD of emptying times. Seventy-eight per cent of 222 facilities responded, including all 55 teaching centres. Eighty-five per cent of teaching and 56% of nonteaching centres perform solid phase gastric emptying studies (GES. The majority use 99mTc sulphur colloid (Tc-SC added to eggs before cooking as the standard meal. Twenty-five per cent of teaching and 21% of nonteaching centres perform liquid phase GES. Most use a watery solution of 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Gastric emptying for solid phase GES, expressed as time for 50% emptying (mean t½, varied from 42 to 105 mins for centres using the Tc-SC egg meal. Twenty-eight per cent of teaching centres used ±2 SD to define their normal range, 26% used ±1 SD, 6% used ±1.5 SD, and 40% did not know the number of SD used. Twenty per cent of non-teaching centres used ±2 SD, 12% used ±1 SD and 68% did not know how many SD were used. For liquid phase GES, mean t½ varied from 20 to 60 mins. Eighteen per cent of centres used healthy volunteers to establish or validate normal ranges. There is substantial variability among the normal ranges for radionuclide solid and liquid phase GES in both teaching and nonteaching centres across Canada. A minority of facilities have established or validated their own normal ranges in healthy volunteers. There is a need for a more standardized protocol and range of normal, with internal validation by each institution.

  9. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

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    Julio J Elias

    Full Text Available Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We

  10. Using Epidemiological Survey Data to Examine Factors Influencing Participation in Parent-Training Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Dyah Ramadewi, Mikha; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based parent-training programmes aim to reduce child behaviour problems; however, the effects of these programmes are often limited by poor participation rates. This study proposes a model of parent, child and family factors related to parental participation in parenting interventions. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to…

  11. Physical activity patterns and socioeconomic position: the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M

    2012-12-15

    We investigated the associations between education and leisure-time, occupational, sedentary and total physical-activity levels based on data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98). The roles of income level, occupational status and other mediating variables for these associations were also examined. The total study sample of the GNHIES98 comprised 7,124 participants between the ages of 18 and 79. Complete information was available for 6,800 persons on leisure-time, sedentary and total physical-activity outcomes and for 3,809 persons in regular employment on occupational activity outcomes. The associations between educational level and physical activity (occupational, sedentary, leisure-time and total physical activity) were analysed separately for men and women using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) of educational level on physical-activity outcomes were calculated and adjusted for age, region, occupation, income and other mediating variables. After adjusting for age and region, a higher education level was associated with more leisure-time activity - with an OR of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.3-2.0) for men with secondary education and 2.1 (1.7-2.7) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.3 (1.1-1.6) and 1.7 (1.2-2.4), respectively. Higher education was associated with a lower level of vigorous work activity: an OR of 6.9 (4.6-10.3) for men with secondary education and 18.6 (12.0-27.3) for men with primary education compared to men with tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 2.8 (2.0-4.0) and 5.8 (4.0-8.5), respectively. Higher education was also associated with a lower level of total activity: an OR of 2.9 (2.2-3.8) for men with secondary education and 4.3 (3.3-5.6) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

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    Eun Chul Kim

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors in a representative Korean population aged 20 years old or older. METHODS: A total of 23,392 people aged 20+ years were selected for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011, using stratified, multistage, clustered sampling. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia, and interviews were performed regarding associated risk factors including gender, age, height, education level, parent's education level, economic status, light exposure time, and current smoking history. RESULTS: Of 23,392 participants, refractive errors were examined in 22,562 persons, including 21,356 subjects with phakic eyes. The overall prevalences of myopia ( 0.5 D were 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4-48.8, 4.0% (CI, 3.7-4.3, and 24.2% (CI, 23.6-24.8, respectively. The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4-80.4 in 20-29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9-17.3 in 60-69 year olds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001, education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97-2.71, p < 0.001, and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76-0.93, p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first representative population-based data on refractive error for Korean adults. The prevalence of myopia in Korean adults in 40+ years (34.7% was comparable to that in other Asian countries. These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

  13. Hearing Impairment Associated With Depression in US Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Ming; Zhang, Xinzhi; Hoffman, Howard J.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Themann, Christa L.; Wilson, M. Roy

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Depression among hearing impaired US adults has not been studied previously. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for depression among adults with hearing loss. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Adults aged 18 years or older (N = 18 318) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2010, a nationally representative sample. INTERVENTIONS Multistage probability sampling of US population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Depression, assessed by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale, and hearing impairment (HI), assessed by self-report and audiometric examination for adults aged 70 years or older. RESULTS The prevalence of moderate to severe depression (PHQ-9 score, ≥10) was 4.9% for individuals reporting excellent hearing, 7.1% for those with good hearing, and 11.4% for participants who reported a little trouble or greater HI. Using excellent hearing as the reference, after adjusting for all covariates, multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for depression were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1–1.8) for good hearing, 1.7 (1.3–2.2) for a little trouble, 2.4 (1.7–3.2) for moderate trouble, 1.5 (0.9–2.6) for a lot of trouble, and 0.6 (0.1–2.6) for deaf. Moderate HI (defined by better ear pure-tone average of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz within the range 35- to 49-dB hearing level) was significantly associated with depression among older women (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.3–11.3), after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, lifestyle characteristics, and selected health conditions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE After accounting for health conditions and other factors, including trouble seeing, self-reported HI and audiometrically determined HI were significantly associated with depression, particularly in women. Health care professionals should be aware of an increased risk for depression among adults with hearing loss. PMID:24604103

  14. Methodological issues in estimating sodium intake in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Ja Kim; Kyungwon Oh

    2014-01-01

    For policy goal setting, efficacy evaluations, and the development of related programs for reducing sodium intake, it is essential to accurately identify the amount of sodium intake in South Korea and constantly monitor its trends. The present study aimed to identify the status of sodium intake in South Korea and to review the methods and their validity for estimating sodium intake in each country; through this, we aim to determine more accurate methods for determining sodium intake and to mo...

  15. Timing of Introduction of Complementary Foods to US Infants, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Chloe M; Hamner, Heather C; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2017-12-26

    Although there has been inconsistency in recommendations regarding the optimal time for introducing complementary foods, most experts agree that introduction should not occur before 4 months. Despite recommendations, studies suggest that 20% to 40% of US infants are introduced to foods at younger than 4 months. Previous studies focused on the introduction of solid foods and are not nationally representative. Our aims were to provide a nationally representative estimate of the timing of introduction of complementary foods and to describe predictors of early (<4 months) introduction. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The study included 1,482 children aged 6 to 36 months. Timing of first introduction to complementary foods (anything other than breast milk or formula) was analyzed. Prevalence estimates of first introduction to complementary foods are presented by month. Logistic regression was used to assess characteristics associated with early (<4 months) introduction. In this sample, 16.3% of US infants were introduced to complementary foods at <4 months, 38.3% between 4 and <6 months, 32.5% between 6 and <7 months, and 12.9% at ≥7 months of age. In unadjusted analyses, early introduction varied by breastfeeding status; race/Hispanic origin; Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participation; and maternal age. In adjusted analyses, only breastfeeding status remained significant; infants who never breastfed or stopped at <4 months were more likely (odds ratio 2.27; 95% CI 1.62 to 3.18) to be introduced to complementary foods early than infants who breastfed ≥4 months. Despite using a broader definition of complementary foods, this analysis found a lower prevalence of early introduction in this nationally representative sample than previous studies that included only solids. However, many young children were still introduced to complementary foods earlier

  16. Transformational change in healthcare: an examination of four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Kate; Jamieson, Maggie; Davey, Rachel; Butler, Colin D

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical, transformational change of our health and care systems. This will be a difficult and complex task. In this article, we examine case studies in which transformational change has been achieved, and seek to learn from these experiences. Methods We used the case study method to investigate examples of transformational change in healthcare. The case studies were identified from preliminary doctoral research into the transition towards future sustainable health and social care systems. Evidence was collected from multiple sources, key features of each case study were displayed in a matrix and thematic analysis was conducted. The results are presented in narrative form. Results Four case studies were selected: two from the US, one from Australia and one from the UK. The notable features are discussed for each case study. There were many common factors: a well communicated vision, innovative redesign, extensive consultation and engagement with staff and patients, performance management, automated information management and high-quality leadership. Conclusions Although there were some notable differences between the case studies, overall the characteristics of success were similar and collectively provide a blueprint for transformational change in healthcare. What is known about the topic? Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical redesign of our systems in order to meet the challenges of modern society. What does this paper add? There are some remarkable examples of transformational change in healthcare. The key factors in success are similar across the case studies. What are the implications for practitioners? Collectively, these key factors can guide future attempts at transformational change in healthcare.

  17. Galactic Structure Examined from a Faint Object Survey in a Field in Aquarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritton, K. P.; Morton, D. C.

    An area in the constellation of Aquarius, one third of a square degree, has been selected for study because of its low interstellar extinction and the availability of good photometric calibration. An attempt has been made to identify and classify all objects in the area to a magnitude B = 20.0. For the results presented in this report UK Schmidt and Anglo-Australian telescope photographs were used to separate stellar and non-stellar objects and provide UBVRI photometry of the stars. With absolute magnitudes derived from the colours, the stars in this area have been compared in detail with the Galactic model of Bahcall and Soneira (1980). Considerable discrepancies are revealed which imply defects in the adopted model of the spheroidal component.

  18. The practice of testicular self examination: a comparative study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of testicular cancer and of self examination was found to be low in both groups. Both groups, though, showed high general health awareness and a perception that the benefits of self examination would be great. It is recommended that knowledge of testicular cancer and the value of self examination should ...

  19. The Association between Food Insecurity and Obesity in Children-The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasbir; Lamb, Molly M; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-05-01

    Food insecurity can put children at greater risk of obesity because of altered food choices and nonuniform consumption patterns. We examined the association between obesity and both child-level food insecurity and personal food insecurity in US children. Data from 9,701 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010, aged 2 to 11 years were analyzed. Child-level food insecurity was assessed with the US Department of Agriculture's Food Security Survey Module based on eight child-specific questions. Personal food insecurity was assessed with five additional questions. Obesity was defined, using physical measurements, as body mass index (calculated as kg/m²) greater than or equal to the age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Logistic regressions adjusted for sex, race/ethnic group, poverty level, and survey year were conducted to describe associations between obesity and food insecurity. Obesity was significantly associated with personal food insecurity for children aged 6 to 11 years (odds ratio=1.81; 95% CI 1.33 to 2.48), but not in children aged 2 to 5 years (odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI 0.51 to 1.51). Child-level food insecurity was not associated with obesity among 2- to 5-year-olds or 6- to 11-year-olds. Personal food insecurity is associated with an increased risk of obesity only in children aged 6 to 11 years. Personal food-insecurity measures may give different results than aggregate food-insecurity measures in children. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Food insecurity is associated with diabetes mellitus: results from the National Health Examination and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Hilary K; Bindman, Andrew B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Kanaya, Alka M; Kushel, Margot B

    2007-07-01

    Food insecurity refers to limited or uncertain access to food resulting from inadequate financial resources. There is a clear association between food insecurity and obesity among women, but little is known about the relationship between food insecurity and type 2 diabetes. To evaluate whether there is an independent association between food insecurity and diabetes. Cross-sectional analysis of the nationally representative, population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002 waves). Four thousand four hundred twenty-three adults > 20 years of age with household incomes poverty level. We categorized respondents as food secure, mildly food insecure, or severely food insecure using a well-validated food insecurity scale. Diabetes was determined by self-report or a fasting serum glucose > or = 126 mg/dl. Diabetes prevalence in the food secure, mildly food insecure, and severely food insecure categories was 11.7%, 10.0%, and 16.1%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and physical activity level, participants with severe food insecurity were more likely to have diabetes than those without food insecurity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.0, p = .02). This association persisted after further adjusting for body mass index (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-3.9, p = .01). Food insecurity may act as a risk factor for diabetes. Among adults with food insecurity, increased consumption of inexpensive food alternatives, which are often calorically dense and nutritionally poor, may play a role in this relationship. Future work should address how primary care clinicians can most effectively assist patients with food insecurity to make healthy dietary changes.

  1. Exposure to DDT and diabetic nephropathy among Mexican Americans in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M; Dismuke, Clara E

    2017-03-01

    Concentrations of the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its metabolite DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), in the blood of Mexican Americans, were evaluated to determine their relationships with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 (unweighted N = 1,411, population estimate = 13,760,609). The sample included teens, 12-19 years old, which accounted for 19.8% of the data. The time of the study overlapped the banning of DDT in Mexico in the year 2000, and those participants born in Mexico were exposed to DDT before they immigrated to the US. We sought to better understand the relationship of DDT with diabetes in a race/ethnicity group prone to develop diabetes and exposed to DDT. In this study, nephropathy was defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, and total diabetes was defined as diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes (glycohemoglobin, A1c ≥ 6.5%). The proportion with the isomer p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g (above the maximum limit of detection) was 13.3% for Mexican Americans born in the US, and 36.9% for those born in Mexico. Levels of p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g were associated with total diabetes with nephropathy (odds ratio = 4.42, 95% CI 2.23-8.76), and with total diabetes without nephropathy (odds ratio = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19-3.44). The third quartile of p,p'-DDE (2.99-7.67 ng/g) and the fourth quartile of p,p'-DDE (≥7.68 ng/g) were associated with diabetic nephropathy and had odds ratios of 5.32 (95% CI 1.05-26.87) and 14.95 (95% CI 2.96-75.48) compared to less than the median, respectively, whereas p,p'-DDE was not associated with total diabetes without nephropathy. The findings of this study differ from those of a prior investigation of the general adult US population in that there were more associations found with the Mexican Americans sample. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Association between alcohol consumption and periodontal disease: the 2008 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Beom; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ko, Youngkyung

    2014-11-01

    A positive association has been reported between alcohol and periodontal disease. Therefore, this study is conducted to assess the relationship between alcohol intake and severity of periodontal disease in a large probability sample of the Korean population using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Data from KNHANES, conducted between 2008 and 2010 by the Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance under the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, were used for this study. The presence of periodontal treatment needs according to demographic variables and anthropometric and hematologic characteristics of the participants are presented as means with their standard errors. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of periodontal treatment needs with the amount of alcohol intake and other variables including smoking and the number of times of toothbrushing per day. An association between drinking alcohol and periodontal treatment needs could be seen in men after adjustment for variables. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in males were 1.271 (1.030 to 1.568) for heavy drinkers after controlling for age, smoking, body mass index, exercise, education, income, white blood cell count, diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and number of toothbrushing episodes per day (model 3). Adjusted ORs and their 95% CIs in males were 1.569 (1.284 to 1.916) for alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) level ≥20 in model 3. ORs increased with the increase in alcohol consumption levels and AUDIT levels. Statistically significant correlations between drinking and periodontal treatment needs could not be seen in female heavy drinkers or female drinkers with AUDIT levels ≥20. Men with higher alcohol intake were more likely to have a higher prevalence of treatment needs regardless of their age, socioeconomic factors

  3. Development of a Survey to Examine the Factors that Motivate Secondary Education Teachers' Use of Problem-based Learning (PBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Huei-Chen

    In this quantitative study, a survey was developed and administered to middle and high school teachers to examine what factors motivated them to implement problem-based learning (PBL). Using Expectancy-Value Theory by Eccles et al. (1983) and Self-Determination Theory by Ryan and Deci (2000b) as the theoretical framework, this instrument measured respondents' perceived competence, support for autonomy and relatedness, and value and cost they placed on implementing PBL. Data analyses indicated that the instrument had good reliability. A 3-factor structure was established by exploratory factor analysis which confirmed the construct validity of the instrument. Value of PBL to teachers and their students was the most dominant factor that motivated teachers to implement it. The second most important factor was their self-efficacy and anxiety about failing this pedagogy, and the third factor was teachers' perceived autonomy, and support from schools and colleagues. Regression models showed the predictive power of the factors on teachers' intention to implement PBL, with their perceptions of the value of PBL being the strongest predictor. Results also indicate that teachers with PBL experience perceived significantly higher levels of competence and support from peers, and placed a higher level of value and perceived less cost in implementing PBL than teachers who had not implemented PBL. Teachers' formal training in PBL played a significant role in positively influencing their perceptions of competence and the value of PBL, and reduced their perceived cost of implementing PBL. This, in turn, enhanced teachers' intention of practicing PBL. For teachers who had previously taught with PBL, their responses to two open-ended questions in this instrument corresponded with the theoretical framework of this study and triangulated well with the quantitative data. These teachers highly valued PBL and they recognized the challenges associated with its implementation. These teachers

  4. Comorbidities in obstructive lung disease in Korea: data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jin; Leem, Ah Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Ju Han; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Chung, Kyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Comorbidities can occur frequently in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can influence mortality and morbidity independently. It is increasingly recognized that many patients with COPD have comorbidities that have a major impact on their quality of life and survival. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of comorbidities in Korean COPD populations. We used data obtained in the 6 years of the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V. Among 50,405 subjects, 16,151 subjects aged ≥40 years who performed spirometry adequately were included in this study. Airway obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage was used to evaluate the severity of airway obstruction. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.2. Among the 16,151 subjects (43.2% male, 56.8% female; mean age: 57.1 years for men and 57.2 years for women), 13.1% had obstructive lung function; 11.3%, restrictive lung function; and 75.6%, normal lung function. Among individuals with obstructive lung function, 45.3%, 49.4%, and 5.3% had mild, moderate, and severe and very severe airflow limitation. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), underweight, and hypertriglyceridemia was higher in the obstructive lung function group than in the normal lung function group (49.6% vs 35.2%; 16.8% vs 10.5%; 3.3% vs 1.3%; 19.7% vs 17.0%). According to the severity of airway obstruction, hypertension and underweight were more common as severity increased, although the prevalence of DM and hypertriglyceridemia was lower in subjects with severe airway obstruction. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, overweight, and osteoarthritis was lower in the obstructive lung function group, especially in the severe airway obstruction groups. Overall, our analysis is similar to research that was conducted earlier. Our study showed that hypertension and

  5. The effect of prenatal education curriculum on mother's prenatal examination utilization, delivery mode and recovery status: a cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuhui; Wang, Dongxu; Yuan, Yanfei; Jiang, Ying; Zeng, Qingqi; Chang, Chun

    2015-11-01

    To examine the participation, implementation, and effect of the prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals in China, and to provide evidence for the improvement of prenatal education. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the hospitals in Hunan Province, China. Mothers aged 20-45 years who had given birth between 1 May 2011 and 1 May 2012 and not diagnosed with pregnancy-related complications were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used to examine the effect of prenatal education curriculum on prenatal examination utilization, delivery mode, and recovery status from delivery. Among the total 604 respondents, only 175 (29.1 %) surveyed mothers participated in prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals during their latest delivery. These mothers had a higher rate of attending all the required prenatal examinations (57.9 vs. 48.3 %), and a higher rate of recovering very well and well (80 vs. 73.7 %) from the latest delivery, than those who did not participate in prenatal education curriculum (P curriculum provided by hospitals. Prenatal education is indispensable for the improvement of maternal and child health, and thus should be advocated. In China, a standard and convenient specification prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals and their doctors is appropriated for providing prenatal education to pregnant women.

  6. Sampling challenges in a study examining refugee resettlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sandra C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As almost half of all refugees currently under United Nations protection are from Afghanistan or Iraq and significant numbers have already been resettled outside the region of origin, it is likely that future research will examine their resettlement needs. A number of methodological challenges confront researchers working with culturally and linguistically diverse groups; however, few detailed articles are available to inform other studies. The aim of this paper is to outline challenges with sampling and recruitment of socially invisible refugee groups, describing the method adopted for a mixed methods exploratory study assessing mental health, subjective wellbeing and resettlement perspectives of Afghan and Kurdish refugees living in New Zealand and Australia. Sampling strategies used in previous studies with similar refugee groups were considered before determining the approach to recruitment Methods A snowball approach was adopted for the study, with multiple entry points into the communities being used to choose as wide a range of people as possible to provide further contacts and reduce selection bias. Census data was used to assess the representativeness of the sample. Results A sample of 193 former refugee participants was recruited in Christchurch (n = 98 and Perth (n = 95, 47% were of Afghan and 53% Kurdish ethnicity. A good gender balance (males 52%, females 48% was achieved overall, mainly as a result of the sampling method used. Differences in the demographic composition of groups in each location were observed, especially in relation to the length of time spent in a refugee situation and time since arrival, reflecting variations in national humanitarian quota intakes. Although some measures were problematic, Census data comparison to assess reasonable representativeness of the study sample was generally reassuring. Conclusions Snowball sampling, with multiple initiation points to reduce selection bias, was

  7. Effectiveness of workers? general health examination in Korea by health examination period and compliance: retrospective cohort study using nationwide data

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Huisu; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Eun-A; Choi, Bohwa; Park, Soon Woo; Kang, Young Joong

    2017-01-01

    Background Our study evaluated the effectiveness of the Workers? General Health Examination by health examination period and compliance. Methods A retrospective cohort of the health examination participants in 2006 (baseline year: N?=?6,527,045) was used. We identified newly occurring cardio-cerebrovascular disease over 7?years (from 2007 to 2013). After stratification by age, sex, and national health insurance type, we identified 7?years? cumulative incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular diseas...

  8. A Study on the Standard of Optician National Licensing Examination by Job Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Jin Lee

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the optician's job analysis, some questionaire and their analysis. Job description drafed, the standard of questionaire was fixed. Job description is establised on the results of the job analysis by DACUM(Developing A Curriculum Method. The job description formed above 2.15 referred to the results of survey of the importance and perfomance frequency of the job. These elements made a draft of drawing up standard of the Optician National Licensing Examination by Job Analysis.

  9. [A survey examining the countermeasures taken by restaurants to prevent passive smoking and an analysis of the economic impact of smoking prohibition in restaurants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Takeshi; Inaba, Akiho; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ikari, Akira; Tominaga, Suketami

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the countermeasures taken by restaurants to prevent passive smoking and the impact of smoking prohibition on both the number of customers and sales volume in restaurants. An interview-based survey was administered to 8,558 restaurant managers in Aichi prefecture. The survey questions concerned the countermeasures taken against passive smoking within each restaurant and the effect of the prohibition of smoking on both the number of customers and sales volume between November 1, 2009, and February 26, 2010. Seven thousand and eighty managers responded to the survey (response rate 83%). The proportion of managers of restaurants with a complete smoking ban was 16.4%, of restaurants with a smoking and non-smoking room or section was 20.2%, and of restaurants where no countermeasures were taken was 63.4%. The results showed that among the restaurants with a complete smoking ban, the number of customers and sales volume increased in 1.5%, decreased in 3.9%, and did not change in 95%. Differences in countermeasures were seen according to the type of restaurant. A high proportion of restaurants with a complete ban were curry shops and fast food restaurants, while few such restaurants were bars or Izakaya (Japanese style bars) and Yakiniku (Korean style BBQ) restaurants. The results of this large-scale survey in Aichi prefecture suggest that the economic impact of smoking prohibition in restaurants, in terms of the number of customers and sales volume, is small.

  10. Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and inflammation: Results from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, John A; Mackenzie, Todd A; Jones, Jonathan D; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-12-01

    The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project validated cutpoints for appendicular lean mass (ALM) to identify individuals at risk for functional impairment. Recognizing possible underlying mechanisms between adipose tissue and muscle, we sought to apply the recent definitions and determine the relationship with markers of glucose homeostasis and inflammation in individuals with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004 were used to identify 4984 adults aged ≥60 years with DEXA measures. Sarcopenia was defined using ALM (mensarcopenia and obesity by body fat (men ≥25%, women ≥35%). We assessed the association between ALM and ALM:BMI with inflammatory and markers of glucose homeostasis, both as continuous variables but also classifying as having sarcopenic obesity or not after adjusting for confounding variables including pro-inflammatory chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Mean age was 71.1 years (56.5%) females. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were (ALM definition: 29.9 and 24.4%; ALM:BMI definition: 23.0 and 22.7%). There were significant associations with ALM and ln C-reactive protein (β = 0.0287; p = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.519; p < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (β = 0.359; p < 0.001). Using ALM:BMI, significant associations were observed with ln CRP (β = -2.58; p = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = -124.2; p < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (β = -6.63; p < 0.001). Sarcopenic obesity using the ALM:BMI definition demonstrated significant associations with CRP (β = 0.422; p < 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 22.5; p < 0.001), but not HOMA-IR (β = 1.19; p = 0.13). Strong associations with seen with increased levels of fibrinogen and CRP with sarcopenic obesity (ALM:BMI definition) that persisted after adjusting for diabetes and cancer. Biologically plausible associations exist between ALM:BMI and inflammation and HOMA-IR that were not observed

  11. Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease rates rose following widespread introduction of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet, supporting speculation that fructose harms the kidney. Sugar-sweetened soda is a primary source of fructose. We therefore hypothesized that sugary soda consumption was associated with albuminuria, a sensitive marker for kidney disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Design was a cross-sectional analysis. Data were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2004. The setting was a representative United States population sample. Participants included adults 20 years and older with no history of diabetes mellitus (n = 12,601; after exclusions for missing outcome and covariate information (n = 3,243, the analysis dataset consisted of 9,358 subjects. Exposure was consumption of two or more sugary soft drinks, based on 24-hour dietary recall. The main outcome measure was Albuminuria, defined by albumin to creatinine ratio cutpoints of >17 mg/g (males and >25 mg/g (females. Logistic regression adjusted for confounders (diet soda, age, race-ethnicity, gender, poverty. Interactions between age, race-ethnicity, gender, and overweight-obesity were explored. Further analysis adjusted for potential mediators: energy intake, basal metabolic rate, obesity, hypertension, lipids, serum uric acid, smoking, energy expenditure, and glycohemoglobin. Alternative soda intake definitions and cola consumption were employed. RESULTS: Weighted albuminuria prevalence was 11%, and 17% consumed 2+ sugary soft drinks/day. The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for sugary soda was 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.74. Associations were modified by gender (p = 0.008 and overweight-obesity (p = 0.014. Among women, the OR was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.53; the OR among males was not significant. In the group with body mass under 25 kg/m(2, OR = 2.15 (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 3.25. Adjustment for potential

  12. Prevalence and trends of obesity and association with socioeconomic status in Thai adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Inthawong, Rungkarn; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and II (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) in Thai adults aged ≥20 years were 26.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Compared with primary education, the odds of obesity class I were highest in men with university education. For women, the odds of obesity classes I and II were highest in those with primary education. BMI significantly increased from 21.6 kg/m(2) in men and 22.8 kg/m(2) in women in 1991 to 23.3 kg/m(2) and 24.4 kg/m(2) in 2009, respectively. The average BMI increases per decade were highest in men with secondary education (1.0 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and in women with primary education with the same rate. There were increasing trends in BMI with slight variation by SES groups in Thai men and women during 1991-2009.

  13. Examining an ethical dilemma: a case study in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narrigan, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    When clients and health care providers differ in their understanding of what is right or wrong, an ethical dilemma may arise. Such dilemmas occur in everyday clinical practice. Health care providers have the professional responsibility to analyze these dilemmas. A clinical case study of an ethical dilemma that occurred in a cross-cultural context is examined. The language of the client and provider differed, and no interpreter service was available. Given these conditions, the provider's ethical dilemma was whether, and if so how, to give safe, satisfying care that respected the needs of a client with limited English proficiency. Measuring the morality of the provider's decisions and actions using Rawls' ethical theory of social justice finds deficits. A 10-step Bioethical Decision-Making Model by Thompson is used to demonstrate one method for analyzing the moral dimension of a clinical scenario focusing on the decisions and actions taken by a midwife. Scrutinizing ethically challenging clinical encounters will result in better understanding of the moral dimensions of practice.

  14. Hypertension among US adults by disability status and type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alissa; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Cathleen; Armour, Brian S

    2014-08-14

    The prevalence of hypertension among people with disabilities is not well understood. We combined data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to obtain estimates of hypertension prevalence by disability status and type (cognitive, hearing, vision, or mobility limitation) and assess the association between disability and hypertension. Overall, 34% of adults with disabilities had hypertension compared with 27% of adults without disabilities; adults with mobility limitations were more likely to have hypertension than adults without disabilities (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-1.32). Our results suggest that adults living with disabilities are an important subpopulation to include in hypertension reporting and intervention efforts.

  15. Hypertension Among US Adults by Disability Status and Type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Cathleen; Armour, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension among people with disabilities is not well understood. We combined data from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to obtain estimates of hypertension prevalence by disability status and type (cognitive, hearing, vision, or mobility limitation) and assess the association between disability and hypertension. Overall, 34% of adults with disabilities had hypertension compared with 27% of adults without disabilities; adults with mobility limitations were more likely to have hypertension than adults without disabilities (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.32). Our results suggest that adults living with disabilities are an important subpopulation to include in hypertension reporting and intervention efforts. PMID:25121351

  16. Fruit and vegetable consumption and its recommended intake associated with sociodemographic factors: Thailand National Health Examination Survey III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Pradipasen, Mandhana

    2009-11-01

    To examine the fruit and vegetable consumption in Thailand, the percentage of Thais meeting recommended intakes and the association with sociodemographic factors. Cross-sectional survey with a stratified, three-stage, cluster probability sampling design. Community-dwelling men and women participating in the Thailand National Health Examination Survey III. A total of 39 290 individuals aged >or=15 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics and fruit and vegetable consumption. Daily fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated through the use of a short semi-qualitative FFQ. Overall, participants had average frequencies of fruit and vegetable consumption equal to 4.56 and 5.97 d/week, respectively. Average daily number of servings of fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables were 1.46, 1.78 and 3.24, respectively. Intake amounts of fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables varied by marital status and region, and were lower among males (except for vegetable intake), those of older age, those with low educational attainment, those with low monthly household income and those living in a rural area. Only 1/3, 1/4 and 1/4 of the population consumed the recommended >or=2, >or=3 and >or=5 servings/d for fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables. Sociodemographic factors related to meeting the recommended intake of >or=5 servings/d for fruit plus vegetables included being female (OR = 1.13) and household income >or=50,000 Baht/month (OR = 1.66). The amounts of fruit and vegetables consumed by Thai participants were far below the level of current recommendations. Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables should be targeted more towards low socio-economic groups.

  17. Sodium Intake among US School-Aged Children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, Zerleen S; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah A; Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Burdg, Jinee P; Moshfegh, Alanna; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Gunn, Janelle P; Mugavero, Kristy; Cogswell, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    Identifying current major dietary sources of sodium can enhance strategies to reduce excess sodium intake, which occurs among 90% of US school-aged children. To describe major food sources, places obtained, and eating occasions contributing to sodium intake among US school-aged children. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A nationally representative sample of 2,142 US children aged 6 to 18 years who completed a 24-hour dietary recall. Population proportions of sodium intake from major food categories, places, and eating occasions. Statistical analyses accounted for the complex survey design and sampling. Wald F tests and t tests were used to examine differences between subgroups. Average daily sodium intake was highest among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years (3,565±120 mg), lowest among girls (2,919±74 mg). Little variation was seen in average intakes or the top five sodium contributors by sociodemographic characteristics or weight status. Ten food categories contributed to almost half (48%) of US school-aged children's sodium intake, and included pizza, Mexican-mixed dishes, sandwiches, breads, cold cuts, soups, savory snacks, cheese, plain milk, and poultry. More than 80 food categories contributed to the other half of children's sodium intake. Foods obtained from stores contributed 58% of sodium intake, fast-food/pizza restaurants contributed 16%, and school cafeterias contributed 10%. Thirty-nine percent of sodium intake was consumed at dinner, 31% at lunch, 16% from snacks, and 14% at breakfast. With the exception of plain milk, which naturally contains sodium, the top 10 food categories contributing to US schoolchildren's sodium intake during 2011-2012 comprised foods in which sodium is added during processing or preparation. Sodium is consumed throughout the day from multiple foods and locations, highlighting the importance of sodium reduction across the US food supply. Published by Elsevier

  18. Use of the National Board of Medical Examiners® Comprehensive Basic Science Exam: survey results of US medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William S; Baston, Kirk

    2017-01-01

    The National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE) is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE) Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools. A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME®) website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate). A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated "yes" or "no" to the initial question "Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?". A total of 37 schools (70%) administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36%) used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17%) used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14%) used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78%) used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67%) of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28%) schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1. Our data suggest that the NBME CBSE is administered by many US medical schools. However, the objective, timing, and number of exams administered vary greatly among schools.

  19. Dose-related association between urinary cotinine-verified smoking status and dyslipidemia among Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Yong Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Ko, Byung Joon; Kim, Yang Hyun; Lee, Kyung Shik; Baek, Sung Joon

    2014-09-01

    This cross-sectionally designed study was based on data collected during the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total 3231 South Korean men aged more than 19 years were included. Urinary cotinine concentrations were measured. Smoking status was defined using questionnaire responses and urinary cotinine concentrations. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of urinary cotinine concentrations with the prevalence of dyslipidemia and various parameters of dyslipidemia. There is a significant dose-related association between smoking as assessed by urinary cotinine concentration and dyslipidemia and various parameters of dyslipidemia among South Korean men.

  20. Hypnotizability and performance at examination. A correlative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, B M; Chandwani, S

    1986-01-01

    Hypnotizability of 45 medical students was assessed by applying the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form: A (HGSHS:A) of Shor and Orne. Comparison of hypnotizability with performance of the students at a test examination evolved a significant positive correlation (r = 0.59). The prevalent misconception that only psychologically weak or sick people with poor intelligence are hypnotizable is disproved. Probable causes, responsible for such a relationship between hypnotizability and performance at examination are discussed.

  1. Perceptions of the ethical acceptability of using medical examiner autopsies for research and education: a survey of forensic pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, L W; Nolte, K B; Warner, T D; McCarty, T; Rosenbaum, L S; Zumwalt, R

    2000-10-01

    Forensic pathologists face difficult moral questions in their practices each day. Consistent ethical and legal guidelines for autopsy tissue use extending beyond usual clinical and legal imperatives have not been developed in this country. To obtain the perceptions of medical examiners regarding the ethical acceptability of autopsy tissue use for research and education. A written, self-report questionnaire was developed and piloted by a multidisciplinary team at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. All individuals who attended a platform presentation at the National Association of Medical Examiners Annual Meeting in September 1997 were invited to participate. Ninety-one individuals completed the survey (40% of all conference registrants and approximately 75% of presentation attendees). Sixty-three percent of respondents had encountered an ethical dilemma surrounding autopsy tissue use, and one third reported some professional ethics experience. Perspectives varied greatly concerning the ethical acceptability of using autopsy tissues to demonstrate or practice techniques (eg, intubation, brachial plexus dissection) and of fulfilling requests to supply varying kinds and quantities of tissues for research and education. Most respondents indicated that consent by family members was important in tissue use decisions. Respondents agreed on the importance of basic values in education and research, such as integrity, scientific or educational merit, and formal institutional approval of a project. Characteristics of the decedent did not influence decisions to release tissues, except when the individual had died from a mysterious or very rare illness. Attributes of medical examiners, with the exception of sex, also did not consistently predict responses. Significant diversity exists in beliefs among medical examiners regarding perceptions of the appropriate use of autopsy tissues for education and research. There is need for further inquiry and dialogue so that

  2. Use of the National Board of Medical Examiners® Comprehensive Basic Science Exam: survey results of US medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright WS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available William S Wright,1 Kirk Baston2 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Pathology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, Greenville, SC, USA Purpose: The National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools.Methods: A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME® website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate. A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated “yes” or “no” to the initial question “Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?”.Results: A total of 37 schools (70% administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36% used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17% used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14% used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78% used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67% of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28% schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1.Conclusion

  3. A study on the satisfaction of medical licensing examination and the present condition of skill test in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hee Park

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available lt has been an issue whether the current medical examination system can evaluate medical students' competencies efficiently. This study was performed to survey on the satisfaction for the current medical examination system and present situation for clinical skill test in medical schools. We conducted a survey for this research and the subjects of this study were deans, medical professors, resident and medical students. We met with interesting results. First, most respondents answered the current medical examination system couldn't evaluate the medical students' competencies efficiently. Second, many residents thought preparing for paper-pencil test was not helpful for training, while experiencing clinical skill test was helpful for it. Third, the current contents and methods to evaluate clinical skill in the medical schools were variable and desirable. We concluded it was high time to change our medical examination system for evaluating the clinical skill performance of medical students.

  4. Designing occupancy studies: general advice and allocating survey effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    1. The fraction of sampling units in a landscape where a target species is present (occupancy) is an extensively used concept in ecology. Yet in many applications the species will not always be detected in a sampling unit even when present, resulting in biased estimates of occupancy. Given that sampling units are surveyed repeatedly within a relatively short timeframe, a number of similar methods have now been developed to provide unbiased occupancy estimates. However, practical guidance on the efficient design of occupancy studies has been lacking. 2. In this paper we comment on a number of general issues related to designing occupancy studies, including the need for clear objectives that are explicitly linked to science or management, selection of sampling units, timing of repeat surveys and allocation of survey effort. Advice on the number of repeat surveys per sampling unit is considered in terms of the variance of the occupancy estimator, for three possible study designs. 3. We recommend that sampling units should be surveyed a minimum of three times when detection probability is high (> 0.5 survey-1), unless a removal design is used. 4. We found that an optimal removal design will generally be the most efficient, but we suggest it may be less robust to assumption violations than a standard design. 5. Our results suggest that for a rare species it is more efficient to survey more sampling units less intensively, while for a common species fewer sampling units should be surveyed more intensively. 6. Synthesis and applications. Reliable inferences can only result from quality data. To make the best use of logistical resources, study objectives must be clearly defined; sampling units must be selected, and repeated surveys timed appropriately; and a sufficient number of repeated surveys must be conducted. Failure to do so may compromise the integrity of the study. The guidance given here on study design issues is particularly applicable to studies of species

  5. Use of fake identification to purchase alcohol amongst 15-16 year olds: a cross-sectional survey examining alcohol access, consumption and harm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morleo, Michela; Cook, Penny A; Bellis, Mark A; Smallthwaite, Linda

    2010-01-01

    ... risk of alcohol-related harm. An opportunistic survey of 15-16 year olds (n = 9,833) across North West England was used to examine alcohol consumption, methods of access and related harms experienced...

  6. Dietary vitamin C intake protects against COPD: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hye Jung Park,1 Min Kwang Byun,1 Hyung Jung Kim,1 Jae Yeol Kim,2 Yu-Il Kim,3 Kwang-Ha Yoo,4 Eun Mi Chun,5 Ji Ye Jung,6 Sang Haak Lee,7 Chul Min Ahn1 On behalf of the Korean Smoking Cessation Study Group 1Department of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, 6Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Chest Disease, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 7Division of Pulmonology, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea Background: Vitamin C, as an antioxidant, has recently been suggested to provide protection against COPD; however, only few national cohort studies have investigated these effects. We aimed to confirm the protective effects of vitamin C against COPD in Korean patients. Patients and methods: We analyzed the data of 3,283 adults aged ≥40 years (representing 23,541,704 subjects who underwent pulmonary function tests and responded to questionnaires on smoking history and vitamin C intake, with stratification variables and sampling weight designated by the Korea 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results: Among all the subjects, 512 (representing 3,459,679 subjects; 15.6% were diagnosed as having COPD based on pulmonary function test results. Male gender, old age, residence in suburban/rural regions, low household income, low educational level, an occupation in agriculture or fisheries, and heavy smoking were significantly associated with COPD. Low intake of nutrients, including potassium, vitamin A, carotene, retinol

  7. Trichomoniasis and other sexually transmitted infections: results from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsworth, Jenifer E; Ratner, Jane Alyce; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2009-12-01

    To estimate the association between Trichomonas vaginalis infection (TV) and 6 sexually transmitted infections: chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes simplex virus (Types 1 and 2), syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a nationally representative sample. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey combining the 2001-2002 and 2003-2004 waves to estimate the association between TV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among women in the civilian, noninstitutionalized US population. The final sample included data from 3648 women, which when weighted, represents the experience of 65,563,298 US women between the ages of 14 and 49. Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using logistic regression for rare STIs (trichomoniasis was 3.2% with over 80% of cases asymptomatic in the past month. All STIs examined (chlamydia, gonorrhea, HSV-1, HSV-2, syphilis, and HIV) were more common among women with a positive test for trichomoniasis. HSV-1 (RR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.34) and HSV-2 (RR = 1.51, 95% CI: 2.32, 3.23) were significantly associated with trichomoniasis after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, and recent sexual partners. In crude analyses, a positive treponemal test was 6 times (95% CI: 2.07, 18.8) more common and HIV was 13 times (95% CI: 2.88, 59.1) more common among women with trichomoniasis, but these estimates were greatly attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders. Trichomoniasis is significantly associated with concurrent STI.

  8. Take a Break: Examining College Students' Media Multitasking Activities and Motivations during Study- or Work-Related Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Anastasia G.; Yuan, Shupei

    2017-01-01

    A survey (N = 524) examined how frequently college students engage in multitasking with social media, texting/instant messaging (IM), and music while studying/working and what motivates them to multitask with each medium. Four out of five participants multitasked with Facebook and texting/IM, and two out of three multitasked with music. Habit was…

  9. Sex- and age-differences in blood manganese levels in the U.S. general population: national health and nutrition examination survey 2011–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Manganese is an essential element, but excessive manganese exposure has neurotoxic effects. Objective To examine blood manganese levels in the general population with respect to sex, age, race/ethnicity, pregnancy and menauposal status, as well as levels of trace elements in blood. Methods We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a national survey of U.S. residents (n = 7720 participants, ages 1 to 80 years). General linear models and generalized addi...

  10. A Comparative Study of Graduate Employment Surveys: 2003-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changjun, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Based on data from nationwide surveys of graduates conducted in 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 by the Institute of Economics of Education, Peking University, this article provides a statistical comparative analysis of employment results and the job search process. It examines the characteristics of college graduate employment in China, as well…

  11. Comorbidities in obstructive lung disease in Korea: data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hee Jin Park, Ah Young Leem, Sang Hoon Lee, Ju Han Song, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Kyung Soo Chung Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Institute of Chest Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Background: Comorbidities can occur frequently in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and can influence mortality and morbidity independently. It is increasingly recognized that many patients with COPD have comorbidities that have a major impact on their quality of life and survival. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of comorbidities in Korean COPD populations. Methods: We used data obtained in the 6 years of the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV and V. Among 50,405 subjects, 16,151 subjects aged ≥40 years who performed spirometry adequately were included in this study. Airway obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.7, and the Global Initiative For Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage was used to evaluate the severity of airway obstruction. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.2. Results: Among the 16,151 subjects (43.2% male, 56.8% female; mean age: 57.1 years for men and 57.2 years for women, 13.1% had obstructive lung function; 11.3%, restrictive lung function; and 75.6%, normal lung function. Among individuals with obstructive lung function, 45.3%, 49.4%, and 5.3% had mild, moderate, and severe and very severe airflow limitation. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, underweight, and hypertriglyceridemia was higher in the obstructive lung function group than in the normal lung function group (49.6% vs 35.2%; 16.8% vs 10.5%; 3.3% vs 1.3%; 19.7% vs 17.0%. According to the severity of airway obstruction, hypertension and underweight were more common as severity increased

  12. Jet reliability study Survey and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, G.

    2015-07-01

    Culham Center for Fusion Energy (CCFE) in UK has been contracted to undertake a second Deuterium-Tritium Experiment (DTE2) using Join European Torus (JET) in 2017, in support of technical developments for the ITER project. In order to manage risks of delay or early project termination CCFE has adopted a risk based inspection (RBI) process to identify the systems which could influence the successful delivery of DTE2 and in turn to identify by a basic risk assessment process those systems or components which require mitigating action in order to minimize risk. In this context, the primary purpose of the RBI is to address issues of reliability and satisfactory functionality in a similar way to that which a power plant operator would take to address its commercial risks in the event of loss of generating capacity. The objective of this presentation is describe the activities developed for Idom to deliver the survey, interviews and risk assessment of different systems of JET with the aim to identify the critical components and system that could affect the operation of JET during the DTE2 experiment. (Author)

  13. Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) and II (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) in Thai adults aged ≥20 years were 26.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Compared with primary education, the odds of obesity class I were highest in men with university education. For women, the odds of obesity classes I and II were highest in those with primary education. BMI significantly increased from 21.6 kg/m2 in men and 22.8 kg/m2 in women in 1991 to 23.3 kg/m2 and 24.4 kg/m2 in 2009, respectively. The average BMI increases per decade were highest in men with secondary education (1.0 kg/m2, P < 0.001) and in women with primary education with the same rate. There were increasing trends in BMI with slight variation by SES groups in Thai men and women during 1991–2009. PMID:24757561

  14. Parental Knowledge: Examining Reporter Discrepancies and Links to School Engagement Among Middle School Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M; Wehrspann, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    It is well established that parental knowledge contributes to adolescents' well-being and school success and scholars have noted that parents and adolescents report different levels of knowledge. Discrepancies in parental knowledge have implications for adolescent outcomes such as risk behaviors, but little is known about the implications of knowledge discrepancies for adolescents' school outcomes. The present study examined discrepancies in parent and adolescent reports of parental knowledge and investigated the extent to which knowledge discrepancies were linked to school engagement. Participants were early adolescents (N = 174; 53 % female) and their parents (90 % mothers). Adolescents (57 % African American/Black, 18 % multiracial, 17 % White/Caucasian, 7 % Hispanic/Latino and 1 % Asian American) attended a Midwestern, Title 1, urban, public middle school. Adolescents completed surveys in their homerooms and parents completed paper-pencil surveys at home or surveys via telephone. Results showed that parents reported more knowledge of adolescents' activities and whereabouts compared to adolescents' reports. Knowledge discrepancies were associated with school bonding and school self-esteem such that dyads in which adolescents reported more knowledge than their parents reported had significantly higher levels of school bonding and school self-esteem compared to dyads in which parents reported much more knowledge.

  15. [Ethical behavioral standards of medical students on examinations and studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkin, Lior; Glick, Shimon

    2007-06-01

    In recent years the medical literature has reflected an increasing interest in the medical ethics of physicians and medical students. Studies have shown that cheating in medical school is frequent enough to cause concern, that there is a positive correlation between students' ethical attitude and their ethical behavior and between cheating in school and cheating in patient care. This study aims to examine student attitudes towards cheating, their self-reported behavior, analyze cultural and sub-cultural differences, and to reach practical conclusions that might be incorporated into the teaching of ethics in medical schools. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed to 193 first and second year students of the Israeli and American programs at Ben-Gurion University. The questionnaire consisted of fifty three multiple choice questions. The students were asked to state their opinion on various cheating practices at medical school and dishonesty in patient care, to estimate how they would resolve various ethical dilemmas and to provide some demographic information. The results were analyzed using SPSS. T-tests, Chi-Square tests, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman's coefficients, all used as appropriate. Completed questionnaires were returned by 141 students (73%). The majority of the students regard cheating in an exam (93%) or on a final paper (85%) to be morally unacceptable behavior. Copying during an exam is regarded as more morally unacceptable than copying a homework exercise. The majority of the students consider faking a patient's laboratory results to be morally unacceptable behavior (98%). American students regard copying a homework exercise, reconstructing exam questions for the benefit of next year students and giving answers to a fellow student during an exam to be more morally unacceptable in comparison to the Israeli students. Married students consider cheating to be more morally unacceptable than unmarried students. A positive

  16. A meta-study investigating the sources of protest behaviour in stated preference surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

      It is well known that some percentage of respondents participating in Stated Preference surveys will not give responses which reflect their true preferences. One reason is protest behaviour. If the distribution of protest responses is not independent of respondent demographics, the elicitation...... method, the question format, etc., then simply expelling protesters from surveys will lead to sample selection issues. Furthermore, WTP estimates will not be comparable across surveys. This paper seeks to explore potential causes of protest behaviour through a meta-study based on data from 10 different...... surveys. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of respondent specific variables as well as survey specific variables on protest behaviour. Our results suggest that some of the differences in WTP typically observed between different demographic groups, different elicitation formats...

  17. Self-reported study habits for enhancing medical students' performance in the National Medical Unified Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Amr; Al Saadi, Tareq; Edris, Basel; Sawaf, Bisher; Zakaria, Mhd Ismael; Alkhatib, Mahmoud; Turk, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    The National Medical Unified Examination (NMUE) is currently required for graduation, joining postgraduate medical training, and practicing medicine in Syria. To investigate self-reported study habits that correlate with high performance on the NMUE. First through 3(rd) year residents at the three main hospitals in Damascus, Syria, were asked to complete a retrospective cross-sectional survey investigating their study habits and previous scores. Significantly higher score was associated with >15 study h/day and allocating 1-40% of study time for practicing questions. Mean NMUE score was not significantly different in relation to preparation months for examination or for those who reported spending all their time studying alone compared with spending any amount of time in a group setting. Scores of 231-240 on the Syrian scientific high school exam correlated with significantly higher NMUE performance compared with fewer scores, except scores of 221-230. For every 10 point increase in medical school cumulative grades, the NMUE score increased 3.6 (95% confidence interval 2.5-4.8). The NMUE score was significantly affected by hours spent studying per day, number of practice questions completed, percentage of study time allocated for doing questions, Syrian scientific high school exam scores, and the cumulative medical school class grades. It was not significantly affected by preparation months or studying in a group setting. More studies are needed to further describe and investigate the factors that might affect performance in the NMUE.

  18. Self-reported study habits for enhancing medical students’ performance in the National Medical Unified Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Amr; Al Saadi, Tareq; Edris, Basel; Sawaf, Bisher; Zakaria, Mhd. Ismael; Alkhatib, Mahmoud; Turk, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Background: The National Medical Unified Examination (NMUE) is currently required for graduation, joining postgraduate medical training, and practicing medicine in Syria. Objective: To investigate self-reported study habits that correlate with high performance on the NMUE. Methods: First through 3rd year residents at the three main hospitals in Damascus, Syria, were asked to complete a retrospective cross-sectional survey investigating their study habits and previous scores. Results: Significantly higher score was associated with >15 study h/day and allocating 1–40% of study time for practicing questions. Mean NMUE score was not significantly different in relation to preparation months for examination or for those who reported spending all their time studying alone compared with spending any amount of time in a group setting. Scores of 231–240 on the Syrian scientific high school exam correlated with significantly higher NMUE performance compared with fewer scores, except scores of 221–230. For every 10 point increase in medical school cumulative grades, the NMUE score increased 3.6 (95% confidence interval 2.5–4.8). Conclusion: The NMUE score was significantly affected by hours spent studying per day, number of practice questions completed, percentage of study time allocated for doing questions, Syrian scientific high school exam scores, and the cumulative medical school class grades. It was not significantly affected by preparation months or studying in a group setting. More studies are needed to further describe and investigate the factors that might affect performance in the NMUE. PMID:27144140

  19. Mixed Method Study Examines Undergraduate Student Researchers’ Knowledge and Perceptions About Scholarly Communication Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Goertzen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Riehle, C. F., & Hensley, M. K. (2017. What do undergraduate students know about scholarly communication?: A mixed methods study. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 17(1, 145–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/pla.2017.0009 Abstract Objective – To examine undergraduate student researchers’ perception and understanding of scholarly communication practices and issues. Design – Mixed method study involving a survey and semi-structured interviews. Setting – Two major undergraduate universities in the Midwest region of the United States. Subjects – Undergraduate students who participated in or had completed undergraduate research experiences with faculty mentors. Method – The method was first approved by Institutional Review Board offices at both campuses involved in the study. Then, students received invitations to participate in a survey via email (Campus 1 = 221 students; Campus 2 = 345 students. Identical online surveys ran separately on each campus; both remained open for a period of three weeks. All respondents received a reminder email one week before the survey closed. Participants answered twelve questions related to demographics and scholarly communication practices. The survey examined knowledge and experience across five areas: the peer review process, author and publisher rights, publication and access models, impact of research, and data management. All students who completed the survey were entered in a drawing for a $50 Amazon card. The response rates were 34.8% (Campus 1 and 18.6% (Campus 2. Surveys on both campuses were administered using different software: campus 1 utilized Qualtrics survey software while campus 2 used an institution-specific survey software. Data sets were normed and merged later in the study to enable comparison and identify broad themes. Survey respondents were also invited to participate in a 15 to 20 minute follow-up interview and were compensated with a $20 Amazon gift card. The

  20. [Study of skin markers for magnetic resonance imaging examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Umezaki, Yoshie; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yamamura, Kenichirou

    2013-03-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skin markers are used as a landmark in order to make plans for examinations. However, there isn't a lot of research about the material and shape of skin markers. The skin marker's essential elements are safety, good cost performance, high signal intensity for T1 weighted image (T1WI) and T2 weighted image (T2WI), and durable. In order to get a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of T1WI and T2WI, baby oil, salad oil and olive oil were chosen, because these materials were easy to obtain and safe for the skin. The SNR of baby oil was the best. Baby oil was injected into the infusion tube, and the tube was solvent welded and cut by a heat sealer. In order to make ring shaped skin markers, both ends of the tube were stuck with adhesive tape. Three different diameters of markers were made (3, 5, 10 cmψ). Ring shaped skin markers were put on to surround the examination area, therefore, the edge of the examination area could be seen at every cross section. Using baby oil in the ring shaped infusion tube is simple, easy, and a highly useful skin marker.

  1. A survey of front-line paramedics examining the professional relationship between paramedics and physician medical oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Christopher R; Tavares, Walter; Virkkunen, Ilkka; Kämäräinen, Antti

    2017-06-07

    Paramedicine is often dependent on physician medical directors and their associated programs for direction and oversight. A positive relationship between paramedics and their oversight physicians promotes safety and quality care while a strained or ineffective one may threaten these goals. The objective of this study was to explore and understand the professional relationship between paramedics and physician medical oversight as viewed by front-line paramedics. All active front-line paramedics from four municipal paramedic services involving three medical oversight groups in Ontario were invited to complete an online survey. Five hundred and four paramedics were invited to participate in the study, with 242 completing the survey (48% response rate); 66% male, 76% primary care paramedics with an average of 13 (SD=9) years of experience. Paramedics had neutral or positive perceptions regarding their autonomy, opportunities to interact with their medical director, and medical director understanding of the prehospital setting. Paramedics perceived medical directives as rigid and ambiguous. A significant amount of respondents reported a perception of having provided suboptimal patient care due to fear of legal or disciplinary consequences. Issues of a lack of support for critical thinking and a lack of trust between paramedics and medical oversight groups were often raised. Paramedic perceptions of physician medical oversight were mixed. Concerning areas identified were perceptions of ambiguous written directives and concerns related to the level of trust and support for critical thinking. These perceptions may have implications for the system of care and should be explored further.

  2. Use of structured musculoskeletal examination routines in undergraduate medical education and postgraduate clinical practice - a UK survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kenneth F; Jandial, Sharmila; Thompson, Ben; Walker, David; Taylor, Ken; Foster, Helen E

    2016-10-21

    Structured examination routines have been developed as educational resources for musculoskeletal clinical skills teaching, including Gait-Arms-Legs-Spine (GALS), Regional Examination of the Musculoskeletal System (REMS) and paediatric GALS (pGALS). In this study, we aimed to assess the awareness and use of these examination routines in undergraduate medical teaching in UK medical schools and UK postgraduate clinical practice. Electronic questionnaires were distributed to adult and paediatric musculoskeletal teaching leads at UK medical schools and current UK doctors in training. Responses were received from 67 tutors representing teaching at 22/33 [67 %] of all UK medical schools, and 70 trainee doctors across a range of postgraduate training specialities. There was widespread adoption, at responding medical schools, of the adult examination routines within musculoskeletal teaching (GALS: 14/16 [88 %]; REMS: 12/16 [75 %]) and assessment (GALS: 13/16 [81 %]; REMS: 12/16 [75 %]). More trainees were aware of GALS (64/70 [91 %]) than REMS (14/67 [21 %]). Of the 39 trainees who used GALS in their clinical practice, 35/39 [90 %] reported that it had improved their confidence in musculoskeletal examination. Of the 17/22 responding medical schools that included paediatric musculoskeletal examination within their curricula, 15/17 [88 %] used the pGALS approach and this was included within student assessment at 4 medical schools. We demonstrate the widespread adoption of these examination routines in undergraduate education and significant uptake in postgraduate clinical practice. Further study is required to understand their impact upon clinical performance.

  3. Use of the National Board of Medical Examiners® Comprehensive Basic Science Exam: survey results of US medical schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William S; Baston, Kirk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE) is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE) Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools. Methods A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME®) website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate). A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated “yes” or “no” to the initial question “Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?”. Results A total of 37 schools (70%) administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36%) used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17%) used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14%) used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78%) used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67%) of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28%) schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1. Conclusion Our data suggest that the NBME CBSE is administered by many US medical schools. However, the objective, timing, and number of exams administered vary greatly among schools. PMID

  4. Identifying patterns of item missing survey data using latent groups: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwee, Paul; Nathan, Andrea; Burton, Nicola W; Turrell, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether respondents to a survey of health and physical activity and potential determinants could be grouped according to the questions they missed, known as ‘item missing’. Design Observational study of longitudinal data. Setting Residents of Brisbane, Australia. Participants 6901 people aged 40–65 years in 2007. Materials and methods We used a latent class model with a mixture of multinomial distributions and chose the number of classes using the Bayesian information criterion. We used logistic regression to examine if participants’ characteristics were associated with their modal latent class. We used logistic regression to examine whether the amount of item missing in a survey predicted wave missing in the following survey. Results Four per cent of participants missed almost one-fifth of the questions, and this group missed more questions in the middle of the survey. Eighty-three per cent of participants completed almost every question, but had a relatively high missing probability for a question on sleep time, a question which had an inconsistent presentation compared with the rest of the survey. Participants who completed almost every question were generally younger and more educated. Participants who completed more questions were less likely to miss the next longitudinal wave. Conclusions Examining patterns in item missing data has improved our understanding of how missing data were generated and has informed future survey design to help reduce missing data. PMID:29084795

  5. Who Is Food Insecure? Implications for Targeted Recruitment and Outreach, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Tammy; Xuan, Lei; Amory, Richard; Higashi, Robin T.; Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Pezzia, Carla; Swales, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food insecurity is negatively associated with health; however, health needs may differ among people participating in food assistance programs. Our objectives were to characterize differences in health among people receiving different types of food assistance and summarize strategies for targeted recruitment and outreach of various food insecure populations. Methods We examined health status, behaviors, and health care access associated with food insecurity and receipt of food assistance among US adults aged 20 years or older using data from participants (N = 16,934) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 through 2010. Results Food insecurity affected 19.3% of US adults (95% confidence interval, 17.9%–20.7%). People who were food insecure reported poorer health and less health care access than those who were food secure (P < .001 for all). Among those who were food insecure, 58.0% received no assistance, 20.3% received only Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, 9.7% received only food bank assistance, and 12.0% received both SNAP and food bank assistance. We observed an inverse relationship between receipt of food assistance and health and health behaviors among the food insecure. Receipt of both (SNAP and food bank assistance) was associated with the poorest health; receiving no assistance was associated with the best health. For example, functional limitations were twice as prevalent among people receiving both types of food assistance than among those receiving none. Conclusion Receipt of food assistance is an overlooked factor associated with health and has the potential to shape future chronic disease prevention efforts among the food insecure. PMID:27736055

  6. Acculturation and diabetes among Hispanics: evidence from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Majeed, Azeem; Koopman, Richelle J; Baker, Richard; Everett, Charles J; Tilley, Barbara C; Diaz, Vanessa A

    2006-01-01

    Hispanic individuals in the United States have a greater prevalence of diabetes mellitus than non-Hispanic white individuals; however, it is unclear whether Hispanics' risk of diabetes differs based on their level of acculturation. The purpose of our research was to examine acculturation among Hispanic Americans with respect to prevalence and control of diabetes. We conducted an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population. We evaluated data on Hispanic adults (> or = 18 years of age, unweighted n=2,696), analyzing diagnosed diabetes, glycemic blood pressure and lipid control, and diabetes complications according to acculturation as measured by language and birth outside the United States. Hispanics with low acculturation were more likely to be without a routine place for health care, have no health insurance, and have low levels of education. In adjusted analyses, individuals with low acculturation, measured by language, were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 3.54). Among individuals with diagnosed diabetes, no significant association was yielded between acculturation and diabetes control. However, individuals with low language acculturation were more likely to have the diabetes complication of peripheral neuropathy (OR 4.01, 95% CI 1.40, 11.48). Acculturation as measured through language is associated with diabetes and complications among Hispanics even after controlling for a variety of demographic characteristics including health insurance and education. The findings suggest that even within a "single" minority ethnic group, there are differences in disease prevalence and complications and access to health care.

  7. Hypertension burden in Luxembourg: Individual risk factors and geographic variations, 2013 to 2015 European Health Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castell, Maria; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Kuemmerle, Andrea; Schritz, Anna; Barré, Jessica; Delagardelle, Charles; Krippler, Serge; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Stranges, Saverio

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but it remains the main cause of death in Luxembourg. We aimed to estimate the current prevalence of hypertension, associated risk factors, and its geographic variation in Luxembourg.Cross-sectional, population-based data on 1497 randomly selected Luxembourg residents aged 25 to 64 years were collected as part of the European Health Examination Survey from 2013 to 2015. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg, self-report of a physician diagnosis or on antihypertensive medication. Standard and Bayesian regressions were used to examine associations between hypertension and covariates, and also geographic distribution of hypertension across the country.Nearly 31% of Luxembourg residents were hypertensive, and over 70% of those were either unaware of their condition or not adequately controlled. The likelihood of hypertension was lower in men more physically active (odds ratio [95% credible region] 0.6 [0.4, 0.9]) and consuming alcohol daily (0.3 [0.1, 0.8]), and higher in men with a poor health perception (1.6 [1.0, 2.7]) and in women experiencing depressive symptoms (1.8 [1.3, 2.7]). There were geographic variations in hypertension prevalence across cantons and municipalities. The highest odds ratio was observed in the most industrialized region (South-West) (1.2 [0.9, 1.6]) with a positive effect at 90% credible region.In Luxembourg, the vast majority of people with hypertension are either unaware of their condition or not adequately controlled, which constitutes a major, neglected public health challenge. There are geographic variations in hypertension prevalence in Luxembourg, hence the role of individual and regional risk factors along with public health initiatives to reduce disease burden should be considered.

  8. Prevalence and management of diabetes and metabolic risk factors in Thai adults: the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Inthawong, Rungkarn; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2011-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes in Thai adults in 2009 and examine the extent of changes in proportions of diagnosis, treatment, and control for blood glucose, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol between 2004 and 2009. Data from the multistage cross-sectional National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV of 18,629 Thai adults aged ≥20 years conducted in 2009 were used to analyze and compare with the data from NHES III in 2004. The prevalence of IFG and diabetes was 10.6 and 7.5%, respectively. Of all diabetes diagnoses, 35.4% were not previously diagnosed, and the proportion was higher in men than in women (47.3 vs. 23.4%, P < 0.05). Compared with those in year 2004, the proportions of individuals with diabetes and concomitant hypertension did not significantly decrease in 2009 in both sexes, but the proportions of women with diabetes who were abdominally obese or had high total cholesterol (≥5.2 mmol/L) significantly increased in 2009 by 18.0 and 23.5%, respectively (all P < 0.01). The rates of treatment and control of blood glucose, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol were favorably improved in 2009. However, in substantial proportions of individuals with diabetes these concomitants were still controlled suboptimally. The prevalence of diabetes and IFG remained high in Thai adults. Improvement in detection and control of diabetes and associated metabolic risk factors, particularly obesity and high serum cholesterol, are necessary.

  9. Dyslipidemia and Food Security in Low-Income US Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, June M; Laraia, Barbara A; Leung, Cindy W; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2016-02-11

    Low levels of food security are associated with dyslipidemia and chronic disease in adults, particularly in women. There is a gap in knowledge about the relationship between food security among youth and dyslipidemia and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between food security status and dyslipidemia among low-income adolescents. We analyzed data from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (N = 1,072) from households with incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between household food security status and the odds of having abnormalities with fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TG/HDL-C ratio, and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). Models included age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, partnered status in the household, and maternal education, with additional adjustment for adiposity. Household food security status was not associated with elevated TC or LDL-C. Adolescents with marginal food security were more likely than food-secure peers to have elevated TGs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-3.05), TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11-2.82), and Apo B (OR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.17-3.36). Female adolescents with marginal food security had greater odds than male adolescents of having low HDL-C (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.14-6.37). No elevated odds of dyslipidemia were found for adolescents with low or very low food security. Adjustment for adiposity did not attenuate estimates. In this nationally representative sample, low-income adolescents living in households with marginal food security had increased odds of having a pattern consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia, which represents a cardiometabolic burden above their risk from adiposity alone.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Subgroup Disparities in Hypertension Prevalence, New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Kezhen; Rodriguez-Lopez, Jesica S; Ramos, Marcel; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Yi, Stella S; Chernov, Claudia; Perlman, Sharon E; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2017-04-20

    Racial/ethnic minority adults have higher rates of hypertension than non-Hispanic white adults. We examined the prevalence of hypertension among Hispanic and Asian subgroups in New York City. Data from the 2013-2014 New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess hypertension prevalence among adults (aged ≥20) in New York City (n = 1,476). Hypertension was measured (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or self-reported hypertension and use of blood pressure medication). Participants self-reported race/ethnicity and country of origin. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed differences in prevalence by race/ethnicity and sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Overall hypertension prevalence among adults in New York City was 33.9% (43.5% for non-Hispanic blacks, 38.0% for Asians, 33.0% for Hispanics, and 27.5% for non-Hispanic whites). Among Hispanic adults, prevalence was 39.4% for Dominican, 34.2% for Puerto Rican, and 27.5% for Central/South American adults. Among Asian adults, prevalence was 43.0% for South Asian and 39.9% for East/Southeast Asian adults. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and body mass index, 2 major racial/ethnic minority groups had higher odds of hypertension than non-Hispanic whites: non-Hispanic black (AOR [adjusted odds ratio], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.9) and Asian (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4) adults. Two subgroups had greater odds of hypertension than the non-Hispanic white group: East/Southeast Asian adults (AOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.6-4.9) and Dominican adults (AOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). Racial/ethnic minority subgroups vary in hypertension prevalence, suggesting the need for targeted interventions.

  11. A pilot study examining the effects of faculty incivility on nursing program satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Todd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncivil behavior in the classroom threatens the teaching-learning process. Research to date has focused on nursing student incivility in academia with little research examining the faculty role associated with incivility. Due to the lack of research examining faculty incivility toward nursing students, additional research in this area is indicated. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of faculty incivility on nursing students′ satisfaction with their Bachelor of Science Nursing (BSN nursing program in a rural Southeastern state. Quantitative data was collected via surveys. Research questions included: (1 What percentage of senior nursing students report experiencing faculty incivility? (2 What is the relationship between faculty incivility and nursing students′ ratings of program satisfaction? (3 In what educational settings does perceived incivility toward nursing students occur? (4 How do nursing students respond to perceived faculty incivility? The results of this survey revealed that 35.3% of students had at least one nursing instructor that put them down or was condescending toward them during their educational experience. Furthermore, 20.7% reported that two or more faculty put them down or were condescending toward them. Collectively, the pilot study revealed that over half of the participants reported faculty behaving in a way that was perceived as uncivil. Incivility in the nursing profession has been an on-going problem. The high number (over half of participating students reporting that they perceived that at least one nursing instructor had put them down or was condescending toward them during their educational experience raises additional concerns for the level of civility in nursing programs and the role modeling that is presented to students. It is imperative that nursing faculty and students interact professionally and establish effective communication patterns.

  12. Overview of the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study was conducted over a five-year period from 1994-1998, to characterize determinants of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant perceptions in representative public and commercial office buildings.

  13. Position fixing and surveying techniques for marine archaeological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    This technical report comprises of two major aspects: (1) Surface positioning and (2) Sub-surface Positioning, which are followed for obtaining geographical positions while carrying out marine archaeological studies. Also, it analyses various survey...

  14. Promoting Sustainability through EMS Application: A Survey Examining the Critical Factors about EMAS Registration in Italian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Merli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the tools set by the European Community (EC to reduce the environmental impact of firms is EMAS Regulation (Regulation (EC No 1221/2009, setting up an Environmental Management System (EMS, which aims for a continuous improvement of environmental performances. Italy has the highest number of certified organization among all European Member States, accounting for over one thousand registrations. The paper presents the result of a survey conducted through a questionnaire about EMAS implementation and targeted to all Italian registered organizations. Of nearly 1000 organizations, over 500 answers were collected. The main goal is to understand how organizations experience the scheme, focusing on main drivers for its adoption, main difficulties encountered, and perceived benefits. In particular, survey results contribute to define a reflection on the difficulties regarding EMAS diffusion among European companies. Aspects identified as critical can lead to a contraction of registration requests, especially those formulated by SMEs, which constitute the majority of Italian companies. Moreover, perceived difficulties might affect the firms’ willingness to renew EMAS registration. Data provided by the Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA recently highlighted the increasing rate of firms who decide to withdraw from registration. This study offers interesting inputs related to main critical issues in EMAS implementation, which can be the baseline for future research on companies that abandon the certification scheme, in order to provide suggestions for the improvement of its effectiveness both for national and communitarian institutions.

  15. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginde, Adit A; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Camargo, Carlos A

    2009-02-23

    Recent studies suggest a role for vitamin D in innate immunity, including the prevention of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). We hypothesize that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels are inversely associated with self-reported recent upper RTI (URTI). We performed a secondary analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a probability survey of the US population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We examined the association between 25(OH)D level and recent URTI in 18 883 participants 12 years and older. The analysis adjusted for demographics and clinical factors (season, body mass index, smoking history, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The median serum 25(OH)D level was 29 ng/mL (to convert to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 2.496) (interquartile range, 21-37 ng/mL), and 19% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18%-20%) of participants reported a recent URTI. Recent URTI was reported by 24% of participants with 25(OH)D levels less than 10 ng/mL, by 20% with levels of 10 to less than 30 ng/mL, and by 17% with levels of 30 ng/mL or more (P or =30 ng/mL: odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84 for respiratory tract diseases. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to explore the effects of vitamin D supplementation on RTI.

  16. Associations Among Oral Hygiene Behavior and Hypertension Prevalence and Control: The 2008 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Min; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Park, Jun-Beom

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a positive association has been reported between hypertension and periodontitis. The authors hypothesized that oral hygiene promotion activities could have an effect on hypertension prevention or the degree of hypertension control. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between oral hygiene behaviors and hypertension using data from a nationally representative survey, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Using data from the KNHANES (2008 to 2010), 19,560 adults with complete data sets were included. The authors analyzed the relationship of the prevalence and control rate of hypertension and numerous variables, including oral hygiene behavior. As the frequency of toothbrushing increased, the prevalence of hypertension decreased in multivariate analysis after adjusting for various factors, including the presence of periodontitis. In a subgroup analysis, this relationship was also observed in individuals without periodontitis. In particular, systolic blood pressure levels progressively decreased as the frequency of toothbrushing and the number of secondary oral products used increased. The adjusted odds ratio of hypertension prevalence was 1.195 (95% confidence interval 1.033 to 1.383) for individuals who brushed their teeth hardly ever or once daily compared with those who brushed after every meal. Individuals with poor oral hygiene behavior are more likely to have a higher prevalence of hypertension, even before periodontitis is shown. Oral hygiene behavior may be considered an independent risk indicator for hypertension, and maintaining good oral hygiene may help to prevent and control hypertension.

  17. Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Gallegos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 1999–2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003–2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 µg/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 µg/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population—children and older adults—have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels.

  18. Association of heart rate with albuminuria in a general adult population: the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H S; Hong, J W; Lee, J H; Noh, J H; Kim, D J

    2015-04-01

    Albuminuria is associated with increased risk of multiple adverse health outcomes, such as progressive renal failure, cardiovascular disease and death. However, in the general population, it is uncertain whether albuminuria is associated with elevated heart rate, which is an independent and powerful risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate whether an elevated heart rate is an independent factor associated with albuminuria in the general adult population of Korea. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 5198 Korean adults aged 19 years or older who participated in the fifth (2011) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2). The prevalence of albuminuria showed an increasing trend throughout the whole range of heart rate, even after adjusting for confounders (P = 0.002). The increment was most profound at the heart rate of 70-75 and >76 beats per minute (b.p.m.; P = 0.011). In multiple logistic regression analysis, age (P albuminuria in Korean adults. Compared with participants with heart rate ≤ 64 b.p.m., the odds ratio (95% CI) for albuminuria was 1.50 (1.15-1.96) for those with heart rate ≥ 76 b.p.m. The prevalence of albuminuria is independently associated with heart rate in the general adult population of Korea. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. [Socioeconomic status and health: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, T; Kroll, L E; von der Lippe, E; Müters, S; Stolzenberg, H

    2013-05-01

    The analysis focuses on the connection between socioeconomic status (SES) and five health outcomes in the 18 to 79-year-old population of Germany. It uses data from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) which the Robert Koch Institute conducted in the period from 2008 to 2011 (n=8152). Socioeconomic status is recorded via a multidimensional index which includes information on education attainment, occupational status and household income. The results show that persons with a low socioeconomic status have a self-rated health status which is worse than that of persons with a medium or high socioeconomic status, and that they have diabetes more frequently. They also have a higher risk of depressive symptoms, obesity and physical inactivity. The results illustrate that health chances and the risk of illness are still very socially uneven distributed, thus emphasising the significance of political interventions to reduce health inequalities. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  20. Parathyroid Hormone as a Novel Biomarker for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Hyun Park

    Full Text Available To understand and predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a biomarker that reflects disease severity is needed.Data from 10269 adults aged over 40 years of age were retrieved from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, and 1302 patients met the criteria for COPD. The association between values of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH, and COPD severity including lung function and quality of life, were analyzed.In COPD patients, lung function was inversely related to PTH values (P = 0.02 for FVC [% predicted]; P < 0.001 for FEV1 [% predicted]; however, the association of lung function with vitamin D levels was not statistically significant in a multivariable analysis. Value of PTH was independently associated with EQ5D-index (P = 0.04, but vitamin D level showed no significant relationship with EQ5D-index (P = 0.59 or EQ5D-VAS (P = 0.81.Elevation of PTH, unlike vitamin D, is independently associated with COPD severity, and may be a better biomarker for COPD.

  1. Milk Consumption and Framingham Risk Score: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam Seok; Yang, Sung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Choi, Sung Jin; Song, Byeng Chun; Yeum, Kyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    The benefit of milk intake remains controversial. The association between milk consumption and Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in a population consuming relatively low amounts of dairy products is undetermined. A total of 13736 adults (5718 male and 8018 female) aged 20-80 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to milk consumption (rarely, monthly, weekly, and daily) and compared according to FRS after relevant variable adjustments. The mean FRS in males and females were 6.53 and 5.74, respectively. Males who consumed milk daily (15.9%) had a significantly lower FRS than males having milk rarely (31.6%) or monthly (17.4%; p=0.007). Females who consumed milk daily (22.3%) also had significantly lower FRS than rarely (29.8%), monthly (13.8%), or weekly (34%; p=0.001) consumers. In particular, males ≥60 years old who consumed milk daily had a significantly lower FRS than males who consumed less milk (pmilk consumption groups when compared with the daily milk consumption group. Milk consumption was associated with a lower FRS in a low milk-consuming population. In particular, daily milk consumption in males over 60 years old may be beneficial for those at risk for cardiovascular disease.

  2. Smoking induced heavy metals and periodontitis: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-Hun; Lee, Hye-Ju; Lim, Sinye

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to hazardous heavy metals such as cadmium and lead may contribute to increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the periodontal tissue. We aimed to evaluate the association between serum cadmium and lead levels and periodontitis. Pooled cross-sectional data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010 were used. Periodontitis was defined as WHO community periodontal index. Active smokers were defined as self-reported current smokers or those with measured urine cotinine ≥164 ng/ml measurements. Serum cadmium and lead levels were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for periodontitis. The mean cadmium and lead levels were significantly higher in the periodontitis group compared with control population. A progressive increase in serum heavy metals were found as the number of sextants with periodontitis. The ORs for periodontitis were significantly associated with serum cadmium (OR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.00-1.87) and lead levels (OR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.15-2.21). The association between periodontitis and smoking was attenuated after adjusting for serum cadmium concentration. We demonstrated a significant association between periodontitis and serum cadmium and lead concentrations. Cadmium appeared to partially mediate the association between smoking and periodontitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. High-risk oral human papillomavirus load in the US population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Anil K; Graubard, Barry I; Pickard, Robert K L; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the association of demographic and behavioral factors with oral human papillomavirus (HPV) load for 18 high-risk types among 211 individuals with prevalent high-risk HPV within the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Factors independently associated with HPV load above the median included older age (odds ratio, 1.04 per year increase [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07]; P = .004) and intensity of current smoking (P for trend men than women had an HPV load above the median (55.7% vs 32.8%; P = .069), and HPV load increased marginally with increasing alcohol use (P for trend = .062). In conclusion, older age and current smoking are associated with a high oral load of high-risk HPV types among individuals with a prevalent infection. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Wong, Lee-Yang; Bravo, Roberto; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Restrepo, Paula; Kim, Do-Gyun; Fernandez, Carolina; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Perez, Jose; Gallegos, Maribel; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003–2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 μg/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 μg/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population—children and older adults—have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels. PMID:21909292

  5. Willingness to Study Abroad: An Examination of Kuwaiti Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kaylee; Boggs, David; Kathawala, Yunus; Hayes, John

    2014-01-01

    International education is an increasingly important part of business programs throughout the world. This paper investigates the willingness of Kuwaiti business students to study abroad. It tests the hypotheses that student willingness to study abroad is related to a number of variables, including self-efficacy, perceived benefit of study abroad,…

  6. A cross-sectional study on teaching pelvic examination in medical schools in the UK (the COTES study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Aisha; Smith, Paul; Clark, T Justin

    2018-02-01

    Gynaecological teaching associates (GTAs) appear to be effective in aiding medical students to acquire core skills in female pelvic examination (FPE). The aim was to explore the current provision for teaching and assessment of FPE in Obstetric and Gynaecological (O&G) placements across UK medical schools and in particular, the use of GTAs. An online survey was sent to undergraduate academic leads for O&G, representing 29 of the 30 UK medical schools. The response rate was 21/29 (72%). The average placement was 6.7 weeks and teaching of FPE varied including training on manikins (20/21, 95%), instruction in outpatient clinics (17/21, 81%) and instruction on anaesthetised patients (17/21, 81%). The survey revealed that anatomic pelvic models are combined with supervised instruction in outpatient clinics and operating theatres. GTAs are used by less than a third of medical schools, and where used are thought to enhance teaching in this core skill in contrast to those universities not using GTAs. Short placements, a reluctance to use GTAs and a lack of formal assessment may adversely impact upon the competency of newly qualifying medical students in FPE. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Experience of female pelvic examination intimate is limited. Expert patients, known as Gynaecological Teaching Associates (GTAs), have been suggested as a potential solution to improve teaching of gynaecological examination, but the last survey of medical schools in the United Kingdom (UK) conducted in 1989 reported that only two were using GTAs in an average clinical placement length of 11.5 weeks. What the results of this study add: Twenty-five years after the last survey, Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G) clinical placements have been reduced to an average of 6 weeks with one-third requiring only an informal impression of competence in female pelvic examination. Despite published evidence since 1989 supporting the effectiveness of GTAs, just six medical schools

  7. Effectiveness of workers' general health examination in Korea by health examination period and compliance: retrospective cohort study using nationwide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Huisu; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Eun-A; Choi, Bohwa; Park, Soon Woo; Kang, Young Joong

    2017-01-01

    Our study evaluated the effectiveness of the Workers' General Health Examination by health examination period and compliance. A retrospective cohort of the health examination participants in 2006 (baseline year: N = 6,527,045) was used. We identified newly occurring cardio-cerebrovascular disease over 7 years (from 2007 to 2013). After stratification by age, sex, and national health insurance type, we identified 7 years' cumulative incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular disease by health examination compliance and estimated its relative risk by health examination period and compliance. The compliant group presented a lower cumulative incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular disease than the non-compliant group; this result was consistent across sex, working age (40s and 50s), and workplace policyholder. Relative risk of cardio-cerebrovascular disease by health examination period (1 and 2 years) showed statistically significant results in ischemic heart disease for male participants. Of men in their 40s, office workers (over a 2-year period) presented statistically higher relative risk of ischemic heart disease than non-office workers (over a 1-year period: 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.03). However, there were no consistent results in ischemic cerebrovascular disease and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease for men or cardio-cerebrovascular disease for women. A 1-year period of Workers' General Health Examinations in non-office workers had a more significant prevention effect on ischemic heart disease than a 2-year period in office workers among working age (40s-50s) men. It is, however, necessary to consider that prevention of cardio-cerebrovascular disease can be partially explained by their occupational characteristics rather than by health examination period.

  8. A Cross-National Examination of Differences in Classification of Lifetime Alcohol Use Disorder Between DSM-IV and DSM-5: Findings from the World Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Tim; Chiu, Wai-Tat; Glantz, Meyer; Kessler, Ronald C; Lago, Luise; Sampson, Nancy; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Florescu, Silvia; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to examine the diagnostic overlap in DSM-IV and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and determine the clinical correlates of changing diagnostic status across the 2 classification systems. DSM-IV and DSM-5 definitions of AUD were compared using cross-national community survey data in 9 low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Participants were 31,367 respondents to surveys in the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0, was used to derive DSM-IV and DSM-5 lifetime diagnoses of AUD. Clinical characteristics, also assessed in the surveys, included lifetime DSM-IV anxiety; mood and drug use disorders; lifetime suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt; general functional impairment; and psychological distress. Compared with DSM-IV AUD (12.3%, SE = 0.3%), the DSM-5 definition yielded slightly lower prevalence estimates (10.8%, SE = 0.2%). Almost one-third (n = 802) of all DSM-IV abuse cases switched to subthreshold according to DSM-5 and one-quarter (n = 467) of all DSM-IV diagnostic orphans switched to mild AUD according to DSM-5. New cases of DSM-5 AUD were largely similar to those who maintained their AUD across both classifications. Similarly, new DSM-5 noncases were similar to those who were subthreshold across both classifications. The exception to this was with regard to the prevalence of any lifetime drug use disorder. In this large cross-national community sample, the prevalence of DSM-5 lifetime AUD was only slightly lower than the prevalence of DSM-IV lifetime AUD. Nonetheless, there was considerable diagnostic switching, with a large number of people inconsistently identified across the 2 DSM classifications. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Associations between Food Security Status and Dietary Inflammatory Potential within Lower-Income Adults from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cycles 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel S; Palta, Mari; Robert, Stephanie A; Berger, Lawrence M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Malecki, Kristen M

    2018-02-13

    Evidence suggests both that chronic inflammation mediates the association of food insecurity with adverse health outcomes and that diet may be a significant source of inflammation among food insecure individuals. To examine whether food security status is associated with dietary inflammatory potential. Cross-sectional data came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), cycles 2007 to 2014 (n=10,630). The analysis sample is representative of noninstitutionalized US adults with an income-to-poverty ratio ≤3.00. Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) score, calculated using the average of two 24-hour dietary recalls, was the main outcome measure. Type III F tests or χ 2 tests compared population characteristics by food security status, defined using the US Food Security Survey Module. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between food security status and the DII score and moderation by demographic factors. Survey weighting procedures accounted for the effects of stratification and clustering used in the NHANES study design. When accounting for socioeconomic status, demographic factors, and health status, DII score was higher at greater levels of food insecurity (P=0.0033). Those with very low food security had a 0.31 (95% CI=0.12 to 0.49) higher DII score than those with high food security. Age moderated the association between food security status and DII score (interaction P=0.0103), where the magnitude of the association between DII score and severity of food insecurity was higher for those >65 years than for younger age groups. Food security status may be associated with dietary inflammatory potential, which is hypothesized to play a role in multiple chronic health conditions. Further research is needed to determine the causal nature of this relationship and evaluate how best to implement programs designed to address health disparities within food insecure populations. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and

  10. [Prevalence and temporal trend of known diabetes mellitus: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, C; Du, Y; Schubert, I; Rathmann, W; Scheidt-Nave, C

    2013-05-01

    The first wave of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1, 2008-2011) allows for up-to-date, representative prevalence estimates of known diabetes amongst the 18- to 79-year-old resident population of Germany. Temporal trends can be shown by comparing the survey findings with those of the "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998" (GNHIES98). The definition of known diabetes was based on self-reports in physician-administered interviews that asked respondents if they had ever been diagnosed with diabetes by a doctor or were on anti-diabetic medication. Overall, diabetes had been diagnosed in 7.2 % of the adults (7.4 % of the women; 7.0 % of the men). The prevalence increased substantially with advancing age and was higher in persons of low than of high socioeconomic status. Prevalence varied depending on the type of health insurance held and was highest amongst those insured with AOK health insurance funds. In comparison with GNHIES98, there was a 38 % increase in prevalence, of which approximately one third is to be attributed to demographic ageing. In the context of other nationwide studies, the results indicate a figure of at least 4.6 million 18- to 79-year-olds having been diagnosed with diabetes at some point. Planned analyses of undiagnosed diabetes will contribute to the interpretation of the observed increase in the prevalence of known diabetes. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  11. Hypertension and age at onset of natural menopause in Korean postmenopausal women: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Jun-Mo; Lee, Bo-Ra

    2016-08-01

    Menopause is a natural phenomenon of aging, although the timing and management of menopause can significantly affect a woman's quality of life. It is therefore important to identify measures to ensure a healthy menopause. We set out to investigate the association between hypertension and early menopause in Korean women. This cross-sectional study was based on 2008-2013 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Of the 53,829 participants surveyed, 13,584 women were selected. We analyzed the contents of the health interview, health examination, and nutrition survey. The main outcome was defined based on hazard ratios (HR) to identify the effects of hypertension on age at onset of menopause. Among postmenopausal women (n=6650), the mean age at onset of menopause was 50.4 years. Premenopausal hypertension was statistically significantly associated with age at menopause, oral contraceptive usage, household income, education level, occupation, marital status and smoking and drinking habits. With lower age at diagnosis of hypertension, HRs for menopause tended to be higher, and hypertension diagnosed before age 40 years conferred a statistically significantly higher HR (Model 1, HR=2.32, 95% CI=1.87-2.88; Model 2, HR=2.31, 95% CI=1.86-2.86; Model 3, HR=2.23, 95% CI=1.80-2.77; Model 4, HR=2.00, 95% CI=1.52-2.63). Premature menopause is strongly associated with lifestyle factors, in combination with incomplete management of chronic diseases. Our findings support the hypothesis that younger age at diagnosis of hypertension is associated with younger age at onset of menopause in Korean women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Active Commuting among K-12 Educators: A Study Examining Walking and Biking to Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Walking and biking to work, active commuting (AC is associated with many health benefits, though rates of AC remain low in the US. K-12 educators represent a significant portion of the workforce, and employee health and associated costs may have significant economic impact. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the current rates of AC and factors associated with AC among K-12 educators. Methods. A volunteer sample of K-12 educators ( was recruited to participate in an online survey. Participants responded about AC patterns and social ecological influences on AC (individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors. -tests and ANOVAs examined trends in AC, and Pearson correlations examined the relationship between AC and dependent variables. Multiple regression analysis determined the relative influence of individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental levels on AC. Results. Participants actively commuted times/week. There were several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors significantly related to AC. The full model explained 60.8% of the variance in AC behavior. Conclusions. This study provides insight on the factors that determine K-12 educators mode of commute and provide some insight for employee wellness among this population.

  13. Consolation through music : A survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanser, Waldie E.; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Van den Tol, Annemieke J M; Mark, Ruth E.; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2016-01-01

    Even though music is widely used as a source of solace, the question as to how and why music offers consolation remains largely unexplored. The aims of the present study are as follows: (a) to compare listening to music versus other self-soothing behaviors, (b) to explore when music is used as a

  14. Two Studies Examining Argumentation in Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Richard; Jones, Sarah; Doherty, John

    2008-01-01

    Asynchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) would seem to be an ideal medium for supporting development in student argumentation. This paper investigates this assumption through two studies. The first study compared asynchronous CMC with face-to-face discussions. The transactional and strategic level of the argumentation (i.e. measures of…

  15. Study examines outcomes from surgery to prevent ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study looked at women at high risk of ovarian cancer who had no clinical signs of the disease and who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). The study results showed cancer in the removed tissues of 2.6 percent (25 of 966) of the par

  16. Added Sugar Intake among Pregnant Women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Catherine E; Figueroa, Janet; Welsh, Jean A

    2018-01-09

    Despite associations of dietary added sugar with excess weight gain and chronic disease risk, intake among most Americans exceeds the recommended limits (<10% total energy). Maternal diet plays an important role in pregnancy-related outcomes, but little is known about the extent of added sugar intake during pregnancy. To assess intake and identify the top sources of added sugars in the diets of pregnant vs nonpregnant women in the United States. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2004 to 2011-2012. Four thousand one hundred seventy-nine pregnant and nonpregnant women (aged 20 to 39 years) who completed a dietary recall. Survey-weighted analyses were used to estimate means (95% CIs) in total grams and as percentage of total energy for added sugar intake by pregnancy status and by demographic subgroup and to identify leading sources of added sugar. Added sugar intake trended toward being higher in pregnant compared with nonpregnant women in absolute grams, 85.1 g (95% CI: 77.4 to 92.7) vs 76.7 g (95% CI: 73.6 to 79.9), respectively (P=0.06), but was lower among pregnant women when total energy intake was accounted for, 14.8% (95% CI: 13.8 to 15.7) vs 15.9% (95% CI: 15.2 to 16.6) of total energy, respectively (P=0.03). Among pregnant women, added sugar intake was similar among demographic subgroups. However, in multivariable regression, pregnancy status significantly modified the associations of education and income with added sugar intake, whereby less educated and lower-income women who were pregnant had lower added sugar intakes compared with those who were not pregnant, but more educated or higher-income women did not exhibit this pattern. The top five sources of added sugar for all women were sugar-sweetened beverages; cakes, cookies, and pastries; sugars and sweets; juice drinks and smoothies; and milk-based desserts. Although pregnant women had higher energy intakes, this was not attributed

  17. The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture.

  18. A national survey examining obstetrician perspectives on use of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate post-US FDA approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebarber, Andrei; Fox, Nathan; Klauser, Chad K; Saltzman, Daniel; Roman, Ashley S

    2013-08-01

    A randomized study published in 2003 by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal Fetal Medicine Units network showed efficacy of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) for the prevention of recurrent preterm delivery. Between 2003 and 2011 the drug was often provided by compounding pharmacies. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the drug for this indication. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of FDA approval on physician attitudes and perceptions regarding use of 17P as a drug for preventing recurrent preterm delivery. A 10-min online survey using a structure closed-ended questionnaire format was designed and administered from 17 June 2011 to 7 July 2011 among 401 obstetricians distributed evenly throughout the USA. There is nearly universal awareness of 17P for the prevention of preterm birth (93 %), with a large majority (80 %) of obstetricians having reported prescribing the medication. However, surveyed physicians reported that the average proportion of eligible patients seen in their practice but not prescribed 17P in 2009-2010 was 41 %. Financial and logistical barriers carried the most weight (approximately 75 %) in the decision not to prescribe 17P to an eligible patient. Forty-one percent of respondents cited lack of FDA approval of 17P as a deterrent to prescribing the medication. Thirty-nine percent of respondents had professional liability concerns regarding prescribing compounded 17P. Assuming the same out-of-pocket expense for patients, two-thirds of obstetricians would choose to prescribe Makena(®). Awareness of 17P for the prevention of preterm birth among obstetricians is high. FDA-approved medications seem to have physician preference due to enhanced assurance for product efficacy and safety.

  19. Optical study of the DAFT/FADA galaxy cluster survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Clowe, D.; Adami, C.

    2013-11-01

    DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a large survey of ˜90 high redshift (0.42×10^{14} M_{⊙}) clusters with HST weak lensing oriented data, plus BVRIZJ 4m ground based follow up to compute photometric redshifts. The main goals of this survey are to constrain dark energy parameters using weak lensing tomography and to study a large homogeneous sample of high redshift massive clusters. We will briefly review the latest results of this optical survey, focusing on two ongoing works: the calculation of galaxy luminosity functions from photometric redshift catalogs and the weak lensing analysis of ground based data.

  20. The Aalborg Survey / Part 4 - Literature Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    ) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 4 - Literature Study The 4th part of the DUS research project has been carried out during the spring 2012 and consists primarily of a literature search and bibliographical listings of literature by the three...... specific authors: William Hollingsworth Whyte (1917-1999), Jan Gehl (b. 1936) and Erving Goffman (1922-1982), as well as literature on the topics of ‘plazas’, ‘squares’, ‘parks’, ‘young people’s use of urban space’ and ’GPS’. Secondarily, there has been made a bibliographical listing of publications...

  1. Effect change of obesity on diabetes depending on measurement: self-reported body mas index from 2012 Community Health Survey vs. directly measured from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuhyun Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM among young and middle-aged adults in South Korea. To elaborate on the association between obesity and Diabetes mellitus (DM, subjective data from self-reporting survey or objective data from health examination is generally used. This study was conducted to validate the change of association from using these different measurements. METHODS: Community Health Survey data and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, as subjective and objective data respectively, were used. Population, resident in Seoul and over 45 aged, were selected for the study and the association between obesity and DM were defined by using multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: In subjective data, DM prevalence was 12.4% (male, 14.7; female, 10.6 and obesity prevalence was 26.0% (male, 29.2; female, 23.4. Whereas, in objective data, DM prevalence was 15.0% (male, 17.8; female, 12.9, and obese population was 32.4% (male, 34.4; female, 30.8. Based on the effect of obesity on DM prevalence from each data, using objective data increased the impact of obesity. Difference of relative risk of obesity between from subjective data and from objective was bigger in female than male and statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The differences of association pattern between subjective and objective data were found, due to higher obesity prevalence in objective data, and discrepancies of socio-economic status. These discrepancies could be inevitable Therefore we have to face them proactively, and understand the different aspect of various variables from different measurement.

  2. Examining the infrared variable star population discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud using the SAGE-SMC survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Marengo, M. [Iowa State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 12 Physics Hall, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Seale, J.; Sewiło, M. [The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vijh, U. P.; Terrazas, M. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Meixner, M., E-mail: empolsdofer@gmail.com [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program “Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud” (SAGE-SMC) and the “Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud” (S{sup 3}MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to 3 years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzer’s InfraRed Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bands, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 μm band. An error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs (“variability index”) is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of ∼2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in the literature. Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars make up the majority (61%) of our variable sources, with about a third of all of our sources being classified as extreme AGB stars. We find a small, but significant population of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB (8.6%), Red Supergiant (2.8%), and Red Giant Branch (<1%) stars. Other matches to the literature include Cepheid variable stars (8.6%), early type stars (2.8%), Young-stellar objects (5.8%), and background galaxies (1.2%). We found a candidate OH maser star, SSTISAGE1C J005212.88-730852.8, which is a variable O-rich AGB star, and would be the first OH/IR star in the SMC, if confirmed. We measured the infrared variability of a rare RV Tau variable (a post-AGB star) that has recently left the AGB phase. 59 variable stars from our list remain unclassified.

  3. Examining the role of information exchange in residential aged care work practices-a survey of residential aged care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaskin Sarah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of residential aged care is underpinned by information, and is reliant upon systems that adequately capture and effectively utilise and communicate this information. The aim of this study was to explicate and quantify the volume and method by which information is collected, exchanged within facilities and with external providers, and retrieved from facility information systems and hospitals. Methods A survey of staff (n = 119, including managers, health informatics officers (HIOs, quality improvement staff, registered nurses (RNs, enrolled nurses (ENs/endorsed enrolled nurses (EENs and assistants in nursing (AINs was carried out in four residential aged care facilities in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Sites varied in size and displayed a range of information technology (IT capabilities. The survey investigated how and by whom information is collected, retrieved and exchanged, and the frequency and amount of time devoted to these tasks. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS, and open responses to questions were coded into key themes. Results Staff completed a median of six forms each, taking a median of 30 min per shift. 68.8% of staff reported transferring information from paper to a computer system, which took a median of 30 min per shift. Handover and face-to-face communication was the most frequently used form of information exchange within facilities. There was a large amount of faxing and telephone communication between facility staff and General Practitioners and community pharmacists, with staff reporting sending a median of 2 faxes to pharmacy and 1.5 faxes to General Practitioners, and initiating 2 telephone calls to pharmacies and 1.5 calls to General Practitioners per shift. Only 38.5% of respondents reported that they always had information available at the point-of-care and only 35.4% of respondents reported that they always had access to hospital stay information of residents

  4. The association between long working hours and the metabolic syndrome: evidences from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2010 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Uk; Jeon, Man Joong; Sakong, Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between the working hours of Korean employees and the metabolic syndrome and the effects of long working hours on metabolic syndrome based on the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). Based on the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), 4,456 Korean employees without shift work, aged over 15, who work 30 hours or more per week were targeted in this study. The association between the general characteristics, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, and the metabolic syndrome criteria defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and weekly working hours were analyzed. In addition, the association between weekly working hours and the metabolic syndrome of the subjects stratified by gender was analyzed through multiple logistic regression analyses and generalized linear mixed model after adjusting the general characteristics. In the results of stratified analysis by gender, in male subjects, in comparison with the 30-39 weekly working hours group, there were no significant adjusted odds ratios to the other working hours groups. In female subjects, in comparison with the 30-39 weekly working hours group, there were no significant adjusted odds ratios to the other working hours groups. In addition, no trend associations were observed among weekly working hour groups in both stratified genders. No significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome of the subjects stratified by gender were found according to weekly increasing working hours. However, due to some limitations of this study, further prospective studies may be necessary for verification.

  5. A Longitudinal Study Examining Changes in Students' Leadership Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Barry Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a leadership development program in students' first year with the subsequent leadership behaviors of those students in their senior year. Significant changes were reported in the frequency of engaging in leadership behaviors from freshman to senior years. No differences were found on the basis of gender. In…

  6. Scientists' attitudes on science and values: Case studies and survey methods in philosophy of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Daniel; Gonnerman, Chad; O'Rourke, Michael

    2017-06-01

    This article examines the relevance of survey data of scientists' attitudes about science and values to case studies in philosophy of science. We describe two methodological challenges confronting such case studies: 1) small samples, and 2) potential for bias in selection, emphasis, and interpretation. Examples are given to illustrate that these challenges can arise for case studies in the science and values literature. We propose that these challenges can be mitigated through an approach in which case studies and survey methods are viewed as complementary, and use data from the Toolbox Dialogue Initiative to illustrate this claim. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Catalog of Rules, Variables, and Definitions Applied to Accelerometer Data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camhi, Sarah M.; Troiano, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) included accelerometry in the 2003–2006 data collection cycles. Researchers have used these data since their release in 2007, but the data have not been consistently treated, examined, or reported. The objective of this study was to aggregate data from studies using NHANES accelerometry data and to catalogue study decision rules, derived variables, and cut point definitions to facilitate a more uniform approach to these data. Methods We conducted a PubMed search of English-language articles published (or indicated as forthcoming) from January 2007 through December 2011. Our initial search yielded 74 articles, plus 1 article that was not indexed in PubMed. After excluding 21 articles, we extracted and tabulated details on 54 studies to permit comparison among studies. Results The 54 articles represented various descriptive, methodological, and inferential analyses. Although some decision rules for treating data (eg, criteria for minimal wear-time) were consistently applied, cut point definitions used for accelerometer-derived variables (eg, time spent in various intensities of physical activity) were especially diverse. Conclusion Unique research questions may require equally unique analytical approaches; some inconsistency in approaches must be tolerated if scientific discovery is to be encouraged. This catalog provides a starting point for researchers to consider relevant and/or comparable accelerometer decision rules, derived variables, and cut point definitions for their own research questions. PMID:22698174

  8. A catalog of rules, variables, and definitions applied to accelerometer data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Camhi, Sarah M; Troiano, Richard P

    2012-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) included accelerometry in the 2003-2006 data collection cycles. Researchers have used these data since their release in 2007, but the data have not been consistently treated, examined, or reported. The objective of this study was to aggregate data from studies using NHANES accelerometry data and to catalogue study decision rules, derived variables, and cut point definitions to facilitate a more uniform approach to these data. We conducted a PubMed search of English-language articles published (or indicated as forthcoming) from January 2007 through December 2011. Our initial search yielded 74 articles, plus 1 article that was not indexed in PubMed. After excluding 21 articles, we extracted and tabulated details on 54 studies to permit comparison among studies. The 54 articles represented various descriptive, methodological, and inferential analyses. Although some decision rules for treating data (eg, criteria for minimal wear-time) were consistently applied, cut point definitions used for accelerometer-derived variables (eg, time spent in various intensities of physical activity) were especially diverse. Unique research questions may require equally unique analytical approaches; some inconsistency in approaches must be tolerated if scientific discovery is to be encouraged. This catalog provides a starting point for researchers to consider relevant and/or comparable accelerometer decision rules, derived variables, and cut point definitions for their own research questions.

  9. The Relationship between Dietary Fiber Intake and Lung Function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Rennard, Stephen; Mannino, David M; Rutten, Erica P A; Hopkins, Raewyn; Young, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Extensive research supports a protective effect of a high-fiber diet in certain disease states; however, little is known about its relationship to lung health. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) contain spirometry measures and dietary intake information, allowing us to assess this relationship. Determine the association between fiber intake and measures of lung function in a representative sample of U.S. adults. Participants included 1,921 adults who had spirometry measurements and fiber intake available. The primary outcomes were lung function measurements, including FEV1, FVC, and percent predicted FEV1 and FVC. We also conducted a categorical analysis of fiber intake and airflow restriction and obstruction based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Spirometry Grade (SG) classifications. Multivariable regression models were used to look at the association of lung function measurements with dietary fiber intake after adjustment for relevant confounders. All analyses accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. Subjects in the highest quartile intake of fiber had mean FEV1 and FVC measurements that were 82 ml and 129 ml higher than the lowest quartile of intake (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively), and mean percent predicted FEV1 and FVC values that were 2.4 and 2.8 percentage points higher (P = 0.07 and 0.02, respectively). In the categorical analysis, higher fiber intake was associated with a higher percentage of those with normal lung function (P = 0.001) and a significant decline in the proportion of participants with airflow restriction (P = 0.001). Low fiber intake was associated with reduced measures of lung function. A diet rich in fiber-containing foods may play a role in improving lung health.

  10. Trends in myocardial infarction secondary prevention: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nilay S; Huffman, Mark D; Ning, Hongyan; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2015-04-22

    Nationally representative data evaluating recent trends and future projections of vascular risk factor treatment and control rates in secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease are sparse. We evaluated sex- and race-stratified cholesterol, blood pressure, and hemoglobin A1c levels and risk factor treatment and control rates in 1580 individuals who self-reported a history of myocardial infarction from The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999 to 2012. We used weighted linear regression to estimate time trends and created forward linear projections to 2020. Participants were 30% to 41% women, 73% to 85% white, and had a mean age of 63 to 66 years. Cholesterol treatment rates increased and reached above 80% in men and women by 2011-2012, with significant increases in control rates (as then defined) in men to 85% in 2011-2012, with projections to reach 100% by 2020. Cholesterol treatment rates significantly increased in non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics. Statin use increased significantly to 73% of myocardial infarction survivors by 2011-2012, and aspirin use increased significantly but only to 28% by 2011-2012. There were no changes in blood pressure treatment or control rates by sex, and hypertension treatment increased only in non-Hispanic blacks. Projected hypertension control rates remained suboptimal. While temporal trends suggest improvements in cholesterol treatment, unchanged treatment and control of blood pressure and persistently low aspirin use represent missed opportunities. Urgent action is needed to improve secondary prevention rates projected by 2020 to reduce recurrent events in this high-risk group. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Korea: the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji In; Baek, Hyunjeong; Jung, Hae Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a leading public health problem related to poor quality of life and premature death. As a resource for evidence-informed health policy-making, we evaluated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease using the data of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥ 20 years (n = 15,319) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011-2013. Chronic kidney disease was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g or an estimated glomerular filtration rate Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The total prevalence estimate of chronic kidney disease for adults aged ≥ 20 years in Korea was 8.2%. By disease stage, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was as follows: stage 1, 3.0%; stage 2, 2.7%; stage 3a, 1.9%; stage 3b, 0.4%; and stages 4-5, 0.2%. When grouped into three risk categories according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines, the proportions for the moderately increased risk, high risk, and very high risk categories were 6.5%, 1.2%, and 0.5%, respectively. Factors including older age, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, body mass indexes of ≥ 25 kg/m(2) and chronic kidney disease. Based on this comprehensive analysis, evidence-based screening strategies for chronic kidney disease in the Korean population should be developed to optimize prevention and early intervention of chronic kidney disease and its associated risk factors.

  12. Obesity and Insulin Resistance Screening Tools in American Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joey A; Laurson, Kelly R

    2016-08-01

    To identify which feasible obesity and insulin resistance (IR) screening tools are most strongly associated in adolescents by using a nationally representative sample. Adolescents aged 12.0 to 18.9 years who were participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=3584) and who were measured for height, weight, waist circumference (WC), triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, glycated hemoglobin, fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) level were included. Adolescents were split by gender and grouped by body mass index (BMI) percentile. Age- and gender-specific classifications were constructed for each obesity screening tool measure to account for growth and maturation. General linear models were used to establish groups objectively for analysis based on when IR began to increase. Additional general linear models were used to identify when IR significantly increased for each IR measure as obesity group increased and to identify the variance accounted for among each obesity-IR screening tool relationship. As the obesity group increased, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and FI significantly increased, while FG increased only (above the referent) in groups with BMI percentiles ≥95.0, and glycated hemoglobin level did not vary across obesity groups. The most strongly associated screening tools were WC and FI in boys (R(2)=0.253) and girls (R(2)=0.257). FI had the strongest association with all of the obesity measures. BMI associations were slightly weaker than WC in each in relation to IR. Our findings show that WC and FI are the most strongly associated obesity and IR screening tool measures in adolescents. These feasible screening tools should be utilized in screening practices for at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum selenium and serum lipids in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laclaustra, Martin; Stranges, Saverio; Navas-Acien, Ana; Ordovas, Jose M; Guallar, Eliseo

    2010-06-01

    High selenium has been recently associated with several cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors including diabetes, blood pressure and lipid levels. We evaluated the association of serum selenium with fasting serum lipid levels in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004, the most recently available representative sample of the US population that measured selenium levels. Cross-sectional analysis of 1159 adults>or=40 years old from NHANES 2003-2004. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry. Fasting serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol were measured enzymatically and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Mean serum selenium was 136.7 microg/L. The multivariable adjusted average differences (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest (>or=147 microg/L) to the lowest (selenium quartiles were 18.9 (9.9, 28.0) mg/dL for total cholesterol, 12.7 (3.3, 22.2) mg/dL for LDL cholesterol, 3.9 (0.4, 7.5)mg/dL for HDL cholesterol, and 11.5 (-7.6, 30.7) mg/dL for triglycerides. In spline regression models, total and LDL cholesterol levels increased progressively with increasing selenium concentrations. HDL cholesterol increased with selenium but reached a plateau above 120 microg/L of serum selenium (20th percentile). The triglyceride-selenium relationship was U-shaped. In US adults, high serum selenium concentrations were associated with increased serum concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol. Selenium was associated with increasing HDL cholesterol only at low selenium levels. Given increasing trends in dietary selenium intake and supplementation, the causal mechanisms underlying these associations need to be fully characterized. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The growing gap in hypertension control between insured and uninsured adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Small, James; Nietert, Paul J; Sinopoli, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control are lower among uninsured than insured adults. Time trends in differences and underlying modifiable factors are important for informing strategies to improve health equity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2005 to 2010 data in adults aged 18 to 64 years were analyzed to explore this opportunity. The proportion of adults with hypertension who were uninsured increased from 12.3% in 1988 to 1994 to 17.4% in 2005 to 2010. In 1988 to 1994, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control to <140/<90 mm Hg (30.1% versus 26.5%; P=0.27) were similar in insured and uninsured adults. By 2005 to 2010, the absolute gap in hypertension control between uninsured and insured adults of 21.9% (52.5% versus 30.6%; P<0.001) was explained approximately equally by lower awareness (65.2% versus 80.7%), fewer aware adults treated (75.2% versus 88.5%), and fewer treated adults controlled (63.1% versus 73.5%; all P<0.001). Publicly insured and uninsured adults had similar income. Yet, hypertension control was similar across time periods in publicly and privately insured adults, despite lower income and education in the former. In multivariable analysis, hypertension control in 2005 to 2010 was associated with visit frequency (odds ratio, 3.4 [95% confidence interval, 2.4-4.8]), statin therapy (1.8 [1.4-2.3]), and healthcare insurance (1.6 [1.2-2.2]) but not poverty index (1.04 [0.96-1.12]). Public or private insurance linked to more frequent healthcare, greater awareness and effective treatment of hypertension, and appropriate statin use could reverse a long-term trend of growing inequity in hypertension control between insured and uninsured adults. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Examining the relationship between the food environment and adult diabetes prevalence by county economic and racial composition: an ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey Haynes-Maslow; Leone, Lucia A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Inequitable access to healthy food may contribute to health disparities. This study examines the relationship between the prevalence of adult diabetes and food access in the U.S. by county economic/racial composition. Methods An ecological study from 2012 was used to estimate the relationship between diabetes and retail food outlet access. County diabetes prevalence was measured based on individual responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey question, “Have...

  16. A Mixed-Methods Study of Prelicensure Nursing Students Changing Answers on Multiple Choice Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Tracy P; Muller, M Annie; Bartz, Jeremiah D

    2016-04-01

    Students often question whether changing answers on multiple choice examinations correlates with an increase or decrease in their grades. In a mixed-methods study, 135 prelicensure nursing students were surveyed. The answer response forms were reviewed for erasures. Qualitative data were obtained through content analysis of two questions. Quantitative analysis was performed to explore the relationships among students' self-reported grade performance, test-anxiety levels, and how often they changed answers. The themes of Risk, Careless Mistakes, Adequate Preparation, Instinct, and Cues From the Test were identified when students were asked their opinion on changing answers. The themes of Indecisiveness, Test Review, and Rationale emerged when students were asked why they changed answers. Students who reported being somewhat anxious had a greater tendency to change answers. Answers were changed from incorrect to correct 55.6% of the time. On average, changing answers resulted in a moderate increase in test scores. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Machinery Investment in Illinois: A Study Examining Existing Investment Motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Micheels, Eric T; Katchova, Ani L.; Barry, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to prove some previously held ideas of machinery investment decisions using farm level data from Illinois. Investment decisions are analyzed taking into consideration past investment decisions in the county and on the individual farm. The results show there is a correlation between county level purchases and individual farm purchases and investment levels decrease the following year after an initial investment. These results display how non-traditional drivers for in...

  18. Dyslipidemia and Food Security in Low-Income US Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Leung, Cindy W.; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of food security are associated with dyslipidemia and chronic disease in adults, particularly in women. There is a gap in knowledge about the relationship between food security among youth and dyslipidemia and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between food security status and dyslipidemia among low-income adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (N = 1,072) from households with incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2010. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between household food security status and the odds of having abnormalities with fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TG/HDL-C ratio, and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). Models included age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, partnered status in the household, and maternal education, with additional adjustment for adiposity. Results Household food security status was not associated with elevated TC or LDL-C. Adolescents with marginal food security were more likely than food-secure peers to have elevated TGs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–3.05), TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11–2.82), and Apo B (OR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.17–3.36). Female adolescents with marginal food security had greater odds than male adolescents of having low HDL-C (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.14–6.37). No elevated odds of dyslipidemia were found for adolescents with low or very low food security. Adjustment for adiposity did not attenuate estimates. Conclusion In this nationally representative sample, low-income adolescents living in households with marginal food security had increased odds of having a pattern consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia, which represents a cardiometabolic burden above their risk from adiposity

  19. Racial and Ethnic Subgroup Disparities in Hypertension Prevalence, New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Jesica S.; Ramos, Marcel; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Yi, Stella S.; Chernov, Claudia; Perlman, Sharon E.; Thorpe, Lorna E.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Racial/ethnic minority adults have higher rates of hypertension than non-Hispanic white adults. We examined the prevalence of hypertension among Hispanic and Asian subgroups in New York City. Methods Data from the 2013–2014 New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess hypertension prevalence among adults (aged ≥20) in New York City (n = 1,476). Hypertension was measured (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or self-reported hypertension and use of blood pressure medication). Participants self-reported race/ethnicity and country of origin. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed differences in prevalence by race/ethnicity and sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Results Overall hypertension prevalence among adults in New York City was 33.9% (43.5% for non-Hispanic blacks, 38.0% for Asians, 33.0% for Hispanics, and 27.5% for non-Hispanic whites). Among Hispanic adults, prevalence was 39.4% for Dominican, 34.2% for Puerto Rican, and 27.5% for Central/South American adults. Among Asian adults, prevalence was 43.0% for South Asian and 39.9% for East/Southeast Asian adults. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and body mass index, 2 major racial/ethnic minority groups had higher odds of hypertension than non-Hispanic whites: non-Hispanic black (AOR [adjusted odds ratio], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–3.9) and Asian (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.4) adults. Two subgroups had greater odds of hypertension than the non-Hispanic white group: East/Southeast Asian adults (AOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.6–4.9) and Dominican adults (AOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.5). Conclusion Racial/ethnic minority subgroups vary in hypertension prevalence, suggesting the need for targeted interventions. PMID:28427484

  20. Mothers' Working Hours and Children's Obesity: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Goeun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2013-10-25

    The aim of this study is to find the association between mothers' working hours and obesity of their children according to children's age and gender. This study used data from the second and third year of KNHANES IV and the first year in KNHANES V (2008-2010). We calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using survey logistic regression to assess association of mother's working hours with overweight or obesity of her children. The model was adjusted with household income, mothers' education and obesity and mothers' job characteristics. 13-18 aged boys whose mothers worked under 40 hours per week were higher risk for obesity and overweight (including obesity) than 13-18 aged boys whose mothers worked 40-48 hours. 6-12 aged girls whose mothers worked 49-60 hours per week were more overweight (including obesity) than girls whose mothers worked 40-48 hours per week. 13-18 aged girls whose mothers worked over 60 hours were more overweight (including obesity) than the reference. This study showed that girls' obesity was associated with mothers' long working hours. Long working hours can influence health of workers' family.

  1. Secondary Science Teachers' Implementation of CCSS and NGSS Literacy Practices: A Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Sally Valentino; Thomas, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    Most middle and high school students struggle with reading and writing in science. This may be because science teachers are reluctant to teach literacy in science class. New standards now require a shift in the way science teachers develop students' literacy in science. This survey study examined the extent to which science teachers report…

  2. A contemporary examination of workplace learning culture: an ethnomethodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jennifer M; Henderson, Amanda; Jolly, Brian; Greaves, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Creating and maintaining a sustainable workforce is currently an international concern. Extensive literature suggest that students and staff need to be 'engaged', that is they need to interact with the health team if they are to maximise learning opportunities. Despite many studies since the 1970s into what creates a 'good' learning environment, ongoing issues continue to challenge healthcare organisations and educators. A 'good' learning environment has been an intangible element for many professions as learning is hindered by the complexity of practice and by limitations on practitioners' time available to assist and guide novices. This study sought to explore the nature of the learning interactions and experiences in clinical nursing practice that enhance a 'good' workplace learning culture for both nursing students and qualified nurses. An ethnomethodology study. A range of clinical settings in Victoria and Queensland, Australia. Students and registered nurses (n=95). Fieldwork observations were carried out on student nurses and registered nurses, followed by an individual interview with each participant. An iterative approach to analysis was undertaken; field notes of observations were reviewed, interviews transcribed verbatim and entered into NVivo10. Major themes were then extracted. Three central themes: learning by doing, navigating through communication, and 'entrustability', emerged providing insights into common practices potentially enhancing or detracting from learning in the workplace. Students' and registered nurses' learning is constrained by a myriad of interactions and embedded workplace practices, which can either enhance the individual's opportunities for learning or detract from the richness of affordances that healthcare workplace settings have to offer. Until the culture/or routine practices of the healthcare workplace are challenged, the trust and meaningful communication essential to learning in practice, will be achievable only

  3. A Pilot Study of the Effect of a Change in the Scheduling of Canadian Medical Licensing Examinations on Two Cohorts of Students Studying in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Niethammer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Medical Council of Canada and most Canadian residency programs require international medical graduates seeking training in Ca­nada to pass the Medical Council of Canada Entrance Examination, in addition to the newly established National Collaborative Assessment. In order to facilitate this additional examination, the Medical Council of Canada has altered the suggested examination timeline and examination eligibility criteria. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was sent via an online survey tool to members of the North American Irish Medical Student Association. The survey aimed to elicit differences in the Medical Council of Canada Entrance Examination experience between two cohorts of Canadians studying abroad in Ireland: those who completed the examination before and after the new timeline. Statistical analysis was conducted with independent t-tests and Pearson’s Chi-Square tests using SPSS version 21. Results: Of 24 respondents, 13 had completed the examination after the timeline change. Participants who attended the examination prior to the change achieved higher results (353.8 ± 56.5 than participants who attended the examination after the change (342.3 ± 35.1, although not statistically significant (p=0.56. In the cohort who took the examination after the timeline change, 61.5% of participants expressed discontent with their examination results; 84.6% ‘strongly agreed’ or ‘agreed’ to feeling disadvantaged due to the change. Conclusion: The new Medical Council of Canada examination timeline has had an impact on the examination experience of Canadians studying in Ireland. Simple modifications to the current timeline are warranted to reduce unnecessary disadvantage for this cohort of students applying to postgraduate training in Canada.

  4. Analysis of Kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption trends among Korean adults: data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ha, Ae-Wha; Choi, Eun-Ok; Ju, Se-Young

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze daily kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption by general characteristics and vegetable and fruit consumption from 1998 to 2012 by the Korean population based on the data of the KNHANES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). This study is based on the 1998-2012 KNHNES. Analysis data on 54,700 subjects aged 19 years and older were obtained from health behavior interviews and the 24-hour dietary recall method. Daily kimchi consumption and portion size of kimchi decreased significantly from 1998 to 2012 (adjusted P for trend kimchi did not significantly change between 1998 and 2012. Reduced consumption of kimchi, non-salted vegetable, and fruit was observed for both genders as well as daily meal episodes and cooking locations. Male and female subjects with insufficient non-salted vegetable and fruit intake were increased 1.4 times and 1.3 times, respectively, in 2012 than 1998. All subjects consumed at least 400 g/day of non-salted vegetable, fruit, and kimchi in each survey year, although they consumed insufficient amounts (kimchi. Since Koreans generally consume high amounts of fermented vegetables, including kimchi, total vegetables and fruit. Consumption of these foods by the Korean adult population reached 400 g, which is the recommended intake of the WCRF/AICR. Based on this result, it is necessary to promote consumption of kimchi in the Korean population and research the development of low sodium kimchi in the future.

  5. Religious affiliation and disparities in risk of non-communicable diseases and health behaviours: findings from the fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichaidit, Wit; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; McNeil, Edward; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Putwatana, Panwadee; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to compare the health-related behaviours and risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) between Muslims and non-Muslims in Thailand, a predominantly Buddhist country in which Muslims are the second largest religious group. Data from the fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES IV) conducted in 2009 were used to run multivariate survey logistic regression models with adjustment for age, gender and socio-economic status indicators. Data from 20,450 respondents, of whom 807 (3.9%) were Muslims, were included in the study. Muslims were significantly more likely to have daily consumption of deep-fried food (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.15-1.58) and packaged snacks (adjusted OR=1.55; 95% CI=1.30-1.86), and have inadequate control of hypercholesterolemia (adjusted OR=2.95; 95% CI=1.30-6.68). In conclusion, we found disparity in the majority of risk factors for NCDs between Muslim and non-Muslim Thais.

  6. Prevalence and cardiovascular risk profile of chronic kidney disease in Italy: results of the 2008-12 National Health Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Luca; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Minutolo, Roberto; Lo Noce, Cinzia; Palmieri, Luigi; De Curtis, Amalia; Iacoviello, Licia; Zoccali, Carmine; Gesualdo, Loreto; Conte, Giuseppe; Vanuzzo, Diego; Giampaoli, Simona

    2015-05-01

    National surveys in countries outside Europe have reported a high prevalence (11-13%) of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Studies in Europe have provided a variable prevalence likely due to differences in study design, including age and extent of geographic areas, equation used to evaluate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD stages examined. The 2008-12 National Health Examination Survey in Italy randomly extracted samples from the general population aged 35-79 years, stratified by age and gender, from the resident list of each Italian region (440 persons/1.5 million of residents). We estimated the prevalence of CKD by means of urinary albumin : creatinine ratio and eGFR (CKD-EPI equation-enzymatic assay of serum creatinine). Cardiovascular (CV) risk profile was also evaluated. Three thousand eight hundred and forty-eight men and 3704 women were examined. In the whole population, mean age was 57 ± 12 and 56 ± 12 years in men and women, respectively; hypertension was prevalent in men and women, respectively (56 and 43%) and the same held true for overweight (48 and 33%), obesity (26 and 27%), diabetes (14 and 9%) and smoking (21 and 18%), whereas CV disease was less frequent (9 and 6%). Overall, the prevalence of CKD (95% confidence interval) was 7.05% (6.48-7.65). Early stages constituted 59% of the CKD population [Stage G1-2 A2-3: 4.16% (3.71-4.61) and Stage G3-5: 2.89% (2.51-3.26)]. At multivariate regression analysis, age, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, CV disease and smoking were all independent correlates of CKD. CKD has a relatively lower prevalence in Italy, in particular for advanced stages, when compared with similar national surveys outside Europe. This occurs despite older age and unfavourable CV risk profile of the whole population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between blood cadmium levels and 10-year coronary heart disease risk in the general Korean population: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Pyo Myong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-occupational heavy metals are considered risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD. Several recent epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for CHD using the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk. METHODS: The heavy metal dataset of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008 through 2010, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4,668 non-institutionalized Koreans, was analyzed. Subjects were stratified into seven age groups to minimize the effects of age. The log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations were compared with the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk in each age stratum. RESULTS: The Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations (p<0.05 in all age groups of Korean men, with the lowest regression coefficient (0.254 for men aged 20 to <35 years and the highest (3.354 for men aged 55 to <60 years; similar results, however, were not observed in Korean women. After adjusting for survey year, age, and urinary cotinine concentration, the log-transformed blood cadmium levels among men aged 20 to <35, 40 to <45, 50 to <55, and 60 to <65 years were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05, but not with total and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Cadmium exposure, even at non-occupational levels, may be associated with CHD risk in men. Despite the declines in non-occupational cadmium exposure over the past several decades, more efforts are needed.

  8. Relationship between the number of family members and stress by gender: Cross-sectional analysis of the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Beom; Park, Jumin; Hong, Janghun; Kwon, Young Dae

    2017-01-01

    Due to gendered inequalities in the division of domestic work, women with paid employment and family caregiving responsibilities can feel extremely tired with general distress and depression. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between the number of family members and stress level by gender among Korean adults using a nationally representative dataset. We used a sample of 6,293 subjects aged 19 or older (3,629 female and 2,264 male) from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A multivariable logistic regression analysis with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics was conducted. Because there were gender differences, a stratified analysis was performed for each gender. Age, number of family members, education level, occupational status, depression, self-rated health status, and chronic diseases were found to have a significant association with stress level in the study subjects (pfamily with two members (OR 1.521), three family members (OR 1.893), or four or more family members without spouse (OR 2.035) compared to those who live alone. We found that unmarried women are more likely to be stressed as the number of family members increases. Gender expectations giving women the main responsibility for domestic and care work may become a source of stress. Reconciliation of family and work remains women's responsibility in Korea. As family problems are recently becoming a big issue, our study shows the importance of considering gender difference in studies on stress according to family roles and functions.

  9. Well-being in residency training: a survey examining resident physician satisfaction both within and outside of residency training and mental health in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the critical importance of well-being during residency training, only a few Canadian studies have examined stress in residency and none have examined well-being resources. No recent studies have reported any significant concerns with respect to perceived stress levels in residency. We investigated the level of perceived stress, mental health and understanding and need for well-being resources among resident physicians in training programs in Alberta, Canada. Methods A mail questionnaire was distributed to the entire resident membership of PARA during 2003 academic year. PARA represents each of the two medical schools in the province of Alberta. Results In total 415 (51 % residents participated in the study. Thirty-four percent of residents who responded to the survey reported their life as being stressful. Females reported stress more frequently than males (40% vs. 27%, p Residents highly valued their colleagues (67%, program directors (60% and external psychiatrist/psychologist (49% as well-being resources. Over one third of residents wished to have a career counselor (39% and financial counselor (38%. Conclusion Many Albertan residents experience significant stressors and emotional and mental health problems. Some of which differ among genders. This study can serve as a basis for future resource application, research and advocacy for overall improvements to well-being during residency training.

  10. Well-being in residency training: a survey examining resident physician satisfaction both within and outside of residency training and mental health in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jordan S; Patten, Scott

    2005-06-22

    Despite the critical importance of well-being during residency training, only a few Canadian studies have examined stress in residency and none have examined well-being resources. No recent studies have reported any significant concerns with respect to perceived stress levels in residency. We investigated the level of perceived stress, mental health and understanding and need for well-being resources among resident physicians in training programs in Alberta, Canada. A mail questionnaire was distributed to the entire resident membership of PARA during 2003 academic year. PARA represents each of the two medical schools in the province of Alberta. In total 415 (51 %) residents participated in the study. Thirty-four percent of residents who responded to the survey reported their life as being stressful. Females reported stress more frequently than males (40% vs. 27%, p stressors and emotional and mental health problems. Some of which differ among genders. This study can serve as a basis for future resource application, research and advocacy for overall improvements to well-being during residency training.

  11. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009

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    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP) risk in Koreans. Methods This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR) of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over) according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000kcal) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014). Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP. Conclusions The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women. PMID:26075385

  12. Strength training and older women: a cross-sectional study examining factors related to exercise adherence.

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    Seguin, Rebecca A; Economos, Christina D; Palombo, Ruth; Hyatt, Raymond; Kuder, Julia; Nelson, Miriam E

    2010-04-01

    Despite the recognized health benefits, few older women participate in strength-training exercises. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to older women's adherence to strength training after participation in the StrongWomen Program, a nationally disseminated community program. Adherence was defined as > or =4 months of twice-weekly strength training. Surveys were sent to 970 program participants from 23 states and to participants' corresponding program leaders. Five-hundred fifty-seven participants responded (57%). Of respondents who completed surveys (527), 79% (415) adhered to strength training; adherers reported a mean of 14.1 +/- 9.1 months of strength training. Logistic-regression analysis revealed that exercise adherence was positively associated with age (p = .001), higher lifetime physical activity levels (p = .045), better perceived health (p = .003), leader's sports participation (p = .028), and leader's prior experience leading programs (p = .006). These data lend insight to factors that may be related to exercise adherence among midlife and older women.

  13. Association between rice consumption and selected indicators of dietary and nutritional status using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eileen; Luo, Hanqi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating whether white rice, brown rice, and rice flour consumption has any association with selected measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, including various variables of energy intake, major vitamin and mineral intakes, weigh status, blood pressure, cholesterol level, and serum folate level for adults 20 years and older. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and the Food Commodity Intake Database were used. Rice consumers had a significantly higher energy intake, yet they had lower percentage calorie intake from fat and saturated fat. Rice consumers also had significantly higher intakes of a range of nutrients. Rice consumers had lower waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and were significantly more likely to have a body mass index less than or equal to 25.

  14. Relationships between study habits, burnout, and general surgery resident performance on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeds, Matthew R; Thrush, Carol R; McDaniel, Faith K; Gill, Roop; Kimbrough, Mary K; Shames, Brian D; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Galante, Joseph M; Wittgen, Catherine M; Ansari, Parswa; Allen, Steven R; Nussbaum, Michael S; Hess, Donald T; Knight, David C; Bentley, Frederick R

    2017-09-01

    The American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) is used by programs to evaluate the knowledge and readiness of trainees to sit for the general surgery qualifying examination. It is often used as a tool for resident promotion and may be used by fellowship programs to evaluate candidates. Burnout has been associated with job performance and satisfaction; however, its presence and effects on surgical trainees' performance are not well studied. We sought to understand factors including burnout and study habits that may contribute to performance on the ABSITE examination. Anonymous electronic surveys were distributed to all residents at 10 surgical residency programs (n = 326). Questions included demographics as well as study habits, career interests, residency characteristics, and burnout scores using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, which assesses burnout because of both exhaustion and disengagement. These surveys were then linked to the individual's 2016 ABSITE and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 and 2 scores provided by the programs to determine factors associated with successful ABSITE performance. In total, 48% (n = 157) of the residents completed the survey. Of those completing the survey, 48 (31%) scored in the highest ABSITE quartile (≥75th percentile) and 109 (69%) scored less than the 75th percentile. In univariate analyses, those in the highest ABSITE quartile had significantly higher USMLE step 1 and step 2 scores (P burnout scores (disengagement, P Burnout Inventory exhaustion (P = 0.02), and USMLE step 1 and 2 scores (P = 0.007 and 0.0001, respectively). Residents who perform higher on the ABSITE have a regular study schedule throughout the year, report less burnout because of exhaustion, study away from home, and have shown success in prior standardized tests. Further study is needed to determine the effects of burnout on clinical duties, career advancement, and satisfaction. Copyright © 2017

  15. A methodological approach to assessing the health impact of environmental chemical mixtures: PCBs and hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita Christensen, Krista L; White, Paul

    2011-11-01

    We describe an approach to examine the association between exposure to chemical mixtures and a health outcome, using as our case study polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hypertension. The association between serum PCB and hypertension among participants in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was examined. First, unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. Next, correlation and multicollinearity among PCB congeners was evaluated, and clustering analyses performed to determine groups of related congeners. Finally, a weighted sum was constructed to represent the relative importance of each congener in relation to hypertension risk. PCB serum concentrations varied by demographic characteristics, and were on average higher among those with hypertension. Logistic regression results showed mixed findings by congener and class. Further analyses identified groupings of correlated PCBs. Using a weighted sum approach to equalize different ranges and potencies, PCBs 66, 101, 118, 128 and 187 were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension. Epidemiologic data were used to demonstrate an approach to evaluating the association between a complex environmental exposure and health outcome. The complexity of analyzing a large number of related exposures, where each may have different potency and range, are addressed in the context of the association between hypertension risk and exposure to PCBs.

  16. A Methodological Approach to Assessing the Health Impact of Environmental Chemical Mixtures: PCBs and Hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach to examine the association between exposure to chemical mixtures and a health outcome, using as our case study polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and hypertension. The association between serum PCB and hypertension among participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was examined. First, unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. Next, correlation and multicollinearity among PCB congeners was evaluated, and clustering analyses performed to determine groups of related congeners. Finally, a weighted sum was constructed to represent the relative importance of each congener in relation to hypertension risk. PCB serum concentrations varied by demographic characteristics, and were on average higher among those with hypertension. Logistic regression results showed mixed findings by congener and class. Further analyses identified groupings of correlated PCBs. Using a weighted sum approach to equalize different ranges and potencies, PCBs 66, 101, 118, 128 and 187 were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension. Epidemiologic data were used to demonstrate an approach to evaluating the association between a complex environmental exposure and health outcome. The complexity of analyzing a large number of related exposures, where each may have different potency and range, are addressed in the context of the association between hypertension risk and exposure to PCBs.

  17. The extent and determinants of diabetes and cardiovascular disease comorbidity in South Africa – results from the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipo Mutyambizi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a major health problem and cause of death worldwide. It is predicted that the prevalence of diabetes will increase from 415 million in 2015 to 642 million in 2040. However, the burden of diabetes in low- and middle-income countries is not clearly understood, particularly its interaction with other chronic illnesses. This study investigates the self-reported prevalence of and factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular comorbidity in South Africa. Methods Data used in this study are from the 2012 South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey (N = 25,532. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease comorbidity was defined as the coexistence of diabetes plus one or more cardiovascular diseases reported at the time of the survey. This study makes use of multinomial logistic regression models to analyse the relationship between diabetes - cardiovascular disease comorbidity and several predictors including race, income, socio-economic status and obesity. Results According to the survey data we analysed, 5% of South Africans aged 15 and above had self-reported diabetes in 2011–2012. Among those with self-reported diabetes, 73% had at least one additional cardiovascular chronic illness. Diabetes and its cardiovascular disease comorbidity was more prevalent in Africans (66%, females (66%, those who lived in urban areas (75%, had secondary education (44% and were unemployed (62%. Factors strongly associated with diabetes - cardiovascular disease comorbidity were older age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.09; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.06–1.12, high household income (0.27; 0.10–0.76 versus low income, moderate (0.33; 0.11–0.96 and good self-rated health (0.24; 0.08–0.68 versus bad self-rated health, occasional (0.29; 0.10–0.88 and regular smokers (0.25; 0.12–0.53 versus non-smokers and physical activity (0.15; 0.03–0.68 versus no physical

  18. Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Musa-Veloso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S. and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI. To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003–2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight and NHANES cycle (2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, 2009–2010, 2011–2012, age category (3–11 years, 12–18 years, 19–44 years, 45 years+, gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese, using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3% and older female adults (11.1%. Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.

  19. Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Fallah, Shafagh; O'Shea, Marianne; Chu, YiFang

    2016-08-17

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S.) and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI). To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003-2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight) and NHANES cycle (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012), age category (3-11 years, 12-18 years, 19-44 years, 45 years+), gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese), using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3%) and older female adults (11.1%). Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.

  20. Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se Young; Kim, Suyeon; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah

    2015-07-16

    To assess the association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in women in South Korea. Population-based cross-sectional study. South Korea (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V). 1490 non-smoking women who took part in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), in which blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured. The primary outcome was blood levels of lead and cadmium in accordance with the duration of secondhand smoke exposure. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium in women who were never exposed to secondhand smoke was 1.21 (0.02) µg/L. Among women who were exposed less than 1 h/day, the mean cadmium level was 1.13 (0.03) µg/L, and for those exposed for more than 1 h, the mean level was 1.46 (0.06) µg/L. In particular, there was a significant association between duration of secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace and blood cadmium concentration. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium concentration in the never exposed women's group was less than that in the 1 h and more exposed group, and the 1 h and more at workplace exposed group: 1.20, 1.24 and 1.50 µg/L, respectively. We could not find any association between lead concentration in the blood and secondhand smoke exposure status. This study showed that exposure to secondhand smoke and blood cadmium levels are associated. Especially, there was a significant association at the workplace. Therefore, social and political efforts for reducing the exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace are needed in order to promote a healthier working environment for women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Association of blood cadmium with hypertension in the Korean general population: analysis of the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-11-01

    We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010 regarding the association between blood cadmium levels and blood pressure in a representative sample of the adult South Korean population. We restricted the analysis to participants ≥20 years of age who completed the health examination survey, including blood cadmium measurements (n = 5,919). We performed multivariate linear regression analyses to estimate adjusted mean differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure associated with doubling of, or quartiles of, cadmium levels after covariate adjustment. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension and prehypertension for log-transformed blood cadmium levels and quartiles thereof after covariate adjustment. We observed a twofold increase in blood cadmium associated with 0.755 and 1.007 mmHg increases in diastolic pressure in women and men, respectively. We observed 2.243 and 1.975 mmHg increases in diastolic pressure in women and men, respectively, in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of blood cadmium. Systolic pressure showed results similar to those of diastolic pressure. Based on ORs, a doubling of blood cadmium resulted in 18.6% and 31.5% increases in the risk of hypertension in women and men, respectively. Doubling of blood cadmium resulted in a 23.5% and 22.9% increase in the risk of prehypertension in women and men, respectively. We found a significant association between blood cadmium levels and elevated blood pressure regardless of the type of variable (continuous or categorical) in women and men with a lower blood cadmium level compared to previous Korean studies. This study also showed that blood cadmium levels were robust risk factors for prehypertension in both women and men. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Survey on the Levels of Questioning of ELT: A Case Study in an Indonesian Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashadi, Rido Imam; Lubis, Nazriani

    2017-01-01

    This present study focused on examining the levels of questions in Indonesia tertiary education. A survey research was conducted in one of the private universities in North Sumatra. The English summative assessment in an undergraduate education was used as target of survey. There were a collection of questions that had been administered by four…

  3. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life.

  4. Web based health surveys: Using a Two Step Heckman model to examine their potential for population health analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Karyn; Kinderman, Peter; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara; Schwannauer, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    In June 2011 the BBC Lab UK carried out a web-based survey on the causes of mental distress. The 'Stress Test' was launched on 'All in the Mind' a BBC Radio 4 programme and the test's URL was publicised on radio and TV broadcasts, and made available via BBC web pages and social media. Given the large amount of data created, over 32,800 participants, with corresponding diagnosis, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; the dataset are potentially an important source of data for population based research on depression and anxiety. However, as respondents self-selected to participate in the online survey, the survey may comprise a non-random sample. It may be only individuals that listen to BBC Radio 4 and/or use their website that participated in the survey. In this instance using the Stress Test data for wider population based research may create sample selection bias. Focusing on the depression component of the Stress Test, this paper presents an easy-to-use method, the Two Step Probit Selection Model, to detect and statistically correct selection bias in the Stress Test. Using a Two Step Probit Selection Model; this paper did not find a statistically significant selection on unobserved factors for participants of the Stress Test. That is, survey participants who accessed and completed an online survey are not systematically different from non-participants on the variables of substantive interest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Saloranta, Seppo

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability education (SE) is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD) into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in…

  6. Impact of mixed survey modes on physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption: A longitudinal study

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    Claudio R Nigg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is recommended that researchers who use mixed modal methods for data collection compare their impact on outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption behaviors of a multiethnic sample of adults, comparing participants who continued a telephone survey and those who transitioned from a telephone to a web-based survey for a follow-up data collection point. This longitudinal study used a random sample of 700 Hawaii residents (63.3% Female; Mean age=47, SD=17.1. At baseline, participants completed a computer-assisted telephone interview assessing the stage, behavior, and decisional balance of both physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption. For the three-month follow-up survey, participants were given the option of completing the survey either on the web or by phone. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was computed for related physical activity scales and fruit/vegetable consumption variables to compare the change in response across time between a web group and phone group. For both physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption, all mode-by-time interactions were significant. The participants who preferred the telephone survey maintained their levels, whereas those who preferred the web survey reported a decrease in each variable. These results suggest that changing the mode of a survey may introduce a systematic bias in data and that researchers should proceed with caution when using mixed modes of data collection.

  7. How do examiners decide?: a qualitative study of the process of decision making in the oral examination component of the MRCGP examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaphe, John; Street, Simon

    2003-09-01

    To determine how examiners make decisions about candidates in the oral examination for membership in the Royal College of General Practitioners. Qualitative research using interpersonal process recall interviews with oral examiners immediately following examination of an Medical Research Council General Practitioner (MRCGP) candidate. Summer 1999 sessions of the MRCGP examination in Edinburgh and London. Twenty-six examiners in a convenience sample from the panel of Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) oral examiners. Analysis of the transcripts revealed a three-stage process of decision-making consisting of a first impression, followed by a provisional grade and a final grade decision. The examiners used stem questions, exploratory questions and confirming questions during this process. Examiners produced lists of the attributes of successful and unsuccessful candidates, which resembled the grading guidelines provided by the examination committee. Some of the candidates' attributes which influenced the examiners' grading decisions related to personal qualities rather than knowledge or behaviours acquired in vocational training. When examiners were presented with the explanatory model arising from the analysis of the transcripts, they confirmed the validity of the observations. Decision-making by examiners during oral examinations is a complex process involving initial impressions, hypothesis generation and hypothesis testing. Candidates' knowledge, attitudes and performance influence the final outcome of the examination. Interpersonal process recall is a useful tool for exploring professional communication.

  8. Examining Differences between Light and Heavier Smoking Vocational Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Vanessa A.; Loukas, Alexandra; Gottlieb, Nell H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences between light and heavier smoking vocational/technical students in tobacco use, related behaviors, and cessation. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Methods: Two hundred and four smokers attending two vocational/technical colleges in east Texas, USA, completed an anonymous survey during a regularly scheduled…

  9. School travel and children?s physical activity: a cross-sectional study examining the influence of distance

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    Faulkner, Guy; Stone, Michelle; Buliung, Ron; Wong, Bonny; Mitra, Raktim

    2013-01-01

    Background Walking to school is associated with higher levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between school travel mode and physical activity using a sampling frame that purposefully locates schools in varying neighbourhoods. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 785 children (10.57???0.7?years) in Toronto, Canada. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and travel mode was self-reported by parents. Linear regression models accounting for s...

  10. Examination of cross contamination risks between hospitals by external medical staff via cross-sectional intercept survey of hand hygiene

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    Schiffers, Hank

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: Work in hospitals is supported by contributions of life sciences industry representatives (IR in various ways of fields. Close contact between them, caretakers and patients is unavoidable, even in situations where hygiene is critical.The present study investigates whether IR display comparable levels of and methicillin-resistant (MRSA contamination after being exposed to a shared environment for a minimum of 4 hours.Material and methods: An anonymous survey to sample a group of healthcare professionals for traces of fingertip contamination was performed. We used dip slides ( and MRSA to evaluate professionals at the medical exhibition MEDICA. After applying exclusion criteria 298 participants remained valid, they consisted of 208 industry representatives, 49 nurses and 41 physicians.Results: IR where engaged in hospitals, operating rooms and outpatient clinics (82%, 41.8%, 51.9% respectively. 65.9% of IR (vs. 48.8% physicians and 40.8% nurses carried a microbiological burden ≥10 CFU (colony forming units. Neither (≥10 CFU in IR (40.9% did show statistical differences in contamination patterns in comparison to physicians (43.9%, p=0.346 and nurses (36.7%, p=0.878 nor did MRSA (physicians p=0.579, nurses p=0.908. We were unable to differentiate transient from pre-existing permanent colonization.Conclusion: Exposure to the same environment may result in similar hand contamination patterns of IR when compared caregivers. This supports the concern that industry representatives can cause cross infection between hospitals and hygiene sensitive areas like operation room, intensive care unit and central sterilization units particularly. Further study is required to clarify whether pre-existing bacterial colonization is an influencing factor and how industry is taking care of this to create a safe working environment for their employees, the customers and ultimately the patients.

  11. Examination of cross contamination risks between hospitals by external medical staff via cross-sectional intercept survey of hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffers, Hank; Zaatreh, Sarah; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Work in hospitals is supported by contributions of life sciences industry representatives (IR) in various ways of fields. Close contact between them, caretakers and patients is unavoidable, even in situations where hygiene is critical. The present study investigates whether IR display comparable levels of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination after being exposed to a shared environment for a minimum of 4 hours. An anonymous survey to sample a group of healthcare professionals for traces of fingertip contamination was performed. We used dip slides (S. aureus and MRSA) to evaluate 311 healthcare professionals at the medical exhibition MEDICA. After applying exclusion criteria 298 participants remained valid, they consisted of 208 industry representatives, 49 nurses and 41 physicians. IR where engaged in hospitals, operating rooms and outpatient clinics (82%, 41.8%, 51.9% respectively). 65.9% of IR (vs. 48.8% physicians and 40.8% nurses) carried a microbiological burden ≥10(4) CFU (colony forming units). Neither S. aureus (≥10(4) CFU) in IR (40.9%) did show statistical differences in contamination patterns in comparison to physicians (43.9%, p=0.346) and nurses (36.7%, p=0.878) nor did MRSA (physicians p=0.579, nurses p=0.908). We were unable to differentiate transient from pre-existing permanent colonization. Exposure to the same environment may result in similar hand contamination patterns of IR when compared caregivers. This supports the concern that industry representatives can cause cross infection between hospitals and hygiene sensitive areas like operation room, intensive care unit and central sterilization units particularly. Further study is required to clarify whether pre-existing bacterial colonization is an influencing factor and how industry is taking care of this to create a safe working environment for their employees, the customers and ultimately the patients.

  12. Association Between Drinking and Obesity in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

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    Bang, Sol Hee; Choi, Mi Ran; Kwak, Su Min; Choi, In Young; Rho, Mi Jung; Jung, Dong Jin; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Women are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of alcohol than men. The present study aimed to investigate the link between drinking and obesity in pre- and postmenopausal women in Korea. We performed a cross-sectional study of 4374 premenopausal and 2927 postmenopausal women using a multistage probability cluster survey sample to produce nationally representative estimates. We assessed the subjects' alcohol drinking tendencies rates according to their drinking levels as well as Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); obesity was identified based on body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2), waist circumference (WC) ≥80 cm, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥50%. We performed t-tests and chi-square tests to assess the association between drinking and obesity. In premenopausal subjects, obesity indices increased significantly as alcohol consumption rose. Significant correlations between drinking level and obesity factors were found in premenopausal women after adjusting for age (odds ratios [ORs] for BMI, WC, and WHtR were 1.58 [1.08-2.31], 1.94 [1.11-3.00], and 1.80 [1.24-2.61], respectively). Furthermore, an AUDIT score of 20 or higher indicated a significantly higher likelihood of obesity (ORs for BMI, WC, and WHtR were 2.02 [1.18-3.46], 2.75 [1.70-4.87], and 2.86 [1.78-4.59], respectively). There was a significant correlation between AUDIT scores and obesity factors after adjusting for age, energy intake, fat intake, exercise, smoking, education, and income in premenopausal women (ORs for BMI and WHtR were 1.71 [0.85-3.47] and 1.73 [0.97-3.06], respectively). Our results suggest that alcohol is associated with a risk factor for obesity in premenopausal women.

  13. Accelerometer-Derived Pattern of Sedentary and Physical Activity Time in Persons with Mobility Disability: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Patricia; Ezeugwu, Victor; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Vallance, Jeff; Healy, Genevieve N

    2015-07-01

    To describe objectively determined sedentary and activity outcomes (volume and pattern) and their associations with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in individuals with and without mobility disability. Cross-sectional. Population based. Community-dwelling older adults (≥60) living in the United States who were participants in the 2003 to 2004 or 2005 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified as with or without mobility disability according to responses to self-reported questions about ability to walk, climb stairs, and/or use of ambulatory aids. Accelerometer-derived sedentary and activity variables for volume (time in sedentary (activity and pattern (number of breaks from sedentary time, duration of sedentary bouts, duration of activity bouts). Survey-weighted regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education, and smoking, were used to examine the associations between pattern of activity and cardiometabolic health risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Of the 2,017 participants, 547 were classified as having a mobility disability. Participants with mobility disability had more sedentary time and less active time than those without. Sedentary bouts were longer and active bouts shorter in those with disability. The total number of sedentary breaks (transitions from sedentary to nonsedentary) differed between groups after adjustment for total sedentary time. Fewer breaks, longer sedentary bouts, and shorter activity bouts were associated with higher average waist circumference regardless of disability status. This study provides rationale for the development and testing of interventions to change the pattern of activity (e.g., include more breaks and longer activity bout durations) in older adults with mobility disability. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Gender differences in the associations between urinary bisphenol A and body composition among American children: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

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    Ji Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA exposure has been implicated as a potential risk factor in childhood obesity, which is defined using percentiles of body mass index for age. We aimed to examine the associations between BPA exposure, reflected by urinary BPA concentration, and body composition in American children. Methods: Data of 1860 children aged 8–19 years who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed in this study. Urinary BPA concentration (ng/mL was used to indicate BPA status in the body. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted using survey procedures to investigate the associations between urinary BPA level and body composition separately for boys and girls. Results: After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle covariates, higher quartiled and log-transformed urinary BPA levels were significantly associated with elevated lean body mass index (LBMI z-scores in boys (p < 0.05, and significantly associated with elevated fat mass index (FMI z-scores in girls (p < 0.05. Lower urinary BPA concentration was associated with lower percentage of trunk fat in girls (compared to 1st quartile, 2nd-quartile: β = 2.85, 95% CI, 0.92–4.78; 3rd-quartile: β = 2.57, 95% CI, 0.28–4.85; 4th-quartile: β = 2.79, 95% CI, 0.44–5.14; all p < 0.05. Such patterns were not observed in boys. Conclusions: Higher BPA levels may be associated with elevated LBM in boys, but not in girls, while higher BPA levels may be associated with elevated FM in girls, but not in boys.

  15. Associations between urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites and serum testosterone in U.S. adult males: National Health and nutrition examination survey 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Hu, Weiyue; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2017-03-01

    Effects of environmental chemicals on human reproductive health and sex hormone levels have been reported for several years, but compared to other environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, PCBs, triclosan, Phthalate, the links between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sex hormone levels have not been studied widely. Therefore, our purpose of research was to study the associations between urinary PAH metabolites and serum total testosterone (T) levels among men. The data was obtained from the independent cross-section wave (2011-2012) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), including demographic, socioeconomic, dietary, health-related questions, examinations and laboratory test. All analyses were performed by R software (version 3.2.3), including one-way analysis of variance, multivariable linear regression, stratified analysis and heterogeneity test. Of 1102 American adults aged 20 and above included in the statistical analysis, we found that urinary 3-hydroxyfluorene and 2-hydroxyfluorene were significantly positively associated with serum T levels (β = 40.62, 95%CI = 21.78-59.46, P = 2.56 × 10(-5); β = 35.17, 95%CI = 13.18-57.15, P = 1.75 × 10(-3), respectively). The associations between urinary PAH metabolites and serum T levels signified a major public health problem over the world. Prospective work is needed to investigate the potential long-term health consequences of these findings.

  16. Obesity explains gender differences in the association between education level and metabolic syndrome in South Korea: the results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ki Dong; Cho, BeLong; Lee, Won Chul; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Hyun Ki; Oh, Bum Jo

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of educational level with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its risk factors by gender in South Korea. A total of 6178 participants aged 20 years or older from The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. A generalized linear model and adjusted proportion were used to identify educational disparities in MS, its components, and its risk factors (smoking, high-risk alcohol consumption, obesity, and stress). In women, a clearly inverse association between education level and MS were observed with significant trend, and the decreasing trends of all risk factors across education quartiles were in line with the inverse association. However, the association between education level and MS was not observed with a significant trend among men. An opposite trend of risk factors across education levels was shown in men, with an increasing trend for obesity and decreasing trends for smoking and high-risk alcohol consumption. These findings demonstrate that obesity can explain gender differences in the association between education level and MS in South Korea. © 2013 APJPH.

  17. Biomarkers of exposure to molybdenum and other metals in relation to testosterone among men from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Meeker, John D

    2015-01-01

    To examine the potential associations between biomarkers of metal exposure and serum testosterone in men of reproductive age in the general US population. Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Not applicable. Men recruited in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Metal concentrations measured in whole blood, urine, and/or serum samples collected from 484 men. Serum T concentration. Concentrations of the metals were detected in 69%-100% of the samples. In adjusted analyses where metals were modeled as a continuous variable, we found significant inverse associations between urinary molybdenum and serum copper and serum T, whereas there were significant positive associations between blood lead and cadmium and serum T. When metals were categorized into quartiles, analyses for serum copper and blood lead and cadmium produced significant associations in the same direction as the continuous measures. A suggestive inverse association was observed between quartiles of urinary molybdenum and serum T, but the association was statistically significant when molybdenum was categorized into quintiles. Significant positive associations were also observed for quartiles of blood Se and serum Zn and serum T. These findings add to the limited human evidence that exposure to molybdenum and other metals is associated with altered T in men, which may have important implications for male health. More research is needed to confirm the findings of our study. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-05-28

    The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here.

  19. The association between heavy metals, endometriosis and uterine myomas among premenopausal women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L W; Zullo, M D; Goldberg, J M

    2008-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure to exogenous estrogens may be associated with endometriosis and uterine myomas. We sought to investigate the association between heavy metals which have been shown to be hormonally active and these disorders using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Women aged 20-49 years who had data on metals and the outcomes of interest, were premenopausal and neither pregnant nor breastfeeding were eligible (n = 1425). Lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in whole blood. Diagnosis of outcomes was based upon self-report. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of heavy metals and disease adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, use of birth control pills prior to diagnosis and smoking status at diagnosis. A dose-response association between cadmium and endometriosis was observed [tertile 2 versus 1: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-5.18; tertile 3 versus 1: adjusted OR = 3.39, 95% CI 1.37-8.40]. This association persisted in subanalyses: (i) limiting analysis to women diagnosed in the past 10 years and (ii) limiting analysis to women diagnosed since last pregnancy, although limited by sample size. These results must be interpreted with caution given the cross-sectional study design. The observed association between cadmium and endometriosis deserves further investigation in properly designed studies.

  20. Alcohol consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect modification by hypercholesterolemia: the Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyeongap; Jang, Won-Mo; Park, Jong-Heon; Oh, Juhwan; Oh, Mu-Kyung; Hwang, Soo-Hee; Kim, Yong-Ik; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2012-01-01

    While the protective nature of moderate alcohol consumption against diabetes mellitus is well known, inconsistent findings continue to be reported. The possibility of different mixes of effect modifiers has been raised as a reason for those inconsistent findings. Our study aim was to examine potential effect modifiers that can change the effect of alcohol consumption on type 2 diabetes. From data in the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 3,982 individuals over the age of 30 years who had not been diagnosed with diabetes were selected for inclusion in the study population. Breslow and Day's test and the Wald test between hypercholesterolemia and alcohol consumption in a multiple logistic regression model were used to assess effect modification. Odds ratios for diabetes stratified by alcohol consumption strata and assessed using Breslow and Day's tests for homogeneity indicated that hypercholesterolemia was not a significant confounding factor (p=0.01). However, the Wald test for interaction terms, which is a conservative method of effect modification, was significant (p=0.03). The results indicate that moderate alcohol consumption is not necessarily protective for type 2 diabetes mellitus, if a person has hypercholesterolemia. People who have hypercholesterolemia should be aware of the risk associated with alcohol consumption, a risk that contrasts with the reported protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on diabetes.

  1. Sociodemographic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Stress: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Leigh, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    Few population-based studies have used an econometric approach to understand the association between two cancer risk factors, obesity and stress. This study investigated sociodemographic differences in the association between obesity and stress among Korean adults (6,546 men and 8,473 women). Data were drawn from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008, 2009, and 2010. Ordered logistic regression models and propensity score matching methods were used to examine the associations between obesity and stress, stratified by gender and age groups. In women, the stress level of the obese group was found to be 27.6% higher than the nonobese group in the ordered logistic regression; the obesity effect on stress was statistically significant in the propensity score-matched analysis. Corresponding evidence for the effect of obesity on stress was lacking among men. Participants who were young, well-educated, and working were more likely to report stress. In Korea, obesity causes stress in women but not in men. Young women are susceptible to a disproportionate level of stress. More cancer prevention programs targeting young and obese women are encouraged in developed Asian countries.

  2. Eating frequency is inversely associated with blood pressure and hypertension in Korean adults: analysis of the Third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Park, G-H; Yang, J H; Chun, S H; Yoon, H-J; Park, M-S

    2014-04-01

    A lower eating frequency (EF) has been suggested to be important in the development of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and hyperlipidemia. However, the association between EF and blood pressure (BP) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the association of EF with BP and hypertension after adjusting for confounding variables, including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). This cross-sectional study used data from the Third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 4625 subjects aged ≥ 19 years were included. To explore the association of EF with BP and hypertension, we performed multiple linear regression analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses for survey design, respectively. EF was inversely associated with systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). As EF increased from ≤ 2 to 3, 4 and ≥ 5 times per day, estimated adjusted means of both SBP and DBP decreased, showing a significant linear trend independent of obesity (SBP: 120.66, 120.23, 119.18 and 117.92 mm Hg, respectively; P<0.001; DBP: 78.36, 77.78, 77.25 and 76.50 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.004). The inverse association between EF and hypertension was gradually attenuated and significant after adjustment for confounding variables including BMI and WC (P=0.040). This study suggests that lower EF is significantly associated with higher BP, which may be partially mediated by the effect of central obesity. Further prospective studies are needed to verify this causal relationship.

  3. Examination performances of German and international medical students in the preclinical studying-term--a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D; Resch, F; Duelli, R; Möltner, A; Huber, J; Karimian Jazi, K; Amr, A; Eckart, W; Herzog, W; Nikendei, C

    2014-01-01

    Medical students with a migration background face several specific problems during their studies. International surveys show first indications that this group of students performs worse in written, oral or practical exams. However, so far, nothing is known about the performance of international students in written pre-clinical tests as well as in pre-clinical State Examinations for German-speaking countries. A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the exam performances of medical students in the pre-clinical part of their studies was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Heidelberg in for the year 2012. Performance in written tests of the final exams in the second (N=276), third (N=292) and fourth semester (N=285) were compared between German students, students from EU countries and students from non-EU countries. Same comparison was drawn for the performance in the oral exam of the First State Examination in the period from 2009 - 2012 (N=1137). German students performed significantly better than students with a non-EU migration background both in all written exams and in the oral State Examination (all pstudents with an EU migration background was significantly better than that of students with a non-EU background in the written exam at the end of the third and fourth semester (pstudents completed the oral exam of the First State Examination significantly earlier than students with a non-EU migration background (students with a country of origin outside of the European Union has to be seen as a high-risk group among students with a migration background. For this group, there is an urgent need for early support to prepare for written and oral examinations.

  4. Examination performances of German and international medical students in the preclinical studying-term – A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D.; Resch, F.; Duelli, R.; Möltner, A.; Huber, J.; Karimian Jazi, K.; Amr, A.; Eckart, W.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.

    2014-01-01

    Introductio