WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey selection function

  1. The selection function of the RAVE survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojno, Jennifer; Kordopatis, Georges; Piffl, Tilmann; Binney, James; Steinmetz, Matthias; Matijevič, Gal; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Sharma, Sanjib; McMillan, Paul; Watson, Fred; Reid, Warren; Kunder, Andrea; Enke, Harry; Grebel, Eva K.; Seabroke, George; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Zwitter, Tomaž; Bienaymé, Olivier; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Gibson, Brad K.; Gilmore, Gerry; Helmi, Amina; Munari, Ulisse; Navarro, Julio F.; Parker, Quentin A.; Siebert, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    We characterize the selection function of RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) using 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) as our underlying population, which we assume represents all stars that could have potentially been observed. We evaluate the completeness fraction as a function of position, magnitude and colour in two ways: first, on a field-by-field basis, and second, in equal-size areas on the sky. Then, we consider the effect of the RAVE stellar parameter pipeline on the final resulting catalogue, which in principle limits the parameter space over which our selection function is valid. Our final selection function is the product of the completeness fraction and the selection function of the pipeline. We then test if the application of the selection function introduces biases in the derived parameters. To do this, we compare a parent mock catalogue generated using galaxia with a mock-RAVE catalogue where the selection function of RAVE has been applied. We conclude that for stars brighter than I = 12, between 4000 expectations from galaxia.

  2. Effects of the selection function on metallicity trends in spectroscopic surveys of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, G.; Schultheis, M.; Hayden, M.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Haywood, M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Large spectroscopic Galactic surveys imply a selection function in the way they performed their target selection. Aims: We investigate here the effect of the selection function on the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and on the vertical metallicity gradient by studying similar lines of sight using four different spectroscopic surveys (APOGEE, LAMOST, RAVE, and Gaia-ESO), which have different targeting strategies and therefore different selection functions. Methods: We use common fields between the spectroscopic surveys of APOGEE, LAMOST, RAVE (ALR) and APOGEE, RAVE, Gaia-ESO (AGR) and use two stellar population synthesis models, GALAXIA and TRILEGAL, to create mock fields for each survey. We apply the selection function in the form of colour and magnitude cuts of the respective survey to the mock fields to replicate the observed source sample. We make a basic comparison between the models to check which best reproduces the observed sample distribution. We carry out a quantitative comparison between the synthetic MDF from the mock catalogues using both models to understand the effect of the selection function on the MDF and on the vertical metallicity gradient. Results: Using both models, we find a negligible effect of the selection function on the MDF for APOGEE, LAMOST, and RAVE. We find a negligible selection function effect on the vertical metallicity gradients as well, though GALAXIA and TRILEGAL have steeper and shallower slopes, respectively, than the observed gradient. After applying correction terms on the metallicities of RAVE and LAMOST with respect to our reference APOGEE sample, our observed vertical metallicity gradients between the four surveys are consistent within 1σ. We also find consistent gradient for the combined sample of all surveys in ALR and AGR. We estimated a mean vertical metallicity gradient of - 0.241 ± 0.028 dex kpc-1. There is a significant scatter in the estimated gradients in the literature, but our estimates are

  3. Selective Survey of MARC Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockard, Joan

    1971-01-01

    Significant nonduplicative literature on MARC and BNB-MARC is surveyed and characterized. Time lag in publication and the proliferation of ephemera are noted. Two categories of the literature are identified: reports in many formats by individuals and groups associated officially with MARC, and publications of MARC users or observers. (61…

  4. Variable selection and estimation for longitudinal survey data

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Li

    2014-09-01

    There is wide interest in studying longitudinal surveys where sample subjects are observed successively over time. Longitudinal surveys have been used in many areas today, for example, in the health and social sciences, to explore relationships or to identify significant variables in regression settings. This paper develops a general strategy for the model selection problem in longitudinal sample surveys. A survey weighted penalized estimating equation approach is proposed to select significant variables and estimate the coefficients simultaneously. The proposed estimators are design consistent and perform as well as the oracle procedure when the correct submodel was known. The estimating function bootstrap is applied to obtain the standard errors of the estimated parameters with good accuracy. A fast and efficient variable selection algorithm is developed to identify significant variables for complex longitudinal survey data. Simulated examples are illustrated to show the usefulness of the proposed methodology under various model settings and sampling designs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Selective Functionalization of Tailored Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingenbergh, Winand; Boer, Sanne K. de; Cordes, Thorben; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.; Hosson, Jeff Th.M. De; Dorp, Willem F. van

    2012-01-01

    The controlled positioning of nanostructures with active molecular components is of importance throughout nanoscience and nanotechnology. We present a novel three-step method to produce nanostructures that are selectively decorated with functional molecules. We use fluorophores and nanoparticles to

  6. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  7. Supplier selection using different metric functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omosigho S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is an important component of supply chain management in today’s global competitive environment. Hence, the evaluation and selection of suppliers have received considerable attention in the literature. Many attributes of suppliers, other than cost, are considered in the evaluation and selection process. Therefore, the process of evaluation and selection of suppliers is a multi-criteria decision making process. The methodology adopted to solve the supplier selection problem is intuitionistic fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution. Generally, TOPSIS is based on the concept of minimum distance from the positive ideal solution and maximum distance from the negative ideal solution. We examine the deficiencies of using only one metric function in TOPSIS and propose the use of spherical metric function in addition to the commonly used metric functions. For empirical supplier selection problems, more than one metric function should be used.

  8. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1977-11-08

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references.

  9. A survey of functional programming language principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Research in the area of functional programming languages has intensified in the 8 years since John Backus' Turing Award Lecture on the topic was published. The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of the ideas of functional programming languages. The paper assumes the reader is comfortable with mathematics and has knowledge of the basic principles of traditional programming languages, but does not assume any prior knowledge of the ideas of functional languages. A simple functional language is defined and used to illustrate the basic ideas. Topics discussed include the reasons for developing functional languages, methods of expressing concurrency, the algebra of functional programming languages, program transformation techniques, and implementations of functional languages. Existing functional languages are also mentioned. The paper concludes with the author's opinions as to the future of functional languages. An annotated bibliography on the subject is also included.

  10. Functional mining of transporters using synthetic selections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genee, Hans Jasper; Bali, Anne Pihl; Petersen, Søren Dalsgård

    2016-01-01

    Only 25% of bacterial membrane transporters have functional annotation owing to the difficulty of experimental study and of accurate prediction of their function. Here we report a sequence-independent method for high-throughput mining of novel transporters. The method is based on ligand-responsiv......Only 25% of bacterial membrane transporters have functional annotation owing to the difficulty of experimental study and of accurate prediction of their function. Here we report a sequence-independent method for high-throughput mining of novel transporters. The method is based on ligand......-responsive biosensor systems that enable selective growth of cells only if they encode a ligand-specific importer. We developed such a synthetic selection system for thiamine pyrophosphate and mined soil and gut metagenomes for thiamine-uptake functions. We identified several members of a novel class of thiamine...... effectively be deployed to functionally mine metagenomes and elucidate sequence–function relationships of small-molecule transport systems in bacteria....

  11. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Color-Selected Sample of the SDSS Fall Equatorial Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    functions at similar redshifts based on the SDSS Data Release 3 quasar catalog presented by Vestergaard et al. We see clear evidence of cosmic downsizing in the comoving space density distribution of active black holes in the LBQS sample alone. In forthcoming papers, further analysis, comparison...

  12. Selective functionalization of patterned glass surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploetz, E.; Visser, B.; Slingenbergh, W.; Evers, K.; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Pei, Y. T.; Feringa, B. L.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Cordes, T.; van Dorp, W. F.

    2014-01-01

    Tailored writing and specific positioning of molecules on nanostructures is a key step for creating functional materials and nano-optical devices, or interfaces for synthetic machines in various applications. We present a novel approach for the selective functionalization of patterned glass surfaces

  13. How accurate are self-selection web surveys?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.

    2008-01-01

    Due to methodological problems, the quality of the outcomes of web surveys may be seriously affected. This paper addresses one of these problems: self-selection of respondents. Self-selection leads to a lack of representativity and thus to biased estimates. It is shown that the bias of estimators in

  14. A Survey of Job Loss in Selected Communities around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper reported on a survey of job loss in selected communities around Johannesburg, South Africa. Six communities were purposively selected to participate in this study on the basis of a perceived high incidence of job losses among them as a result of ... They experienced a feeling of lowered self-esteem.

  15. Spatial density fluctuations and selection effects in galaxy redshift surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labini, Francesco Sylos [Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Via Panisperna 89 A, Compendio del Viminale, 00184 Rome (Italy); Tekhanovich, Daniil [Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics, Saint Petersburg State University, Staryj Peterhoff, 198504, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Baryshev, Yurij V., E-mail: Francesco.SylosLabini@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: d.tekhanovich@spbu.ru, E-mail: y.baryshev@spbu.ru [Institute of Astronomy, St.Petersburg State University, Staryj Peterhoff, 198504, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    One of the main problems of observational cosmology is to determine the range in which a reliable measurement of galaxy correlations is possible. This corresponds to determining the shape of the correlation function, its possible evolution with redshift and the size and amplitude of large scale structures. Different selection effects, inevitably entering in any observation, introduce important constraints in the measurement of correlations. In the context of galaxy redshift surveys selection effects can be caused by observational techniques and strategies and by implicit assumptions used in the data analysis. Generally all these effects are taken into account by using pair-counting algorithms to measure two-point correlations. We review these methods stressing that they are based on the a-priori assumption that galaxy distribution is spatially homogeneous inside a given sample. We show that, when this assumption is not satisfied by the data, results of the correlation analysis are affected by finite size effects. In order to quantify these effects, we introduce a new method based on the computation of the gradient of galaxy counts along tiny cylinders. We show, by using artificial homogeneous and inhomogeneous point distributions, that this method identifies redshift dependent selection effects and disentangles them from the presence of large scale density fluctuations. We then apply this new method to several redshift catalogs and we find evidence that galaxy distribution, in those samples where selection effects are small enough, is characterized by power-law correlations with exponent γ=0.9 up to 20 Mpc/h followed by a change of slope that, in the range 20–100 Mpc/h, corresponds to a power-law exponent γ=0.25. Whether a crossover to spatial uniformity occurs at ∼ 100 Mpc/h or larger scales cannot be clarified by the present data.

  16. Target Selection for the SDSS-III MARVELS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.; De Lee, Nathan; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Mack, Claude E., III; Dhital, Saurav; Hebb, Leslie; Ge, Jian

    2015-06-01

    We present the target selection process for the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey (MARVELS), which is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III. MARVELS is a medium-resolution (R ∼ 11,000) multi-fiber spectrograph capable of obtaining radial velocities for 60 objects at a time in order to find brown dwarfs and giant planets. The survey was configured to target dwarf stars with effective temperatures approximately between 4500 and 6250 K. For the first 2 years MARVELS relied on low-resolution spectroscopic pre-observations to estimate the effective temperature and log (g) for candidate stars and then selected suitable dwarf stars from this pool. Ultimately, the pre-observation spectra proved ineffective at filtering out giant stars; many giants were incorrectly classified as dwarfs, resulting in a giant contamination rate of ∼30% for the first phase of the MARVELS survey. Thereafter, the survey instead applied a reduced proper motion cut to eliminate giants and used the Infrared Flux Method to estimate effective temperatures, using only extant photmetric and proper-motion catalog information. The target selection method introduced here may be useful for other surveys that need to rely on extant catalog data for selection of specific stellar populations.

  17. THE TIME DOMAIN SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: VARIABLE SELECTION AND ANTICIPATED RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, Eric; Green, Paul J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Anderson, Scott F.; Ruan, John J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Eracleous, Michael; Brandt, William Nielsen [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kelly, Brandon [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Badenes, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bañados, Eduardo [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Borissova, Jura [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Casilla 5030, and Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Santiago (Chile); Burgett, William S. [GMTO Corp, Suite 300, 251 S. Lake Ave, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Chambers, Kenneth, E-mail: emorganson@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2015-06-20

    We present the selection algorithm and anticipated results for the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS). TDSS is an Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) subproject that will provide initial identification spectra of approximately 220,000 luminosity-variable objects (variable stars and active galactic nuclei across 7500 deg{sup 2} selected from a combination of SDSS and multi-epoch Pan-STARRS1 photometry. TDSS will be the largest spectroscopic survey to explicitly target variable objects, avoiding pre-selection on the basis of colors or detailed modeling of specific variability characteristics. Kernel Density Estimate analysis of our target population performed on SDSS Stripe 82 data suggests our target sample will be 95% pure (meaning 95% of objects we select have genuine luminosity variability of a few magnitudes or more). Our final spectroscopic sample will contain roughly 135,000 quasars and 85,000 stellar variables, approximately 4000 of which will be RR Lyrae stars which may be used as outer Milky Way probes. The variability-selected quasar population has a smoother redshift distribution than a color-selected sample, and variability measurements similar to those we develop here may be used to make more uniform quasar samples in large surveys. The stellar variable targets are distributed fairly uniformly across color space, indicating that TDSS will obtain spectra for a wide variety of stellar variables including pulsating variables, stars with significant chromospheric activity, cataclysmic variables, and eclipsing binaries. TDSS will serve as a pathfinder mission to identify and characterize the multitude of variable objects that will be detected photometrically in even larger variability surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  18. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  19. A survey of drug abuse problems among students of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to survey drug abuse problems among students of selected secondary schools in Ile-Ife in Osun State. Specifically, the study was to find out the reasons for drug abuse among students. The major instrument used to collect needed information was the questionnaire which was distributed to ...

  20. Large-Scale Selective Functionalization of Alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Karen I; Goldman, Alan S

    2017-03-21

    Great progress has been made in the past several decades concerning C-H bond functionalization. But despite many significant advances, a commercially viable large-scale process for selective alkane functionalization remains an unreached goal. Such conversions will require highly active, selective, and long-lived catalysts. In addition, essentially complete atom-economy will be required. Thus, any reagents used in transforming the alkanes must be almost free (e.g., O2, H2O, N2), or they should be incorporated into the desired large-scale product. Any side-products should be completely benign or have value as fuels (e.g., H2 or other alkanes). Progress and promising leads toward the development of such systems involving primarily molecular transition metal catalysts are described.

  1. The Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey parent population : I. Sample selection and number counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKean, J. P.; Browne, I. W. A.; Jackson, N. J.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Helbig, P.

    We present the selection of the Jodrell Bank Flat-spectrum (JBF) radio source sample, which is designed to reduce the uncertainties in the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS) gravitational lensing statistics arising from the lack of knowledge about the parent population luminosity function. From

  2. Attitudes towards preconception sex selection: a representative survey from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, E; Hinsch, K-D; Brosig, B; Beutel, M

    2004-12-01

    Within the next parliamentary term, the German government is expected to replace the current Embryo Protection Act with a new Human Reproductive Technology Act. Before introducing new legislation, policy makers may want to survey public attitudes towards novel applications of reproductive technology. In order to assess opinions and concerns about preconception sex selection for non-medical reasons, a social survey has been conducted in Germany. As a representative sample of the German population, 1005 men and women 18 years and older were asked whether or not preconception sex selection should be made available. Of the respondents, 32% held that sex selection should be strictly prohibited, be it for medical or non-medical reasons, and 54% accepted the use of preconception sex selection for medical purposes. Only a minority of 11% approved of the use of preconception sex selection for non-medical reasons. The widespread opposition to a freely available service for non-medical sex selection is based on several claims: 87% of respondents hold that 'children are a gift and deserve to be loved regardless of any characteristics such as beauty, intelligence or sex'; 79% argue that choosing the sex of children is 'playing God'; 76% are opposed because it is seen as 'unnatural'; 49% are afraid that it is 'skewing the natural sex ratio'; and 40% consider it to be 'sexist'.

  3. Selective ion transport in functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylova, Olga N.; Calixte, Emvia I.; Shuford, Kevin L.

    2017-11-01

    Ion transport through functionalized carbon nanotubes in an external electric field is studied using all atom molecular dynamics simulations. The surface of carbon nanotubes has been functionalized with hydrogens and hydroxyl groups, and ionic current passing through the nanochannels has been examined with respect to the extent of surface modification. We are able to dramatically increase the ionic current passing through the nanotube via the appropriate surface modification. An analysis of the electrostatic potential within the tube shows higher ionic currents result from an increase in accessible pathways coupled with a global shift toward more direct ion passage. Moreover, through judicious choice of structure, the current can be modulated to a large degree with ion selectivity.

  4. Hand Surgery Fellowship Selection Criteria: A National Fellowship Director Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco M. Egro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Candidate characteristics for hand surgery fellowship training remains unknown, as very little data is available in the literature. This study aims to provide information on the criteria that are employed to select candidates for the hand surgery fellowship match. Methods A 38-question survey was sent in April 2015 to all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education recognized hand surgery fellowship program directors (n=81 involved in the U.S. match. The survey investigated factors used for the selection of applicants, including medical school, residency training, research experience, fellowship interview, and candidate characteristics. A 5-point Likert scale was used to grade 33 factors from “not at all important” (1 to “essential in making my decision” (5; or for five controversial factors from “very negative impact” (1 to “very positive impact in making my decision” (5. Results A total of 52% (42 out of 81 of responses were received from hand surgery fellowship program directors. The most important influential factors were interactions with faculty during interview and visit (4.6±0.6, interpersonal skills (4.6±0.5, overall interview performance in the selection process (4.6±0.6, professionalism and ethics (4.6±0.7, and letters of recommendation from hand surgeons (4.5±0.7. Factors that have a negative impact on the selection process include visa requirement (2.1±1.2, graduate of non-plastic surgery residency program (2.4±1.3, and graduate of a foreign medical school (2.4±1.1. Conclusions This study provides data on hand surgery fellowship directors’ perception on the criteria important for fellowship applicant selection, and showed that interview-related criteria and letters of recommendation are the important factors.

  5. Target Selection for the SDSS-IV APOGEE-2 Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zasowski, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cohen, R. E.; Carlberg, J. K.; Fleming, Scott W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chojnowski, S. D.; Holtzman, J. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88001 (United States); Santana, F. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Oelkers, R. J.; Bird, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Andrews, B. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Beaton, R. L. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bender, C.; Cunha, K. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bovy, J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Covey, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States); Dell’Agli, F.; García-Hernández, D. A. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, and Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Frinchaboy, P. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Harding, P. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Johnson, J. A., E-mail: gail.zasowski@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2017-11-01

    APOGEE-2 is a high-resolution, near-infrared spectroscopic survey observing ∼3 × 10{sup 5} stars across the entire sky. It is the successor to APOGEE and is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV). APOGEE-2 is expanding on APOGEE’s goals of addressing critical questions of stellar astrophysics, stellar populations, and Galactic chemodynamical evolution using (1) an enhanced set of target types and (2) a second spectrograph at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. APOGEE-2 is targeting red giant branch and red clump stars, RR Lyrae, low-mass dwarf stars, young stellar objects, and numerous other Milky Way and Local Group sources across the entire sky from both hemispheres. In this paper, we describe the APOGEE-2 observational design, target selection catalogs and algorithms, and the targeting-related documentation included in the SDSS data releases.

  6. Target Selection for the SDSS-IV APOGEE-2 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasowski, G.; Cohen, R. E.; Chojnowski, S. D.; Santana, F.; Oelkers, R. J.; Andrews, B.; Beaton, R. L.; Bender, C.; Bird, J. C.; Bovy, J.; Carlberg, J. K.; Covey, K.; Cunha, K.; Dell’Agli, F.; Fleming, Scott W.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Harding, P.; Holtzman, J.; Johnson, J. A.; Kollmeier, J. A.; Majewski, S. R.; Mészáros, Sz.; Munn, J.; Muñoz, R. R.; Ness, M. K.; Nidever, D. L.; Poleski, R.; Román-Zúñiga, C.; Shetrone, M.; Simon, J. D.; Smith, V. V.; Sobeck, J. S.; Stringfellow, G. S.; Szigetiáros, L.; Tayar, J.; Troup, N.

    2017-11-01

    APOGEE-2 is a high-resolution, near-infrared spectroscopic survey observing ∼3 × 105 stars across the entire sky. It is the successor to APOGEE and is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV). APOGEE-2 is expanding on APOGEE’s goals of addressing critical questions of stellar astrophysics, stellar populations, and Galactic chemodynamical evolution using (1) an enhanced set of target types and (2) a second spectrograph at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. APOGEE-2 is targeting red giant branch and red clump stars, RR Lyrae, low-mass dwarf stars, young stellar objects, and numerous other Milky Way and Local Group sources across the entire sky from both hemispheres. In this paper, we describe the APOGEE-2 observational design, target selection catalogs and algorithms, and the targeting-related documentation included in the SDSS data releases.

  7. Factors affecting orthopedic residency selection: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelzow, Jason; Petretta, Robert; Broekhuyse, Henry M

    2017-06-01

    Annually, orthopedic residency programs rank and recruit the best possible candidates. Little evidence exists identifying factors that potential candidates use to select their career paths. Recent literature from nonsurgical programs suggests hospital, social and program-based factors influence program selection. We sought to determine what factors influence the choice of an orthopedic career and a candidate's choice of orthopedic residency program. We surveyed medical student applicants to orthopedic programs and current Canadian orthopedic surgery residents (postgraduate year [PGY] 1-5). The confidential online survey focused on 3 broad categories of program selection: educational, program cohesion and noneducation factors. Questions were graded on a Likert Scale and tailed for mean scores. In total, 139 residents from 11 of 17 Canadian orthopedic programs (49% response rate) and 23 medical student applicants (88% response rate) completed our survey. Orthopedic electives and mandatory rotations were reported by 71% of participants as somewhat or very important to their career choice. Collegiality among residents (4.70 ± 0.6), program being the "right fit" (4.65 ± 0.53) and current resident satisfaction with their chosen program (4.63 ±0.66) were ranked with the highest mean scores on a 5-point Likert scale. There are several modifiable factors that residency programs may use to attract applicants, including early availability of clerkship rotations and a strong mentorship environment emphasizing both resident-resident and resident-staff cohesion. Desirable residency programs should develop early access to surgical and operative skills. These must be balanced with a continued emphasis on top-level orthopedic training.

  8. Pulmonary function and fuel use: A population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumdar PK

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the backdrop of conflicting reports (some studies reported adverse outcomes of biomass fuel use whereas few studies reported absence of any association between adverse health effect and fuel use, may be due to presence of large number of confounding variables on the respiratory health effects of biomass fuel use, this cross sectional survey was undertaken to understand the role of fuel use on pulmonary function. Method This study was conducted in a village of western India involving 369 randomly selected adult subjects (165 male and 204 female. All the subjects were interviewed and were subjected to pulmonary function test. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare the levels of different pulmonary function test parameters in relation to different fuel use taking care of the role of possible confounding factors. Results This study showed that biomass fuel use (especially wood is an important factor for deterioration of pulmonary function (particularly in female. FEV1 (p 1 % (p 25–75 (p Conclusion This study concluded that traditional biomass fuels like wood have adverse effects on pulmonary function.

  9. Functional Brain Imaging: A Comprehensive Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sarraf, Saman

    2016-01-01

    Functional brain imaging allows measuring dynamic functionality in all brain regions. It is broadly used in clinical cognitive neuroscience as, well as in research. It will allow the observation of neural activities in the brain simultaneously. From the beginning when functional brain imaging was initiated by the mapping of brain functions proposed by phrenologists, many scientists were asking why we need to image brain functionality since we have already structural information. Simply, their important question was including a great answer. Functional information of the human brain would definitely complement structural information, helping to have a better understanding of what is happening in the brain. This paper, which could be useful to those who have an interest in functional brain imaging, such as engineers, will present a quick review of modalities used in functional brain imaging. We will concentrate on the most used techniques in functional imaging which are functional magnetic resonance imaging (fM...

  10. Selected aspects of psychosocial functioning of epileptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szpringer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite advances in medicine, epilepsy remains a mysterious and fearsome disease, which induces social stigma and alienation of those who suffer from it. Such attitudes are perceived by epileptics themselves, who often feel stigmatised by the sheer fact of being sick, which implies an experience of social isolation. Aim of the research: To assess the life quality of epileptic outpatients. Material and methods: The study, conducted in Q4 2013 (October-December, included 185 adult people with diagnosed epilepsy. To collect the information about the subject matter of the thesis, the authors used the method of a diagnostic survey and two questionnaires as tools – one, the authors’ own and another standardised Life Satisfaction Scale questionnaire, adopted by Z. Juczyński. Results: The obtained study results reveal that the majority of respondents consider their health condition to be poor. The satisfaction of life was higher among urban residents and those with higher education. The lowest quality of life was found among people in the 50-plus age bracket, and nearly half of respondents felt alienated due to the disease. Conclusions : A subjective assessment of satisfaction of life constitutes a significant aspect of functioning for every person. For each respondent, determination of life quality is an individual and highly complex issue. Patients who are in a similar situation from a clinical perspective may perceive their everyday limitations in a completely different way and, as a result, assess their life capabilities differently.

  11. Colored Sticky Traps to Selectively Survey Thrips in Cowpea Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L D; Zhao, H Y; Fu, B L; Han, Y; Liu, K; Wu, J H

    2016-02-01

    The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of legume crops in South China. Yellow, blue, or white sticky traps are currently recommended for monitoring and controlling thrips, but it is not known whether one is more efficient than the other or if selectivity could be optimized by trap color. We investigated the response of thrips and beneficial insects to different-colored sticky traps on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. More thrips were caught on blue, light blue, white, and purple traps than on yellow, green, pink, gray, red, or black traps. There was a weak correlation on the number of thrips caught on yellow traps and survey from flowers (r = 0.139), whereas a strong correlation was found for blue traps and thrips' survey on flowers (r = 0.929). On commercially available sticky traps (Jiaduo®), two and five times more thrips were caught on blue traps than on white and yellow traps, respectively. Otherwise, capture of beneficial insects was 1.7 times higher on yellow than on blue traps. The major natural enemies were the predatory ladybird beetles (63%) and pirate bugs Orius spp. (29%), followed by a number of less representative predators and parasitoids (8%). We conclude the blue sticky trap was the best to monitor thrips on cowpea in South China.

  12. Selection of Voice Therapy Methods. Results of an Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Iris; Meier, Birte; Nolte, Katharina; Oppermann, Tina; Rogg, Verena; Beushausen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    Providing an evidence basis for voice therapy in the German-speaking countries faces the challenge that-for historical reasons-a variety of direct voice therapy methods is available. The aim of this study was to clarify which therapy methods are chosen and the underlying principles for this selection. An online survey was implemented to identify to what extent the variety of methods described in theory is also applied in practice. A total of 434 voice therapists in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were asked, among other things, which methods they prefer. A significant majority of therapists do not apply one specific method but rather work with a unique combination of direct voice therapy methods for individual clients. These results show that the variety of methods described in the literature is also applied in voice therapy practice. The combination of methods becomes apparent during the choice of exercises. The type of voice disorder plays no decisive role in the method selection process, whereas certain patient variables do have an influence on this process. In particular, the patients' movement restrictions, their state of mind or mood on a given day, and aspects of learning theory are taken into account. The results suggest that a patient-oriented selection of appropriate exercises is of primary importance to voice therapists and that they rarely focus on specific direct voice therapy methods. It becomes clear that an evaluation of single methods does not correspond to practical experience, and therefore, an overall evaluation of voice therapy appears to be more useful. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Selections from 2017: Hubble Survey Explores Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2017, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume in January.CANDELS Multi-Wavelength Catalogs: Source Identification and Photometry in the CANDELS COSMOSSurvey FieldPublished January2017Main takeaway:A publication led byHooshang Nayyeri(UC Irvine and UC Riverside) early this year details acatalog of sources built using the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey(CANDELS), a survey carried out by cameras on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The catalogliststhe properties of 38,000 distant galaxies visiblewithin the COSMOS field, a two-square-degree equatorial field explored in depthto answer cosmological questions.Why its interesting:Illustration showing the three-dimensional map of the dark matter distribution in theCOSMOS field. [Adapted from NASA/ESA/R. Massey(California Institute of Technology)]The depth and resolution of the CANDELS observations areuseful for addressingseveral major science goals, including the following:Studying the most distant objects in the universe at the epoch of reionization in the cosmic dawn.Understanding galaxy formation and evolution during the peak epoch of star formation in the cosmic high noon.Studying star formation from deep ultravioletobservations and studying cosmology from supernova observations.Why CANDELS is a major endeavor:CANDELS isthe largest multi-cycle treasury program ever approved on the Hubble Space Telescope using over 900 orbits between 2010 and 2013 withtwo cameras on board the spacecraftto study galaxy formation and evolution throughout cosmic time. The CANDELS images are all publicly available, and the new catalogrepresents an enormous source of information about distant objectsin our universe.CitationH. Nayyeri et al 2017 ApJS 228 7. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/228/1/7

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Selection function of Milky Way field stars (Stonkute+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonkute, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Howes, L. M.; Feltzing, S.; Worley, C. C.; Gilmore, G.; Ruchti, G. R.; Kordopatis, G.; Randich, S.; Zwitter, T.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Costado, M. T.; Tautvaisiene, G.; Casey, A. R.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofre, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Sbordone, L.

    2017-10-01

    The observations are conducted with the FLAMES (Pasquini et al., 2002Msngr.110....1P) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) array operated by the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal, Chile. FLAMES is a fibre facility of the VLT and is mounted at the Nasmyth A platform of the second Unit Telescope of VLT. In this paper, we present the Gaia-ESO Survey selection function only for the Milky Way field stars observed with the GIRAFFE and UVES spectrographs at VLT, not including the bulge. All targets were selected according to their colours and magnitudes, using photometry from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS; McMahon et al. 2013Msngr.154...35M) and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS; Skrutskie et al., 2006, Cat. VII/233). Selected potential target lists were generated at the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) centre. (3 data files).

  15. Spatially Selective Functionalization of Conducting Polymers by "Electroclick" Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymer microelectrodes can electrochemically generate the catalyst required for their own functionalization by "click chemistry" with high spatial resolution. Interdigitated microelectrodes prepared from an azide-containing conducting polymer are selectively functionalized in sequence...

  16. The Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey in the SDSS Footprint. I. Infrared-based Candidate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian D.; Yang, Qian; Wu, Jin; Jiang, Linhua; Green, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Studies of the most luminous quasars at high redshift directly probe the evolution of the most massive black holes in the early universe and their connection to massive galaxy formation. However, extremely luminous quasars at high redshift are very rare objects. Only wide-area surveys have a chance to constrain their population. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has so far provided the most widely adopted measurements of the quasar luminosity function at z> 3. However, a careful re-examination of the SDSS quasar sample revealed that the SDSS quasar selection is in fact missing a significant fraction of z≳ 3 quasars at the brightest end. We identified the purely optical-color selection of SDSS, where quasars at these redshifts are strongly contaminated by late-type dwarfs, and the spectroscopic incompleteness of the SDSS footprint as the main reasons. Therefore, we designed the Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS), based on a novel near-infrared JKW2 color cut using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission (WISE) AllWISE and 2MASS all-sky photometry, to yield high completeness for very bright ({m}{{i}}learning algorithms on SDSS and WISE photometry for quasar-star classification and photometric redshift estimation. The ELQS will spectroscopically follow-up ˜230 new quasar candidates in an area of ˜12,000 deg2 in the SDSS footprint to obtain a well-defined and complete quasar sample for an accurate measurement of the bright-end quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 3.0≤slant z≤slant 5.0. In this paper, we present the quasar selection algorithm and the quasar candidate catalog.

  17. When natural selection gives gene function the cold shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Asher D; Jovelin, Richard

    2015-11-01

    It is tempting to invoke organismal selection as perpetually optimizing the function of any given gene. However, natural selection can drive genic functional change without improvement of biochemical activity, even to the extinction of gene activity. Detrimental mutations can creep in owing to linkage with other selectively favored loci. Selection can promote functional degradation, irrespective of genetic drift, when adaptation occurs by loss of gene function. Even stabilizing selection on a trait can lead to divergence of the underlying molecular constituents. Selfish genetic elements can also proliferate independent of any functional benefits to the host genome. Here we review the logic and evidence for these diverse processes acting in genome evolution. This collection of distinct evolutionary phenomena - while operating through easily understandable mechanisms - all contribute to the seemingly counterintuitive notion that maintenance or improvement of a gene's biochemical function sometimes do not determine its evolutionary fate. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Analysis of Selected Functional Characteristics of Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    functioning in this capa- *1 city . Assessing the value of wetlands for water quality improvements also de- pends on one’s individual bias or perspective... sponges ; rather they release excess moisture during wet periods and deplete supply during dry months. *R. R. Bay, (1967) in a study on forested peat...1, Water Quality. Indeed, the research re- quirements for shoreline protection, stormwater storage, and groundwater re- charge are all similar and can

  19. Selective Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Khare, Bishun

    2010-01-01

    An alternative method of low-temperature plasma functionalization of carbon nanotubes provides for the simultaneous attachment of molecular groups of multiple (typically two or three) different species or different mixtures of species to carbon nanotubes at different locations within the same apparatus. This method is based on similar principles, and involves the use of mostly the same basic apparatus, as those of the methods described in "Low-Temperature Plasma Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes" (ARC-14661-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 45. The figure schematically depicts the basic apparatus used in the aforementioned method, with emphasis on features that distinguish the present alternative method from the other. In this method, one exploits the fact that the composition of the deposition plasma changes as the plasma flows from its source in the precursor chamber toward the nanotubes in the target chamber. As a result, carbon nanotubes mounted in the target chamber at different flow distances (d1, d2, d3 . . .) from the precursor chamber become functionalized with different species or different mixtures of species. In one series of experiments to demonstrate this method, N2 was used as the precursor gas. After the functionalization process, the carbon nanotubes from three different positions in the target chamber were examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to identify the molecular groups that had become attached. On carbon nanotubes from d1 = 1 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-N and C=N. On carbon nanotubes from d2 = 2.5 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-(NH)2 and/or C=NH2. (The H2 was believed to originate as residual hydrogen present in the nanotubes.) On carbon nanotubes from d3 = 7 cm no functionalization could be detected - perhaps, it was conjectured, because this distance is downstream of the plasma source, all of the free ions and free radicals of

  20. para-Selective C-H bond functionalization of iodobenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Yan, Haiming; Lu, Hanwei; Huang, Zhiliang; Lei, Aiwen

    2016-09-15

    Selective C-H bond activation and functionalization is an invaluable and eco-friendly tool for new chemical bond construction. Recently, great progress has been made in the highly selective ortho- and meta-C-H bond functionalization of arene derivatives. In contrast, the remote para-C-H bond functionalization still remains a challenge. Herein, an oxidation-induced strategy for para-selective C-H bond functionalization of iodobenzenes towards the synthesis of various useful asymmetric diaryl ethers was demonstrated. This strategy not only provides a novel method for para-C-H bond functionalization, but also proposes a general idea for the development of new, highly selective para-C-H functionalization reactions.

  1. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  2. Luminosity function of quasars at large redshifts from grism surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Maarten; Schneider, Donald P.; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    We have carried out a systematic search for emission-line objects through photometrically calibrated CCD grism surveys with the Palomar 200-inch telescope in transit mode, covering 62 square degrees. These surveys have yielded 141 quasars detected by their C IV or Ly-alpha emission in the redshift range 2.0 - 4.7. We use this sample and the known flux limits to derive the slope of the luminosity function and the space density above a given line luminosity, as a function of redshift. While space densities are approximately constant at redshifts 2.0 - 3.0, they are declining steeply for redshifts larger than 3.

  3. Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey with Radial Basis Function Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Arif

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A marine electromagnetic survey is an engineering endeavour to discover the location and dimension of a hydrocarbon layer under an ocean floor. In this kind of survey, an array of electric and magnetic receivers are located on the sea floor and record the scattered, refracted and reflected electromagnetic wave, which has been transmitted by an electric dipole antenna towed by a vessel. The data recorded in receivers must be processed and further analysed to estimate the hydrocarbon location and dimension. To conduct those analyses successfuly, a radial basis function (RBF network could be employed to become a forward model of the input-output relationship of the data from a marine electromagnetic survey. This type of neural networks is working based on distances between its inputs and predetermined centres of some basis functions. A previous research had been conducted to model the same marine electromagnetic survey using another type of neural networks, which is a multi layer perceptron (MLP network. By comparing their validation and training performances (mean-squared errors and correlation coefficients, it is concluded that, in this case, the MLP network is comparatively better than the RBF network[1].[1] This manuscript is an extended version of our previous paper, entitled Radial Basis Function Networks for Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey, which had been presented on 2011 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 17-19 July 2011, Bandung, Indonesia.

  4. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J. [JAYCOR, Environmental Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees.

  5. Fish survey report of selected impoundments in September 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A fish survey of the following Carolina Sandhills NWR impoundments; Pool L, Lake Bee, Lake 16, Pool G, Mays Lake, Oxpen 1, was conducted in late September of 2004....

  6. A Survey on Selection and Administration of Perioperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Perioperative antibiotic administration for prophylaxis of surgical site infections can increase the anaesthetists workload. However, timely administration is essential to reduce risks and improve patient outcome. Objective: This survey evaluates anaesthetists' opinion concerning perioperative antibiotic therapy ...

  7. 1996 hazardous waste management survey in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D.; Christie, K.; Tao, Hong-lei [EnviroSearch International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This report documents the results of a 42-question survey submitted to countries in Asia concerning their hazardous waste management programs and other issues. The same survey questions were distributed in 1992. This report compares the 1992 and 1996 responses. The respondents were Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Philippines, Hong Kong, People`s Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. 7 figs.

  8. Methods for selective functionalization and separation of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Marek, legal representative, Irene Marie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  9. Parasitological survey on birds at some selected brazilian zoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gonzalez Hofstatter

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was conducted at some zoos in the states of São Paulo and Paraná, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Several groups of birds were surveyed for fecal samples, but the most important was Psittacidae. Among the parasites, Eimeria (coccidian and Capillaria, Ascaridia and Heterakis (nematodes were observed in almost one third of the samples. Presence of a rich parasite fauna associated with captive birds seems to be an effect of captivity, since data on free-ranging birds indicate few or virtually no parasites at all. The discovery of new coccidian species during this survey reveals the need of more research on the subject as even well-known bird species have unknown parasites, but caution must be exercised in order to avoid descriptions of pseudoparasites.

  10. Parasitological survey on birds at some selected brazilian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, Paulo Gonzalez; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted at some zoos in the states of São Paulo and Paraná, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Several groups of birds were surveyed for fecal samples, but the most important was Psittacidae. Among the parasites, Eimeria (coccidian) and Capillaria, Ascaridia and Heterakis (nematodes) were observed in almost one third of the samples. Presence of a rich parasite fauna associated with captive birds seems to be an effect of captivity, since data on free-ranging birds indicate few or virtually no parasites at all. The discovery of new coccidian species during this survey reveals the need of more research on the subject as even well-known bird species have unknown parasites, but caution must be exercised in order to avoid descriptions of pseudoparasites.

  11. Resampling method for applying density-dependent habitat selection theory to wildlife surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large

  12. Survey Forecasts and Money Demand Functions: Some International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch, Christian; Rülke, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We derive a money demand function from a dynamic macroeconomic general equilibrium model to analyze the correlations between professional economists’ forecasts of the growth rate of money supply, the inflation rate, the growth rate of real output, and the nominal interest rate. Upon estimating...... the money demand function on survey data of professional economists’ forecasts for fourteen Asian-Pacific and Central and South-Eastern European countries, we find that the correlations between professional economists’ forecasts are broadly consistent with the money demand function implied...

  13. Sexual selection and immune function in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Kurt A; Nunney, Leonard

    2008-02-01

    The evolution of immune function depends not only on variation in genes contributing directly to the immune response, but also on genetic variation in other traits indirectly affecting immunocompetence. In particular, sexual selection is predicted to trade-off with immunocompetence because the extra investment of resources needed to increase sexual competitiveness reduces investment in immune function. Additional possible immunological consequences of intensifying sexual selection include an exaggeration of immunological sexual dimorphism, and the reduction of condition-dependent immunological costs due to selection of 'good genes' (the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis, ICHH). We tested for these evolutionary possibilities by increasing sexual selection in laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster for 58 generations by reestablishing a male-biased sex ratio at the start of each generation. Sexually selected flies were larger, took longer to develop, and the males were more sexually competitive than males from control (equal sex ratio) lines. We found support for the trade-off hypothesis: sexually selected males were found to have reduced immune function compared to control males. However, we found no evidence that sexual selection promoted immunological sexual dimorphism because females showed a similar reduction in immune function. We found no evidence of evolutionary changes in the condition-dependent expression of immunocompetence contrary to the expectations of the ICHH. Lastly, we compared males from the unselected base population that were either successful (IS) or unsuccessful (IU) in a competitive mating experiment. IS males showed reduced immune function relative to IU males, suggesting that patterns of phenotypic correlation largely mirror patterns of genetic correlation revealed by the selection experiment. Our results suggest increased disease susceptibility could be an important cost limiting increases in sexual competitiveness in

  14. All-(111) Surface Silicon Nanowires: Selective Functionalization for Biosensing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masood, M.N.; Chen, S.; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    e demonstrate the utilization of selective functionalization of carbon-silicon (C-Si) alkyl and alkenyl monolayers covalently linked to all-(111) surface silicon nanowire (Si-NW) biosensors. Terminal amine groups on the functional monolayer surfaces were used for conjugation of biotin

  15. The European Large Area ISO Survey - IV. The preliminary 90-mu m luminosity function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.; Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the luminosity function of 90-mum-selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z = 0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10(9)

  16. Estimating Luminosity Function Constraints from High-Redshift Galaxy Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brant E.

    2010-04-01

    The installation of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will revolutionize the study of high-redshift galaxy populations. Initial observations of the HST Ultra Deep Field (UDF) have yielded multiple z >~ 7 dropout candidates. Supplemented by the GOODS Early Release Science (ERS) and further UDF pointings, these data will provide crucial information about the most distant known galaxies. However, achieving tight constraints on the z ~ 7 galaxy luminosity function (LF) will require even more ambitious photometric surveys. Using a Fisher matrix approach to fully account for Poisson and cosmic sample variance, as well as covariances in the data, we estimate the uncertainties on LF parameters achieved by surveys of a given area and depth. Applying this method to WFC3 z ~ 7 dropout galaxy samples, we forecast the LF parameter uncertainties for a variety of model surveys. We demonstrate that performing a wide area (~1 deg2) survey to H AB ~ 27 depth or increasing the UDF depth to H AB ~ 30 provides excellent constraints on the high-z LF when combined with the existing Ultradeep Field Guest Observation and GOODS ERS data. We also show that the shape of the matter power spectrum may limit the possible gain of splitting wide area (gsim0.5 deg2) high-redshift surveys into multiple fields to probe statistically independent regions; the increased rms density fluctuations in smaller volumes mostly offset the improved variance gained from independent samples.

  17. Immunization and Nutritional Status Survey of Children in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Immunization coverage and anthropometry of a community constitute a good index for measuring child-health status for that community. We therefore, studied the anthropometry, and the coverage of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) vaccines in randomly selected rural communities of Sokoto ...

  18. Target Selection and Determination of Function in Structural Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James D.; Todd, Annabel E.; Bray, James; Laskowski, Roman A.; Edwards, Aled; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Orengo, Christine A.; Thornton, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The first crucial step in any structural genomics project is the selection and prioritization of target proteins for structure determination. There may be a number of selection criteria to be satisfied, including that the proteins have novel folds, that they be representatives of large families for which no structure is known, and so on. The better the selection at this stage, the greater is the value of the structures obtained at the end of the experimental process. This value can be further enhanced once the protein structures have been solved if the functions of the given proteins can also be determined. Here we describe the methods used at either end of the experimental process: firstly, sensitive sequence comparison techniques for selecting a high-quality list of target proteins, and secondly the various computational methods that can be applied to the eventual 3D structures to determine the most likely biochemical function of the proteins in question. PMID:12880206

  19. Descriptive Topology in Selected Topics of Functional Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kakol, J; Pellicer, Manuel Lopez

    2011-01-01

    "Descriptive Topology in Selected Topics of Functional Analysis" is a collection of recent developments in the field of descriptive topology, specifically focused on the classes of infinite-dimensional topological vector spaces that appear in functional analysis. Such spaces include Frechet spaces, (LF)-spaces and their duals, and the space of continuous real-valued functions C(X) on a completely regular Hausdorff space X, to name a few. These vector spaces appear in functional analysis in distribution theory, differential equations, complex analysis, and various other analytical set

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOURS RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL FOODS AMONG SELECTED YOUNG CONSUMERS IN POLAND AND GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zegan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the key factors infl uencing human health. Consuming foods that either naturally contain or have been enriched with bioactive substances may aid the organism’s proper development and functioning and, most importantly, be a vital element in the prophylaxis of many non-communicable diseases as well as improve general sense of well-being. The aim of the study was to compare behaviours related to functional foods among a selected group of young people. The survey was conducted among 153 purposively selected young consumers from Poland and Germany in March/April 2015. An original survey questionnaire was employed. IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 23 software was used for statistical analysis (chi-squared test p < 0.05. The term “functional foods” was largely unknown among the respondents. A defi nite majority of the survey participants reported having bought and consumed products that, in fact, belong to this group of foods. The main source of information on the topic of functional foods was the Internet. While buying these products, respondents from both countries chiefl y took into account the price, the quality and the list of ingredients. The results point to the need to popularize information about functional foods using trustworthy sources, in order to foster nutritional awareness. Consumer knowledge is the basis for the positive perception and acceptance of health-promoting foods and for making rational dietary choices. 

  1. Selecting the Number of Principal Components in Functional Data

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yehua

    2013-12-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) has become the most widely used dimension reduction tool for functional data analysis. We consider functional data measured at random, subject-specific time points, contaminated with measurement error, allowing for both sparse and dense functional data, and propose novel information criteria to select the number of principal component in such data. We propose a Bayesian information criterion based on marginal modeling that can consistently select the number of principal components for both sparse and dense functional data. For dense functional data, we also develop an Akaike information criterion based on the expected Kullback-Leibler information under a Gaussian assumption. In connecting with the time series literature, we also consider a class of information criteria proposed for factor analysis of multivariate time series and show that they are still consistent for dense functional data, if a prescribed undersmoothing scheme is undertaken in the FPCA algorithm. We perform intensive simulation studies and show that the proposed information criteria vastly outperform existing methods for this type of data. Surprisingly, our empirical evidence shows that our information criteria proposed for dense functional data also perform well for sparse functional data. An empirical example using colon carcinogenesis data is also provided to illustrate the results. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  2. Survey of clinical infant lung function testing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson-Carmichael, Stacey L; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ascher, Simon B; Hornik, Christoph P; Arets, H G M; Davis, Stephanie D; Hall, Graham L

    2014-02-01

    Data supporting the clinical use of infant lung function (ILF) tests are limited making the interpretation of clinical ILF measures difficult. To evaluate current ILF testing practices and to survey users regarding the indications, limitations and perceived clinical benefits of ILF testing. We created a 26-item survey hosted on the European Respiratory Society (ERS) website between January and May 2010. Notifications were sent to members of the ERS, American Thoracic Society and the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. Responses were sought from ILF laboratory directors and pediatric respirologists. The survey assessed the clinical indications, patient populations, equipment and reference data used, and perceived limitations of ILF testing. We received 148 responses with 98 respondents having ILF equipment and performing testing in a clinical capacity. Centers in North America were less likely to perform ≥50 studies/year than centers in Europe or other continents (13% vs. 41%). Most respondents used ILF data to either "start a new therapy" (78%) or "help decide about initiation of further diagnostic workup such as bronchoscopy, chest CT or serological testing" (69%). Factors reported as limiting clinical ILF testing were need for sedation, uncertainty regarding clinical impact of study results and time intensive nature of the study. Clinical practices associated with ILF testing vary significantly; centers that perform more studies are more likely to use the results for clinical purposes and decision making. The future of ILF testing is uncertain in the face of the limitations perceived by the survey respondents. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Galex Time Domain Survey. I. Selection And Classification of Over a Thousand Ultraviolet Variable Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezari, S.; Martin, D. C.; Forster, K.; Neill, J. D.; Huber, M.; Heckman, T.; Bianchi, L.; Morrissey, P.; Neff, S. G.; Seibert, M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present the selection and classification of over a thousand ultraviolet (UV) variable sources discovered in approximately 40 deg(exp 2) of GALEX Time Domain Survey (TDS) NUV images observed with a cadence of 2 days and a baseline of observations of approximately 3 years. The GALEX TDS fields were designed to be in spatial and temporal coordination with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, which provides deep optical imaging and simultaneous optical transient detections via image differencing. We characterize the GALEX photometric errors empirically as a function of mean magnitude, and select sources that vary at the 5 sigma level in at least one epoch. We measure the statistical properties of the UV variability, including the structure function on timescales of days and years. We report classifications for the GALEX TDS sample using a combination of optical host colors and morphology, UV light curve characteristics, and matches to archival X-ray, and spectroscopy catalogs. We classify 62% of the sources as active galaxies (358 quasars and 305 active galactic nuclei), and 10% as variable stars (including 37 RR Lyrae, 53 M dwarf flare stars, and 2 cataclysmic variables). We detect a large-amplitude tail in the UV variability distribution for M-dwarf flare stars and RR Lyrae, reaching up to absolute value(?m) = 4.6 mag and 2.9 mag, respectively. The mean amplitude of the structure function for quasars on year timescales is five times larger than observed at optical wavelengths. The remaining unclassified sources include UV-bright extragalactic transients, two of which have been spectroscopically confirmed to be a young core-collapse supernova and a flare from the tidal disruption of a star by dormant supermassive black hole. We calculate a surface density for variable sources in the UV with NUV less than 23 mag and absolute value(?m) greater than 0.2 mag of approximately 8.0, 7.7, and 1.8 deg(exp -2) for quasars, active galactic nuclei, and RR Lyrae stars

  4. Large area scene selection interface (LASSI): Methodology of selecting landsat imagery for The Global Land Survey 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, S.; Masek, J.G.; Headley, R.M.K.; Gasch, J.; Arvidson, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Global Land Survey (GLS) 2005 is a cloud-free, orthorec-tified collection of Landsat imagery acquired during the 2004 to 2007 epoch intended to support global land-cover and ecological monitoring. Due to the numerous complexities in selecting imagery for the GLS2005, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sponsored the development of an automated scene selection tool, the Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI), to aid in the selection of imagery for this data set. This innovative approach to scene selection applied a user-defined weighting system to various scene parameters: image cloud cover, image vegetation greenness, choice of sensor, and the ability of the Landsat-7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off pair to completely fill image gaps, among others. The parameters considered in scene selection were weighted according to their relative importance to the data set, along with the algorithm’s sensitivity to that weight. This paper describes the methodology and analysis that established the parameter weighting strategy, as well as the post-screening processes used in selecting the optimal data set for GLS2005.

  5. Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI). Methodology of Selecting Landsat Imagery for the Global Land Survey 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Shannon; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Headley, Rachel M.; Gasch, John; Arvidson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The Global Land Survey (GLS) 2005 is a cloud-free, orthorectified collection of Landsat imagery acquired during the 2004-2007 epoch intended to support global land-cover and ecological monitoring. Due to the numerous complexities in selecting imagery for the GLS2005, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sponsored the development of an automated scene selection tool, the Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI), to aid in the selection of imagery for this data set. This innovative approach to scene selection applied a user-defined weighting system to various scene parameters: image cloud cover, image vegetation greenness, choice of sensor, and the ability of the Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off pair to completely fill image gaps, among others. The parameters considered in scene selection were weighted according to their relative importance to the data set, along with the algorithm's sensitivity to that weight. This paper describes the methodology and analysis that established the parameter weighting strategy, as well as the post-screening processes used in selecting the optimal data set for GLS2005.

  6. Determination of Microlensing Selection Criteria for the SuperMACHO Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A

    2008-10-10

    The SuperMACHO project is a 5 year survey to determine the nature of the lens population responsible for the excess microlensing rate toward the Large Magellanic Cloud observed by the MACHO project [1]. The survey probes deeper than earlier surveys unveiling many more extragalactic contaminants, particularly type Ia supernovae and active galactic nuclei. Using {approx}10{sup 7} simulated light curves of both microlensing events and type Ia supernovae we determine selection criteria optimized to maximize the microlensing detection efficiency while minimizing the contamination rate from non-microlensing events. We discuss these simulations and the selection criteria.

  7. A Comparison of Statistical Significance Tests for Selecting Equating Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the accuracies of nine previously proposed statistical significance tests for selecting identity, linear, and equipercentile equating functions in an equivalent groups equating design. The strategies included likelihood ratio tests for the loglinear models of tests' frequency distributions, regression tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov…

  8. Survey of multi-function display and control technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiger, R. J.; Farrell, R. J.; Tonkin, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA orbiter spacecraft incorporates a complex array of systems, displays and controls. The incorporation of discrete dedicated controls into a multi-function display and control system (MFDCS) offers the potential for savings in weight, power, panel space and crew training time. The technology applicable to the development of a MFDCS for orbiter application is surveyed. Technology thought to be applicable presently or in the next five years is highlighted. Areas discussed include display media, data handling and processing, controls and operator interactions and the human factors considerations which are involved in a MFDCS design. Several examples of applicable MFDCS technology are described.

  9. Improved protein structure selection using decoy-dependent discriminatory functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitt Michael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component in protein structure prediction is a scoring or discriminatory function that can distinguish near-native conformations from misfolded ones. Various types of scoring functions have been developed to accomplish this goal, but their performance is not adequate to solve the structure selection problem. In addition, there is poor correlation between the scores and the accuracy of the generated conformations. Results We present a simple and nonparametric formula to estimate the accuracy of predicted conformations (or decoys. This scoring function, called the density score function, evaluates decoy conformations by performing an all-against-all Cα RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation calculation in a given decoy set. We tested the density score function on 83 decoy sets grouped by their generation methods (4state_reduced, fisa, fisa_casp3, lmds, lattice_ssfit, semfold and Rosetta. The density scores have correlations as high as 0.9 with the Cα RMSDs of the decoy conformations, measured relative to the experimental conformation for each decoy. We previously developed a residue-specific all-atom probability discriminatory function (RAPDF, which compiles statistics from a database of experimentally determined conformations, to aid in structure selection. Here, we present a decoy-dependent discriminatory function called self-RAPDF, where we compiled the atom-atom contact probabilities from all the conformations in a decoy set instead of using an ensemble of native conformations, with a weighting scheme based on the density scores. The self-RAPDF has a higher correlation with Cα RMSD than RAPDF for 76/83 decoy sets, and selects better near-native conformations for 62/83 decoy sets. Self-RAPDF may be useful not only for selecting near-native conformations from decoy sets, but also for fold simulations and protein structure refinement. Conclusions Both the density score and the self-RAPDF functions are decoy

  10. Functional metagenomic selection of RubisCOs from uncultivated bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaljay, Vanessa A; Satagopan, Sriram; North, Justin A.; Witteveen, Briana; Dourado, Manuella N.; Anantharaman, Karthik; Arbing, Mark A.; McCann, Shelley; Oremland, Ronald S.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Tabita, F. Robert

    2016-01-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is a critical yet severely inefficient enzyme that catalyses the fixation of virtually all of the carbon found on Earth. Here, we report a functional metagenomic selection that recovers physiologically active RubisCO molecules directly from uncultivated and largely unknown members of natural microbial communities. Selection is based on CO2-dependent growth in a host strain capable of expressing environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), precluding the need for pure cultures or screening of recombinant clones for enzymatic activity. Seventeen functional RubisCO-encoded sequences were selected using DNA extracted from soil and river autotrophic enrichments, a photosynthetic biofilm and a subsurface groundwater aquifer. Notably, three related form II RubisCOs were recovered which share high sequence similarity with metagenomic scaffolds from uncultivated members of theGallionellaceae family. One of the Gallionellaceae RubisCOs was purified and shown to possessCO2/O2 specificity typical of form II enzymes. X-ray crystallography determined that this enzyme is a hexamer, only the second form II multimer ever solved and the first RubisCO structure obtained from an uncultivated bacterium. Functional metagenomic selection leverages natural biological diversity and billions of years of evolution inherent in environmental communities, providing a new window into the discovery of CO2-fixing enzymes not previously characterized.

  11. Preimage Selective Trapdoor Function: How to Repair an Easy Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public key cryptosystems are constructed by embedding a trapdoor into a one-way function. So, the one-wayness and the trapdoorness are vital to public key cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel public key cryptographic primitive called preimage selective trapdoor function. This scenario allows to use exponentially many preimage to hide a plaintext even if the underlying function is not one-way. The compact knapsack problem is used to construct a probabilistic public key cryptosystem, the underlying encryption function of which is proven to be preimage selective trapdoor one-way functions under some linearization attack models. The constructive method can guarantee the noninjectivity of the underlying encryption function and the unique decipherability for ciphertexts simultaneously. It is heuristically argued that the security of the proposal cannot be compromised by a polynomial-time adversary even if the compact knapsack is easy to solve. We failed to provide any provable security results about the proposal; however, heuristic illustrations show that the proposal is secure against some known attacks including brute force attacks, linearization attacks, and key-recovery attacks. The proposal turns out to have acceptable key sizes and performs efficiently and hence is practical.

  12. Redshift-space correlation functions in large galaxy cluster surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valageas, P.; Clerc, N.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Large ongoing and upcoming galaxy cluster surveys in the optical, X-ray and millimetric wavelengths will provide rich samples of galaxy clusters at unprecedented depths. One key observable for constraining cosmological models is the correlation function of these objects, measured through their spectroscopic redshift. Aims: We study the redshift-space correlation functions of clusters of galaxies, averaged over finite redshift intervals, and their covariance matrices. Expanding as usual the angular anisotropy of the redshift-space correlation on Legendre polynomials, we consider the redshift-space distortions of the monopole as well as the next two multipoles, 2ℓ = 2 and 4. Methods: Taking into account the Kaiser effect, we developed an analytical formalism to obtain explicit expressions of all contributions to these mean correlations and covariance matrices. We include shot-noise and sample-variance effects as well as Gaussian and non-Gaussian contributions. Results: We obtain a reasonable agreement with numerical simulations for the mean correlations and covariance matrices on large scales (r > 10 h-1 Mpc). Redshift-space distortions amplify the monopole correlation by about 10-20%, depending on the halo mass, but the signal-to-noise ratio remains of the same order as for the real-space correlation. This distortion will be significant for surveys such as DES, Erosita, and Euclid, which should also measure the quadrupole 2ℓ = 2. The third multipole, 2ℓ = 4, may only be marginally detected by Euclid.

  13. The luminosity function of the CfA Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, R. O.; Huchra, J. P.; Geller, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We use the CfA Reshift Survey of galaxies with m(sub z) less than or equal to 15.5 to calculate the galaxy luminosity function over the range -13 less than or equal to M(sub z) less than or equal to -22. The sample includes 9063 galaxies distributed over 2.1 sr. For galaxies with velocities cz greater or equal to 2500 km per sec, where the effects of peculiar velocities are small, the luminosity function is well represented by a Schechter function with parameters phi(sub star) = 0.04 +/- 0.01 per cu Mpc, M(sub star) = -18.8 +/- 0.3, and alpha = -1.0 +/- 0.2. When we include all galaxies with cz greater or equal to 500 km per sec, the number of galaxies in the range -16 less than or equal to M(sub z) less than or equal to -13 exceeds the extrapolation of the Schechter function by a factor of 3.1 +/- 0.5. This faint-end excess is not caused by the local peculiar velocity field but may be partially explained by small scale errors in the Zwicky magnitudes. Even with a scale error as large as 0.2 mag per mag, which is unlikely, the excess is still a factor of 1.8 +/- 0.3. If real, this excess affects the interpretation of deep counts of field galaxies.

  14. Sample selection, recruitment and participation rates in health examination surveys in Europe--experience from seven national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Giampaoli, Simona; Goesswald, Antje; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Mann, Charlotte; Männistö, Satu; Morgan, Karen; Shelton, Nicola J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Tolonen, Hanna

    2015-10-05

    Health examination surveys (HESs), carried out in Europe since the 1950's, provide valuable information about the general population's health for health monitoring, policy making, and research. Survey participation rates, important for representativeness, have been falling. International comparisons are hampered by differing exclusion criteria and definitions for non-response. Information was collected about seven national HESs in Europe conducted in 2007-2012. These surveys can be classified into household and individual-based surveys, depending on the sampling frames used. Participation rates of randomly selected adult samples were calculated for four survey modules using standardised definitions and compared by sex, age-group, geographical areas within countries, and over time, where possible. All surveys covered residents not just citizens; three countries excluded those in institutions. In two surveys, physical examinations and blood sample collection were conducted at the participants' home; the others occurred at examination clinics. Recruitment processes varied considerably between surveys. Monetary incentives were used in four surveys. Initial participation rates aged 35-64 were 45% in the Netherlands (phase II), 54% in Germany (new and previous participants combined), 55% in Italy, and 65% in Finland. In Ireland, England and Scotland, household participation rates were 66%, 66% and 63% respectively. Participation rates were generally higher in women and increased with age. Almost all participants attending an examination centre agreed to all modules but surveys conducted in the participants' home had falling responses to each stage. Participation rates in most primate cities were substantially lower than the national average. Age-standardized response rates to blood pressure measurement among those aged 35-64 in Finland, Germany and England fell by 0.7-1.5 percentage points p.a. between 1998-2002 and 2010-2012. Longer trends in some countries show a more

  15. Luminosity functions for K giant stars derived from the two-micron sky survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a method for determining either the space density or the luminosity function from star counts covering large areas of sky. Space density is assumed to vary only in the direction perpendicular to the galactic plane. The method extends that derived for use with the star counts in the Selected Areas by allowing for an integration over a wide and continuous range of galactic latitudes, and is therefore applicable to surveys where the number of stars per square degree is small but the area surveyed is an appreciable fraction of the sky. The catalog (IRC) produced from the 2-micron sky survey at Caltech is such a survey. Application of the method to a selection of IRC stars dominated by K giants shows that if these stars obey Oort's determination of their normalized space density perpendicular to the galactic plane than the dispersion of their 2.2-micron luminosity distribution must be large - i.e., on the order of plus or minus 1.0 min within a single spectral subtype. This result is in accord with conclusions recently set forth by Jung (1970).

  16. A state-of-art survey on project selection using MCDM techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sadi-Nezhad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Project selection is considered as the first essential part of project portfolio management. Project selection is also considered as a process to evaluate each project idea and chooses the one with the biggest priority. Project selection plays an essential role in the entire life cycle of different projects. This paper presents a survey for project selection using multiple criteria decision mak-ing techniques. The study considers 60 papers from over the period 1980-2017. The results of the survey have indicated that integration of Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and analytical hierarchy process/analytical network process was the most popular techniques for project selection followed by VIKOR method.

  17. Control point selection for dimensionality reduction by radial basis function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotryna Paulauskienė

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with dimensionality reduction technique which is based on radial basis function (RBF theory. The technique uses RBF for mapping multidimensional data points into a low-dimensional space by interpolating the previously calculated position of so-called control points. This paper analyses various ways of selection of control points (regularized orthogonal least squares method, random and stratified selections. The experiments have been carried out with 8 real and artificial data sets. Positions of the control points in a low-dimensional space are found by principal component analysis. We demonstrate that random and stratified selections of control points are efficient and acceptable in terms of balance between projection error (stress and time-consumption.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v4i1.1095

  18. The Environmental Dependence of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function in the ECO Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstein, Hannah; Berlind, Andreas A.; Calderon, Victor; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, Amanda J.; Stark, David

    2017-01-01

    We study the environmental dependence of the galaxy stellar mass function in the ECO survey and compare it with models that associate galaxies with dark matter halos. Specifically, we quantify the environment of each galaxy in the ECO survey using an Nth nearest neighbor distance metric, and we measure how the galaxy stellar mass distribution varies from low density to high density environments. As expected, we find that massive galaxies preferentially populate high density regions, while low mass galaxies preferentially populate lower density environments. We investigate whether this trend can be explained simply by the stellar-to-halo mass relation combined with the environmental dependence of the halo mass function. In other words, we test the hypothesis that the stellar mass of a galaxy depends solely on the mass of its dark matter halo and does not exhibit a residual dependence on the halo’s larger environment. To test this hypothesis, we first construct mock ECO catalogs by populating dark matter halos in an N-body simulation with galaxies using a model that preserves the overall clustering strength of the galaxy population. We then assign stellar masses to the mock galaxies using physically motivated models that connect stellar mass to halo mass and are constrained to match the global ECO stellar mass function. Finally, we impose the radial and angular selection functions of the ECO survey and repeat our environmental analysis on the mock catalogs. We find that the environmental dependence of stellar mass in the mock catalogs is in agreement with that observed in the ECO survey. Our results are thus consistent with the simple hypothesis that galaxy stellar mass only depends on halo mass. The RESOLVE/ECO surveys were supported by NSF award AST-0955368.

  19. Selective Functionalization of Pyridines via Heterocyclic Phosphonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael C; Dolewski, Ryan D; McNally, Andrew

    2016-10-12

    Methods that directly functionalize pyridines are in high demand due to their presence in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and materials. A reaction that selectively transforms the 4-position C-H bonds in pyridines into C-PPh3+ groups that are subsequently converted into heteroaryl ethers is presented. The two step sequence is effective on complex pyridines, pharmaceutical molecules and other classes of heterocycles. Initial studies show that C-C, C-N and C-S bond formations are also amenable.

  20. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, Kasper; Hofherr, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The use of selective breeding is still relatively limited in aquaculture species. Information on such activities is sparse, hindering an overall evaluation of their success. Here, we report on the results of an online survey of the major aquaculture breeding companies operating in Europe. Six main...... reared fish species were targeted. A total of 31 respondents contributed to the survey, representing 75 % of European breeding organizations. Family-based breeding schemes were predominant, but individual selection was more frequently applied in marine species. Artificial fertilization is the preferred...

  1. Nanoparticles in facade coatings: a survey of industrial experts on functional and environmental benefits and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincapié, Ingrid [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Laboratory (Switzerland); Künniger, Tina [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Applied Wood Materials Laboratory (Switzerland); Hischier, Roland [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Laboratory (Switzerland); Cervellati, Dario [GFC Chimica S.r.l (Italy); Nowack, Bernd; Som, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.som@empa.ch [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Laboratory (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Integrating engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into facade coatings is expected to offer considerable potential for improved or novel functionality, or even several functionalities at the same time (multifunctional materials). Little information is available about the tangible use of ENPs in facade coatings and the real improvements that their functionalities provide. In order to increase this information, we carried out a survey among selected coating manufacturers and ENP producers in Europe. We asked them about the improved functionalities enabled by ENPs, the quality of nano-enhanced facade coatings in comparison to conventional ones, and the handling of waste. The survey results indicated that the ENPs most frequently used in facade coatings in Europe were silver, titanium dioxide, and silicon dioxide. The most frequently mentioned potential benefits were ultraviolet-protection, water and dirt repellency (easy to clean), and antimicrobial properties. Improving environmental performance through the use of nano-enhanced facade coatings did not appear to be a focus for innovation. The survey also revealed mixed results in the comparison between nano-enhanced and conventional facade coatings: 36 % of respondents saw a notable improvement, 27 % noted a gradual improvement of functionalities, and 37 % detected no improvement over traditional materials. Some respondents mentioned a variety of tests that can be applied to investigate the quality of coating functionalities. These tests could be valuable in helping us to better understand the tangible improvements of nano-enhanced facade coating functionalities. Respondents were uncertain about how to properly handle the wastes resulting from nano-enhanced products.

  2. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  3. Selection of optimal spectral sensitivity functions for color filter arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Manu; Reeves, Stanley J

    2010-12-01

    A color image meant for human consumption can be appropriately displayed only if at least three distinct color channels are present. Typical digital cameras acquire three-color images with only one sensor. A color filter array (CFA) is placed on the sensor such that only one color is sampled at a particular spatial location. This sparsely sampled signal is then reconstructed to form a color image with information about all three colors at each location. In this paper, we show that the wavelength sensitivity functions of the CFA color filters affect both the color reproduction ability and the spatial reconstruction quality of recovered images. We present a method to select perceptually optimal color filter sensitivity functions based upon a unified spatial-chromatic sampling framework. A cost function independent of particular scenes is defined that expresses the error between a scene viewed by the human visual system and the reconstructed image that represents the scene. A constrained minimization of the cost function is used to obtain optimal values of color-filter sensitivity functions for several periodic CFAs. The sensitivity functions are shown to perform better than typical RGB and CMY color filters in terms of both the s-CIELAB ∆E error metric and a qualitative assessment.

  4. Selectively disrupted functional connectivity networks in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaojing eChen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in individuals over 65 years old and cognitive deficits caused by T2DM have attracted broad attention. The pathophysiological mechanism of T2DM induced cognitive impairments, however, remains poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that the cognitive impairments can be attributed not merely to local functional and structural abnormalities but also to specific brain networks. Thus, we aimed to investigate the changes of global networks selectively affected by T2DM. Methods: A resting state functional network analysis was conducted to investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity in 37 patients with diabetes and 40 healthy controls which were recruited from local communities in Beijing, China. Results: We found that patients with T2DM exhibited cognitive function declines and functional connectivity disruptions within the default mode network, left frontal parietal network, and sensorimotor network. More importantly, the fasting glucose level was correlated with abnormal functional connectivity.Conclusions: These findings could help to understand the neural mechanisms of cognitive impairments in T2DM and provide potential neuroimaging biomarkers that may be used for early diagnosis and intervention in cognitive decline.

  5. Synthesis selective transport properties of cleft-type ionophores having two convergent hydroxamic acid functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duck Hee; Choi, Mi Jung; Chang, Suk Kyu [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    A series of cleft-type ionophores having two convergent hydroxamic acid functions are prepared and their selective ionophoric properties toward heavy metal and transition metal ions have been investigated. Hydroxamic acids 3 exhibited a prominent selectivity toward heavy metal ions of Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} , and transition metal ions of Cu{sup 2+} over other transition metal and alkaline earth metal ions from slightly acidic source phase (pH 6) to an acidic receiving phase (pH 1). Selective ionophoric properties toward Pb{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} ions over other surveyed metal ions are also confirmed by the FAB-MS measurements.

  6. Selection of nursing teaching strategies in mainland China: A questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, HouXiu; Liu, MengJie; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, JingCi

    2016-04-01

    In nursing education, the traditional lecture and direct demonstration teaching method cannot cultivate the various skills that nursing students need. How to choose a more scientific and rational teaching method is a common concern for nursing educators worldwide. To investigate the basis for selecting teaching methods among nursing teachers in mainland China, the factors affecting the selection of different teaching methods, and the application of different teaching methods in theoretical and skill-based nursing courses. Questionnaire survey. Seventy one nursing colleges from 28 provincial-level administrative regions in mainland China. Following the principle of voluntary informed consent, 262 nursing teachers were randomly selected through a nursing education network platform and a conference platform. The questionnaire contents included the basis for and the factors influencing the selection of nursing teaching methods, the participants' common teaching methods, and the teaching experience of the surveyed nursing teachers. The questionnaires were distributed through the network or conference platform, and the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. The surveyed nursing teachers selected teaching methods mainly based on the characteristics of the teaching content, the characteristics of the students, and their previous teaching experiences. The factors affecting the selection of teaching methods mainly included large class sizes, limited class time, and limited examination formats. The surveyed nursing teachers primarily used lectures to teach theory courses and the direct demonstration method to teach skills courses, and the application frequencies of these two teaching methods were significantly higher than those of other teaching methods (P=0.000). More attention should be paid to the selection of nursing teaching methods. Every teacher should strategically choose teaching methods before each lesson, and nursing education training focused on selecting

  7. Cell-selective metabolic labeling of biomolecules with bioorthogonal functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ran; Hong, Senlian; Chen, Xing

    2013-10-01

    Metabolic labeling of biomolecules with bioorthogonal functionalities enables visualization, enrichment, and analysis of the biomolecules of interest in their physiological environments. This versatile strategy has found utility in probing various classes of biomolecules in a broad range of biological processes. On the other hand, metabolic labeling is nonselective with respect to cell type, which imposes limitations for studies performed in complex biological systems. Herein, we review the recent methodological developments aiming to endow metabolic labeling strategies with cell-type selectivity. The cell-selective metabolic labeling strategies have emerged from protein and glycan labeling. We envision that these strategies can be readily extended to labeling of other classes of biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aripiprazole, A Drug that Displays Partial Agonism and Functional Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuplin, Erin W; Holahan, Matthew R

    2017-11-14

    The treatment of schizophrenia is challenging due to the wide range of symptoms (positive, negative, cognitive) associated with the disease. Typical antipsychotics that antagonize D2 receptors are effective in treating positive symptoms, but extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) are a common occurrence. Atypical antipsychotics targeting 5-HT2A and D2 receptors are more effective at treating cognitive and negative symptoms compared to typical antipsychotics, but these drugs also result in side-effects such as metabolic syndromes. To identify evidence in the literature that elucidates the pharmacological profile of aripiprazole.s. We searched PubMed for peer reviewed articles on aripiprazole and its clinical efficacy, side-effects, pharmacology, and effects in animal models of schizophrenia symptoms. Aripiprazole is a newer atypical antipsychotic that displays a unique pharmacological profile, including partial D2 agonism and functionally selective properties. Aripiprazole is effective at treating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and has the potential to treat negative and cognitive symptoms at least as well as other atypical antipsychotics. The drug has a favorable side-effect profile and has a low propensity to result in EPS or metabolic syndromes. Animal models of schizophrenia have been used to determine the efficacy of aripiprazole in symptom management. In these instances, aripiprazole resulted in the reversal of deficits in extinction, pre-pulse inhibition, and social withdrawal. Because aripiprazole requires a greater than 90% occupancy rate at D2 receptors to be clinically active and does not produce EPS, this suggests a functionally selective effect on intracellular signaling pathways. A combination of factors such as dopamine system stabilization via partial agonism, functional selectivity at D2 receptors, and serotonin-dopamine system interaction may contribute to the ability of aripiprazole to successfully manage schizophrenia symptoms. This review

  9. School Selection by Students. First Results from the GMAC's New Matriculants Survey. GMAC Occasional Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Ross M.; Giarrusso, Roseann

    A description of the Graduate Management Admission Council's New Matriculants Survey focusing on school selection by Masters of Business Administration students is presented. Four sections are as follows: (1) reasons for applying and enrolling (including student differences in reasons for applying); (2) who applies to more than one school (e.g.,…

  10. Deep far infrared ISOPHOT survey in "Selected Area 57" - I. Observations and source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vornle, M.J.D.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    We present here the results of a deep survey in a 0.4 deg(2) blank field in Selected Area 57 conducted with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO1) at both 60 mu m and 90 mu m. The resulting sky maps have a spatial resolution of 15 x 23 arcsrc(2) per pixel which is much...

  11. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) : Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on

  12. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: the intrinsic shape of kinematically selected galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C.; van de Sande, J.; D'Eugenio, F.; Cortese, L.; McDermid, R. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Bryant, J.; Croom, S. M.; Goodwin, M.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.; Scott, N.; Taranu, D. S.; Tonini, C.; Zafar, T.

    2017-11-01

    Using the stellar kinematic maps and ancillary imaging data from the Sydney AAO Multi Integral field (SAMI) Galaxy Survey, the intrinsic shape of kinematically selected samples of galaxies is inferred. We implement an efficient and optimized algorithm to fit the intrinsic shape of galaxies using an established method to simultaneously invert the distributions of apparent ellipticities and kinematic misalignments. The algorithm output compares favourably with previous studies of the intrinsic shape of galaxies based on imaging alone and our re-analysis of the ATLAS3D data. Our results indicate that most galaxies are oblate axisymmetric. We show empirically that the intrinsic shape of galaxies varies as a function of their rotational support as measured by the `spin' parameter proxy λ _{R_e}. In particular, low-spin systems have a higher occurrence of triaxiality, while high-spin systems are more intrinsically flattened and axisymmetric. The intrinsic shape of galaxies is linked to their formation and merger histories. Galaxies with high-spin values have intrinsic shapes consistent with dissipational minor mergers, while the intrinsic shape of low-spin systems is consistent with dissipationless multimerger assembly histories. This range in assembly histories inferred from intrinsic shapes is broadly consistent with expectations from cosmological simulations.

  13. A descriptive survey of management and operations at selected sports medicine centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, D

    1996-11-01

    No uniform guidelines for operations or accreditation standards for sports medicine center were available and, at the time of this study, little information on the management and operation of sports medicine centers was available in the literature. The purpose of the study was to determine the management structure and function of selected sports medicine centers in the United States. Questionnaires were mailed to 200 randomly selected centers throughout the United State from a directory of sports medicine centers published in Physician and Sportsmedicine (1992) to gather descriptive information on eight areas, including 1) general background, 2) staffing, 3) services, facilities, and equipment, 4) billing, collections, and revenue, 5) clientele, caseloads, and referrals, 6) ownership and financing, 7) school and club outreach contracts, and 8) marketing strategies and future trends. A total of 71 surveys (35.5%) were returned in the allotted time frame. Data were analyzed using ranges, means, medians, modes, and percentages. Results yielded several conclusions about sports medicine centers. Nearly all (93%) of the centers employed physical therapists; physical therapists were clinical directors at 70.2% of centers; orthopaedists were most often medical directors; rehabilitation was the most frequently offered service (93%); physical therapy produced the highest revenue; sports injuries accounted for a mean 34.5% of patients, who were mostly recreational or high school athletes between 13-60 years of age; primary shareholders were most often physical therapists or physicians; most were involved in outreach services for schools; marketing strategies primarily involved communication with referral sources; and managed care was identified most frequently as a trend affecting the future of sports medicine centers. Findings identified common aspects of sports medicine centers and may assist in establishing guidelines for operations or accreditation of sports medicine

  14. The SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: final emission line galaxy target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichoor, A.; Comparat, J.; Delubac, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Yèche, Ch; Dawson, K. S.; Percival, W. J.; Dey, A.; Lang, D.; Schlegel, D. J.; Gorgoni, C.; Bautista, J.; Brownstein, J. R.; Mariappan, V.; Seo, H.-J.; Tinker, J. L.; Ross, A. J.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, G.-B.; Moustakas, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Jullo, E.; Newmann, J. A.; Prada, F.; Zhu, G. B.

    2017-11-01

    We describe the algorithm used to select the emission line galaxy (ELG) sample at z ˜ 0.85 for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV, using photometric data from the DECam Legacy Survey. Our selection is based on a selection box in the g - r versus r - z colour-colour space and a cut on the g-band magnitude, to favour galaxies in the desired redshift range with strong [O II] emission. It provides a target density of 200 deg-2 on the North Galactic Cap and of 240 deg-2 on the South Galactic Cap (SGC), where we use a larger selection box because of deeper imaging. We demonstrate that this selection passes the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey requirements in terms of homogeneity. About 50 000 ELGs have been observed since the observations have started in 2016, September. These roughly match the expected redshift distribution, though the measured efficiency is slightly lower than expected. The efficiency can be increased by enlarging the redshift range and with incoming pipeline improvement. The cosmological forecast based on these first data predict σ _{D_V}/D_V = 0.023, in agreement with previous forecasts. Lastly, we present the stellar population properties of the ELG SGC sample. Once observations are completed, this sample will be suited to provide a cosmological analysis at z ˜ 0.85, and will pave the way for the next decade of massive spectroscopic cosmological surveys, which heavily rely on ELGs. The target catalogue over the SGC will be released along with DR14.

  15. Dermatology Residency Selection Criteria with an Emphasis on Program Characteristics: A National Program Director Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorouhi, Farzam; Alikhan, Ali; Rezaei, Arash; Fazel, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dermatology residency programs are relatively diverse in their resident selection process. The authors investigated the importance of 25 dermatology residency selection criteria focusing on differences in program directors' (PDs') perception based on specific program demographics. Methods. This cross-sectional nationwide observational survey utilized a 41-item questionnaire that was developed by literature search, brainstorming sessions, and online expert reviews. The data were analyzed utilizing the reliability test, two-step clustering, and K-means methods as well as other methods. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in PDs' perception regarding the importance of the selection criteria based on program demographics. Results. Ninety-five out of 114 PDs (83.3%) responded to the survey. The top five criteria for dermatology residency selection were interview, letters of recommendation, United States Medical Licensing Examination Step I scores, medical school transcripts, and clinical rotations. The following criteria were preferentially ranked based on different program characteristics: “advanced degrees,” “interest in academics,” “reputation of undergraduate and medical school,” “prior unsuccessful attempts to match,” and “number of publications.” Conclusions. Our survey provides up-to-date factual data on dermatology PDs' perception in this regard. Dermatology residency programs may find the reported data useful in further optimizing their residency selection process. PMID:24772165

  16. Selective functional disconnection of the orbitofrontal subregions in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Qin, W; Zhuo, C; Xu, L; Zhu, J; Liu, X; Yu, C

    2017-07-01

    As a disconnection syndrome, schizophrenia has shown impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC); however, the OFC is a rather heterogeneous region and the rsFC changes in the OFC subregions remain unknown. A total of 98 schizophrenia patients and 102 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI using a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in imaging sequence (SENSE-SPIRAL) to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion. The OFC subregions were defined according to a previous parcellation study that divided the OFC into the anterior (OFCa), medial (OFCm), posterior (OFCp), intermediate (OFCi), and lateral (OFCl) subregions. The rsFC was compared using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Whether or not global signal regression, compared with healthy controls, schizophrenia patients consistently exhibited decreased rsFC between the left OFCi and the left middle temporal gyrus and the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), between the right OFCi and the right MFG and the left inferior frontal gyrus, between the right OFCm and the middle cingulate cortex and the left Rolandic operculum. These rsFC changes still remained significant even after cortical atrophy correction. These findings suggest a selective functional disconnection of the OFC subregions in schizophrenia, and provide more precise information about the functional disconnections of the OFC in this disorder.

  17. Functionalized membranes for environmental remediation and selective separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    ) between UF and RO presents selectivity controlled by both steric and electrostatic repulsions, which are widely used to reject charged species, particularly multivalent ions. In this work, selective permeation of CaCl2 and high sucrose retention are obtained through the modification of nanofiltration membranes with lower charge compared to commercial nanofiltration membrane. The membrane module also shows high stability with constant water permeability in a long-term (two months) test. Extended Nernst-Planck equation were further used to evaluate the experimental results and it fits well. KEY WORDS: Functionalized Membrane, Dechlorination, Responsive, Tunable, Full-scale.

  18. Functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome in teenagers: Internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hideki; Yokoyama, Koji; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Yamagata, Takanori

    2016-08-01

    Only a handful of studies have investigated children with functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) classified according to the Rome III criteria, and limited information is available on the lifestyle of affected patients. We conducted an Internet questionnaire survey of 2060 parents among the general public in Japan who lived with their children aged 10-15, who were screened for FD and IBS. The prevalence of FD and IBS was 2.8% and 6.1%, respectively, and 1.4% of the subjects met the criteria for both FD and IBS. The lifestyles of 155 subjects who met the criteria for FD, IBS, or both were compared with those of 1745 control subjects. In comparison with the controls, a significantly higher percentage of subjects with FD, IBS, or both thought that their sleep was insufficient, ate meals irregularly, were susceptible to stress and to dizziness on standing, had difficulty in getting out of bed or felt sluggish in the morning, had a tendency to faint when standing, and had migraine/chronic headache. Children with FD and IBS are susceptible to stress, have impaired sleep and eating habits, and have more frequent symptoms of comorbid orthostatic dysregulation and headache. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. A Fuzzy Supplier Selection Application Using Large Survey Datasets of Delivery Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is developed using fuzzy probability to screen survey data across relevant criteria for selecting suppliers based on fuzzy expected values. The values are derived from qualitative variables and expert opinion of membership in these variables found in industry survey data. The application is made to a supply chain management decision of supplier selection based upon delivery performance which is further divided into attributes that comprise this criterion. The algorithm allows multiple criteria to be considered for each decision parameter. Large sets of survey data regarding six suppliers in the electronic parts industry are gathered from over 150 purchasers and are analyzed through spreadsheet modeling of the fuzzy algorithm. The resulting decision support system allows supply chain managers to improve supplier selection decisions by applying fuzzy measures of criteria and associated beliefs across the dataset. The proposed model and method are highly adaptable to existing survey datasets, including datasets that have incomplete data, and can be implemented in organizations with low decision support resources, such as small and medium sized organizations.

  20. Criteria for selecting implementation science theories and frameworks: results from an international survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Birken

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories provide a synthesizing architecture for implementation science. The underuse, superficial use, and misuse of theories pose a substantial scientific challenge for implementation science and may relate to challenges in selecting from the many theories in the field. Implementation scientists may benefit from guidance for selecting a theory for a specific study or project. Understanding how implementation scientists select theories will help inform efforts to develop such guidance. Our objective was to identify which theories implementation scientists use, how they use theories, and the criteria used to select theories. Methods We identified initial lists of uses and criteria for selecting implementation theories based on seminal articles and an iterative consensus process. We incorporated these lists into a self-administered survey for completion by self-identified implementation scientists. We recruited potential respondents at the 8th Annual Conference on the Science of Dissemination and Implementation in Health and via several international email lists. We used frequencies and percentages to report results. Results Two hundred twenty-three implementation scientists from 12 countries responded to the survey. They reported using more than 100 different theories spanning several disciplines. Respondents reported using theories primarily to identify implementation determinants, inform data collection, enhance conceptual clarity, and guide implementation planning. Of the 19 criteria presented in the survey, the criteria used by the most respondents to select theory included analytic level (58%, logical consistency/plausibility (56%, empirical support (53%, and description of a change process (54%. The criteria used by the fewest respondents included fecundity (10%, uniqueness (12%, and falsifiability (15%. Conclusions Implementation scientists use a large number of criteria to select theories, but there is little

  1. Criteria for selecting implementation science theories and frameworks: results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Sarah A; Powell, Byron J; Shea, Christopher M; Haines, Emily R; Alexis Kirk, M; Leeman, Jennifer; Rohweder, Catherine; Damschroder, Laura; Presseau, Justin

    2017-10-30

    Theories provide a synthesizing architecture for implementation science. The underuse, superficial use, and misuse of theories pose a substantial scientific challenge for implementation science and may relate to challenges in selecting from the many theories in the field. Implementation scientists may benefit from guidance for selecting a theory for a specific study or project. Understanding how implementation scientists select theories will help inform efforts to develop such guidance. Our objective was to identify which theories implementation scientists use, how they use theories, and the criteria used to select theories. We identified initial lists of uses and criteria for selecting implementation theories based on seminal articles and an iterative consensus process. We incorporated these lists into a self-administered survey for completion by self-identified implementation scientists. We recruited potential respondents at the 8th Annual Conference on the Science of Dissemination and Implementation in Health and via several international email lists. We used frequencies and percentages to report results. Two hundred twenty-three implementation scientists from 12 countries responded to the survey. They reported using more than 100 different theories spanning several disciplines. Respondents reported using theories primarily to identify implementation determinants, inform data collection, enhance conceptual clarity, and guide implementation planning. Of the 19 criteria presented in the survey, the criteria used by the most respondents to select theory included analytic level (58%), logical consistency/plausibility (56%), empirical support (53%), and description of a change process (54%). The criteria used by the fewest respondents included fecundity (10%), uniqueness (12%), and falsifiability (15%). Implementation scientists use a large number of criteria to select theories, but there is little consensus on which are most important. Our results suggest that the

  2. XMM-Newton Observations of the DLS Shear-Selected Cluster Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellAntonio, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project continues to be to test the selection effects in cluster surveys by investigating the X-ray properties of the first shear-selected sample of galaxy clusters, the Deep Lens Survey (DLS). Because lensing signal is only sensitive to mass (albeit with projection effects), lensing signal can be used to select a sample that is independent of its X-ray properties. If a lensing-selected sample has very different X-ray properties from an X-ray selected sample, it would have important consequences for evolutionary studies based on existing cluster samples was aimed at refining the lensing-selected sample as part of this continuing study The grant supported a KPNO run to obtain data on another region of the sky to extend the cluster sample, and also the purchase of a disk array for archiving the optical mosaic data (Two terabytes worth) from which the lensing maps are derived As a result of the grant, we have extended the lensing cluster sample to another 4-square degree patch of the sky, adding another three clusters to our sample to be observed While the sample of X-ray observed clusters is too small to derive a firm conclusion yet, our preliminary finding is that the X-ray properties of the observed sample do not differ from those of X-ray selected surveys A paper discussing the first results has been published, and a second paper on the mass differences is still in preparation (with J Hughes as first author)

  3. Outsourcing and vendor selection model based on Taguchi loss function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirarat Teeravaraprug

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s fiercely competitive environment, there is an emergence of the extended enterprise of interdependentorganizations. This leads to a steady increase in part and service outsourcing. The decisions relating to this topic are whetheroutsourcing is appropriate and which vendors should be selected. To make the decision, many attributes need to beconsidered—both cash and non-cash. Cash impacts can be measured directly where as non-cash impacts are hardly measured.This paper applies Taguchi loss function to measure the non-cash impacts. The non-cash impacts considered in this paperinclude quality, speed, dependability, and flexibility. A mathematical model is given based on both cash and non-cash impacts.A numerical example is given to illustrate the model. Finally, conclusions and discussions are given.

  4. In vitro selection technologies to enhance biomaterial functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, Jonah C; Hollmann, Emma K; Lippmann, Ethan S

    2016-05-01

    Cells make decisions and fate choices based in part on cues they receive from their external environment. Factors that affect the interpretation of these cues include the soluble proteins that are present at any given time, the cell surface receptors that are available to bind these proteins, and the relative affinities of the soluble proteins for their cognate receptors. Researchers have identified many of the biological motifs responsible for the high-affinity interactions between proteins and their receptors, and subsequently incorporated these motifs into biomaterials to elicit control over cell behavior. Common modes of control include localized sequestration of proteins to improve bioavailability and direct inhibition or activation of a receptor by an immobilized peptide or protein. However, naturally occurring biological motifs often possess promiscuous affinity for multiple proteins and receptors or lack programmable actuation in response to dynamic stimuli, thereby limiting the amount of control they can exert over cellular decisions. These natural motifs only represent a small fraction of the biological diversity that can be assayed by in vitro selection strategies, and the discovery of "artificial" motifs with varying affinity, specificity, and functionality could greatly expand the repertoire of engineered biomaterial properties. This minireview provides a brief summary of classical and emerging techniques in peptide phage display and nucleic acid aptamer selections and discusses prospective applications in the areas of cell adhesion, angiogenesis, neural regeneration, and immune modulation. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  5. New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. Methods Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the databases of scientific literature, and English and non-English keywords directly linked to infectious disease control, we identified international and regional infectious disease journals. In order to ascertain whether the newly selected journals were appropriate to survey a wide range of research articles, we compared the number of original articles and reviews registered in the selected journals to those in the 'Infectious Disease Category' of the Science Citation Index Expanded™ (SCI Infectious Disease Category) during 1998-2006. Subsequently, we applied the newly selected journals to survey the number of original articles and reviews originating from 11 Asian countries during the same period. Results One hundred journals, written in English or 7 non-English languages, were newly selected as infectious disease journals. The journals published 14,156 original articles and reviews of Asian origin and 118,158 throughout the world, more than those registered in the SCI Infectious Disease Category (4,621 of Asian origin and 66,518 of the world in the category). In Asian trend analysis of the 100 journals, Japan had the highest percentage of original articles and reviews in the area, and no noticeable increase in articles was revealed during the study period. China, India and Taiwan had relatively large numbers and a high increase rate of original articles among Asian countries. When adjusting the publication of original articles according to the country population and the gross domestic product (GDP), Singapore and Taiwan were the most

  6. Simulating future uncertainty to guide the selection of survey designs for long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; Schweiger, E. William; Manier, Daniel J.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    A goal of environmental monitoring is to provide sound information on the status and trends of natural resources (Messer et al. 1991, Theobald et al. 2007, Fancy et al. 2009). When monitoring observations are acquired by measuring a subset of the population of interest, probability sampling as part of a well-constructed survey design provides the most reliable and legally defensible approach to achieve this goal (Cochran 1977, Olsen et al. 1999, Schreuder et al. 2004; see Chapters 2, 5, 6, 7). Previous works have described the fundamentals of sample surveys (e.g. Hansen et al. 1953, Kish 1965). Interest in survey designs and monitoring over the past 15 years has led to extensive evaluations and new developments of sample selection methods (Stevens and Olsen 2004), of strategies for allocating sample units in space and time (Urquhart et al. 1993, Overton and Stehman 1996, Urquhart and Kincaid 1999), and of estimation (Lesser and Overton 1994, Overton and Stehman 1995) and variance properties (Larsen et al. 1995, Stevens and Olsen 2003) of survey designs. Carefully planned, “scientific” (Chapter 5) survey designs have become a standard in contemporary monitoring of natural resources. Based on our experience with the long-term monitoring program of the US National Park Service (NPS; Fancy et al. 2009; Chapters 16, 22), operational survey designs tend to be selected using the following procedures. For a monitoring indicator (i.e. variable or response), a minimum detectable trend requirement is specified, based on the minimum level of change that would result in meaningful change (e.g. degradation). A probability of detecting this trend (statistical power) and an acceptable level of uncertainty (Type I error; see Chapter 2) within a specified time frame (e.g. 10 years) are specified to ensure timely detection. Explicit statements of the minimum detectable trend, the time frame for detecting the minimum trend, power, and acceptable probability of Type I error (

  7. Best lung function equations for the very elderly selected by survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin R; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    proportional hazard regression found lower FEV1SR was a predictor of mortality having controlled for MMSE, grip strength and sex. The US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1999) equations gave a better spread of median survival by FEV1SR quartile: 3.94, 3.65, 3.51 and 2.61 years...... with a hazard ratio for death of 1, 1.16, 1.32 and 1.60 respectively, compared with equations derived with the inclusion of elderly subjects.We conclude that extrapolating from NHANES III equations to predict lung function in nonagenarians gave better survival predictions from spirometry than when employing...... equations derived using very elderly subjects with possible selection bias. These findings can help inform how future lung function equations for the elderly are derived....

  8. Functional divergence of the NIP III subgroup proteins involved altered selective constraints and positive selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhujun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nod26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs that belong to the aquaporin superfamily are unique to plants. According to homology modeling and phylogenetic analysis, the NIP subfamily can be further divided into three subgroups with distinct biological functions (NIP I, NIP II, and NIP III. In some grasses, the NIP III subgroup proteins (NIP2s were demonstrated to be permeable to solutes with larger diameter, such as silicic acid and arsenous acids. However, to date there is no data-mining or direct experimental evidences for the permeability of such larger solutes for dicot NIP2s, although they exhibit similar three-dimensional structures as those in grasses. It is therefore intriguing to investigate the molecular mechanisms that drive the evolution of plant NIP2s. Results The NIP III subgroup is more ancient with a divergence time that predates the monocot-dicot split. The proliferation of NIP2 genes in modern grass species is primarily attributed to whole genome and segmental chromosomal duplication events. The structure of NIP2 genes is relatively conserved, possessing five exons and four introns. All NIP2s possess an ar/R filter consisting of G, S, G, and R, except for the cucumber CsNIP2;2, where a small G in the H2 is substituted with the bulkier C residue. Our maximum likelihood analysis revealed that NIP2s, especially the loop A (LA region, have undergone strong selective pressure for adaptive evolution. The analysis at the amino acid level provided strong statistical evidences for the functional divergence between monocot and dicot NIP III subgroup proteins. In addition, several SDPs (Specificity Determining Positions responsible for functional specificity were predicted. Conclusions The present study provides the first evidences of functional divergence between dicot and monocot NIP2s, and suggests that positive selection, as well as a radical shift of evolutionary rate at some critical amino acid sites is the primary

  9. Comparing survey data on functional disability: the impact of some methodological differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picavet, H. S.; van den Bos, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    To examine the impact of some differences in survey methodology on the prevalence of functional disability in population based surveys of the elderly. Nine surveys of Dutch people aged 55 years and older were compared to investigate the differences in the methods of data collection (proxy

  10. Cognition and brain function in schizotypy: a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Ulrich; Mohr, Christine; Gooding, Diane C; Cohen, Alex S; Rapp, Alexander; Haenschel, Corinna; Park, Sohee

    2015-03-01

    Schizotypy refers to a set of personality traits thought to reflect the subclinical expression of the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we review the cognitive and brain functional profile associated with high questionnaire scores in schizotypy. We discuss empirical evidence from the domains of perception, attention, memory, imagery and representation, language, and motor control. Perceptual deficits occur early and across various modalities. While the neural mechanisms underlying visual impairments may be linked to magnocellular dysfunction, further effects may be seen downstream in higher cognitive functions. Cognitive deficits are observed in inhibitory control, selective and sustained attention, incidental learning, and memory. In concordance with the cognitive nature of many of the aberrations of schizotypy, higher levels of schizotypy are associated with enhanced vividness and better performance on tasks of mental rotation. Language deficits seem most pronounced in higher-level processes. Finally, higher levels of schizotypy are associated with reduced performance on oculomotor tasks, resembling the impairments seen in schizophrenia. Some of these deficits are accompanied by reduced brain activation, akin to the pattern of hypoactivations in schizophrenia spectrum individuals. We conclude that schizotypy is a construct with apparent phenomenological overlap with schizophrenia and stable interindividual differences that covary with performance on a wide range of perceptual, cognitive, and motor tasks known to be impaired in schizophrenia. The importance of these findings lies not only in providing a fine-grained neurocognitive characterization of a personality constellation known to be associated with real-life impairments, but also in generating hypotheses concerning the aetiology of schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions

  11. The Important Selection Criteria in Choosing Islamic Banks: A Survey in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Hamzah Al-Hadrami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selection criteria of banks in general and Islamic banks in particular have been given high attention by the marketing researchers nowadays. But this kind of research is still insufficient in numbers especially in the developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to identify the important selection criteria that are considered by customers in selecting Islamic banks in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A 5-Likert scale survey questionnaire and ANOVA were used as the research method. The results indicate that the religious factors were ranked as the most important selection criteria for selecting Islamic banks. The study also found service quality factors as the second important selection criteria. This study is expected to provide Islamic banks in Bahrain with some inputs in setting up their marketing strategies in order to attract new customers and retain their existing customers. This study is also expected to add value to the literature by providing the updated empirical study in the area. DOI: 10.15408/aiq9i2.4635

  12. Functionalized silicon membranes for selective bio-organism capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létant, Sonia E.; Hart, Bradley R.; van Buuren, Anthony W.; Terminello, Louis J.

    2003-06-01

    Membranes with various pore size, length, morphology and density have been synthesized from diverse materials for size-exclusion-based separation. An example is the sterilization of intravenous lines by exclusion of bacteria and viruses using polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with 0.1-μm-diameter pores. Chemically specific filtration has recently been addressed for small molecules. Nevertheless, specific bio-organism immobilization and detection remains a great technical challenge in many biomedical applications, such as decontamination or analysis of air and liquids such as drinking water and body fluids. To achieve this goal, materials with controlled pore diameter, length and surface chemistry are required. In this letter, we present the first functionalized silicon membranes and demonstrate their ability to selectively capture simulated bio-organisms. These extremely versatile and rigid devices open the door to a new class of materials that are able to recognize the external fingerprints of bio-organisms-such as size and outer membrane proteins-for specific capture and detection applications.

  13. Resource Selection Probability Functions for Gopher Tortoise: Providing a Management Tool Applicable Across the Species' Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Virginia A.; Schmolke, Amelie; Kanagaraj, Rajapandian; Bruggeman, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The gopher tortoise ( Gopherus polyphemus) is protected by conservation policy throughout its range. Efforts to protect the species from further decline demand detailed understanding of its habitat requirements, which have not yet been rigorously defined. Current methods of identifying gopher tortoise habitat typically rely on coarse soil and vegetation classifications, and are prone to over-prediction of suitable habitat. We used a logistic resource selection probability function in an information-theoretic framework to understand the relative importance of various environmental factors to gopher tortoise habitat selection, drawing on nationwide environmental datasets, and an existing tortoise survey of the Ft. Benning military base. We applied the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as an index of vegetation density, and found that NDVI was strongly negatively associated with active burrow locations. Our results showed that the most parsimonious model included variables from all candidate model types (landscape features, topography, soil, vegetation), and the model groups describing soil or vegetation alone performed poorly. These results demonstrate with a rigorous quantitative approach that although soil and vegetation are important to the gopher tortoise, they are not sufficient to describe suitable habitat. More widely, our results highlight the feasibility of constructing highly accurate habitat suitability models from data that are widely available throughout the species' range. Our study shows that the widespread availability of national environmental datasets describing important components of gopher tortoise habitat, combined with existing tortoise surveys on public lands, can be leveraged to inform knowledge of habitat suitability and target recovery efforts range-wide.

  14. The luminosity function for the CfA redshift survey slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lapparent, Valerie; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1989-01-01

    The luminosity function for two complete slices of the extension of the CfA redshift survey is calculated. The nonparametric technique of Lynden-Bell (1971) and Turner (1979) is used to determine the shape for the luminosity function of the 12 deg slice of the redshift survey. The amplitude of the luminosity function is determined, taking large-scale inhomogeneities into account. The effects of the Malmquist bias on a magnitude-limited redshift survey are examined, showing that the random errors in the magnitudes for the 12 deg slice affect both the determination of the luminosity function and the spatial density constrast of large scale structures.

  15. Stability of Vector Functional Differential Equations: A Survey | Gil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a survey of the recent results of the author on the stability of linear and nonlinear vector differential equations with delay. Explicit conditions for the exponential and absolute stabilities are derived. Moreover, solution estimates for the considered equations are established. They provide the bounds for the regions ...

  16. Selective attrition and bias in a longitudinal health survey among survivors of a disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stellato Rebecca

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the response mechanisms among survivors of disasters. We studied the selective attrition and possible bias in a longitudinal study among survivors of a fireworks disaster. Methods Survivors completed a questionnaire three weeks (wave 1, 18 months (wave 2 and four years post-disaster (wave 3. Demographic characteristics, disaster-related factors and health problems at wave 1 were compared between respondents and non-respondents at the follow-up surveys. Possible bias as a result of selective response was examined by comparing prevalence estimates resulting from multiple imputation and from complete case analysis. Analysis were stratified according to ethnic background (native Dutch and immigrant survivors. Results Among both native Dutch and immigrant survivors, female survivors and survivors in the age categories 25–44 and 45–64 years old were more likely to respond to the follow-up surveys. In general, disasters exposure did not differ between respondents and non-respondents at follow-up. Response at follow-up differed between native Dutch and non-western immigrant survivors. For example, native Dutch who responded only to wave 1 reported more depressive feelings at wave 1 (59.7%; 95% CI 51.2–68.2 than Dutch survivors who responded to all three waves (45.4%; 95% CI 41.6–49.2, p p Conclusion Our results indicate that despite selective response, the complete case prevalence estimates were only somewhat biased. Future studies, both among survivors of disasters and among the general population, should not only examine selective response, but should also investigate whether selective response has biased the complete case prevalence estimates of health problems by using statistical techniques such as multiple imputation.

  17. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. A Survey Analysis Of The Resource Selection Models In Agile/Virtual Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pires

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a survey is made of the analysis of the resource selection process. We approach the process also fromthe point of view of conventional enterprises but with particular emphasis on the existent models in Agile/VirtualEnterprises in order to identify the main limitations and shortcomings of the process.This analysis was focused in the global process of the resource selection, namely in terms of the pre-selection andselection phases, requisites, mathematical models, tools and other relevant areas in the existent models.It is concluded that the resource pre-selection is an area that is not adequately explored in a systematic way. Thevalue concept is not incorporated in the selection process. As a result, a reasoned analysis is not performed of thedecision-making process for creating an Agile/Virtual Enterprise. These conclusions were made to envision a futureapproach that allows the incorporation of new areas that contribute to the improvement of the resource selectionprocess.

  19. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, D. A.; Krühler, T.; Schulze, S.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; Fong, W.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gorosabel, J.; Greiner, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kim, S.; Laskar, T.; Levan, A. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Tanvir, N. R.; Thöne, C. C.; Wiersema, K.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (“SHOALS”), a multi-observatory high-redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z\\gt 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z∼ 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z∼ 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  20. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, D. A.; Kruhler, T.; Schulze, S.; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a multi-observatory high redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z > 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z approx. 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z approx. 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  1. Does self-selection affect samples' representativeness in online surveys? An investigation in online video game research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Achab, Sophia; Zullino, Daniele; Rothen, Stephane; Khan, Riaz; Billieux, Joel; Thorens, Gabriel

    2014-07-07

    The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals presenting stigmatizing issues), selection bias may exist in online surveys. However, evidence on the representativeness of self-selected samples in online studies is patchy. Our objective was to explore the representativeness of a self-selected sample of online gamers using online players' virtual characters (avatars). All avatars belonged to individuals playing World of Warcraft (WoW), currently the most widely used online game. Avatars' characteristics were defined using various games' scores, reported on the WoW's official website, and two self-selected samples from previous studies were compared with a randomly selected sample of avatars. We used scores linked to 1240 avatars (762 from the self-selected samples and 478 from the random sample). The two self-selected samples of avatars had higher scores on most of the assessed variables (except for guild membership and exploration). Furthermore, some guilds were overrepresented in the self-selected samples. Our results suggest that more proficient players or players more involved in the game may be more likely to participate in online surveys. Caution is needed in the interpretation of studies based on online surveys that used a self-selection recruitment procedure. Epidemiological evidence on the reduced representativeness of sample of online surveys is warranted.

  2. A survey of variable selection methods in two Chinese epidemiology journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Henry S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although much has been written on developing better procedures for variable selection, there is little research on how it is practiced in actual studies. This review surveys the variable selection methods reported in two high-ranking Chinese epidemiology journals. Methods Articles published in 2004, 2006, and 2008 in the Chinese Journal of Epidemiology and the Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine were reviewed. Five categories of methods were identified whereby variables were selected using: A - bivariate analyses; B - multivariable analysis; e.g. stepwise or individual significance testing of model coefficients; C - first bivariate analyses, followed by multivariable analysis; D - bivariate analyses or multivariable analysis; and E - other criteria like prior knowledge or personal judgment. Results Among the 287 articles that reported using variable selection methods, 6%, 26%, 30%, 21%, and 17% were in categories A through E, respectively. One hundred sixty-three studies selected variables using bivariate analyses, 80% (130/163 via multiple significance testing at the 5% alpha-level. Of the 219 multivariable analyses, 97 (44% used stepwise procedures, 89 (41% tested individual regression coefficients, but 33 (15% did not mention how variables were selected. Sixty percent (58/97 of the stepwise routines also did not specify the algorithm and/or significance levels. Conclusions The variable selection methods reported in the two journals were limited in variety, and details were often missing. Many studies still relied on problematic techniques like stepwise procedures and/or multiple testing of bivariate associations at the 0.05 alpha-level. These deficiencies should be rectified to safeguard the scientific validity of articles published in Chinese epidemiology journals.

  3. The Two-Point Correlation Function of Rich Clusters of Galaxies: Results from an Extended APM Cluster Redshift Survey

    OpenAIRE

    G. B. Dalton; Croft, R. A. C.; Efstathiou, G.; Sutherland, W.J.; Maddox, S. J.; Davis, M.

    1994-01-01

    We present new estimates of the spatial two-point correlation function of rich clusters of galaxies selected from the APM Galaxy Survey. We have measured redshifts for a sample of $364$ clusters out to a depth of $\\sim 450\\hmpc$. The clusters have a mean space density of $\\bar{n} = 3.4\\times 10^{-5}\\hmpccc$. The two-point correlation function, $\\xi_{cc}$, for this sample is equal to unity at a pair-separation of $r_0 = 14.3\\pm1.75\\hmpc$ (2$\\sigma$ errors), consistent with our earlier results ...

  4. SPIDERS: selection of spectroscopic targets using AGN candidates detected in all-sky X-ray surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwelly, T.; Salvato, M.; Merloni, A.; Brusa, M.; Buchner, J.; Anderson, S. F.; Boller, Th.; Brandt, W. N.; Budavári, T.; Clerc, N.; Coffey, D.; Del Moro, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Green, P. J.; Jin, C.; Menzel, M.-L.; Myers, A. D.; Nandra, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Ridl, J.; Schwope, A. D.; Simm, T.

    2017-07-01

    SPIDERS (SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources) is a Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) survey running in parallel to the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) cosmology project. SPIDERS will obtain optical spectroscopy for large numbers of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxy cluster members detected in wide-area eROSITA, XMM-Newton and ROSAT surveys. We describe the methods used to choose spectroscopic targets for two sub-programmes of SPIDERS X-ray selected AGN candidates detected in the ROSAT All Sky and the XMM-Newton Slew surveys. We have exploited a Bayesian cross-matching algorithm, guided by priors based on mid-IR colour-magnitude information from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, to select the most probable optical counterpart to each X-ray detection. We empirically demonstrate the high fidelity of our counterpart selection method using a reference sample of bright well-localized X-ray sources collated from XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift-XRT serendipitous catalogues, and also by examining blank-sky locations. We describe the down-selection steps which resulted in the final set of SPIDERS-AGN targets put forward for spectroscopy within the eBOSS/TDSS/SPIDERS survey, and present catalogues of these targets. We also present catalogues of ˜12 000 ROSAT and ˜1500 XMM-Newton Slew survey sources that have existing optical spectroscopy from SDSS-DR12, including the results of our visual inspections. On completion of the SPIDERS programme, we expect to have collected homogeneous spectroscopic redshift information over a footprint of ˜7500 deg2 for >85 per cent of the ROSAT and XMM-Newton Slew survey sources having optical counterparts in the magnitude range 17 < r < 22.5, producing a large and highly complete sample of bright X-ray-selected AGN suitable for statistical studies of AGN evolution and clustering.

  5. Genome-Wide Survey of Genes Under Positive Selection in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Thaís Cabrera Galvão; Lobo, Francisco Pereira; Hongo, Jorge Augusto; Vicentini, Renato; Verma, Renu; Maluta, Renato Pariz; da Silveira, Wanderley Dias

    2017-05-01

    The ability to obtain bacterial genomes from the same host has allowed for comparative studies that help in the understanding of the molecular evolution of specific pathotypes. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a group of extraintestinal strains responsible for causing colibacillosis in birds. APEC is also suggested to possess a role as a zoonotic agent. Despite its importance, APEC pathogenesis still has several cryptic pathogenic processes that need to be better understood. In this work, a genome-wide survey of eight APEC strains for genes with evidence of recombination revealed that ∼14% of the homologous groups evaluated present signs of recombination. Enrichment analyses revealed that nine Gene Ontology (GO) terms were significantly more represented in recombinant genes. Among these GO terms, several were noted to be ATP-related categories. The search for positive selection in these APEC genomes revealed 32 groups of homologous genes with evidence of positive selection. Among these groups, we found several related to cell metabolism, as well as several uncharacterized genes, beyond the well-known virulence factors ompC, lamB, waaW, waaL, and fliC. A GO term enrichment test showed a prevalence of terms related to bacterial cell contact with the external environment (e.g., viral entry into host cell, detection of virus, pore complex, bacterial-type flagellum filament C, and porin activity). Finally, the genes with evidence of positive selection were retrieved from genomes of non-APEC strains and tested as were done for APEC strains. The result revealed that none of the groups of genes presented evidence of positive selection, confirming that the analysis was effective in inferring positive selection for APEC and not for E. coli in general, which means that the study of the genes with evidence of positive selection identified in this study can contribute for the better understanding of APEC pathogenesis processes.

  6. The spectra of selected functional gastrointestinal disorders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) including functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC) was not studied in Sudan. Objectives: The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence of these disorders in Sudanese university students using ...

  7. An X-Ray-selected Active Galactic Nucleus at z=4.6 Discovered by the CYDER Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treister, E.; Castander, F.J.; Maccarone, T.J.; Herrera, D.; Gawiser, E.; Maza, J.; Coppi, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    We present the discovery of a high-redshift, X-ray-selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) by the Calan-Yale Deep Extragalactic Research (CYDER) survey: CXOCY J033716.7-050153, located at z=4.61, the second high-redshift AGN discovered by this survey. Here we present its optical, near-IR, and X-ray

  8. Electrocatalytic Activity and Selectivity - a Density Functional Theory Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamad, Mohammadreza

    -catalysts towards two appealing electrochemical reactions: 1)electroreduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons and alcohols, and 2) electrochemical production of hydrogen peroxide, i.e. H2O2, from its elements i.e. H2 and O2. The thesis is divided into three parts: In the first part, electro-catalytic activity of different...... site concept to tune the activity and selectivity for oxygen reduction towards H2O2 production. We screen for new catalysts that exhibit both high catalytic activity and selectivity by constructing activity volcano plots for ORR towards water and H2O2. Moreover, the stability of these catalysts...... reduction of CO2 at the cathode side: 1) high overpotential that hinders this reaction from being an energy efficient process, and 2) low selectivity towards desired reaction products. We have taken two approaches to improve the selectivity and activity in the reduction of CO2. Firstly, we create...

  9. The Time-domain Spectroscopic Survey: Target Selection for Repeat Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Green, Paul J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Eracleous, Michael; Ruan, John J.; Runnoe, Jessie; Nielsen Brandt, William; Badenes, Carles; Greene, Jenny; Morganson, Eric; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Schwope, Axel; Shen, Yue; Amaro, Rachael; Lebleu, Amy; Filiz Ak, Nurten; Grier, Catherine J.; Hoover, Daniel; McGraw, Sean M.; Dawson, Kyle; Hall, Patrick B.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Mariappan, Vivek; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, Isabelle; Schneider, Donald P.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Tinker, Jeremy; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Chambers, Kenneth; Kaiser, Nick; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, Eugene; Metcalfe, Nigel; Waters, Chris Z.

    2018-01-01

    As astronomers increasingly exploit the information available in the time domain, spectroscopic variability in particular opens broad new channels of investigation. Here we describe the selection algorithms for all targets intended for repeat spectroscopy in the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS), part of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV. Also discussed are the scientific rationale and technical constraints leading to these target selections. The TDSS includes a large “repeat quasar spectroscopy” (RQS) program delivering ∼13,000 repeat spectra of confirmed SDSS quasars, and several smaller “few-epoch spectroscopy” (FES) programs targeting specific classes of quasars as well as stars. The RQS program aims to provide a large and diverse quasar data set for studying variations in quasar spectra on timescales of years, a comparison sample for the FES quasar programs, and an opportunity for discovering rare, serendipitous events. The FES programs cover a wide variety of phenomena in both quasars and stars. Quasar FES programs target broad absorption line quasars, high signal-to-noise ratio normal broad line quasars, quasars with double-peaked or very asymmetric broad emission line profiles, binary supermassive black hole candidates, and the most photometrically variable quasars. Strongly variable stars are also targeted for repeat spectroscopy, encompassing many types of eclipsing binary systems, and classical pulsators like RR Lyrae. Other stellar FES programs allow spectroscopic variability studies of active ultracool dwarf stars, dwarf carbon stars, and white dwarf/M dwarf spectroscopic binaries. We present example TDSS spectra and describe anticipated sample sizes and results.

  10. A survey of computational intelligence techniques in protein function prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Arvind Kumar; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    During the past, there was a massive growth of knowledge of unknown proteins with the advancement of high throughput microarray technologies. Protein function prediction is the most challenging problem in bioinformatics. In the past, the homology based approaches were used to predict the protein function, but they failed when a new protein was different from the previous one. Therefore, to alleviate the problems associated with homology based traditional approaches, numerous computational intelligence techniques have been proposed in the recent past. This paper presents a state-of-the-art comprehensive review of various computational intelligence techniques for protein function predictions using sequence, structure, protein-protein interaction network, and gene expression data used in wide areas of applications such as prediction of DNA and RNA binding sites, subcellular localization, enzyme functions, signal peptides, catalytic residues, nuclear/G-protein coupled receptors, membrane proteins, and pathway analysis from gene expression datasets. This paper also summarizes the result obtained by many researchers to solve these problems by using computational intelligence techniques with appropriate datasets to improve the prediction performance. The summary shows that ensemble classifiers and integration of multiple heterogeneous data are useful for protein function prediction.

  11. Radio-selected Binary Active Galactic Nuclei from the Very Large Array Stripe 82 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai; Myers, A. D.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Yan, Lin; Wrobel, J. M.; Stockton, A.

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy mergers play an important role in the growth of galaxies and their supermassive black holes. Simulations suggest that tidal interactions could enhance black hole accretion, which can be tested by the fraction of binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) among galaxy mergers. However, determining the fraction requires a statistical sample of binaries. We have identified kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs directly from high-resolution radio imaging. Inside the 92 deg2 covered by the high-resolution Very Large Array survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 field, we identified 22 grade A and 30 grade B candidates of binary radio AGNs with angular separations less than 5'' (10 kpc at z = 0.1). Eight of the candidates have optical spectra for both components from the SDSS spectroscopic surveys and our Keck program. Two grade B candidates are projected pairs, but the remaining six candidates are all compelling cases of binary AGNs based on either emission line ratios or the excess in radio power compared to the Hα-traced star formation rate. Only two of the six binaries were previously discovered by an optical spectroscopic search. Based on these results, we estimate that ~60% of our binary candidates would be confirmed once we obtain complete spectroscopic information. We conclude that wide-area high-resolution radio surveys offer an efficient method to identify large samples of binary AGNs. These radio-selected binary AGNs complement binaries identified at other wavelengths and are useful for understanding the triggering mechanisms of black hole accretion. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  12. Model selection for the North American Breeding Bird Survey: A comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William; Sauer, John; Niven, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) provides data for >420 bird species at multiple geographic scales over 5 decades. Modern computational methods have facilitated the fitting of complex hierarchical models to these data. It is easy to propose and fit new models, but little attention has been given to model selection. Here, we discuss and illustrate model selection using leave-one-out cross validation, and the Bayesian Predictive Information Criterion (BPIC). Cross-validation is enormously computationally intensive; we thus evaluate the performance of the Watanabe-Akaike Information Criterion (WAIC) as a computationally efficient approximation to the BPIC. Our evaluation is based on analyses of 4 models as applied to 20 species covered by the BBS. Model selection based on BPIC provided no strong evidence of one model being consistently superior to the others; for 14/20 species, none of the models emerged as superior. For the remaining 6 species, a first-difference model of population trajectory was always among the best fitting. Our results show that WAIC is not reliable as a surrogate for BPIC. Development of appropriate model sets and their evaluation using BPIC is an important innovation for the analysis of BBS data.

  13. Patient preferences in selecting a dentist: survey results from the urban population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huraib, Sahar Bin; Nahas, Nadia Al; Al-Balbeesi, Hana O; Abu-Aljadayl, Faida Moawia; Vellappally, Sajith; Sukumaran, Anil

    2015-03-01

    Awareness of gender- or nationality-driven preconceptions can help dentists to have a better interpretation of the dentist-patient relationship. It is even more noteworthy to understand these predilections in Saudi society, where women and men are usually segregated due to religion- and culture-based considerations. This study is one of the first to explore the preferences of patients when selecting a dentist with respect to gender and nationality in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 445 community residents residing in Riyadh were randomly selected for a cross-sectional study. The participants completed a survey designed to assess which of two factors (gender and/or nationality) were perceived as most relevant in choosing a dentist. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the SPSS 11.5 software. Female participants did not show any preference for the gender of the dentist, whereas 40% of the male participants preferred a male dentist. Participants also favored male dentists in the felds of oral surgery (78.9%), implants (74.1%), endodontics (67.5%), orthodontics (65.8%) and prosthodontics (64.2%). An exception was noted in pediatric dentistry, for which female dentists were favored by 52.8% of the participants. Additionally, most (66.1%) participants did not have any preference for the nationality of the dentist. Riyadh residents showed a general preference for a male dentist but demonstrated no preference for nationality when selecting a dentist.

  14. Bandwidth selection in smoothing functions | Kibua | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inexpensive and, hence, worth adopting. We argue that the bandwidth parameter is determined by two factors: the kernel function and the length of the smoothing region. We give an illustrative example of its application using real data. Keywords: Kernel, Smoothing functions, Bandwidth > East African Journal of Statistics ...

  15. The XMM-BCS galaxy cluster survey: I. The X-ray selected cluster catalog from the initial 6 deg$^2$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhada, R.; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U.; Song, J.; /Michigan U.; Bohringer, H.; /Munich, Tech. U.; Mohr, J.J.; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. /Munich, Tech. U., Universe; Chon, G.; /Munich, Tech. U.; Finoguenov, A.; /Munich, Tech. U. /CSST, Baltimore; Fassbender, R.; /Munich, Tech. U. /CSST, Baltimore; Desai, S.; /Munich U. /Illinois U., Urbana; Armstrong, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana; Zenteno, A.; /Munich U. /Munich, Tech. U., Universe; Barkhouse, W.A.; /North Dakota U. /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.

    2011-11-01

    The XMM-Newton - Blanco Cosmology Survey project (XMM-BCS) is a coordinated X-ray, optical and mid-infrared cluster survey in a field also covered by Sunyaev-Zel dovich effect (SZE) surveys by the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The aim of the project is to study the cluster population in a 14 deg{sup 2} field (center: {alpha} {approx} 23:29:18.4, {delta} {approx} -54:40:33.6). The uniform multi-wavelength coverage will also allow us for the first time to comprehensively compare the selection function of the different cluster detection approaches in a single test field and perform a cross-calibration of cluster scaling relations. In this work, we present a catalog of 46 X-ray selected clusters from the initial 6 deg{sup 2} survey core.We describe the XMM-BCS source detection pipeline and derive physical properties of the clusters. We provide photometric redshift estimates derived from the BCS imaging data and spectroscopic redshift measurements for a low redshift subset of the clusters. The photometric redshift estimates are found to be unbiased and in good agreement with the spectroscopic values. Our multi-wavelength approach gives us a comprehensive look at the cluster and group population up to redshifts z {approx} 1. The median redshift of the sample is 0.47 and the median mass M{sub 500} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 14} M{sub {circle_dot}} ({approx} 2 keV). From the sample, we derive the cluster log N - log S using an approximation to the survey selection function and find it in good agreement with previous studies. We compare optical mass estimates from the Southern Cosmology Survey available for part of our cluster sample with our estimates derived from the X-ray luminosity. Weak lensing masses available for a subset of the cluster sample are in agreement with our estimates. Optical masses based on cluster richness and total optical luminosity are found to be significantly higher than the X-ray values. The present results illustrate the

  16. Selective functionalization of calix[6]arenes at the upper rim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mendoza, Javier; Carramolino, Mar; Cuevas, Felix; Nieto, Pedro M.; Prados, Pilar; Reinhoudt, David

    1994-01-01

    Methylation of partially O-benzylated p-tert-butylcalix[6]arenes followed by hydrogenolysis constitutes an efficient method for the preparation of partially O-alkylated Calix[6]arenes in gram amounts, without adhering to column chromatography separations. Selective de-tert-butylation followed by

  17. Frequency Selective Surfaces for extended Bandwidth backing reflector functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasian, M.; Neto, A.; Monni, S.; Ettorre, M.; Gerini, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) to increase the Efficiency × Bandwidth product in Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) antenna arrays whose efficiency is limited by the front-to-back ratio. If the backing reflector is realized in one metal plane solution its location will be

  18. Loneliness as a Function of Selected Personality Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza

    1982-01-01

    Hypothesized that selected personality variables, could positively predict loneliness; and self-esteem and extraversion could negatively predict loneliness scores. Studied two groups of subjects: Iranian college students in American colleges and Iranian students in Iranian universities. Results confirmed the directions stated in the research…

  19. Functional Outcomes of Childhood Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy 20 to 28 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T S; Liu, Jenny L; Edwards, Caleb; Walter, Deanna M; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2017-05-17

    Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a surgical method used to treat childhood spastic cerebral palsy (CP). However, the effects of early SDR on functional outcomes and quality of life decades later in adulthood remains to be elucidated. To evaluate the long-term outcomes in terms of satisfaction and mobility of adult patients who received childhood SDR. Adult patients who received SDR in childhood were surveyed. The survey questionnaire asked about demographic information, quality of life, health outcomes, SDR surgical outcomes, ambulation, manual ability, pain, braces/orthotics, post-SDR treatment, living situation, education level, and work status. Our study included 95 patients. The age that patients received SDR was between two and 18 years. The age at the time of survey was between 23 and 37 years (mean ± S.D., 30.2 ± 3.6 years). Post-SDR follow-up ranged from 20 to 28 years (mean ± S.D., 24.3 ± 2.2 years). Seventy-nine percent of patients had spastic diplegia, 20% had spastic quadriplegia, and one percent had spastic triplegia. Ninety-one percent of patients felt that SDR impacted positively the quality of life and two percent felt that the surgery impacted negatively the quality of life after SDR. Compared to pre-operative ambulatory function, 42% reported higher level of ambulation and 42% ambulated in the same level. Eighty-eight percent of patients would recommend the procedure to others and two percent would not. Thirty-eight percent reported pain, mostly in the back and lower limbs, with mean pain level 4.2 ± 2.3 on the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS). Decreased sensation in patchy areas of the lower limbs that did not affect daily life was reported by eight percent of patients. Scoliosis was diagnosed in 31%. The severity of scoliosis is unknown. Only three percent of them underwent spinal fusion. Fifty-seven percent of patients required some orthopedic surgery after SDR. The soft-tissue tendon lengthening procedures included lengthening on

  20. Diagonals of rational functions and selected differential Galois groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, A.; Boukraa, S.; Maillard, J.-M.; Weil, J.-A.

    2015-12-01

    We recall that diagonals of rational functions naturally occur in lattice statistical mechanics and enumerative combinatorics. In all the examples emerging from physics, the minimal linear differential operators annihilating these diagonals of rational functions have been shown to actually possess orthogonal or symplectic differential Galois groups. In order to understand the emergence of such orthogonal or symplectic groups, we analyze exhaustively three sets of diagonals of rational functions, corresponding respectively to rational functions of three variables, four variables and six variables. We impose the constraints that the degree of the denominators in each variable is at most one, and the coefficients of the monomials are 0 or \\+/- 1, so that the analysis can be exhaustive. We find the minimal linear differential operators annihilating the diagonals of these rational functions of three, four, five and six variables. We find that, even for these sets of examples which, at first sight, have no relation with physics, their differential Galois groups are always orthogonal or symplectic groups. We discuss the conditions on the rational functions such that the operators annihilating their diagonals do not correspond to orthogonal or symplectic differential Galois groups, but rather to generic special linear groups.

  1. Survey and analysis of materials research and development at selected federal laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J.E.; Fink, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    This document presents the results of an effort to transfer existing, but relatively unknown, materials R and D from selected federal laboratories to industry. More specifically, recent materials-related work at seven federal laboratories potentially applicable to improving process energy efficiency and overall productiviy in six energy-intensive manufacturing industries was evaluated, catalogued, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. Laboratories surveyed include: Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Material Laboratory (AFWAL). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Flight Center (NASA Marshall), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Industries included in the effort are: aluminum, cement, paper and allied products, petroleum, steel and textiles.

  2. An HI selected sample of galaxies : The HI mass function and the surface brightness distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, M; Briggs, F; Sprayberry, D

    Results from the Arecibo HI Strip Survey, an unbiased extragalactic HI survey, combined with optical and 21 cm follow-up observations, determine the HI mass function and the cosmological mass density of HI at the present epoch. Both are consistent with earlier estimates, computed for the population

  3. The Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS) in SDSS and the high-z bright-end Quasar Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the most luminous quasars at high redshift directly probe the evolution of the most massive black holes in the early Universe and their connection to massive galaxy formation. Unfortunately, extremely luminous quasars at high redshift are very rare objects. Only wide area surveys have a chance to constrain their population. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) nd the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) have so far provided the most widely adopted measurements of the type I quasar luminosity function (QLF) at z>3. However, a careful re-examination of the SDSS quasar sample revealed that the SDSS quasar selection is in fact missing a significant fraction of $z~3$ quasars at the brightest end.We have identified the purely optical color selection of SDSS, where quasars at these redshifts are strongly contaminated by late-type dwarfs, and the spectroscopic incompleteness of the SDSS footprint as the main reasons. Therefore we have designed the Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS), based on a novel near-infrared JKW2 color cut using WISE AllWISE and 2MASS all-sky photometry, to yield high completeness for very bright (i learning algorithms on SDSS and WISE photometry for quasar-star classification and photometric redshift estimation.The ELQS is spectroscopically following up ~230 new quasar candidates in an area of ~12000 deg2 in the SDSS footprint, to obtain a well-defined and complete quasar sample for an accurate measurement of the bright-end quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 2.8<= z<=5.0. So far the ELQS has identified 75 bright new quasars in this redshift range and observations of the fall sky will continue until the end of the year. At the AAS winter meeting we will present the full spectroscopic results of the survey, including a re-estimation and extension of the high-z QLF toward higher luminosities.

  4. Factors Influencing Physicians' Selection of Continuous Professional Development Activities: A Cross-Specialty National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Price, David W; Wittich, Christopher M; West, Colin P; Blachman, Morris J

    2017-01-01

    We sought to understand what influences physicians' decisions about participation in continuous professional development (CPD) activities, and how often physicians engage in specific CPD activities. From September 2015 to April 2016, we administered a survey to 4648 randomly sampled licensed US physicians. Survey items addressed perceived barriers to CPD, factors that might influence participation in four prototypical CPD activities (reading an article, or completing a local activity, online course, or far-away course), and frequency of CPD engagement. Nine hundred eighty-eight (21.6%) physicians responded. The most important barriers were time (mean [SD] 3.5 [1.3], 1 = not important, 5 = extremely important) and cost (2.9 [1.3]). In prioritizing factors influencing participation in four prototypical CPD activities, topical relevance consistently had the highest average rank. Quality of content and time to complete the activity were also frequently selected. Over the past 3 years, most physicians reported having participated in patient-focused learning and self-directed learning on a weekly basis; quality improvement and local continuing medical education (CME) activities several times per year; online learning, on-site courses, and national board-related activities a few times per year; and interprofessional learning less than once per year. Physicians believed that they ought to engage more often in all of these activities except board-related activities. They would like CME credit for these activities much more often than currently obtained. The reasons physicians select a given CPD activity vary by activity, but invariably include topic and quality of content. Physicians want CME credit for the CPD activities they are already doing.

  5. Molecular and Serological Survey of Selected Viruses in Free-Ranging Wild Ruminants in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhid Hemmatzadeh

    Full Text Available A molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants was conducted in 13 different districts in Iran. Samples were collected from 64 small wild ruminants belonging to four different species including 25 Mouflon (Ovis orientalis, 22 wild goat (Capra aegagrus, nine Indian gazelle (Gazella bennettii and eight Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa during the national survey for wildlife diseases in Iran. Serum samples were evaluated using serologic antibody tests for Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV, Pestiviruses [Border Disease virus (BVD and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV], Bluetongue virus (BTV, Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1, and Parainfluenza type 3 (PI3. Sera were also ELISA tested for Pestivirus antigen. Tissue samples including spleen, liver, lung, tonsils, mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes and white blood cells (WBCs were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for PPRV, Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV, Pestivirus, BTV, Ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2 and BHV-1. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against PPRV (17%, Pestiviruses (2% and BTV (2%. No antibodies were detected for BHV-1 or PI3, and no Pestivirus antigen was detected. PCR results were positive for PPRV (7.8%, FMDV (11%, BTV (3%, OvHV-2 (31% and BHV-1 (1.5%. None of the samples were positive for Pestiviruses.

  6. Methods and Algorithms for Approximating the Gamma Function and Related Functions. A survey. Part I: Asymptotic Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Mortici

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this survey we present our recent results on analysis of gamma function and related functions. The results obtained are in the theory of asymptotic analysis, approximation of gamma and polygamma functions, or in the theory of completely monotonic functions. The motivation of this first part is the work of C. Mortici [Product Approximations via Asymptotic Integration Amer. Math. Monthly 117 (2010 434-441] where a simple strategy for constructing asymptotic series is presented. The classical asymptotic series associated to Stirling, Wallis, Glaisher-Kinkelin are rediscovered. In the second section we discuss some new inequalities related to Landau constants and we establish some asymptotic formulas.

  7. Evaluation of selected parameters of rat liver and kidney function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of administration of yohimbine, an aphrodisiac on some functional parameters of rat liver and kidney were investigated. White male albino rats weighing between 200-250g were grouped into two such that one group was orally administered with 14mg/kg body weight on daily basis for 15days while the control ...

  8. Repetitive spreading depression causes selective suppression of GABAergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, H; Luhmann, H J; Heinemann, U

    1996-11-04

    Cortical spreading depression (SD) represents a pathophysiological signal that has been associated with the induction of migraine and ischaemic brain damage. The properties of repetitive SDs and their effects on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission were analysed in neocortical slices obtained from adult rats. The SD showed only small variations in amplitude, duration and integral when elicited four times at intervals of 30 min. Extracellularly recorded paired pulse inhibition was, however, significantly reduced by approximately 10% with each SD episode. Since excitatory synaptic transmission was unaffected, our data indicate that repetitive SD causes a selective reduction of intracortical inhibition.

  9. Cross-sectional survey of kidney function in refinery employees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viau, C.; Bernard, A.; Lauwerys, R.; Buchet, J.P.; Quaeghebeur, L.; Cornu, M.E.; Phillips, S.C.; Mutti, A.; Lucertini, S.; Franchini, I.

    1987-01-01

    We examined sensitive biochemical and immunological markers of kidney function and damage in 53 male oil refinery workers exposed to hydrocarbons and compared their results with those of a control group of 61 age-matched nonexposed males. The mean duration of employment of exposed males was 11 years. The current levels of exposure to a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as determined by personal monitoring, were well below the current threshold limit values. No difference was found in the urinary tubular parameters beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) and retinol-binding protein. Similar serum beta 2-m levels indicated no impairment of the glomerular filtration rate in the exposed workers. The levels of circulating immune complexes were also identical in both groups. The mean albuminuria was slightly higher (p less than .005) in the exposed group in a quantitative assay but was not dipstick-detectable. The mean urinary excretion of a renal antigen was also higher (p less than .05) in the exposed group and correlated with the excretion of albumin. Finally, slightly higher titers of anti-laminin antibodies were found in five exposed employees, but this was not accompanied by an increased albuminuria. We conclude that chronic low-level hydrocarbon exposure in these refinery workers does not lead to clinically significant renal abnormalities. Nevertheless, some findings are consistent with the possible role of hydrocarbon exposure in the induction of renal disturbances.

  10. X-ray Selected Symbiotic Candidates in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Wetuski, Joshua` D.; Jonker, Peter; Torres, Manuel; Heinke, Craig O.; Maccarone, Tom; Steeghs, Danny; Britt, Christopher; Johnson, Christopher; Nelemans, Gijs

    2017-06-01

    The Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a broad, shallow survey of Bulge X-ray sources with extensive multiwavelength support. The limiting sensitivity, about 2×1032 erg/s at the Bulge distance, is well suited to finding symbiotic X-ray binaries (SyXBs) containing neutron stars accreting from a cool giant wind, as well as X-ray bright white dwarf systems. Giant counterparts can be securely detected in IR photometry, allowing us to estimate the total number of symbiotics detected by the GBS, and identify a good number of promising candidates. Such an X-ray selected symbiotic sample may be quite different to the traditional symbiotic star population which is usually selected by optical spectroscopy, and consequently biased towards systems with rich line emission. Of the 1640 unique X-ray sources identified by the GBS we find 91 significant matches with candidate Bulge giants. We expect 68 coincidences, so estimate a total sample of about 23 X-ray emitting cool giants detected by the GBS. Most of these are likely to be SyXBs or symbiotics of some type. Narrowing our search to sources coincident to 1", we find 23 matches, with only 8 coincidences expected, so this subsample has a relatively high purity, and likely includes most of the GBS symbiotics. The properties of this subsample are mostly consistent with cool giants, with typical SEDs, long-term lightcurves, and spectra. The sources are inconsistent in color with nearby M dwarfs and show small proper motions, so the foreground contamination is likely small. We present a selection of the best studied objects, focusing on one extremely variable X-ray source coincident with a carbon giant. This is quite an unusual object as carbon stars are rare in the Bulge. The scientific results reported in this article are based on observations made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive. Support for this work was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through Chandra

  11. Using step and path selection functions for estimating resistance to movement: Pumas as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Samuel A. Cushman; Paul Beier; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2015-01-01

    GPS telemetry collars and their ability to acquire accurate and consistently frequent locations have increased the use of step selection functions (SSFs) and path selection functions (PathSFs) for studying animal movement and estimating resistance. However, previously published SSFs and PathSFs often do not accommodate multiple scales or multiscale modeling....

  12. Use of Behavior and Influence Functions for Relay Selection in Cooperative Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Prasad, Ramjee

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a novel set of functions to model the relay selection process in a scenario of cooperative wireless communications. We define a utility function that reflects the behavior and influence that a selected relay may have on the quality of the link to be established for the forwarding...... of data. The utility function takes into account also the strategies of other players. To this end, we define a relay selection game and a supporting Nash Equilibrium (NE) algorithm for the choice of a relay during communication. The successful selection of a relay is evaluated by simulations in terms...

  13. Infrared dielectric function of polydimethylsiloxane and selective emission behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Arvind; Czapla, Braden; Narayanaswamy, Arvind, E-mail: arvind.narayanaswamy@columbia.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Mayo, Jeff [Skycatch, San Francisco, California 94107 (United States)

    2016-08-08

    The complex refractive index of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is determined in the wavelength range between 2.5 μm and 16.7 μm. The parameters of a Drude-Lorentz oscillator model (with 15 oscillators) are extracted from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflectance measurements made on both bulk PDMS and thin films of PDMS deposited on the gold coated silicon substrates. It is shown that thin films of PDMS atop gold exhibit selective emission in the 8 μm to 13 μm atmospheric transmittance window, which demonstrates that PDMS, especially due to its ease of deposition, may be a viable material for passive radiative cooling applications.

  14. Demographic history, selection and functional diversity of the canine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Elaine A; Wayne, Robert K; Freedman, Adam H; Davis, Brian W

    2017-12-01

    The domestic dog represents one of the most dramatic long-term evolutionary experiments undertaken by humans. From a large wolf-like progenitor, unparalleled diversity in phenotype and behaviour has developed in dogs, providing a model for understanding the developmental and genomic mechanisms of diversification. We discuss pattern and process in domestication, beginning with general findings about early domestication and problems in documenting selection at the genomic level. Furthermore, we summarize genotype-phenotype studies based first on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and then with whole-genome data and show how an understanding of evolution informs topics as different as human history, adaptive and deleterious variation, morphological development, ageing, cancer and behaviour.

  15. Parameter Selection Method for Support Vector Regression Based on Adaptive Fusion of the Mixed Kernel Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Support vector regression algorithm is widely used in fault diagnosis of rolling bearing. A new model parameter selection method for support vector regression based on adaptive fusion of the mixed kernel function is proposed in this paper. We choose the mixed kernel function as the kernel function of support vector regression. The mixed kernel function of the fusion coefficients, kernel function parameters, and regression parameters are combined together as the parameters of the state vector. Thus, the model selection problem is transformed into a nonlinear system state estimation problem. We use a 5th-degree cubature Kalman filter to estimate the parameters. In this way, we realize the adaptive selection of mixed kernel function weighted coefficients and the kernel parameters, the regression parameters. Compared with a single kernel function, unscented Kalman filter (UKF support vector regression algorithms, and genetic algorithms, the decision regression function obtained by the proposed method has better generalization ability and higher prediction accuracy.

  16. Parametrization of the statistical rate function for select superallowed transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, I. S.; Hardy, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a parametrization of the statistical rate function, f , for 20 superallowed 0+→0+ nuclear β transitions between T =1 analog states, and for 18 superallowed "mirror" transitions between analog T =1 /2 states. All these transitions are of interest in the determination of Vu d. Although most of the transition QE C values have been measured, their precision will undoubtedly be improved in the future. Our parametrization allows a user to easily calculate the corresponding new f value to high precision (±0.01 %) without complicated computing.

  17. Ethnopharmacological survey: a selection strategy to identify medicinal plants for a local phytotherapy program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Liparini Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological studies are important for documenting and protecting cultural and traditional knowledge associated with the medical use of biodiversity. In this paper, we present a survey on medicinal plants used by locals in a community of Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil, as a strategy to select medicinal plants for a phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. Eleven knowledgeable local informants were chosen by snowball sampling and interviewed about the use of medicinal plants. Plant samples were collected, herborised and then identified using traditional techniques and specialised literature. We sampled 107 medicinal plant species belonging to 86 genera and 39 families, predominantly Asteraceae with 16 species. Costus spicatus (Jacq. Sw, M. pulegium L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Ruta graveolens L. were found to have Consensus of Main Use corrected (CMUc values above 50%, which were in agreement with the traditional uses described by the informants. However, species with CMUc values equal to or above 20%, combined with the scientific information survey, were also used to select medicinal plants for the phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. The selection of medicinal plants based on the CMUc index from this particular community, in combination with the scientific survey, appears to be an effective strategy for the implementation of phytotherapy programs.Estudos etnofarmacológicos são importantes no registro e na preservação de conhecimentos de uma cultura tradicional associada ao uso medicinal da biodiversidade. No presente trabalho, foi realizado o levantamento das plantas medicinais utilizadas por conhecedores populares na comunidade de Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, como ferramenta para auxiliar na seleção de espécies vegetais visando à implantação de um programa de fitoterapia local na comunidade estudada. Participaram 11 conhecedores escolhidos por amostragem Bola de Neve e submetidos a

  18. Functionality of hospital information systems: results from a survey of quality directors at Turkish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluvan, Mehmet; Ozonoff, Al

    2018-01-12

    We aimed to determine availability of core Hospital Information Systems (HIS) functions implemented in Turkish hospitals and the perceived importance of these functions on quality and patient safety. We surveyed quality directors (QDs) at civilian hospitals in the nation of Turkey. Data were collected via web survey using an instrument with 50 items describing core functionality of HIS. We calculated mean availability of each function, mean and median values of perceived impact on quality, and we investigated the relationship between availability and perceived importance. We received responses from 31% of eligible institutions, representing all major geographic regions of Turkey. Mean availability of 50 HIS functions was 65.6%, ranging from 19.6% to 97.4%. Mean importance score was 7.87 (on a 9-point scale) ranging from 7.13 to 8.41. Functions related to result management (89.3%) and decision support systems (52.2%) had the highest and lowest reported availability respectively. Availability and perceived importance were moderately correlated (r = 0.52). QDs report high importance of the HIS functions surveyed as they relate to quality and patient safety. Availability and perceived importance of HIS functions are generally correlated, with some interesting exceptions. These findings may inform future investments and guide policy changes within the Turkish healthcare system. Financial incentives, regulations around certified HIS, revisions to accreditation manuals, and training interventions are all policies which will help integrate HIS functions to support quality and patient safety in Turkish hospitals.

  19. Evaluation of a Brief Survey Instrument for Assessing Subtle Differences in Cognitive Function Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Schumm, Philip; Kern, David W; McClintock, Martha K; Waite, Linda J; Shega, Joseph W; Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan J; Dale, William

    2015-01-01

    Most measures of cognitive function used in large-scale surveys of older adults have limited ability to detect subtle differences across cognitive domains, and standard clinical instruments are impractical to administer in general surveys. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) can address this need, but has limitations in a survey context. Therefore, we developed a survey adaptation of the MoCA, called the MoCA-SA, and describe its psychometric properties in a large national survey. Using a pretest sample of older adults (n=120), we reduced MoCA administration time by 26%, developed a model to accurately estimate full MoCA scores from the MoCA-SA, and tested the model in an independent clinical sample (n=93). The validated 18-item MoCA-SA was then administered to community-dwelling adults aged 62 to 91 as part of the National Social life Health and Aging Project Wave 2 sample (n=3196). In National Social life Health and Aging Project Wave 2, the MoCA-SA had good internal reliability (Cronbach α=0.76). Using item-response models, survey-adapted items captured a broad range of cognitive abilities and functioned similarly across sex, education, and ethnic groups. Results demonstrate that the MoCA-SA can be administered reliably in a survey setting while preserving sensitivity to a broad range of cognitive abilities and similar performance across demographic subgroups.

  20. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods for select space propulsion system components (PSAM). Volume 3: Literature surveys and technical reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The technical effort and computer code developed during the first year are summarized. Several formulations for Probabilistic Finite Element Analysis (PFEA) are described with emphasis on the selected formulation. The strategies being implemented in the first-version computer code to perform linear, elastic PFEA is described. The results of a series of select Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) component surveys are presented. These results identify the critical components and provide the information necessary for probabilistic structural analysis.

  1. Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey national stream water quality monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R.B.; Slack, J.R.; Ludtke, A.S.; Fitzgerald, K.K.; Schertz, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    A nationally consistent and well-documented collection of water quality and quantity data compiled during the past 30 years for streams and rivers in the United States is now available on CD-ROM and accessible over the World Wide Web. The data include measurements from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national networks for 122 physical, chemical, and biological properties of water collected at 680 monitoring stations from 1962 to 1995, quality assurance information that describes the sample collection agencies, laboratories, analytical methods, and estimates of laboratory measurement error (bias and variance), and information on selected cultural and natural characteristics of the station watersheds. The data are easily accessed via user-supplied software including Web browser, spreadsheet, and word processor, or may be queried and printed according to user-specified criteria using the supplied retrieval software on CD-ROM. The water quality data serve a variety of scientific uses including research and educational applications related to trend detection, flux estimation, investigations of the effects of the natural environment and cultural sources on water quality, and the development of statistical methods for designing efficient monitoring networks and interpreting water resources data.

  2. Mining the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey: submillimetre-selected blazars in equatorial fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caniego, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Massardi, M.; Bonavera, L.; Herranz, D.; Negrello, M.; De Zotti, G.; Carrera, F. J.; Danese, L.; Fleuren, S.; Hardcastle, M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Mauch, T.; Procopio, P.; Righini, S.; Sutherland, W.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Buttiglione, S.; Clark, C. J. R.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Hopwood, R.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, S.; Valiante, E.

    2013-04-01

    The Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) provides an unprecedented opportunity to search for blazars at sub-mm wavelengths. We cross-matched the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) radio source catalogue with the 11 655 sources brighter than 35 mJy at 500 μm in the ˜135 deg2 of the sky covered by the H-ATLAS equatorial fields at 9h and 15h, plus half of the field at 12h. We found that 379 of the H-ATLAS sources have a FIRST counterpart within 10 arcsec, including eight catalogued blazars (plus one known blazar that was found at the edge of one of the H-ATLAS maps). To search for additional blazar candidates we have devised new diagnostic diagrams and found that known blazars occupy a region of the log (S500 μm/S350 μm) versus log (S500 μm/S1.4 GHz) plane separated from that of sub-mm sources with radio emission powered by star formation, but shared with radio galaxies and steep-spectrum radio quasars. Using this diagnostic we have selected 12 further possible candidates that turn out to be scattered in the (r - z) versus (u - r) plane or in the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer colour-colour diagram, where known blazars are concentrated in well defined strips. This suggests that the majority of them are not blazars. Based on an inspection of all the available photometric data, including unpublished VISTA Kilo-degree Infrared Galaxy survey photometry and new radio observations, we found that the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of only one out of the 12 newly selected sources are compatible with being synchrotron dominated at least up to 500 μm, i.e. with being a blazar. Another object may consist of a faint blazar nucleus inside a bright star-forming galaxy. The possibility that some blazar hosts are endowed with active star formation is supported by our analysis of the SEDs of Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue blazars detected at both 545 and 857 GHz. The estimated rest-frame synchrotron peak

  3. Informed Design of Mixed-Mode Surveys : Evaluating mode effects on measurement and selection error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klausch, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    “Mixed-mode designs” are innovative types of surveys which combine more than one mode of administration in the same project, such as surveys administered partly on the web (online), on paper, by telephone, or face-to-face. Mixed-mode designs have become increasingly popular in international survey

  4. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  5. A national survey on availability, price and affordability of selected essential medicines for non communicable diseases in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabare, Panthihage Ruvini L; Wanigatunge, Chandanie A; Beneragama, Bvs Hemantha

    2014-08-08

    Access to medicines is a universal right. Low availability and low affordability of medicines are issues that deny this right to a significant proportion of the world population. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, price and affordability of essential medicines prescribed to treat non communicable diseases in Sri Lanka. Methodology was based on the 2nd edition of the World Health Organization Health Action International Manual. A country survey was conducted and facilities representing both public and private pharmacies were selected. A total of 109 facilities was surveyed. At each facility data on the availability and prices of 50 essential medicines for non communicable diseases were collected. Percentage availability, median price of originator brand and lowest priced generic, median price ratio to the International Reference Price were calculated for surveyed medicines. Affordability was determined using the daily incomes of the lowest--paid unskilled government worker. Semi government community pharmacies had the highest (>80%) availability while outdoor pharmacies of public health care facilities, private pharmacies and outdoor pharmacies of private hospital showed a fairly high availability (50 - 80%) of surveyed medicines.Unit price of 76% of selected individual medicines was less than ten Sri Lankan rupees. Out of these 28% of medicines cost less than one Sri Lanka rupee. For 21 of the surveyed medicines the median price ratio to the international reference price was less than one. The prices of originator brands for 14 surveyed medicines were more than five times that of the lowest price generics.Less than a single day's wages was adequate to purchase a month's supply of the lowest priced generic of more than 67% of surveyed medicines. The availability of selected essential medicines was fairly high in both public and private sectors in Sri Lanka. Most medicines are affordable to the lowest income earners in the community. There

  6. In Silico survey of functional coding variants in human AEG-1 gene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malihe Naderi

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... In Silico survey of functional coding variants in human. AEG-1 gene. Malihe Naderi a. , Roghaye Gharaei b. , Ehsan Soleymani-Nejadian c. ,. Esmaeil Samadian d,. * a Department of Microbiology, Qom branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom 37185-364, Iran b Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of ...

  7. A survey on stimuli for visual cortical function assessment in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvarfard, Farveh; Maarefi, Nasrin; Abrishami Moghaddam, Hamid; Wallois, Fabrice

    2018-01-01

    Visual processing, as a significant and complex functionality of the human brain, changes during the life span with the most developmental changes in the infancy. Different types of visual stimuli are needed for evaluating different functionalities of the infants' visual system. Selecting appropriate visual stimuli is an important issue in evaluating visual cortical functions in infants. Properties of stimulation influence responses of visual system and must be adjusted according to the age and specific function which is going to be investigated. In this review, the most commonly used stimuli to elicit visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are evaluated and characteristics of VEPs extracted by these stimulations are studied. Furthermore, various studies investigating different functionalities such as selectivity for orientation and directional motion are presented. Valuable results regarding emerging and maturation times of different functions and normative data for clinical diagnosis are provided by these studies. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring survey of pulsating giant stars in the Local Group galaxies: survey description, science goals, target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, E.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th; Khosroshahi, H.; Abedi, A.; Bamber, J.; Hashemi, S. A.; Nikzat, F.; Molaei Nezhad, A.

    2017-06-01

    The population of nearby dwarf galaxies in the Local Group constitutes a complete galactic environment, perfect suited for studying the connection between stellar populations and galaxy evolution. In this study, we are conducting an optical monitoring survey of the majority of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), to identify long period variable stars (LPVs). These stars are at the end points of their evolution and therefore their luminosity can be directly translated into their birth masses; this enables us to reconstruct the star formation history. By the end of the monitoring survey, we will have performed observations over ten epochs, spaced approximately three months apart, and identified long-period, dust-producing AGB stars; five epochs of data have been obtained already. LPVs are also the main source of dust; in combination with Spitzer Space Telescope images at mid-IR wavelengths we will quantify the mass loss, and provide a detailed map of the mass feedback into the interstellar medium. We will also use the amplitudes in different optical passbands to determine the radius variations of the stars, and relate this to their mass loss.

  9. Total Synthesis of Ellagitannins via Sequential Site-Selective Functionalization of Unprotected D-Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Furuta, Takumi; Kawabata, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    A short-step total synthesis of the natural glycosides pterocarinin C and tellimagrandin II (eugeniin) has been performed by sequential and site-selective functionalization of free hydroxy groups of unprotected D-glucose. The key reactions are β-selective glycosidation of a gallic acid derivative using unprotected D-glucose as a glycosyl donor and catalyst-controlled site-selective introduction of a galloyl group into the inherently less reactive hydroxy group of the glucoside.

  10. Silver selective electrodes based on thioether functionalized calix[4]arenes as ionophores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinowska, Elz˙bieta; Brzozka, Zbigniew; Kasiura, Krzysztof; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Reinhoudt, David

    1994-01-01

    Silver selective electrodes based on thioether functionalized calix[4]arenes 1 and 2 as ionophores were investigated. For both ionophores the selectivity coefficients (log kAg,M) were lower than −2.2 for Hg(II) and lower than −4.6 for other cations tested. The best results were obtained with

  11. The luminosity function for different morphological types in the CfA Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Ronald O.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.; Corwin, Harold G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the luminosity function for different morphological types in the original CfA Redshift Survey (CfA1) and in the first two slices of the CfA Redshift Survey Extension (CfA2). CfA1 is a complete sample containing 2397 galaxies distributed over 2.7 steradians with m(sub z) less than or equal 14.5. The first two complete slices of CfA2 contain 1862 galaxies distributed over 0.42 steradians with m(sub z)=15.5. The shapes of the E-S0 and spiral luminosity functions (LF) are indistinguishable. We do not confirm the steeply decreasing faint end in the E-S0 luminosity function found by Loveday et al. for an independent sample in the southern hemisphere. We demonstrate that incomplete classification in deep redshift surveys can lead to underestimates of the faint end of the elliptical luminosity function and could be partially responsible for the difference between the CfA survey and other local field surveys. The faint end of the LF for the Magellanic spirals and irregulars is very steep. The Sm-Im luminosity function is well fit by a Schechter function with M*=-18.79, alpha=-1.87, and phi*=0.6x10(exp -3) for M(sub z) less than or equal to -13. These galaxies are largely responsible for the excess at the faint end of the general CfA luminosity function. The abundance of intrinsically faint, blue galaxies nearby affects the interpretation of deep number counts. The dwarf population increases the expected counts at B=25 in a no-evolution, q(sub 0)=0.05 model by a factor of two over standard no-evolution estimates. These dwarfs change the expected median redshift in deep redshift surveys by less than 10 percent . Thus the steep Sm-Im LF may contribute to the reconciliation of deep number counts with deep redshift surveys.

  12. Functionally informative tag SNP selection using a Pareto-optimal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phil Hyoun; Jung, Jae-Yoon; Shatkay, Hagit

    2010-01-01

    Selecting a representative set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for facilitating association studies is an important step to uncover the genetic basis of human disease. Tag SNP selection and functional SNP selection are the two main approaches for addressing the SNP selection problem. However, little was done so far to effectively combine these distinct and possibly competing approaches. Here, we present a new multiobjective optimization framework for identifying SNPs that are both informative tagging and have functional significance (FS). Our selection algorithm is based on the notion of Pareto optimality, which has been extensively used for addressing multiobjective optimization problems in game theory, economics, and engineering. We applied our method to 34 disease-susceptibility genes for lung cancer and compared the performance with that of other systems which support both tag SNP selection and functional SNP selection methods. The comparison shows that our algorithm always finds a subset of SNPs that improves upon the subset selected by other state-of-the-art systems with respect to both selection objectives.

  13. Sampling methodology and site selection in the National Eye Health Survey: an Australian population-based prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Joshua; Keel, Stuart; Dunn, Ross; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the sampling methodology of the National Eye Health Survey that aimed to determine the prevalence of vision impairment and blindness in Australia. The National Eye Health Survey is a cross-sectional population-based survey. Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and older and non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older residing in all levels of geographic remoteness in Australia. Using multistage, random-cluster sampling, 30 geographic areas were selected to provide samples of 3000 non-Indigenous Australians and 1400 Indigenous Australians. Sampling involved (i) selecting Statistical Area- Level 2 sites, stratified by remoteness; (ii) selecting Statistical Area- Level 1 sites within Statistical Area- Level 2 sites to provide targeted samples; and (iii) grouping of contiguous Statistical Area- Level 1 sites or replacing Statistical Area- Level 1 sites to provide sufficient samples. The main outcome measures involved Sites sites selected and participants sampled in the survey. Thirty sites were generated, including 12 Major City sites, 6 Inner Regional sites, 6 Outer Regional sites, 4 Remote sites and 2 Very Remote sites. Three thousand ninety-eight non-Indigenous participants and 1738 Indigenous participants were recruited. Selection of Statistical Area- Level 1 site overestimated the number of eligible residents in all sites. About 20% (6/30) of Statistical Area- Level 1 sites were situated in non-residential bushland, and 26.67% (8/30) of Statistical Area- Level 1 populations had low eligibility or accessibility, requiring replacement. Representative samples of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians were selected, recruited and tested, providing the first national data on the prevalence of vision impairment and blindness in Australia. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. Evolution of the class C GPCR Venus flytrap modules involved positive selected functional divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianhua; Huang, Siluo; Qian, Ji; Huang, Jinlin; Jin, Li; Su, Zhixi; Yang, Ji; Liu, Jianfeng

    2009-03-27

    Class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a distinct group of the GPCR family, which structurally possess a characteristically distinct extracellular domain inclusive of the Venus flytrap module (VFTM). The VFTMs of the class C GPCRs is responsible for ligand recognition and binding, and share sequence similarity with bacterial periplasmic amino acid binding proteins (PBPs). An extensive phylogenetic investigation of the VFTMs was conducted by analyzing for functional divergence and testing for positive selection for five typical groups of the class C GPCRs. The altered selective constraints were determined to identify the sites that had undergone functional divergence via positive selection. In order to structurally demonstrate the pattern changes during the evolutionary process, three-dimensional (3D) structures of the GPCR VFTMs were modelled and reconstructed from ancestral VFTMs. Our results show that the altered selective constraints in the VFTMs of class C GPCRs are statistically significant. This implies that functional divergence played a key role in characterizing the functions of the VFTMs after gene duplication events. Meanwhile, positive selection is involved in the evolutionary process and drove the functional divergence of the VFTMs. Our results also reveal that three continuous duplication events occurred in order to shape the evolutionary topology of class C GPCRs. The five groups of the class C GPCRs have essentially different sites involved in functional divergence, which would have shaped the specific structures and functions of the VFTMs. Taken together, our results show that functional divergence involved positive selection and is partially responsible for the evolutionary patterns of the class C GPCR VFTMs. The sites involved in functional divergence will provide more clues and candidates for further research on structural-function relationships of these modules as well as shedding light on the activation mechanism of the class C

  15. Evolution of the class C GPCR Venus flytrap modules involved positive selected functional divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhixi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs represent a distinct group of the GPCR family, which structurally possess a characteristically distinct extracellular domain inclusive of the Venus flytrap module (VFTM. The VFTMs of the class C GPCRs is responsible for ligand recognition and binding, and share sequence similarity with bacterial periplasmic amino acid binding proteins (PBPs. An extensive phylogenetic investigation of the VFTMs was conducted by analyzing for functional divergence and testing for positive selection for five typical groups of the class C GPCRs. The altered selective constraints were determined to identify the sites that had undergone functional divergence via positive selection. In order to structurally demonstrate the pattern changes during the evolutionary process, three-dimensional (3D structures of the GPCR VFTMs were modelled and reconstructed from ancestral VFTMs. Results Our results show that the altered selective constraints in the VFTMs of class C GPCRs are statistically significant. This implies that functional divergence played a key role in characterizing the functions of the VFTMs after gene duplication events. Meanwhile, positive selection is involved in the evolutionary process and drove the functional divergence of the VFTMs. Our results also reveal that three continuous duplication events occurred in order to shape the evolutionary topology of class C GPCRs. The five groups of the class C GPCRs have essentially different sites involved in functional divergence, which would have shaped the specific structures and functions of the VFTMs. Conclusion Taken together, our results show that functional divergence involved positive selection and is partially responsible for the evolutionary patterns of the class C GPCR VFTMs. The sites involved in functional divergence will provide more clues and candidates for further research on structural-function relationships of these modules as well as

  16. Functional selectivity of G-protein-coupled receptors: from recombinant systems to native human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Roland

    2013-10-01

    In the mid 1990s, it was assumed that a two-state model, postulating an inactive (R) state and an active (R*) state provides the molecular basis for GPCR activation. However, it became clear that this model could not accommodate many experimental observations. Accordingly, the two-state model was superseded by a multi-state model according to which any given ligand stabilizes a unique receptor conformation with distinct capabilities of activating down-stream G-proteins and β-arrestin. Much of this research was conducted with the β2-adrenoceptor in recombinant systems. At the molecular level, there is now no doubt anymore that ligand-specific receptor conformations, also referred to as functional selectivity, exist. This concept holds great potential for drug discovery in terms of developing drugs with higher selectivity for specific cells and/or cell functions and fewer side effects. A major challenge is the analysis for functional selectivity in native cells. Here, I discuss our current knowledge on functional selectivity of three representative GPCRs, the β2-adrenoceptor and the histamine H2- and H4-receptors, in recombinant systems and native human cells. Studies with human neutrophils and eosinophils support the concept of functional selectivity. A major strategy for the analysis of functional selectivity in native cells is to generate complete concentration/response curves with a large set of structurally diverse ligands for multiple parameters. Next, correlations of potencies and efficacies are analyzed, and deviations of the correlations from linearity are indicative for functional selectivity. Additionally, pharmacological inhibitors are used to dissect cell functions from each other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 18-Crown[6]ether functionalized reduced graphene oxide for membrane-free ion selective sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gunnar; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    The focus of this work is on the synthesis of a 1-Aza-18-crown[6]ether functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO-crown[6]) with specific K+ binding sites on the RGO surface. Glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) functionalized with RGO-crown[6] weretested for selective potentiometric sensing of K...

  18. Preoperative MRI findings and functional outcome after selective dorsal rhizotomy in children with bilateral spasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunt, S.; Becher, J.G.S.J.S.; van Schie, P.E.M.; van Ouwerkerk, W.J.R.; Ahmadi, N.; Vermeulen, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify MRI characteristics that may predict the functional effect of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) in children with bilateral spastic paresis. Methods: We performed SDR in a group of 36 patients. The gross motor functioning measure-66 (GMFM-66) was applied before and after SDR.

  19. Selection of Objective Function For Imbalanced Classification: An Industrial Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss the issue of selecting suitable objective function for Genetic Algorithm to solve an imbalanced classification problem. More precisely, first we discuss the need of specialized objective function to solve a real classification problem from our industrial partner...

  20. Lead selective electrodes based on thioamide functionalized calix[4]arenes as ionophores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinowska, Elz˙bieta; Brzozka, Zbigniew; Kasiura, Krzysztof; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Reinhoudt, David

    1994-01-01

    Lead selective electrodes based on a di- and tetrathioamide functionalized calix [4] arene as ionophores were investigated. The Pb(II)-response functions exhibited almost theoretical Nernstian slopes in the activity range 10¿6¿10¿2M of lead ions. For both ionophores a preference for lead over other

  1. The NuSTAR  Extragalactic Surveys: X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of the Bright Hard-band Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, L.; Comastri, A.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Aird, J.; Del Moro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Lanzuisi, G.; Goulding, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stern, D.; Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Gandhi, P.; Lanz, L.; Masini, A.; Marchesi, S.; Ricci, C.; Treister, E.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the spectral analysis of a sample of 63 active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected above a limiting flux of S(8{--}24 {keV})=7× {10}-14 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 in the multi-tiered NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The sources span a redshift range z=0{--}2.1 (median =0.58). The spectral analysis is performed over the broad 0.5–24 keV energy range, combining NuSTAR with Chandra and/or XMM-Newton data and employing empirical and physically motivated models. This constitutes the largest sample of AGN selected at > 10 {keV} to be homogeneously spectrally analyzed at these flux levels. We study the distribution of spectral parameters such as photon index, column density ({N}{{H}}), reflection parameter ({\\boldsymbol{R}}), and 10–40 keV luminosity ({L}{{X}}). Heavily obscured ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 23) and Compton-thick (CT; {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 24) AGN constitute ∼25% (15–17 sources) and ∼2–3% (1–2 sources) of the sample, respectively. The observed {N}{{H}} distribution agrees fairly well with predictions of cosmic X-ray background population-synthesis models (CXBPSM). We estimate the intrinsic fraction of AGN as a function of {N}{{H}}, accounting for the bias against obscured AGN in a flux-selected sample. The fraction of CT AGN relative to {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=20{--}24 AGN is poorly constrained, formally in the range 2–56% (90% upper limit of 66%). We derived a fraction (f abs) of obscured AGN ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=22{--}24) as a function of {L}{{X}} in agreement with CXBPSM and previous z< 1 X-ray determinations. Furthermore, f abs at z=0.1{--}0.5 and {log}({L}{{x}}/{erg} {{{s}}}-1)≈ 43.6{--}44.3 agrees with observational measurements/trends obtained over larger redshift intervals. We report a significant anti-correlation of R with {L}{{X}} (confirmed by our companion paper on stacked spectra) with considerable scatter around the median R values.

  2. Catalyst recognition of cis-1,2-diols enables site-selective functionalization of complex molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xixi; Lee, Hyelee; Lee, Sunggi; Tan, Kian L.

    2013-09-01

    Carbohydrates and natural products serve essential roles in nature, and also provide core scaffolds for pharmaceutical agents and vaccines. However, the inherent complexity of these molecules imposes significant synthetic hurdles for their selective functionalization and derivatization. Nature has, in part, addressed these issues by employing enzymes that are able to orient and activate substrates within a chiral pocket, which increases dramatically both the rate and selectivity of organic transformations. In this article we show that similar proximity effects can be utilized in the context of synthetic catalysts to achieve general and predictable site-selective functionalization of complex molecules. Unlike enzymes, our catalysts apply a single reversible covalent bond to recognize and bind to specific functional group displays within substrates. By combining this unique binding selectivity and asymmetric catalysis, we are able to modify the less reactive axial positions within monosaccharides and natural products.

  3. Positive selection and functional divergence of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jieying; Liu, Yong; Chao, Naixia; Ma, Chengtong; Chen, Qicong; Sun, Jian; Wu, Yaosheng

    2017-02-04

    Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) belongs to the short-chain prenyltransferase family, and it performs a conserved and essential role in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, its classification, evolutionary history, and the forces driving the evolution of FPS genes in plants remain poorly understood. Phylogeny and positive selection analysis was used to identify the evolutionary forces that led to the functional divergence of FPS in plants, and recombinant detection was undertaken using the Genetic Algorithm for Recombination Detection (GARD) method. The dataset included 68 FPS variation pattern sequences (2 gymnosperms, 10 monocotyledons, 54 dicotyledons, and 2 outgroups). This study revealed that the FPS gene was under positive selection in plants. No recombinant within the FPS gene was found. Therefore, it was inferred that the positive selection of FPS had not been influenced by a recombinant episode. The positively selected sites were mainly located in the catalytic center and functional areas, which indicated that the 98S and 234D were important positively selected sites for plant FPS in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. They were located in the FPS conserved domain of the catalytic site. We inferred that the diversification of FPS genes was associated with functional divergence and could be driven by positive selection. It was clear that protein sequence evolution via positive selection was able to drive adaptive diversification in plant FPS proteins. This study provides information on the classification and positive selection of plant FPS genes, and the results could be useful for further research on the regulation of triterpenoid biosynthesis.

  4. A semi-quantitative survey of macroinvertebrates at selected sites to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-04

    Sep 4, 2012 ... These surveys were performed during the high- and low-flow seasons for 2 consecutive years. ... surveys of aquatic macroinvertebrates were conducted during both high and low flow periods for 2 successive years at ... Most of the debris/coarse material were then carefully removed by hand. Thereafter the ...

  5. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - I. Survey target selection and the first pulsators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østensen, Roy H.; Silvotti, Roberto; Charpinet, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from the first two quarters of a survey to search for pulsations in compact stellar objects with the Kepler spacecraft. The survey sample and the various methods applied in its compilation are described, and spectroscopic observations are presented to separate the objects...

  6. Perils and potentials of self-selected entry to epidemiological studies and surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Louis, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    that maps results to an intended population. In contrast, recent analytical epidemiology has shifted the focus away from survey-type representativity to internal validity in the sample. Against this background, it is a good time for statisticians to take stock of our role and position regarding surveys...

  7. featsel: A framework for benchmarking of feature selection algorithms and cost functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo S. Reis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce featsel, a framework for benchmarking of feature selection algorithms and cost functions. This framework allows the user to deal with the search space as a Boolean lattice and has its core coded in C++ for computational efficiency purposes. Moreover, featsel includes Perl scripts to add new algorithms and/or cost functions, generate random instances, plot graphs and organize results into tables. Besides, this framework already comes with dozens of algorithms and cost functions for benchmarking experiments. We also provide illustrative examples, in which featsel outperforms the popular Weka workbench in feature selection procedures on data sets from the UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  8. Polymer functionalized nanostructured porous silicon for selective water vapor sensing at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Priyanka; Das, Samaresh; Dhanekar, Saakshi

    2017-04-01

    This paper highlights the surface treatment of porous silicon (PSi) for enhancing the sensitivity of water vapors at room temperature. A simple and low cost technique was used for fabrication and functionalization of PSi. Spin coated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used for functionalizing PSi surface. Morphological and structural studies were conducted to analyze samples using SEM and XRD/Raman spectroscopy respectively. Contact angle measurements were performed for assessing the wettability of the surfaces. PSi and functionalized PSi samples were tested as sensors in presence of different analytes like ethanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water vapors in the range of 50-500 ppm. Electrical measurements were taken from parallel aluminium electrodes fabricated on the functionalized surface, using metal mask and thermal evaporation. Functionalized PSi sensors in comparison to non-functionalized sensors depicted selective and enhanced response to water vapor at room temperature. The results portray an efficient and selective water vapor detection at room temperature.

  9. Survey of stranded gas and delivered costs to Europe of selected gas resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two important trends affecting the expected growth of global gas markets are (1) the shift by many industrialized countries from coal-fired electricity generation to the use of natural gas to generate electricity and (2) the industrialization of the heavily populated Asian countries of India and China. This paper surveys discovered gas in stranded conventional gas accumulations and presents estimates of the cost of developing and producing stranded gas in selected countries. Stranded gas is natural gas in discovered or identified fields that is not currently commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. Published reserves of gas at the global level do not distinguish between volumes of gas in producing fields and volumes in nonproducing fields. Data on stranded gas reported here-that is the volumes, geographical distribution, and size distributions of stranded gas fields at the country and regional level-are based on the examination of individual-field data and represent a significant improvement in information available to industry and government decision makers. Globally, stranded gas is pervasive, but large volumes in large accumulations are concentrated in only a few areas. The cost component of the paper focuses on stranded conventional gas accumulations in Africa and South America that have the potential to augment supplies to Europe. The methods described for the computation of extraction and transport costs are innovative in that they use information on the sizes and geographical distribution of the identified stranded gas fields. The costs are based on industry data specific to the country and geologic basin where the stranded gas is located. Gas supplies to Europe can be increased significantly at competitive costs by the development of stranded gas. Net extraction costs of producing the identified gas depend critically on the natural-gas-liquids (NGLs) content, the prevailing prices of liquids, the size of the gas accumulation, and the

  10. Deductive Reasoning in Introductory Educational Research: A Survey of Theoretical- and Cognitive-Content from Selected Logic References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmoth, James Noel

    This document, which consists of three parts and a summary, surveys a) the structure of theoretical systems, b) the functions of theoretical systems, and c) the formal logical methods of the theoretical scientist in order to find approaches to educational research. Emphasis throughout is placed on the discrimination of concepts-by-intuition from…

  11. Region-selective self-assembly of functionalized carbon allotropes from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Mohammadzadeh, Saeideh; Schmaltz, Thomas; Kirschner, Johannes; Khassanov, Artoem; Eigler, Siegfried; Mundloch, Udo; Backes, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Georg; Magerl, Andreas; Hauke, Frank; Hirsch, Andreas; Halik, Marcus

    2013-12-23

    Approaches for the selective self-assembly of functionalized carbon allotropes from solution are developed and validated for 0D-fullerenes, 1D-carbon nanotubes and 2D-graphene. By choosing the right molecular interaction of self-assembled monolayers (serving the surface) with the functionalization features of carbon materials, which provide the solubility but also serve the driving force for assembly, we demonstrate a region-selective and self-terminating assembly of the materials. Active layers of the carbon allotropes can be selectively deposited in the channel region of thin-film transistor (TFT) devices by this approach. As an example for a 0D system, molecules of C60 functionalized octadecylphosphonic acids are used to realize self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors (SAMFETs) based on a selective molecular exchange reaction of stearic acid in the channel region. For noncovalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) flakes, the electrostatic Coulomb interactions between the functional groups of the carbon allotropes and the charged head groups of a SAM dielectric layer are utilized to implement the selective deposition.

  12. Health among disaster survivors and health professionals after the Haiyan Typhoon: a self-selected Internet-based web survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hugelius, Karin; Gifford, Mervyn; ?rtenwall, Per; Adolfsson, Annsofie

    2017-01-01

    Background Natural disasters affected millions of people worldwide every year. Evaluation of disaster health and health response interventions is faced with several methodological challenges. This study aimed (1) to describe survivors? and health professionals? health, 30?months after a natural disaster using a web-based self-selected Internet sample survey designed and (2) to evaluate the health effects of disaster response interventions, in the present study with a focus on disaster radio. ...

  13. The SXDF-ALMA 2-arcmin2 Deep Survey: Stacking Rest-frame Near-infrared Selected Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Kohno, Kotaro; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David; Caputi, Karina I.; Dunlop, James S.; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J.; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanish, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Tamura, Yoichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Wilson, Grant W.; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S.; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Foucaud, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    We present stacking analyses on our ALMA deep 1.1 mm imaging in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field using 1.6 and 3.6 μm selected galaxies in the CANDELS WFC3 catalog. We detect a stacked flux of ∼0.03–0.05 mJy, corresponding to {L}{IR}\\lt {10}11 {L}ȯ and a star formation rate (SFR) of ∼ 15 {M}ȯ

  14. The pilot survey of the industry 4.0 principles penetration in the selected Czech and Polish companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Basl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the aspects of the ICT innovation based on the development of the internet of things in industrial branches. This trend is known as the Industry 4.0, e.g. the forth industrial revolution. The article presents main results of the pilot survey done in selected Czech and Polish companies. They show the current status of the Industry 4.0 understanding and penetration in companies, incl. expected benefits and known obstacles of this trend.

  15. Unbiased Large Spectroscopic Surveys of Galaxies Selected by SPICA Using Dust Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Yamagishi, M.; Wada, T.; Armus, L.; Baes, M.; Charmandaris, V.; Czerny, B.; Efstathiou, A.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Ferrara, A.; González-Alfonso, E.; Griffin, M.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Imanishi, M.; Kohno, K.; Kwon, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Onaka, T.; Pozzi, F.; Scott, D.; Smith, J.-D. T.; Spinoglio, L.; Suzuki, T.; van der Tak, F.; Vaccari, M.; Vignali, C.; Wang, L.

    2017-11-01

    The mid-infrared range contains many spectral features associated with large molecules and dust grains such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and silicates. These are usually very strong compared to fine-structure gas lines, and thus valuable in studying the spectral properties of faint distant galaxies. In this paper, we evaluate the capability of low-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys of galaxies that could be performed by SPICA. The surveys are designed to address the question how star formation and black hole accretion activities evolved over cosmic time through spectral diagnostics of the physical conditions of the interstellar/circumnuclear media in galaxies. On the basis of results obtained with Herschel far-infrared photometric surveys of distant galaxies and Spitzer and AKARI near- to mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of nearby galaxies, we estimate the numbers of the galaxies at redshift z > 0.5, which are expected to be detected in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features or dust continuum by a wide (10 deg2) or deep (1 deg2) blind survey, both for a given observation time of 600 h. As by-products of the wide blind survey, we also expect to detect debris disks, through the mid-infrared excess above the photospheric emission of nearby main-sequence stars, and we estimate their number. We demonstrate that the SPICA mid-infrared surveys will efficiently provide us with unprecedentedly large spectral samples, which can be studied further in the far-infrared with SPICA.

  16. Comparing the Selected Transfer Functions and Local Optimization Methods for Neural Network Flood Runoff Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Maca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper aims to analyze the influence of the selection of transfer function and training algorithms on neural network flood runoff forecast. Nine of the most significant flood events, caused by the extreme rainfall, were selected from 10 years of measurement on small headwater catchment in the Czech Republic, and flood runoff forecast was investigated using the extensive set of multilayer perceptrons with one hidden layer of neurons. The analyzed artificial neural network models with 11 different activation functions in hidden layer were trained using 7 local optimization algorithms. The results show that the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was superior compared to the remaining tested local optimization methods. When comparing the 11 nonlinear transfer functions, used in hidden layer neurons, the RootSig function was superior compared to the rest of analyzed activation functions.

  17. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  18. Selective Attention, Working Memory, and Executive Function as Potential Independent Sources of Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, James M; Robinson, Benjamin; Leonard, Carly J; Hahn, Britta; Chen, Shuo; McMahon, Robert P; Luck, Steven J

    2017-11-11

    People with schizophrenia demonstrate impairments in selective attention, working memory, and executive function. Given the overlap in these constructs, it is unclear if these represent distinct impairments or different manifestations of one higher-order impairment. To examine this question, we administered tasks from the basic cognitive neuroscience literature to measure visual selective attention, working memory capacity, and executive function in 126 people with schizophrenia and 122 healthy volunteers. Patients demonstrated deficits on all tasks with the exception of selective attention guided by strong bottom-up inputs. Although the measures of top-down control of selective attention, working memory, and executive function were all intercorrelated, several sources of evidence indicate that working memory and executive function are separate sources of variance. Specifically, both working memory and executive function independently contributed to the discrimination of group status and independently accounted for variance in overall general cognitive ability as assessed by the MATRICS battery. These two cognitive functions appear to be separable features of the cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Assessing the causes for the dentistry selection as a job by Iranian dental students: A Questionnaire Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamissi, J; Bairami, P; Hamissi, Z

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current research is to discover the causes for the dentistry selection as a profession by senior dental scholars in Iran. Materials & Methods: Surveys are distributed between the first-year to the sixth-year senior dental scholars at the Scholl of Dentistry in Medical Sciences Qazvin University in Iran. The survey presented in a lecture hall at the terminal of the secondary term in the 2011-2012 academic years. The survey included 30 parts, and the pupils asked to measure the significance of any part for choosing dentistry as a profession, on a 10-points scale. In addition, T-test and ANOVA utilized for the data analysis. Results: The answering ratio in the research is 55% (out of 100%) of the pupils delivered. Ninety-six students (93.2%) selected it as an initial selection. Dentistry as a job which is “insurer of financial independence” was gained a most rate via 82.5% of the pupils raised and a comparable amount of the students (75.7%), assigned a highest rate to the parameter “I love to enhance many money”. Dentistry as a “science-based job” was also given a score by 80.6% of the pupils. Conclusion: There are no variations in the motivation between men and women students. It obtained that “insurer of financial independence” and “I love to enhance many money” are critical action parameters in the dental pupils population. PMID:28316683

  20. Evolution of Galaxy Luminosity and Stellar-Mass Functions since $z=1$ with the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozzi, D.; et al.

    2017-07-27

    We present the first study of the evolution of the galaxy luminosity and stellar-mass functions (GLF and GSMF) carried out by the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe the COMMODORE galaxy catalogue selected from Science Verification images. This catalogue is made of $\\sim 4\\times 10^{6}$ galaxies at $0functions against literature results obtained with spectroscopic redshifts; ii) we want to shed light on the way galaxies build up their masses over cosmic time. We find that both the ${\\it i}$-band galaxy luminosity and stellar mass functions are characterised by a double-Schechter shape at $z<0.2$. Both functions agree well with those based on spectroscopic redshifts. The DES GSMF agrees especially with those measured for the GAlaxy Mass Assembly and the PRism MUlti-object Survey out to $z\\sim1$. At $0.2

  1. Functionalization and Area-Selective Deposition of Magnetic Carbon-Coated Iron Nanoparticles from Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Widenkvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A route to area-selective deposition of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles, involving chemical modification of the surface of the particles, is described. Partial oxidative etching of the coating introduces carboxylic groups, which then are esterified. The functionalized particles can be selectively deposited on the Si areas of Si/SiO2 substrates by a simple dipping procedure. Nanoparticles and nanoassemblies have been analyzed using SEM, TEM, and XPS.

  2. Stabilization of Gold Nanorods (GNRs) in Aqueous and Organic Environments by Select Surface Functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ARL-TR-7581 ● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Stabilization of Gold Nanorods (GNRs) in Aqueous and Organic Environments by...7581 ● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Stabilization of Gold Nanorods (GNRs) in Aqueous and Organic Environments by Select Surface... Gold Nanorods (GNRs) in Aqueous and Organic Environments by Select Surface Functionalization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  3. First-generation Students’ Underperformance at University: The Impact of the Function of Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël eJury

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to recent research, university not only has the role to educate and train students, it also has the role to select the best students. We argue that this function of selection disadvantages first-generation students, in comparison with continuing-generation students. Thus, the mere activation of the function of selection should be sufficient to produce achievement differences between first-generation and continuing-generation students in a novel academic task. Furthermore, we propose that when the function of selection is salient, first-generation students would be more vigilant to a cue that may confirm their inferiority, which should explain their underperformance. In the present experiment, participants were asked to complete an arithmetic modular task under two conditions, which either made the function of selection salient or reduced its importance. Participants’ vigilance to a threatening cue (i.e., their performance relative to others was measured through an eye-tracking technique. The results confirmed that first-generation students performed more poorly compared to continuing-generation students only when the function of selection was salient while no differences appeared in the no-selection condition. Regarding vigilance, the results did not confirm our hypothesis; thus, mediation path could not be tested. However, results indicated that at a high level of initial performance, first-generation students looked more often at the threatening cue. In others words, these students seemed more concerned about whether they were performing more poorly than others compared to their continuing-generation counterparts. Some methodological issues are discussed, notably regarding the measure of vigilance.

  4. A Deep Proper Motion Catalog Within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Footprint. II. The White Dwarf Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; von Hippel, Ted; Kilic, Mukremin; Liebert, James W.; Williams, Kurtis A.; DeGennaro, Steven; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Dame, Kyra; Gianninas, A.; Brown, Warren R.

    2017-01-01

    A catalog of 8472 white dwarf (WD) candidates is presented, selected using reduced proper motions from the deep proper motion catalog of Munn et al. Candidates are selected in the magnitude range 16Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging footprint. Distances, bolometric luminosities, and atmospheric compositions are derived by fitting SDSS ugriz photometry to pure hydrogen and helium model atmospheres (assuming surface gravities {log} {\\text{}}g=8). The disk white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) is constructed using a sample of 2839 stars with 5.5< {M}{bol}< 17, with statistically significant numbers of stars cooler than the turnover in the luminosity function. The WDLF for the halo is also constructed, using a sample of 135 halo WDs with 5< {M}{bol}< 16. We find space densities of disk and halo WDs in the solar neighborhood of 5.5+/- 0.1× {10}-3 {{pc}}-3 and 3.5+/- 0.7× {10}-5 {{pc}}-3, respectively. We resolve the bump in the disk WDLF due to the onset of fully convective envelopes in WDs, and see indications of it in the halo WDLF as well.

  5. Functional analysis of AoAtg11 in selective autophagy in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, Takayuki; Kikuma, Takashi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2015-07-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular degradation process in eukaryotes and consists of both non-selective and selective types. Selective autophagic processes include pexophagy, mitophagy, and the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway of yeast, in which particular vacuolar proteins, such as aminopeptidase I (Ape1), are selectively transported to vacuoles. Although selective autophagy has been mainly studied in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, there is evidence for selective autophagy in filamentous fungi; however, the details are poorly understood. In S. cerevisiae, Atg11 is a selective autophagy-specific protein that recognizes and transports substrates to the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS). Here, we first identified an ATG11 homologue in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae and analyzed the localization of the corresponding protein, designated AoAtg11, fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Imaging analysis revealed that AoAtg11-EGFP was localized to PAS-like structures. We next constructed an Aoatg11 disruptant of A. oryzae and showed that AoAtg11 is involved in pexophagy and mitophagy. In addition, AoAtg11 was found to be dispensable for non-selective autophagy and for transporting AoApe1 to vacuoles. Taken together, these results suggest that AoAtg11 is a selective autophagy-specific protein in A. oryzae, and has distinct molecular functions from that of S. cerevisiae Atg11. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis and Selective Functionalization of [1,2,4]Triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demmer, Charles Sylvain; Jorgensen, Morten; Kehler, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A new tactic for the synthesis and selective functionalization of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazines has been developed using an oxidative cyclization as key step. Furthermore, novel strategies for introducing diverse substituents in all positions of the heterocycle were identified.......A new tactic for the synthesis and selective functionalization of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazines has been developed using an oxidative cyclization as key step. Furthermore, novel strategies for introducing diverse substituents in all positions of the heterocycle were identified....

  7. Selected Science Educational Outcomes as a Function of South Dakota Educational Reform Policies 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T.; Tien, K. C.

    2005-05-01

    This research investigates selected South Dakota science educational outcomes as a function of selected educational reform policies. In the state of South Dakota, echoing divergent reform initiatives from "A Nation at Risk" to "No Child Left Behind," new guidelines and requirements have been instituted. Yet, very little effort has been made to assess the progress of these educational changes. In this study, selected educational outcomes-SAT8/9/10 scores-as a function of selected South Dakota educational reform policies were examined. School districts, ranked in the top and bottom five percent of socioeconomic status (SES) in the state, were selected for analysis. Comparison on student's science educational outcomes was also be made between the two major ethnic populations-Caucasians and Native Americans. All research questions were stated in the null form for hypothesis for statistical testing. Critical t was the statistic technique used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that the selected reform policies in South Dakota appeared to assist students from the higher socioeconomic backgrounds to perform better than pupils from the lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The academic performance for the ethnic and social class minorities remained unchanged within the study timeline for reform. Examined from the prism of Michael Apple's critical theory, the selected South Dakota reform policies have paid little attention to the issues of social equality. Continuing and collective efforts to promote equitable reform policies for enhancing the learning experience of all children in South Dakota seem necessary.

  8. Positive selection neighboring functionally essential sites and disease-implicated regions of mammalian reproductive proteins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Claire C

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reproductive proteins are central to the continuation of all mammalian species. The evolution of these proteins has been greatly influenced by environmental pressures induced by pathogens, rival sperm, sexual selection and sexual conflict. Positive selection has been demonstrated in many of these proteins with particular focus on primate lineages. However, the mammalia are a diverse group in terms of mating habits, population sizes and germ line generation times. We have examined the selective pressures at work on a number of novel reproductive proteins across a wide variety of mammalia. RESULTS: We show that selective pressures on reproductive proteins are highly varied. Of the 10 genes analyzed in detail, all contain signatures of positive selection either across specific sites or in specific lineages or a combination of both. Our analysis of SP56 and Col1a1 are entirely novel and the results show positively selected sites present in each gene. Our findings for the Col1a1 gene are suggestive of a link between positive selection and severe disease type. We find evidence in our dataset to suggest that interacting proteins are evolving in symphony: most likely to maintain interacting functionality. CONCLUSION: Our in silico analyses show positively selected sites are occurring near catalytically important regions suggesting selective pressure to maximize efficient fertilization. In those cases where a mechanism of protein function is not fully understood, the sites presented here represent ideal candidates for mutational study. This work has highlighted the widespread rate heterogeneity in mutational rates across the mammalia and specifically has shown that the evolution of reproductive proteins is highly varied depending on the species and interacting partners. We have shown that positive selection and disease are closely linked in the Col1a1 gene.

  9. Analysis and selection of optimal function implementations in massively parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN

    2011-05-31

    An apparatus, program product and method optimize the operation of a parallel computer system by, in part, collecting performance data for a set of implementations of a function capable of being executed on the parallel computer system based upon the execution of the set of implementations under varying input parameters in a plurality of input dimensions. The collected performance data may be used to generate selection program code that is configured to call selected implementations of the function in response to a call to the function under varying input parameters. The collected performance data may be used to perform more detailed analysis to ascertain the comparative performance of the set of implementations of the function under the varying input parameters.

  10. Designed nitrogen doping of few-layer graphene functionalized by selective oxygenic groups

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ying; Xie, Bingqiao; Ren, Yingtao; Yu, Mengying; Qu, Yang; Xie, Ting; Yong ZHANG; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    Few-layer nitrogen doped graphene was synthesized originating from graphene oxide functionalized by selective oxygenic functional groups (hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl etc.) under hydrothermal conditions, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observation evidenced few-layer feature of the graphene oxide. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed phase structure of the graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. Nitrogen doping content and bonding...

  11. Site-selective and stereoselective functionalization of non-activated tertiary C–H bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuangbiao; Pickel, Thomas C.; Boyarskikh, Vyacheslav; Bacsa, John; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Davies, Huw M. L.

    2017-11-01

    The synthesis of complex organic compounds usually relies on controlling the reactions of the functional groups. In recent years, it has become possible to carry out reactions directly on the C–H bonds, previously considered to be unreactive. One of the major challenges is to control the site-selectivity because most organic compounds have many similar C–H bonds. The most well developed procedures so far rely on the use of substrate control, in which the substrate has one inherently more reactive C–H bond or contains a directing group or the reaction is conducted intramolecularly so that a specific C–H bond is favoured. A more versatile but more challenging approach is to use catalysts to control which site in the substrate is functionalized. p450 enzymes exhibit C–H oxidation site-selectivity, in which the enzyme scaffold causes a specific C–H bond to be functionalized by placing it close to the iron–oxo haem complex. Several studies have aimed to emulate this enzymatic site-selectivity with designed transition-metal catalysts but it is difficult to achieve exceptionally high levels of site-selectivity. Recently, we reported a dirhodium catalyst for the site-selective functionalization of the most accessible non-activated (that is, not next to a functional group) secondary C–H bonds by means of rhodium-carbene-induced C–H insertion. Here we describe another dirhodium catalyst that has a very different reactivity profile. Instead of the secondary C–H bond, the new catalyst is capable of precise site-selectivity at the most accessible tertiary C–H bonds. Using this catalyst, we modify several natural products, including steroids and a vitamin E derivative, indicating the applicability of this method of synthesis to the late-stage functionalization of complex molecules. These studies show it is possible to achieve site-selectivity at different positions within a substrate simply by selecting the appropriate catalyst. We hope that this work will

  12. The Curvilinear Effect of BMI on Functional Health - Evidence of the Long-Running German Ageing Survey

    OpenAIRE

    André Hajek; Hans-Helmut König

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We aimed at determining the effect of BMI on functional health among older Germans longitudinally. Methods: Data from four waves (2002-2014) of the German Ageing Survey (‘Deutscher Alterssurvey'; DEAS), a representative sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years and above, were used. Functional health was quantified by the subscale ‘physical functioning' of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Fixed effects regressions were used to estimate the predictors of functio...

  13. The Factorial Survey: Design Selection and its Impact on Reliability and Internal Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dülmer, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The factorial survey is an experimental design consisting of varying situations (vignettes) that have to be judged by respondents. For more complex research questions, it quickly becomes impossible for an individual respondent to judge all vignettes. To overcome this problem, random designs are recommended most of the time, whereas quota designs…

  14. A nonparametric approach to the sample selection problem in survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazquez-Alvarez, R.

    2001-01-01

    Responses to economic surveys are usually noisy. Item non-response, as a particular type of censored data, is a common problem for key economic variables such as income and earnings, consumption or accumulated assets. If such non-response is non-random, the consequence can be a bias in the results

  15. Children's Selection of Fruit and Vegetables in a "Dream versus Healthy" Lunch-Box Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Parker, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internationally, it is well established that the behaviour, performance, and achievement of schoolchildren is directly linked to the nutritional status of overall diet -- including the contents of their school lunch-boxes. In a previous survey study by the lead authors, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was…

  16. Survey of Selected Filamentous Fungi for Voges-Proskauer Reactions1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, M. L.

    1962-01-01

    Of 16 filamentous fungi surveyed for Voges-Proskauer reactants, 81.2% were found to be positive. The total group fell into three classes: those producing considerable acetylmethylcarbinol (AMC), those producing a small amount, and those producing no AMC. Oidium lactis had a highly significant effect upon lowering the amount of Voges-Proskauer reactants produced by Rhizopus nigricans. PMID:13945071

  17. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    As part of the PVPS programme, annual surveys of photovoltaics (PV) power applications and markets in the 20 participating countries are carried out. The objective of the survey reports is to present and interpret trends in both PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market, and changing applications for these products within that market. These trends are analyzed in the context of the business, policy and non-technical environment in the reporting countries. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. This report presents the results of the sixth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 2000 and analyses trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2000. (author)

  18. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-15

    As part of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme, annual surveys of PV power applications and markets in the 20 participating countries are carried out. The objective of the survey reports is to present and interpret trends in both PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market, as well as changing applications within that market, in the context of business situations, policies and relevant non-technical factors in the reporting countries. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. This report presents the results of the fifth International Survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 1999 and analyses trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 1999. (author)

  19. Telework in Australia: Findings from a National Survey in Selected Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, George; Whitehouse, Gillian

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 2,528 Australian organizations found that 44% had used some teleworkers, 15% did regularly. Larger organizations were more likely to use them. Most telework was done at home. In one-third of companies all teleworkers were male, in one-fourth over 75% were female. Teleworkers were most likely to be in management, information technology,…

  20. U.S. Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 2011 report of selected wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David E.; Hines, Megan K.; Russell, Robin E.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) was founded in 1975 to provide technical assistance in identifying, controlling, and preventing wildlife losses from diseases, conduct research to understand the impact of diseases on wildlife populations, and devise methods to more effectively manage these disease threats. The impetus behind the creation of the NWHC was, in part, the catastrophic loss of tens of thousands of waterfowl as a result of an outbreak of duck plague at the Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge in South Dakota during January 1973. In 1996, the NWHC, along with other Department of Interior research functions, was transferred from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), where we remain one of many entities that provide the independent science that forms the bases of the sound management of the Nation’s natural resources. Our mission is to provide national leadership to safeguard wildlife and ecosystem health through dynamic partnerships and exceptional science. The main campus of the NWHC is located in Madison, Wis., where we maintain biological safety level 3 (BSL–3) diagnostic and research facilities purposefully designed for work with wildlife species. The NWHC provides research and technical assistance on wildlife health issues to State, Federal, and international agencies. In addition, since 1992 we have maintained a field station in Hawaii, the Honolulu Field Station, which focuses on marine and terrestrial natural resources throughout the Pacific region. The NWHC conducts diagnostic investigations of unusual wildlife morbidity and mortality events nationwide to detect the presence of wildlife pathogens and determine the cause of death. This is also an important activity for detecting new, emerging and resurging diseases. The NWHC provides this crucial information on the presence of wildlife diseases to wildlife managers to support sound management decisions. The data and information generated also allows

  1. Site-selective three-component reaction for dual-functionalization of peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Henrik Kofoed; Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Popa, Gina

    2013-01-01

    A site-selective dual-functionalization of peptides is presented, involving readily available maleimides as well as N-hydroxylamines. The modification proceeds through a three component 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, forming a stable product. This was exemplified by the one-pot attachment of two...

  2. Surface etching, chemical modification and characterization of silicon nitride and silicon oxide - Selective functionalization of Si

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Li Hong; Michalak, David J.; Chopra, Tatiana P.; Pujari, Sidharam P.; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-01-01

    The ability to selectively chemically functionalize silicon nitride (Si3N4) or silicon dioxide (SiO2) surfaces after cleaning would open interesting technological applications. In order to achieve this goal, the chemical composition of surfaces needs to be

  3. LOPES: Selective control of gait functions during the gait rehabilitation of CVA patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, R.; Veneman, J.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2005-01-01

    LOPES aims for an active role of the patient by selective and partial support of gait functions during robotic treadmill training sessions. Virtual model control (VMC) was applied to the robot as an intuitive method for translating current treadmill gait rehabilitation therapy programs into robotic

  4. Bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles for selective colorimetric sensing of toxic metal ions and antimicrobial studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, V.; Anbarasan, S.; Christena, Lawrence Rene; SaiSubramanian, Nagarajan; Philip Anthony, Savarimuthu

    2014-08-01

    Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Gongura) plant extracts (leaves (HL) and stem (HS) were used for the first time in the green synthesis of bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The bio-functionality of AgNPs has been successfully utilized for selective colorimetric sensing of potentially health and environmentally hazardous Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions at ppm level in aqueous solution. Importantly, clearly distinguishable colour for all three metal ions was observed. The influence of extract preparation condition and pH were also explored on the formation of AgNPs. Both selectivity and sensitivity differed for AgNPs synthesized from different parts of the plant. Direct correlation between the stability of green synthesized AgNPs at different pH and its antibacterial effects has been established. The selective colorimetric sensing of toxic metal ions and antimicrobial effect of green synthesized AgNPs demonstrated the multifunctional applications of green nanotechnology.

  5. Falling sex ratios and emerging evidence of sex-selective abortion in Nepal: evidence from nationally representative survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Melanie Dawn; Puri, Mahesh; Hinde, Peter Richard Andrew

    2013-05-14

    To quantify trends in changing sex ratios of births before and after the legalisation of abortion in Nepal. While sex-selective abortion is common in some Asian countries, it is not clear whether the legal status of abortion is associated with the prevalence of sex-selection when sex-selection is illegal. In this context, Nepal provides an interesting case study. Abortion was legalised in 2002 and prior to that, there was no evidence of sex-selective abortion. Changes in the sex ratio at birth since legalisation would suggest an association with legalisation, even though sex-selection is expressly prohibited. Analysis of data from four Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011. Nepal. 31 842 women aged 15-49. Conditional sex ratios (CSRs) were calculated, specifically the CSR for second-born children where the first-born was female. This CSR is where the evidence of sex-selective abortion will be most visible. CSRs were looked at over time to assess the impact of legalisation as well as for population sub-groups in order to identify characteristics of women using sex-selection. From 2007 to 2010, the CSR for second-order births where the first-born was a girl was found to be 742 girls per 1000 boys (95% CI 599 to 913). Prior to legalisation of abortion (1998-2000), the same CSR was 1021 (906-1150). After legalisation, it dropped most among educated and richer women, especially in urban areas. Just 325 girls were born for every 1000 boys among the richest urban women. The fall in CSRs witnessed post-legalisation indicates that sex-selective abortion is becoming more common. This change is very likely driven by both supply and demand factors. Falling fertility has intensified the need to bear a son sooner, while legal abortion services have reduced the costs and risks associated with obtaining an abortion.

  6. Bathymetric survey of the Cayuga Inlet flood-control channel and selected tributaries in Ithaca, New York, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernly, John F.; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Coon, William F.

    2017-09-08

    From July 14 to July 20, 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Ithaca, New York, and the New York State Department of State, surveyed the bathymetry of the Cayuga Inlet flood-control channel and the mouths of selected tributaries to Cayuga Inlet and Cayuga Lake in Ithaca, N.Y. The flood-control channel, built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1965 and 1970, was designed to convey flood flows from the Cayuga Inlet watershed through the City of Ithaca and minimize possible flood damages. Since that time, the channel has infrequently been maintained by dredging, and sediment accumulation and resultant shoaling have greatly decreased the conveyance of the channel and its navigational capability.U.S. Geological Survey personnel collected bathymetric data by using an acoustic Doppler current profiler. The survey produced a dense dataset of water depths that were converted to bottom elevations. These elevations were then used to generate a geographic information system bathymetric surface. The bathymetric data and resultant bathymetric surface show the current condition of the channel and provide the information that governmental agencies charged with maintaining the Cayuga Inlet for flood-control and navigational purposes need to make informed decisions regarding future maintenance measures.

  7. Positive Selection or Free to Vary? Assessing the Functional Significance of Sequence Change Using Molecular Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane R Allison

    Full Text Available Evolutionary arms races between pathogens and their hosts may be manifested as selection for rapid evolutionary change of key genes, and are sometimes detectable through sequence-level analyses. In the case of protein-coding genes, such analyses frequently predict that specific codons are under positive selection. However, detecting positive selection can be non-trivial, and false positive predictions are a common concern in such analyses. It is therefore helpful to place such predictions within a structural and functional context. Here, we focus on the p19 protein from tombusviruses. P19 is a homodimer that sequesters siRNAs, thereby preventing the host RNAi machinery from shutting down viral infection. Sequence analysis of the p19 gene is complicated by the fact that it is constrained at the sequence level by overprinting of a viral movement protein gene. Using homology modeling, in silico mutation and molecular dynamics simulations, we assess how non-synonymous changes to two residues involved in forming the dimer interface-one invariant, and one predicted to be under positive selection-impact molecular function. Interestingly, we find that both observed variation and potential variation (where a non-synonymous change to p19 would be synonymous for the overprinted movement protein does not significantly impact protein structure or RNA binding. Consequently, while several methods identify residues at the dimer interface as being under positive selection, MD results suggest they are functionally indistinguishable from a site that is free to vary. Our analyses serve as a caveat to using sequence-level analyses in isolation to detect and assess positive selection, and emphasize the importance of also accounting for how non-synonymous changes impact structure and function.

  8. Automatic selection of resting-state networks with functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Francesca eStorti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a resting-state condition can reveal the co-activation of specific brain regions in distributed networks, called resting-state networks, which are selected by independent component analysis (ICA of the fMRI data. One of the major difficulties with component analysis is the automatic selection of the ICA features related to brain activity. In this study we describe a method designed to automatically select networks of potential functional relevance, specifically, those regions known to be involved in motor function, visual processing, executive functioning, auditory processing, memory, and the default-mode network. To do this, image analysis was based on probabilistic ICA as implemented in FSL software. After decomposition, the optimal number of components was selected by applying a novel algorithm which takes into account, for each component, Pearson's median coefficient of skewness of the spatial maps generated by FSL, followed by clustering, segmentation, and spectral analysis. To evaluate the performance of the approach, we investigated the resting-state networks in 25 subjects. For each subject, three resting-state scans were obtained with a Siemens Allegra 3 T scanner (NYU data set. Comparison of the visually and the automatically identified neuronal networks showed that the algorithm had high accuracy (first scan: 95%, second scan: 95%, third scan: 93% and precision (90%, 90%, 84%. The reproducibility of the networks for visual and automatic selection was very close: it was highly consistent in each subject for the default-mode network (≥ 92% and the occipital network, which includes the medial visual cortical areas (≥ 94%, and consistent for the attention network (≥ 80%, the right and/or left lateralized frontoparietal attention networks, and the temporal-motor network (≥ 80%. The automatic selection method may be used to detect neural networks and reduce subjectivity in ICA

  9. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-15

    This report presents the results of the seventh international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 2001 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2001. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. (author)

  10. Collecting Genetic Samples in Population Wide (Panel) Surveys: Feasibility, Nonresponse and Selectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Schonlau; Martin Reuter; Juergen Schupp; Christian Montag; Bernd Weber; Thomas Dohmen; Nico A. Siegel; Uwe Sunde; Wagner, Gert G.; Armin Falk

    2010-01-01

    "Collecting biomarkers as part of general purpose surveys offers scientists - and social scientists in particular - the ability to study biosocial phenomena, e.g. the relation between genes and human behavior. The authors explore the feasibility of collecting buccal cells for genetic analyses with normal interviewers as part of a pretest for the German Socio-economic Panel Study (SOEP) using a probability sample. They introduce a new non-invasive technique for collecting cell material for gen...

  11. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-15

    This report presents the results of the ninth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2003 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2003. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  12. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    This report presents the results of the 14{sup th} international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and production in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2008 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2008. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to{+-}10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices varies depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  13. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    As part of the work of the IEA PVPS programme, annual surveys of photovoltaic (PV) power applications and markets are carried out in the participating countries. The objective of the series of annual Trends reports is to present and interpret developments in both the PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market and the changing applications for these products within that market. These trends are analyzed in the context of the business, policy and non-technical environment in the reporting countries. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-}0 %. Data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. This report presents the results of the 10th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and production in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2004 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2004. (au)

  14. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    This report presents the results of the 11{sup th} international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2005 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2005. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  15. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-08-15

    This report presents the results of the 12{sup th} international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2006 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2006. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  16. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    This report presents the results of the 13{sup th} international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2007 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2007. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  17. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This report presents the results of the eighth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2002 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2002. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  18. Methodology of functionality selection for water management software and examples of its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, K N

    2013-01-01

    When developing new software products and adapting existing software, project leaders have to decide which functionalities to keep, adapt or develop. They have to consider that the cost of making errors during the specification phase is extremely high. In this paper a formalised approach is proposed that considers the main criteria for selecting new software functions. The application of this approach minimises the chances of making errors in selecting the functions to apply. Based on the work on software development and support projects in the area of water resources and flood damage evaluation in economic terms at CH2M HILL (the developers of the flood modelling package ISIS), the author has defined seven criteria for selecting functions to be included in a software product. The approach is based on the evaluation of the relative significance of the functions to be included into the software product. Evaluation is achieved by considering each criterion and the weighting coefficients of each criterion in turn and applying the method of normalisation. This paper includes a description of this new approach and examples of its application in the development of new software products in the are of the water resources management.

  19. Functional segregation of monaural and binaural selectivity in the pallid bat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Khaleel A

    2016-07-01

    Different fields of the auditory cortex can be distinguished by the extent and level tolerance of spatial selectivity. The mechanisms underlying the range of spatial tuning properties observed across cortical fields are unclear. Here, this issue was addressed in the pallid bat because its auditory cortex contains two segregated regions of response selectivity that serve two different behaviors: echolocation for obstacle avoidance and localization of prey-generated noise. This provides the unique opportunity to examine mechanisms of spatial properties in two functionally distinct regions. Previous studies have shown that spatial selectivity of neurons in the region selective for noise (noise-selective region, NSR) is level tolerant and shaped by interaural level difference (ILD) selectivity. In contrast, spatial selectivity of neurons in the echolocation region ('FM sweep-selective region' or FMSR) is strongly level dependent with many neurons responding to multiple distinct spatial locations for louder sounds. To determine the mechanisms underlying such level dependence, frequency, azimuth, rate-level responses and ILD selectivity were measured from the same FMSR neurons. The majority (∼75%) of FMSR neurons were monaural (ILD insensitive). Azimuth tuning curves expanded or split into multiple peaks with increasing sound level in a manner that was predicted by the rate-level response of neurons. These data suggest that azimuth selectivity of FMSR neurons depends more on monaural ear directionality and rate-level responses. The pallid bat cortex utilizes segregated monaural and binaural regions to process echoes and prey-generated noise. Together the pallid bat FMSR/NSR data provide mechanistic explanations for a broad range of spatial tuning properties seen across species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of personality and coping on female sexual function: a population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Catrina; Vaccaro, Christine; Fellner, Angela; Kleeman, Steven; Pauls, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common disorder with limited data investigating relationships with psychological influences, such as personality traits and coping mechanisms. To investigate the relationship and impact of personality traits and coping strategies on female sexual function. A web-based survey was distributed to a sample of women representative of the area's demographic distribution. Participants completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Ten Item Personality Index (TIPI), and the Brief COPE. Five hundred twenty-six females responded. The mean total FSFI score was 24.56 (SD 6.77) with lowest scores in the desire domain. Personality scores were similar to published normative values. Subjects displaying stronger tendencies for introversion (r = 0.246, P coping strategies such as self-blame, self-distraction, and behavioral disengagement, significantly correlated with poor sexual function (r = -0.298, P coping are linked to sexual function with introversion, not being open to new experiences, emotional instability, and the utilization of negative coping strategies being significantly associated with poor sexual function. Women presenting with sexual function complaints may need further evaluation of their personality and coping strategies in order to mitigate any negative impact of these tendencies. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Decline in lung function related to exposure and selection processes among workers in the grain processing and animal feed industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, W.; Heederik, D.; Houba, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To follow up workers in the grain processing and animal feed industry five years after an initial survey, and to monitor exposures to organic dust and endotoxin and changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function. METHODS: Outcome measures in the present survey were decline in lung function over five years, rapid annual decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) above 90 ml.s-1, and loss to follow up. RESULTS: Among 140 workers included in the longitudinal analysis, annual decline in FEV1 and maximal mid- expiratory flow (MMEF) were significantly related to occupational exposure to dust and endotoxin in the grain processing and animal feed industry. Assuming a cumulative exposure over a working life of 40 years with an exposure of 5 mg.m-3, the estimated effect on the FEV1 would be a decline of 157 ml.s-1 (95% CI 13 to 300)--that is, about 4% of the group mean FEV1 and 473 ml.s-1 (95% CI 127 to 800) of the MMEF (about 12%). Workers with a dust exposure > 4 mg.m-3 or endotoxin concentrations > 20 ng.m-3 at the 1986-8 survey had significantly higher risk of rapid decline in FEV1 (odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% CI 1.02 to 10.3). The relations between occupational exposure and decline in lung function in this study occurred, despite the selection through the healthy worker effect that occurred as well. Increasing working years was related to decreasing annual decline in FEV1 and fewer people with rapid decline in FEV1 (OR 0.04, 95% CI 0 to 0.61 for over 20 v animal feed industry). The presence of respiratory symptoms at baseline was a strong predictor of subsequent loss to follow up. Baseline lung function was not found to be predictive of subsequent loss to follow up. However, among workers lost to follow up the number of working years was more strongly negatively related to baseline lung function than among the workers who were studied longitudinally. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of the healthy worker effect implies that an exposure

  2. Measuring Disability in Population Based Surveys: The Interrelationship between Clinical Impairments and Reported Functional Limitations in Cameroon and India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Mactaggart

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between two distinct measures of disability: self-reported functional limitations and objectively-screened clinical impairments.We undertook an all age population-based survey of disability in two areas: North-West Cameroon (August/October 2013 and Telangana State, India (Feb/April 2014. Participants were selected for inclusion via two-stage cluster randomised sampling (probability proportionate to size cluster selection and compact segment sampling within clusters. Disability was defined as the presence of self-reported functional limitations across eight domains, or presence of moderate or greater clinical impairments. Clinical impairment screening comprised of visual acuity testing for vision impairment, pure tone audiometry for hearing impairment, musculoskeletal functioning assessment for musculoskeletal impairment, reported seizure history for epilepsy and reported symptoms of clinical depression (depression adults only. Information was collected using structured questionnaires, observations and examinations.Self-reported disability prevalence was 5.9% (95% CI 4.7-7.4 and 7.5% (5.9-9.4 in Cameroon and India respectively. The prevalence of moderate or greater clinical impairments in the same populations were 8.4% (7.5-9.4 in Cameroon and 10.5% (9.4-11.7 in India. Overall disability prevalence (self-report and/or screened positive to a moderate or greater clinical impairment was 10.5% in Cameroon and 12.2% in India, with limited overlap between the sub-populations identified using the two types of tools. 33% of participants in Cameroon identified to have a disability, and 45% in India, both reported functional limitations and screened positive to objectively-screened impairments, whilst the remainder were identified via one or other tool only. A large proportion of people with moderate or severe clinical impairments did not self-report functional difficulties despite reporting participation restrictions

  3. Measuring Disability in Population Based Surveys: The Interrelationship between Clinical Impairments and Reported Functional Limitations in Cameroon and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Murthy, G V S; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between two distinct measures of disability: self-reported functional limitations and objectively-screened clinical impairments. We undertook an all age population-based survey of disability in two areas: North-West Cameroon (August/October 2013) and Telangana State, India (Feb/April 2014). Participants were selected for inclusion via two-stage cluster randomised sampling (probability proportionate to size cluster selection and compact segment sampling within clusters). Disability was defined as the presence of self-reported functional limitations across eight domains, or presence of moderate or greater clinical impairments. Clinical impairment screening comprised of visual acuity testing for vision impairment, pure tone audiometry for hearing impairment, musculoskeletal functioning assessment for musculoskeletal impairment, reported seizure history for epilepsy and reported symptoms of clinical depression (depression adults only). Information was collected using structured questionnaires, observations and examinations. Self-reported disability prevalence was 5.9% (95% CI 4.7-7.4) and 7.5% (5.9-9.4) in Cameroon and India respectively. The prevalence of moderate or greater clinical impairments in the same populations were 8.4% (7.5-9.4) in Cameroon and 10.5% (9.4-11.7) in India. Overall disability prevalence (self-report and/or screened positive to a moderate or greater clinical impairment) was 10.5% in Cameroon and 12.2% in India, with limited overlap between the sub-populations identified using the two types of tools. 33% of participants in Cameroon identified to have a disability, and 45% in India, both reported functional limitations and screened positive to objectively-screened impairments, whilst the remainder were identified via one or other tool only. A large proportion of people with moderate or severe clinical impairments did not self-report functional difficulties despite reporting participation restrictions. Tools to

  4. The Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey: Very Bright End of the Luminosity Function at z > 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Yan, Haojing; Lin, Lihwai; Karoji, Hiroshi; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tsai, Chao-Wei

    2012-04-01

    The primary goal of the Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS) is to find well-screened galaxy candidates at z > 7 (z' dropout) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS). To this end, TENIS provides relatively deep J and Ks data (~25.3 ABmag, 5σ) for an area of 0.5 × 0.5 deg. Leveraged with existing data at mid-infrared to optical wavelengths, this allows us to screen for the most luminous high-z objects, which are rare and thus require a survey over a large field to be found. We introduce new color selection criteria to select a z > 7 sample with minimal contaminations from low-z galaxies and Galactic cool stars; to reduce confusion in the relatively low angular resolution Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) images, we introduce a novel deconvolution method to measure the IRAC fluxes of individual sources. Illustrating perhaps the effectiveness at which we screen out interlopers, we find only one z > 7 candidate, TENIS-ZD1. The candidate has a weighted z phot of 7.8, and its colors and luminosity indicate a young (45M years old) starburst galaxy with a stellar mass of 3.2 × 1010 M ⊙. The result matches with the observational luminosity function analysis and the semianalytic simulation result based on the Millennium Simulations, which may over predict the volume density for high-z massive galaxies. The existence of TENIS-ZD1, if confirmed spectroscopically to be at z > 7, therefore poses a challenge to current theoretical models for how so much mass can accumulate in a galaxy at such a high redshift.

  5. THE TAIWAN ECDFS NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY: VERY BRIGHT END OF THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z > 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Lin, Lihwai; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P. [Institute of Astrophysics and Astronomy, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yan, Haojing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Karoji, Hiroshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tsai, Chao-Wei [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    The primary goal of the Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS) is to find well-screened galaxy candidates at z > 7 (z' dropout) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS). To this end, TENIS provides relatively deep J and K{sub s} data ({approx}25.3 ABmag, 5{sigma}) for an area of 0.5 Multiplication-Sign 0.5 deg. Leveraged with existing data at mid-infrared to optical wavelengths, this allows us to screen for the most luminous high-z objects, which are rare and thus require a survey over a large field to be found. We introduce new color selection criteria to select a z > 7 sample with minimal contaminations from low-z galaxies and Galactic cool stars; to reduce confusion in the relatively low angular resolution Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) images, we introduce a novel deconvolution method to measure the IRAC fluxes of individual sources. Illustrating perhaps the effectiveness at which we screen out interlopers, we find only one z > 7 candidate, TENIS-ZD1. The candidate has a weighted z{sub phot} of 7.8, and its colors and luminosity indicate a young (45M years old) starburst galaxy with a stellar mass of 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The result matches with the observational luminosity function analysis and the semianalytic simulation result based on the Millennium Simulations, which may over predict the volume density for high-z massive galaxies. The existence of TENIS-ZD1, if confirmed spectroscopically to be at z > 7, therefore poses a challenge to current theoretical models for how so much mass can accumulate in a galaxy at such a high redshift.

  6. The Hα Luminosity Function and Star Formation Rate Volume Density at z = 0.8 from the NEWFIRM Hα Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Lee, Janice C.; Dale, Daniel A.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Salim, Samir; Staudaher, Shawn; Moore, Carolynn A.; Finn, Rose

    2011-01-01

    We present new measurements of the Hα luminosity function (LF) and star formation rate (SFR) volume density for galaxies at z ~ 0.8. Our analysis is based on 1.18 μm narrowband data from the NEWFIRM Hα (NewHα) Survey, a comprehensive program designed to capture deep samples of intermediate redshift emission-line galaxies using narrowband imaging in the near-infrared. The combination of depth (≈1.9 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 in Hα at 3σ) and areal coverage (0.82 deg2) of the 1.18 μm observations complements other recent Hα studies at similar redshifts, and enables us to minimize the impact of cosmic variance and place robust constraints on the shape of the LF. The present sample contains 818 NB118 excess objects, 394 of which are selected as Hα emitters. Optical spectroscopy has been obtained for 62% of the NB118 excess objects. Empirical optical broadband color classification is used to sort the remainder of the sample. A comparison of the LFs constructed for the four individual fields covered by the observations reveals significant cosmic variance, emphasizing that multiple, widely separated observations are required for such analyses. The dust-corrected LF is well described by a Schechter function with L sstarf = 1043.00±0.52 erg s-1, Φsstarf = 10-3.20±0.54 Mpc-3, and α = -1.6 ± 0.19. We compare our Hα LF and SFR density to those at z find a rise in the SFR density vprop(1 + z)3.4, which we attribute to significant L sstarf evolution. Our Hα SFR density of 10-1.00±0.18 M sun yr-1 Mpc-3 is consistent with UV and [O II] measurements at z ~ 1. We discuss how these results compare to other Hα surveys at z ~ 0.8, and find that the different methods used to determine survey completeness can lead to inconsistent results. This suggests that future surveys probing fainter luminosities are needed, and more rigorous methods of estimating the completeness should be adopted as standard procedure (for example, with simulations which try to simultaneously

  7. Factors influencing women's preference to select a combined hormonal contraceptive method: a cross-sectional survey in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čepulienė, Ramona; Sveikatienė, Renata; Gutauskas, Kęstutis; Vanagienė, Virginija

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness and side effects are the main concerns when selecting a contraceptive method. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the preference of a combined hormonal contraception method by Lithuanian women, the reasons for selecting one of them and rejecting other two methods, and the factors determining selection or rejection. A cross-sectional multicenter survey was performed by the Lithuanian Society of Private Obstetricians and Gynecologists. A total of 4134 women, aged 18-49, who visited their physician due to initiation or reinitiation of hormonal contraception completed self-administered questionnaires identifying the reasons to select one method and reject the two remaining ones. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods were used for data analysis. The vaginal ring was the most accepted contraception method (55.4%), followed by the pill (35.6%). The skin patch was least preferable (9%). The vaginal ring and the skin patch were mainly selected for the frequency of use (72.9% and 51.2%, respectively), convenience (48.5% and 71%, respectively), and lower probability of noncompliance (48.7% and 63.5%, respectively). The main reason for selecting the pill was familiarity with the method (50.7%). The acceptance of vaginal ring increased with age and was higher among women with higher education. The most important factors when selecting a contraceptive method among the methods with equal effectiveness and similar safety profile were convenience, frequency of use, and lower probability of noncompliance. Age, education, and employment status were found to be other reasons associated with the choice of contraceptive method.

  8. Spatial distribution and partitioning behavior of selected poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in freshwater ecosystems: A French nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Gabriel; Giraudel, Jean-Luc [University of Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, LPTC, 351 Cours de la Libération, F-33400 Talence, France. (France); Botta, Fabrizio; Lestremau, François [INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte, France. (France); Dévier, Marie-Hélène [University of Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, LPTC, 351 Cours de la Libération, F-33400 Talence, France. (France); Budzinski, Hélène [CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, LPTC, 351 Cours de la Libération, F-33400 Talence, France. (France); Labadie, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.labadie@u-bordeaux.fr [CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, LPTC, 351 Cours de la Libération, F-33400 Talence, France. (France)

    2015-06-01

    The spatial distribution and partitioning of 22 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 133 selected rivers and lakes were investigated at a nationwide scale in mainland France. ΣPFASs was in the range < LOD–725 ng L{sup −1} in the dissolved phase (median: 7.9 ng L{sup −1}) and < LOD–25 ng g{sup −1} dry weight (dw) in the sediment (median: 0.48 ng g{sup −1} dw); dissolved PFAS levels were significantly lower at “reference” sites than at urban, rural or industrial sites. Although perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was found to be the prevalent compound on average, a multivariate analysis based on neural networks revealed noteworthy trends for other compounds at specific locations and, in some cases, at watershed scale. For instance, several sites along the Rhône River displayed a peculiar PFAS signature, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) often dominating the PFAS profile (e.g., PFCAs > 99% of ΣPFASs in the sediment, likely as a consequence of industrial point source discharge). Several treatments for data below detection limits (non-detects) were used to compute descriptive statistics, differences among groups, and correlations between congeners, as well as log K{sub d} and log K{sub oc} partition coefficients; in that respect, the Regression on Order Statistics (robust ROS) method was preferred for descriptive statistics computation while the Akritas–Theil–Sen estimator was used for regression and correlation analyses. Multiple regression results suggest that PFAS levels in the dissolved phase and sediment characteristics (organic carbon fraction and grain size) may be significant controlling factors of PFAS levels in the sediment. - Highlights: • A large-scale survey of PFASs in 133 French rivers and lakes is reported. • Descriptive statistics, correlations and partitioning coefficients were determined. • Non-detects were taken into account using functions from the NADA R-package. • Hot spots of PFAS contamination were found

  9. 'Creation of Income' by Schools in China: A Survey of Selected Schools in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ho Ming

    2001-01-01

    Describes benefits and problems of "Creation of Income" practices in selected public schools in Guangzhou, China. Concludes that while controversial and opposed by many Chinese educators, "Creation of Income" appears to be an effective short-term means of alleviating problems associated with inadequate funding of public…

  10. Endocrine Disorders in Childhood: A Selective Survey of Intellectual and Educational Sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, David E.; Barrick, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Examines intellectual and educational sequelae of selected endocrine systems and the psychosocial impact of their medical conditions. Many conditions are named including: Growth Hormone Deficiency, Turner Syndrome, Precocious Puberty, Klinefelters Syndrome, Congenital Hypothyroidism, and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Gives psychoeducational…

  11. Euthanasia, Selective Abortion and Educability: A Survey of the Literature and the TASH Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Fredda

    The study explored what sources were responsible for exposing professionals to issues of euthanasia of handicapped infants, selective abortion of severely handicapped fetuses and the educability of profoundly retarded persons, and what sources professionals thought were most appropriate for the dissemination of information. The study consisted of…

  12. Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik; Christensen, Trine Boe

    Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay...... other nanomaterials were identified, there are areas where there may be reason for attention and thus need for more knowledge....

  13. Report on a Survey of Program Directors Regarding Selection Factors in Graduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Norma E.; Gray, George T.

    1979-01-01

    A national sample of 25 percent of the graduate education program directors in internal medicine, family medicine, surgery, and pediatrics were asked to judge the importance of 31 variables in the selection of house staff. A rank-ordering of variables for all respondents placed interpersonal skills demonstrated in the interview as number one.…

  14. A New Fuzzy TOPSIS-TODIM Hybrid Method for Green Supplier Selection Using Fuzzy Time Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Arshadi Khamseh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today green supply chain is considered all around the world and supplier selection has been changed regarding these green and carbon emission criteria, so green supplier selection has been a major problem in this area. In this study we use fuzzy time function to assist managers in green supplier selection under uncertainty and ambiguity. This function will consider derivation from the goal during the time and by using it, and we will be able to have the best supplier in every period after having some modification in legal limitations for green supplier selection criteria. We use a fuzzy TOPSIS to have better initial weighting in TODIM, a discrete multicriteria method based on prospect theory in uncertainty (known as TODIM in Portuguese decision making method. The results indicated that our proposed approach can easily and effectively accommodate criteria with gains and loss functions during time and also by using this method we will have a more reasonable predict of our suppliers ranking in future and that will help us in future investment in these suppliers. Finally it has been shown in car industries in Iran.

  15. Spouse selection and environmental effects on spouse correlation in lung function measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuiman, Matthew W; Divitini, Mark L; Bartholomew, Helen C

    2005-01-01

    Concordance between spouses may be due to partner selection factors and/or the effects of marriage/environment. The extent to which partner selection factors contribute to spouse concordance has important implications for heritability studies. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude of spouse correlation in lung function measures and its relationship to duration of marriage. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data collected over the period 1969 to 1995 for 2615 couples from the Busselton Health Study have been analyzed using the program FISHER. Unadjusted correlations were around 0.45 for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and 0.25 for FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) and were reduced to 0.05 and 0.10, respectively, after adjustment for age, height, and smoking. No trend with marriage duration was apparent in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses but there was a significant downward trend in the correlations with age at marriage. The findings indicate that observed correlations in lung function measures are mostly due to partner selection factors and that partner selection factors have greater influence for couples that marry at younger ages. Family studies that aim to identify and separate genetic from other influences on lung function measures should not regard the mother-father correlation as due to common environment effects.

  16. Survey of cervical cancer survivors regarding quality of life and sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjuan; Yang, Xiangcheng; Dai, Yunyun; Wu, Qihui; He, Guoping; Yin, Gang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the quality of life (QOL) of cervical cancer survivors in China. Cervical cancer survivors were selected from 4 Tertiary Provincial Hospitals in Changsha, Hunan Province. Enrolled were 140 patients who received cancer treatments in these hospitals from 2007 to 2010. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cervix (FACT-Cx) Questionnaire was used to assess the QOL of the participants. Spiritual well-being was evaluated with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-Sp). Sexual function was measured with the Female Sexual Functioning Index. The average total FACT-Cx score was 124.45 (70-157). The average FACT-general score was 112.39 (49-150), and the average FACIT-Sp score was 13.9 (2-33.6). The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in our participants was 78%. Factors that were associated with QOL in cervical cancer survivors included gastrointestinal symptoms, health insurance, age, sleep disorders, and the number of complications. Sexual function was affected by radiotherapy, age, type of surgery, sleep disorders, and occupation. The QOL and sexual function of cervical cancer survivors were lower than the general population. Treatment-related complications and sexual dysfunction significantly affected patients' QOL. Having health insurance was associated with better QOL. Sexual function was adversely affected by radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy.

  17. Characterization of Angiotensin II Molecular Determinants Involved in AT1 Receptor Functional Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Ivana; Holleran, Brian J; Richard, Alexandra; Vandenberghe, Camille; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel; Leduc, Richard; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2015-06-01

    The octapeptide angiotensin II (AngII) exerts a variety of cardiovascular effects through the activation of the AngII type 1 receptor (AT1), a G protein-coupled receptor. The AT1 receptor engages and activates several signaling pathways, including heterotrimeric G proteins Gq and G12, as well as the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 pathway. Additionally, following stimulation, βarrestin is recruited to the AT1 receptor, leading to receptor desensitization. It is increasingly recognized that specific ligands selectively bind and favor the activation of some signaling pathways over others, a concept termed ligand bias or functional selectivity. A better understanding of the molecular basis of functional selectivity may lead to the development of better therapeutics with fewer adverse effects. In the present study, we developed assays allowing the measurement of six different signaling modalities of the AT1 receptor. Using a series of AngII peptide analogs that were modified in positions 1, 4, and 8, we sought to better characterize the molecular determinants of AngII that underlie functional selectivity of the AT1 receptor in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The results reveal that position 1 of AngII does not confer functional selectivity, whereas position 4 confers a bias toward ERK signaling over Gq signaling, and position 8 confers a bias toward βarrestin recruitment over ERK activation and Gq signaling. Interestingly, the analogs modified in position 8 were also partial agonists of the protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent ERK pathway via atypical PKC isoforms PKCζ and PKCι. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    This report presents a description of the status of photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the 20 participating countries of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. A survey of the status of PV power systems applications and markets in each country has been conducted every two years for the past six years and biennial reports published. The decision has now been taken to move to shorter annual reports and this is the first such report. This report presents an overview of PV power systems applications and markets at the end of 1998 and analyses the trends in PV power systems implemented between 1992 and 1998. (author)

  19. Keck DEIMOS Spectroscopy of a GALEX UV-Selected Sample from the Medium Imaging Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallery, Ryan P.; Rich, R. Michael; Salim, Samir; Small, Todd; Charlot, Stephane; Seibert, Mark; Wyder, Ted; Barlow, Tom A.; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Martin, D. Christopher; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, José; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F.; Milliard, Bruno; Szalay, Alex S.; Welsh, Barry Y.; Yi, Sukyoung

    2007-12-01

    We report results from a pilot program to obtain spectroscopy for objects detected in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Medium Imaging Survey (MIS). Our study examines the properties of galaxies detected by GALEX fainter than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic survey. This is the first study to extend the techniques of Salim and coworkers to estimate stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and the b (star formation history) parameter for star-forming galaxies out to z~0.7. We obtain redshifts for 50 GALEX MIS sources reaching NUV=23.9 (AB mag) having counterparts in the SDSS Data Release 4 (DR4). Of our sample, 43 are star-forming galaxies with z1 are QSOs, 3 of which are not previously cataloged. We compare our sample to a much larger sample of ~50,000 matched GALEX/SDSS galaxies with SDSS spectroscopy; while our survey is shallow, the optical counterparts to our sources reach ~3 mag fainter in SDSS r than the SDSS spectroscopic sample. We use emission-line diagnostics for the galaxies to determine that the sample contains mostly star-forming galaxies. The galaxies in the sample populate the blue sequence in the NUV-r versus Mr color-magnitude diagram. The derived stellar masses of the galaxies range from 108 to 1011 Msolar, and derived SFRs are between 10-1 and 102 Msolar yr-1. Our sample has SFRs, luminosities, and velocity dispersions that are similar to the samples of faint compact blue galaxies studied previously in the same redshift range by Koo and collaborators, Guzmán and collaborators, and Phillips and collaborators. However, our sample is ~2 mag fainter in surface brightness than the compact blue galaxies. We find that the star formation histories for a majority of the galaxies are consistent with a recent starburst within the last 100 Myr. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of

  20. Impact parameter and source selected correlation functions with a 4{pi} multidetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourio, D.; Reposeur, T.; Assenard, M.; Germain, M.; Ardouin, D.; Eudes, P.; Lautridou, P.; Laville, J.L.; Lebrun, C.; Metivier, V. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees] [and others

    1997-12-31

    For the first time in the domain of (light charged) particle interferometry in nuclear physics, a complete study of proton an deuteron correlation functions is presented with both impact parameter and emission source selections. The correlations were determined for the system {sup 129}Xe + {sup nat}Sn at 45 and 50 AMeV using the 4{pi} multidetector INDRA at GANIL as an event selector as well as a particle correlator. Very short emission times are found for all the selections indicating possible contributions from a fast and preequilibrium process. (author) 27 refs.

  1. Receptor, Ligand and Transducer Contributions to Dopamine D2 Receptor Functional Selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Peterson

    Full Text Available Functional selectivity (or biased agonism is a property exhibited by some G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR ligands, which results in the modulation of a subset of a receptor's signaling capabilities and more precise control over complex biological processes. The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R exhibits pleiotropic responses to the biogenic amine dopamine (DA to mediate complex central nervous system functions through activation of G proteins and β-arrestins. D2R is a prominent therapeutic target for psychological and neurological disorders in which DA biology is dysregulated and targeting D2R with functionally selective drugs could provide a means by which pharmacotherapies could be developed. However, factors that determine GPCR functional selectivity in vivo may be multiple with receptors, ligands and transducers contributing to the process. We have recently described a mutagenesis approach to engineer biased D2R mutants in which G protein-dependent ([Gprot]D2R and β-arrestin-dependent signaling ([βarr]D2R were successfully separated (Peterson, et al. PNAS, 2015. Here, permutations of these mutants were used to identify critical determinants of the D2R signaling complex that impart signaling bias in response to the natural or synthetic ligands. Critical residues identified in generating [Gprot]D2R and [βarr]D2R conferred control of partial agonism at G protein and/or β-arrestin activity. Another set of mutations that result in G protein bias was identified that demonstrated that full agonists can impart unique activation patterns, and provided further credence to the concept of ligand texture. Finally, the contributions and interplay between different transducers indicated that G proteins are not aberrantly activated, and that receptor kinase and β-arrestin activities are inextricably linked. These data provide a thorough elucidation of the feasibility and malleability of D2R functional selectivity and point to means by which novel in vivo

  2. PolyUbiquitin Chain Linkage Topology Selects the Functions from the Underlying Binding Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Tang, Chun; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) can generate versatile molecular signals and lead to different celluar fates. The functional poly-valence of Ub is believed to be resulted from its ability to form distinct polymerized chains with eight linkage types. To provide a full picture of ubiquitin code, we explore the binding landscape of two free Ub monomers and also the functional landscapes of of all eight linkage types by theoretical modeling. Remarkably, we found that most of the compact structures of covalently connected dimeric Ub chains (diUbs) pre-exist on the binding landscape. These compact functional states were subsequently validated by corresponding linkage models. This leads to the proposal that the folding architecture of Ub monomer has encoded all functional states into its binding landscape, which is further selected by different topologies of polymeric Ub chains. Moreover, our results revealed that covalent linkage leads to symmetry breaking of interfacial interactions. We further propose that topological constraint not only limits the conformational space for effective switching between functional states, but also selects the local interactions for realizing the corresponding biological function. Therefore, the topological constraint provides a way for breaking the binding symmetry and reaching the functional specificity. The simulation results also provide several predictions that qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with experiments. Importantly, the K48 linkage model successfully predicted intermediate states. The resulting multi-state energy landscape was further employed to reconcile the seemingly contradictory experimental data on the conformational equilibrium of K48-diUb. Our results further suggest that hydrophobic interactions are dominant in the functional landscapes of K6-, K11-, K33- and K48 diUbs, while electrostatic interactions play a more important role in the functional landscapes of K27, K29, K63 and linear linkages. PMID:24992446

  3. PolyUbiquitin chain linkage topology selects the functions from the underlying binding landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin (Ub can generate versatile molecular signals and lead to different celluar fates. The functional poly-valence of Ub is believed to be resulted from its ability to form distinct polymerized chains with eight linkage types. To provide a full picture of ubiquitin code, we explore the binding landscape of two free Ub monomers and also the functional landscapes of of all eight linkage types by theoretical modeling. Remarkably, we found that most of the compact structures of covalently connected dimeric Ub chains (diUbs pre-exist on the binding landscape. These compact functional states were subsequently validated by corresponding linkage models. This leads to the proposal that the folding architecture of Ub monomer has encoded all functional states into its binding landscape, which is further selected by different topologies of polymeric Ub chains. Moreover, our results revealed that covalent linkage leads to symmetry breaking of interfacial interactions. We further propose that topological constraint not only limits the conformational space for effective switching between functional states, but also selects the local interactions for realizing the corresponding biological function. Therefore, the topological constraint provides a way for breaking the binding symmetry and reaching the functional specificity. The simulation results also provide several predictions that qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with experiments. Importantly, the K48 linkage model successfully predicted intermediate states. The resulting multi-state energy landscape was further employed to reconcile the seemingly contradictory experimental data on the conformational equilibrium of K48-diUb. Our results further suggest that hydrophobic interactions are dominant in the functional landscapes of K6-, K11-, K33- and K48 diUbs, while electrostatic interactions play a more important role in the functional landscapes of K27, K29, K63 and linear linkages.

  4. PolyUbiquitin chain linkage topology selects the functions from the underlying binding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Tang, Chun; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2014-07-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) can generate versatile molecular signals and lead to different celluar fates. The functional poly-valence of Ub is believed to be resulted from its ability to form distinct polymerized chains with eight linkage types. To provide a full picture of ubiquitin code, we explore the binding landscape of two free Ub monomers and also the functional landscapes of of all eight linkage types by theoretical modeling. Remarkably, we found that most of the compact structures of covalently connected dimeric Ub chains (diUbs) pre-exist on the binding landscape. These compact functional states were subsequently validated by corresponding linkage models. This leads to the proposal that the folding architecture of Ub monomer has encoded all functional states into its binding landscape, which is further selected by different topologies of polymeric Ub chains. Moreover, our results revealed that covalent linkage leads to symmetry breaking of interfacial interactions. We further propose that topological constraint not only limits the conformational space for effective switching between functional states, but also selects the local interactions for realizing the corresponding biological function. Therefore, the topological constraint provides a way for breaking the binding symmetry and reaching the functional specificity. The simulation results also provide several predictions that qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with experiments. Importantly, the K48 linkage model successfully predicted intermediate states. The resulting multi-state energy landscape was further employed to reconcile the seemingly contradictory experimental data on the conformational equilibrium of K48-diUb. Our results further suggest that hydrophobic interactions are dominant in the functional landscapes of K6-, K11-, K33- and K48 diUbs, while electrostatic interactions play a more important role in the functional landscapes of K27, K29, K63 and linear linkages.

  5. Drug and Therapeutics (D & T) committees in Dutch hospitals : a nation-wide survey of structure, activities, and drug selection procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijn, R; Brouwers, JRBJ; Knaap, RJ; De Jong-Van den Berg, LTW

    Aims To determine structure, activities and drug selection processes used by Dutch hospital drug and therapeutics (D & T) committees. Methods A pretested structured survey questionnaire based on the Australian process and impact indicators, previous research, and consultation of professionals was

  6. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Bryant, Richard A; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.

  7. Ticks Collected from Selected Mammalian Hosts Surveyed in the Republic of Korea During 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    selected acaricides of ticks collected from domestic livestock ( cows ) from 35 cities and counties and 6 provinces from 1982 to 1984. Species col- lected...medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In the Republic of Korea (ROK), mammals and their associ- ated ticks are hosts to a number of... tick - borne encephalitis virus [6-8]. Humans are incidental hosts as a result of outdoor activities, i.e., agriculture, construction, main- tenance

  8. Variations in the Slope of the Psychometric Functions for Speech Intelligibility: A Systematic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MacPherson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have looked at the effects of different listening conditions on the intelligibility of speech, their analyses have often concentrated on changes to a single value on the psychometric function, namely, the threshold. Far less commonly has the slope of the psychometric function, that is, the rate at which intelligibility changes with level, been considered. The slope of the function is crucial because it is the slope, rather than the threshold, that determines the improvement in intelligibility caused by any given improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by, for instance, a hearing aid. The aim of the current study was to systematically survey and reanalyze the psychometric function data available in the literature in an attempt to quantify the range of slope changes across studies and to identify listening conditions that affect the slope of the psychometric function. The data for 885 individual psychometric functions, taken from 139 different studies, were fitted with a common logistic equation from which the slope was calculated. Large variations in slope across studies were found, with slope values ranging from as shallow as 1% per dB to as steep as 44% per dB (median = 6.6% per dB, suggesting that the perceptual benefit offered by an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio depends greatly on listening environment. The type and number of maskers used were found to be major factors on the value of the slope of the psychometric function while other minor effects of target predictability, target corpus, and target/masker similarity were also found.

  9. Variations in the slope of the psychometric functions for speech intelligibility: a systematic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Alexandra; Akeroyd, Michael A

    2014-06-06

    Although many studies have looked at the effects of different listening conditions on the intelligibility of speech, their analyses have often concentrated on changes to a single value on the psychometric function, namely, the threshold. Far less commonly has the slope of the psychometric function, that is, the rate at which intelligibility changes with level, been considered. The slope of the function is crucial because it is the slope, rather than the threshold, that determines the improvement in intelligibility caused by any given improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by, for instance, a hearing aid. The aim of the current study was to systematically survey and reanalyze the psychometric function data available in the literature in an attempt to quantify the range of slope changes across studies and to identify listening conditions that affect the slope of the psychometric function. The data for 885 individual psychometric functions, taken from 139 different studies, were fitted with a common logistic equation from which the slope was calculated. Large variations in slope across studies were found, with slope values ranging from as shallow as 1% per dB to as steep as 44% per dB (median = 6.6% per dB), suggesting that the perceptual benefit offered by an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio depends greatly on listening environment. The type and number of maskers used were found to be major factors on the value of the slope of the psychometric function while other minor effects of target predictability, target corpus, and target/masker similarity were also found. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Healthy Eating Index 2005 and selected macronutrients are correlated with improved lung function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Martin M; Houser, Shannon M; Anderson, John J B; Dawson, Hannah R

    2014-04-01

    A number of dietary components have been associated with lung function. However, a comprehensive measure of a healthy diet has not been compared with lung function. Herein, we test the hypothesis that a healthy overall diet, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005), will be associated with increased lung function. This is an investigation using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Research Materials obtained from the National Heart Lung Blood Institute. The study surveyed dietary habits of 15 567 American subjects from 4 communities in 1987 to 1990. Spirometric measures of lung function were also taken at entry to the study and a second time 3 years later. Based on food and nutritional data collected by food frequency questionnaire, an HEI-2005 score was calculated for each subject. This total score, together with its 12 components scores and associated macronutrient, was compared with lung function results by linear regression. Models were controlled for smoking behavior, demographics, and other important covariates. The HEI-2005 total scores were positively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second per forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) at visit 1 (β = .101 per increase in 1 quintile of HEI-2005) and visit 2 (β = .140), and FEV(1) as percentage of the predicted FEV(1) at visit 2 (β = .215) (P animal protein (β = .132 and .093), and dietary fiber (β = .129) were positively associated with lung health. An overall healthy diet is associated with higher lung function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of an Automated System to Test and Select CCDs for the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Donna; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a next generation sky survey aimed directly at understanding why the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. The survey will use the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 500 Megapixel mosaic camera mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, to observe 5000 square-degrees of sky through 5 filters (g, r, i, z, Y). DECam will be comprised of 74 CCDs: 62 2k x 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k x 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The goal of the DES is to provide a factor of 3-5 improvement in the Dark Energy Task Force Figure of Merit using four complementary methods: weak gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster counts, baryon acoustic oscillations, and Type IA supernovae. This goal sets stringent technical requirements for the CCDs. Testing a large number of CCDs to determine which best meet the DES requirements would be a very time-consuming manual task. We have developed a system to automatically collect and analyze CCD test data. The test results are entered into an online SQL database which facilitates selection of those CCDs that best meet the technical specifications for charge transfer efficiency, linearity, full well, quantum efficiency, noise, dark current, cross talk, diffusion, and cosmetics.

  12. The Einstein@Home Gamma-ray Pulsar Survey. II. Source Selection, Spectral Analysis, and Multiwavelength Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Clark, C. J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Johnson, T. J.; Torne, P.; Champion, D. J.; Deneva, J.; Ray, P. S.; Salvetti, D.; Kramer, M.; Aulbert, C.; Beer, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bock, O.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Cuéllar, A.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Ferrara, E. C.; Kerr, M.; Machenschalk, B.; Ransom, S. M.; Sanpa-Arsa, S.; Wood, K.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the analysis of 13 gamma-ray pulsars discovered in the Einstein@Home blind search survey using Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 data. The 13 new gamma-ray pulsars were discovered by searching 118 unassociated LAT sources from the third LAT source catalog (3FGL), selected using the Gaussian Mixture Model machine-learning algorithm on the basis of their gamma-ray emission properties being suggestive of pulsar magnetospheric emission. The new gamma-ray pulsars have pulse profiles and spectral properties similar to those of previously detected young gamma-ray pulsars. Follow-up radio observations have revealed faint radio pulsations from two of the newly discovered pulsars and enabled us to derive upper limits on the radio emission from the others, demonstrating that they are likely radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars. We also present results from modeling the gamma-ray pulse profiles and radio profiles, if available, using different geometric emission models of pulsars. The high discovery rate of this survey, despite the increasing difficulty of blind pulsar searches in gamma rays, suggests that new systematic surveys such as presented in this article should be continued when new LAT source catalogs become available.

  13. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: disc-halo interactions in radio-selected star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, S. K.; Bryant, J. J.; Ho, I.-T.; Sadler, E. M.; Medling, A. M.; Groves, B.; Kewley, L. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Croom, S. M.; Wong, O. I.; Brough, S.; Tescari, E.; Sweet, S. M.; Sharp, R.; Green, A. W.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Allen, J. T.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, M.; Lawrence, J. S.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we compare the radio emission at 1.4 GHz with optical outflow signatures of edge-on galaxies. We report observations of six edge-on star-forming galaxies in the Sydney-AAO Multiobject Integral-field spectrograph Galaxy Survey with 1.4 GHz luminosities >1 × 1021 W Hz-1. Extended minor axis optical emission is detected with enhanced [N II]/H α line ratios and velocity dispersions consistent with galactic winds in three of six galaxies. These galaxies may host outflows driven by a combination of thermal and cosmic ray processes. We find that galaxies with the strongest wind signatures have extended radio morphologies. Our results form a baseline for understanding the driving mechanisms of galactic winds.

  14. Knowledge based systems: A preliminary survey of selected issues and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    It is only recently that research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) is accomplishing practical results. Most of these results can be attributed to the design and use of expert systems (or Knowledge-Based Systems, KBS) - problem-solving computer programs that can reach a level of performance comparable to that of a human expert in some specialized problem domain. But many computer systems designed to see images, hear sounds, and recognize speech are still in a fairly early stage of development. In this report, a preliminary survey of recent work in the KBS is reported, explaining KBS concepts and issues and techniques used to construct them. Application considerations to construct the KBS and potential KBS research areas are identified. A case study (MYCIN) of a KBS is also provided.

  15. Selection, periodicity and potential function for Highly Iterative Palindrome-1 (HIP1) in cyanobacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minli; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Durand, Dannie

    2018-02-08

    Highly Iterated Palindrome 1 (HIP1, GCGATCGC) is hyper-abundant in most cyanobacterial genomes. In some cyanobacteria, average HIP1 abundance exceeds one motif per gene. Such high abundance suggests a significant role in cyanobacterial biology. However, 20 years of study have not revealed whether HIP1 has a function, much less what that function might be. We show that HIP1 is 15- to 300-fold over-represented in genomes analyzed. More importantly, HIP1 sites are conserved both within and between open reading frames, suggesting that their overabundance is maintained by selection rather than by continual replenishment by neutral processes, such as biased DNA repair. This evidence for selection suggests a functional role for HIP1. No evidence was found to support a functional role as a peptide or RNA motif or a role in the regulation of gene expression. Rather, we demonstrate that the distribution of HIP1 along cyanobacterial chromosomes is significantly periodic, with periods ranging from 10 to 90 kb, consistent in scale with periodicities reported for co-regulated, co-expressed and evolutionarily correlated genes. The periodicity we observe is also comparable in scale to chromosomal interaction domains previously described in other bacteria. In this context, our findings imply HIP1 functions associated with chromosome and nucleoid structure. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Glycan-functionalized graphene-FETs toward selective detection of human-infectious avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takao; Oe, Takeshi; Kanai, Yasushi; Ikuta, Takashi; Ohno, Yasuhide; Maehashi, Kenzo; Inoue, Koichi; Watanabe, Yohei; Nakakita, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Yasuo; Kawahara, Toshio; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    There are global concerns about threat of pandemic caused by the human-infectious avian influenza virus. To prevent the oncoming pandemic, it is crucial to analyze the viral affinity to human-type or avian-type sialoglycans with high sensitivity at high speed. Graphene-FET (G-FET) realizes such high-sensitive electrical detection of the targets, owing to graphene’s high carrier mobility. In the present study, G-FET was functionalized using sialoglycans and employed for the selective detection of lectins from Sambucus sieboldiana and Maackia amurensis as alternatives of the human and avian influenza viruses. Glycan-functionalized G-FET selectively monitored the sialoglycan-specific binding reactions at subnanomolar sensitivity.

  17. E Actitrode: The new selective stimulation interface for functional movements in hemiplegics patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelić Goran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the new multi-contact electrode-array for surface electrical stimulation, and the corresponding interface device that allows on-line selection of the conductive fields during the application of the system. This new device has a specific value for therapeutic applications of electrical stimulation since it allows effective generation of desired functional movements. The user-friendly interface also allows patients at home to select the optimal electrode array; thereby, to receive therapies out of the clinical environment. The electrode was tested in three post-stroke hemiplegics patients. The pilot experiments showed that system works sufficiently good for control of fingers during grasp and release functions without the interference of the wrist movement. The use of electrode is also envisioned for many other applications (foot-drop fitness, shoulder subluxation, etc.

  18. Accessory nerve function after level 2b-preserving selective neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Bilge; Coskun, Hakan; Kumas, Ferda F; Irdesel, Jale; Zarifoglu, Mehmet; Erisen, Levent; Onart, Selcuk

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between accessory nerve functions and level 2b-preserving selective neck dissection. Forty-one necks of 30 patients with laryngeal cancer who underwent unilateral or bilateral level 2b-preserving neck dissections, between February 2003 and July 2005, were evaluated. Neck and shoulder movements and muscle strengths were examined and electroneuromyography (ENMG) was performed preoperatively at the postoperative 21st day and 6th month. Pathological anatomical findings at the postoperative 6th month were also evaluated. All shoulder movements and muscle strengths were preserved. Neck extension, rotation movements, and flexion strengths were restricted. ENMG values were affected moderately in the early postoperative period and improved slightly in the late postoperative period. None of the patients developed shoulder syndrome or adhesive capsulitis. Preserving level 2b during selective neck dissection decreases trauma to the accessory nerve and improves functional results. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009.

  19. Transfer function design based on user selected samples for intuitive multivariate volume exploration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2013-02-01

    Multivariate volumetric datasets are important to both science and medicine. We propose a transfer function (TF) design approach based on user selected samples in the spatial domain to make multivariate volumetric data visualization more accessible for domain users. Specifically, the user starts the visualization by probing features of interest on slices and the data values are instantly queried by user selection. The queried sample values are then used to automatically and robustly generate high dimensional transfer functions (HDTFs) via kernel density estimation (KDE). Alternatively, 2D Gaussian TFs can be automatically generated in the dimensionality reduced space using these samples. With the extracted features rendered in the volume rendering view, the user can further refine these features using segmentation brushes. Interactivity is achieved in our system and different views are tightly linked. Use cases show that our system has been successfully applied for simulation and complicated seismic data sets. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Supplier Selection for Food Industry: A Combination of Taguchi Loss Function and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renna Magdalena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is an important part of supply chain management process by which firms identify, evaluate, and establish contracts with suppliers. Deciding the right supplier can be a complex task. As such, various criteria must be taken into account to choose the best supplier. This study focused on the supply in the packaging division of a food industry in Denpasar-Bali. A combination of Taguchi Loss Function and fuzzy-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Linear Programming was used to determine the best supplier. In this analysis, several suppliers’ criteria were considered, namely quality, delivery, completeness, quality loss and environmental management. By maximizing the suppliers’ performances based on each criterion and aggregating the suppliers’ performances based on the overall criteria, the best supplier was determined. Keywords: supplier selection, taguchi loss function, AHP, fuzzy linear programming,environment

  1. Content and functionality of alcohol and other drug websites: results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Britt; White, Angela; Kavanagh, David; Shandley, Kerrie; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Proudfoot, Judith; Drennan, Judy; Connor, Jason; Baker, Amanda; Young, Ross

    2010-12-19

    There is a growing trend for individuals to seek health information from online sources. Alcohol and other drug (AOD) use is a significant health problem worldwide, but access and use of AOD websites is poorly understood. To investigate content and functionality preferences for AOD and other health websites. An anonymous online survey examined general Internet and AOD-specific usage and search behaviors, valued features of AOD and health-related websites (general and interactive website features), indicators of website trustworthiness, valued AOD website tools or functions, and treatment modality preferences. Surveys were obtained from 1214 drug (n = 766) and alcohol website users (n = 448) (mean age 26.2 years, range 16-70). There were no significant differences between alcohol and drug groups on demographic variables, Internet usage, indicators of website trustworthiness, or on preferences for AOD website functionality. A robust website design/navigation, open access, and validated content provision were highly valued by both groups. While attractiveness and pictures or graphics were also valued, high-cost features (videos, animations, games) were minority preferences. Almost half of respondents in both groups were unable to readily access the information they sought. Alcohol website users placed greater importance on several AOD website tools and functions than did those accessing other drug websites: online screening tools (χ²(2) = 15.8, P online treatment option for both the user groups was an Internet site with email therapist support. Explorations of demographic differences were also performed. While gender did not affect survey responses, younger respondents were more likely to value interactive and social networking features, whereas downloading of credible information was most highly valued by older respondents. Significant deficiencies in the provision of accessible information on AOD websites were identified, an important problem since information

  2. Sexual selection by female immunity against paternal antigens can fix loss of function alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Darius; Springer, Stevan A; Ma, Fang; Cohen, Miriam; Secrest, Patrick; Taylor, Rachel E; Varki, Ajit; Gagneux, Pascal

    2011-10-25

    Humans lack the common mammalian cell surface molecule N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) due to a CMAH gene inactivation, which occurred approximately three million years ago. Modern humans produce antibodies specific for Neu5Gc. We hypothesized that anti-Neu5Gc antibodies could enter the female reproductive tract and target Neu5Gc-positive sperm or fetal tissues, reducing reproductive compatibility. Indeed, female mice with a human-like Cmah(-/-) mutation and immunized to express anti-Neu5Gc antibodies show lower fertility with Neu5Gc-positive males, due to prezygotic incompatibilities. Human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies are also capable of targeting paternally derived antigens and mediate cytotoxicity against Neu5Gc-bearing chimpanzee sperm in vitro. Models of populations polymorphic for such antigens show that reproductive incompatibility by female immunity can drive loss-of-function alleles to fixation from moderate initial frequencies. Initially, the loss of a cell-surface antigen can occur due to drift in isolated populations or when natural selection favors the loss of a receptor exploited by pathogens, subsequently the same loss-of-function allele can come under sexual selection because it avoids being targeted by the female immune system. Thus, we provide evidence of a link between sexual selection and immune function: Antigenicity in females can select against foreign paternal antigens on sperm and rapidly fix loss-of-function alleles. Similar circumstances existed when the CMAH null allele was polymorphic in ancestral hominins, just before the divergence of Homo from australopithecines.

  3. Deep Mutational Scanning: Library Construction, Functional Selection, and High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Lea M; Fields, Stanley

    2015-08-03

    Deep mutational scanning is a highly parallel method that uses high-throughput sequencing to track changes in >10(5) protein variants before and after selection to measure the effects of mutations on protein function. Here we outline the stages of a deep mutational scanning experiment, focusing on the construction of libraries of protein sequence variants and the preparation of Illumina sequencing libraries. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Functional polythiophene nanoparticles: Size-controlled electropolymerization and ion selective response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, P.C.; Chi, Qijin; Li, Z.S.

    2007-01-01

    We have synthesized a thiophene derivative, (4-benzeno-15-crown-5 ether)-thiophene-3-methylene-amine (BTA), which was used as a monomer for electrochemical polymerization on metallic surfaces to prepare functional polymer films. Self-assembly of BTA monomers on Au(111) surfaces promotes ordered...... solution and organic phase on gold electrodes, displayed selective sensitivity to potassium ions with a linear dependence of ion concentration over 4 orders of magnitude....

  5. Supplier Selection for Food Industry: a Combination of Taguchi Loss Function and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena, Renna

    2012-01-01

    Supplier selection is an important part of supply chain management process by which firms identify, evaluate, and establish contracts with suppliers. Deciding the right supplier can be a complex task. As such, various criteria must be taken into account to choose the best supplier. This study focused on the supply in the packaging division of a food industry in Denpasar-Bali. A combination of Taguchi Loss Function and fuzzy-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Linear Programming) was used ...

  6. Supplier Selection for Food Industry: A Combination of Taguchi Loss Function and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Renna Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Supplier selection is an important part of supply chain management process by which firms identify, evaluate, and establish contracts with suppliers. Deciding the right supplier can be a complex task. As such, various criteria must be taken into account to choose the best supplier. This study focused on the supply in the packaging division of a food industry in Denpasar-Bali. A combination of Taguchi Loss Function and fuzzy-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Linear Programming) was used ...

  7. Fuzzy bi-objective linear programming for portfolio selection problem with magnitude ranking function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawati, Rosita; Subekti, Retno

    2017-04-01

    Fuzzy bi-objective linear programming (FBOLP) model is bi-objective linear programming model in fuzzy number set where the coefficients of the equations are fuzzy number. This model is proposed to solve portfolio selection problem which generate an asset portfolio with the lowest risk and the highest expected return. FBOLP model with normal fuzzy numbers for risk and expected return of stocks is transformed into linear programming (LP) model using magnitude ranking function.

  8. A surface acoustic wave sensor functionalized with a polypyrrole molecularly imprinted polymer for selective dopamine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maouche, Naima; Ktari, Nadia; Bakas, Idriss; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Seydou, Mahamadou; Maurel, François; Chehimi, Mohammed Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    A surface acoustic wave sensor operating at 104 MHz and functionalized with a polypyrrole molecularly imprinted polymer has been designed for selective detection of dopamine (DA). Optimization of pyrrole/DA ratio, polymerization and immersion times permitted to obtain a highly selective sensor, which has a sensitivity of 0.55°/mM (≈ 550 Hz/mM) and a detection limit of ≈ 10 nM. Morphology and related roughness parameters of molecularly imprinted polymer surfaces, before and after extraction of DA, as well as that of the non imprinted polymer were characterized by atomic force microscopy. The developed chemosensor selectively recognized dopamine over the structurally similar compound 4-hydroxyphenethylamine (referred as tyramine), or ascorbic acid,which co-exists with DA in body fluids at a much higher concentration. Selectivity tests were also carried out with dihydroxybenzene, for which an unexpected phase variation of order of 75% of the DA one was observed. Quantum chemical calculations, based on the density functional theory, were carried out to determine the nature of interactions between each analyte and the PPy matrix and the DA imprinted PPy polypyrrole sensing layer in order to account for the important phase variation observed during dihydroxybenzene injection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Membrane proteins bind lipids selectively to modulate their structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Reading, Eamonn; Allison, Timothy M; Ulmschneider, Martin B; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Baldwin, Andrew J; Robinson, Carol V

    2014-06-05

    Previous studies have established that the folding, structure and function of membrane proteins are influenced by their lipid environments and that lipids can bind to specific sites, for example, in potassium channels. Fundamental questions remain however regarding the extent of membrane protein selectivity towards lipids. Here we report a mass spectrometry approach designed to determine the selectivity of lipid binding to membrane protein complexes. We investigate the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and aquaporin Z (AqpZ) and the ammonia channel (AmtB) from Escherichia coli, using ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), which reports gas-phase collision cross-sections. We demonstrate that folded conformations of membrane protein complexes can exist in the gas phase. By resolving lipid-bound states, we then rank bound lipids on the basis of their ability to resist gas phase unfolding and thereby stabilize membrane protein structure. Lipids bind non-selectively and with high avidity to MscL, all imparting comparable stability; however, the highest-ranking lipid is phosphatidylinositol phosphate, in line with its proposed functional role in mechanosensation. AqpZ is also stabilized by many lipids, with cardiolipin imparting the most significant resistance to unfolding. Subsequently, through functional assays we show that cardiolipin modulates AqpZ function. Similar experiments identify AmtB as being highly selective for phosphatidylglycerol, prompting us to obtain an X-ray structure in this lipid membrane-like environment. The 2.3 Å resolution structure, when compared with others obtained without lipid bound, reveals distinct conformational changes that re-position AmtB residues to interact with the lipid bilayer. Our results demonstrate that resistance to unfolding correlates with specific lipid-binding events, enabling a distinction to be made between lipids that merely bind from those that modulate membrane

  10. The Gaia Survey Contribution to EChO Target Selection and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Sozzetti, A.; Damasso, M.

    2014-01-01

    The scientific output of the proposed EChO mission (in terms of spectroscopic characterization of the atmospheres of transiting extrasolar planets) will be maximized by a careful selection of targets and by a detailed characterization of the main physical parameters (such as masses and radii) of both the planets and their stellar hosts. To achieve this aim, the availability of high-quality data from other space-borne and ground-based programs will play a crucial role. Here we identify and dis...

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Taimur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000 and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038. 70/198 (35.3% people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.

  12. The Oslo Health Study: The impact of self-selection in a large, population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjertness Espen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on health equity which mainly utilises population-based surveys, may be hampered by serious selection bias due to a considerable number of invitees declining to participate. Sufficient information from all the non-responders is rarely available to quantify this bias. Predictors of attendance, magnitude and direction of non-response bias in prevalence estimates and association measures, are investigated based on information from all 40 888 invitees to the Oslo Health Study. Methods The analyses were based on linkage between public registers in Statistics Norway and the Oslo Health Study, a population-based survey conducted in 2000/2001 inviting all citizens aged 30, 40, 45, 59–60 and 75–76 years. Attendance was 46%. Weighted analyses, logistic regression and sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate possible selection bias. Results The response rate was positively associated with age, educational attendance, total income, female gender, married, born in a Western county, living in the outer city residential regions and not receiving disability benefit. However, self-rated health, smoking, BMI and mental health (HCSL in the attendees differed only slightly from estimated prevalence values in the target population when weighted by the inverse of the probability of attendance. Observed values differed only moderately provided that the non-attending individuals differed from those attending by no more than 50%. Even though persons receiving disability benefit had lower attendance, the associations between disability and education, residential region and marital status were found to be unbiased. The association between country of birth and disability benefit was somewhat more evident among attendees. Conclusions Self-selection according to sociodemographic variables had little impact on prevalence estimates. As indicated by disability benefit, unhealthy persons attended to a lesser degree than healthy individuals

  13. A Quality Function Deployment-Based Expert System for Cotton Fibre Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Prasad, Kanika

    2018-01-01

    The textile industries have seen resurgence in customers' demand for quality products during the preceding few years. This product range is extremely varied, with hand-spun and hand-woven products at one end of the spectrum, while products manufactured from the capital intensive sophisticated machineries at the other end. Since, cotton fibres are predominantly employed as the raw material for manufacturing these products, their proper selection is crucial for sustainable development of the textile/spinning industries. However, availability of numerous cotton fibre alternatives with various physical properties makes this selection process unwieldy and time consuming. Thus, there is need for a structured approach that can incorporate customers' demand into the selection process. This paper demonstrates the application of a structured and logical procedure of selecting the best cotton fibre type to fulfill a set of specified end product requirements through design and development of a quality function deployment (QFD)-based expert system. The QFD technique is employed here to provide due importance to the customers' spoken and unspoken needs, and subsequently calculate the priority weights of the considered cotton fibre properties. Two real time illustrative examples are presented to explicate the applicability and potentiality of the developed expert system to resolve cotton fibre selection problems.

  14. Functional MRI mapping of visual function and selective attention for performance assessment and presurgical planning using conjunctive visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jason G; Zalusky, Eric J; Kirbas, Cemil

    2014-03-01

    Accurate mapping of visual function and selective attention using fMRI is important in the study of human performance as well as in presurgical treatment planning of lesions in or near visual centers of the brain. Conjunctive visual search (CVS) is a useful tool for mapping visual function during fMRI because of its greater activation extent compared with high-capacity parallel search processes. The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a CVS that was capable of generating consistent activation in the basic and higher level visual areas of the brain by using a high number of distractors as well as an optimized contrast condition. Images from 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed and brain regions of greatest activation and deactivation were determined using a nonbiased decomposition of the results at the hemisphere, lobe, and gyrus levels. The results were quantified in terms of activation and deactivation extent and mean z-statistic. The proposed CVS was found to generate robust activation of the occipital lobe, as well as regions in the middle frontal gyrus associated with coordinating eye movements and in regions of the insula associated with task-level control and focal attention. As expected, the task demonstrated deactivation patterns commonly implicated in the default-mode network. Further deactivation was noted in the posterior region of the cerebellum, most likely associated with the formation of optimal search strategy. We believe the task will be useful in studies of visual and selective attention in the neuroscience community as well as in mapping visual function in clinical fMRI.

  15. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors, a Survey of Selectivity Issues Addressed at the SENSOR Lab, Brescia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Andrea; Baratto, Camilla; Cattabiani, Nicola; Falasconi, Matteo; Galstyan, Vardan; Nunez-Carmona, Estefania; Rigoni, Federica; Sberveglieri, Veronica; Zambotti, Giulia; Zappa, Dario

    2017-03-29

    This work reports the recent results achieved at the SENSOR Lab, Brescia (Italy) to address the selectivity of metal oxide based gas sensors. In particular, two main strategies are being developed for this purpose: (i) investigating different sensing mechanisms featuring different response spectra that may be potentially integrated in a single device; (ii) exploiting the electronic nose (EN) approach. The former has been addressed only recently and activities are mainly focused on determining the most suitable configuration and measurements to exploit the novel mechanism. Devices suitable to exploit optical (photoluminescence), magnetic (magneto-optical Kerr effect) and surface ionization in addition to the traditional chemiresistor device are here discussed together with the sensing performance measured so far. The electronic nose is a much more consolidated technology, and results are shown concerning its suitability to respond to industrial and societal needs in the fields of food quality control and detection of microbial activity in human sweat.

  16. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors, a Survey of Selectivity Issues Addressed at the SENSOR Lab, Brescia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ponzoni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the recent results achieved at the SENSOR Lab, Brescia (Italy to address the selectivity of metal oxide based gas sensors. In particular, two main strategies are being developed for this purpose: (i investigating different sensing mechanisms featuring different response spectra that may be potentially integrated in a single device; (ii exploiting the electronic nose (EN approach. The former has been addressed only recently and activities are mainly focused on determining the most suitable configuration and measurements to exploit the novel mechanism. Devices suitable to exploit optical (photoluminescence, magnetic (magneto-optical Kerr effect and surface ionization in addition to the traditional chemiresistor device are here discussed together with the sensing performance measured so far. The electronic nose is a much more consolidated technology, and results are shown concerning its suitability to respond to industrial and societal needs in the fields of food quality control and detection of microbial activity in human sweat.

  17. Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe Chinyoka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5–21.7 were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% – 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0–26.4 compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9–18.5 but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07. Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05. Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis other than B. canis is also recommended.

  18. Selective histamine uptake rescues photo- and mechanoreceptor function of histidine decarboxylase-deficient Drosophila mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzig, J; Burg, M; Gruhn, M; Pak, W L; Buchner, E

    1998-09-15

    In insects, histamine is found both in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and in the CNS and is known to function as a fast neurotransmitter in photoreceptors that have been shown to express selectively the hdc gene. This gene codes for histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the enzyme for histamine synthesis. Fast neurotransmission requires the efficient removal of the transmitter from the synaptic cleft. Here we identify in Drosophila photo- and mechanoreceptors a histamine uptake mechanism that can restore the function of these receptors in mutants unable to synthesize histamine. When apparent null mutants for the hdc gene imbibe aqueous histamine solution or are genetically "rescued" by a transgene ubiquitously expressing histidine decarboxylase under heat-shock control, sufficient amounts of histamine selectively accumulate in photo- and mechanoreceptors to generate near-normal electrical responses in second-order visual interneurons and qualitatively to restore wild-type visual and mechanosensory behavior. This strongly supports the proposal that histamine functions as a fast neurotransmitter also in a certain class of mechanoreceptors. A set of CNS-intrinsic neurons that in the wild type contain high concentrations of histamine apparently lacks this uptake mechanism. We therefore speculate that histamine of intrinsic neurons may function as a neuromodulator rather than as a fast transmitter.

  19. Effects of selective REM sleep deprivation on prefrontal gamma activity and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Rosales-Lagarde, A; del Río-Portilla, Y; Sifuentes-Ortega, R; Alcántara-Quintero, B

    2015-05-01

    Given that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in executive functions and is deactivated and decoupled from posterior associative regions during REM sleep, that Gamma temporal coupling involved in information processing is enhanced during REM sleep, and that adult humans spend about 90 min of every 24h in REM sleep, it might be expected that REM sleep deprivation would modify Gamma temporal coupling and have a deteriorating effect on executive functions. We analyzed EEG Gamma activity and temporal coupling during implementation of a rule-guided task before and after REM sleep deprivation and its effect on verbal fluency, flexible thinking and selective attention. After two nights in the laboratory for adaptation, on the third night subjects (n=18) were randomly assigned to either selective REM sleep deprivation effectuated by awakening them at each REM sleep onset or, the same number of NREM sleep awakenings as a control for unspecific effects of sleep interruptions. Implementation of abstract rules to guide behavior required greater activation and synchronization of Gamma activity in the frontopolar regions after REM sleep reduction from 20.6% at baseline to just 3.93% of total sleep time. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups showed an overall improvement in executive task performance and no effect on their capacity to sustain selective attention. These results suggest that after one night of selective REM sleep deprivation executive functions can be compensated by increasing frontal activation and they still require the participation of supervisory control by frontopolar regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between physical activity and kidney function: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis S; Sevick, Mary Ann; Richardson, Caroline R; Fried, Linda F; Arena, Vincent C; Kriska, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a condition characterized by the deterioration of the kidney's ability to remove waste products from the body. Although treatments to slow the progression of the disease are available, chronic kidney disease may eventually lead to a complete loss of kidney function. Previous studies have shown that physical activities of moderate intensity may have renal benefits. Few studies have examined the effects of total movement on kidney function. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between time spent at all levels of physical activity intensity and sedentary behavior and kidney function. Data were obtained from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the US population. Physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer and questionnaire. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study formula. To assess linear associations between levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior with log-transformed estimated GFR (eGFR), linear regression was used. In general, physical activity (light and total) was related to log eGFR in females and males. For females, the association between light and total physical activity with log eGFR was consistent regardless of diabetes status. For males, the association between light and total physical activity and log eGFR was only significant in males without diabetes. When examining the association between physical activity, measured objectively with an accelerometer, and kidney function, total and light physical activities were found to be positively associated with kidney function.

  1. Role of Database Management Systems in Selected Engineering Institutions of Andhra Pradesh: An Analytical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutty Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the function of database management systems from the perspective of librarians working in engineering institutions in Andhra Pradesh. Ninety-eight librarians from one hundred thirty engineering institutions participated in the study. The paper reveals that training by computer suppliers and software packages are the significant mode of acquiring DBMS skills by librarians; three-fourths of the librarians are postgraduate degree holders. Most colleges use database applications for automation purposes and content value. Electrical problems and untrained staff seem to be major constraints faced by respondents for managing library databases.

  2. A measurement of the faint source correlation function in the GOODS and UDF surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganson, Eric; Blandford, Roger

    2009-09-01

    We present a stable procedure for defining and measuring the two point angular autocorrelation function, w(θ) = [θ/θ0(V)]-Γ, of faint (25 < V < 29), barely resolved and unresolved sources in the Hubble Space Telescope Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and Ultra Deep Field data sets. We construct catalogues that include close pairs and faint detections. We show, for the first time, that, on subarcsec scales, the correlation function exceeds unity. This correlation function is well fit by a power law with index Γ ~ 2.5 and a θ0 = 10-0.1(V-25.8) arcsec. This is very different from the values of Γ ~ 0.7 and θ0(r) = 10-0.4(r-21.5) arcsec associated with the gravitational clustering of brighter galaxies. This observed clustering probably reflects the presence of giant star-forming regions within galactic-scale potential wells. Its measurement enables a new approach to measuring the redshift distribution of the faintest sources in the sky.

  3. Loneliness and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Findings From the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bao-Liang; Chen, Shu-Lin; Tu, Xin; Conwell, Yeates

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between loneliness and cognitive function and to explore the mediating role of physical health on the loneliness-cognition relationship in Chinese older adults (OAs). Data came from a nationally representative sample of 14,199 Chinese OAs (aged 65+) from 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. A latent variable cross-lagged panel model combined with mediation analysis was used to determine the relationship between loneliness and cognitive function and the mediating effect of increase in the number of chronic conditions (ΔNCCs) on the ascertained loneliness-cognition relationship. Severe loneliness at prior assessment points was significantly associated with poorer cognitive function at subsequent assessments, and vice versa. The ΔNCCs partially mediated this prospective reciprocal relationships, accounting for 2.58% of the total effect of loneliness on cognition and 4.44% of the total effect of cognition on loneliness, respectively. Loneliness may predict subsequent cognitive decline, and vice versa. This loneliness-cognition relationship is partially explained by their impact on physical health. Multidisciplinary interventions aimed at reducing loneliness and cognitive decline per se and their associated risk factors as well as improving chronic illness management would be beneficial for emotional well-being and cognitive health in OAs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Sexual function and patients' perceptions in inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Laura; Mañosa, Míriam; Garcia-Planella, Esther; Gordillo, Jordi; Zabana, Yamile; Cabré, Eduard; Domènech, Eugeni

    2013-06-01

    Sexuality is important when assessing quality of life (QoL), which is often disturbed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, sexuality is not addressed in most QoL questionnaires. To evaluate the prevalence and predisposing factors of sexual dysfunction among IBD patients, and their own perception. A postal survey was conducted in IBD patients 25-65 years of age from two tertiary centres. Patients were asked to provide a control of the same gender and age without IBD. The questionnaire assessed patient perception of the impact of IBD on their sexuality, and also allowed calculation of the Erectile Function International Index or the Female Sexual Function Index. A total of 355 patients and 200 controls were available for the final analysis. Both groups were comparable except for a higher proportion of individuals who had been treated for depression among patients. Half of the female and one-third of the male patients considered that both sexual desire and satisfaction worsened after IBD diagnosis. As compared to controls, both men and women with IBD showed significantly lower scores in sexual function indexes, but a higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction was only noticed among women. Independent predictors of sexual dysfunction among IBD patients were the use of corticosteroids in women, and the use of biological agents, depression and diabetes in men. Sexuality is often disturbed in IBD patients, particularly among women. Many factors seem to contribute to worsened intimacy. Sexuality should be considered when QoL is assessed in these patients.

  5. Prevalence of functional bowel disorders and faecal incontinence: an Australian primary care survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K-S; Nassar, N; Hamd, K; Nagarajah, A; Gladman, M A

    2015-02-01

    Interest in functional bowel disorders (FBDs) and faecal incontinence (FI) has increased amongst coloproctologists. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of FBDs and FI (including its severity) among Australian primary healthcare seekers using objective criteria. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a primary care setting in Sydney, Australia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect demographic information and diagnose FBDs (irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, functional bloating and functional diarrhoea) based on Rome III criteria. The severity of FI was determined using the Vaizey incontinence score. Associations with medical/surgical history and healthcare utilization were assessed. Of 596 subjects approached, 396 (66.4%) agreed to participate. Overall, 33% had FBD and/or FI. Irritable bowel syndrome was present in 11.1% and these participants were more likely to report anxiety/depression (P  8). Participants with FI were more likely to have irritable bowel syndrome, urinary incontinence and previous anal surgery (P < 0.01). FBDs and FI are prevalent conditions amongst primary healthcare seekers and the needs of those affected appear to be complex given their coexisting symptoms and conditions. Currently, the majority do not reach colorectal services, although increased awareness by primary care providers could lead to sufferers being referred for specialist management. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Marketing ethics, functions, and content: a health education/marketing survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P D; King, K K

    1985-01-01

    Survey data were used to evaluate the role of marketing in the nonprofit arena of health promotion. Questionnaires utilizing a Likert type scale were sent to 106 marketers and 247 health educators soliciting their opinions about health care marketing. Both groups agreed that marketing was appropriate for both profit and non-profit organizations, but were not in total agreement on specific aspects of the marketing process. Marketers were adamant that marketing is not confined to promotional, advertising and communication functions, while health educators were neutral. Marketers were strong in their disagreement that marketing is selling; health educators were still neutral but in slight disagreement. Marketers did not believe that marketing uses gimmickry heavily, while health educators agreed that it does use gimmickry. A significant finding from the survey is that the major ethical issue for health educators is their view that marketing manipulates society. Both community and school health educators agreed that using marketing techniques is a step forward manipulation of a society, while the group of marketers disagreed.

  7. Progression of noise-induced hearing loss. A survey of workers in selected industries in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, S.M.; Haythornthwaite, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    An in-depth investigation of the progression of noise induced hearing loss is reported for individuals working in three major Canadian industries. The particular approach taken was to select occupational groups within each industry, who had the same noise exposure for a continuous period, and on whom standard hearing tests were undertaken at regular intervals. Two methods of evaluating the audiometric data were used. The first was a cross-sectional design, in which one audiogram was analyzed for each employee. The second focused on the rate of hearing loss over time within individuals. The results confirmed previous reports that the effect of continuous noise exposure was maximal in the region of 2-6 kHz. Significant differences in hearing loss were noted across job types. Over a 10 year period the rate of loss within exposed individuals was on the average 1.5 dB per year for 4 kHz, as compared with 0.5 dB for control subjects who held office jobs. The absolute difference between hearing thresholds measured at the beginning and end of this period ranged widely from a slight improvement in hearing to losses often as great as 55 dB. In general the greatest loss occurred at 4 kHz. The number of frequencies at which there was a risk of exceeding a 25 dB fence increased with the number of years of exposure.

  8. A field survey on parasites and antibodies against selected pathogens in owned dogs in Lilongwe, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Alvåsen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen for selected parasites and antibody levels against vectorborne pathogens in owned dogs in Lilongwe, Malawi. The study population consisted of 100 dogs; 80 participating in vaccination–spaying campaigns and 20 visiting a veterinary clinic as paying clients. All dogs went through a general physical examination including visual examination for signs of ectoparasites. A total of 100 blood samples were analysed using commercial snap tests and 40 faecal samples by egg flotation in saturated sodium chloride. The sampled dogs had a seroprevalence of 12% for Anaplasma spp., 22% for Ehrlichia spp., 4% for Dirofilaria immitis and 1% for Leishmania spp. Eggs from Ancylostoma spp. were found in 80% of the faecal samples, whereas eggs of Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina were only present in 3%, 8% and 13% of the samples, respectively. Ectoparasites such as Ctenocephalides sp., Trichodectes sp. and ticks were present on 98%, 25% and 11%, respectively, of the campaign dogs. Among client dogs, 35% had Ctenocephalides fleas, 10% had Trichodectes lice and none had ticks. Public education and prophylactic treatment could be used to improve the animal welfare of dogs; this would most likely also have positive impact on public health.

  9. A Selective Iodide Ion Sensor Electrode Based on Functionalized ZnO Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, ZnO nanotubes were fabricated on a gold coated glass substrate through chemical etching by the aqueous chemical growth method. For the first time a nanostructure-based iodide ion selective electrode was developed. The ZnO nanotubes were functionalized with miconazole ion exchanger and the electromotive force (EMF was measured by the potentiometric method. The iodide ion sensor exhibited a linear response over a wide range of concentrations (1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−1 M and excellent sensitivity of –62 ± 1 mV/decade. The detection limit of the proposed sensor was found to be 5 × 10−7 M. The effects of pH, temperature, additive, plasticizer and stabilizer on the potential response of iodide ion selective electrode were also studied. The proposed iodide ion sensor demonstrated a fast response time of less than 5 s and high selectivity against common organic and the inorganic anions. All the obtained results revealed that the iodide ion sensor based on functionalized ZnO nanotubes may be used for the detection of iodide ion in environmental water samples, pharmaceutical products and other real samples.

  10. A selective iodide ion sensor electrode based on functionalized ZnO nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Willander, Magnus

    2013-02-04

    In this research work, ZnO nanotubes were fabricated on a gold coated glass substrate through chemical etching by the aqueous chemical growth method. For the first time a nanostructure-based iodide ion selective electrode was developed. The ZnO nanotubes were functionalized with miconazole ion exchanger and the electromotive force (EMF) was measured by the potentiometric method. The iodide ion sensor exhibited a linear response over a wide range of concentrations (1 × 10-6 to 1 × 10-1 M) and excellent sensitivity of -62 ± 1 mV/decade. The detection limit of the proposed sensor was found to be 5 × 10-7 M. The effects of pH, temperature, additive, plasticizer and stabilizer on the potential response of iodide ion selective electrode were also studied. The proposed iodide ion sensor demonstrated a fast response time of less than 5 s and high selectivity against common organic and the inorganic anions. All the obtained results revealed that the iodide ion sensor based on functionalized ZnO nanotubes may be used for the detection of iodide ion in environmental water samples, pharmaceutical products and other real samples.

  11. China's excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei Xing; Lu, Li; Hesketh, Therese

    2009-04-09

    To elucidate current trends and geographical patterns in the sex ratio at birth and in the population aged under 20 in China and to determine the roles played by sex selective abortion and the one child policy. Analysis of household based cross sectional population survey done in November 2005. All of China's 2861 counties. Population 1% of the total population, selected to be broadly representative of the total. Sex ratio defined as males per 100 females. 4 764 512 people under the age of 20 were included. Overall sex ratios were high across all age groups and residency types, but they were highest in the 1-4 years age group, peaking at 126 (95% confidence interval 125 to 126) in rural areas. Six provinces had sex ratios of over 130 in the 1-4 age group. The sex ratio at birth was close to normal for first order births but rose steeply for second order births, especially in rural areas, where it reached 146 (143 to 149). Nine provinces had ratios of over 160 for second order births. The highest sex ratios were seen in provinces that allow rural inhabitants a second child if the first is a girl. Sex selective abortion accounts for almost all the excess males. One particular variant of the one child policy, which allows a second child if the first is a girl, leads to the highest sex ratios. In 2005 males under the age of 20 exceeded females by more than 32 million in China, and more than 1.1 million excess births of boys occurred. China will see very high and steadily worsening sex ratios in the reproductive age group over the next two decades. Enforcing the existing ban on sex selective abortion could lead to normalisation of the ratios.

  12. [Selective termination of pregnancy for monochorionic twins: a national survey of professional practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlicot, C; Potin, J; Simon, E; Perrotin, F

    2014-06-01

    Selective Termination of Pregnancy (STOP) for discordant fetal condition in monochorionic twin pregnancy is a rarely performed procedure raising technical and ethical considerations. There are no epidemiological data available in France concerning STOP and no guideline or scientific consensus on how or when to perform has been published. We conducted a study of national practice using a declarative questionnaire sent by e-mail to each medical coordinator of every 48 Multidisciplinary Center for Prenatal Diagnosis in France. The questions focused on the issues of 2010 and 2011. Two reminders were sent in case of no answer. The response rate to the questionnaire was 56 %; 81 % of centers have experienced at least once during the two years 2010-2011 a discordant fetal anomaly in monochorionic twin pregnancy. Only 59 % of centers perform all the techniques of STOP. When interruption of the umbilical blood flow is considered, bipolar forceps coagulation is the most used (75 %). Achieving STOP during a cesarean section is a common practice (75 % of centers). Locoregional anesthesia is the preferred mode of anesthesia for STOP. STOP on monochorionic twin pregnancy is not practiced in all Multidisciplinary Center for Prenatal Diagnosis in France. The most widely practiced and most studied technique is bipolar forceps coagulation. The option of an expectant management should always be considered and its risks should be balanced with those of STOP. The practice of STOP during cesarean section is not unusual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Survey of bottled drinking water sold in Canada. Part 2. Selected volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, B D; Conacher, H B; Salminen, J; Nixon, G R; Riedel, G; Mori, B; Gagnon, J; Brousseau, Y

    1993-01-01

    Selected volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants were determined in 182 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Canada. Samples included spring water (86) packaged in containers of polyethylene or in smaller containers of transparent plastic or glass, mineral water (61) packaged only in transparent plastic or glass, and miscellaneous bottled waters (35). Analyses were performed by 3 laboratories, each using headspace sampling and capillary gas chromatography with either mass spectrometric (1 laboratory) or flame ionization detection with mass spectrometric confirmation, if required (2 laboratories). Benzene, the contaminant of primary interest, was detected in only 1 of the 182 samples at 2 micrograms/kg. Other VOC contaminants detected (number of positive samples, average, and range of positives in micrograms/kg) included toluene (20, 6.92, 0.5-63), cyclohexane (23, 39.2, 3-108), chloroform (12, 25.8, 3.7-70), and dichloromethane (4, 59, 22-97). Cyclohexane was found in the plastic and as a migrant from the plastic in 20 samples of spring water, but it was found in only 1 of 61 mineral water samples analyzed at only 3 micrograms/kg. Chloroform was found almost exclusively in samples that could have been obtained from public water supplies. It was not found in mineral water samples, but it was found in 1 spring water sample at 3.76 micrograms/kg. The source of the toluene contamination was not known. Other VOCs detected include ethanol and limonene, associated with added flavoring; pentane, as a migrant from a foamed polystyrene cap liner; and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethylene in a sample of demineralized water.

  14. Survey of selected tick-borne diseases in dogs in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Vera, Cristina; Kapiainen, Suvi; Junnikkala, Sami; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Spillmann, Thomas; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-06-23

    Due to climate changes during the last decades, ticks have progressively spread into higher latitudes in northern Europe. Although some tick borne diseases are known to be endemic in Finland, to date there is limited information with regard to the prevalence of these infections in companion animals. We determined the antibody and DNA prevalence of the following organisms in randomly selected client-owned and clinically healthy hunting dogs living in Finland: Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) and Bartonella. Anti-Ap, -Bb and -Ec antibodies were determined in 340 Finnish pet dogs and 50 healthy hunting dogs using the 4DX Snap®Test (IDEXX Laboratories). In addition, PCRs for the detection of Ap and Bartonella DNA were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to a vector borne agent. The overall seroprevalence was highest for Ap (5.3%), followed by Bb (2.9%), and Ec (0.3%). Seropositivities to Ap and Bb were significantly higher in the Åland Islands (p dogs, seropositivity rates of 4% (2/50) and 2% (1/50) were recorded for Ap and Bb, respectively. One client-owned dog and one hunting dog, both healthy, were infected with Ap as determined by PCR, while being seronegative. For Bartonella spp., none of the dogs tested was positive by PCR. This study represents the first data of seroprevalence to tick borne diseases in the Finnish dog population. Our results indicate that dogs in Finland are exposed to vector borne diseases, with Ap being the most seroprevalent of the diseases tested, followed by Bb. Almost 50% of dogs living in Åland Islands were Ap seropositive. This finding suggests the possibility of a high incidence of Ap infection in humans in this region. Knowing the distribution of seroprevalence in dogs may help predict the pattern of a tick borne disease and may aid in diagnostic and prevention efforts.

  15. A wearable multi-pad electrode prototype for selective functional electrical stimulation of upper extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Peng Wang; Ai-Wen Guo; Zheng-Yang Bi; Fei Li; Xiao-Ying Lu; Zhi-Gong Wang

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a surface multi-pad stimulation electrode with selective characteristics was designed, it was safe to use and easy to mount. Then a wearable and distributed multi-pad functional electrical stimulation (FES) prototype combined with sensing, communication and smart technology was designed, which can achieve a fast, intelligent optimization to determine stimulation electrode sites and comfortable stimulation. In addition, in order to improve the application and convenience of FES in the rehabilitation at clinical and home-setting, an Android application (APP) based on smart phone was designed for running an algorithm of searching optimal stimulation site. The prototype has been validated by performing selective stimulation on one healthy subject, and showed that the FES system can automatically determine the stimulation site.

  16. Selection and validation of enzymatic activities as functional markers in wood biotechnology and fungal ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Yann; Gelhaye, Eric; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Gérardin, Philippe; Harvengt, Luc; Buée, Marc

    2013-02-15

    The dead wood and forest soils are sources of diversity and under-explored fungal strains with biotechnological potential, which require to be studied. Numerous enzymatic tests have been proposed to investigate the functional potential of the soil microbial communities or to test the functional abilities of fungal strains. Nevertheless, the diversity of these functional markers and their relevance in environmental studies or biotechnological screening does still have not been demonstrated. In this work, we assessed ten different extracellular enzymatic activities involved in the wood decaying process including β-etherase that specifically cleaves the β-aryl ether linkages in the lignin polymer. For this purpose, a collection of 26 fungal strains, distributed within three ecological groups (white, brown and soft rot fungi), has been used. Among the ten potential functional markers, the combinatorial use of only six of them allowed separation between the group of white and soft rot fungi from the brown rot fungi. Moreover, our results suggest that extracellular β-etherase is a rare and dispensable activity among the wood decay fungi. Finally, we propose that this set of markers could be useful for the analysis of fungal communities in functional and environmental studies, and for the selection of strains with biotechnological interests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Survey of selected pathogens and blood parameters of northern yellowstone elk: Wolf sanitation effect implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, S. M.; White, P.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The restoration or conservation of predators could reduce seroprevalences of certain diseases in prey if predation selectively removes animals exhibiting clinical signs. We assessed disease seroprevalences and blood parameters of 115 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) wintering on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park [YNP] during 2000-2005 and compared them to data collected prior to wolf (Canis lupus) restoration (WR) in 1995 and to two other herds in Montana to assess this prediction. Blood parameters were generally within two standard deviations of the means observed in other Montana herds (Gravelly-Snowcrest [GS] and Garnet Mountain [GM]), but Yellowstone elk had higher seroprevalences of parainfluenza-3 virus (95% CI YNP = 61.1-78.6, GS = 30.3-46.5) and bovine-virus-diarrhea virus type 1 (95% CI YNP = 15.9-31.9, GM = 0). In comparisons between pre-wolf restoration [pre-WR] (i.e., prior to 1995) seroprevalences with those post-wolf restoration [post-WR] in Yellowstone, we found lower seroprevalences for some disease-causing agents post-wolf restoration (e.g., bovine-virus-diarrhea virus type-1 [95% CI pre-WR = 73.1-86.3, post-WR = 15.9-31.9] and bovine-respiratory syncytial virus [95% CI pre-WR = 70.0-83.8, post-WR = 0]), but similar (e.g., Brucella abortus [95% CI pre-WR = 0-4.45, post-WR = 0-4.74] and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus [95% CI pre-WR = 0, post-WR = 0]) or higher for others (e.g., Anaplasma marginale [95% CI pre-WR = 0, post-WR = 18.5-38.7] and Leptospira spp. [95% CI pre-WR = 0.5-6.5, post-WR = 9.5-23.5]). Though we did not detect an overall strong predation effect through reduced disease seroprevalence using retrospective comparisons with sparse data, our reference values will facilitate future assessments of this issue.

  18. Selection on plant male function genes identifies candidates for reproductive isolation of yellow monkeyflowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Aagaard

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation promises insight into speciation and the origins of biological diversity. While progress has been made in identifying genes underlying barriers to reproduction that function after fertilization (post-zygotic isolation, we know much less about earlier acting pre-zygotic barriers. Of particular interest are barriers involved in mating and fertilization that can evolve extremely rapidly under sexual selection, suggesting they may play a prominent role in the initial stages of reproductive isolation. A significant challenge to the field of speciation genetics is developing new approaches for identification of candidate genes underlying these barriers, particularly among non-traditional model systems. We employ powerful proteomic and genomic strategies to study the genetic basis of conspecific pollen precedence, an important component of pre-zygotic reproductive isolation among yellow monkeyflowers (Mimulus spp. resulting from male pollen competition. We use isotopic labeling in combination with shotgun proteomics to identify more than 2,000 male function (pollen tube proteins within maternal reproductive structures (styles of M. guttatus flowers where pollen competition occurs. We then sequence array-captured pollen tube exomes from a large outcrossing population of M. guttatus, and identify those genes with evidence of selective sweeps or balancing selection consistent with their role in pollen competition. We also test for evidence of positive selection on these genes more broadly across yellow monkeyflowers, because a signal of adaptive divergence is a common feature of genes causing reproductive isolation. Together the molecular evolution studies identify 159 pollen tube proteins that are candidate genes for conspecific pollen precedence. Our work demonstrates how powerful proteomic and genomic tools can be readily adapted to non-traditional model systems, allowing for genome-wide screens

  19. Decreased renal function and associated factors in cities, towns and rural areas of Tanzania: a community-based population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert; Baisley, Kathy; Kavishe, Bazil; Were, Jackson; Mghamba, Janneth; Smeeth, Liam; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi

    2016-03-01

    Data on renal dysfunction in sub-Saharan Africa, comparing urban and rural areas, have not yet been reported. Therefore, we aimed to determine the distribution of low estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) in urban and rural Tanzania, to describe factors associated with low eGFR and to quantify fractions attributable to common risk factors. We conducted a community-based survey of 1095 randomly selected Tanzanian adults (≥18 years). A structured questionnaire and examinations were used to document sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, anthropomorphic measurements and blood pressure. Blood tests were performed for HIV infection, diabetes mellitus and creatinine. eGFR was calculated using two equations recommended for African adults. Serum creatinine was available for 1043 participants: 170 in Mwanza city, 326 in district towns and 547 in rural areas. Mean age was 35.5 years and 54% were females. The prevalence of eGFR renal function is common in Tanzania, particularly in district towns, and unique risk factors for kidney disease may exist in this population. Population-specific strategies for prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease are needed for Africa. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Autoclave performance and practitioner knowledge of autoclave use: a survey of selected UK practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J; Coulter, W A; Cheung, S W; Palenik, C J

    1998-04-01

    It is essential that the dental surgery autoclave be tested regularly to ensure that it is operating at a temperature and pressure that will kill all microorganisms. The aims of this study were to investigate the knowledge of general dental practitioners on aspects of autoclave use, to examine their autoclaving routines, and to test the effectiveness of the sterilization cycle of their practice's autoclave. A 35-question questionnaire was distributed to 840 dental practitioners in the United Kingdom. They were also sent three spore test ampules with details of their function and instructions on their use. The practitioners were asked to use the spore test ampules in their own practice's autoclave and to return these for testing. Four hundred one questionnaires and associated spore test ampules were returned for analysis, a 47.7% response rate. Eight practice autoclaves (2.0%) failed to sterilize the spores. These practices were offered a retest following counseling. A total of 77.8% of respondents had received formal training in infection control. Of the 71.3% of respondents who stated that they check the performance of their autoclave routinely, 31.5% use a chemical strip every cycle, 17.5% use it once per day, and 30.4% use it once per week. However, only five respondents (1.2%) use a spore test; two of these respondents use it every cycle, one once per day, and two once per week. Further education of practitioners may be necessary to enhance their awareness of the need for routine checking of autoclave effectiveness.

  1. Selection of an Interval for Variable Shape Parameter in Approximation by Radial Basis Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Biazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In radial basis function approximation, the shape parameter can be variable. The values of the variable shape parameter strategies are selected from an interval which is usually determined by trial and error. As yet there is not any algorithm for determining an appropriate interval, although there are some recipes for optimal values. In this paper, a novel algorithm for determining an interval is proposed. Different variable shape parameter strategies are examined. The results show that the determined interval significantly improved the accuracy and is suitable enough to count on in variable shape parameter strategies.

  2. A Selective Refinement Approach for Computing the Distance Functions of Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, D A; Duchaineau, M A; Max, N L

    2000-12-01

    We present an adaptive signed distance transform algorithm for curves in the plane. A hierarchy of bounding boxes is required for the input curves. We demonstrate the algorithm on the isocontours of a turbulence simulation. The algorithm provides guaranteed error bounds with a selective refinement approach. The domain over which the signed distance function is desired is adaptively triangulated and piecewise discontinuous linear approximations are constructed within each triangle. The resulting transform performs work only were requested and does not rely on a preset sampling rate or other constraints.

  3. Large-area graphene films by simple solution casting of edge-selectively functionalized graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seo-Yoon; Jeon, In-Yup; Yang, Jieun; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Park, Sungjin; Ruoff, Rodney S; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2011-06-28

    We report edge-selective functionalization of graphite (EFG) for the production of large-area uniform graphene films by simply solution-casting EFG dispersions in dichloromethane on silicon oxide substrates, followed by annealing. The resultant graphene films show ambipolar transport properties with sheet resistances of 0.52-3.11 kΩ/sq at 63-90% optical transmittance. EFG allows solution processing methods for the scalable production of electrically conductive, optically transparent, and mechanically robust flexible graphene films for use in practice.

  4. Functionalization of Micro- and Nano- Apertures with Chromate-Selective Solvent Polymeric Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Rieck, Daniel C.; Liu, Bingwen; Park, Bong-Jae; Moffett, David F.; Kidwell, David A.; Cheng, Gary J.; Van Wie, Bernard J.

    2009-01-01

    A new miniaturization approach to create micro and nano-scale ISEs was demonstrated and the concept tested with an environmentally relevant chromate selective membrane consisting of 7.7:62.2:31.1 wt % Aliquat336:2-NPOE:PVC. Apertures of 100 nM and 30 μM dimensions were made using MEMS fabrication techniques and functionalized through a macroscale application of solvent polymeric membrane. Performance studies for the microscale ISE showed a response slope of −58.6 ± 5.6 mV decade−1 and Limit o...

  5. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4% were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 14.5±0.12, 11.0±0.07, 12.0±0.22, and 12.8±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price

  6. Injuries and musculoskeletal complaints in referees and assistant referees selected for the 2006 FIFA World Cup: retrospective and prospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzini, M; Junge, A; Bahr, R; Helsen, W; Dvorak, J

    2009-07-01

    There is a considerable amount of scientific literature on football, but few studies have focused on referees, despite their key role in this sport. Existing studies focus on the physiological demands and training of referees. To analyse injuries and musculoskeletal complaints in referees and assistant referees selected for the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Retrospective survey and prospective study. During the preparation camps for the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, all 123 referees pre-selected for the tournament completed a questionnaire on injuries and musculoskeletal complaints. During the tournament, the characteristics and consequences of all injuries and complaints incurred by the 63 officiating referees were documented. More than 40% of the referees reported having incurred an injury and more than 60% having had musculoskeletal complaints during their career. About 20% of the group reported having suffered from musculoskeletal complaints in the last match. During the World Cup, 14 referees (22%) incurred an injury and more than 30% had musculoskeletal complaints. This prospectively collected data showed an incidence of 20.8 injuries per 1000 match hours (95% CI: 4.17 to 37.4). The most common acute injuries were hamstring strains, calf strains, and ankle sprains, while the most frequent locations of complaints were the low back, hamstring and knee. Considering the injury profile, the prevalence of associated musculoskeletal complaints, and the high physiological demands of refereeing, it appears that injury prevention programmes should be developed and integrated into the fitness training routine of the referee.

  7. NADPH Oxidases: Insights into Selected Functions and Mechanisms of Action in Cancer and Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Skonieczna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases (NOX are reactive oxygen species- (ROS- generating enzymes regulating numerous redox-dependent signaling pathways. NOX are important regulators of cell differentiation, growth, and proliferation and of mechanisms, important for a wide range of processes from embryonic development, through tissue regeneration to the development and spread of cancer. In this review, we discuss the roles of NOX and NOX-derived ROS in the functioning of stem cells and cancer stem cells and in selected aspects of cancer cell physiology. Understanding the functions and complex activities of NOX is important for the application of stem cells in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and development of new therapies toward invasive forms of cancers.

  8. Effects of a selected exercise programon executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarmoghaddam, M; Torbati, H T; Sohrabi, M; Mashhadi, A; Kashi, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a Selected exercise program on the executive function of children with ADHD. Method. The participants were 40 male students, aged 7-11 years. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in an exercise program for 24 sessions, 90 minutes per session. The control group did not receive any intervention. Before and after the exercise period, all the participants were assessed with Stroop and Go-No-Go tests, and the resulting data were analyzed by using MANCOVA. Result. The results showed that the cognitive inhibition of the children in the experimental group was significantly different compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Additionally, there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the behavioral inhibition (p < 0.05). Conclusion. An organized physical activity helps to improve the executive function in children with ADHD.

  9. The value of cows in reference populations for genomic selection of new functional traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Kargo, Morten; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    Today, almost all reference populations consist of progeny tested bulls. However, older progeny tested bulls do not have reliable estimated breeding values (EBV) for new traits. Thus, to be able to select for these new traits, it is necessary to build a reference population. We used a deterministic...... prediction model to test the hypothesis that the value of cows in reference populations depends on the availability of phenotypic records. To test the hypothesis, we investigated different strategies of building a reference population for a new functional trait over a 10-year period. The trait was either...... year with measurements of the new functional trait. In addition to varying the make-up of the reference population, we also varied the heritability of the trait (h2 = 0.05 v. 0.15). The results showed that a reference population of test bulls, cows and sires results in the highest accuracy...

  10. Positive selection in octopus haemocyanin indicates functional links to temperature adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellermann, Michael; Strugnell, Jan M; Lieb, Bernhard; Mark, Felix C

    2015-07-05

    Octopods have successfully colonised the world's oceans from the tropics to the poles. Yet, successful persistence in these habitats has required adaptations of their advanced physiological apparatus to compensate impaired oxygen supply. Their oxygen transporter haemocyanin plays a major role in cold tolerance and accordingly has undergone functional modifications to sustain oxygen release at sub-zero temperatures. However, it remains unknown how molecular properties evolved to explain the observed functional adaptations. We thus aimed to assess whether natural selection affected molecular and structural properties of haemocyanin that explains temperature adaptation in octopods. Analysis of 239 partial sequences of the haemocyanin functional units (FU) f and g of 28 octopod species of polar, temperate, subtropical and tropical origin revealed natural selection was acting primarily on charge properties of surface residues. Polar octopods contained haemocyanins with higher net surface charge due to decreased glutamic acid content and higher numbers of basic amino acids. Within the analysed partial sequences, positive selection was present at site 2545, positioned between the active copper binding centre and the FU g surface. At this site, methionine was the dominant amino acid in polar octopods and leucine was dominant in tropical octopods. Sites directly involved in oxygen binding or quaternary interactions were highly conserved within the analysed sequence. This study has provided the first insight into molecular and structural mechanisms that have enabled octopods to sustain oxygen supply from polar to tropical conditions. Our findings imply modulation of oxygen binding via charge-charge interaction at the protein surface, which stabilize quaternary interactions among functional units to reduce detrimental effects of high pH on venous oxygen release. Of the observed partial haemocyanin sequence, residue 2545 formed a close link between the FU g surface and the

  11. Selective targeting of gain-of-function KCNQ1 mutations predisposing to atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Courtney M; Campbell, Jonathan D; Thompson, Christopher H; Galimberti, Eleonora Savio; Darbar, Dawood; Vanoye, Carlos G; George, Alfred L

    2013-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in adults. We hypothesized that gain-of-function KCNQ1 mutations previously associated with familial atrial fibrillation have distinct pharmacological properties that may enable targeted inhibition. Wild-type (WT) KCNQ1 or the familial atrial fibrillation mutation KCNQ1-S140G was heterologously coexpressed with KCNE1 to enable electrophysiological recording of the slow delayed rectifier current (IKs) and investigation of pharmacological effects of the IKs selective blocker HMR-1556. Coexpression of KCNQ1-S140G with KCNE1 generated potassium currents (S140G-IKs) that exhibited greater sensitivity to HMR-1556 than WT-IKs. Enhanced HMR-1556 sensitivity was also observed for another gain-of-function atrial fibrillation mutation, KCNQ1-V141M. Heteromeric expression of KCNE1 with both KCNQ1-WT and KCNQ1-S140G generated currents (HET-IKs) with gain-of-function features, including larger amplitude, a constitutively active component, hyperpolarized voltage dependence of activation, and extremely slow deactivation. A low concentration of HMR-1556, which had little effect on WT-IKs but was capable of inhibiting the mutant channel, reduced both instantaneous and steady state HET-IKs to levels that were not significantly different from WT-IKs and attenuated use-dependent accumulation of the current. In cultured adult rabbit left atrial myocytes, expression of S140G-IKs shortened action potential duration compared with WT-IKs. Application of HMR-1556 mitigated S140G-IKs-induced action potential duration shortening and did not alter action potential duration in cells expressing WT-IKs. The enhanced sensitivity of KCNQ1 gain-of-function mutations for HMR-1556 suggests the possibility of selective therapeutic targeting, and, therefore, our data illustrate a potential proof of principle for genotype-specific treatment of this heritable arrhythmia.

  12. Addressing catch mechanisms in gillnets improves modeling of selectivity and estimates of mortality rates: a case study using survey data on an endangered stock of Arctic char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, T.; Setzer, M.; Pope, John George

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of fish stock size distributions from survey data requires knowledge about gear selectivity. However, selectivity models rest on assumptions that seldom are analyzed. Departures from these can lead to misinterpretations and biased management recommendations. Here, we use survey data...... on great Arctic char (Salvelinus umbla) to analyze how correcting for entanglement of fish and nonisometric growth might improve estimates of selectivity curves, and subsequently estimates of size distribution and age-specific mortality. Initial selectivity curves, using the entire data set, were wide...... and asymmetric, with poor model fits. Removing potentially nonmeshed fish had the greatest positive effect on model fit, resulting in much narrower and less asymmetric selection curves, while attempting to take nonisometric growth into account, by using girth rather than length, improved model fit...

  13. Natural selection on floral traits through male and female function in wild populations of the heterostylous daffodil Narcissus triandrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2008-07-01

    Measurements of natural selection in hermaphrodite populations require the analysis of performance through both female and male sex functions. Here, we investigate selection on three floral traits: flower number, flower length, and corona width through both sex functions in natural populations of the tristylous daffodil Narcissus triandrus. Selection through female function was examined in six populations, and in two of these we also estimated male selection gradients using multilocus microsatellite genotyping of parents and offspring. We detected significant directional selection for flower number through female function, and significant stabilizing selection for corona width and flower length through male function. Variation in male reproductive success was strongly influenced by the distance between mates and was significantly higher than variation in female reproductive success in one population, a result consistent with Bateman's principle. However, variation through both sex functions was similar in the other population and there was a significant negative correlation between female and male fitness indicating sex-specific trade-offs in reproductive success. Selection on floral design in N. triandrus was stronger through male than female function probably because floral morphology plays an important role in promoting effective cross-pollen transfer in populations of this heterostylous species.

  14. Corporate Recruiters Survey: 2014 Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Worthington, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Corporate Recruiters Survey Report examines the current hiring outlook for graduate business students and analyzes demand by industry and world region, salaries, job functions, and mobility in regional job placement. It also explores recruiter behavior, including recruitment practices and school and candidate selection criteria, and…

  15. A Quality Function Deployment-Based Model for Cutting Fluid Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting fluid is applied for numerous reasons while machining a workpiece, like increasing tool life, minimizing workpiece thermal deformation, enhancing surface finish, flushing away chips from cutting surface, and so on. Hence, choosing a proper cutting fluid for a specific machining application becomes important for enhanced efficiency and effectiveness of a manufacturing process. Cutting fluid selection is a complex procedure as the decision depends on many complicated interactions, including work material’s machinability, rigorousness of operation, cutting tool material, metallurgical, chemical, and human compatibility, reliability and stability of fluid, and cost. In this paper, a decision making model is developed based on quality function deployment technique with a view to respond to the complex character of cutting fluid selection problem and facilitate judicious selection of cutting fluid from a comprehensive list of available alternatives. In the first example, HD-CUTSOL is recognized as the most suitable cutting fluid for drilling holes in titanium alloy with tungsten carbide tool and in the second example, for performing honing operation on stainless steel alloy with cubic boron nitride tool, CF5 emerges out as the best honing fluid. Implementation of this model would result in cost reduction through decreased manpower requirement, enhanced workforce efficiency, and efficient information exploitation.

  16. Mechanism study of selective heavy metal ion removal with polypyrrole-functionalized polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianqiang; Luo, Chao [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Qi, Genggeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Pan, Kai, E-mail: pankai@mail.buct.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Cao, Bing, E-mail: bcao@mail.buct.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PAN/PPy core/shell nanofiber used for Cr(VI) removal. • Adsorption mechanisms were investigated. • Selective adsorption performances were investigated. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile/polypyrrole (PAN/PPy) core/shell nanofiber mat was prepared through electrospinning followed by a simple chemical oxidation method. The polypyrrole-functionalized nanofiber mats showed selective adsorption performance for anions. The interaction between heavy metal anions and polypyrrole (especially the interaction between Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2−} and polypyrrole) during the adsorption process was studied. The results showed that the adsorption process included two steps: one was the anion exchange process between the Cl{sup −} and Cr(VI), and the other was the redox process for the Cr(VI) ions. The adsorption amount was related to the protonation time of the PAN/PPy nanofiber mat and increased as protonation time increased. Meanwhile, the Cr(VI) ions were reduced to Cr(III) through the reaction with amino groups of polypyrrole (from secondary amines to tertiary amines). PAN/PPy nanofiber mat showed high selectivity for Cr(VI), and the adsorption performance was nearly unaffected by other co-existing anions (Cl{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) except for PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} for the pH change.

  17. Selective Engagement of Cognitive Resources: Motivational Influences on Older Adults' Cognitive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M

    2014-07-01

    In this article, I present a framework for understanding the impact of aging-related declines in cognitive resources on functioning. I make the assumption that aging is associated with an increase in the costs of cognitive engagement, as reflected in both the effort required to achieve a specific level of task performance and the associated depletion or fatigue effects. I further argue that these costs result in older adults being increasingly selective in the engagement of cognitive resources in response to these declines. This selectivity is reflected in (a) a reduction in the intrinsic motivation to engage in cognitively demanding activities, which, in part, accounts for general reductions in engagement in such activities, and (b) greater sensitivity to the self-related implications of a given task. Both processes are adaptive if viewed in terms of resource conservation, but the former may also be maladaptive to the extent that it results in older adults restricting participation in cognitively demanding activities that could ultimately benefit cognitive health. I review supportive research and make the general case for the importance of considering motivational factors in understanding aging effects on cognitive functioning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Selection of Functional Quorum Sensing Systems by Lysogenic Bacteriophages in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Mora, Miguel A; Castañeda-Tamez, Paulina; Cazares, Adrián; Pérez-Velázquez, Judith; Hense, Burkhard A; Cazares, Daniel; Figueroa, Wendy; Carballo, Marco; Guarneros, Gabriel; Pérez-Eretza, Berenice; Cruz, Nelby; Nishiyama, Yoshito; Maeda, Toshinari; Belmont-Díaz, Javier A; Wood, Thomas K; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors, some of which are used as public goods. Since their production is a cooperative behavior, it is susceptible to social cheating in which non-cooperative QS deficient mutants use the resources without investing in their production. Nevertheless, functional QS systems are abundant; hence, mechanisms regulating the amount of cheating should exist. Evidence that demonstrates a tight relationship between QS and the susceptibility of bacteria against the attack of lytic phages is increasing; nevertheless, the relationship between temperate phages and QS has been much less explored. Therefore, in this work, we studied the effects of having a functional QS system on the susceptibility to temperate bacteriophages and how this affects the bacterial and phage dynamics. We find that both experimentally and using mathematical models, that the lysogenic bacteriophages D3112 and JBD30 select QS-proficient P. aeruginosa phenotypes as compared to the QS-deficient mutants during competition experiments with mixed strain populations in vitro and in vivo in Galleria mellonella, in spite of the fact that both phages replicate better in the wild-type background. We show that this phenomenon restricts social cheating, and we propose that temperate phages may constitute an important selective pressure toward the conservation of bacterial QS.

  19. Selection of Functional Quorum Sensing Systems by Lysogenic Bacteriophages in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Saucedo-Mora

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing (QS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors, some of which are used as public goods. Since their production is a cooperative behavior, it is susceptible to social cheating in which non-cooperative QS deficient mutants use the resources without investing in their production. Nevertheless, functional QS systems are abundant; hence, mechanisms regulating the amount of cheating should exist. Evidence that demonstrates a tight relationship between QS and the susceptibility of bacteria against the attack of lytic phages is increasing; nevertheless, the relationship between temperate phages and QS has been much less explored. Therefore, in this work, we studied the effects of having a functional QS system on the susceptibility to temperate bacteriophages and how this affects the bacterial and phage dynamics. We find that both experimentally and using mathematical models, that the lysogenic bacteriophages D3112 and JBD30 select QS-proficient P. aeruginosa phenotypes as compared to the QS-deficient mutants during competition experiments with mixed strain populations in vitro and in vivo in Galleria mellonella, in spite of the fact that both phages replicate better in the wild-type background. We show that this phenomenon restricts social cheating, and we propose that temperate phages may constitute an important selective pressure toward the conservation of bacterial QS.

  20. Selection and validation of reference genes for functional studies in the Calliphoridae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Gisele Antoniazzi; Matiolli, Cleverson Carlos; de Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira

    2014-01-02

    The genera Cochliomyia and Chrysomya contain both obligate and saprophagous flies, which allows the comparison of different feeding habits between closely related species. Among the different strategies for comparing these habits is the use of qPCR to investigate the expression levels of candidate genes involved in feeding behavior. To ensure an accurate measure of the levels of gene expression, it is necessary to normalize the amount of the target gene with the amount of a reference gene having a stable expression across the compared species. Since there is no universal gene that can be used as a reference in functional studies, candidate genes for qPCR data normalization were selected and validated in three Calliphoridae (Diptera) species, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, and Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann . The expression stability of six genes ( Actin, Gapdh, Rp49, Rps17, α -tubulin, and GstD1) was evaluated among species within the same life stage and between life stages within each species. The expression levels of Actin, Gapdh, and Rp49 were the most stable among the selected genes. These genes can be used as reliable reference genes for functional studies in Calliphoridae using similar experimental settings. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  1. Visual deprivation selectively reshapes the intrinsic functional architecture of the anterior insula subregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Yuan, Congcong; Ding, Hao; Xu, Yongjie; Long, Miaomiao; Li, YanJun; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Tianzi; Qin, Wen; Shen, Wen; Yu, Chunshui

    2017-03-30

    The anterior insula (AI) is the core hub of salience network that serves to identify the most relevant stimuli among vast sensory inputs and forward them to higher cognitive regions to guide behaviour. As blind subjects were usually reported with changed perceptive abilities for salient non-visual stimuli, we hypothesized that the resting-state functional network of the AI is selectively reorganized after visual deprivation. The resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of the bilateral dorsal and ventral AI was calculated for twenty congenitally blind (CB), 27 early blind (EB), 44 late blind (LB) individuals and 50 sighted controls (SCs). The FCs of the dorsal AI were strengthened with the dorsal visual stream, while weakened with the ventral visual stream in the blind than the SCs; in contrast, the FCs of the ventral AI of the blind was strengthened with the ventral visual stream. Furthermore, these strengthened FCs of both the dorsal and ventral AI were partially negatively associated with the onset age of blindness. Our result indicates two parallel pathways that selectively transfer non-visual salient information between the deprived "visual" cortex and salience network in blind subjects.

  2. Highly Sensitive and Selective Detection of Nanomolar Ferric Ions Using Dopamine Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta Chowdhury, Ankan; Doong, Ruey-An

    2016-08-17

    The good stability, low cytotoxicity, and excellent photoluminescence property of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) make them an emerging class of promising materials in various application fields ranging from sensor to drug delivery. In the present work, the dopamine-functionalized GQDs (DA-GQDs) with stably bright blue fluorescence were successfully synthesized for low level Fe(3+) ions detection. The as-synthesized GQDs are uniform in size with narrow-distributed particle size of 4.5 ± 0.6 nm and high quantum yield of 10.2%. The amide linkage of GQDs with dopamine, confirmed by using XPS and FTIR spectra, results in the specific interaction between Fe(3+) and catechol moiety of dopamine at the interfaces for highly sensitive and selective detection of Fe(3+). A linear range of 20 nM to 2 μM with a detection limit of 7.6 nM is obtained for Fe(3+) detection by DA-GQDs. The selectivity of DA-GQDs sensing probe is significantly excellent in the presence of other interfering metal ions. In addition, the reaction mechanism for Fe(3+) detection based on the complexation and oxidation of dopamine has been proposed and validated. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the superiority of surface functionalized GQDs to Fe(3+) detection, which can pave an avenue for the development of high performance and robust sensing probes for detection of metal ions and other organic metabolites in environmental and biomedical applications.

  3. Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J; Ingram, Donald K; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Keller, Jeffrey N; Martin, Roy J

    2013-11-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (i) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (ii) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (iii) a higher serum active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Then, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (i) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and (ii) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. What Are Probability Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  5. Sustaining and Expanding Telehealth: A Survey of Business Models from Selected Prominent U.S. Telehealth Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, Glen; Alverson, Dale C; Dion, Denise; Duffy, Veronica; Noon, Charles; Langell, Kevin; Antoniotti, Nina; Lowery, Curtis

    2017-02-01

    Telehealth centers across the country, including our own center, are addressing sustainability and best practice business models. We undertook this survey to explore the business models being used at other established telehealth centers. In the literature on telehealth and sustainability, there is a paucity of comparative studies as to how successful telehealth centers function. In this study, we compared the business models of 10 successful telehealth centers. We conducted the study by interviewing key individuals at the centers, either through teleconference or telephone. We found that there are five general approaches to sustaining a telehealth center: grants, telehealth network membership fees, income from providing clinical services, per encounter charges, and operating as a cost center. We also found that most centers use more than one approach. We concluded that, although the first four approaches can contribute to the success of a center, telehealth centers are and should remain cost centers for their respective institutions.

  6. Comorbidity of headache and functional constipation in children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaloo, Soror; Dehghani, Seyyed Mohsen; Hashemi, Seyyed Mohammad; Heydari, Mojtaba; Heydari, Seyyed Taghi

    2014-10-01

    Constipation and headache are prevalent conditions among children worldwide. Previous studies have shown the relationship between upper gastrointestinal complaints and headache in children. However, the association with lower gastrointestinal complaints such as constipation has not been investigated until present. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between headache and chronic functional constipation in children aged 4-12 years old. This cross-sectional study has evaluated the prevalence of headache in 326 children in Shiraz, Iran 2012. All the subjects and their parents were interviewed based on a structured questionnaire for the diagnosis of constipation and headache. Children with constipation were selected from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic Affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The control group was selected from healthy children attending Shiraz schools. Diagnosis of headache and constipation were made based on the second Edition of The International Headache Classification (ICHD-2) and ROME III criteria, respectively. Headache prevalence among children with constipation was significantly higher (19.8%) than that of the control group (5.6%) [Odds ratio (OR) 4.192, pconstipated children (14.9% vs. 1.4%, in the control group, respectively, pconstipation, which can result from the effect of these comorbid conditions with emotional stress, depression, and anxiety.

  7. An alma survey of sub-millimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: Sub-millimeter properties of color-selected galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Hodge, J. A.; Rix, H.-W.; Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Karim, A.; Simpson, J. M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Cox, P. [IRAM, 300 rue de la piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin d' Hères (France); Dannerbauer, H. [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Knudsen, K. K.; Lindroos, L. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, Onsala SE-439 92 (Sweden); Van der Werf, P. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Weiß, A., E-mail: decarli@mpia.de [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    We study the sub-millimeter properties of color-selected galaxies via a stacking analysis applied for the first time to interferometric data at sub-millimeter wavelengths. We base our study on 344 GHz ALMA continuum observations of ∼20''-wide fields centered on 86 sub-millimeter sources detected in the LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) Sub-millimeter Survey. We select various classes of galaxies (K-selected, star-forming sBzK galaxies, extremely red objects, and distant red galaxies) according to their optical/near-infrared fluxes. We find clear, >10σ detections in the stacked images of all these galaxy classes. We include in our stacking analysis Herschel/SPIRE data to constrain the dust spectral energy distribution of these galaxies. We find that their dust emission is well described by a modified blackbody with T {sub dust} ≈ 30 K and β = 1.6 and infrared luminosities of (5-11) × 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉} or implied star formation rates of 75-140 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We compare our results with those of previous studies based on single-dish observations at 870 μm and find that our flux densities are a factor 2-3 higher than previous estimates. The discrepancy is observed also after removing sources individually detected in ALESS maps. We report a similar discrepancy by repeating our analysis on 1.4 GHz observations of the whole ECDFS. Hence, we find tentative evidence that galaxies that are associated in projected and redshift space with sub-mm bright sources are brighter than the average population. Finally, we put our findings in the context of the cosmic star formation rate density as a function of redshift.

  8. Hierarchical High-Order Functional Connectivity Networks and Selective Feature Fusion for MCI Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaobo; Zhang, Han; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-07-01

    Conventional Functional connectivity (FC) analysis focuses on characterizing the correlation between two brain regions, whereas the high-order FC can model the correlation between two brain region pairs. To reduce the number of brain region pairs, clustering is applied to group all the brain region pairs into a small number of clusters. Then, a high-order FC network can be constructed based on the clustering result. By varying the number of clusters, multiple high-order FC networks can be generated and the one with the best overall performance can be finally selected. However, the important information contained in other networks may be simply discarded. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose to make full use of the information contained in all high-order FC networks. First, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering technique is applied such that the clustering result in one layer always depends on the previous layer, thus making the high-order FC networks in the two consecutive layers highly correlated. As a result, the features extracted from high-order FC network in each layer can be decomposed into two parts (blocks), i.e., one is redundant while the other might be informative or complementary, with respect to its previous layer. Then, a selective feature fusion method, which combines sequential forward selection and sparse regression, is developed to select a feature set from those informative feature blocks for classification. Experimental results confirm that our novel method outperforms the best single high-order FC network in diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects.

  9. Pipe leak diagnostic using high frequency piezoelectric pressure sensor and automatic selection of intrinsic mode function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Hanafi M.; Ghazali, M. F.; Yusof, M. F. M.; Remli, M. A. Pi; Kamarulzaman, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    In a recent study, the analysis of pressure transient signals could be seen as an accurate and low-cost method for leak and feature detection in water distribution systems. Transient phenomena occurs due to sudden changes in the fluid’s propagation in pipelines system caused by rapid pressure and flow fluctuation due to events such as closing and opening valves rapidly or through pump failure. In this paper, the feasibility of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method/technique in analysing the pressure transient signals in presented and discussed. HHT is a way to decompose a signal into intrinsic mode functions (IMF). However, the advantage of HHT is its difficulty in selecting the suitable IMF for the next data postprocessing method which is Hilbert Transform (HT). This paper reveals that utilizing the application of an integrated kurtosis-based algorithm for a z-filter technique (I-Kaz) to kurtosis ratio (I-Kaz-Kurtosis) allows/contributes to/leads to automatic selection of the IMF that should be used. This technique is demonstrated on a 57.90-meter medium high-density polyethylene (MDPE) pipe installed with a single artificial leak. The analysis results using the I-Kaz-kurtosis ratio revealed/confirmed that the method can be used as an automatic selection of the IMF although the noise level ratio of the signal is low. Therefore, the I-Kaz-kurtosis ratio method is recommended as a means to implement an automatic selection technique of the IMF for HHT analysis.

  10. Divergent selection-induced obesity alters the composition and functional pathways of chicken gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinmei; Zhao, Lele; Wang, Lifeng; Zhao, Wenjing; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Leng, Li; Wang, Yuxiang; He, Chuan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Heping; Li, Hui; Meng, He

    2016-11-28

    The gastrointestinal tract is populated by a complex and vast microbial network, with a composition that reflects the relationships of the symbiosis, co-metabolism, and co-evolution of these microorganisms with their host. The mechanism that underlies such interactions between the genetics of the host and gut microbiota remains elusive. To understand how genetic variation of the host shapes the gut microbiota and interacts with it to affect the metabolic phenotype of the host, we compared the abundance of microbial taxa and their functional performance between two lines of chickens (fat and lean) that had undergone long-term divergent selection for abdominal fat pad weight, which resulted in a 4.5-fold increase in the fat line compared to the lean line. Our analysis revealed that the proportions of Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria differed significantly between the two lines (8 vs. 18% and 33 vs. 24%, respectively) at the phylum level. Eight bacterial genera and 11 species were also substantially influenced by the host genotype. Differences between the two lines in the frequency of host alleles at loci that influence accumulation of abdominal fat were associated with differences in the abundance and composition of the gut microbiota. Moreover, microbial genome functional analysis showed that the gut microbiota was involved in pathways that are associated with fat metabolism such as lipid and glycan biosynthesis, as well as amino acid and energy metabolism. Interestingly, citrate cycle and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathways that play important roles in lipid storage and metabolism were more prevalent in the fat line than in the lean line. Our study demonstrates that long-term divergent selection not only alters the composition of the gut microbiota, but also influences its functional performance by enriching its relative abundance in microbial taxa. These results support the hypothesis that the host and gut microbiota interact at the

  11. Functional evaluation using multifocal electroretinogram after selective retina therapy with a microsecond-pulsed laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon Dong; Han, Jung Woo; Ohn, Young-Hoon; Brinkmann, Ralf; Park, Tae Kwann

    2014-12-11

    To evaluate the changes of retinal function with multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), and estimate the association between functional and structural changes after selective retina therapy (SRT) with microsecond-pulsed laser in comparison to continuous wave laser photocoagulation (cwPC). Selective retina therapy and cwPC were applied with 10 × 10 shots and 1/2 lesion-width on the retina in the right and left eyes of 20 healthy Chinchilla Bastard rabbits, respectively. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and mfERG were performed before, and on days 1, 7, and 30 after both laser treatments. The mean ratios of amplitudes and implicit times of N1 and P1 from eight hexagons covering laser-treated retinal lesions/total retina were measured. Histology was obtained after killing three rabbits at each time period to observe the anatomic changes after both laser treatments. The mean ratios of amplitudes of N1 and P1 in SRT lesions did not change significantly for 30 days after laser treatment. Only subtle reductions of the mean ratios of N1 and P1 amplitudes on day 1, thereafter the amplitudes showed the trend to recover toward baseline values. Histology and OCT revealed temporary and reversible morphologic changes after SRT, which restored to normal within 1 month. However, the mean ratios of N1 amplitudes on days 7 and 30 (P = 0.010, P < 0.001, respectively), and P1 amplitudes on days 7 and 30 (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively) declined significantly in cwPC lesions compared with baseline. Disorganization and atrophic changes were identified on histology and OCT after cwPC. The results suggest that SRT preserved retinal function as well as anatomical structure after treatment. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai [Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Lee, Po-Heng, E-mail: poheng76@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic approach to select a functional agent for adsorbent is proposed. • ITC and QCS were used to interpret the interaction between adsorbate and agent. • The interaction identifies the adsorption mechanism and performance. • This approach enables the manipulation of adsorption capacity optimization. - Abstract: This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C{sub 14}TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C{sub 14}HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C{sub 14}TAB and C{sub 14}HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization.

  13. Radiation damage and nuclear heating studies in selected functional materials during the JET DT campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengar, Igor, E-mail: igor.lengar@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Department, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Čufar, Aljaž [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Department, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Conroy, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Batistoni, Paola [ENEA, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Popovichev, Sergey [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Snoj, Luka [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Department, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Syme, Brian [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vila, Rafael [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Stankunas, Gediminas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Material damage calculation in during the JET DT campaign nuclear heating ratio of the damage due to 14 MeV neutronsgamma activity and dose rates. - Abstract: A new Deuterium-Tritium campaign (DTE2) is planned at JET in the next years, with a proposed 14 MeV neutron budget of 1.7 × 10{sup 21}, which is nearly an order of magnitude higher than any previous DT campaigns. The neutron and gamma ray fields inside the JET device during DT plasma operations at specific locations have previously been evaluated. It is estimated that a total neutron fluence on the first wall of JET of up to 10{sup 20} n/m{sup 2} could be achieved, which is comparable to the fluence occurring in ITER at the end of life in the rear part of the port plug, where several diagnostic components will be located. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the radiation damage and nuclear heating in selected functional materials to be irradiated at JET during DT plasma operation. These quantities are calculated with the use of the MCNP6 code and the FISPACT II code. In particular the neutron and gamma ray fields at specific locations inside the JET device, dedicated to material damage studies, were characterized. The emphasis is on a potential long term irradiation station located close to the first wall at outboard midplane, offering the opportunity to irradiate samples of functional materials used in ITER diagnostics, to assess the degradation of the physical properties. The radiation damage and the nuclear heating were calculated for selected materials irradiated in these positions and for the neutron flux and fluence expected in DTE2. The studied candidate functional materials include, among others, Sapphire, YAG, ZnS, Spinel, Diamond. In addition the activation of the internal irradiation holder itself was calculated with FISPACT. Damage levels in the range of 10{sup −5} dpa were found.

  14. Functional divergence caused by ancient positive selection of a Drosophila hybrid incompatibility locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Barbash

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrid lethality and sterility are a consequence of divergent evolution between species and serve to maintain the discrete identities of species. The evolution of hybrid incompatibilities has been described in widely accepted models by Dobzhansky and Muller where lineage-specific functional divergence is the essential characteristic of hybrid incompatibility genes. Experimentally tractable models are required to identify and test candidate hybrid incompatibility genes. Several Drosophila melanogaster genes involved in hybrid incompatibility have been identified but none has yet been shown to have functionally diverged in accordance with the Dobzhansky-Muller model. By introducing transgenic copies of the X-linked Hybrid male rescue (Hmr gene into D. melanogaster from its sibling species D. simulans and D. mauritiana, we demonstrate that Hmr has functionally diverged to cause F1 hybrid incompatibility between these species. Consistent with the Dobzhansky-Muller model, we find that Hmr has diverged extensively in the D. melanogaster lineage, but we also find extensive divergence in the sibling-species lineage. Together, these findings implicate over 13% of the amino acids encoded by Hmr as candidates for causing hybrid incompatibility. The exceptional level of divergence at Hmr cannot be explained by neutral processes because we use phylogenetic methods and population genetic analyses to show that the elevated amino-acid divergence in both lineages is due to positive selection in the distant past-at least one million generations ago. Our findings suggest that multiple substitutions driven by natural selection may be a general phenomenon required to generate hybrid incompatibility alleles.

  15. MOIRCS Deep Survey. VI. Near-infrared Spectroscopy of K-Selected Star-forming Galaxies at z ~ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Alexander, David M.; Ohta, Kouji; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Konishi, Masahiro; Yamada, Toru; Tanaka, Ichi; Omata, Koji; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brandt, Niel; Ichikawa, Takashi

    2010-07-01

    We present the results of near-infrared multi-object spectroscopic observations for 37 BzK-color-selected star-forming galaxies conducted with MOIRCS on the Subaru Telescope. The sample is drawn from the Ks -band-selected catalog of the MOIRCS Deep Survey in the GOODS-N region. About half of our samples are selected from the publicly available 24 μm-source catalog of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. Hα emission lines are detected from 23 galaxies, of which the median redshift is 2.12. We derived the star formation rates (SFRs) from extinction-corrected Hα luminosities. The extinction correction is estimated from the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of multiband photometric data covering UV to near-infrared wavelengths. The Balmer decrement of the stacked emission lines shows that the amount of extinction for the ionized gas is larger than that for the stellar continuum. From a comparison of the extinction-corrected Hα luminosity and other SFR indicators, we found that the relation between the dust properties of stellar continuum and ionized gas is different depending on the intrinsic SFR (differential extinction). We compared SFRs estimated from extinction-corrected Hα luminosities with stellar masses estimated from SED fitting. The comparison shows no correlation between SFR and stellar mass. Some galaxies with stellar mass smaller than ~1010 M sun show SFRs higher than ~100 M sun yr-1. The specific SFRs (SSFRs) of these galaxies are remarkably high; galaxies which have SSFR higher than ~10-8 yr-1 are found in eight of the present sample. From the best-fit parameters of SED fitting for these high-SSFR galaxies, we find that the average age of the stellar population is younger than 100 Myr, which is consistent with the implied high SSFR. The large SFR implies the possibility that the high-SSFR galaxies significantly contribute to the cosmic SFR density of the universe at z ~ 2. When we apply the

  16. Time-variant Catchment Transit Time Distribution and StorAge Selection Functions in Neighbouring Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; Rodriguez, N. B.; McGuire, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    The understanding of the catchment functions of storage, mixing, and release is a major research challenge as their behavior is fundamental for understanding water quality and flow quantity and timing. Generally, the complexity of the flow paths and associated mixing processes is still a major hindrance to a thorough understanding of catchment functions. Catchment transit time distributions can be used as an integrative descriptor of catchment functions. Here we aim to understand these fundamental catchment functions in four neighboring catchments of the HJA Experimental Forest in Oregon, USA. The areas of the four catchments (WS2, WS3, WS9, WS10) range from 0.085 to 1.011 km2. The catchments are fully forested with Douglas fir, western hemlock, and western redcedar dominating the lower elevations, and noble fir, Pacific silver fir, Douglas fir dominating higher elevations. Geology is dominated by volcaniclastics, covering 68% to 99% of the catchments. We employed a two storage conceptual model in each catchment for stream flow and transport modeling. We used solutions of the Master Equation to determine transit time distributions. We assumed randomly sampled/fully mixed conditions in each storage to model 18Oxygen in stream flow over a two year period. For example, modeling results for WS10 yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.84 for stream flow of and a NSE of 0.7 for the (volume weighted) 18O in stream flow. Furthermore, we derived the master transit time distribution (mttd) for the catchments. Eventually we investigated the landscape controls (topography, geology, morphology) on mttd and the dynamics of storage selection functions of each catchment.

  17. The ESO-Spitzer Imaging extragalactic Survey (ESIS). II. VIMOS I, z wide field imaging of ELAIS-S1 and selection of distant massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Rubele, S.; Franceschini, A.; Held, E. V.; Rizzi, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Cimatti, A.; Dias, J. E.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Maiolino, R.; Matute, I.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Sacchi, N.; Zamorani, G.

    2008-09-01

    Context: The ESO-Spitzer Imaging extragalactic Survey (ESIS) is the optical follow up of the Spitzer Wide-area Infra-Red Extragalactic survey (SWIRE) in the ELAIS-S1 region of the sky. Aims: In the era of observational cosmology, the main efforts are focused on the study of galaxy evolution and its environmental dependence. Wide area, multiwavelength, extragalactic surveys are needed in order to probe sufficiently large volumes, minimize cosmic variance and find significant numbers of rare objects. Methods: We present VIMOS I and z band imaging belonging to the ESIS survey. A total of ~4 deg2 was targeted in I and ~1 deg2 in z. Accurate data processing includes removal of fringing, and mosaicking of the complex observing pattern. Completeness levels and photometric uncertainties are estimated through simulations. The multi-wavelength data available in the area are exploited to identify high-redshift galaxies, using the IR-peak technique. Results: More than 300 000 galaxies have been detected in the I band and ~50 000 in the z band. Object coordinates are defined within an uncertainty of ~0.2 arcsec rms, with respect to GSC 2.2. We reach a 90% average completeness at 23.1 and 22.5 mag (Vega) in the I and z bands, respectively. On the basis of IRAC colors, we identify galaxies having the 1.6 μm stellar peak shifted to z = 1-3. The new I, z band data provide reliable constraints to help avoid low-redshift interlopers and reinforce this selection. Roughly 1000 galaxies between z = 2-3 are identified over the ESIS ~4 deg^2, at the SWIRE 5.8 μm depth (25.8 μJy at 3σ). These are the best galaxy candidates to dominate the massive tail (M > 1011 M_⊙) of the z > 2 mass function. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, ESO No. 168.A-0322(A). ESIS web page:http://www.astro.unipd.it/esis Appendix A, Tables 4 and 5 are only available at http://www.aanda.org The full I and z band catalogs (see Table [see full textsee full textsee full

  18. Architecture and functioning of child and adolescent mental health services: a 28-country survey in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Giulia; Singh, Swaran P; Boricevic-Marsanic, Vlatka; Dieleman, Gwen; Dodig-Ćurković, Katarina; Franic, Tomislav; Gerritsen, Suzanne E; Griffin, James; Maras, Athanasios; McNicholas, Fiona; O'Hara, Lesley; Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Paul, Moli; Schulze, Ulrike; Street, Cathy; Tremmery, Sabine; Tuomainen, Helena; Verhulst, Frank; Warwick, Jane; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Santosh, Paramala

    2017-09-01

    The WHO Child and Adolescent Mental Health Atlas, published in 2005, reported that child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in Europe differed substantially in their architecture and functioning. We assessed the characteristics of national CAMHS across the European Union (EU), including legal aspects of adolescent care. Using an online mapping survey aimed at expert(s) in each country, we obtained data for all 28 countries in the EU. The characteristics and activities of CAMHS (ie, availability of services, inpatient beds, and clinicians and organisations, and delivery of specific CAMHS services and treatments) varied considerably between countries, as did funding sources and user access. Neurodevelopmental disorders were the most frequent diagnostic group (up to 81%) for people seen at CAMHS (data available from only 13 [46%] countries). 20 (70%) countries reported having an official national child and adolescent mental health policy, covering young people until their official age of transition to adulthood. The heterogeneity in resource allocation did not seem to match epidemiological burden. Substantial improvements in the planning, monitoring, and delivery of mental health services for children and adolescents are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gear Selectivity Survey - Haddock

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cooperative Haddock/Atlantic Cod Separator Trawl Experiment (URI Sea Grant/Fishing Industry) Haddock and cod associate in space and time in the waters of the...

  20. Acetylation of pregnane X receptor protein determines selective function independent of ligand activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Arunima; Pasquel, Danielle [Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar [Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Mani, Sridhar, E-mail: sridhar.mani@einstein.yu.edu [Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a major regulatory protein, is modified by acetylation. {yields} PXR undergoes dynamic deacetylation upon ligand-mediated activation. {yields} SIRT1 partially mediates PXR deacetylation. {yields} PXR deacetylation per se induces lipogenesis mimicking ligand-mediated activation. -- Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR), like other members of its class of nuclear receptors, undergoes post-translational modification [PTM] (e.g., phosphorylation). However, it is unknown if acetylation (a major and common form of protein PTM) is observed on PXR and, if it is, whether it is of functional consequence. PXR has recently emerged as an important regulatory protein with multiple ligand-dependent functions. In the present work we show that PXR is indeed acetylated in vivo. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase and a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, partially mediates deacetylation of PXR. Most importantly, the acetylation status of PXR regulates its selective function independent of ligand activation.

  1. Selective functional connectivity abnormality of the transition zone of the inferior parietal lobule in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingyun; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Qin, Wen; Zhu, Jiajia; Xu, Lixue; Xu, Yongjie; Yu, Chunshui

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional alterations in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in schizophrenia have been frequently reported; however, the IPL connectivity changes in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Based on heterogeneity of the IPL in structure, connection and function, we hypothesize that the resting-state functional connectivities (rsFCs) of the IPL subregions are differentially affected in schizophrenia. This study included 95 schizophrenia patients and 104 healthy controls. The IPL subregions were defined according to a previous in vivo connection-based parcellation study. We calculated the rsFC of each IPL subregion and compared them between the two groups while controlling for the effects of age, gender, and grey matter volume. Among the six subregions of the left IPL and the five subregions of the right IPL, only the bilateral PFm (a transition zone of the IPL) subregions exhibited abnormal rsFC in schizophrenia. Specifically, the left PFm showed increased rsFC with the bilateral lingual gyri in schizophrenia patients than in healthy controls. The right PFm exhibited increased rsFC with the right lingual gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus, and bilateral mid-cingulate and sensorimotor cortices in schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest a selective rsFC abnormality in the IPL subregions in schizophrenia, characterized by the increased rsFC between the PFm subregion of the IPL and the visual and sensorimotor areas.

  2. The mean density and two-point correlation function for the CfA redshift survey slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lapparent, Valerie; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of large-scale inhomogeneities on the determination of the mean number density and the two-point spatial correlation function were investigated for two complete slices of the extension of the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) redshift survey (de Lapparent et al., 1986). It was found that the mean galaxy number density for the two strips is uncertain by 25 percent, more so than previously estimated. The large uncertainty in the mean density introduces substantial uncertainty in the determination of the two-point correlation function, particularly at large scale; thus, for the 12-deg slice of the CfA redshift survey, the amplitude of the correlation function at intermediate scales is uncertain by a factor of 2. The large uncertainties in the correlation functions might reflect the lack of a fair sample.

  3. Boronic acid functionalized graphene quantum dots as a fluorescent probe for selective and sensitive glucose determination in microdialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhi-bei; Zhou, Xinguang; Gu, Li; Lan, Renmin; Sun, Dandan; Yu, Dajun; Shi, Guoyue

    2013-10-28

    3-Aminobenzeneboronic acid functionalized graphene quantum dots (APBA-GQDs) were synthesized and used as a selective and sensitive sensing system for glucose. Combined with microdialysis, glucose was monitored successfully in vivo in the striatum of rat.

  4. Pd/Norbornene: A Winning Combination for Selective Aromatic Functionalization via C-H Bond Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ca', Nicola; Fontana, Marco; Motti, Elena; Catellani, Marta

    2016-07-19

    Direct C-H bond activation is an important reaction in synthetic organic chemistry. This methodology has the potential to simplify reactions by avoiding the use of prefunctionalized reagents. However, selectivity, especially site selectivity, remains challenging. Sequential reactions, in which different molecules or groups are combined in an ordered sequence, represent a powerful tool for the construction of complex molecules in a single operation. We have discovered and developed a synthetic methodology that combines selective C-H bond activation with sequential reactions. This procedure, which is now known as the "Catellani reaction", enables the selective functionalization of both the ortho and ipso positions of aryl halides. The desired molecules are obtained with high selectivity from a pool of simple precursors. These molecules are assembled under the control of a palladacycle, which is formed through the joint action of a metal (Pd) and an olefin such as norbornene. These two species act cooperatively with an aryl halide to construct the palladacycle, which is formed through ortho-C-H activation of the original aryl halide. The resulting complex acts as a scaffold to direct the reaction (via Pd(IV)) of other species, such as alkyl or aryl halides and amination or acylation agents, toward the sp(2) C-Pd bond. At the end of this process, because of steric hindrance, the scaffold is dismantled by norbornene extrusion. Pd(0) is cleaved from the organic product through C-C, C-H, C-N, C-O, or C-B coupling, in agreement with the well-known reactivity of aryl-Pd complexes. The cycle involves Pd(0), Pd(II), and Pd(IV) species. In particular, our discovery relates to alkylation and arylation reactions. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in the following areas: (a) the installation of an amino or an acyl group at the ortho position of aryl halides, (b) the formation of a C-B bond at the ipso position, (c) the achievement of meta-C-H bond activation of aryl

  5. On the validity of systemic functional approaches as a tool for selecting materials in CLIL contexts: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Filardo Llamas, Laura (ed. lit.); Gonz??lez-Cascos Jim??nez, Mar??a Elena; Riesco Canduela, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the validity of functional approaches within discourse analysis as a tool for selecting classroom material. By taking into account the linguistic realization of the three main contextual variables, namely field, tenor, and mode, and their impact on the function of language within each particular context of communication, we believe that the task of selecting and devising materials for CLIL setting shall be eased. This hypothesis becomes the p...

  6. Selective detection of SO2 at room temperature based on organoplatinum functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cid, C.C.; Jimenez-Cadena, G.; Riu, J.; Maroto, A.; Rius, F.X.; Batema, G.D.; van Koten, G.

    2009-01-01

    We report a field effect transistor (FET) based on a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that for the first time can selectively detect a single gaseous molecule in air by chemically functionalizing the SWCNTs with a selective molecular receptor. As a target model we used SO2. The

  7. Sensitivity of landscape resistance estimates based on point selection functions to scale and behavioral state: Pumas as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Paul Beier; Samuel A. Cushman; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2014-01-01

    Estimating landscape resistance to animal movement is the foundation for connectivity modeling, and resource selection functions based on point data are commonly used to empirically estimate resistance. In this study, we used GPS data points acquired at 5-min intervals from radiocollared pumas in southern California to model context-dependent point selection...

  8. Cortical functional hyperconnectivity in a mouse model of depression and selective network effects of ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGirr, Alexander; LeDue, Jeffrey; Chan, Allen W; Xie, Yicheng; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-08-01

    See Huang and Liston (doi:10.1093/awx166) for a scientific commentary on this article.Human depression is associated with glutamatergic dysfunction and alterations in resting state network activity. However, the indirect nature of human in vivo glutamate and activity assessments obscures mechanistic details. Using the chronic social defeat mouse model of depression, we determine how mesoscale glutamatergic networks are altered after chronic stress, and in response to the rapid acting antidepressant, ketamine. Transgenic mice (Ai85) expressing iGluSnFR (a recombinant protein sensor) permitted real-time in vivo selective characterization of extracellular glutamate and longitudinal imaging of mesoscale cortical glutamatergic functional circuits. Mice underwent chronic social defeat or a control condition, while spontaneous cortical activity was longitudinally sampled. After chronic social defeat, we observed network-wide glutamate functional hyperconnectivity in defeated animals, which was confirmed with voltage sensitive dye imaging in an independent cohort. Subanaesthetic ketamine has unique effects in defeated animals. Acutely, subanaesthetic ketamine induces large global cortical glutamate transients in defeated animals, and an elevated subanaesthetic dose resulted in sustained global increase in cortical glutamate. Local cortical inhibition of glutamate transporters in naïve mice given ketamine produced a similar extracellular glutamate phenotype, with both glutamate transients and a dose-dependent accumulation of glutamate. Twenty-four hours after ketamine, normalization of depressive-like behaviour in defeated animals was accompanied by reduced glutamate functional connectivity strength. Altered glutamate functional connectivity in this animal model confirms the central role of glutamate dynamics as well as network-wide changes after chronic stress and in response to ketamine. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  9. TP53 mutations in human cancers: functional selection and impact on cancer prognosis and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitjean, A; Achatz, M I W; Borresen-Dale, A L; Hainaut, P; Olivier, M

    2007-04-02

    A large amount of data is available on the functional impact of missense mutations in TP53 and on mutation patterns in many different cancers. New data on mutant p53 protein function, cancer phenotype and prognosis have recently been integrated in the International Agency for Research on Cancer TP53 database (http://www-p53.iarc.fr/). Based on these data, we summarize here current knowledge on the respective roles of mutagenesis and biological selection of mutations with specific functional characteristic in shaping the patterns and phenotypes of mutations observed in human cancers. The main conclusion is that intrinsic mutagenicity rates, loss of transactivation activities, and to a lesser extent, dominant-negative activities are the main driving forces that determine TP53 mutation patterns and influence tumor phenotype. In contrast, current experimental data on the acquisition of oncogenic activities (gain of function) by p53 mutants are too scarce and heterogenous to assess whether this property has an impact on tumor development and outcome. In the case of inherited TP53 mutations causing Li-Fraumeni and related syndromes, the age at onset of some tumor types is in direct relation with the degree of loss of transactivation capacity of missense mutations. Finally, studies on large case series demonstrate that TP53 mutations are independent markers of bad prognosis in breast and several other cancers, and that the exact type and position of the mutation influences disease outcome. Further studies are needed to determine how TP53 haplotypes or loss of alleles interact with mutations to modulate their impact on cancer development and prognosis.

  10. [The effect of various illumination sources on dynamics of selected visual functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieńkowska-Machoy, E

    1995-01-01

    The ever-increasing use of sodium discharge lamp, being most economical among all of this type has evoked a wave of studies on the action of this lighting source. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the effect of illumination provided by this new type of high-pressure sodium discharge lamp with improved coefficiency of transmitting the colours (HPSM) on selected visual functions, as well as to compare with results having been established in illumination by filament lamps (GL) and standard sodium discharge lamp (HPS). HPSM are more closer to white light, thus more profitable for sight physiology system and central nervous system than standard sodium discharge lamps. The intention fo the paper was to obtain the answer whether in comparison with filament and standard high-pressure sodium discharge lamp, the new mode of illumination provides better psychophysical conditions complying with the used ergonomic principles, and if there is any possibility for HPSM to be applied for illuminating the closed spaces. The study involved 63 persons, aged from 17 to 54 years. The comparative group comprised 50 persons, who were subjected to the tests with filament and standard sodium illumination. All the studied subjects were divided into 3 age groups (I-to 30 years, II-31-40 years, III-over 41 years). The following visual functions were studied: acuity of far looking vision, proximity visual point, field of vision, time of conscious reaction minimal, medium and maximal, and the number of mistakes during the performed test, convergent, divergence fusion for distance and proximity as well as manual spatial visual localization. All the said examinations were carried out three times within morning hours and in this way gaining the possibility of evaluating the dynamics of functional changes in time (Fig. 1-9). The obtained results were compared with those established after having performed the same tests under standard sodium lighting and filament illumination. Conclusions

  11. Regulation of β2-adrenergic receptor function by conformationally selective single-domain intrabodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staus, Dean P; Wingler, Laura M; Strachan, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    to selectively bind agonist- or antagonist-occupied receptors. When expressed as intrabodies, they inhibited G protein activation (cyclic AMP accumulation), G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-mediated receptor phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment, and receptor internalization to varying extents......The biologic activity induced by ligand binding to orthosteric or allosteric sites on a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is mediated by stabilization of specific receptor conformations. In the case of the β2 adrenergic receptor, these ligands are generally small-molecule agonists or antagonists....... However, a monomeric single-domain antibody (nanobody) from the Camelid family was recently found to allosterically bind and stabilize an active conformation of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR). Here, we set out to study the functional interaction of 18 related nanobodies with the β2AR to investigate...

  12. Selective Preparation of Furfural from Xylose over Sulfonic Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Sba-15 Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 materials were prepared using the co-condensation and grafting methods, respectively, and their catalytic performance in the dehydration of xylose to furfural was examined. SBA-15-SO3H(C prepared by the co-condensation method showed 92–95% xylose conversion and 74% furfural selectivity, and 68–70% furfural yield under the given reaction conditions. The deactivation and regeneration of the SBA-15-SO3H(C catalyst for the dehydration of xylose was also investigated. The results indicate that the used and regeneration catalysts retained the SBA-15 mesoporous structure, and the S content of SBA-15-SO3H(C almost did not change. The deactivation of the catalysts is proposed to be associated with the accumulation of byproducts, which is caused by the loss reaction of furfural. After regeneration by H2O2, the catalytic activity of the catalyst almost recovered.

  13. Navigating Glycerol Conversion Roadmap and Heterogeneous Catalyst Selection Aided by Density Functional Theory: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol has been utilized in an extremely diversified manner throughout human civilization—ranging from food, to various consumer products, to pharmaceuticals, and even explosives. Large surplus in glycerol supply thanks to biodiesel production and biomass processing has created a demand to further boost its utility. One growing area is to expand the use of glycerol as an alternative feedstock to supplement fuels and chemicals production. Various catalytic processes have been developed. This review summarizes catalytic materials for glycerol reforming, hydrodeoxygenation, and oxidation. In particular, rationale for catalyst selection and new catalyst design will be discussed aided by the knowledge of reaction mechanisms. The role of theoretical density functional theory (DFT in elucidating complex glycerol conversion chemistries is particularly emphasized.

  14. Functionalized zinc oxide nanorod with ionophore-membrane coating as an intracellular Ca2+ selective sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, M. H.; Fulati, A.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Brännmark, Cecilia; Strâlfors, Peter; Börjesson, Sara I.; Elinder, Fredrik

    2009-07-01

    The tip of a borosilicate glass capillary with functionalized hexagonal ZnO nanorods was used to make a sensitive electrochemical intracellular Ca2+ sensor. To adjust the sensor for Ca2+ measurements with sufficient selectivity and stability, polyvinylchloride membrane containing Ca2+ ionophores were coated on the surface. The membrane covered ZnO nanorods exhibited a Ca2+-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The potential difference was linear over a large concentration range (100 nM-10 mM). The measurements of Ca2+ concentrations using our ZnO nanorods sensor in human fat cells or in frog egg cells were consistent with values of Ca2+ concentrations reported in the literature. This nanoelectrode device paves the way to measurements of intracellular biochemical species in specific locations within single living cells.

  15. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. II. Spectroscopic redshifts and comparisons to color selections of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Conseil, S.; Hamer, S.; Akhlaghi, M.; Bouché, N.; Clément, B.; Desprez, G.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Leclercq, F.; Maseda, M.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Paalvast, M.; Tresse, L.; Ventou, E.; Kollatschny, W.; Boogaard, L. A.; Finley, H.; Marino, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted a two-layered spectroscopic survey (1' × 1' ultra deep and 3' × 3' deep regions) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). The combination of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and wide wavelength coverage provides an order of magnitude improvement in spectroscopically confirmed redshifts in the HUDF; i.e., 1206 secure spectroscopic redshifts for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continuum selected objects, which corresponds to 15% of the total (7904). The redshift distribution extends well beyond z> 3 and to HST/F775W magnitudes as faint as ≈ 30 mag (AB, 1σ). In addition, 132 secure redshifts were obtained for sources with no HST counterparts that were discovered in the MUSE data cubes by a blind search for emission-line features. In total, we present 1338 high quality redshifts, which is a factor of eight increase compared with the previously known spectroscopic redshifts in the same field. We assessed redshifts mainly with the spectral features [O II] at zhttp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/608/A2

  16. Smoking Characteristics of Adults With Selected Lifetime Mental Illnesses: Results From the 2007 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Davis, Shane P.; Dube, Shanta R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated smoking prevalence, frequency, intensity, and cessation attempts among US adults with selected diagnosed lifetime mental illnesses. Methods. We used data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey on 23 393 noninstitutionalized US adults to obtain age-adjusted estimates of smoking prevalence, frequency, intensity, and cessation attempts for adults screened as having serious psychological distress and persons self-reporting bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder or hyperactivity, dementia, or phobias or fears. Results. The age-adjusted smoking prevalence of adults with mental illness or serious psychological distress ranged from 34.3% (phobias or fears) to 59.1% (schizophrenia) compared with 18.3% of adults with no such illness. Smoking prevalence increased with the number of comorbid mental illnesses. Cessation attempts among persons with diagnosed mental illness or serious psychological distress were comparable to attempts among adults without mental illnesses or distress; however, lower quit ratios were observed among adults with these diagnoses, indicating lower success in quitting. Conclusions. The prevalence of current smoking was higher among persons with mental illnesses than among adults without mental illnesses. Our findings stress the need for prevention and cessation efforts targeting adults with mental illnesses. PMID:20966369

  17. Structure- and function-based design of Plasmodium-selective proteasome inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; van der Linden, Wouter A; Xie, Stanley C; Yoo, Euna; Foe, Ian T; Tilley, Leann; Craik, Charles S; da Fonseca, Paula C A; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-02-11

    The proteasome is a multi-component protease complex responsible for regulating key processes such as the cell cycle and antigen presentation. Compounds that target the proteasome are potentially valuable tools for the treatment of pathogens that depend on proteasome function for survival and replication. In particular, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to be toxic for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at all stages of its life cycle. Most compounds that have been tested against the parasite also inhibit the mammalian proteasome, resulting in toxicity that precludes their use as therapeutic agents. Therefore, better definition of the substrate specificity and structural properties of the Plasmodium proteasome could enable the development of compounds with sufficient selectivity to allow their use as anti-malarial agents. To accomplish this goal, here we use a substrate profiling method to uncover differences in the specificities of the human and P. falciparum proteasome. We design inhibitors based on amino-acid preferences specific to the parasite proteasome, and find that they preferentially inhibit the β2-subunit. We determine the structure of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome bound to the inhibitor using cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis, to a resolution of 3.6 Å. These data reveal the unusually open P. falciparum β2 active site and provide valuable information about active-site architecture that can be used to further refine inhibitor design. Furthermore, consistent with the recent finding that the proteasome is important for stress pathways associated with resistance of artemisinin family anti-malarials, we observe growth inhibition synergism with low doses of this β2-selective inhibitor in artemisinin-sensitive and -resistant parasites. Finally, we demonstrate that a parasite-selective inhibitor could be used to attenuate parasite growth in vivo without appreciable toxicity to the host. Thus, the Plasmodium proteasome is a

  18. Selective functionalization and loading of biomolecules in crystalline silicon nanotube field-effect-transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soonshin; Chen, Zack C. Y.; Noh, Hyunwoo; Lee, Ju Hun; Liu, Hang; Cha, Jennifer N.; Xiang, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Crystalline silicon nanotubes (Si NTs) provide distinctive advantages as electrical and biochemical analysis scaffolds through their unique morphology and electrical tunability compared to solid nanowires or amorphous/non-conductive nanotubes. Such potential is investigated in this report. Gate-dependent four-probe current-voltage analysis reveals electrical properties such as resistivity to differ by nearly 3 orders of magnitude between crystalline and amorphous Si NTs. Analysis of transistor transfer characteristics yields a field effect mobility of 40.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 in crystalline Si NTs. The hollow morphology also allows selective inner/outer surface functionalization and loading capability either as a carrier for molecular targets or as a nanofluidic channel for biomolecular assays. We present for the first time a demonstration of internalization of fluorescent dyes (rhodamine) and biomolecules (BSA) in Si NTs as long as 22 μm in length.Crystalline silicon nanotubes (Si NTs) provide distinctive advantages as electrical and biochemical analysis scaffolds through their unique morphology and electrical tunability compared to solid nanowires or amorphous/non-conductive nanotubes. Such potential is investigated in this report. Gate-dependent four-probe current-voltage analysis reveals electrical properties such as resistivity to differ by nearly 3 orders of magnitude between crystalline and amorphous Si NTs. Analysis of transistor transfer characteristics yields a field effect mobility of 40.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 in crystalline Si NTs. The hollow morphology also allows selective inner/outer surface functionalization and loading capability either as a carrier for molecular targets or as a nanofluidic channel for biomolecular assays. We present for the first time a demonstration of internalization of fluorescent dyes (rhodamine) and biomolecules (BSA) in Si NTs as long as 22 μm in length. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Modelling (Fig. S1) and

  19. Metformin induces PGC-1α expression and selectively affects hepatic PGC-1α functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatsinki, Sanna-Mari; Buler, Marcin; Salomäki, Henriikka; Koulu, Markku; Pavek, Petr; Hakkola, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The objective of this study was to determine how the AMPK activating antidiabetic drug metformin affects the major activator of hepatic gluconeogenesis, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and liver functions regulated by PGC-1α. Experimental Approach Mouse and human primary hepatocytes and mice in vivo were treated with metformin. Adenoviral overexpression, siRNA and reporter gene constructs were used for mechanistic studies. Key Results Metformin increased PGC-1α mRNA and protein expression in mouse primary hepatocytes. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) (another AMPK activator) had the opposite effect. Metformin also increased PGC-1α in human primary hepatocytes; this effect of metformin was abolished by AMPK inhibitor compound C and sirtuin 1 siRNA. AMPK overexpression by AMPK-Ad also increased PGC-1α. Whereas metformin increased PGC-1α, it down-regulated gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Furthermore, metformin attenuated the increase in PEPCK and G6Pase mRNAs induced by PGC-1α overexpression, but did not affect PGC-1α-mediated induction of mitochondrial genes. Metformin down-regulated several key transcription factors that mediate the effect of PGC-1α on gluconeogenic genes including Krüppel-like factor 15, forkhead box protein O1 and hepatocyte NF 4α, whereas it increased nuclear respiratory factor 1, which is involved in PGC-1α-mediated regulation of mitochondrial proteins. Conclusions and Implications Down-regulation of PGC-1α is not necessary for suppression of gluconeogenic genes by metformin. Importantly, metformin selectively affects hepatic PGC-1α-mediated gene regulation and prevents activation of gluconeogenesis, but does not influence its regulation of mitochondrial genes. These results identify selective modulation of hepatic PGC-1α functions as a novel mechanism involved in the therapeutic action of metformin. PMID:24428821

  20. Metformin induces PGC-1α expression and selectively affects hepatic PGC-1α functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatsinki, Sanna-Mari; Buler, Marcin; Salomäki, Henriikka; Koulu, Markku; Pavek, Petr; Hakkola, Jukka

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how the AMPK activating antidiabetic drug metformin affects the major activator of hepatic gluconeogenesis, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and liver functions regulated by PGC-1α. Mouse and human primary hepatocytes and mice in vivo were treated with metformin. Adenoviral overexpression, siRNA and reporter gene constructs were used for mechanistic studies. Metformin increased PGC-1α mRNA and protein expression in mouse primary hepatocytes. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) (another AMPK activator) had the opposite effect. Metformin also increased PGC-1α in human primary hepatocytes; this effect of metformin was abolished by AMPK inhibitor compound C and sirtuin 1 siRNA. AMPK overexpression by AMPK-Ad also increased PGC-1α. Whereas metformin increased PGC-1α, it down-regulated gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Furthermore, metformin attenuated the increase in PEPCK and G6Pase mRNAs induced by PGC-1α overexpression, but did not affect PGC-1α-mediated induction of mitochondrial genes. Metformin down-regulated several key transcription factors that mediate the effect of PGC-1α on gluconeogenic genes including Krüppel-like factor 15, forkhead box protein O1 and hepatocyte NF 4α, whereas it increased nuclear respiratory factor 1, which is involved in PGC-1α-mediated regulation of mitochondrial proteins. Down-regulation of PGC-1α is not necessary for suppression of gluconeogenic genes by metformin. Importantly, metformin selectively affects hepatic PGC-1α-mediated gene regulation and prevents activation of gluconeogenesis, but does not influence its regulation of mitochondrial genes. These results identify selective modulation of hepatic PGC-1α functions as a novel mechanism involved in the therapeutic action of metformin. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Time-dependent effects of cortisol on selective attention and emotional interference: a functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marloes J.A.G. Henckens

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress is known to induce a state of hypervigilance, allowing optimal detection of threats. Although one may benefit from sensitive sensory processing, it comes at the cost of unselective attention and increased distraction by irrelevant information. Corticosteroids have been shown to profoundly influence brain function in a time-dependent manner, causing rapid non-genomic and slow genomic effects. Here, we investigated how these time-dependent effects influence the neural mechanisms underlying selective attention and the inhibition of emotional distracters in humans. Implementing a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 65 young healthy men received 10 mg hydrocortisone either 60 min (rapid effects or 270 min (slow effects, or placebo prior to an emotional distraction task, consisting of color-naming of either neutral or aversive words. Overall, participants responded slower to aversive compared to neutral words, indicating emotional interference with selective attention. Importantly, the rapid effects of corticosteroids increased emotional interference, which was associated with reduced amygdala inhibition to aversive words. Moreover, they induced enhanced amygdala connectivity with frontoparietal brain regions, which may reflect increased influence of the amygdala on an executive network. The slow effects of corticosteroids acted on the neural correlates of sustained attention. They decreased overall activity in the cuneus, possibly indicating reduced bottom-up attentional processing, and disrupted amygdala connectivity to the insula, potentially reducing emotional interference. Altogether, these data suggest a time-specific corticosteroid modulation of attentive processing. Whereas high circulating corticosteroid levels acutely increase emotional interference, possibly facilitating the detection of threats, a history of elevation might promote sustained attention and thereby contribute to stress-recovery of cognitive

  2. Expression and purification of native and functional influenza A virus matrix 2 proton selective ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desuzinges Mandon, Elodie; Traversier, Aurélien; Champagne, Anne; Benier, Lorraine; Audebert, Stéphane; Balme, Sébastien; Dejean, Emmanuel; Rosa Calatrava, Manuel; Jawhari, Anass

    2017-03-01

    Influenza A virus displays one of the highest infection rates of all human viruses and therefore represents a severe human health threat associated with an important economical challenge. Influenza matrix protein 2 (M2) is a membrane protein of the viral envelope that forms a proton selective ion channel. Here we report the expression and native isolation of full length active M2 without mutations or fusions. The ability of the influenza virus to efficiently infect MDCK cells was used to express native M2 protein. Using a Calixarene detergents/surfactants based approach; we were able to solubilize most of M2 from the plasma membrane and purify it. The tetrameric form of native M2 was maintained during the protein preparation. Mass spectrometry shows that M2 was phosphorylated in its cytoplasmic tail (serine 64) and newly identifies an acetylation of the highly conserved Lysine 60. ELISA shows that solubilized and purified M2 was specifically recognized by M2 antibody MAB65 and was able to displace the antibody from M2 MDCK membranes. Using a bilayer voltage clamp measurement assay, we demonstrate a pH dependent proton selective ion channel activity. The addition of the M2 ion channel blocker amantadine allows a total inhibition of the channel activity, illustrating therefore the specificity of purified M2 activity. Taken together, this work shows the production and isolation of a tetrameric and functional native M2 ion channel that will pave the way to structural and functional characterization of native M2, conformational antibody development, small molecules compounds screening towards vaccine treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective block of postsynaptic kainate receptors reveals their function at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Paulo S; Lanore, Frédéric; Veran, Julien; Artinian, Julien; Blanchet, Christophe; Crépel, Valérie; Perrais, David; Mulle, Christophe

    2013-02-01

    Progress in understanding the roles of kainate receptors (KARs) in synaptic integration, synaptic networks, and higher brain function has been hampered by the lack of selective pharmacological tools. We have found that UBP310 and related willardiine derivatives, previously characterized as selective GluK1 and GluK3 KAR antagonists, block postsynaptic KARs at hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) CA3 synapses while sparing AMPA and NMDA receptors. We further show that UBP310 is an antagonist of recombinant GluK2/GluK5 receptors, the major population of KARs in the brain. Postsynaptic KAR receptor blockade at MF synapses significantly reduces the sustained depolarization, which builds up during repetitive activity, and impacts on spike transmission mediated by heterosynaptic signals. In addition, KARs present in aberrant MF synapses in the epileptic hippocampus were also blocked by UBP310. Our results support a specific role for postsynaptic KARs in synaptic integration of CA3 pyramidal cells and describe a tool that will be instrumental in understanding the physiopathological role of KARs in the brain.

  4. Conjugated polymers as functional hole selective layers in efficient metal halide perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colodrero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Interface engineering is still an open question to be solved in the emerging field of metal halide perovskite solar cells. Although impressive advances have been already made in controlling the composition and the quality of the active layer, stability issues of complete devices are limiting yet the forefront of a future next generation of printable photovoltaics. At this point, the choice of proper charge selective layers is essential to yield perovskite solar cells with an optimal compromise between efficiency and stability. Even though diverse n-type materials displaying outstanding properties have been recently proposed, the record performances are yet limited to the use of p-type small molecule compounds with low hole mobility in their pristine form. In here, conjugated polymers widely used in the field of polymer solar cells are integrated in perovskite devices to behave as the hole selective layers. Apart from offering suitable hole mobility and energy matching with the valence band of the perovskite material to enable efficient charge extraction, their behaviour as potential functional barrier to protect the underlying perovskite film in standard n-i-p architectures is also discussed. Future work focused on developing novel alternatives based on more stable and efficient conjugated polymers might pave the way for the large scale production of perovskite solar cells.

  5. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD Approach in Determining the Employer’s Selection Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Muda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial training program is part of the academic curriculum at the tertiary level. It plays an important role in providing students with the exposure to a real working environment in the industry. Through this program, the higher education institutions (HEI could identify the gaps in the curriculum based on the requirements from the industry. In addition, the feedback from the industry will help the HEI to equip students with relevant skills according to the demands from the industry. Indirectly, it can help to address the issue of unemployed graduates of which the number seems to increase from time to time. Therefore, this study aims to obtain the feedback from the employers out there in order to determine the most preferred criteria in selecting students for the industrial training placement by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD approach. The findings, through the development of house of quality based on the QFD approach, show that communication skills and students’ participation in sports and cocurricular activities at their university are the most preferred selection criteria. Therefore, the QFD approach can be used to translate the employers’ feedback in improving the marketability of the students in the industry.

  6. Aromatic Functionality of Target Proteins Influences Monomer Selection for Creating Artificial Antibodies on Plasmonic Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Luan, Jingyi; Kharasch, Evan D; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Morrissey, Jeremiah J

    2017-01-11

    Natural antibodies used as biorecognition elements suffer from numerous shortcomings, such as limited chemical and environmental stability and cost. Artificial antibodies based on molecular imprinting are an attractive alternative to natural antibodies. We investigated the role of aromatic interactions in target recognition capabilities of artificial antibodies. Three proteins with different aromatic amino acid content were employed as model targets. Artificial antibodies were formed on nanostructures using combinations of silane monomers of varying aromatic functionality. We employed refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanostructures as a transduction platform for monitoring various steps in the imprinting process and to quantify the target recognition capabilities of the artificial antibodies. The sensitivity of the artificial antibodies with aromatic interactions exhibited a protein-dependent enhancement. Selectivity and sensitivity enhancement due to the presence of aromatic groups in imprinted polymer matrix was found to be higher for target proteins with higher aromatic amino acid content. Our results indicate that tailoring the monomer composition based on the amino acid content of the target protein can improve the sensitivity of plasmonic biosensors based on artificial antibodies without affecting the selectivity.

  7. Executive Functions of Divers Are Selectively Impaired at 20-Meter Water Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Steinberg

    2017-06-01

    considered for diver’s safety, since inhibition is required in self-control requiring situations where impulsive and automatic behavior must be inhibited. Our interpretation of these selective impairments is based on a discussion suggesting that different neural networks within the central nervous system, which process specific executive functions, are affected differently by nitrogen narcosis.

  8. Filtered selection coupled with support vector machines generate a functionally relevant prediction model for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabere MN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Musa Nur Gabere,1 Mohamed Aly Hussein,1 Mohammad Azhar Aziz2 1Department of Bioinformatics, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Colorectal Cancer Research Program, Department of Medical Genomics, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Purpose: There has been considerable interest in using whole-genome expression profiles for the classification of colorectal cancer (CRC. The selection of important features is a crucial step before training a classifier.Methods: In this study, we built a model that uses support vector machine (SVM to classify cancer and normal samples using Affymetrix exon microarray data obtained from 90 samples of 48 patients diagnosed with CRC. From the 22,011 genes, we selected the 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 genes most relevant to CRC using the minimum-redundancy–maximum-relevance (mRMR technique. With these gene sets, an SVM model was designed using four different kernel types (linear, polynomial, radial basis function [RBF], and sigmoid.Results: The best model, which used 30 genes and RBF kernel, outperformed other combinations; it had an accuracy of 84% for both ten fold and leave-one-out cross validations in discriminating the cancer samples from the normal samples. With this 30 genes set from mRMR, six classifiers were trained using random forest (RF, Bayes net (BN, multilayer perceptron (MLP, naïve Bayes (NB, reduced error pruning tree (REPT, and SVM. Two hybrids, mRMR + SVM and mRMR + BN, were the best models when tested on other datasets, and they achieved a prediction accuracy of 95.27% and 91.99%, respectively, compared to other mRMR hybrid models (mRMR + RF, mRMR + NB, mRMR + REPT, and mRMR + MLP. Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to analyze the functions of the 30 genes selected for this model and their potential association with CRC: CDH3, CEACAM7, CLDN1, IL8, IL6R, MMP1

  9. Evaluating markers in selected genes for association with functional longevity of dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komisarek Jolanta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longevity expressed as the number of days between birth and death is a trait of great importance for both human and animal populations. In our analysis we use dairy cattle to demonstrate how the association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs located within selected genes with longevity can be modeled. Such an approach can be extended to any genotyped population with time to endpoint information available. Our study is focused on selected genes in order to answer the question whether genes, known to be involved into the physiological determination of milk production, also influence individual's survival. Results Generally, the highest risk differences among animals with different genotypes are observed for polymorphisms located within the leptin gene. The polymorphism with a highest effect on functional longevity is LEP-R25C, for which the relative risk of culling for cows with genotype CC is 3.14 times higher than for the heterozygous animals. Apart from LEP-R25C, also FF homozygotes at the LEP-Y7F substitution attribute 3.64 times higher risk of culling than the YY homozygotes and VV homozygotes at LEP-A80V have 1.83 times higher risk of culling than AA homozygotes. Differences in risks between genotypes of polymorphisms within the other genes (the butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1 gene, BTN1A1; the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene, DGAT1; the leptin receptor gene, LEPR; the ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2, ABCG2 are much smaller. Conclusions Our results indicate association between LEP and longevity and are very well supported by results of other studies related to dairy cattle. In view of the growing importance of functional traits in dairy cattle, LEP polymorphisms should be considered as markers supporting selection decisions. Furthermore, since the relationship between both LEP polymorphism and its protein product with longevity in humans is well documented, with our result we were able

  10. Is cigarette smoking associated with impaired physical and mental functional status? An office-based survey of primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, S H; Rothemich, S F; Johnson, R E; Marsland, D W

    1999-08-01

    To examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and self-reported physical and mental functional status. Cross-sectional survey of 837 patients visiting 2 family-practice centers. Patients completed a self-administered survey about functional status, tobacco use, and demographic characteristics while waiting to be called back for their appointments. An inner-city family practice clinic in Richmond, Virginia, and a more affluent suburban practice outside Washington, DC. Physical and mental functional status, as measured by the SF-36 (Medical Outcomes Trust, Boston, MA); current and former cigarette use; and demographic variables (age, gender, education, income). Among current smokers, self-reported functional status scores were significantly lower than those of nonsmokers in all SF-36 domains (p < or = 0.02), a pattern that was more dramatic for mental functional status domains (social function, vitality, emotional role limitations, mental health). In several SF-36 domains, a dose-response relationship between smoking and functional status was noted. After multivariate adjustment for demographic confounders and practice site, the statistical significance of these differences diminished considerably, but it remained significant for certain domains and for the overall difference across all domains (MANCOVA p = 0.017). Current smokers report lower functional status than nonsmokers, in physical and especially in mental domains. The meaning of this cross-sectional relationship is unclear without further longitudinal study. Smoking may be associated with other variables that have a causal role.

  11. The Curvilinear Effect of BMI on Functional Health - Evidence of the Long-Running German Ageing Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hajek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We aimed at determining the effect of BMI on functional health among older Germans longitudinally. Methods: Data from four waves (2002-2014 of the German Ageing Survey (‘Deutscher Alterssurvey'; DEAS, a representative sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years and above, were used. Functional health was quantified by the subscale ‘physical functioning' of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36. Fixed effects regressions were used to estimate the predictors of functional health. Linear, quadratic, and cubic terms were included for BMI (self-reported. Results: Fixed effects regressions showed significant linear, quadratic, and cubic effects of BMI on functional health in the total sample and in both sexes. Furthermore, regressions revealed that functional health decreased with increasing age in the total sample and in both sexes. In addition, changes in marital and employment status were significantly associated with changes in functional health in men, but not in women. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the greater the extreme of BMI (either higher or lower, the greater the risk for functional decline. Nutrition programs aimed at preventing changes to extreme BMI might be productive.

  12. The Curvilinear Effect of BMI on Functional Health - Evidence of the Long-Running German Ageing Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-01-01

    We aimed at determining the effect of BMI on functional health among older Germans longitudinally. Data from four waves (2002-2014) of the German Ageing Survey ('Deutscher Alterssurvey'; DEAS), a representative sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years and above, were used. Functional health was quantified by the subscale 'physical functioning' of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Fixed effects regressions were used to estimate the predictors of functional health. Linear, quadratic, and cubic terms were included for BMI (self-reported). Fixed effects regressions showed significant linear, quadratic, and cubic effects of BMI on functional health in the total sample and in both sexes. Furthermore, regressions revealed that functional health decreased with increasing age in the total sample and in both sexes. In addition, changes in marital and employment status were significantly associated with changes in functional health in men, but not in women. Our data indicate that the greater the extreme of BMI (either higher or lower), the greater the risk for functional decline. Nutrition programs aimed at preventing changes to extreme BMI might be productive. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Ptc7p Dephosphorylates Select Mitochondrial Proteins to Enhance Metabolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper maintenance of mitochondrial activity is essential for metabolic homeostasis. Widespread phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins may be an important element of this process; yet, little is known about which enzymes control mitochondrial phosphorylation or which phosphosites have functional impact. We investigate these issues by disrupting Ptc7p, a conserved but largely uncharacterized mitochondrial matrix PP2C-type phosphatase. Loss of Ptc7p causes respiratory growth defects concomitant with elevated phosphorylation of select matrix proteins. Among these, Δptc7 yeast exhibit an increase in phosphorylation of Cit1p, the canonical citrate synthase of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, that diminishes its activity. We find that phosphorylation of S462 can eliminate Cit1p enzymatic activity likely by disrupting its proper dimerization, and that Ptc7p-driven dephosphorylation rescues Cit1p activity. Collectively, our work connects Ptc7p to an essential TCA cycle function and to additional phosphorylation events that may affect mitochondrial activity inadvertently or in a regulatory manner.

  14. Thermomechanical Behavior of Polymer Composites Based on Edge-Selectively Functionalized Graphene Nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Ho Nam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate an effective approach based on a simple processing method to improve the thermomechanical properties of graphene polymer composites (GPCs. Edge-selectively functionalized graphene (EFG was successfully obtained through simple ball milling of natural graphite in the presence of dry ice, which acted as the source of carboxyl functional groups that were attached to the peripheral basal plane of graphene. The resultant EFG is highly dispersible in various organic solvents and contributes to improving their physical properties because of its unique characteristics. Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA and 4,4′-oxydianiline (ODA were used as monomers for constructing the polyimide (PI backbone, after which PI/EFG composites were prepared by in situ polymerization. A stepwise thermal imidization method was used to prepare the PI films for comparison purposes. The PI/EFG composite films were found to exhibit reinforced thermal and thermo-mechanical properties compared to neat PI owing to the interaction between the EFG and PI matrix.

  15. Disintegrins: integrin selective ligands which activate integrin-coupled signaling and modulate leukocyte functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barja-Fidalgo C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion receptors (integrins play essential roles in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Interactions of integrins with the extracellular matrix proteins lead to phosphorylation of several intracellular proteins such as focal adhesion kinase, activating different signaling pathways responsible for the regulation of a variety of cell functions, including cytoskeleton mobilization. Once leukocytes are guided to sites of infection, inflammation, or antigen presentation, integrins can participate in the initiation, maintenance, or termination of the immune and inflammatory responses. The modulation of neutrophil activation through integrin-mediated pathways is important in the homeostatic control of the resolution of inflammatory states. In addition, during recirculation, T lymphocyte movement through distinct microenvironments is mediated by integrins, which are critical for cell cycle, differentiation and gene expression. Disintegrins are a family of low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich peptides first identified in snake venom, usually containing an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp motif, which confers the ability to selectively bind to integrins, inhibiting integrin-related functions in different cell systems. In this review we show that, depending on the cell type and the microenvironment, disintegrins are able to antagonize the effects of integrins or to act agonistically by activating integrin-mediated signaling. Disintegrins have proven useful as tools to improve the understanding of the molecular events regulated by integrin signaling in leukocytes and prototypes in order to design therapies able to interfere with integrin-mediated effects.

  16. The neuropsychology of face perception: beyond simple dissociations and functional selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Anthony P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Face processing relies on a distributed, patchy network of cortical regions in the temporal and frontal lobes that respond disproportionately to face stimuli, other cortical regions that are not even primarily visual (such as somatosensory cortex), and subcortical structures such as the amygdala. Higher-level face perception abilities, such as judging identity, emotion and trustworthiness, appear to rely on an intact face-processing network that includes the occipital face area (OFA), whereas lower-level face categorization abilities, such as discriminating faces from objects, can be achieved without OFA, perhaps via the direct connections to the fusiform face area (FFA) from several extrastriate cortical areas. Some lesion, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings argue against a strict feed-forward hierarchical model of face perception, in which the OFA is the principal and common source of input for other visual and non-visual cortical regions involved in face perception, including the FFA, face-selective superior temporal sulcus and somatosensory cortex. Instead, these findings point to a more interactive model in which higher-level face perception abilities depend on the interplay between several functionally and anatomically distinct neural regions. Furthermore, the nature of these interactions may depend on the particular demands of the task. We review the lesion and TMS literature on this topic and highlight the dynamic and distributed nature of face processing. PMID:21536556

  17. A multi writable thiophene-based selective and reversible chromogenic fluoride probe with dual -NH functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Siddharth; Kumar, Ajit; Pandey, Abha; Upadhyay, K. K.

    2017-01-01

    A chromogenic fluoride probe bearing bis imine groups having dual -NH functionality (BSB) has been designed, synthesised and structurally characterized by its single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The BSB could visually and spectroscopically recognise F- with high selectivity over other anions by exhibiting intense chromogenic response (from colourless to red) for F- in acetonitrile solution. The UV-visible titration and 1H NMR titration experiments indicated that the observed changes occur via a combined process including hydrogen bonding and deprotonation between the BSB and F-. Moreover theoretical calculations at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level shed further light upon probe design strategy and the nature of interactions between BSB and F-. The limit of detection and binding constant of BSB towards F- were found to be 6.9 × 10- 7 M and 1.42 ± 0.069 × 108 M- 2 respectively. Finally, by using F- and H+ as chemical inputs and the absorbance as output, a INHIBIT logic gate was constructed, which exhibits "Multi-write" ability without obvious degradation in its optical output.

  18. sDFIRE: Sequence-specific statistical energy function for protein structure prediction by decoy selections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Yang, Yuedong; Mishra, Avdesh; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2016-05-05

    An important unsolved problem in molecular and structural biology is the protein folding and structure prediction problem. One major bottleneck for solving this is the lack of an accurate energy to discriminate near-native conformations against other possible conformations. Here we have developed sDFIRE energy function, which is an optimized linear combination of DFIRE (the Distance-scaled Finite Ideal gas Reference state based Energy), the orientation dependent (polar-polar and polar-nonpolar) statistical potentials, and the matching scores between predicted and model structural properties including predicted main-chain torsion angles and solvent accessible surface area. The weights for these scoring terms are optimized by three widely used decoy sets consisting of a total of 134 proteins. Independent tests on CASP8 and CASP9 decoy sets indicate that sDFIRE outperforms other state-of-the-art energy functions in selecting near native structures and in the Pearson's correlation coefficient between the energy score and structural accuracy of the model (measured by TM-score). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Memory Deficits in Schizophrenia: A Selective Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Lahti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex chronic mental illness that is characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Cognitive deficits are most predictive of long-term outcomes, with abnormalities in memory being the most robust finding. The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has allowed exploring neural correlates of memory deficits in vivo. In this article, we will give a selective review of fMRI studies probing brain regions and functional networks that are thought to be related to abnormal memory performance in two memory systems prominently affected in schizophrenia; working memory and episodic memory. We revisit the classic “hypofrontality” hypothesis of working memory deficits and explore evidence for frontotemporal dysconnectivity underlying episodic memory abnormalities. We conclude that fMRI studies of memory deficits in schizophrenia are far from universal. However, the current literature does suggest that alterations are not isolated to a few brain regions, but are characterized by abnormalities within large-scale brain networks.

  20. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai; Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Lee, Po-Heng

    2016-11-15

    This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C14TAB and C14HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A genomic survey of positive selection in Burkholderia pseudomallei provides insights into the evolution of accidental virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannistha Nandi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Certain environmental microorganisms can cause severe human infections, even in the absence of an obvious requirement for transition through an animal host for replication ("accidental virulence". To understand this process, we compared eleven isolate genomes of Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp, a tropical soil microbe and causative agent of the human and animal disease melioidosis. We found evidence for the existence of several new genes in the Bp reference genome, identifying 282 novel genes supported by at least two independent lines of supporting evidence (mRNA transcripts, database homologs, and presence of ribosomal binding sites and 81 novel genes supported by all three lines. Within the Bp core genome, 211 genes exhibited significant levels of positive selection (4.5%, distributed across many cellular pathways including carbohydrate and secondary metabolism. Functional experiments revealed that certain positively selected genes might enhance mammalian virulence by interacting with host cellular pathways or utilizing host nutrients. Evolutionary modifications improving Bp environmental fitness may thus have indirectly facilitated the ability of Bp to colonize and survive in mammalian hosts. These findings improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of melioidosis, and establish Bp as a model system for studying the genetics of accidental virulence.

  2. A search for distant radio-loud quasars in the CLASS survey : three new radio-selected quasars at z > 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, IAG; McMahon, RG; Dennett-Thorpe, J; Jackson, N; Mack, KH; Xanthopoulos, E

    2001-01-01

    We report on the search for distant radio-loud quasars in the Cosmic Lens All Sky Survey (CLASS) of flat spectrum radio sources with S-5GHz > 30 mJy. Unresolved optical counterparts were selected from APM scans of POSS-I plates, with e <19.0 and red o - e > 2.0 colours, in an effective area of

  3. First survey and functional annotation of prohormone and convertase genes in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Kenneth I

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig is a biomedical model to study human and livestock traits. Many of these traits are controlled by neuropeptides that result from the cleavage of prohormones by prohormone convertases. Only 45 prohormones have been confirmed in the pig. Sequence homology can be ineffective to annotate prohormone genes in sequenced species like the pig due to the multifactorial nature of the prohormone processing. The goal of this study is to undertake the first complete survey of prohormone and prohormone convertases genes in the pig genome. These genes were functionally annotated based on 35 gene expression microarray experiments. The cleavage sites of prohormone sequences into potentially active neuropeptides were predicted. Results We identified 95 unique prohormone genes, 2 alternative calcitonin-related sequences, 8 prohormone convertases and 1 cleavage facilitator in the pig genome 10.2 assembly and trace archives. Of these, 11 pig prohormone genes have not been reported in the UniProt, UniGene or Gene databases. These genes are intermedin, cortistatin, insulin-like 5, orexigenic neuropeptide QRFP, prokineticin 2, prolactin-releasing peptide, parathyroid hormone 2, urocortin, urocortin 2, urocortin 3, and urotensin 2-related peptide. In addition, a novel neuropeptide S was identified in the pig genome correcting the previously reported pig sequence that is identical to the rabbit sequence. Most differentially expressed prohormone genes were under-expressed in pigs experiencing immune challenge relative to the un-challenged controls, in non-pregnant relative to pregnant sows, in old relative to young embryos, and in non-neural relative to neural tissues. The cleavage prediction based on human sequences had the best performance with a correct classification rate of cleaved and non-cleaved sites of 92% suggesting that the processing of prohormones in pigs is similar to humans. The cleavage prediction models did not find conclusive

  4. A Survey of Architecture and Function of the Primary Visual Cortex (V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoping Li

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest visual area, known as the primary visual cortex or V1, has greatly contributed to the current understanding of mammalian and human visual pathways and their role in visual perception. The initial discovery of orientation-sensitive neurons in V1, arranged according to a retinotopic mapping, suggested an analogy to its function as a low-level feature analyzer. Subsequent discoveries of phase, spatial frequency, color, ocular origin, and direction-of-motion-sensitive neurons, arranged into overlapping maps, further lent support to the view that it performs a rich decomposition, similar to signal processing transforms, of the retinal output. Like the other cortical areas, V1 has a laminar organization with specialization for input from the relayed retinal afferents, output to the higher visual areas, and the segregation of the magno (motion and parvo (form pathways. Spatially lateral connections that exist between neurons of similar and varying properties have also been proposed to give rise to a computation of a bottom-up saliency map in V1. We provide a review of the selectivity of neurons in V1, laminar specialization and analogies to signal processing techniques, a model of V1 saliency computation, and higher-area feedback that may mediate perception.

  5. Functional connectivity supporting the selective maintenance of feature-location binding in visual working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko eTakahama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on an object’s features bound to its location is very important for maintaining object representations in visual working memory. Interactions with dynamic multi-dimensional objects in an external environment require complex cognitive control, including the selective maintenance of feature-location binding. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activity and functional connectivity related to the maintenance of complex feature-location binding. Participants were required to detect task-relevant changes in feature-location binding between objects defined by color, orientation, and location. We compared a complex binding task requiring complex feature-location binding (color-orientation-location with a simple binding task in which simple feature-location binding, such as color-location, was task-relevant and the other feature was task-irrelevant. Univariate analyses showed that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, hippocampus, and frontoparietal network were activated during the maintenance of complex feature-location binding. Functional connectivity analyses indicated cooperation between the inferior precentral sulcus (infPreCS, DLPFC, and hippocampus during the maintenance of complex feature-location binding. In contrast, the connectivity for the spatial updating of simple feature-location binding determined by reanalyzing the data from Takahama et al. (2010 demonstrated that the superior parietal lobule (SPL cooperated with the DLPFC and hippocampus. These results suggest that the connectivity for complex feature-location binding does not simply reflect general memory load and that the DLPFC and hippocampus flexibly modulate the dorsal frontoparietal network, depending on the task requirements, with the infPreCS involved in the maintenance of complex feature-location binding and the SPL involved in the spatial updating of simple feature-location binding.

  6. Sustained expression of PGC-1α in the rat nigrostriatal system selectively impairs dopaminergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciron, C; Lengacher, S; Dusonchet, J; Aebischer, P; Schneider, B L

    2012-04-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, pathways controlling mitochondrial activity rapidly emerge as potential therapeutic targets. Here, we explore the neuronal response to prolonged overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), a transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial function, both in vitro and in vivo. In neuronal primary cultures from the ventral midbrain, PGC-1α induces mitochondrial biogenesis and increases basal respiration. Over time, we observe an increasing proportion of the oxygen consumed by neurons which are dedicated to adenosine triphosphate production. In parallel to enhanced oxidative phosphorylation, PGC-1α progressively leads to a decrease in mitochondrial polarization. In the adult rat nigrostriatal system, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated overexpression of PGC-1α induces the selective loss of dopaminergic markers and increases dopamine (DA) catabolism, leading to a reduction in striatal DA content. In addition, PGC-1α prevents the labeling of nigral neurons following striatal injection of the fluorogold retrograde tracer. When PGC-1α is expressed at higher levels following intranigral AAV injection, it leads to overt degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Finally, PGC-1α overexpression does not prevent nigrostriatal degeneration in pathologic conditions induced by α-synuclein overexpression. Overall, we find that lasting overexpression of PGC-1α leads to major alterations in the metabolic activity of neuronal cells which dramatically impair dopaminergic function in vivo. These results highlight the central role of PGC-1α in the function and survival of dopaminergic neurons and the critical need for maintaining physiological levels of PGC-1α activity.

  7. Dichloroacetate selectively improves cardiac function and metabolism in female and male rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiprolu, Pavan K.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tissue from female rainbow trout demonstrates a sex-specific preference for exogenous glucose and glycolysis, impaired Ca2+ handling, and a greater tolerance for hypoxia and reoxygenation than cardiac tissue from male rainbow trout. We tested the hypothesis that dichloroacetate (DCA), an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase, enhances cardiac energy metabolism and Ca2+ handling in female preparations and provide cardioprotection for hypoxic male tissue. Ventricle strips from sexually immature fish with very low (male) and nondetectable (female) plasma sex steroids were electrically paced in oxygenated or hypoxic Ringer solution with or without 1 mM DCA. In the presence of 5 mM glucose, aerobic tissue from male trout could be paced at a higher frequency (1.79 vs. 1.36 Hz) with lower resting tension and less contractile dysfunction than female tissue. At 0.5 Hz, DCA selectively reduced resting tension below baseline values and lactate efflux by 75% in aerobic female ventricle strips. DCA improved the functional recovery of developed twitch force, reduced lactate efflux by 50%, and doubled citrate in male preparations after hypoxia-reoxygenation. Independent of female sex steroids, reduced myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and impaired carbohydrate oxidation might explain the higher lactate efflux, compromised function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and reduced mechanical performance of aerobic female tissue. Elevated oxidative metabolism and reduced glycolysis might also underlie the beneficial effects of DCA on the mechanical recovery of male cardiac tissue after hypoxia-reoxygenation. These results support the use of rainbow trout as an experimental model of sex differences of cardiovascular energetics and function, with the potential for modifying metabolic phenotypes and cardioprotection independent of sex steroids. PMID:25217653

  8. Functionality Selection Principle for High Voltage Lithium-ion Battery Electrolyte Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chi-Cheung; He, Meinan [Department; Peebles, Cameron; Zeng, Li; Tornheim, Adam; Liao, Chen; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jie; Wang, Yan [Department; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2017-08-30

    A new class of electrolyte additives based on cyclic fluorinated phosphate esters was rationally designed and identified as being able to stabilize the surface of a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC532) cathode when cycled at potentials higher than 4.6 V vs Li+/Li. Cyclic fluorinated phosphates were designed to incorporate functionalities of various existing additives to maximize their utilization. The synthesis and characterization of these new additives are described and their electrochemical performance in a NMC532/graphite cell cycled between 4.6 and 3.0 V are investigated. With 1.0 wt % 2-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane 2-oxide (TFEOP) in the conventional electrolyte the NMC532/graphite cell exhibited much improved capacity retention compared to that without any additive. The additive is believed to form a passivation layer on the surface of the cathode via a sacrificial polymerization reaction as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonsance (NMR) analysis results. The rational pathway of a cathode-electrolyte-interface formation was proposed for this type of additive. Both experimental results and the mechanism hypothesis suggest the effectiveness of the additive stems from both the polymerizable cyclic ring and the electron-withdrawing fluorinated alkyl group in the phosphate molecular structure. The successful development of cyclic fluorinated phosphate additives demonstrated that this new functionality selection principle, by incorporating useful functionalities of various additives into one molecule, is an effective approach for the development of new additives.

  9. Biochemical and functional interactions of a selective kappa opioid agonist with calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VonVoigtlander, P.F.; Ochoa, M.C.; Lewis, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of the selective kappa opioid receptor agonist, U-50488H, has provided a tool for the study of the mechanisms and function of the kappa receptor-effector. We have investigated the interactions of this compound with calcium in several biochemical and functional studies to assess the involvement of calcium mechanisms in the kappa receptor-linked effector. In rat brain synaptosomes, U-50488H attenuated the uptake of /sup 45/Ca++ induced by K+ (40 mM) depolarization. This effect was concentration-related (U-50488H 10(-5) to 10(-7) M), was apparent in short (8-second) but not longer (1-minute) term incubations, and did not occur in the presence of a non-polarizing concentration (5.6 mM) of K+. Naloxone (10(-7) M) did not block this effect of U-50488H (10(-6) M), and higher concentrations (10(-5) M) alone blocked calcium uptake. We have found that the binding of the depolarizing amino acid analog, kainic acid, is enhanced by CaCl2. U-50488H (10(-4) to 10(-6) M) blocks this enhancement of /sup 3/H-kainic acid binding in vitro and also blocks the in vivo effects of kainic acid. In mice, intravenous injection of kainic acid causes scratching, convulsions, and death, depending on the dose administered. U-50488H blocks all of these effects (ED50 = 4.5 mg/kg for antagonism of convulsions induced by 27.5 mg/kg kainic acid). The convulsions induced by intracerebroventricularly administered kainic acid are also blocked by U-50488H as are those induced by similarly administered Bay K 8644, a calcium channel activator. All of these anticonvulsant effects of U-50488H were antagonized by naltrexone. Together these data indicate that the kappa agonist U-50488H has functionally relevant interactions with depolarization-related Ca++ mechanisms in the central nervous system.

  10. Occurrence of selected radionuclides in ground water used for drinking water in the United States; a reconnaissance survey, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Szabo, Zoltan; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Mullin, Ann H.; Barringer, Thomas H.; dePaul, Vincent T.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the American Water Works Association, and the American Water Works Service Company, completed a targeted national reconnaissance survey of selected radionuclides in public ground-water supplies. Radionuclides analyzed included radium-224 (Ra-224), radium-226 (Ra-226), radium-228 (Ra-228), polonium-210 (Po-210) and lead-210 (Pb-210).This U.S. Geological Survey reconnaissance survey focused intentionally on areas with known or suspected elevated concentrations of radium in ground water to determine if Ra-224 was also present in the areas where other isotopes of radium had previously been detected and to determine the co-occurrence characteristics of the three radium isotopes (Ra-224, Ra-226, and Ra-228) in those areas. Ninety-nine raw-water samples (before water treatment) were collected once over a 6-month period in 1998 and 1999 from wells (94 of which are used for public drinking water) in 27 States and 8 physiographic provinces. Twenty-one of the 99 samples exceeded the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) for combined radium (Ra-226 + Ra-228). Concentrations of Ra-224 were reported to exceed 1 pCi/L in 30 percent of the samples collected, with a maximum concentration of 73.6 pCi/L measured in water from a nontransient, noncommunity, public-supply well in Maryland. Radium-224 concentrations generally were higher than those of the other isotopes of radium. About 5 percent of the samples contained concentrations of Ra-224 greater than 10 pCi/L, whereas only 2 percent exceeded 10 pCi/L for either Ra-226 or Ra-228. Concentrations of Ra-226 greater than 1 pCi/L were reported in 33 percent of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 16.9 pCi/L measured in water from a public-supply well in Iowa. Concentrations of Ra-228 greater than 1 pCi/L were reported in 22 samples, with a maximum

  11. The search for Pleiades in trait constellations: functional integration and phenotypic selection in the complex flowers of Morrenia brachystephana (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranzelli, M C; Sérsic, A N; Cocucci, A A

    2014-04-01

    Pollinator-mediated natural selection on single traits, such as corolla tube or spur length, has been well documented. However, flower phenotypes are usually complex, and selection is expected to act on several traits that functionally interact rather than on a single isolated trait. Despite the fact that selection on complex phenotypes is expectedly widespread, multivariate selection modelling on such phenotypes still remains under-explored in plants. Species of the subfamily Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) provide an opportunity to study such complex flower contrivances integrated by fine-scaled organs from disparate developmental origin. We studied the correlation structure among linear floral traits (i) by testing a priori morphological, functional or developmental hypotheses among traits and (ii) by exploring the organization of flower covariation, considering alternative expectations of modular organization or whole flower integration through conditional dependence analysis (CDA) and integration matrices. The phenotypic selection approach was applied to determine whether floral traits involved in the functioning of the pollination mechanism were affected by natural selection. Floral integration was low, suggesting that flowers are organized in more than just one correlation pleiad; our hypothetical functional correlation matrix was significantly correlated with the empirical matrix, and the CDA revealed three putative modules. Analyses of phenotypic selection showed significant linear and correlational gradients, lending support to expectations of functional interactions between floral traits. Significant correlational selection gradients found involved traits of different floral whorls, providing evidence for the existence of functional integration across developmental domains. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Functional disability and depression in the general population. Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijker, J; Graaf, R; Bijl, R V; Beekman, A T F; Ormel, J; Nolen, W A

    2004-09-01

    Data on the temporal relationships between duration of depression and recovery and functional disability are sparse. These relationships were examined in subjects from the general population (n = 250) with newly originated episodes of DSM-III-R major depression. The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study is a prospective epidemiological survey in the adult population (n = 7076), using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Duration of depression and duration of recovery over 2 years were assessed with a life chart interview. Functional disabilities were assessed with the MOS-SF-36 and with absence days from work. Functional disabilities and absence days in depressed individuals were not found to be associated with duration of depression. Functioning in daily activities improved with longer duration of recovery but social functioning not. Functioning deteriorates by actual depressive symptomatology and comorbid anxiety but not by longer duration of depression. After symptomatic recovery, functioning improves to premorbid level, irrespective of the length of the depression. Improvements in daily activities and work can be expected with longer duration of recovery.

  13. Sex selection for non-medical indications: a survey of current pre-implantation genetic screening practices among U.S. ART clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelouto, Sarah M; Archer, Sydney R; Morris, Jerrine R; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Hipp, Heather S

    2017-10-28

    This study aimed to determine the current percentage of United States (U.S.) assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics offering sex selection via pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) for non-medical purposes. The authors conducted website review and telephone interview survey of 493 U.S. ART clinics performing in vitro fertilization (IVF) in 2017. Main outcome measures were pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS)/pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) practices and non-medical sex selection practices including family balancing. Of the 493 ART clinics in the USA, 482 clinics (97.8%) responded to our telephone interview survey. Among all U.S. ART clinics, 91.9% (n = 449) reported offering PGS and/or PGD. Furthermore, 476 clinics responded to survey questions about sex selection practices. Of those ART clinics, 72.7% (n = 346) reported offering sex selection. More specifically among those clinics offering sex selection, 93.6% (n = 324) reported performing sex selection for family balancing, and 81.2% (n = 281) reported performing for elective purposes (patient preference, regardless of rationale for the request). For couples without infertility, 83.5% (n = 289) of clinics offer sex selection for family balancing and 74.6% (n = 258) for non-specific elective reasons. The majority of U.S. ART clinics offer non-medical sex selection, a percentage that has increased substantially since last reported in 2006.

  14. Positive evolutionary selection of an HD motif on Alzheimer precursor protein orthologues suggests a functional role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Miklós

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available HD amino acid duplex has been found in the active center of many different enzymes. The dyad plays remarkably different roles in their catalytic processes that usually involve metal coordination. An HD motif is positioned directly on the amyloid beta fragment (Aβ and on the carboxy-terminal region of the extracellular domain (CAED of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP and a taxonomically well defined group of APP orthologues (APPOs. In human Aβ HD is part of a presumed, RGD-like integrin-binding motif RHD; however, neither RHD nor RXD demonstrates reasonable conservation in APPOs. The sequences of CAEDs and the position of the HD are not particularly conserved either, yet we show with a novel statistical method using evolutionary modeling that the presence of HD on CAEDs cannot be the result of neutral evolutionary forces (p<0.0001. The motif is positively selected along the evolutionary process in the majority of APPOs, despite the fact that HD motif is underrepresented in the proteomes of all species of the animal kingdom. Position migration can be explained by high probability occurrence of multiple copies of HD on intermediate sequences, from which only one is kept by selective evolutionary forces, in a similar way as in the case of the "transcription binding site turnover." CAED of all APP orthologues and homologues are predicted to bind metal ions including Amyloid-like protein 1 (APLP1 and Amyloid-like protein 2 (APLP2. Our results suggest that HDs on the CAEDs are most probably key components of metal-binding domains, which facilitate and/or regulate inter- or intra-molecular interactions in a metal ion-dependent or metal ion concentration-dependent manner. The involvement of naturally occurring mutations of HD (Tottori (D7N and English (H6R mutations in early onset Alzheimer's disease gives additional support to our finding that HD has an evolutionary preserved function on APPOs.

  15. Connectivity among subpopulations of Louisiana black bears as estimated by a step selection function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Jared S. Laufenberg,; Maria Davidson,; Jennifer L. Murrow,

    2015-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a fundamental cause of population decline and increased risk of extinction for many wildlife species; animals with large home ranges and small population sizes are particularly sensitive. The Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus) exists only in small, isolated subpopulations as a result of land clearing for agriculture, but the relative potential for inter-subpopulation movement by Louisiana black bears has not been quantified, nor have characteristics of effective travel routes between habitat fragments been identified. We placed and monitored global positioning system (GPS) radio collars on 8 female and 23 male bears located in 4 subpopulations in Louisiana, which included a reintroduced subpopulation located between 2 of the remnant subpopulations. We compared characteristics of sequential radiolocations of bears (i.e., steps) with steps that were possible but not chosen by the bears to develop step selection function models based on conditional logistic regression. The probability of a step being selected by a bear increased as the distance to natural land cover and agriculture at the end of the step decreased and as distance from roads at the end of a step increased. To characterize connectivity among subpopulations, we used the step selection models to create 4,000 hypothetical correlated random walks for each subpopulation representing potential dispersal events to estimate the proportion that intersected adjacent subpopulations (hereafter referred to as successful dispersals). Based on the models, movement paths for males intersected all adjacent subpopulations but paths for females intersected only the most proximate subpopulations. Cross-validation and genetic and independent observation data supported our findings. Our models also revealed that successful dispersals were facilitated by a reintroduced population located between 2 distant subpopulations. Successful dispersals for males were dependent on natural land

  16. Impact of selective pituitary gland incision or resection on hormonal function after adenoma or cyst resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhoudarian, Garni; Cutler, Aaron R; Yost, Sam; Lobo, Bjorn; Eisenberg, Amalia; Kelly, Daniel F

    2015-12-01

    With the resection of pituitary lesions, the anterior pituitary gland often obstructs transsphenoidal access to the lesion. In such cases, a gland incision and/or partial gland resection may be required to obtain adequate exposure. We investigate this technique and determine the associated risk of post-operative hypopituitarism. All patients who underwent surgical resection of a pituitary adenoma or Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) between July 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed for pre- and post-operative hormone function. The cohort of patients with gland incision/resection were compared to a case-matched control cohort of pituitary surgery patients. Total hypophysectomy patients were excluded from outcome analysis. Of 372 operations over this period, an anterior pituitary gland incision or partial gland resection was performed in 79 cases (21.2 %). These include 53 gland incisions, 12 partial hemi-hypophysectomies and 14 resections of thinned/attenuated anterior gland. Diagnoses included 64 adenomas and 15 RCCs. New permanent hypopituitarism occurred in three patients (3.8 %), including permanent DI (3) and growth hormone deficiency (1). There was no significant difference in the rate of worsening gland dysfunction nor gain of function. Compared to a control cohort, there was a significantly lower incidence of transient DI (1.25 vs. 11.1 %, p = 0.009) but no significant difference in permanent DI (3.8 vs. 4.0 %) in the gland incision group. Selective gland incisions and gland resections were performed in over 20 % of our cases. This technique appears to minimize traction on compressed normal pituitary gland during removal of large lesions and facilitates better visualization and removal of cysts, microadenomas and macroadenomas.

  17. A Global Oral Health Survey of professional opinion using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Alison; Molina, Gustavo F; Eschevins, Caroline; Faulks, Denise

    2015-06-01

    The concept of oral health is frequently reduced to the absence of disease, despite existing conceptual models exploring the wider determinants of oral health and quality of life. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO) is designed to qualify functional, social and environmental aspects of health. This survey aimed to reach a consensual description of adult oral health, derived from the ICF using international professional opinion. The Global Oral Health Survey involved a two-round, online survey concerning factors related to oral health including functioning, participation and social environment. Four hundred eighty-six oral health professionals from 74 countries registered online. Professionals were pooled into 18 groups of six WHO world regions and three professional groups. In a randomised stratification process, eight professionals from each pool (n=144) completed the survey. The first round consisted of eight open-ended questions. Open expression replies were analysed for meaningful concepts and linked using established rules to the ICF. In Round 2, items were rated for their relevance to oral health (88% response rate). Eighty-nine ICF items and 30 other factors were considered relevant by at least 80% of participants. International professionals reached consensus on a holistic description of oral health, which could be qualified and quantified using the ICF. These results represent the first step towards developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, which would provide a practical tool for reporting outcome measures in clinical practice, for research and epidemiology, and for the improvement of interdisciplinary communication regarding oral health. Professional consensus reached in this survey is the foundation stone for developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, allowing the holistic aspects of oral health to be qualified and quantified. This tool is necessary to widen our approach to clinical decision making

  18. The male–female health–survival paradox: A survey and register study of the impact of sex-specific selection and information bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Petersen, Inge; Stovring, Henrik; Bingley, Paul; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The present study examined whether the health–survival paradox could partially be due to sex-specific selection and information bias in surveys. Methods The study is based on the linkage of three population-based surveys of 15,330 Danes aged 46–102 years with health registers covering the total Danish population regarding hospitalizations within the last 2 years and prescription medicine within 6 months prior to the baseline surveys. Results Men had higher participation rates than women at all ages. Hospitalized women and women taking medications had higher participation rate compared with non-hospitalized women (difference 0.7–3.0%) and female non-users (difference 0.8–7.6%), respectively, while no consistent pattern was found among men according to hospitalization or medication use status. Men used fewer medications than women, but they under-reported medication use to a similar degree as did women. Conclusions Hospitalized women, as well as women using prescription medicine, were slightly overrepresented in the surveys. Hence, the study found some evidence that selection bias in surveys may contribute to the explanation of the health–survival paradox, but its contribution is likely to be small. However, there was no evidence for sex-specific reporting of medication use among study participants. PMID:19457685

  19. Social justice in education: How the function of selection in educational institutions predicts support for (nonegalitarian assessment practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique eAutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Educational institutions are considered a keystone for the establishment of a meritocratic society. They supposedly serve two functions: an educational function that promotes learning for all, and a selection function that sorts individuals into different programs, and ultimately social positions, based on individual merit. We study how the function of selection relates to support for assessment practices known to harm vs. benefit lower status students, through the perceived justice principles underlying these practices. We study two assessment practices: normative assessment—focused on ranking and social comparison, known to hinder the success of lower status students—and formative assessment—focused on learning and improvement, known to benefit lower status students. Normative assessment is usually perceived as relying on an equity principle, with rewards being allocated based on merit and should thus appear as positively associated with the function of selection. Formative assessment is usually perceived as relying on corrective justice that aims to ensure equality of outcomes by considering students’ needs, which makes it less suitable for the function of selection. A questionnaire measuring these constructs was administered to university students. Results showed that believing that education is intended to select the best students positively predicts support for normative assessment, through increased perception of its reliance on equity, and negatively predicts support for formative assessment, through reduced perception of its ability to establish corrective justice. This study suggests that the belief in the function of selection as inherent to educational institutions can contribute to the reproduction of social inequalities by preventing change from assessment practices known to disadvantage lower-status student, namely normative assessment, to more favorable practices, namely formative assessment, and by promoting matching

  20. Social justice in education: how the function of selection in educational institutions predicts support for (non)egalitarian assessment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Frédérique; Batruch, Anatolia; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Educational institutions are considered a keystone for the establishment of a meritocratic society. They supposedly serve two functions: an educational function that promotes learning for all, and a selection function that sorts individuals into different programs, and ultimately social positions, based on individual merit. We study how the function of selection relates to support for assessment practices known to harm vs. benefit lower status students, through the perceived justice principles underlying these practices. We study two assessment practices: normative assessment-focused on ranking and social comparison, known to hinder the success of lower status students-and formative assessment-focused on learning and improvement, known to benefit lower status students. Normative assessment is usually perceived as relying on an equity principle, with rewards being allocated based on merit and should thus appear as positively associated with the function of selection. Formative assessment is usually perceived as relying on corrective justice that aims to ensure equality of outcomes by considering students' needs, which makes it less suitable for the function of selection. A questionnaire measuring these constructs was administered to university students. Results showed that believing that education is intended to select the best students positively predicts support for normative assessment, through increased perception of its reliance on equity, and negatively predicts support for formative assessment, through reduced perception of its ability to establish corrective justice. This study suggests that the belief in the function of selection as inherent to educational institutions can contribute to the reproduction of social inequalities by preventing change from assessment practices known to disadvantage lower-status student, namely normative assessment, to more favorable practices, namely formative assessment, and by promoting matching beliefs in justice principles.

  1. The CALYMHA survey: Lyα luminosity function and global escape fraction of Lyα photons at z = 2.23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Best, Philip; Stroe, Andra; Röttgering, Huub; Oteo, Iván; Smail, Ian; Morabito, Leah; Paulino-Afonso, Ana

    2017-04-01

    We present the CAlibrating LYMan-α with Hα (CALYMHA) pilot survey and new results on Lyman α (Lyα) selected galaxies at z ˜ 2. We use a custom-built Lyα narrow-band filter at the Isaac Newton Telescope, designed to provide a matched volume coverage to the z = 2.23 Hα HiZELS survey. Here, we present the first results for the COSMOS and UDS fields. Our survey currently reaches a 3σ line flux limit of ˜4 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2, and a Lyα luminosity limit of ˜1042.3 erg s-1. We find 188 Lyα emitters over 7.3 × 105 Mpc3, but also find significant numbers of other line-emitting sources corresponding to He II, C III] and C IV emission lines. These sources are important contaminants, and we carefully remove them, unlike most previous studies. We find that the Lyα luminosity function at z = 2.23 is very well described by a Schechter function up to LLy α ≈ 1043 erg s-1 with L^{ast }=10^{42.59^{+0.16}_{-0.08}} erg s-1, φ ^{ast }=10^{-3.09^{+0.14}_{-0.34}} Mpc-3 and α = -1.75 ± 0.25. Above LLy α ≈ 1043 erg s-1, the Lyα luminosity function becomes power-law like, driven by X-ray AGN. We find that Lyα-selected emitters have a high escape fraction of 37 ± 7 per cent, anticorrelated with Lyα luminosity and correlated with Lyα equivalent width. Lyα emitters have ubiquitous large (≈40 kpc) Lyα haloes, ˜2 times larger than their Hα extents. By directly comparing our Lyα and Hα luminosity functions, we find that the global/overall escape fraction of Lyα photons (within a 13 kpc radius) from the full population of star-forming galaxies is 5.1 ± 0.2 per cent at the peak of the star formation history. An extra 3.3 ± 0.3 per cent of Lyα photons likely still escape, but at larger radii.

  2. Possible functional links among brain- and skull-related genes selected in modern humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBenítez-Burraco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sequencing of the genomes from extinct hominins has revealed that changes in some brain-related genes have been selected after the split between anatomically-modern humans and Neanderthals/Denisovans. To date, no coherent view of these changes has been provided. Following a line of research we initiated in Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco (2014a, we hypothesize functional links among most of these genes and their products, based on the existing literature for each of the gene discussed. The genes we focus on are found mutated in different cognitive disorders affecting modern populations and their products are involved in skull and brain morphology, and neural connectivity. If our hypothesis turns out to be on the right track, it means that the changes affecting most of these proteins resulted in a more globular brain and ultimately brought about modern cognition, with its characteristic generativity and capacity to form and exploit cross-modular concepts, properties most clearly manifested in language.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of bi-functional nanostructured manganese tungstate catalysts for selective oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Lunkenbein, Thomas; Kröhnert, Jutta; Pfeifer, Verena; Girgsdies, Frank; Rosowski, Frank; Schlögl, Robert; Trunschke, Annette

    2016-07-04

    The mechanism of C-H activation in selective oxidation reactions of short-chain alkane molecules over transition metal oxides is critically affected by the balance of acid-base and redox sites at the surface of the catalyst. Using the example of manganese tungstate we discuss how the relative abundance of these sites can be controlled via synthetic techniques. Phase-pure catalysts composed of the thermodynamic stable monoclinic MnWO4 phase have been prepared using hydrothermal synthesis. Variation of the initial pH value resulted in rod-shaped nano-crystalline MnWO4 catalysts composed of particles with varying aspect ratio. The synthesis products have been analysed using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared, and photoelectron spectroscopy. In situ Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the dissolution-re-crystallization processes occurring under hydrothermal conditions. Ethanol oxidation was applied to probe the surface functionalities in terms of acid-base and redox properties. Changes in the aspect ratio of the primary catalyst particles are reflected in the product distribution induced by altering the fraction of acid-base and redox sites exposed at the surface of the catalysts in agreement with the proposed mechanism of particle growth by re-crystallization during ageing under hydrothermal conditions.

  4. Manufacture and characterization of functional emmer beverages fermented by selected lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Trani, Antonio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-05-01

    Autochthonous lactic acid bacteria from emmer flour were screened based on the kinetic of acidification and used to ferment beverages containing emmer flour, emmer gelatinized flour, and emmer malt at percentages ranging 5-30% (wt/wt). Preliminarily, the concentration of raw flour and malt was selected based on sensory analysis. Different protocols were set up for the manufacture of four different beverages which used Lactobacillus plantarum 6E as the starter. Emmer beverages were mainly differentiated based on the concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, amino acids, dietary fibers, vitamins, antioxidant and phytase activities, and volatiles and sensory profiles. Wheat flour bread was used as the control to determine the hydrolysis index (HI=100), as an indirect estimation of the glycemic index. The beverage made with 30% (wt/wt) of gelatinized flour showed an HI of 56%, its viscosity was improved by using an EPS-producing strain and it allowed the survival of the potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1 at cell density of ca. 5 × 10(8) cfu/ml throughout storage at 4 °C. Among the exploited biotechnological options, this latter beverage could be considered as a promising novel functional food. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ligand-specific endocytic dwell times control functional selectivity of the cannabinoid receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Ahn, Kwang H; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska; Mackie, Ken; Kendall, Debra A; Yudowski, Guillermo A

    2014-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the major transducers of external stimuli and key therapeutic targets in many pathological conditions. When activated by different ligands, one receptor can elicit multiple signalling cascades that are mediated by G proteins or β-arrestin, a process defined as functional selectivity or ligand bias. However, the dynamic mechanisms underlying β-arrestin signalling remain unknown. Here by studying the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R), we identify ligand-specific endocytic dwell times, that is, the time during which receptors are clustered into clathrin pits together with β-arrestins before endocytosis, as the mechanism controlling β-arrestin signalling. Agonists inducing short endocytic dwell times produce little or no β-arrestin signalling, whereas those eliciting prolonged dwell times induce robust signalling. Remarkably, extending CB1R dwell times by preventing endocytosis substantially increased β-arrestin signalling. These studies reveal how receptor activation translates into β-arrestin signalling and identify a mechanism to control this pathway.

  6. Extracellular antimutagenic activities of selected probiotic Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp. as a function of growth phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalova, V I; Lingbeck, J M; Kwon, Y M; Ricke, S C

    2008-02-01

    The capabilities of selected strains from genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to produce extracellular bioactive compounds with antimutagenic properties against benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and sodium azide (SA) were tested as a function of growth phase. The bacterial supernatants from exponential and stationary phases were characterized with different patterns of antimutagenic activity against the two mutagens. All lactobacilli exhibited either no effect or low antimutagenicity against BaP during exponential growth. Higher antimutagenic activities of lactobacilli supernatants were observed in the stationary phase against SA as well. An exception was Lactobacillus sakei 23K which expressed a relatively low percent of inhibition of mutagenesis (PI = 28.14 +/- 7.41) in the exponential phase and no antimutagenic activity in the stationary phase. Of the bifidobacteria, only Bifidobacterium adoleascentis ATCC 15703 exhibited higher antimutagenecity against BaP in the exponential phase. The same bacterial supernatants however, did not possess any antimutagenicity against SA in either the exponential or stationary phases. B. bifidum ATCC 11863 did not express any significant differences in its activity against either BaP or SA in the exponential or stationary phases. Only B. breve ATCC 15700 expressed a high antimutagenic effect against SA in the stationary phase but exhibited no effect during exponential growth. Overall, bacterial antimutagenic responses were associated with growth phase and type of mutagen.

  7. Development of an iron-selective antioxidant probe with protective effects on neuronal function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpo García-Beltrán

    Full Text Available Iron accumulation, oxidative stress and calcium signaling dysregulation are common pathognomonic signs of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson´s and Alzheimer's diseases, Friedreich ataxia and Huntington's disease. Given their therapeutic potential, the identification of multifunctional compounds that suppress these damaging features is highly desirable. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of N-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethylpropan-2-yl-2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-ylacetamide, named CT51, which exhibited potent free radical neutralizing activity both in vitro and in cells. CT51 bound Fe2+ with high selectivity and Fe3+ with somewhat lower affinity. Cyclic voltammetric analysis revealed irreversible binding of Fe3+ to CT51, an important finding since stopping Fe2+/Fe3+ cycling in cells should prevent hydroxyl radical production resulting from the Fenton-Haber-Weiss cycle. When added to human neuroblastoma cells, CT51 freely permeated the cell membrane and distributed to both mitochondria and cytoplasm. Intracellularly, CT51 bound iron reversibly and protected against lipid peroxidation. Treatment of primary hippocampal neurons with CT51 reduced the sustained calcium release induced by an agonist of ryanodine receptor-calcium channels. These protective properties of CT51 on cellular function highlight its possible therapeutic use in diseases with significant oxidative, iron and calcium dysregulation.

  8. Evaluation of functional potentiality of selected commonly consumed foods of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma Shaheen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rising tide of chronic nutrition related non-communicable diseases yoked with extant under nutrition problems makes it imperative to carry out scientific research towards the discovery of functional foods. Although the emergence of these diseases are believed to be related to a constellation of dietary, socio-economic and lifestyle related risk factors, central to the pathogenesis of these diseases (or disease states are free radicals, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes typically accompanied by pain. Therefore, functional whole foods with physiologically active antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic compounds seem to be the most promising option to deal with the pathogenesis of existing and emerging chronic diseases burden of Bangladesh. Methods: Edible portions of 70 commonly consumed Bangladeshi foods – including one cereal, five legumes, fourteen vegetables, four tea varieties, five oil seeds, twenty spices, and twenty one fruits – were evaluated for total phenol content (TPC by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. To evaluate functional potentiality, in vitro antioxidant capacity (AC of selected food items were evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays, in vitro anti-inflammatory potential by observing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α using J774A.1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, in vivo anti-inflammatory potential by measuring carrageenan induced rat paw edema reduction, and in vivo analgesic potential by acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. Results: Spices, oilseeds, and teas showed high concentration of TPC among the analyzed foods, while spices and teas exhibited notable AC. Green tea showed highest concentrations of TPC (2349 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent / g and AC (2432 µmole Trolox Equivalent/g. Fourteen food items showed potential in vitro anti-inflammatory activity with confirmatory dose response effect shown by 8 items. In vivo, black sesame

  9. What Campuses Assess When They Assess Their Learning Community Programs: Selected Findings from a National Survey of Learning Community Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Emily

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2013, the Washington Center administered a national survey to find what campuses assessed when they assessed their learning community programs, how they assessed those outcomes, and what they did with the results. Sixty-six campuses responded to the survey. Most campuses assess at least one measure of student success (pass rates, course…

  10. A sample of ultra steep spectrum sources selected from the Westerbork In the Southern Hemisphere (WISH) survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuck, C de; Tang, Y.; Bruyn, A. G. de; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Breugel, W.van

    2002-01-01

    The 352 MHz Westerbork In the Southern Hemisphere (WISH) survey is the southern extension of the WENSS, covering 1.60 sr between -9degrees <δ <-26degrees to a limiting flux density of similar to18 mJy (5sigma). Due to the very low elevation of the observations, the survey has a much lower resolution

  11. Ground-survey and water-quality data for selected wetlands on or near the Lower Brule Indian Reservation in South Dakota, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, Kathleen M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2015-08-20

    Numerous lakes, ponds, and wetlands are located within the Lower Brule Indian Reservation. Wetlands are an important resource providing aquatic habitat for plants and animals, and acting as a natural water filtration system. Several of the wetlands on or near the reservation are of particular interest, but information on the physical and biological integrity of these wetlands was needed to provide a base-line reference when planning for future water management needs. A reconnaissance-level study of selected wetlands on and near the Lower Brule Indian Reservation was completed in 2012–13 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe using ground surveys and water-quality analyses. Ground surveys of six wetland areas (Dorman Slough, Little Bend Wetlands, Miller Pond, Potter Slough, an unnamed slough, and West Brule Community wetlands) were completed to map land, water, vegetation, and man-made features of the selected wetland areas using real-time kinematic global navigation satellite systems equipment. Water samples were collected from four of the selected wetlands. Two separate waterbodies were sampled at one of the wetlands for a total of five sampling locations. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties, selected inorganics, metals, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentrations of calcium, sodium, and sulfate were greater at the two wetland sites fed by ground water, compared to the wetland sites fed by surface runoff.

  12. The Quality and Selectivity of Linking Federal Administrative Records to Respondents and Nonrespondents in a General Population Sample Survey of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Sakshaug

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of auxiliary information are being sought to augment survey samples and adjust for possible nonresponse bias in key survey estimates. Auxiliary data options are typically limited in most general population surveys and there are questions concerning their utility for nonresponse bias evaluation and adjustment. Federal administrative databases provide a potentially rich source of auxiliary information for nonresponse purposes, but linking them to general population samples is usually restricted to surveys which draw their samples from population registers containing unique personal identity numbers which can be directly linked to federal databases containing more detailed substantive information. In this article, we examine the quality and selectivity of augmenting a federal administrative database to a general population survey when such a unique personal identifier is not available. We employ a series of standard linkage procedures that rely instead on non-unique and error-prone identifiers collected from the sampling frame to link a federal employment database to a general population survey in Germany. The quality and selectivity of the established links are evaluated using household- and person-level interview data in accordance with German data protection laws. We report a linkage rate of 60 percent for the entire sample under a strict linkage criterion, and 80 percent under a more relaxed criterion. We find that linkage rates vary across some household- and person-level characteristics that are likely specific to the particular administrative database used in this case study. We conclude with a general discussion of the practical implications of this work for survey organizations considering performing similar linkages and highlight some opportunities for future research.

  13. Monte Carlo variational study of Be: A survey of correlated wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Jules W.; Schmidt, K. E.; Lee, M. A.; Kalos, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    Using the Metropolis Monte Carlo integration technique, we calculate upper bounds to the correlation energy of a Be atom for a variety of wave functions. With this method, it is simple to treat unconventional wave functions, including those which depend on the interelectronic distance rij. We obtain about 40% of the correlation energy by using only a simple two-parameter Jastrow function of rij with a single Slater determinant of Hartree-Fock orbitals. A four configuration wave function with this Jastrow function yields 87% of the correlation energy. Several wave functions derived from nonvariational methods are shown to give no correlation energy when used in a strictly variational computation.

  14. Motor Response Selection in Overt Sentence Production: A Functional MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Small, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    Many different cortical areas are thought to be involved in the process of selecting motor responses, from the inferior frontal gyrus, to the lateral and medial parts of the premotor cortex. The objective of the present study was to examine the neural underpinnings of motor response selection in a set of overt language production tasks. To this aim, we compared a sentence repetition task (externally constrained selection task) with a sentence generation task (volitional selection task) in a group of healthy adults. In general, the results clarify the contribution of the pre-SMA, cingulate areas, PMv, and pars triangularis to the process of selecting motor responses in the context of sentence production, and shed light on the manner in which this network is modulated by selection mode. Further, the present study suggests that response selection in sentence production engages neural resources similar to those engaged in the production of isolated words and oral motor gestures. PMID:21994500

  15. Natural Selection and Functional Potentials of Human Noncoding Elements Revealed by Analysis of Next Generation Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pankaj; Lu, Dongsheng; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    Noncoding DNA sequences (NCS) have attracted much attention recently due to their functional potentials. Here we attempted to reveal the functional roles of noncoding sequences from the point of view of natural selection that typically indicates the functional potentials of certain genomic elements. We analyzed nearly 37 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Phase I data of the 1000 Genomes Project. We estimated a series of key parameters of population genetics and molecular evolution to characterize sequence variations of the noncoding genome within and between populations, and identified the natural selection footprints in NCS in worldwide human populations. Our results showed that purifying selection is prevalent and there is substantial constraint of variations in NCS, while positive selectionis more likely to be specific to some particular genomic regions and regional populations. Intriguingly, we observed larger fraction of non-conserved NCS variants with lower derived allele frequency in the genome, indicating possible functional gain of non-conserved NCS. Notably, NCS elements are enriched for potentially functional markers such as eQTLs, TF motif, and DNase I footprints in the genome. More interestingly, some NCS variants associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Type 1 diabetes, and immune-related bowel disorder (IBD) showed signatures of positive selection, although the majority of NCS variants, reported as risk alleles by genome-wide association studies, showed signatures of negative selection. Our analyses provided compelling evidence of natural selection forces on noncoding sequences in the human genome and advanced our understanding of their functional potentials that play important roles in disease etiology and human evolution.

  16. Selective Photodissociation of Acetonitrile Ligands in Ruthenium Polypyridyl Complexes Studied by Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yi-Jung; Mazumder, Shivnath; Endicott, John F; Turro, Claudia; Kodanko, Jeremy J; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2015-08-17

    Metal complexes that release ligands upon photoexcitation are important tools for biological research and show great potential as highly specific therapeutics. Upon excitation with visible light, [Ru(TQA)(MeCN)2](2+) [TQA = tris(2-quinolinylmethyl)amine] exchanges one of the two acetonitriles (MeCNs), whereas [Ru(DPAbpy)MeCN](2+) [DPAbpy = N-(2,2'-bipyridin-6-yl)-N,N-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine] does not release MeCN. Furthermore, [Ru(TQA)(MeCN)2](2+) is highly selective for release of the MeCN that is perpendicular to the plane of the two axial quinolines. Density functional theory calculations provide a clear explanation for the photodissociation behavior of these two complexes. Excitation by visible light and intersystem crossing leads to a six-coordinate (3)MLCT state. Dissociation of acetonitrile can occur after internal conversion to a dissociative (3)MC state, which has an occupied dσ* orbital that interacts in an antibonding fashion with acetonitrile. For [Ru(TQA)(MeCN)2](2+), the dissociative (3)MC state is lower than the (3)MLCT state. In contrast, the (3)MC state of [Ru(DPAbpy)MeCN](2+) that releases acetonitrile has an energy higher than that of the (3)MLCT state, indicating dissociation is unfavorable. These results are consistent with the experimental observations that efficient photodissociation of acetonitrile occurs for [Ru(TQA)(MeCN)2](2+) but not for [Ru(DPAbpy)MeCN](2+). For the release of the MeCN ligand in [Ru(TQA)(MeCN)2](2+) that is perpendicular to the axial quinoline rings, the (3)MLCT state has an occupied quinoline π* orbital that can interact with a dσ* Ru-NCCH3 antibonding orbital as the Ru-NCCH3 bond is stretched and the quinolines bend toward the departing acetonitrile. This reduces the barrier for the formation of the dissociative (3)MC state, leading to the selective photodissociation of this acetonitrile. By contrast, when the acetonitrile is in the plane of the quinolines or bpy, no interaction occurs between the ligand

  17. In Silico survey of functional coding variants in human AEG-1 gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: It could be concluded that these intolerant changes may lie within a functional region of the protein and may affect the stability and folding of AEG-1. These variants are reagents for further protein function and molecular epidemiology studies of cancer susceptibility. Keywords: Non-synonymous SNP; Functional ...

  18. Patterns of decline in upper limb function of boys and men with DMD: an international survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.M.H.P.; Bergsma, A.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Groot, I.J.M. de

    2014-01-01

    With increasing life expectancy, upper extremity (UE) function becomes more and more important in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Knowledge of UE function in these children is, however, limited. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the changing patterns of UE function during

  19. Selection shaped the evolution of mouse androgen-binding protein (ABP) function and promoted the duplication of Abp genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2014-08-01

    In the present article, we summarize two aspects of our work on mouse ABP (androgen-binding protein): (i) the sexual selection function producing incipient reinforcement on the European house mouse hybrid zone, and (ii) the mechanism behind the dramatic expansion of the Abp gene region in the mouse genome. Selection unifies these two components, although the ways in which selection has acted differ. At the functional level, strong positive selection has acted on key sites on the surface of one face of the ABP dimer, possibly to influence binding to a receptor. A different kind of selection has apparently driven the recent and rapid expansion of the gene region, probably by increasing the amount of Abp transcript, in one or both of two ways. We have shown previously that groups of Abp genes behave as LCRs (low-copy repeats), duplicating as relatively large blocks of genes by NAHR (non-allelic homologous recombination). The second type of selection involves the close link between the accumulation of L1 elements and the expansion of the Abp gene family by NAHR. It is probably predicated on an initial selection for increased transcription of existing Abp genes and/or an increase in Abp gene number providing more transcriptional sites. Either or both could increase initial transcript production, a quantitative change similar to increasing the volume of a radio transmission. In closing, we also provide a note on Abp gene nomenclature.

  20. Survey of social health insurance structure in selected countries; providing framework for basic health insurance in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Effat; Raissi, Ahmad Reza; Barooni, Mohsen; Ferdoosi, Massoud; Nuhi, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Health system reforms are the most strategic issue that has been seriously considered in healthcare systems in order to reduce costs and increase efficiency and effectiveness. The costs of health system finance in our country, lack of universal coverage in health insurance, and related issues necessitate reforms in our health system financing. The aim of this research was to prepare a structure of framework for social health insurance in Iran and conducting a comparative study in selected countries with social health insurance. This comparative descriptive study was conducted in three phases. The first phase of the study examined the structure of health social insurance in four countries - Germany, South Korea, Egypt, and Australia. The second phase was to develop an initial model, which was designed to determine the shared and distinguishing points of the investigated structures, for health insurance in Iran. The third phase was to validate the final research model. The developed model by the Delphi method was given to 20 professionals in financing of the health system, health economics and management of healthcare services. Their comments were collected in two stages and its validity was confirmed. The study of the structure of health insurance in the selected countries shows that health social insurance in different countries have different structures. Based on the findings of the present study, the current situation of the health system, and the conducted surveys, the following framework is suitable for the health social insurance system in Iran. The Health Social Insurance Organization has a unique service by having five funds of governmental employees, companies and NGOs, self-insured, villagers, and others, which serves as a nongovernmental organization under the supervision of public law and by decision- and policy-making of the Health Insurance Supreme Council. Membership in this organization is based on the nationality or residence, which the insured by

  1. The Roles, Functions and Implications of Assistants in Scottish Educational Psychology Services, a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sam

    2012-01-01

    An exploratory survey of Assistants in Scottish educational psychology services (EPSs) was undertaken, guided by four questions: Who are Assistants? Why are they employed/not employed? What do Assistants do? How are Assistants supported and supervised? Twenty-one Assistants and 15 managers were interviewed. It was found that Assistants worked…

  2. Insight Mechanism of the Selective Lanosterol Synthase Inhibitor: Molecular Modeling, Docking and Density Functional Theory Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunagaran, Subramanian; Kavitha, Rengarajan; Vadivelu, Muthu; Lee, Keun Woo; Meganathan, Chandrasekaran

    2017-11-10

    Lanosterol synthase (Oxidosqualene cyclase) is an enzyme, which plays a central role in cholesterol and sterols biosynthesis. Lanosterol synthase drugs are used to lower the level of cholesterol in the blood and treat wide variety of diseases like atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases etc. There is a great interest in the identification of drugs that target this enzyme for anticholesteraemic agent using in silico tools. Ligand based pharmacophore model was developed using Discovery Studio 2.5. The best model was used as a tool to retrieve suitable molecule for Lanosterol synthase inhibitor from commercial database and Virtual screening of large commercially available databases to retrieve the best mole of Hypo1 using. Molecular docking was done using three different tools named as GOLD, GLIDE and AUTODOCK 4.0. Density functional theory approach and Density of State spectrum were carried out using Gaussian 09 and GAUSS SUM 3.0. Contribution of these methods in the selection of anticholesteraemic compounds has been discussed. The best pharmacophore model was used to screen the commercial database. Totally 8 compounds were showed with the best orientation, binding mode and binging energy in the docking analyses. The orbital energies such as HOMO, LUMO and DOS spectrum for 8 hit compounds showed the energy gap that results in charge transfer and stability in the active site region. The results showed that our 8 potent leads could serve for further findings. In silico approaches, our 8 hit compounds could serve as the better understanding to design the novel lanosterol synthase inhibitors as anticholesteraemic activity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Refuge function of marine algae complicates selection in an intertidal snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Petri; van Nes, Solveig; Ceder, Christofer; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2005-04-01

    Species with restricted gene flow often show trait-shifts from one type of environment to another. In those rock-dwelling marine gastropods that lack larval dispersal, size generally decreases in wave-exposed habitats reducing risk of dislodgement, while increases in less exposed habitats to resist crab-crushing. In Littorina fabalis, however, snails of moderately exposed shores are generally much larger (11-14 mm) than snails of sheltered shores (5-8 mm). Observations from the White Sea (where crabs are not present) indicate that in the absence of crabs snails are small (6-7 mm) in both habitats. We assumed that the optimal size for L. fabalis in the absence of crabs is less than 8 mm, and thus that increased size in moderately exposed habitats in areas with crabs might be a response to crab predation. In a crab-rich area (Sweden) we showed that crab predation is an important mortality factor for this snail species in both sheltered and moderately exposed habitats. In sheltered habitats, snails were relatively more protected from crab-predation when dwelling on their habitual substrate, fucoid algae, than if experimentally tethered to rocks below the algae. This showed that algae function as snail refuges. Snail dislodgement increased, however, with wave exposure but tethering snails in moderately exposed habitats showed that large snails survived equally well on rocks under the algae as in the canopy of the algae. Thus in sheltered habitats a small snail size is favored, probably due to life-history reasons, while increased risk of being dislodged from the algae refuges promotes a large size in moderately exposed habitats. This study shows an example of selection of a trait depends on complex interactions of different factors (life-history optimization, crab predation, wave induced dislodgement and algal refuges).

  4. Functionally Selective Signaling for Morphine and Fentanyl Antinociception and Tolerance Mediated by the Rat Periaqueductal Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael M.; Reid, Rachel A.; Saville, Kimber A.

    2014-01-01

    Functionally selective signaling appears to contribute to the variability in mechanisms that underlie tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of opioids. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining the contribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)/Protein kinase C (PKC) and C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation on both the expression and development of tolerance to morphine and fentanyl microinjected into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray of the rat. Microinjection of morphine or fentanyl into the periaqueductal gray produced a dose-dependent increase in hot plate latency. Microinjection of the non-specific GRK/PKC inhibitor Ro 32-0432 into the periaqueductal gray to block mu-opioid receptor phosphorylation enhanced the antinociceptive effect of morphine but had no effect on fentanyl antinociception. Microinjection of the JNK inhibitor SP600125 had no effect on morphine or fentanyl antinociception, but blocked the expression of tolerance to repeated morphine microinjections. In contrast, a microinjection of Ro 32-0432 blocked the expression of fentanyl, but not morphine tolerance. Repeated microinjections of Ro 32-0432 blocked the development of morphine tolerance and inhibited fentanyl antinociception whether rats were tolerant or not. Repeated microinjections of SP600125 into the periaqueductal gray blocked the development of tolerance to both morphine and fentanyl microinjections. These data demonstrate that the signaling molecules that contribute to tolerance vary depending on the opioid and methodology used to assess tolerance (expression vs. development of tolerance). This signaling difference is especially clear for the expression of tolerance in which JNK contributes to morphine tolerance and GRK/PKC contributes to fentanyl tolerance. PMID:25503060

  5. Functionalization of Micro- and Nano- Apertures with Chromate-Selective Solvent Polymeric Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, Daniel C.; Liu, Bingwen; Park, Bong-Jae; Moffett, David F.; Kidwell, David A.; Cheng, Gary J.; Van Wie, Bernard J.

    2009-01-01

    A new miniaturization approach to create micro and nano-scale ISEs was demonstrated and the concept tested with an environmentally relevant chromate selective membrane consisting of 7.7:62.2:31.1 wt % Aliquat336:2-NPOE:PVC. Apertures of 100 nM and 30 μM dimensions were made using MEMS fabrication techniques and functionalized through a macroscale application of solvent polymeric membrane. Performance studies for the microscale ISE showed a response slope of −58.6 ± 5.6 mV decade−1 and Limit of Detection (LOD) of 2.1 10−5±1.1×10−5 M, versus −65.2 ± 4.2 mV decade−1 and 1.8×10−5 ± 6×10−6 M for the nanoscale ISE. This was consistent with control studies with carefully conditioned coated wire electrodes, which demonstrated a response slope of −61.7 ± 2.4 mV decade−1 and a LOD of 3.0×10−6 ± 1×10−6 M. Response times for the best micro- and nano-scale ISEs were in the 10 – 20 sec timeframe.. Electrical resistance measurements were in the GΩ range for the microscale ISEs and nanoscale ISEs. Appropriate ISE geometry was confirmed through AFM measurements and calculations based on electrical properties for micro- and nano- scale apertures. These micro- and nano-scale ISEs are expected to have significant impact in the field of micro-scale analytical processes. PMID:20103131

  6. Differential function of RNCAM isoforms in precise target selection of olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenius, Mattias; Bohm, Staffan

    2003-03-01

    Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are individually specified to express one odorant receptor (OR) gene among approximately 1000 different and project with precision to topographically defined convergence sites, the glomeruli, in the olfactory bulb. Although ORs partially determine the location of convergence sites, the mechanism ensuring that axons with different OR identities do not co-converge is unknown. RNCAM (OCAM, NCAM2) is assumed to regulate a broad zonal segregation of projections by virtue of being a homophilic cell adhesion molecule that is selectively expressed on axons terminating in a defined olfactory bulb region. We have identified NADPH diaphorase activity as being an independent marker for RNCAM-negative axons. Analyses of transgenic mice that ectopically express RNCAM in NADPH diaphorase-positive OSNs show that the postulated function of RNCAM in mediating zone-specific segregation of axons is unlikely. Instead, analyses of one OR-specific OSN subpopulation (P2) reveal that elevated RNCAM levels result in an increased number of P2 axons that incorrectly co-converge with axons of other OR identities. Both Gpi-anchored and transmembrane-bound RNCAM isoforms are localized on axons in the nerve layer, while the transmembrane-bound RNCAM is the predominant isoform on axon terminals within glomeruli. Overexpressing transmembrane-bound RNCAM results in co-convergence events close to the correct target glomeruli. By contrast, overexpression of Gpi-anchored RNCAM results in axons that can bypass the correct target before co-converging on glomeruli located at a distance. The phenotype specific for Gpi-anchored RNCAM is suppressed in mice overexpressing both isoforms, which suggests that two distinct RNCAM isoform-dependent activities influence segregation of OR-defined axon subclasses.

  7. Porous Organic Polymer Films with Tunable Work Functions and Selective Hole and Electron Flows for Energy Conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cheng; Huang, Ning; Chen, Youchun; Zhang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Shitong; Li, Fenghong; Ma, Yuguang; Jiang, Donglin

    2016-02-24

    Organic optoelectronics are promising technologies for energy conversion. However, the electrode interlayer, a key material between active layers and conducting electrodes that controls the transport of charge carriers in and out of devices, is still a chemical challenge. Herein, we report a class of porous organic polymers with tunable work function as hole- and electron-selective electrode interlayers. The network with organoborane and carbazole units exhibits extremely low work-function-selective electron flow; while upon ionic ligation and electro-oxidation, the network significantly increases the work function and turns into hole conduction. We demonstrate their outstanding functions as anode and cathode interlayers in energy-converting solar cells and light-emitting diodes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, W.; Hallak, J. E.; Crippa, J. A.; Dos Santos, R.; Porffy, L.; Barratt, M. J.; Ferris, J. A.; Winstock, A. R.; Morgan, C. J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca's subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca...

  9. Edge-functionalized nanoporous carbons for high adsorption capacity and selectivity of CO2 over N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sainan; Guo, Chen; Wu, Zhonghua; Wang, Maohuai; Wang, Zhaojie; Wei, Shuxian; Li, Shaoren; Lu, Xiaoqing

    2017-07-01

    Single-component adsorption and competitive behavior of binary CO2/N2 mixture in the edge-functionalized nanoporous carbons (NPCs) were investigated by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. Results demonstrated that edge-functionalization effectively improved the pore topology and morphological characteristics of NPCs. Evaluation of adsorption capacity and analyses of the isosteric heat and radial distribution functions confirmed that edge-functionalization can evidently enhance the single-component adsorption of CO2/N2. Temperature had a negative effect on the single-component adsorption of CO2/N2 whereas pressure had a positive effect before adsorption reaches a stable equilibrium state. Edge-functionalization can significantly increase the selectivity of CO2 over N2 in NPCs, which demonstrate the following sequence according to selectivity: NH2sbnd NPC > COOHsbnd NPC > OHsbnd NPC > Hsbnd NPC > NPC. The increased CO2 molar fraction in the binary CO2/N2 mixture decreased the selectivity and saturation pressure to reach a stable equilibrium state. Overall, this work highlighted the effects of edge-functionalization on the adsorption and separation of CO2/N2 in NPCs, and provided an effective strategy for designing and screening adsorbent materials for carbon capture and separation.

  10. Comparison of generalized estimating equations and quadratic inference functions using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odueyungbo, Adefowope; Browne, Dillon; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Thabane, Lehana

    2008-05-09

    The generalized estimating equations (GEE) technique is often used in longitudinal data modeling, where investigators are interested in population-averaged effects of covariates on responses of interest. GEE involves specifying a model relating covariates to outcomes and a plausible correlation structure between responses at different time periods. While GEE parameter estimates are consistent irrespective of the true underlying correlation structure, the method has some limitations that include challenges with model selection due to lack of absolute goodness-of-fit tests to aid comparisons among several plausible models. The quadratic inference functions (QIF) method extends the capabilities of GEE, while also addressing some GEE limitations. We conducted a comparative study between GEE and QIF via an illustrative example, using data from the "National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY)" database. The NLSCY dataset consists of long-term, population based survey data collected since 1994, and is designed to evaluate the determinants of developmental outcomes in Canadian children. We modeled the relationship between hyperactivity-inattention and gender, age, family functioning, maternal depression symptoms, household income adequacy, maternal immigration status and maternal educational level using GEE and QIF. Basis for comparison include: (1) ease of model selection; (2) sensitivity of results to different working correlation matrices; and (3) efficiency of parameter estimates. The sample included 795, 858 respondents (50.3% male; 12% immigrant; 6% from dysfunctional families). QIF analysis reveals that gender (male) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10 to 2.71), family dysfunctional (OR = 2.84, 95% CI of 1.58 to 5.11), and maternal depression (OR = 2.49, 95% CI of 1.60 to 2.60) are significantly associated with higher odds of hyperactivity-inattention. The results remained robust under GEE modeling. Model selection was

  11. Selective bowel decontamination in elective liver transplantation : no improvement in endotoxaemia, initial graft function and post-operative morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maring, JK; Zwaveling, JH; Klompmaker, IJ; Slooff, MJH

    Peri-operative endotoxaemia during liver transplantation has been linked to compromised graft function and infection. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) could prevent endotoxaemia by eradicating Gram-negative bacteria from the intestine. In a randomized placebo controlled study

  12. Controlled surface functionalization via self-selective metal adsorption and pattern transformation on the vicinal Si(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A. L.; Men, F. K.; Liu, Feng

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate a self-selective metal adsorption and pattern transformation process on vicinal Si(111) surfaces. When Au atoms are deposited onto the self-organized periodic Si(111) surface patterns, the Au atoms self-select to adsorb predominantly onto one of the two distinct domains, the Si(111) terrace or the step-bunched facet at different Au coverage. This leads to a systematic transformation of the surface pattern, whose domain population changes while its periodicity remains intact with the increasing Au coverage. A stress-domain model is used to explain the observed phenomenon. Our findings suggest a unique method for controlled functionalization of surfaces at the nanoscale, as illustrated further by domain-selective self-assembly of uniform CoSi2 nanoclusters on the Au-functionalized vicinal Si(111) surface.

  13. Controlled Surface functionalization via self-selective metal adsorption and pattern transformation on vicinal Si(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, F. K.; Chin, A. L.; Liu, Feng

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate a self-selective metal adsorption and pattern transformation process on vicinal Si(111) surfaces. When Au atoms are deposited onto the self-organized periodic Si(111) surface patterns, the Au atoms self-select to adsorb predominantly onto one of the two distinct domains, the Si(111) terrace or the step-bunched facet, at different Au coverage. This leads to a systematic transformation of the surface pattern, whose domain population changes while its periodicity remains intact with the increasing Au coverage. A stress-domain model is used to explain the observed phenomenon. Our findings suggest a unique method for controlled functionalization of surfaces at the nanoscale, as illustrated further by domain- selective self-assembly of uniform CoSi 2 nanoclusters on the Au-functionalized vicinal Si(111) surface. Work supported by NSC of Taiwan, ROC (Men) and NSF and DOE-BES of US (Liu).

  14. Anxiety treatment improves physical functioning with oblique scoring of the SF-12 short form health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Craske, Michelle G

    2013-01-01

    No studies have found a positive effect of anxiety treatment on physical functioning, but recent investigations of the 12-item Short Form Health Questionnaire (SF-12), which is frequently used to assess physical functioning, have suggested that orthogonal scoring of the summary measure may distort representations of physical health. The current study reanalyzes whether anxiety treatment improves physical functioning using oblique scoring in the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) randomized clinical trial for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Replication was tested in reanalysis of data from the earlier Collaborative Care for Anxiety and Panic (CCAP) randomized clinical trial for the treatment of panic disorder. The CALM study included 1004 primary care patients with panic, social anxiety, generalized anxiety or posttraumatic stress disorders. Patients received usual care (UC) or an evidence-based intervention (cognitive behavioral therapy, psychotropic medication or both; ITV). Physical functioning (SF-12v2) was assessed at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months. Oblique and orthogonal scoring methods for the physical functioning aggregate measure from SF-12 scale items were compared. In CALM, physical functioning improved to a greater degree in ITV than UC for oblique but not orthogonal scoring. Findings were replicated in the CCAP data. Evidence-based treatment for anxiety disorders in primary care improves physical functioning when measured using oblique scoring of the SF-12. Due to this scoring issue, effects of mental health treatment on physical functioning may have been understated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Survey of Female Sexual Functioning in the General Dutch Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Ellen A G; de Bock, Geertruida H; Pascal, Astrid; van Beek, Andre P; van den Bergh, Alfons C M; Sattler, Margriet G A; Mourits, Marian J E

    Background: After the diagnosis and treatment of disease, a major barrier to research on psychosexual functioning is the lack of a consistent estimate for the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in the general population. Aim: To clarify the prevalence of age-related female sexual functioning in

  16. Application of the ICIDH in survey research on rehabilitation: the emergence of the functional diagnosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.

    1995-01-01

    The International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH) has been hypothesized to be an excellent conceptual framework for the functional diagnosis, i.e. the evaluation of health problems by rehabilitation specialists. The ICIDH-based functional diagnosis was assessed in

  17. The XXL Survey. XII. Optical spectroscopy of X-ray-selected clusters and the frequency of AGN in superclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouridis, E.; Poggianti, B.; Altieri, B.; Valtchanov, I.; Jaffé, Y.; Adami, C.; Elyiv, A.; Melnyk, O.; Fotopoulou, S.; Gastaldello, F.; Horellou, C.; Pierre, M.; Pacaud, F.; Plionis, M.; Sadibekova, T.; Surdej, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. This article belongs to the first series of XXL publications. It presents multifibre spectroscopic observations of three 0.55 deg2 fields in the XXL Survey, which were selected on the basis of their high density of X-ray-detected clusters. The observations were obtained with the AutoFib2+WYFFOS (AF2) wide-field fibre spectrograph mounted on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. Aims: The paper first describes the scientific rationale, the preparation, the data reduction, and the results of the observations, and then presents a study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within three superclusters. Methods: To determine the redshift of galaxy clusters and AGN, we assign high priority to a) the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), b) the most probable cluster galaxy candidates, and c) the optical counterparts of X-ray point-like sources. We use the outcome of the observations to study the projected (2D) and the spatial (3D) overdensity of AGN in three superclusters. Results: We obtained redshifts for 455 galaxies in total, 56 of which are counterparts of X-ray point-like sources. We were able to determine the redshift of the merging supercluster XLSSC-e, which consists of six individual clusters at z ~ 0.43, and we confirmed the redshift of supercluster XLSSC-d at z ~ 0.3. More importantly, we discovered a new supercluster, XLSSC-f, that comprises three galaxy clusters also at z ~ 0.3. We find a significant 2D overdensity of X-ray point-like sources only around the supercluster XLSSC-f. This result is also supported by the spatial (3D) analysis of XLSSC-f, where we find four AGN with compatible spectroscopic redshifts and possibly one more with compatible photometric redshift. In addition, we find two AGN (3D analysis) at the redshift of XLSSC-e, but no AGN in XLSSC-d. Comparing these findings with the optical galaxy overdensity we conclude that the total number of AGN in the area of the three superclusters significantly exceeds the field expectations. All of the

  18. Feature Selection and the Class Imbalance Problem in Predicting Protein Function from Sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Shahib, A.; Breitling, R.; Gilbert, D.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: When the standard approach to predict protein function by sequence homology fails, other alternative methods can be used that require only the amino acid sequence for predicting function. One such approach uses machine learning to predict protein function directly from amino acid sequence

  19. Selection of Mother Wavelet Functions for Multi-Channel EEG Signal Analysis during a Working Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Bin Mohd Ali, Sawal Hamid; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Islam, Mohd Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

    2015-11-17

    We performed a comparative study to select the efficient mother wavelet (MWT) basis functions that optimally represent the signal characteristics of the electrical activity of the human brain during a working memory (WM) task recorded through electro-encephalography (EEG). Nineteen EEG electrodes were placed on the scalp following the 10-20 system. These electrodes were then grouped into five recording regions corresponding to the scalp area of the cerebral cortex. Sixty-second WM task data were recorded from ten control subjects. Forty-five MWT basis functions from orthogonal families were investigated. These functions included Daubechies (db1-db20), Symlets (sym1-sym20), and Coiflets (coif1-coif5). Using ANOVA, we determined the MWT basis functions with the most significant differences in the ability of the five scalp regions to maximize their cross-correlation with the EEG signals. The best results were obtained using "sym9" across the five scalp regions. Therefore, the most compatible MWT with the EEG signals should be selected to achieve wavelet denoising, decomposition, reconstruction, and sub-band feature extraction. This study provides a reference of the selection of efficient MWT basis functions.

  20. Selection of Mother Wavelet Functions for Multi-Channel EEG Signal Analysis during a Working Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Kamal Al-Qazzaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We performed a comparative study to select the efficient mother wavelet (MWT basis functions that optimally represent the signal characteristics of the electrical activity of the human brain during a working memory (WM task recorded through electro-encephalography (EEG. Nineteen EEG electrodes were placed on the scalp following the 10–20 system. These electrodes were then grouped into five recording regions corresponding to the scalp area of the cerebral cortex. Sixty-second WM task data were recorded from ten control subjects. Forty-five MWT basis functions from orthogonal families were investigated. These functions included Daubechies (db1–db20, Symlets (sym1–sym20, and Coiflets (coif1–coif5. Using ANOVA, we determined the MWT basis functions with the most significant differences in the ability of the five scalp regions to maximize their cross-correlation with the EEG signals. The best results were obtained using “sym9” across the five scalp regions. Therefore, the most compatible MWT with the EEG signals should be selected to achieve wavelet denoising, decomposition, reconstruction, and sub-band feature extraction. This study provides a reference of the selection of efficient MWT basis functions.

  1. Living with fibromyalgia: results from the functioning with fibro survey highlight patients' experiences and relationships with health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Angela Golden,1 Yvonne D'Arcy,2 Elizabeth T Masters,3 Andrew Clair3 1NP from Home, LLC, Munds Park, AZ, 2Pain Management and Palliative Care, Suburban Hospital-Johns Hopkins Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 3Pfizer, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread pain, which can limit patients' physical function and daily activities. FM can be challenging to treat, and the treatment approach could benefit from a greater understanding of patients' perspectives on their condition and their care. Patients with FM participated in an online survey conducted in the USA that sought to identify the symptoms that had the greatest impact on patients' daily lives. The purpose of the survey was to facilitate efforts toward improving care of patients by nurse practitioners, primary care providers, and specialists, in addition to contributing to the development of new outcome measures in both clinical trials and general practice. A total of 1,228 patients with FM completed the survey, responding to specific questions pertaining to symptoms, impact of symptoms, management of FM, and the relationship with health care providers. Chronic pain was identified as the key FM symptom, affecting personal and professional relationships, and restricting physical activity, work, and social commitments. Patients felt that the severity of their condition was underestimated by family, friends, and health care providers. The results of this survey highlight the need for nurse practitioners, primary care providers, and specialists to provide understanding and support to patients as they work together to enable effective diagnosis and management of FM. Keywords: fibromyalgia, pain, survey, impact, support

  2. Gemini Spectroscopy of Supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey: Improving High-Redshift Supernova Selection and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Perrett, K.; Bronder, T. J.; Hook, I. M.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Knop, R.; McMahon, R. G.; Perlmutter, S.; Walton, N. A.

    2005-12-01

    We present new techniques for improving the efficiency of supernova (SN) classification at high redshift using 64 candidates observed at Gemini North and South during the first year of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). The SNLS is an ongoing 5 year project with the goal of measuring the equation of state of dark energy by discovering and following over 700 high-redshift SNe Ia using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. We achieve an improvement in the SN Ia spectroscopic confirmation rate: at Gemini 71% of candidates are now confirmed as SNe Ia, compared to 54% using the methods of previous surveys. This is despite the comparatively high redshift of this sample, in which the median SN Ia redshift is z=0.81 (0.155Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. DSM/DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.

  3. Selective Delivery of an Anticancer Drug with Aptamer-Functionalized Liposomes to Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hang; Tang, Li; Yang, Xujuan; Hwang, Kevin; Wang, Wendan; Yin, Qian; Wong, Ngo Yin; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Yasui, Norio; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Helferich, William G; Cheng, Jianjun; Lu, Yi

    2013-10-21

    Selective targeting of cancer cells is a critical step in cancer diagnosis and therapy. To address this need, DNA aptamers have attracted significant attention as possible targeting ligands. However, while their use in targeting cancer cells in vitro has been reported, their effectiveness has rarely been established in vivo. Here we report the development of a liposomal drug delivery system for targeted anticancer chemotherapy. Liposomes were prepared containing doxorubicin as a payload, and functionalized with AS1411, a DNA aptamer with strong binding affinity for nucleolin. AS1411 aptamer-functionalized liposomes increased cellular internalization and cytotoxicity to MCF-7 breast cancer cells as compared to non-targeting liposomes. Furthermore, targeted liposomal doxorubicin improved antitumor efficacy against xenograft MCF-7 breast tumors in athymic nude mice, attributable to their enhanced tumor tissue penetration. This study suggests that AS1411 aptamer-functionalized liposomes can recognize nucleolin overexpressed on MCF-7 cell surface, and therefore enable drug delivery with high specificity and selectivity.

  4. Determinants of female sexual function in inflammatory bowel disease: a survey based cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Claudia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual function is impaired in women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD as compared to normal controls. We examined disease specific determinants of different aspects of low sexual function. Methods Women with IBD aged 18 to 65 presenting to the university departments of internal medicine and surgery were included. In addition, a random sample from the national patients organization was used (separate analyses. Sexual function was assessed by the Brief Index of Sexual Function in Women, comprising seven different domains of sexuality. Function was considered impaired if subscores were Results 336 questionnaires were included (219 Crohn's disease, 117 ulcerative colitis. Most women reported low sexual activity (63%; 17% none at all, 20% moderate or high activity. Partnership satisfaction was high in spite of low sexual interest in this group. Depressed mood was the strongest predictor of low sexual function scores in all domains. Urban residency and higher socioecomic status had a protective effect. Disease activity was moderately associated with low desire (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.2. Severity of the disease course impacted most on intercourse frequency (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.7. Lubrication problems were more common in smokers (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.1. Conclusion Mood disturbances and social environment impacted more on sexual function in women with IBD than disease specific factors. Smoking is associated with lubrication problems.

  5. Selected aspects of the methodology of a household interview survey on an urban agglomeration scale with regard to its services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata ŻOCHOWSKA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the essential issues and algorithm of the methodology of a four-step transportation model, which was constructed in order to carrying out a household interview survey. The results of this research are source data for determining the travel behaviour of the users of transportation systems, including intelligent transport systems (ITS. The presented issues regarding the survey methodology also concern the specifics of the study area, an urban agglomeration area. The examples particularly relate to an urban agglomeration with the nature of a conurbation, namely, the Upper Silesian Agglomeration in Poland.

  6. The Evolution of the Stellar Mass Functions of Star-forming and Quiescent Galaxies to z = 4 from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzin, Adam; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; Franx, Marijn; McCracken, Henry J.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Dunlop, James S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Brammer, Gabriel; Labbé, Ivo; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2013-11-01

    We present measurements of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 using a sample of 95,675 Ks -selected galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field. The SMFs of the combined population are in good agreement with previous measurements and show that the stellar mass density of the universe was only 50%, 10%, and 1% of its current value at z ~ 0.75, 2.0, and 3.5, respectively. The quiescent population drives most of the overall growth, with the stellar mass density of these galaxies increasing as ρstarvprop(1 + z)-4.7 ± 0.4 since z = 3.5, whereas the mass density of star-forming galaxies increases as ρstarvprop(1 + z)-2.3 ± 0.2. At z > 2.5, star-forming galaxies dominate the total SMF at all stellar masses, although a non-zero population of quiescent galaxies persists to z = 4. Comparisons of the Ks -selected star-forming galaxy SMFs with UV-selected SMFs at 2.5 3.5. We estimate the average mass growth of individual galaxies by selecting galaxies at fixed cumulative number density. The average galaxy with log(M star/M ⊙) = 11.5 at z = 0.3 has grown in mass by only 0.2 dex (0.3 dex) since z = 2.0 (3.5), whereas those with log(M star/M ⊙) = 10.5 have grown by >1.0 dex since z = 2. At z budget in the SMFs. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and on data products produced by TERAPIX and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the UltraVISTA consortium.

  7. Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and non-verbal cognitive functioning in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marroun, H. El; White, T.J.; Fernandez, G.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Verhulst, F.C.; Stricker, B.H.; Tiemeier, H.

    2017-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently used during pregnancy. Evidence about the long-term consequences of prenatal SSRI exposure on child neurodevelopment is controversial. We prospectively investigated whether prenatal SSRI exposure was associated with childhood non-verbal

  8. Towards consensus in operational definitions in functional capacity evaluation: A Delphi survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, R.; Van Der Schans, C.; Groothoff, J.; Geertzen, J.; Reneman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The problem of inconsistent terminology in Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) has been widely addressed in the international literature. Many different terms seem to be used interchangeably while other terms appear to be interpreted differently. Objective: To gain consensus in

  9. Patterns of decline in upper limb function of boys and men with DMD: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Mariska M H P; Bergsma, Arjen; Geurts, Alexander C H; de Groot, Imelda J M

    2014-07-01

    With increasing life expectancy, upper extremity (UE) function becomes more and more important in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Knowledge of UE function in these children is, however, limited. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the changing patterns of UE function during the course of DMD. A Web-based questionnaire on UE function, covering all domains of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health, was distributed worldwide. Primary domains of the questionnaire were: participant characteristics, UE pain and stiffness, UE activities, and social participation. Data were described per disease stage and analyzed using descriptive analysis. A total of 213 boys/men with DMD (1-35 years) were included in this study. UE pain, stiffness, and activity limitations increased with disease stage. UE activity limitations already occurred in the early ambulatory stage. Compared to the healthy population, social participation was restricted in DMD patients and about 70% of the respondents experienced UE limitations when performing social activities. Despite the existence of UE impairments, only 9% of the respondents used supportive aids. Functional capacities and activities of the UE are limited already in the early ambulatory stage of patients with DMD affecting their social participation. Therefore, clinicians should pay attention to UE limitations before DMD patients lose their capacity to walk. Effective and adequate aids as well as attention for pain and stiffness in the therapeutic management could help to reduce UE activity limitations and related restrictions in social participation.

  10. Selected non-holonomic functions in lattice statistical mechanics and enumerative combinatorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraa, S.; Maillard, J.-M.

    2016-02-01

    We recall that the full susceptibility series of the Ising model, modulo powers of the prime 2, reduce to algebraic functions. We also recall the nonlinear polynomial differential equation obtained by Tutte for the generating function of the q-coloured rooted triangulations by vertices, which is known to have algebraic solutions for all the numbers of the form 2 +2 {cos}(jπ /n), the holonomic status of q=4 being unclear. We focus on the analysis of the q=4 case, showing that the corresponding series is quite certainly non-holonomic. Along the line of a previous work on the susceptibility of the Ising model, we consider this q=4 series modulo the first eight primes 2, 3, ... 19, and show that this (probably non-holonomic) function reduces, modulo these primes, to algebraic functions. We conjecture that this probably non-holonomic function reduces to algebraic functions modulo (almost) every prime, or power of prime numbers. This raises the question of whether such remarkable non-holonomic functions can be seen as a ratio of diagonals of rational functions, or even algebraic functions of diagonals of rational functions. Dedicated to A J Guttmann, for his 70th birthday.

  11. Selected water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.

    2017-06-22

    The New England Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is headquartered in Pembroke, New Hampshire, with offices in East Hartford, Connecticut; Augusta, Maine; Northborough, Massachusetts; and Montpelier, Vermont. The areas of expertise covered by the water science center’s staff of 130 include aquatic biology, chemistry, geographic information systems, geology, hydrologic sciences and engineering, and water use.

  12. Wetland Survey of Selected Areas in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Area of Responsibilty, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel

    1997-01-01

    This document was prepared to summarize wetland surveys performed in the Y- 1 2 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994. Wetland surveys were conducted in three areas within the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994: the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Operable Unit (OU), part of the Bear Creek Valley OU (the upper watershed of Bear Creek from the culvert under Bear Creek Road upstream through the Y-12 West End Environmental Management Area, and the catchment of Bear Creek North Tributary 1), and part of Chestnut Ridge OU 2 (the McCoy Branch area south of Bethel Valley Road). Using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual, 18 wetland areas were identified in the 3 areas surveyed; these areas were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin. Fourteen wetlands and one wetland/pond area that are associated with disturbed or remnant stream channels and seeps were identified in the UEFPC OU. Three wetlands were identified in the Bear Creek Valley OU portion of the survey area. One wetland was identified in the riparian zone of McCoy Branch in the southern portion of Chestnut Ridge OU 2.

  13. ALMA SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: CO LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC DENSITY OF MOLECULAR GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, Manuel; Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Carilli, Chris [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Bouwens, Rychard [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Da Cunha, Elisabete [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Daddi, Emanuele [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Ivison, R. J.; Popping, Gergö [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Riechers, Dominik [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Smail, Ian R. [6 Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Swinbank, Mark [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-053121 Bonn (Germany); Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo, E-mail: decarli@mpia.de [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); and others

    2016-12-10

    In this paper we use ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field in band 3 and band 6, to place blind constraints on the CO luminosity function and the evolution of the cosmic molecular gas density as a function of redshift up to z  ∼ 4.5. This study is based on galaxies that have been selected solely through their CO emission and not through any other property. In all of the redshift bins the ASPECS measurements reach the predicted “knee” of the CO luminosity function (around 5 × 10{sup 9} K km s{sup −1} pc{sup 2}). We find clear evidence of an evolution in the CO luminosity function with respect to z  ∼ 0, with more CO-luminous galaxies present at z  ∼ 2. The observed galaxies at z  ∼ 2 also appear more gas-rich than predicted by recent semi-analytical models. The comoving cosmic molecular gas density within galaxies as a function of redshift shows a drop by a factor of 3–10 from z  ∼ 2 to z  ∼ 0 (with significant error bars), and possibly a decline at z  > 3. This trend is similar to the observed evolution of the cosmic star formation rate density. The latter therefore appears to be at least partly driven by the increased availability of molecular gas reservoirs at the peak of cosmic star formation ( z  ∼ 2).

  14. Factors influencing clinical trial site selection in Europe: the Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (the SAT-EU Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Marta; Taylor, Rod S; Mellody, Marie; Casteels, Brigitte; Piazzi, Angela; Gensini, Gianfranco; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2013-11-15

    Applications to run clinical trials in Europe fell 25% between 2007 and 2011. Costs, speed of approvals and shortcomings of European Clinical Trial Directive are commonly invoked to explain this unsatisfactory performance. However, no hard evidence is available on the actual weight of these factors or has it been previously investigated whether other criteria may also impact clinical trial site selection. The Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (SAT-EU Study) was an anonymous, cross-sectional web-based survey that systematically assessed factors impacting European clinical trial site selection. It explored 19 factors across investigator-driven, hospital-driven and environment-driven criteria, and costs. It also surveyed perceptions of the European trial environment. Clinical research organisations (CROs), academic clinical trial units (CTUs) and industry invited to respond. weight assigned to each factor hypothesised to impact trial site selection and trial incidence. Secondary outcome: desirability of European countries to run clinical trials. Responses were obtained from 485 professionals in 34 countries: 49% from BioPharma, 40% from CTUs or CROs. Investigator-dependent, environment-dependent and hospital-dependent factors were rated highly important, costs being less important (p<0.0001). Within environment-driven criteria, pool of eligible patients, speed of approvals and presence of disease-management networks were significantly more important than costs or government financial incentives (p<0.0001). The pattern of response was consistent across respondent groupings (CTU vs CRO vs industry). Considerable variability was demonstrated in the perceived receptivity of countries to undertake clinical trials, with Germany, the UK and the Netherlands rated the best trial markets (p<0.0001). Investigator-dependent factors and ease of approval dominate trial site selection, while costs appear less important. Fostering competitiveness of European clinical

  15. THE HIGH A{sub V} Quasar Survey: Reddened Quasi-Stellar Objects selected from optical/near-infrared photometry. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogager, J.-K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Vestergaard, M. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Geier, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Venemans, B. P. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ledoux, C. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Møller, P. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschildstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Noterdaeme, P. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS-UPMC, UMR7095, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Kangas, T.; Pursimo, T.; Smirnova, O. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Apartado 474, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma (Spain); Saturni, F. G. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, 21500 Piikkiö (Finland)

    2015-03-15

    Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) whose spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are reddened by dust either in their host galaxies or in intervening absorber galaxies are to a large degree missed by optical color selection criteria like the ones used by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To overcome this bias against red QSOs, we employ a combined optical and near-infrared (near-IR) color selection. In this paper, we present a spectroscopic follow-up campaign of a sample of red candidate QSOs which were selected from the SDSS and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The spectroscopic data and SDSS/UKIDSS photometry are supplemented by mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. In our sample of 159 candidates, 154 (97%) are confirmed to be QSOs. We use a statistical algorithm to identify sightlines with plausible intervening absorption systems and identify nine such cases assuming dust in the absorber similar to Large Magellanic Cloud sightlines. We find absorption systems toward 30 QSOs, 2 of which are consistent with the best-fit absorber redshift from the statistical modeling. Furthermore, we observe a broad range in SED properties of the QSOs as probed by the rest-frame 2 μm flux. We find QSOs with a strong excess as well as QSOs with a large deficit at rest-frame 2 μm relative to a QSO template. Potential solutions to these discrepancies are discussed. Overall, our study demonstrates the high efficiency of the optical/near-IR selection of red QSOs.

  16. Functional properties of the basal ganglia's re-entrant loop architecture: selection and reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redgrave, P; Vautrelle, N; Reynolds, J N J

    2011-12-15

    Multifunctional agents with limited motor resources must decide what actions will best ensure their survival. Moreover, given that in an unpredictable world things don't always work out, considerable advantage is to be gained by learning from experience - instrumental behaviour that maximises reward and minimises punishment. In this review we will argue that the re-entrant looped architecture of the basal ganglia represents biological solutions to these fundamental behavioural problems of selection and reinforcement. A potential solution to the selection problem is provided for by selective disinhibition within the parallel loop architecture that connects the basal ganglia with external neural structures. The relay points within these loops permit the signals of a particular channel to be modified by external influences. In part, these influences have the capacity to modify overall selections so that the probability of re-selecting reinforced behaviours in the future is altered. This is the basic process of instrumental learning, which we suggest decomposes into two sub-problems for the agent: (i) learning which external events it causes to happen and learning precisely what it is doing that is causal; and (ii) having determined agency and discovered novel action-outcome routines, how best to exploit this knowledge to maximise future reward acquisitions. Considerations of connectional architecture and signal timing suggest that the short-latency, sensory-evoked dopamine response, which can modulate the re-entrant loop structure within the basal ganglia, is ideally suited to reinforce the determination of agency and the discovery of novel actions. Alternatively, recent studies showing that presence or absence of reward can selectively modulate the magnitude of signals in structures providing input signals to the basal ganglia, offer an alternative mechanism for biasing selection within the re-entrant loop architecture. We suggest that this mechanism may be better

  17. Selected topics in the classical theory of functions of a complex variable

    CERN Document Server

    Heins, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Elegant and concise, this text is geared toward advanced undergraduate students acquainted with the theory of functions of a complex variable. The treatment presents such students with a number of important topics from the theory of analytic functions that may be addressed without erecting an elaborate superstructure. These include some of the theory's most celebrated results, which seldom find their way into a first course. After a series of preliminaries, the text discusses properties of meromorphic functions, the Picard theorem, and harmonic and subharmonic functions. Subsequent topics incl

  18. Feature selection for linear SVMs under uncertain data: robust optimization based on difference of convex functions algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Thi, Hoai An; Vo, Xuan Thanh; Pham Dinh, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of feature selection for linear SVMs on uncertain data that is inherently prevalent in almost all datasets. Using principles of Robust Optimization, we propose robust schemes to handle data with ellipsoidal model and box model of uncertainty. The difficulty in treating ℓ0-norm in feature selection problem is overcome by using appropriate approximations and Difference of Convex functions (DC) programming and DC Algorithms (DCA). The computational results show that the proposed robust optimization approaches are superior than a traditional approach in immunizing perturbation of the data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Attitudes and practices of surgery residency program directors toward the use of social networking profiles to select residency candidates: a nationwide survey analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Pauline H; Klaassen, Zachary; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether residency program directors (PDs) of general surgery and surgical subspecialties review social networking (SN) websites during resident selection. A 16-question survey was distributed via e-mail (Survey Monkey, Palo Alto, California) to 641 PDs of general surgery and surgical subspecialty residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Institutions with ACGME-accredited general surgery and surgical subspecialty residency programs. PDs of ACGME-accredited general surgery and surgical subspecialty residency programs. Two hundred fifty (39%) PDs completed the survey. Seventeen percent (n = 43) of respondents reported visiting SN websites to gain more information about an applicant during the selection process, leading 14 PDs (33.3%) to rank an applicant lower after a review of their SN profile. PDs who use SN websites currently are likely to continue (69%), whereas those who do not use SN currently might do so in the future (yes 5.4%, undecided 44.6%). Online profiles displayed on SN websites provide surgery PDs with an additional avenue with which to evaluate highly competitive residency applicants. Applicants should be aware of the expansion of social media into the professional arena and the increasing use of these tools by PDs. SN profiles should reflect the professional standards to which physicians are held while highlighting an applicant's strengths and academic achievements. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey : Phase 1 (PNWRES92-I) : Book 6 : Selected Crosstabulations for Publicly-Owned Generating Utilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section; Applied Management & Planning Group (Firm)

    1993-06-01

    This book constitutes a portion of the primary documentation for the 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey, Phase I. The complete 33-volume set of primary documentation provides information needed by energy analysts and interpreters with respect to planning, execution, data collection, and data management of the PNWRES92-I process. Thirty of these volumes are devoted to different ``views`` of the data themselves, with each view having a special purpose or interest as its focus. Analyses and interpretations of these data will be the subjects of forthcoming publications. Conducted during the late summer and fall months of 1992, PNWRES92-I had the over-arching goal of satisfying basic requirements for a variety of information about the stock of residential units in Bonneville`s service region. Surveys with a similar goal were conducted in 1979 and 1983. This volume is comprised of selected crosstabulations for publicly-owned generating utilities in Eastern Washington, Western Washington, and Western Oregon. ``Selected crosstabulations`` refers to a set of nine survey items of wide interest (Dwelling Type, Ownership Type, Year-of-Construction, Dwelling Size, Primary Space-Heating Fuel, Primary Water-Heating Fuel, Household Income for 1991, Utility Type, and Space-Heating Fuels: Systems and Equipment) that were crosstabulated among themselves.