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Sample records for survey section chemistry

  1. Nationwide Survey of the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Laura J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide survey of the undergraduate physical chemistry course was conducted to investigate the depth and breadth of content that is covered, how content is delivered, how student understanding is assessed, and the experiences and beliefs of instructors. The survey was administered to instructors of physical chemistry (N = 331) at American…

  2. Section Level Public Land Survey - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Developed from manually digitized section corners captured from paper USGS seven and one-half map sources.

  3. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  4. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  5. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  6. Development, Implementation, and Analysis of a National Survey of Faculty Goals for Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Aaron D.; Towns, Marcy

    2013-01-01

    This work reports the development of a survey for laboratory goals in undergraduate chemistry, the analysis of reliable and valid data collected from a national survey of college chemistry faculty, and a synthesis of the findings. The study used a sequential exploratory mixed-methods design. Faculty goals for laboratory emerged across seven…

  7. Aspergillus section Nidulantes (formerly Emericella: Polyphasic taxonomy, chemistry and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus section Nidulantes includes species with striking morphological characters, such as biseriate conidiophores with brown-pigmented stipes, and if present, the production of ascomata embedded in masses of Hülle cells with often reddish brown ascospores. The majority of species in this section have a sexual state, which were named Emericella in the dual name nomenclature system. In the present study, strains belonging to subgenus Nidulantes were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses using internal transcribed spacer region (ITS, partial β-tubulin (BenA, calmodulin (CaM and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2 sequences. Nine sections are accepted in subgenus Nidulantes including the new section Cavernicolus. A polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of section Nidulantes. Based on this approach, section Nidulantes is subdivided in seven clades and 65 species, and 10 species are described here as new. Morphological characters including colour, shape, size, and ornamentation of ascospores, shape and size of conidia and vesicles, growth temperatures are important for identifying species. Many species of section Nidulantes produce the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. The most important mycotoxins in Aspergillus section Nidulantes are aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, emestrin, fumitremorgins, asteltoxins, and paxillin while other extrolites are useful drugs or drug lead candidates such as echinocandins, mulundocandins, calbistrins, varitriols, variecolins and terrain. Aflatoxin B1 is produced by four species: A. astellatus, A. miraensis, A. olivicola, and A. venezuelensis.

  8. Aspergillus section Nidulantes (formerly Emericella): Polyphasic taxonomy, chemistry and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, A.J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Sun, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes includes species with striking morphological characters, such as biseriate conidiophores with brown-pigmented stipes, and if present, the production of ascomata embedded in masses of Hülle cells with often reddish brown ascospores. The majority of species in this se...

  9. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazis, B.M. [ed.

    1992-11-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  10. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazis, B.M. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  11. In-Depth Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in in-depth inorganic chemistry courses at the postsecondary level; an in-depth course is defined by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training as a course that integrates and covers topics that were introduced in introductory and foundation…

  12. Results from a National Needs Assessment Survey: A View of Assessment Efforts within Chemistry Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenike, Mary Elizabeth; Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen; Holme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    As is true for virtually all of higher education, chemistry departments are often required to provide evidence of student learning at both course and curricular levels through evaluation and assessment. The ACS Exams Institute conducted a needs assessment survey of 1500 chemistry faculty members from across the country to investigate motivation,…

  13. Attitudes and Beliefs of Pathology Residents Regarding the Subspecialty of Clinical Chemistry: Results of a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Mehran; Yared, Marwan; Olano, Juan P; Alexander, C Bruce; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2017-02-01

    -Previous studies suggest that training in pathology residency programs does not adequately prepare pathology residents to become competent in clinical chemistry. -To define the beliefs of pathology residents in the United States regarding their preparation for practicing clinical chemistry in their career, their attitude toward the discipline, and the attractiveness of clinical chemistry as a career. -The residents of all pathology residency programs in the United States were given the opportunity to participate in an online survey. -Three hundred thirty-six pathology residents responded to the survey. Analysis of the survey results indicates that pathology residents are more likely to believe that their income may be lower if they select a career that has a clinical chemistry focus and that their faculty do not value clinical chemistry as much as the anatomic pathology part of the residency. Residents also report that clinical chemistry is not as enjoyable as anatomic pathology rotations during residency or preferable as a sole career path. A large proportion of residents also believe that they will be slightly prepared or not prepared to practice clinical chemistry by the end of their residency and that they do not have enough background and/or time to learn clinical chemistry during their residency programs to be able to practice this specialty effectively post graduation. -Our survey results suggest that many pathology residents do not have a positive attitude toward clinical chemistry and do not experience a supportive learning environment with an expectation that they will become competent in clinical chemistry with a residency alone.

  14. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  15. Caesarean section on request: a survey in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwee, Anneke; Cohlen, Ben J; Kanhai, Humphrey H H; Bruinse, Hein W; Visser, Gerard H A

    2004-04-15

    To determine the opinion of Dutch gynaecologists and registrars on caesarean section (CS) on request. Anonymous postal survey. A structured survey was send to all 900 gynaecologists and registrars in The Netherlands. They were asked to what extent they were willing to accept a request for an elective caesarean section, without evident medical reason. The survey contained eight simulated cases in which the reason for this request differed (obstetrical history and course of the present pregnancy). In two cases, there was no medical indication at all to perform a caesarean section; and in a third case caesarean section was due to excessive maternal weight relatively contraindicated. The response rate was 65%. Willingness to perform an elective caesarean section ranged from 17 to 81% between the cases. Main reasons to perform a caesarean section were: (a). autonomy; (b). an unfavourable course of delivery in the absence of motivation for a natural childbirth; (c). litigation. The main reasons to refuse a request for a caesarean section were: (a). higher maternal morbidity and mortality; (b). no indication for caesarean section. A logistic regression analysis on personal characteristics showed that an experienced doctor is more willing to perform an elective caesarean section then a consultant or registrar with limited experience. The sex of the doctor was of no influence and the same held for the University at which they had been trained. Furthermore, it seems that doctors are more willing to accept the request if it is based upon unfounded, but understandable fear. In The Netherlands, a woman can always find a gynaecologist willing to perform a caesarean section for non medical reasons. This willingness increases with the age of the doctor. There is a need for guidelines when handling these cases.

  16. Web Indexing with Meta Fields: A Survey of Web Objects in Polymer Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Wesley, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    This survey of 1037 World Wide Web objects on polymer chemistry collected by four search engines (AltaVista, Lycos, Excite, Webcrawler) examined document information and use of meta fields, images, and chemical names. Found that the use of meta fields was not widespread and that knowledge of meta fields in HTML varied among Web object creators.…

  17. Chemistry?!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemistry is the science of matter and of its transformations, and life is its highest expression. It provides structures endowed with properties and develops processes for the synthesis of structures. It plays a primordial role in our understanding of material phe- nomena, in our capability to act upon them, to modify them, to.

  18. Psychiatric problems in children with hemiplegia: cross sectional epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, R.; Graham, P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the prevalence and predictors of psychiatric problems in children with hemiplegia. DESIGN--Cross sectional questionnaire survey of an epidemiological sample with individual assessments of a representative subgroup. The questionnaire survey was repeated on school age subjects four years later. SUBJECTS--428 hemiplegic children age 2 1/2-16 years, of whom 149 (aged 6-10 years) were individually assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Psychiatric symptom scores and the occurrence of psychiatric disorder. RESULTS--Psychiatric disorders affected 61% (95% confidence interval 53% to 69%) of subjects as judged by individual assessments and 54% (49% to 59%) and 42% (37% to 47%) as judged from parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Few affected children had been in contact with child mental health services. The strongest consistent predictor of psychiatric problems was intelligence quotient (IQ), which was highly correlated with an index of neurological severity; age, sex, and laterality of lesion had little or no predictive power. CONCLUSION--Though most hemiplegic children have considerable emotional or behavioural difficulties, these psychological complications commonly go unrecognised or untreated. Comprehensive health provision for children with chronic neurodevelopmental disorders such as hemiplegia should be psychologically as well as physically oriented. PMID:8616413

  19. Child abuse: Cross-sectional survey of general dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harsimran; Chaudhary, Seema; Choudhary, Nidhi; Manuja, Naveen; Chaitra, T R; Amit, Sinha Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Child abuse continues to be a social menace causing both physical and emotional trauma to benevolent children. Census has shown that nearly 50-75% of child abuse include trauma to mouth, face, and head. Thus, dental professionals are in strategic position to identify physical and emotional manifestations of abuse. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners regarding child abuse and to identify the barriers in reporting the same. With prior consent, a 20-question survey including both multiple choice and dichotomous (Yes/No) questions was mailed to 120 state-registered general dentists, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Overall response rate to the questionnaires was 97%. Lack of knowledge about dentist's role in reporting child abuse accounted to 55% in the reasons for hesitancy to report. Pearson chi-square test did not show any significant difference between male and female regarding reason for hesitancy to report and legal obligation of dentists. Although respondent dentists were aware of the diagnosis of child abuse, they were hesitant and unaware of the appropriate authority to report. Increased instruction in the areas of recognition and reporting of child abuse and neglect should be emphasized.

  20. Validation of the Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire within a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Häuser

    Full Text Available The Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire (FSQ assesses the key symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome. The FSQ can be administrated in survey research and settings where the use of interviews to evaluate the number of pain sites and extent of somatic symptom intensity and tender point examination would be difficult. We validated the FSQ in a cross-sectional survey with FMS patients. In a cross-sectional survey, participants with physician diagnosis of FMS were recruited by FMS-self help organisations and nine clinical institutions of different levels of care. Participants answered the FSQ (composed by the Widespread Pain Index [WPI] and the Somatic Severity Score [SSS] assessing the Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria (FSDC and the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ 4. American College of Rheumatology 1990 classification criteria were assessed in a subgroup of participants. 1,651 persons diagnosed with FMS were included into analysis. The acceptance of the FSQ-items ranged between 78.9 to 98.1% completed items. The internal consistency of the items of the SSS ranged between 0.75-0.82. 85.5% of the study participants met the FSDC. The concordance rate of the FSDC and ACR 1990 criteria was 72.7% in a subsample of 128 patients. The Pearson correlation of the SSS with the PHQ 4 depression score was 0.52 (p<0.0001 and with the PHQ anxiety score was 0.51 (p<0.0001 (convergent validity. 64/202 (31.7% of the participants not meeting the FSDC criteria and 152/1283 (11.8% of the participants meeting the FSDC criteria reported an improvement (slightly too very much better in their health status since FMS-diagnosis (Chi(2 = 55, p<0.0001 (discriminant validity. The study demonstrated the feasibility of the FSQ in a cross-sectional survey with FMS-patients. The reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of the FSQ were good. Further validation studies of the FSQ in clinical and general population settings are necessary.

  1. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schattner Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Results Survey response rate of 51% (102/199. Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS. Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors; similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. Conclusions This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.

  2. The economic impact of poor sample quality in clinical chemistry laboratories: results from a global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Erik P; Mitra, Debanjali; Khangulov, Victor S; Church, Stephen; Plokhoy, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Background Despite advances in clinical chemistry testing, poor blood sample quality continues to impact laboratory operations and the quality of results. While previous studies have identified the preanalytical causes of lower sample quality, few studies have examined the economic impact of poor sample quality on the laboratory. Specifically, the costs associated with workarounds related to fibrin and gel contaminants remain largely unexplored. Methods A quantitative survey of clinical chemistry laboratory stakeholders across 10 international regions, including countries in North America, Europe and Oceania, was conducted to examine current blood sample testing practices, sample quality issues and practices to remediate poor sample quality. Survey data were used to estimate costs incurred by laboratories to mitigate sample quality issues. Results Responses from 164 participants were included in the analysis, which was focused on three specific issues: fibrin strands, fibrin masses and gel globules. Fibrin strands were the most commonly reported issue, with an overall incidence rate of ∼3%. Further, 65% of respondents indicated that these issues contribute to analyzer probe clogging, and the majority of laboratories had visual inspection and manual remediation practices in place to address fibrin- and gel-related quality problems (55% and 70%, respectively). Probe maintenance/replacement, visual inspection and manual remediation were estimated to carry significant costs for the laboratories surveyed. Annual cost associated with lower sample quality and remediation related to fibrin and/or gel globules for an average US laboratory was estimated to be $100,247. Conclusions Measures to improve blood sample quality present an important step towards improved laboratory operations.

  3. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Mehmet; Akan, Hülya; Izbirak, Güldal; Tanriöver, Özlem; Tilev, Sırma Mine; Yildiz, Anil; Tektaş, Simge; Vitrinel, Ayça; Hayran, Osman

    2010-12-19

    Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP) was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI) percentiles, 8.3% (52) were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice) were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc) per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors.

  4. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. Methods 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP) was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. Results The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI) percentiles, 8.3% (52) were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice) were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc) per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. Conclusions In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors. PMID:21167070

  5. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayran Osman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. Methods 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. Results The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI percentiles, 8.3% (52 were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. Conclusions In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors.

  6. Dental fear among transgender individuals - a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heima, Masahiro; Heaton, Lisa J; Ng, Henry H; Roccoforte, Elisabeth C

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the level of dental fear among transgender individuals and (2) investigate specific predictors of dental fear in individuals who identify as transgender. An anonymous survey among transgender adults was conducted using both a web-based and paper survey. The survey included the Dental Fear Survey (DFS), history of hormonal interventions, perceived gender roles, and demographic information. The bivariate analyses did not show a significant difference in DFS between sex assigned at birth (p = 0.628) or among gender identities (p = 0.109). A regression model analysis for the level of DFS by using participants' demographic information as independent variables indicated the fear and experience of discrimination/maltreatment were significant predictors of dental fear; standardized beta coefficients (p-value) were 0.35 (p = 0.017) and 0.28 (p = 0.041), respectively. The fear and experiences of discrimination/maltreatment were significantly positively associated with their level of dental fear. © 2017 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Birth and Emergency Planning: A Cross Sectional Survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth and emergency planning encourages early decision making, helps overcome barriers to skilled maternity care and reduces preventable maternal and newborn deaths. A facility based postnatal survey of 483 childbearing women in Accra, Ghana determined birth and emergency planning steps, awareness of obstetric ...

  8. Combining research in physical chemistry and chemical education: Part A. The femtosecond molecular dynamics of small gas-phase anion clusters. Part B. Surveying student beliefs about chemistry and the development of physical chemistry learning tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Jack

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation combines work in the areas of experimental physical chemistry and chemical education. In the area of physical chemistry, femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to interrogate the time-dependence for energy redistribution, solvent reorientation, and dissociation dynamics in small gas-phase anion clusters. The chemical education research addressed in this manuscript include the development and validation of a survey to measure students' beliefs about chemistry and the learning of chemistry and the development and testing of learning tutorials for use in undergraduate physical chemistry courses in thermodynamics and kinetics. In the first part of this dissertation, the Cu(CD3OD) dynamics are investigated using a combination of femtosecond pump-probe experiments and ab initio calculations. Dissociation of this complex into Cu and CD3OD occurs on two distinct time scales: 3 and 30 ps, which arise, respectively, from the coupling of intermolecular solvent rotations and excited methyl rotor rotation into the Cu-O dissociation component upon electron photodetachment of the precursor anion. In the second part of this dissertation, the time-resolved recombination of photodissociated IBr-(CO2)n (n = 5 - 10) cluster anions is investigated. Upon excitation to the A' 2pi 1/2 state of the chromophore, the bare anion results in I- and Br products, upon solvation with CO2, the IBr- chromophore regains near-IR absorption after recombination and vibrational relaxation on the ground electronic state. The recombination times vary with the number of solvent molecules from 12 ps for n = 5 to 900 ps for n = 10. Extensive electronic structure and non-adiabatic molecular dynamic simulations provide a framework to understand this behavior. In the third part of this dissertation, the modification and validation of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for use in chemistry is presented in detail. The CLASS survey is designed to measure student

  9. Orthopaedic nurses' perception of research utilization - A cross sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    of acceptance from colleagues and section head nurses and a shortage of time. This study forms a baseline as a part of a larger study and contributes knowledge useful to other orthopaedic departments with an interest in optimizing nursing research to improve orthopaedic nursing care quality....

  10. Factors affecting orthopedic residency selection: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelzow, Jason; Petretta, Robert; Broekhuyse, Henry M

    2017-06-01

    Annually, orthopedic residency programs rank and recruit the best possible candidates. Little evidence exists identifying factors that potential candidates use to select their career paths. Recent literature from nonsurgical programs suggests hospital, social and program-based factors influence program selection. We sought to determine what factors influence the choice of an orthopedic career and a candidate's choice of orthopedic residency program. We surveyed medical student applicants to orthopedic programs and current Canadian orthopedic surgery residents (postgraduate year [PGY] 1-5). The confidential online survey focused on 3 broad categories of program selection: educational, program cohesion and noneducation factors. Questions were graded on a Likert Scale and tailed for mean scores. In total, 139 residents from 11 of 17 Canadian orthopedic programs (49% response rate) and 23 medical student applicants (88% response rate) completed our survey. Orthopedic electives and mandatory rotations were reported by 71% of participants as somewhat or very important to their career choice. Collegiality among residents (4.70 ± 0.6), program being the "right fit" (4.65 ± 0.53) and current resident satisfaction with their chosen program (4.63 ±0.66) were ranked with the highest mean scores on a 5-point Likert scale. There are several modifiable factors that residency programs may use to attract applicants, including early availability of clerkship rotations and a strong mentorship environment emphasizing both resident-resident and resident-staff cohesion. Desirable residency programs should develop early access to surgical and operative skills. These must be balanced with a continued emphasis on top-level orthopedic training.

  11. Adirondack lakes survey: An interpretive analysis of fish communities and water chemistry, 1984--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J.P. (Baker (Joan P.), Raleigh, NC (USA)); Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. (Tetra Tech, Inc., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Christensen, S.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Driscoll, C.T. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)); Gallagher, J. (Adirondack Lakes Survey Corp., Ray Brook, NY (USA)); Newton, R.M. (Smith Coll., Northampton, MA (USA)); Reckhow, K.H. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Schofield, C.L. (Co

    1990-01-01

    The Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) was formed as a cooperative effort of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation to better characterize the chemical and biological status of Adirondack lakes. Between 1984 and 1987, the ALSC surveyed 1469 lakes within the Adirondack ecological zone. As a follow-up to the survey, the ALSC sponsored a series of interpretive analyses of the ALSC data base. The primary objectives of these analyses were as follows: Evaluate the influence of mineral acids (from acidic deposition) and nonmineral acids (natural organic acids) on lake pH levels; classify Adirondack lakes according to lake and watershed features expected to influence their responsiveness to changes in acidic deposition; evaluate the sensitivity of Adirondack lakes to changes in environmental conditions, such as changes in mineral acids or dissolved organic carbon concentrations; identify lake characteristics important in explaining the observed present-day status of fish communities in Adirondack lakes, in particular the relative importance of lake acidity; evaluate changes that have occurred over time in Adirondack fish communities and probable causes for these trends by using the available historical data on fish communities in the Adirondacks and the ALSC data base; and determine the degree to which the existing fish resource might be at risk from continued acidic deposition, or might recover if acidity levels were reduced. The basic approach examined relationships observed in the ALSC data base among watershed characteristics, lake chemistry, and fish status. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  12. 75 FR 33821 - Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent Surveys AGENCY: Office of the Chief... provides HUD with a fast, inexpensive way to estimate Section 8 Fair Market Rents (FMRs) in areas not... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent...

  13. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna J. Gamage

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.

  14. The German fibromyalgia consumer reports - a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuser, Winfried; Jung, Eva; Erbslöh-Möller, Brigitte; Gesmann, Mechthild; Kühn-Becker, Hedi; Petermann, Franz; Langhorst, Jost; Thoma, Reinhard; Weiss, Thomas; Wolfe, Frederick; Winkelmann, Andreas

    2012-05-18

    Consumer surveys provide information on effectiveness and side effects of medical interventions in routine clinical care. A report of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) consumers has not been carried out in Europe. The study was carried out from November 2010 to April 2011. Participants diagnosed with FMS rated the effectiveness and side effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological FMS interventions on a 0 to 10 scale, with 10 being most efficacious (harmful). The questionnaire was distributed by the German League for people with Arthritis and Rheumatism and the German Fibromyalgia Association to their members and to all consecutive FMS patients of nine clinical centers of different levels of care. 1661 questionnaires (95% women, mean age 54 years, mean duration since FMS diagnosis 6.8 years) were analysed. The most frequently used therapies were self-management strategies, prescription pain medication and aerobic exercise. The highest average effectiveness was attributed to whole body and local warmth therapies, thermal bathes, FMS education and resting. The highest average side effects were attributed to strong opioids, local cold therapy, gamma-amino-butyric acid analogues (pregabalin and gabapentin), tramadol and opioid transdermal systems. The German fibromyalgia consumer reports highlight the importance of non-pharmcological therapies in the long-term management of FMS, and challenges the strong recommendations for drug therapies given by FMS-guidelines.

  15. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Prasanna J.; Fortington, Lauren V.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys) perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers. PMID:28829390

  16. Anemia in pregnancy in Malaysia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniff, Jamaiyah; Das, Anita; Onn, Lim Teck; Sun, Chen Won; Nordin, Noraihan Mohd; Rampal, Sanjay; Bahrin, Safiah; Ganeslingam, Muralitharan; Kularatnam, Kumar Iswaran K; Zaher, Zaki Morad Mohamad

    2007-01-01

    Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency during pregnancy. Except for a study conducted 10 years ago in Kelantan, Malaysia's available statistics are based on isolated small urban maternity hospital studies from the 1980s. There was therefore, a need for a large study at national level to estimate the magnitude of the problem in the country as well as to understand its epidemiology. This multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2005, to assess the prevalence of anemia. Multistage stratified random sampling technique was used and 59 Ministry of Health (MOH) primary health care clinics were selected. Our final dataset consisted of 1,072 antenatal mothers from 56 clinics. The overall prevalence of anemia in this population was 35 % (SE 0.02) if the cut off level is 11 g/dL and 11 % (SE 0.03) if the cut-off level is 10 g/dL. The majority was of the mild type. The prevalence was higher in the teenage group, Indians followed by Malays and Chinese being the least, grandmultiparas, the third trimester and from urban residence. After multiple linear regression analysis, only gestational age remained significant. These findings are useful for our Maternal Health program planners and implementers to target and evaluate interventions. Work is in progress for outcomes and cost-effectiveness studies to best tackle this problem. In conclusion, the prevalence of anemia is 35% and mostly of the mild type and more prevalent in the Indian and Malays.

  17. Public Land Survey (Township, Range, and Section) for northern Arizona, including Grand Canyon National Park.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This ALRIS (Arizona Land Resource Information System) coverage contains Public Land Survey gridding and labels for Townships, Ranges, and Sections for Northern Arizona

  18. Mobile Phone Use Among Medical Residents: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Survey in Saudi Arabia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamal, Amr; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Khan, Samina A; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Koppel, Cristina; Chiang, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    ... mobile phones in academic and clinical practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 133 residents in 17 different specialties across two large academic hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...

  19. Psychiatric disorders in a Dutch Health Area: a repeated cross-sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.H.; Mulder, J.; Furer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decades of psychiatric epidemiology have shown a wide variation in prevalence rates, but a consistent relationship between psychiatric disorder and sociodemographic variables. In this repeated cross-sectional survey, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their distribution in the

  20. ALMA spectral survey of Supernova 1987A - molecular inventory, chemistry, dynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Woosley, S.; Bujarrabal, V.; Abellán, F. J.; McCray, R.; Kamenetzky, J.; Fransson, C.; Barlow, M. J.; Gomez, H. L.; Cigan, P.; De Looze, I.; Spyromilio, J.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Zanardo, G.; Roche, P.; Larsson, J.; Viti, S.; van Loon, J. Th.; Wheeler, J. C.; Baes, M.; Chevalier, R.; Lundqvist, P.; Marcaide, J. M.; Dwek, E.; Meixner, M.; Ng, C.-Y.; Sonneborn, G.; Yates, J.

    2017-08-01

    We report the first molecular line survey of Supernova 1987A in the millimetre wavelength range. In the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 210-300 and 340-360 GHz spectra, we detected cold (20-170 K) CO, 28SiO, HCO+ and SO, with weaker lines of 29SiO from ejecta. This is the first identification of HCO+ and SO in a young supernova remnant. We find a dip in the J = 6-5 and 5-4 SiO line profiles, suggesting that the ejecta morphology is likely elongated. The difference of the CO and SiO line profiles is consistent with hydrodynamic simulations, which show that Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities cause mixing of gas, with heavier elements much more disturbed, making more elongated structure. We obtained isotopologue ratios of 28SiO/29SiO > 13, 28SiO/30SiO > 14 and 12CO/13CO > 21, with the most likely limits of 28SiO/29SiO >128, 28SiO/30SiO >189. Low 29Si and 30Si abundances in SN 1987A are consistent with nucleosynthesis models that show inefficient formation of neutron-rich isotopes in a low-metallicity environment, such as the Large Magellanic Cloud. The deduced large mass of HCO+ (∼5 × 10-6 M⊙) and small SiS mass (explosion. The mixing might have caused some hydrogen from the envelope to sink into carbon- and oxygen-rich zones after the explosion, enabling the formation of a substantial mass of HCO+. Oxygen atoms may have penetrated into silicon and sulphur zones, suppressing formation of SiS. Our ALMA observations open up a new window to investigate chemistry, dynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis in supernovae.

  1. Priority survey between indicators and analytic hierarchy process analysis for green chemistry technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjune; Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the indicators and proxy variables for the quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies and evaluates the relative importance of each assessment element by consulting experts from the fields of ecology, chemistry, safety, and public health. The results collected were subjected to an analytic hierarchy process to obtain the weights of the indicators and the proxy variables. These weights may prove useful in avoiding having to resort to qualitative means in absence of weights between indicators when integrating the results of quantitative assessment by indicator. This study points to the limitations of current quantitative assessment techniques for green chemistry technologies and seeks to present the future direction for quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies.

  2. Digital database of channel cross-section surveys, Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam R.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Major, Jon J.; Saunders, Dennis R.; Christianson, Tami S.; Kingsbury, Cole G.

    2015-08-06

    Stream-channel cross-section survey data are a fundamental component to studies of fluvial geomorphology. Such data provide important parameters required by many open-channel flow models, sediment-transport equations, sediment-budget computations, and flood-hazard assessments. At Mount St. Helens, Washington, the long-term response of channels to the May 18, 1980, eruption, which dramatically altered the hydrogeomorphic regime of several drainages, is documented by an exceptional time series of repeat stream-channel cross-section surveys. More than 300 cross sections, most established shortly following the eruption, represent more than 100 kilometers of surveyed topography. Although selected cross sections have been published previously in print form, we present a comprehensive digital database that includes geospatial and tabular data. Furthermore, survey data are referenced to a common geographic projection and to common datums. Database design, maintenance, and data dissemination are accomplished through a geographic information system (GIS) platform, which integrates survey data acquired with theodolite, total station, and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) instrumentation. Users can interactively perform advanced queries and geospatial time-series analysis. An accuracy assessment provides users the ability to quantify uncertainty within these data. At the time of publication, this project is ongoing. Regular database updates are expected; users are advised to confirm they are using the latest version.

  3. 76 FR 35905 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Section 8 Fair Market Rent Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Section 8 Fair Market Rent Surveys AGENCY: Office of... information: Title of Proposal: Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent Surveys. OMB Control Number... survey methodologies to collect gross rent data for specific areas in a relatively fast and accurate way...

  4. Human papillomavirus vaccination and sexual behaviour: cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys conducted in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Alice S; Marlow, Laura A V; Stephenson, Judith; Wardle, Jane; Waller, Jo

    2012-07-13

    To examine whether HPV vaccination influences sexual behaviour in adolescent girls, either by giving them a 'green light' to have sex, or because perceived protection afforded by the vaccine permits compensatory risky sexual behaviour. Cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys. Seven English schools. Self-reported sexual behaviour. The cross-sectional survey included 1053 girls (mean age 17.1 years) who had (n=433 recruited in March 2010) or had not (n=620 recruited in March 2009) been offered the HPV vaccine. The longitudinal survey included 407 girls (mean age 17.5 years) who had been offered HPV vaccination and had either received at least one dose (n=148) or had not received any doses (n=259). In the cross-sectional survey, the group of girls who had been offered the HPV vaccine were no more likely to be sexually active than the group of girls who had not been offered the HPV vaccine. In the longitudinal survey, the vaccinated group were no more likely to have changed their condom use or increased their total number of sexual partners than the unvaccinated group. Neither being offered the HPV vaccine nor receiving it affected sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely based...

  6. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely...

  7. Psychiatric disorders in a Dutch Health Area: a repeated cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Mulder, J.; Furer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Decades of psychiatric epidemiology have shown a wide variation in prevalence rates. but a consistent relationship U between psychiatric disorder and sociodemographic variables. In this repeated cross-sectional survey. the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their distribution in the

  8. A Cross-Sectional Survey Of Mange Mite Infestations In Goats In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sarcoptes var scabiei était le principal agent causal. A cross-sectional survey of mange mite infestation in goats was carried out in Turkana District, North-western Kenya. Sixteen adakars (Animal camps, comprised of groups of pastoralists who migrate together with their animals) each containing 10 – 15 households were ...

  9. Cross Sectional Survey Of Hiv/Aids High Risk Behaviours Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross Sectional Survey Of Hiv/Aids High Risk Behaviours Among Commertcial Motorcycle ('Okada\\') Riders In Jos Metropolis, Plateau State. ... Data was generated using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire and the results were analyzed using EPI info version 2000 computer software. Results: The study ...

  10. 1995 Bird survey Foothills parkway section 8B National Park Service, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.C.; Giffen, N.R.; Wade, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    The Foothills Parkway Section 8B right-of-way (ROW) is a stretch of land between Pittman Center and Cosby, Tennessee that is approximately 14.2 miles long and 1,000 ft wide, with a considerably wider section on Webb Mountain. A breeding bird survey was conducted at selected sample points along the ROW. The intent of the survey was to identify bird communities, area sensitive species (birds dependent on extensive forest systems for all their needs) and endangered, threatened, federal candidate, and state `in need of management` species now using the ROW. The survey also provides baseline data to assess future habitat impacts as well as cumulative impacts of the project.

  11. WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America: classifying caesarean sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faúndes Anibal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide with uncertain medical consequences. Auditing and analysing caesarean section rates and other perinatal outcomes in a reliable and continuous manner is critical for understanding reasons caesarean section changes over time. Methods We analyzed data on 97,095 women delivering in 120 facilities in 8 countries, collected as part of the 2004-2005 Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America. The objective of this analysis was to test if the "10-group" or "Robson" classification could help identify which groups of women are contributing most to the high caesarean section rates in Latin America, and if it could provide information useful for health care providers in monitoring and planning effective actions to reduce these rates. Results The overall rate of caesarean section was 35.4%. Women with single cephalic pregnancy at term without previous caesarean section who entered into labour spontaneously (groups 1 and 3 represented 60% of the total obstetric population. Although women with a term singleton cephalic pregnancy with a previous caesarean section (group 5 represented only 11.4% of the obstetric population, this group was the largest contributor to the overall caesarean section rate (26.7% of all the caesarean sections. The second and third largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were nulliparous women with single cephalic pregnancy at term either in spontaneous labour (group 1 or induced or delivered by caesarean section before labour (group 2, which were responsible for 18.3% and 15.3% of all caesarean deliveries, respectively. Conclusion The 10-group classification could be easily applied to a multicountry dataset without problems of inconsistencies or misclassification. Specific groups of women were clearly identified as the main contributors to the overall caesarean section rate. This classification could help health care

  12. Immobilization chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, Sascha; Blohm, Dietmar H

    2009-01-01

    Among the parameters which influence the success of a microarray experiment, the attachment of the nucleic acid captures to the support surface plays a decisive role.This article attempts to review the main concepts and ideas of the multiple variants which exist in terms of the immobilization chemistries used in nucleic acid microarray technology. Starting from the attachment of unmodified nucleic acids to modified glass slides by adsorption, further strategies for the coupling of nucleic acid capture molecules to a variety of support materials are surveyed with a focus on the reactive groups involved in the respective process.After a brief introduction, an overview is given about microarray substrates with special emphasis on the approaches used for the activation of these - usually chemically inert - materials. In the next sections strategies for the "undefined" and "defined" immobilization of captures on the substrates are described. While the latter approach tries to accomplish the coupling via a defined reactive moiety of the molecule to be immobilized, the former mentioned techniques involve multiply occurring reactive groups in the capture.The article finishes with an example for microarray manufacture, the production of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) functionalized glass substrates to which PDITC homobifunctional linker molecules are coupled; on their part providing reactive functional groups for the covalent immobilization of pre-synthesized, amino-modified oligonucleotides.This survey does not seek to be comprehensive rather it tries to present and provide key examples for the basic techniques, and to enable orientation if more detailed studies are needed. This review should not be considered as a guide to how to use the different chemistries described, but instead as a presentation of various principles and approaches applied in the still evolving field of nucleic acid microarray technology.

  13. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Michael N.; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Background Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. Methods This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine resid...

  14. The mental health of nurses in acute teaching hospital settings: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Lin; Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background Nursing is an emotionally demanding profession and deficiencies in nurses? mental wellbeing, characterised by low vitality and common mental disorders, have been linked to low productivity, absenteeism and presenteeism. Part of a larger study of nurses? health, the aim of this paper was to describe the mental health status and related characteristics of nurses working in two acute metropolitan teaching hospitals. Methods A cross sectional survey design was used. The Registered and ...

  15. Prescription antibiotics for outpatients in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional health survey conducted in three cities

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Mohitosh; Roy, Debendra Nath; Tajmim, Afsana; Rajib, Sheikh Shahriar; Hossain, Mosharraf; Farzana, Fahamida; Yasmen, Nelufar

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotics prescribing by physicians have gained due importance across the globe, mainly because of an increase in antibiotic usage, prevalence of infections and drug resistances. The present study is aimed to evaluate the physicians prescribing pattern of antibiotics, their usages by outpatients and disease conditions for which the antibiotics are prescribed in three cities of Bangladesh. Methods This cross sectional health survey was carried out with a self designed standard que...

  16. The management of clinical laboratories in Europe: a FESCC survey. Forum of the European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kieviet, Wim; Blaton, Victor; Kovacs, Gabor L; Palicka, Vladimir; Pulkki, Kari

    2002-03-01

    The professional duties of the specialists in clinical chemistry differ from country to country in Europe. One of the main goals of the Strategic Plan of the Forum of the European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC; IFCC-Europe) is to promote a high scientific and professional standard in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Europe. This can be stimulated by the knowledge of the local conditions in each country and by striving towards a strong and harmonised position in all the European countries. In order to enhance the knowledge of the managerial situation of the specialists in clinical chemistry in Europe, FESCC launched a survey in September 2000. This survey provides information about the position of the specialists in clinical chemistry in the various disciplines in the medical laboratories and in hospitals, and about the advisory tasks and the managerial education during the post-graduate training in clinical chemistry. Of the 35 FESCC member countries 33 have participated in the survey (94%). The results show a rather heterogeneous situation in Europe caused by the local historical developments, the differences in academic background and the relative numbers of private and physicians' office laboratories. Large differences exist between the European countries in the disciplines of laboratory medicine that are headed by a specialist in clinical chemistry. In the different countries the clinical chemistry laboratories are headed by specialists in clinical chemistry in between 20% and 100% of the laboratories. The haematology, immunology, microbiology, therapeutic drug monitoring, molecular biology and haemostasis laboratories and departments of blood banking are headed by specialists in clinical chemistry in between 0% and 100% of the laboratories. The responsibilities for the various managerial tasks of the specialists in clinical chemistry show no uniformity in Europe. In the majority of the countries the

  17. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadaga, Amar R; Villines, Dana; Krikorian, Armand

    2016-01-01

    To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups. A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications. Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months. Almost half of the respondents (48%) reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively). Attendings (29%) and nurses (27%) were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each), followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37%) and attempts to humiliate (32%). Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of healthcare.

  18. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups. Design/Setting/Participants A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications. Main Outcomes/Measures Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months. Results Almost half of the respondents (48%) reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively). Attendings (29%) and nurses (27%) were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each), followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37%) and attempts to humiliate (32%). Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of

  19. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R Chadaga

    Full Text Available To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups.A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications.Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months.Almost half of the respondents (48% reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively. Attendings (29% and nurses (27% were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each, followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37% and attempts to humiliate (32%. Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than < 5'8 and BMI ≥ 25 individuals.Many trainees report experiencing bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of

  20. Healthcare professionals' readiness for an interprofessional orthogeriatric unit: A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Charlotte; Nørgaard, Birgitte; Draborg, Eva

    2016-01-01

    an understanding of their motivations and concerns and provides a useful tool in for the planning and implementation of a new interprofessional collaboration model. Our results contribute to the limited body of research into the implementation of interprofessional collaboration models....... conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess readiness for change (N=223 employees) in a hospital on the verge of implementing an interprofessional, co-managed, orthogeriatric unit. Staff members from three departments with tasks related to orthogeriatric patients were invited to answer a web...... have a positive effect on patient-perceived quality (88.5%) and clinical quality (81.4%). Our survey documents that health care professionals are confident that interprofessional collaboration will be promoted by the implementation of orthogeriatric care. Their concerns pertained to different practical...

  1. Using the Arts To Make Chemistry Accessible to Everybody. 2002 James Flack Norris Award, sponsored by ACS Northeast Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Zafra M.

    2003-11-01

    Although all chemists know the importance of chemistry in daily life, the rest of the population somehow does not seem to share this view. Each of us believes that we must teach chemistry to everyone, yet we have not succeeded in persuading everyone that they must study chemistry. The reason is often the methods used to communicate chemistry to the public. The arts (music, dance, drama, fine arts, etc.) are excellent vehicles to enhance understanding. For eample, most people are not interested in the concept of the ionic bond, but when presented like Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet (with a love story between Sodium and Chlorine) everyone enjoys learning about the bonding relationship. In addition, the drama students who write and act out the script remember the concept far longer than would be expected through more conventional teaching methods. The same is true for the students who wrote and acted The Bondfather, and for the students who danced The Three States of Matter. (Our hero falls in love with Solid, but "When she warms to him, through his fingers she runs," and when his love heats up with Liquid, "Her love escaped from him just like a vapor.")

  2. Frequency and Perceptions of Herbal Medicine use Among Hmong Americans: a Cross Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Kajua B; Moua, Sakura; Ip, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency and perceptions of herbal medicine use among Hmong Americans. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Sacramento, California Hmong community. Out of 118 subjects reached, 77 (65.3 %) reported lifetime use of herbal medicines. A majority of respondents agreed that herbal medicines were able to treat the body as a whole. Respondents felt that a leaflet of information indicating uses/side effects would be important to include for herbal medicines. Herbal medicine use was commonly reported among Hmong Americans. Thus, health care providers should be encouraged to discuss these alternative medicines with their Hmong American patients.

  3. Alternate Access to Care: A Cross Sectional Survey of Low Acuity Emergency Department Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Jacqueline; Atkinson, Paul; Palmer, Erin; Fraser, Jacqueline; Vaillancourt, Elise; Howlett, Michael; Stoica, George; Powell, Maria

    2017-06-23

    Introduction Patients with low-acuity (Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale level IV and V) complaints use the emergency department (ED) to access care. This has often been attributed to lack of a primary care provider. However, simply being registered with a primary care provider may not prevent low acuity ED presentation. There is some evidence that a lack of timely access to primary care may contribute to low acuity ED presentations. The Wait Time Alliance, a group of Canadian physicians and their respective professional associations, has recently set a benchmark of same day access to family doctors. It is unclear if this benchmark has been achieved in all jurisdictions.  Methods We performed linked cross sectional surveys to quantify the number of people presenting to the ED for nonurgent problems who felt unable to access primary care. Primary care practices were also surveyed to assess access using the metric of time to third next available appointment.  Results In the patient survey, 381 of 580 patients consented to participate. Of the 89 patients who met eligibility criteria, 100% completed the survey. 32 (35.9%) reported that the wait to see their primary care provider was "too long". 45 (50.5%) patients did not contact their primary care provider's office prior to ED presentation. 45 of 72 physician surveys were returned; a response rate of 62.5%. Most (77%) physicians estimated their wait time for a standard appointment to be greater than 48 hours. The mean calculated time to third next available appointment in the region was 6.6 (95% CI 4.6-8.7) days. Conclusions Approximately half of low acuity patients do not attempt to access their primary care provider prior to ED presentation. The benchmark of same day access to primary care has not been achieved in many practices in our region. Further education regarding primary care access would likely be beneficial to both patients and providers.

  4. Estimation of age-specific incidence rates from cross-sectional survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jason; Stewart, Walter F

    2010-02-28

    Age-specific disease incidence rates are typically estimated from longitudinal data, where disease-free subjects are followed over time and incident cases are observed. However, longitudinal studies have substantial cost and time requirements, not to mention other challenges such as loss to follow up. Alternatively, cross-sectional data can be used to estimate age-specific incidence rates in a more timely and cost-effective manner. Such studies rely on self-report of onset age. Self-reported onset age is subject to measurement error and bias. In this paper, we use a Bayesian bivariate smoothing approach to estimate age-specific incidence rates from cross-sectional survey data. Rates are modeled as a smooth function of age and lag (difference between age and onset age), with larger values of lag effectively down weighted, as they are assumed to be less reliable. We conduct an extensive simulation study to investigate the extent to which measurement error and bias in the reported onset age affects inference using the proposed methods. We use data from a national headache survey to estimate age- and gender-specific migraine incidence rates. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Vaccine Education of Medical Students: A Nationwide Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernéis, Solen; Jacquet, Caroline; Bannay, Aurélie; May, Thierry; Launay, Odile; Verger, Pierre; Pulcini, Céline

    2017-09-01

    Physicians play a primary role in vaccination of the population. Strong initial training of medical students is therefore essential to enable them to fulfill this role. This cross-sectional nationwide online survey conducted between September 2015 and January 2016 obtained 2,118 completed surveys from 6,690 eligible respondents (response rate, 32%) at 27 of 32 medical schools in France regarding their education about vaccination. The data were analyzed in April-June 2016. The survey covered their knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceptions, and assessed their level of perceived preparedness for their future practice as interns. Around a third of the students (n=708, 34%) felt insufficiently prepared for questions about vaccination, especially for communicating with patients on side effects (n=1,381, 66%) and strategies to respond to vaccine hesitancy (n=1,217, 58%). The mean knowledge score was 26/45 (SD=7.9). Lecture courses, which are the main education method used in French medical schools (1,891/5,660 responses, 33%), were considered effective by only 11% of students (693/6,155 responses), whereas practical training was significantly associated with better perceived preparedness (peducation about vaccination during medical school in France is not optimal. Methods based on practical learning methods (case-based learning, clinical placements, and other hands-on methods) appear to produce the best results and must be favored for improving students' preparedness. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge and attitude of Indian dentists regarding dental stem cells: A cross-sectional descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katge, Farhin; Shetty, Ashveeta J; Rusawat, Bhavesh; Vamsi, K C

    2017-01-01

    Dental stem cells derived from tooth structures are adult stem cells that have received attention of researchers over the past decade. Dental stem cells can be used to regenerate dental tissues as well as non dental organs. These dental stem cells are readily accessible as compared to other sources of stem cells and can be obtained and stored for future use through minimally invasive procedures. Research in this field is growing at a fast pace and it is essential that awareness regarding the same should be present amongst professionals. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge and attitude of Indian dentists regarding dental stem cells. A cross sectional descriptive, questionnaire based survey based on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) was conducted and a total of 823 dentists from Maharashtra, India participated in the survey. The Pearson's Chi-Square Test and percentages of the total were used for statistical analysis. A total of 823 dentists completed the questionnaire survey; out of which 396 were male and 427 were female. Maximum respondents (53%) were dental graduates, followed by post graduates (45%) and PhD (1.7%). Data from the study revealed that there is good awareness regarding stem cells in general. However; the awareness, knowledge regarding sources, applications, uses and clinical research guidelines regarding dental stem cells is lacking amongst most dentists. Despite this lack of knowledge, dentists are keen on updating their knowledge regarding dental stem cells.

  7. Knowledge and attitude of Indian dentists regarding dental stem cells: A cross-sectional descriptive survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Katge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental stem cells derived from tooth structures are adult stem cells that have received attention of researchers over the past decade. Dental stem cells can be used to regenerate dental tissues as well as non dental organs. These dental stem cells are readily accessible as compared to other sources of stem cells and can be obtained and stored for future use through minimally invasive procedures. Research in this field is growing at a fast pace and it is essential that awareness regarding the same should be present amongst professionals. Aim: This study was carried out to assess the knowledge and attitude of Indian dentists regarding dental stem cells. Material and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive, questionnaire based survey based on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP was conducted and a total of 823 dentists from Maharashtra, India participated in the survey. The Pearson's Chi-Square Test and percentages of the total were used for statistical analysis. Results and Conclusion: A total of 823 dentists completed the questionnaire survey; out of which 396 were male and 427 were female. Maximum respondents (53% were dental graduates, followed by post graduates (45% and PhD (1.7%. Data from the study revealed that there is good awareness regarding stem cells in general. However; the awareness, knowledge regarding sources, applications, uses and clinical research guidelines regarding dental stem cells is lacking amongst most dentists. Despite this lack of knowledge, dentists are keen on updating their knowledge regarding dental stem cells.

  8. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  9. A cross-sectional survey of essential surgical capacity in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkheir, Natalie; Sharma, Akshay; Cherian, Meena; Saleh, Omar Abdelrahman; Everard, Marthe; Popal, Ghulam Rabani; Ibrahim, Abdi Awad

    2014-05-07

    To assess life-saving and disability-preventing surgical services (including emergency, trauma, obstetrics, anaesthesia) of health facilities in Somalia and to assist in the planning of strategies for strengthening surgical care systems. Cross-sectional survey. Health facilities in all 3 administrative zones of Somalia; northwest Somalia (NWS), known as Somaliland; northeast Somalia (NES), known as Puntland; and south/central Somalia (SCS). 14 health facilities. The WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care was employed to capture a health facility's capacity to deliver surgical and anaesthesia services by investigating four categories of data: infrastructure, human resources, interventions available and equipment. The 14 facilities surveyed in Somalia represent 10 of the 18 districts throughout the country. The facilities serve an average patient population of 331 250 people, and 12 of the 14 identify as hospitals. While major surgical procedures were provided at many facilities (caesarean section, laparotomy, appendicectomy, etc), only 22% had fully available oxygen access, 50% fully available electricity and less than 30% had any management guidelines for emergency and surgical care. Furthermore, only 36% were able to provide general anaesthesia inhalation due to lack of skills, supplies and equipment. Basic supplies for airway management and the prevention of infection transmission were severely lacking in most facilities. According to the results of the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care survey, there exist significant gaps in the capacity of emergency and essential surgical services in Somalia including inadequacies in essential equipment, service provision and infrastructure. The information provided by the WHO tool can serve as a basis for evidence-based decisions on country-level policy regarding the allocation of resources and provision of emergency and essential

  10. A cross-sectional survey of essential surgical capacity in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkheir, Natalie; Sharma, Akshay; Cherian, Meena; Saleh, Omar Abdelrahman; Everard, Marthe; Popal, Ghulam Rabani; Ibrahim, Abdi Awad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess life-saving and disability-preventing surgical services (including emergency, trauma, obstetrics, anaesthesia) of health facilities in Somalia and to assist in the planning of strategies for strengthening surgical care systems. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Health facilities in all 3 administrative zones of Somalia; northwest Somalia (NWS), known as Somaliland; northeast Somalia (NES), known as Puntland; and south/central Somalia (SCS). Participants 14 health facilities. Measures The WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care was employed to capture a health facility's capacity to deliver surgical and anaesthesia services by investigating four categories of data: infrastructure, human resources, interventions available and equipment. Results The 14 facilities surveyed in Somalia represent 10 of the 18 districts throughout the country. The facilities serve an average patient population of 331 250 people, and 12 of the 14 identify as hospitals. While major surgical procedures were provided at many facilities (caesarean section, laparotomy, appendicectomy, etc), only 22% had fully available oxygen access, 50% fully available electricity and less than 30% had any management guidelines for emergency and surgical care. Furthermore, only 36% were able to provide general anaesthesia inhalation due to lack of skills, supplies and equipment. Basic supplies for airway management and the prevention of infection transmission were severely lacking in most facilities. Conclusions According to the results of the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care survey, there exist significant gaps in the capacity of emergency and essential surgical services in Somalia including inadequacies in essential equipment, service provision and infrastructure. The information provided by the WHO tool can serve as a basis for evidence-based decisions on country-level policy regarding the

  11. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  12. Nationwide cross-sectional survey of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sudan: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungman Cha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs are target neglected tropical diseases (NTDs of preventive chemotherapy, but the control and elimination of these diseases have been impeded due to resource constraints. Few reports have described study protocol to draw on when conducting a nationwide survey. We present a detailed methodological description of the integrated mapping of schistosomiasis and STHs on the basis of our experiences, hoping that this protocol can be applied to future surveys in similar settings. In addition to determining the ecological zones requiring mass drug administration interventions, we aim to provide precise estimates of the prevalence of these diseases. Methods A school–based cross-sectional design will be applied for the nationwide survey across Sudan. The survey is designed to cover all districts in every state. We have divided each district into 3 different ecological zones depending on proximity to bodies of water. We will employ a probability-proportional-to-size sampling method for schools and systematic sampling for student selection to provide adequate data regarding the prevalence for schistosomiasis and STHs in Sudan at the state level. A total of 108,660 students will be selected from 1811 schools across Sudan. After the survey is completed, 391 ecological zones will be mapped out. To carry out the survey, 655 staff members were recruited. The feces and urine samples are microscopically examined by the Kato-Katz method and the sediment smears for helminth eggs respectively. For quality control, a minimum of 10% of the slides will be rechecked by the federal supervisors in each state and also 5% of the smears are validated again within one day by independent supervisors. Discussion This nationwide mapping is expected to generate important epidemiological information and indicators about schistosomiasis and STHs that will be useful for monitoring and evaluating the control

  13. CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE SECTION 4 AREA AT THE RIO ALGOM AMBROSIA LAKE FACILITY NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.C. Adams

    2010-02-12

    The objectives of the confirmatory survey were to verify that remedial actions were effective in meeting established release criteria and that documentation accurately and adequately described the final radiological conditions of the RAM Ambrosia Lake, Section 4 Areas.

  14. Norwegian lakes show widespread recovery from acidification; results from national surveys of lakewater chemistry 1986-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Skjelkvåle

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of 485 lakes in Norway conducted in 1986 and again in 1995 reveal widespread chemical recovery from acidification. Sulphate concentrations in lakes have decreased by 40% in acidified areas in southern Norway. This decrease has been compensated about 25% by decreases in concentrations of base cations and of 75% by increased Acid Neutralising Capacity (ANC. The increased ANC in turn reflects lower concentrations of acidic cations Aluminum (ALn+ and Hydrogen (H+. A sub-set of 78 of the 485 lakes sampled yearly between 1986 and 1997 shows that, at first most of the decrease in non-marine sulphate (SO4* was compensated by a decrease in base cations, such that ANC remained unchanged. Then as SO4* continued to decrease, the concentrations of non- marine calcium and magnesium ((Ca+Mg* levelled out. Consequently, ANC increased, and H+ and Aln+ started to decrease. In eastern Norway, this shift occurred in 1989–90, and came slightly later in southern and western Norway. Similar shifts in trends in about 1991–92 can also be seen in the non-acidified areas in central and northern Norway. This shift in trends is not as pronounced in western Norway, perhaps because of the confounding influence of sea-salt episodes on water chemistry. This is the first documented national-scale recovery from acidification due to reduced acid deposition. Future climate warming and potentially increased N-leaching can counteract the positive trends in recovery from acidification.

  15. Triatoma dimidiata infestation in Chagas disease endemic regions of Guatemala: comparison of random and targeted cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is presently engaged in the Central America Initiative to interrupt Chagas disease transmission by reducing intradomiciliary prevalence of Triatoma dimidiata, using targeted cross-sectional surveys to direct control measures to villages exceeding the 5% control threshold. The use of targeted surveys to guide disease control programs has not been evaluated. Here, we compare the findings from the targeted surveys to concurrent random cross-sectional surveys in two primary foci of Chagas disease transmission in central and southeastern Guatemala. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Survey prevalences of T. dimidiata intradomiciliary infestation by village and region were compared. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the use of risk factors to target surveys and to evaluate indicators associated with village level intradomiciliary prevalences >5% by survey and region. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the ability of random and targeted surveys to target villages with intradomiciliary prevalence exceeding the control threshold within each region. Regional prevalences did not vary by survey; however, village prevalences were significantly greater in random surveys in central (13.0% versus 8.7% and southeastern (22.7% versus 6.9% Guatemala. The number of significant risk factors detected did not vary by survey in central Guatemala but differed considerably in the southeast with a greater number of significant risk factors in the random survey (e.g. land surface temperature, relative humidity, cropland, grassland, tile flooring, and stick and mud and palm and straw walls. Differences in the direction of risk factor associations were observed between regions in both survey types. The overall discriminative capacity was significantly greater in the random surveys in central and southeastern Guatemala, with an area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC of 0.84 in the random surveys and

  16. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Reasons for Initial Placement and Replacement of Single Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzgur, Recep; Uzgur, Zeynep; Colak, Hakan; Ercan, Ertugrul; Dalli, Mehmet; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional survey investigated the reasons for placement and replacement of single crowns, the type of materials selected for initial placement and evaluated their longevity. Information was collected over 19 months period using a questionnaire focusing on the principal reasons for the placement and replacement of crowns, selected material type and the age of the crowns at the time of replacement. A total of 842 single crowns were evaluated in 476 patients. Of the 842 crowns, 472 (56%) were initial placements and 370 (44%) replacements. The main reason for placement of first single crowns was related to endodontic problems (26.5%). Metal-ceramic was indicated significantly more frequent (88.9%; p⟨0.01) than other materials for the placement and replacement of single crowns. The median age of the replaced crowns was 6 years. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  17. Ethical dilemmas among dental professionals in Davangere city- a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, S G; Singla, Hitashi; Lawrence, Denzy; Veeresh, D J

    2016-01-01

    To determine the ethical problems faced by dental practitioners, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, College of Dental Sciences and private dental clinics in the city of Davangere. A questionnaire with close-ended questions on eight scenarios was administered to the 135 study participants. In the case of scenario 1, 81.4% of the participants said that the doctor had violated the principle of truthfulness. As for scenario 2, less than 50% of the participants replied that the doctor had breached ethical principles. In case scenario 3, 93% felt that the doctor should have taken the physician's opinion before extracting a tooth. Most dental practitioners faced ethical dilemmas because of the lack of awareness, and there is a need to introduce certain programmes to promote knowledge of ethics.

  18. Medical barriers to emergency contraception: a cross-sectional survey of doctors in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M E; Dixit, Anvita; Bhatnagar, Isha; Brady, Martha

    2014-05-01

    Some medical doctors in India have publicly expressed opposition to making emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) easily accessible, even though ECPs are included in the method mix of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare program and as an over-the-counter (OTC) product. Such opposition affects access to ECPs by influencing policy, procurement, and distribution, besides stigmatizing the ECP user. This study was conducted to assess ECP knowledge, attitudes, and practices of doctors in North India. A cross-sectional survey of 83 doctors who provide ECPs, randomly selected from 3 cities in the state of Uttar Pradesh, was conducted in 2011. The quantitative data were complemented by 19 in-depth interviews with purposively selected senior gynecologists and other opinion leaders. All surveyed physicians cited the correct dose and regimen for ECPs. However, the large majority of those surveyed believed that ECPs work by preventing implantation. (The best evidence currently indicates that ECPs do not work by preventing implantation.) Most doctors also believed incorrectly that ECPs have several contraindications and side effects. They also had strong reservations against OTC provision of ECPs by pharmacists and community health workers (CHWs) and negative attitudes toward ECP users, which serve as serious medical barriers to mainstreaming use of ECPs. Physicians and their professional associations exert a strong influence on the operationalization of national contraceptive policies. Evidence-based advocacy and educational campaigns targeting doctors are needed to address and resolve their reservations about ECPs, particularly about its provision as an OTC product and its distribution by CHWs. Partnerships with medical associations can help reduce doctors' negative attitudes and create a conducive environment for influencing clinical practices. Such changes are needed to increase the availability and use of ECPs as part of a package of a full range of contraceptive method

  19. A national, cross-sectional survey of children's hospital-based safety resource centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendi, Sadiqa; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Seaver Hill, Karen; Arbogast, Kristy B; Gittelman, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    To describe the location, staffing, clientele, safety product disbursement patterns, education provided and sustainability of safety resource centres (SRCs) in US children's hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to children's hospital-based SRC directors. Survey categories included: funding sources, customer base, items sold, items given free of charge, education provided and directors' needs. 32/38 (84.2%) SRC sites (affiliated with 30 hospitals) completed the survey. SRCs were in many hospital locations including lobby (28.1%), family resource centres (12.5%), gift shop/retail space (18.8%), mobile units (18.8%) and patient clinics (12.5%). 19% of respondents reported that their SRC was financially self-sustainable. Sales to patients predominated (mean of 44%); however, hospital employees made up a mean of 20% (range 0-60%) of sales. 78.1% of SRCs had products for children with special healthcare needs. Documentation kept at SRC sites included items purchased (96.9%), items given free of charge (65.6%) and customer demographics (50%). 56.3% of SRCs provided formal injury prevention education classes. The SRCs' directors' most important needs were finances (46.9%), staffing (50%) and space (46.9%). All of the directors were 'somewhat interested' or 'very interested' in each of the following: creation of a common SRC listserv, national SRC data bank and multisite SRC research platform. SRCs are located in many US children's hospitals, and can be characterised as heterogeneous in location, products sold, data kept and ability to be financially sustained. Further research is needed to determine best practices for SRCs to maximise their impact on injury prevention.

  20. Chinese Anesthesiologists Have High Burnout and Low Job Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hange; Zuo, Mingzhang; Gelb, Adrian W; Zhang, Biao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yao, Dongdong; Xia, Di; Huang, Yuguang

    2018-01-05

    The Chinese health care system must meet the needs of 19% of the world's population. Despite recent economic growth, health care resources are unevenly distributed. This creates the potential for job stress and burnout. We therefore conducted a survey among anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region focusing on job satisfaction and burnout to determine the incidence and associated factors. A large cross-sectional study was performed in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China. The anonymous questionnaire was designed to collect and analyze the following information: (1) demographic characteristics and employer information; (2) job satisfaction assessed by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire; (3) burnout assessed by Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey; and (4) sleep pattern and physician-patient communication. Surveys were completed and returned from 211 hospitals (response rate 74%) and 2873 anesthesiologists (response rate 70%) during the period of June to August 2015. The overall job satisfaction score of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was 65.3 ± 11.5. Among the participants, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-71%) met the criteria for burnout. The prevalence of high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment was 57% (95% CI, 55%-59%), 49% (95% CI, 47%-51%), and 57% (95% CI, 55%-58%), respectively. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that age, hospital category, working hours per week, caseload per day, frequency of perceived challenging cases, income, and sleep quality were independent variables associated with burnout. Anesthesiologists with a high level of depersonalization tended to engage in shorter preoperative conversations with patients, provide less information about pain or the procedure, and to have less empathy with them. The anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China expressed a below-average level of job satisfaction, and suffered a

  1. Factors associated with acceptability of child circumcision in Botswana -- a cross sectional survey

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    Mpho Keetile

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe male child circumcision has been recently adopted as a potential strategy to prevent HIV/AIDS transmission in later life in Botswana. Methods Data used was derived from a cross-sectional survey, the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS IV, conducted in 2013. A total sample of 7984 respondents in ages 15–64 years who had successfully completed the individual questionnaire during the survey were selected and included for analysis. Both descriptive and multivariable analyses were used to explore factors associated with acceptability of child circumcision. Data was analysed using SPSS version 22 program. Results Results indicate that about 84 % of participants said they would circumcise their male children aged 18 years and below, while 93 % were aware of the safe male circumcision program. Bivariate analyses results show that acceptability of child circumcision was significantly associated with sex, age, education, religion, residence, HIV status of the parent, fathers circumcision status, father's intention to circumcise and parent's knowledge about the safe male circumcision program. Multivariable analyses results indicate positive association between respondent's HIV positive status (OR, 3.5, Men's circumcision status (OR, 3.7, men's intention to circumcise (OR, 9.3 and acceptability of child circumcision. Conclusion Results of this study indicate some relatively high acceptability levels for child circumcision. Some individual behavioural factors influencing acceptability of child circumcision were also identified. This study provides a proper understanding of factors associated with acceptability of child circumcision which will ultimately enhance the successful roll-out of the school going children circumcision program in Botswana.

  2. Filipino therapists' experiences and attitudes of interprofessional education and collaboration: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Michael Palapal

    2017-11-01

    For the past more than 50 years, the World Health Organisation has acknowledged through empirical findings that health workers that learn together work together effectively to provide the best care for their patients. This study aimed to: (1) describe the perceived extent of interprofessional education (IPE) experience among Filipino occupational therapists (OTs), physical therapists (PTs), and speech-language-pathologists (SLPs); (2) identify their attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration (IPC); and (3) compare their attitudes towards IPC according to: prior IPE experience, classification of IPE experience, profession, years of practice, and practice setting. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a two-part questionnaire was sent to Filipino OTs, PTs, and SLPs working in the Philippines via an online survey application. The first part of the survey contained eight items of demographic information and the second part contained the 14-item Attitudes Towards Health Care Teams Scale (ATHCTS). Findings revealed that among the Filipino OT, PT and SLP respondents (n = 189), 70.9% had prior experience on IPE. Moreover, the three most commonly used IPE teaching-learning strategies were case discussion (clinical setting), small group discussion, didactics, and case discussion (community setting), while the use of didactics and case discussion (community setting) yielded more agreeable attitudes towards IPC. Among the 14 items in the ATHCTS, 11 were rated with agreeability and three items with neutrality. For professional variables, only the practice setting variable yielded a statistically significant finding confirming those working in the academia to be more agreeable towards IPC compared to other settings. However, years of practice and professional background variables both yielded no statistically significant difference implying no association between years of practice and attitude towards IPC and a homogenous composition among respondents, respectively

  3. Nurses' perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses' survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Nurses are highly aware of adherence issues faced by their patients; further patient

  4. Nurses’ perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M.; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses’ survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Results: Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Conclusion: Nurses are highly aware of adherence

  5. Information-Seeking Behaviors of Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Aoife Marie; Westby, Erin Patricia; Dooley, Joseph; Gordon, Kevin E

    2015-06-29

    Medical students face an information-rich environment in which retrieval and appraisal strategies are increasingly important. To describe medical students' current pattern of health information resource use and characterize their experience of instruction on information search and appraisal. We conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey of students registered in the four-year MD Program at Dalhousie University (Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Saint John, New Brunswick, sites), Canada. We collected self-reported data on information-seeking behavior, instruction, and evaluation of resources in the context of their medical education. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Surveys were returned by 213 of 462 eligible students (46.1%). Most respondents (165/204, 80.9%) recalled receiving formal instruction regarding information searches, but this seldom included nontraditional tools such as Google (23/107, 11.1%), Wikipedia, or social media. In their daily practice, however, they reported heavy use of these tools, as well as EBM summaries. Accessibility, understandability, and overall usefulness were common features of highly used resources. Students identified challenges managing information and/or resource overload and source accessibility. Medical students receive instruction primarily on searching and assessing primary medical literature. In their daily practice, however, they rely heavily on nontraditional tools as well as EBM summaries. Attention to appropriate use and appraisal of nontraditional sources might enhance the current EBM curriculum.

  6. Perceived relevance of educative information on public (skin) health: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

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    Haluza, Daniela; Cervinka, Renate

    2013-03-01

    Unprotected leisure time exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or artificial tanning beds is the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma, a malignant skin cancer with increasing incidences over the past decades. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of skin health information provided by several sources and different publishing issues on knowledge, risk perception, and sun protective behavior of sunbathers. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian residents (n=563) spending leisure time outdoors in August 2010. Print media, television, and family were perceived as the most relevant sources of information on skin health, whereas the source physician was only ranked as fourth important source. Compared to other sources, information provided by doctors positively influenced participants' knowledge on skin risk and sun protective behavior resulting in higher scores in the knowledge test (p=0.009), higher risk perception (pgender differences, internet was more often used by males as health information source, whereas females were more familiar with printed information material in general. The results of this survey put emphasis on the demand for information provided by medical professionals in order to attain effective, long-lasting promotion of photoprotective habits.

  7. Retention of indigenous nursing students in New Zealand: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Denise; McKinney, Caroline; Rapata-Hanning, Mereana

    2011-01-01

    Internationally the recruitment and retention of Indigenous and minority peoples into nursing is a persistent challenge, despite their participation being essential in reducing health disparities and improving health service quality for Indigenous and minority users. We aimed to identify Māori (Indigenous to New Zealand) nursing students' experiences of undertaking a nursing degree program. A non-experimental cross-sectional survey was undertaken with undergraduate nursing students identifying as Māori. The surveys were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. One hundred and eight students responded, with a career, stable income, and desire to make a difference in Māori health outcomes motivating most to embark on a nursing program. They reported numerous obstacles that compromised their academic advancement. However, affirming students' identities; providing academic support; accessing Indigenous role models, mentors and relevant clinical experiences; and, having supportive teaching and learning environments and the inclusion of Indigenous content in curricula; were identified as strategies that promoted retention in nursing programs.

  8. A cross-sectional internet-based patient survey of the management strategies for gout.

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    Singh, Jasvinder A; Shah, Nipam; Edwards, N Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Almost half of the patients with gout are not prescribed urate-lowering therapy (ULT) by their health care provider and >50 % use complementary and alternative therapies. Diet modification is popular among gout patients due to known associations of certain foods with gout flares. The interplay of the use of dietary supplements, diet modification, and ULT adherence in gout patients is not known. Despite the recent interest in diet and supplements, there are limited data on their use. Our objective was to assess ULT use and adherence and patient preference for non-pharmacological interventions by patients with gout, using a cross-sectional survey. People who self-reported physician-diagnosed gout during their visit to a gout website ( http://gouteducation.org ) were invited to participate in a brief anonymous cross-sectional Internet survey between 08/11/2014 to 04/14/2015 about the management of their gout. The survey queried ULT prescription, ULT adherence, the use of non-pharmacological interventions (cherry extract, diet modification) and the likelihood of making a lifelong diet modification for gout management. A total of 499 respondents with a mean age 56.3 years were included; 74% were males and 74% were White. Of these, 57% (285/499) participants were prescribed a ULT for gout, of whom 88% (251/285) were currently taking ULT. Of those using ULT, 78% (97/251) reported ULT adherence >80%. Gender, race, and age were not significantly associated with the likelihood of receiving a ULT prescription or ULT adherence >80%. Fifty-six percent of patients with gout preferred ULT as a lifelong treatment for gout, 24% preferred cherry extract and 16% preferred diet modification (4% preferred none). Men had significantly lower odds of preferring ULT as the lifelong treatment choice for gout vs. other choices (p = 0.03). We found that 38.3% participants were highly motivated to make a lifelong dietary modification to improve their gout (score of 9-10 on a 0

  9. Psychological consequences of aggression in pre-hospital emergency care: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaldo-De-Quirós, Mónica; Piccini, Ana T; Gómez, M Mar; Cerdeira, Jose C

    2015-01-01

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a particularly vulnerable setting for workplace violence. However, there is no literature available to date on the psychological consequences of violence in pre-hospital emergency care. To evaluate the psychological consequences of exposure to workplace violence from patients and those accompanying them in pre-hospital emergency care. A retrospective cross-sectional study. 70 pre-hospital emergency care services located in Madrid region. A randomized sample of 441 health care workers (135 physicians, 127 nurses and 179 emergency care assistants). Data were collected from February to May 2012. The survey was divided into four sections: demographic/professional information, level of burnout determined by Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), mental health status using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and frequency and type of violent behaviour experienced by staff members. The health care professionals who had been exposed to physical and verbal violence presented a significantly higher percentage of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and burnout syndrome compared with those who had not been subjected to any aggression. Frequency of verbal violence (more than five times) was related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Type of violence (i.e. physical aggression) is especially related to high anxiety levels and frequency of verbal aggression is associated with burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). Psychological counselling should be made available to professional staff who have been subjected to physical aggression or frequent verbal violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors associated with herbal use among urban multiethnic primary care patients: a cross-sectional survey

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    Balkrishnan Rajesh

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal supplements in the United States has become increasingly popular. The prevalence of herbal use among primary care patients varies in previous studies; the pattern of herbal use among urban racially/ethnically diverse primary care patients has not been widely studied. The primary objectives of this study were to describe the use of herbs by ethnically diverse primary care patients in a large metropolitan area and to examine factors associated with such use. The secondary objective was to investigate perceptions about and patterns of herbal use. Methods Data for a cross-sectional survey were collected at primary care practices affiliated with the Southern Primary-care Urban Research Network (SPUR-Net in Houston, Texas, from September 2002 to March 2003. To participate in the study, patients had to be at least 18 years of age and visiting one of the SPUR-Net clinics for routine, nonacute care. Survey questions were available in both English and Spanish. Results A total of 322 patients who had complete information on race/ethnicity were included in the analysis. Overall, 36% of the surveyed patients (n = 322 indicated use of herbs, with wide variability among ethnic groups: 50% of Hispanics, 50% of Asians, 41% of Whites, and 22% of African-Americans. Significant factors associated with an individual's herbal use were ethnicity other than African-American, having an immigrant family history, and reporting herbal use by other family members. About 40% of survey respondents believed that taking prescription medications and herbal medicines together was more effective than taking either alone. One-third of herbal users reported using herbs on a daily basis. More Whites (67% disclosed their herbal use to their health-care providers than did African-Americans (45%, Hispanics (31%, or Asians (31%. Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences in herbal use were apparent among this sample of urban multiethnic adult primary care

  11. Test-Retest Reliability of the Adaptive Chemistry Assessment Survey for Teachers: Measurement Error and Alternatives to Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshman, Jordan; Yezierski, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Determining the error of measurement is a necessity for researchers engaged in bench chemistry, chemistry education research (CER), and a multitude of other fields. Discussions regarding what constructs measurement error entails and how to best measure them have occurred, but the critiques about traditional measures have yielded few alternatives.…

  12. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Factors associated with domestic violence: a cross-sectional survey among women in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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    Fageeh, Wafa M K

    2014-02-14

    This study aims to identify the factors associated with domestic violence (DV) among women in Jeddah. Cross-sectional survey. Outpatient departments of three tertiary hospitals in Jeddah. Convenience sample of women, aged 15-70 years, at the outpatient and inpatient clinics. Between 15 December 2011 and 30 May 2012, a psychologist and a professional health assistant explained the purpose of the research to participants, who were then asked to fill a 50-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was created based on questions from three questionnaires: the NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. The questionnaire was used to assess the association between DV and family status, male partner attitudes, age, educational attainment, employment, financial and socioeconomic status. A total of 2301 women participated in the survey (81% response rate). The mean±SD age of the participants was 34.4±10.9 years. The lifetime prevalence of DV was 34%. Abused women had more children than non-abused women (p=0.001), and their spouses were significantly older than those of non-abused women (pwomen and those with a high educational status were significantly more likely to report abuse (p=0.003 and pwomen were also likely to report that their spouse was a smoker (pwomen reported that their male partners were alcohol users (p=0.001). The results of logistic regression showed that women who were financially dependent had about 1.5-fold odds of being physically abused by a spouse. Many factors are associated with DV against women, thereby highlighting the need to design effective DV prevention programmes.

  14. Error, stress, and teamwork in medicine and aviation: cross sectional surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J Bryan; Thomas, Eric J; Helmreich, Robert L

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To survey operating theatre and intensive care unit staff about attitudes concerning error, stress, and teamwork and to compare these attitudes with those of airline cockpit crew. Design: Cross sectional surveys. Setting: Urban teaching and non-teaching hospitals in the United States, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. Major airlines around the world. Participants: 1033 doctors, nurses, fellows, and residents working in operating theatres and intensive care units and over 30 000 cockpit crew members (captains, first officers, and second officers). Main outcome measures: Perceptions of error, stress, and teamwork. Results: Pilots were least likely to deny the effects of fatigue on performance (26% v 70% of consultant surgeons and 47% of consultant anaesthetists). Most pilots (97%) and intensive care staff (94%) rejected steep hierarchies (in which senior team members are not open to input from junior members), but only 55% of consultant surgeons rejected such hierarchies. High levels of teamwork with consultant surgeons were reported by 73% of surgical residents, 64% of consultant surgeons, 39% of anaesthesia consultants, 28% of surgical nurses, 25% of anaesthetic nurses, and 10% of anaesthetic residents. Only a third of staff reported that errors are handled appropriately at their hospital. A third of intensive care staff did not acknowledge that they make errors. Over half of intensive care staff reported that they find it difficult to discuss mistakes. Conclusions: Medical staff reported that error is important but difficult to discuss and not handled well in their hospital. Barriers to discussing error are more important since medical staff seem to deny the effect of stress and fatigue on performance. Further problems include differing perceptions of teamwork among team members and reluctance of senior theatre staff to accept input from junior members. PMID:10720356

  15. Burnout among anaesthetists in Chinese hospitals: a multicentre, cross-sectional survey in 6 provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Min; Ting, Chen; Pengqian, Fang; Xinqiao, Fu

    2016-06-01

    Anesthesiology has reached a new stage which anaesthesia safety is significantly affected by human factors. The number of Chinese anaesthetists has increased to nearly twice as many as that in 2005. Attributed to traditional concepts, many problems in anesthesiology persist in Chinese hospitals. This study aims to determine the current status of anaesthesia job burnout, including problems related to burnout, as well as the conditions of anaesthesia human resources in Chinese hospitals. A multi-center, cross-sectional survey of 395 anaesthetists from 60 hospitals in 6 provinces was conducted to collect data on the work conditions of anesthesiologists by using questionnaires. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure burnout. Different statistical models were also used to evaluate the data. The number of Chinese anaesthetists has increased to nearly twice as many as that in 2005. According to our field survey of burnout among anaesthetists, only 17 (4.30%) respondents exhibited high levels of burnout. The average scores corresponding to the dimensions of burnout are 14.64 ± 11.40 (emotional exhaustion, EE), 4.22 ± 5.74 (depersonalization, DP), and 33.41 ± 10.05 (personal accomplishment, PA), as determined by MBI. These results indicate the differences in the spatial distribution of anaesthetists. Moreover, 15.3% of the anaesthetists showed high EE, 8.1% exhibited high DP, and 33.6% had low PA. Anxiety and undesirable conditions experienced by professional groups in anaesthesiology need to be addressed. Educational level, an important factor in anaesthesia care, influences not only psychological health of practitioners but patient safety as well. Thus, personnel structure must be optimized to relieve tension in the practice of the profession and reduce burnout among anaesthetists in hospitals in China. Meanwhile, the management must increase its effort toward improving the mental health of practitioners and patient safety in anaesthesia care. © 2016

  16. GPs' mental wellbeing and psychological resources: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marylou Anna; Cardwell, Chris; Donnelly, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The negative impact of work has been the traditional focus of GP surveys. We know little about GP positive mental health and psychological resources. To profile and contextualise GP positive mental health and personal psychological resources. Cross-sectional survey of GPs working in Northern Ireland (NI). A questionnaire comprising the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) and measures of resilience, optimism, self-efficacy, and hope, and sociodemographic information was posted to 400 GPs randomly selected from a publicly available GP register. The response rate was 55% (n = 221 out of 400). Mean value for GP wellbeing (WEMWBS) was 50.2 (standard deviation [SD] 8) compared to UK vets 48.8 (SD 9), UK teachers 47.2 (SD 9), and the population of NI 50.8 (SD 9). After adjustment for confounding, mean WEMWBS was 2.4 units (95% CI = 0.02 to 4.7) higher in female GPs than males (P = 0.05), and 4.0 units (95% CI = 0.8 to 7.3) higher in GPs ≥55 years than GPs ≤44 years (P = 0.02). Optimism was 1.1 units higher in female GPs than male GPs (95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), and 1.56 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.2 to 2.9) than in those ≤44 years. Hope was 3 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.4 to 5.7) than in those aged 45-54 years. Correlation between WEMWBS and psychological resources was highest with hope (r = 0.65, P GPs have levels of positive mental health that are comparable to the local population and better than other occupational groups, such as vets and teachers. Male and younger GPs may have most to gain from wellbeing interventions. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  17. Career Satisfaction Among Dental Public Health Specialists in India - A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Chandrashekar; Joseph, Joe; Antony, Bobby

    2017-01-01

    The satisfaction in career is an important indicator for the growth of the discipline and the profession. An empirical investigation of satisfaction in career and amendments needed in course and profession may help in growth of discipline. To assess career satisfaction among Dental Public Health (DPH) specialists working in India and analyze their perspective on changes required in the profession. Questionnaire for this cross-sectional survey was adapted from Minnesota Job Satisfaction Survey which included 40 enquiries to understand the reasons for choosing public health dentistry as career, competencies of public health dentists, satisfaction as a public health dentist and changes required in the profession. The questions were both open and closed end type. Updated electronic mail details of all registered public health dentists were collected from the head office of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry. Each participant was contacted by electronic mail and consent to participate were sought. Reminders were e-mailed thrice during three months. A total of 580 participants were contacted. A total of 183 responses were received, among which 179 consented. Nearly half of the respondents felt they are yet to achieve the accomplishment from the present career as public health dentist. Only 46.9% felt that there is advancement in the profession as career. Nearly three-fourth of respondents could not attain recognition as a public health dentist. A 45.8% of respondents were of the opinion that career in public health dentistry would provide them a steady employment and 53.1% of public health dentists would envision as satisfied in their career in next 10 years. Nearly 85% felt public health dentistry training needs a major course correction. There has been some reservation or skepticism about the future of the specialty as the jobs are in declining stage. This information provides insight about success and failures of public health dentistry as profession which

  18. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. Pediatrician′s perspectives on dental trauma management: A cross-sectional survey

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    H P Chanchala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pediatricians play a pivotal role in the provision of primary care following dental trauma, especially for population with limited access to dental care. The criticality of time and knowledge is very important in the success of dental trauma management. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and experience of pediatricians in the primary management of dental trauma. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 261 pediatricians from various regions of India who attended the National Pediatric Conference, Mysore 2015. The survey addressed demographic- and knowledge-related data concerned to dental trauma, experience in treating and witnessing dental trauma, diagnosis, preliminary management, and attitude of the pediatricians toward the same. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS version 17. Results: Among 261 respondents analyzed, 65.5% of them had encountered dental trauma in their practice. Avulsed tooth can be saved as opined by 67.8% of pediatricians. A higher percentage of the pediatricians, 94.3% knew the significance of time lapse. Saline was preferred medium of transport by 90.8%, followed by ice-cold water (78.2%. A fair awareness of the emergency treatment protocol of the avulsed teeth was observed among 59.8% of the pediatricians. Conclusion: Among pediatricians, the knowledge regarding handling of avulsed tooth, medium of transportation, and significance of time lapse between avulsion and reimplantation were found to be at a good level. The knowledge regarding the type of tooth to be reimplanted, method of cleaning the tooth was lacking.

  20. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

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    Leta Tesfaye H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59 years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ≤44 years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

  1. Self-Care in Palliative Care Nursing and Medical Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Mills, Jason; Wand, Timothy; Fraser, Jennifer A

    2017-06-01

    Self-care is an important consideration for palliative care professionals. To date, few details have been recorded about the nature or uptake of self-care practices in the palliative care workforce. As part of a broader mixed methods study, this article reports findings from a national survey of nurses and doctors. The objective of this study was to examine perceptions, education, and practices relating to self-care among palliative care nursing and medical professionals. A cross-sectional survey using REDCap software was conducted between April and May 2015. Perceived importance of self-care, self-care education and planning, and self-care strategies most utilized were explored. Descriptive statistics were calculated and content analysis used to identify domains of self-care. Three hundred seventy-two palliative care nursing and medical professionals practicing in Australia. Most respondents regarded self-care as very important (86%). Some rarely practised self-care and less than half (39%) had received training in self-care. Physical self-care strategies were most commonly reported, followed closely by social self-care and inner self-care. Self-care plans had been used by a small proportion of respondents (6%) and over two-thirds (70%) would consider using self-care plans if training could be provided. Self-care is practised across multiple health related domains, with physical self-care strategies used most frequently. Australian palliative care nurses and doctors recognize the importance of self-care practice, but further education and training are needed to increase their understanding of, and consistency in, using effective self-care strategies. These findings carry implications for professional practice and future research.

  2. Guideline use behaviours and needs of primary care practitioners in China: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Linan; Li, Youping; Zhang, Lingli; Liu, Guanjian; Zhang, Yang; Zhen, Shangwei; Li, Honghao; Song, Xue; Duan, Yanjun; Yu, Jiajie; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Clinical guidelines have been recognised as an effective way to improve healthcare performance. However, little is known about the uptake and implementation of guidelines by general practitioners in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the guideline use behaviours and needs of practitioners in primary care settings in China. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey from December 2015 to May 2016 that included practitioners at 268 institutions in 15 provinces in China. Questionnaire development was informed by the execution of a literature review and consultation of experts. On-site surveys were implemented using a paper questionnaire to minimise missing responses. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with provider knowledge of and attitudes towards clinical guidelines. Results Of the respondents, 91.7% (1568/1708) were aware of clinical guidelines, but only 11.3% (177/1568) frequently used them. The main mechanism by which primary care practitioners accessed guidelines was public search engines (63.4%; 911/1438), and practitioners seldom reported using biomedical databases. The most frequently identified barriers to guideline use were lack of training (49.9%; 778/1560), lack of access (44.6%; 696/1560) and lack of awareness (38.0%; 592/1560). Less than one-quarter of respondents considered current guidelines ‘entirely appropriate’ for use in primary care (23.5%; 339/1442). Most participants (96.2%; 1509/1568) believed it was necessary to develop primary care guidelines. Provider attitudes towards current guidelines were associated with the location and level of the institution and professional title of the practitioner (pguidelines in primary care, and we identified a gap between the needs of practitioners and availability of clinical guidelines for use in primary care in China. In addition, lacking access to and training in guidelines also prevented primary healthcare practitioners

  3. Career Satisfaction Among Dental Public Health Specialists in India – A Cross-sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joe; Antony, Bobby

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The satisfaction in career is an important indicator for the growth of the discipline and the profession. An empirical investigation of satisfaction in career and amendments needed in course and profession may help in growth of discipline. Aim To assess career satisfaction among Dental Public Health (DPH) specialists working in India and analyze their perspective on changes required in the profession. Materials and Methods Questionnaire for this cross-sectional survey was adapted from Minnesota Job Satisfaction Survey which included 40 enquiries to understand the reasons for choosing public health dentistry as career, competencies of public health dentists, satisfaction as a public health dentist and changes required in the profession. The questions were both open and closed end type. Updated electronic mail details of all registered public health dentists were collected from the head office of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry. Each participant was contacted by electronic mail and consent to participate were sought. Reminders were e-mailed thrice during three months. A total of 580 participants were contacted. A total of 183 responses were received, among which 179 consented. Results Nearly half of the respondents felt they are yet to achieve the accomplishment from the present career as public health dentist. Only 46.9% felt that there is advancement in the profession as career. Nearly three-fourth of respondents could not attain recognition as a public health dentist. A 45.8% of respondents were of the opinion that career in public health dentistry would provide them a steady employment and 53.1% of public health dentists would envision as satisfied in their career in next 10 years. Nearly 85% felt public health dentistry training needs a major course correction. Conclusion There has been some reservation or skepticism about the future of the specialty as the jobs are in declining stage. This information provides insight about success

  4. Factors relating to adolescent suicidal behavior: a cross-sectional Malaysian school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Paul C Y; Lee, Lai Kah; Wong, Kam Cheong; Kaur, Jagmohni

    2005-10-01

    This study was undertaken to examine factors relating to adolescent suicide behavior. This was a cross-sectional school survey of 4,500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected using the supervised self-administered questionnaire (modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance in the Malaysian National Language, Bahasa Malaysia). Seven percent (312 of 4,454) of the adolescent students had seriously considered attempting suicide. Among the adolescents, 4.6% had attempted suicide at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Female adolescents were more likely to put their suicidal thoughts into suicidal action than were male adolescents. Malay and Indian people are more likely than the Chinese to respond, "Felt sad and hopeless." However, Malay adolescents had the lowest rate of attempted suicide. Based on multiple logistic regression, factors significantly related to urban adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Number of days felt unsafe to go to school," "Riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol," "Physical fight," and "Number of days absent from school." In comparison, factors relating to rural adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Physical fight," "Physical fight resulting in injury," and "Drive a vehicle after drinking alcohol." Adolescent suicide behavior should be viewed as a serious problem. Measures can be taken to prevent suicide by looking at the factors significantly linked to suicidal behavior among adolescents. Steps can then be taken to identify adolescents who have serious suicidal ideation so that intervention can be taken to reduce the suicidal rate.

  5. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael N; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1) and 3 years after (Group 2) the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology. 131 (80.9%) of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8%) residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3%) indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2) and residents who were not (Group 1). The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed), practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed), and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed). More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04), whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02). The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several negative

  6. Cumulative risks and cessation of exclusive breast feeding: Australian cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayton, Jennifer; van der Mei, Ingrid; Wills, Karen; Hansen, Emily; Nelson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of cessation of exclusive breast feeding at each month up to 6 months and document key factors and cumulative risks associated with exclusive breastfeeding cessation for children aged from 0 to 6 months. Secondary analysis using a national representative sample of 22 202 mother and infant pairs derived from the 2010 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare cross-sectional survey, the Australian Infant Feeding Survey. Among breastfed infants, 49% had ceased exclusive breast feeding before they had reached 2 months of age. In the final Cox proportional hazards model, cessation of exclusive breast feeding was most strongly associated with partners preferring bottle feeding (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.69 to 20.6) or having no preference (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.42), regular dummy use (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.39) and maternal obesity (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.35). Living within the most disadvantaged areas of Australia (quintile 1) was not strongly associated with cessation (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14) compared with least disadvantaged areas. Having three risk factors significantly increased the risk of cessation by 31% (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.6). The prevalence of early cessation of exclusive breast feeding is alarmingly high with 50% of infants no longer exclusively breast fed by age 2 months. Given that not one factor is associated with cessation of exclusive breast feeding, the greatest public health impact is likely to be achieved when multiple risk factors are modified or prevented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of tremor in the NARCOMS multiple sclerosis registry: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, John R; Salter, Amber R; Walker, Harrison; Amara, Amy; Meador, William; Cutter, Gary R

    2015-01-08

    (1)To describe the prevalence and severity of tremor in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) registered within a large North American MS registry; (2) to provide detailed descriptions on the characteristics and severity of tremor in a subset of registrants and (3) to compare several measures of tremor severity for strength of agreement. The North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) registry. Registrants of NARCOMS reporting mild or greater tremor severity. We determined the cross-sectional prevalence of tremor in the NARCOMS registry over three semiannual updates between fall 2010 and fall 2011. A subset of registrants (n=552) completed a supplemental survey providing detailed descriptions of their tremor. Outcomes included descriptive characteristics of their tremors and correlations between outcome measures to determine the strength of agreement in assessing tremor severity. The estimated prevalence of tremor in NARCOMS ranged from 45% to 46.8%, with severe tremor affecting 5.5-5.9% of respondents. In the subset completing the supplemental survey, mild tremor severity was associated with younger age of MS diagnosis and tremor onset than those with moderate or severe tremor. However, tremor severity did not differ by duration of disease or tremor. Respondents provided descriptions of tremor symptoms on the Clinical Ataxia Rating Scale, which had a moderate to good (ρ=0.595) correlation with the Tremor Related Activities of Daily Living (TRADL) scale. Objectively scored Archimedes' spirals had a weaker (ρ=0.358) correlation with the TRADL. Rates of unemployment, disability and symptomatic medication use increased with tremor severity, but were high even among those with mild tremor. Tremor is common among NARCOMS registrants and severely disabling for some. Both ADL-based and symptom-descriptive measures of tremor severity can be used to stratify patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  8. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

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    Xianglong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9% participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9% claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2% of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications

  9. Premarital sexual intercourse among adolescents in Malaysia: a cross-sectional Malaysian school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L K; Chen, P C Y; Lee, K K; Kaur, J

    2006-06-01

    Sexual intercourse among Malaysian adolescents is a major concern, especially with the worry of HIV/AIDS. This study was done to determine the prevalence of sexual intercourse among secondary school students aged 12 to 19 years in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional school survey conducted on 4,500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected using the self-administered questionnaire (translated version of the Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance in Bahasa Malaysia). The study showed that 5.4 percent of the total sample were reported to have had sexual intercourse. The proportion among male students who had had sex was higher (8.3 percent) compared with female students (2.9 percent). The mean age at first sexual intercourse was 15 years. One percent of students reported that they had been pregnant or had made someone else pregnant. Adolescent sexual intercourse was significantly associated with (1) socio-demographical factors (age, gender); (2) environmental factors (staying with parents); and (3) substance use (alcohol use, cigarette smoking, drug use), even after adjustment for demographical factors. The survey showed that 20.8 percent of respondents had taken alcohol, 14.0 percent had smoked cigarettes, 2.5 percent had tried marijuana, 1.2 percent had tried ecstasy pills, 2.6 percent had tried glue sniffing, 0.7 percent had tried heroin, and 0.7 percent had intravenous drugs. Prevalence of sexual intercourse among Malaysian adolescents was relatively low compared to developed countries. However, certain groups of adolescents tend to be at higher risk of engaging in sexual intercourse. This problem should be addressed early by targeting these groups of high-risk adolescents.

  10. Cross-sectional prevalence survey of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization in Canadian military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and is associated with a broad range of adverse consequences. In military organizations, IPV may have special implications, such as the potential of service-related mental disorders to trigger IPV. However, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) have limited data to guide their prevention and control efforts. Methods Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and their correlates were assessed on a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of currently-serving Canadian Regular Forces personnel (N = 2157). The four primary outcomes were perpetration or victimization of any physical and/or sexual or emotional and/or financial IPV over the lifespan of the current relationship. Results Among the 81% of the population in a current relationship, perpetration of any physical and/or sexual IPV was reported in 9%; victimization was reported in 15%. Any emotional and/or financial abuse was reported by 19% (perpetration) and 22% (victimization). Less physically injurious forms of abuse predominated. Logistic regression modelling showed that relationship dissatisfaction was independently associated with all four outcomes (OR range = 2.3 to 3.7). Probable depression was associated with all outcomes except physical and/or sexual IPV victimization (OR range = 2.5 – 2.7). PTSD symptoms were only associated with physical and/or sexual IPV perpetration (OR = 3.2, CI = 1.4 to 7.9). High-risk drinking was associated with emotional and/or financial abuse. Risk of IPV was lowest in those who had recent deployment experience; remote deployment experience (vs. never having deployed) was an independent risk factor for all IPV outcomes (OR range = 2.0 – 3.4). Conclusions IPV affects an important minority of military families; less severe cases predominate. Mental disorders, high-risk drinking, relationship dissatisfaction, and remote deployment were independently associated with abuse outcomes. The

  11. Cross-sectional prevalence survey of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization in Canadian military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorski, Mark A; Wiens-Kinkaid, Miriam E

    2013-10-28

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and is associated with a broad range of adverse consequences. In military organizations, IPV may have special implications, such as the potential of service-related mental disorders to trigger IPV. However, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) have limited data to guide their prevention and control efforts. Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and their correlates were assessed on a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of currently-serving Canadian Regular Forces personnel (N = 2157). The four primary outcomes were perpetration or victimization of any physical and/or sexual or emotional and/or financial IPV over the lifespan of the current relationship. Among the 81% of the population in a current relationship, perpetration of any physical and/or sexual IPV was reported in 9%; victimization was reported in 15%. Any emotional and/or financial abuse was reported by 19% (perpetration) and 22% (victimization). Less physically injurious forms of abuse predominated. Logistic regression modelling showed that relationship dissatisfaction was independently associated with all four outcomes (OR range = 2.3 to 3.7). Probable depression was associated with all outcomes except physical and/or sexual IPV victimization (OR range = 2.5 - 2.7). PTSD symptoms were only associated with physical and/or sexual IPV perpetration (OR = 3.2, CI = 1.4 to 7.9). High-risk drinking was associated with emotional and/or financial abuse. Risk of IPV was lowest in those who had recent deployment experience; remote deployment experience (vs. never having deployed) was an independent risk factor for all IPV outcomes (OR range = 2.0 - 3.4). IPV affects an important minority of military families; less severe cases predominate. Mental disorders, high-risk drinking, relationship dissatisfaction, and remote deployment were independently associated with abuse outcomes. The primary limitations of this analysis are its use of self-report data

  12. Antihypertensive combination therapy in primary care offices: results of a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland

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    Roas S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Roas,1 Felix Bernhart,2 Michael Schwarz,3 Walter Kaiser,4 Georg Noll5 1Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, 2Private Practice, Biberist, 3Ambulatorium Wiesendamm, Basel, 4Healthworld (Schweiz AG, Steinhausen, 5HerzKlinik Hirslanden, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Most hypertensive patients need more than one substance to reach their target blood pressure (BP. Several clinical studies indicate the high efficacy of antihypertensive combinations, and recent guidelines recommend them in some situations even as initial therapies. In general practice they seem widespread, but only limited data are available on their effectiveness under the conditions of everyday life. The objectives of this survey among Swiss primary care physicians treating hypertensive patients were: to know the frequency of application of different treatment modalities (monotherapies, free individual combinations, single-pill combinations; to see whether there are relationships between prescribed treatment modalities and patient characteristics, especially age, treatment duration, and comorbidities; and to determine the response rate (percentage of patients reaching target BP of different treatment modalities under the conditions of daily practice. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational survey among 228 randomly chosen Swiss primary care physicians analyzed data for 3,888 consecutive hypertensive patients collected at one single consultation. Results: In this survey, 31.9% of patients received monotherapy, 41.2% two substances, 20.9% three substances, and 4.7% more than three substances. By combination mode, 34.9% took free individual combinations and 30.0% took fixed-dose single-pill combinations. Combinations were more frequently given to older patients with a long history of hypertension and/or comorbidities. In total, 67.8% of patients achieved their BP target according to their physician's judgment. When compared, single

  13. Job Satisfaction of Nurses in a Regional Hospital in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    Job satisfaction has become a critical issue for healthcare organizations, particularly in nursing, because of the shortage of nursing labor, the effect on patient care, and the associated costs. This study explores the factors that influence the level of job satisfaction of nurses working in one regional hospital in Oman. This study aims to measure the job satisfaction of nurses working at a regional hospital in Oman and to determine the factors that most significantly influence this satisfaction. Job satisfaction is measured using the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. In addition, the demographic characteristics of participants (age, gender, level of education, years of experience, marital status, work shift, work unit, and nationality) are obtained to assess potential correlations. A questionnaire survey was used to collect the data, and stratified random sampling was used to recruit potential participants. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from 155 participants who worked at one regional hospital in Oman, with survey data analyzed using SPSS version 19. One hundred forty-three valid responses were received (response rate: 92%). The study used descriptive data analysis to address the first research question and used analysis methods such as multiregression analyses, and one-way analysis of variance to identify the relationships between the other variables. The overall mean score for satisfaction was 3.49, indicating that participants had a moderate level of job satisfaction. "Interaction with coworkers" and "extrinsic reward" earned, respectively, the highest and lowest job satisfaction ratings on the subscale of McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. The results showed that age, work shift, and nationality each had a statistically significant effect on overall job satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis indicated that 21.8% of the total variance in the dependent variables was explained by being non-Omani in nationality, indicating that

  14. Integrated surgical academic training in the UK: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencowe, Natalie S; Glasbey, James C; McElnay, Philip J; Bhangu, Aneel; Gokani, Vimal J; Harries, Rhiannon L

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to explore variations in the provision of integrated academic surgical training across the UK. This is an online cross-sectional survey (consisting of 44 items with a range of free-text, binomial and 5-point Likert scale responses) developed by the Association of Surgeons in Training. A self-reported survey instrument was distributed to academic surgical trainees across the UK (n=276). 143 (51.9%) responses were received (81% male, median age: 34 years), spanning all UK regions and surgical specialties. Of the 143 trainees, 29 were core trainees (20.3%), 99 were specialty trainees (69.2%) and 15 (10.5%) described themselves as research fellows. The structure of academic training varied considerably, with under a third of trainees receiving guaranteed protected time for research. Despite this, however, 53.1% of the respondents reported to be satisfied with how their academic training was organised. Covering clinical duties during academic time occurred commonly (72.7%). Although most trainees (n=88, 61.5%) met with their academic supervisor at least once a month, six (4.2%) never had an academic supervisory meeting. Most trainees (n=90, 62.9%) occupied a full-time rota slot and only 9.1% (n=13) described their role as 'supernumerary'. Although 58.7% (n=84) of the trainees were satisfied with their clinical competence, 37.8% (n=54) felt that clinical time focused more on service provision than the acquisition of technical skills. 58 (40.6%) had experienced some form of negative sentiment relating to their status as an academic trainee. Integrated academic training presents unique challenges and opportunities within surgery. This survey has identified variation in the quality of current programmes, meaning that the future provision of integrated surgical academic training should be carefully considered. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  15. The mental health of nurses in acute teaching hospital settings: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lin; Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Nursing is an emotionally demanding profession and deficiencies in nurses' mental wellbeing, characterised by low vitality and common mental disorders, have been linked to low productivity, absenteeism and presenteeism. Part of a larger study of nurses' health, the aim of this paper was to describe the mental health status and related characteristics of nurses working in two acute metropolitan teaching hospitals. A cross sectional survey design was used. The Registered and Enrolled Nurse workforce, employed on any form of contract, at two teaching hospitals in Sydney Australia were invited to participate. The survey tool was compiled of validated tools and questions. Family and medical history and health risk-related characteristics, current psycho-active medications, smoking status, alcohol intake, eating disorders, self-perceived general health, mental health and vitality, demographic, social and occupational details were collected. A total of 1215 surveys were distributed with a usable response rate of 382 (31.4%). Altogether 53 nurses (14%) reported a history of mental health disorders, of which n = 49 (13%) listed diagnoses of anxiety and/or depression; 22 (6%) were currently taking psychoactive medication. Symptoms that could potentially indicate a mental health issue were more common, with 248 (65.1%) reporting they had experienced symptoms sometimes or often in the last 12 month. Nurses had better mental health if they had better general health, lived with a spouse/ partner rather than alone, had fewer symptoms, sleep problems or disordered eating behaviours, were not an informal carer and did not work nights. Nurses had greater vitality if they were male, had better general health, fewer sleep problems or symptoms generally and lived with a spouse/ partner rather than alone; less vitality if they were an informal carer or had disordered eating. Nurses and their managers should strive to create workplaces where working practices promote nurses' health

  16. Honorary and ghost authorship in high impact biomedical journals: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wislar, Joseph S; Flanagin, Annette; Fontanarosa, Phil B; Deangelis, Catherine D

    2011-10-25

    To assess the prevalence of honorary and ghost authors in six leading general medical journals in 2008 and compare this with the prevalence reported by authors of articles published in 1996. Cross sectional survey using a web based questionnaire. International survey of journal authors. Sample of corresponding authors of 896 research articles, review articles, and editorial/opinion articles published in six general medical journals with high impact factors in 2008: Annals of Internal Medicine, JAMA, Lancet, Nature Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine, and PLoS Medicine. Self reported compliance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for all authors on the selected articles. A total of 630/896 (70.3%) corresponding authors responded to the survey. The prevalence of articles with honorary authorship or ghost authorship, or both, was 21.0% (95% CI 18.0% to 24.3%), a decrease from 29.2% reported in 1996 (P = 0.004). Based on 545 responses on honorary authorship, 96 articles (17.6% (95% CI 14.6% to 21.0%)) had honorary authors (range by journal 12.2% to 29.3%), a non-significant change from 1996 (19.3%; P = 0.439). Based on 622 responses on ghost authorship, 49 articles (7.9% (6.0% to 10.3%)) had ghost authors (range by journal 2.1% to 11.0%), a significant decline from 1996 (11.5%; P = 0.023). The prevalence of honorary authorship was 25.0% in original research reports, 15.0% in reviews, and 11.2% in editorials, whereas the prevalence of ghost authorship was 11.9% in research articles, 6.0% in reviews, and 5.3% in editorials. Evidence of honorary and ghost authorship in 21% of articles published in major medical journals in 2008 suggests that increased efforts by scientific journals, individual authors, and academic institutions are essential to promote responsibility, accountability, and transparency in authorship, and to maintain integrity in scientific publication.

  17. Positive and negative reasons for sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan

    2014-02-12

    This article investigates various reasons for sickness presenteeism (SP), that is, going to work despite illness. The research questions asked is: What are the main reported reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden? Cross-sectional survey in Norway and Sweden. Use of binomial logistic regression analysis. A random sample of people aged between 20 and 60 years was obtained from complete and updated databases of the Norwegian and Swedish populations. A postal questionnaire was sent to the selected individuals, with response rate 33% (n=2843). 2533 workers responded to questions about SP during the last 12 months. The article informs about the distribution of reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden, selected by the respondents from a closed list. The article also examines which factors influence the most often reported reasons for SP. 56% of the Norwegian and Swedish respondents experienced SP in the previous year. The most frequently reported reasons for SP include not burden colleagues (43%), enjoy work (37%) and feeling indispensable (35%). A lower proportion of Norwegians state that they cannot afford taking sick leave adjusted OR (aOR 0.16 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.22)), while a higher proportion of Norwegians refer to that they enjoy their work (aOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.09)). Women and young workers more often report that they do not want to burden their colleagues. Managers (aOR=2.19 (95% CI 1.67 to 2.86)), highly educated persons and the self-employed more often report that they are indispensable. Positive and negative reasons for SP are reported, and there are significant differences between respondents from the two countries. The response rate is low and results must be interpreted with caution. Cross-sectional study.

  18. Predictors of childbirth fear among pregnant Chinese women: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling-Ling; Liu, Xiao Jun; Fu, Bai Ling; Xie, Wen

    2015-09-01

    to examine childbirth fear and identify its predictors among pregnant Chinese women. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in a regional teaching hospital in Guangzhou, China, between October and November 2013. 353 pregnant Chinese women who were at least 18 years old, with a singleton fetus, in the third trimester of pregnancy, not at high risk for complications of pregnancy, and not having had a previous caesarean section. a social-demographic data sheet; the Chinese version of the Childbirth Attitude Questionnaire and the Spielberger׳s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; and the short form of 32-item Chinese Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory. the pregnant Chinese women reported moderate levels of childbirth fear. The pregnant Chinese women who were younger, with lower educational level, not satisfied with their husbands׳ support, and with previous experience of miscarriage reported higher level of childbirth fear. Pregnant women׳s childbirth self-efficacy, state anxiety and trait anxiety were correlated with childbirth fear. The best-fit regression analysis revealed four variables that explained 28% of variance in childbirth fear: trait anxiety, state anxiety, age and previous experience of miscarriage. this study highlighted the connection between childbirth fear, state and trait anxiety, childbirth self-efficacy, age, education and previous miscarriage among pregnant Chinese women. the CAQ was an appropriate method to measure childbirth fear in pregnant Chinese women. The health-care professionals should be sensitive toward issues that could affect levels of childbirth fear in pregnant Chinese women, including age, education and previous miscarriage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

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    Ahmed Waqas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan.Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences.Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents. Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8% had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%. Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3% considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4% and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7% to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1% considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41% respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05.Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can

  20. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-02-12

    Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization's practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. The mean score of hospitals' social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals' ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals' social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff's working environment. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  1. Management of acute diarrhea in adults in China: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Feng-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the management of acute adult diarrhea in China and assess adherence of clinical practice to national guidelines and 2012 World Gastroenterology Organization guidelines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among physicians in 20 hospitals in two different areas of China (Beijing, 10; Shaanxi province, 10. Summary statistics were calculated for the overall study group and for each region. Between-region differences were assessed with χ2 or t-tests. Results Data were collected for 800 patients (≥18 years; mean ± SD age 37.0 ± 16.3 years; 56.4% female. The mean ± SD time between diarrhea onset and visiting a diarrhea clinic was 2.4 ± 1.6 days; this interval was significantly shorter in Beijing than Shaanxi (2.0 ± 1.4 vs 2.8 ± 1.8 days, respectively; p p p p  Conclusions Adherence to both national guidelines and 2012 World Gastroenterology Organization guidelines for the management of acute diarrhea in adult was limited among tertiary hospital physicians. The findings suggest nationwide education and effective health policies are needed to improve medical practice and reduce the unnecessary burden on the healthcare system.

  2. Understanding and predicting social media use among community health center patients: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Hanson, Carl L; West, Josh; Thackeray, Rosemary; Barnes, Michael D; Downey, Jordan

    2014-11-26

    The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care-related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care-related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers.

  3. Health-state utilities in a prisoner population: a cross-sectional survey

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    Levy Michael H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-state utilities for prisoners have not been described. Methods We used data from a 1996 cross-sectional survey of Australian prisoners (n = 734. Respondent-level SF-36 data was transformed into utility scores by both the SF-6D and Nichol's method. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of SF-6D utility were assessed in univariate analyses and a multivariate general linear model. Results The overall mean SF-6D utility was 0.725 (SD 0.119. When subdivided by various medical conditions, prisoner SF-6D utilities ranged from 0.620 for angina to 0.764 for those with none/mild depressive symptoms. Utilities derived by the Nichol's method were higher than SF-6D scores, often by more than 0.1. In multivariate analysis, significant independent predictors of worse utility included female gender, increasing age, increasing number of comorbidities and more severe depressive symptoms. Conclusion The utilities presented may prove useful for future economic and decision models evaluating prison-based health programs.

  4. Stress and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese school children: cross-sectional survey.

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    Hesketh, Therese; Zhen, Yan; Lu, Li; Dong, Zhou Xu; Jun, Ye Xu; Xing, Zhu Wei

    2010-02-01

    The Chinese educational system is highly competitive from the start of primary school with great emphasis on academic performance and intolerance of failure. This study aimed to explore the pressures on primary schoolchildren, and to determine the relationship between these pressures and psychosomatic symptoms: abdominal pain and headache. Cross-sectional survey using self-completion questionnaires. 9- to 12-year-olds in primary schools in urban and rural areas of Zhejiang Province, eastern China. Proportion of children with defined school-related stressors and frequency of psychosomatic illness. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 2191 children. All stressors were common in boys and girls and in urban and rural schools. Eighty-one per cent worry 'a lot' about exams, 63% are afraid of the punishment of teachers, 44% had been physically bullied at least sometimes, with boys more often victims of bullying, and 73% of children are physically punished by parents. Over one-third of children reported psychosomatic symptoms at least once per week, 37% headache and 36% abdominal pain. All individual stressors were highly significantly associated with psychosomatic symptoms. Children identified as highly stressed (in the highest quartile of the stress score) were four times as likely to have psychosomatic symptoms. The competitive and punitive educational environment leads to high levels of stress and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese primary schoolchildren. Measures to reduce unnecessary stress on children in schools should be introduced urgently.

  5. Socioeconomic status and health communication inequalities in Japan: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

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    Yoshiki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that communication inequality is one potential mechanism linking social determinants, particularly socioeconomic status, and health inequalities. This study aimed to examine how dimensions of health communication outcomes (health information seeking, self-efficacy, exposure, and trust are patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan. METHODS: Data of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 2,455 people aged 15-75 years in Japan were used for secondary analysis. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, subjective health, recent health information seeking, self-efficacy in seeking health information, and exposure to and trust in health information from different media. RESULTS: A total of 1,311 participants completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 53.6%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that education and household income, but not employment, were significantly associated with health information seeking and self-efficacy. Socioeconomic status was not associated with exposure to and trust in health information from mass media, but was significantly associated with health information from healthcare providers and the Internet. CONCLUSION: Health communication outcomes were patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan thus demonstrating the prevalence of health communication inequalities. Providing customized exposure to and enhancing the quality of health information by considering social determinants may contribute to addressing social disparities in health in Japan.

  6. [A cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of Brucellosis among workers in Jiangsu province, 2012].

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    Cui, Liang-liang; Tan, Wen-wen; Hang, Ji-hong; Zhou, Wei-zhong; Tan, Zhong-ming; Zhou, Jian-gang; Xu, Jian-fang; Shen, Tao; Bao, Chang-jun

    2013-07-01

    To study the status of infection and risk factors on Brucellosis among workers in Jiangsu province so as to provide related preventive and control measures. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 238 workers at three butcheries, one trading market and one stockyard. Related risk factors on the different exposures to the disease were also analyzed. 50 workers were identified to have had the infection, with a infection rate as 21% (50/238). No significant differences in gender, age, working length and occupations were found. Jobs as slaughtering (RR = 1.80, 95%CI:1.1-3.1), particular on bleeding (RR = 1.90, 95%CI:1.1-3.3) were risk factors. Habit as hand-washing before eating was a protective factor (RR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.14-0.44). Workers from butcheries, trading markets and stockyards were seriously infected with Brucellosis in Jiangsu province and related. Control measures and education should be implemented to the workers in that trade.

  7. Status of problem based learning in postgraduate anesthesia teaching: A cross-sectional survey

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    Geetanjali Chilkoti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anesthesia is a specialized branch of medicine with a very narrow margin of error. Incorporation of problem-based learning (PBL in anesthesia post-graduate (PG teaching enhances the critical thinking and problem-solving skills. It also helps in developing a broader prospective of clinical case scenarios. Case based discussions (CBD are most widely practiced out of all PBL methods in anesthesia PG teaching. Materials and Methods: We conducted an anonymous questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey among 62 anesthesia residents from various medical institutions in a city of Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the current status of PBL by assessing the student satisfaction with CBD in anesthesia PG teaching, educational objectives accomplished with CBD and effectiveness of teaching curriculum in PG teaching with suggested modifications, if any. Result and Conclusion: We observed that CBD is lacking in many important key areas of PBL e.g., formulation of objectives, communication on the content and direction of PBL, facilitation skills, supplementation of inadequacies of CBD. However, CBD seems to be a valid method of PBL in terms of the educational objectives accomplished with it but increased motivation for learning is required. Majority of the students felt that PG teaching curriculum should be centralized, with increased emphasis on open interactive sessions regarding its effectiveness.

  8. Burnout in emergency department healthcare professionals is associated with coping style: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Howlett, M; Doody, K; Murray, J; LeBlanc-Duchin, D; Fraser, J; Atkinson, P R

    2015-09-01

    Ineffective coping may lead to impaired job performance and burnout, with adverse consequences to staff well-being and patient outcomes. We examined the relationship between coping styles and burnout in emergency physicians, nurses and support staff at seven small, medium and large emergency departments (ED) in a Canadian health region (population 500,000). Linear regression with the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to evaluate the effect of coping style on levels of burnout in a cross-sectional survey of 616 ED staff members. CISS measures coping style in three categories: task-oriented, emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping; MBI, in use for 30 years, assesses the level of burnout in healthcare workers. Task-oriented coping was associated with decreased risk of burnout, while emotion-oriented coping was associated with increased risk of burnout. Specific coping styles are associated with varied risk of burnout in ED staff across several different types of hospitals in a regional network. Coping style intervention may reduce burnout, while leading to improvement in staff well-being and patient outcomes. Further studies should focus on building and sustaining task-oriented coping, along with alternatives to emotion-oriented coping. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal

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    Pranil Man Singh Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years and late adolescence (16–19 years. Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%. The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%. Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45. Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation.

  10. [Cancer diagnosis disclosure and supportive care seen from the patient side. A cross sectional multicentre survey].

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    Ricard, Cécile; Hamon, Ingrid; Duparc, Angélique; Steffen, Christoph A

    2017-08-29

    The objective of this study was to describe patients' experience during cancer disclosure and initial carers' support phase, in three healthcare facilities in Haute-Savoie District, France. We conducted a multicentric, cross-sectional telephone survey. Patients registered on the multidisciplinary cancer consultation platform lists were randomised. Practitioners validated the inclusion criteria of their patients, i.e. age over 18, patient fully informed of his/her diagnosis and able to answer a telephone interview. Two hundred thirty-six patients have been included. Outcome indicators reported as satisfactory were: the general setting of the disclosure consultation, the patient-doctor relationship, the coordination between the different carers and the patient carer relationship. The overall duration of the medical disclosure consultation and the time dedicated to explain the treatment and its adverse effects have been considered as insufficient. The measured indicators, which were by essence subjective, convey useful information on the quality of care in cancer treatment in the initial disclosure phase, as experienced by patients. This study has in particular allowed carers to start exploring ways to improve the experience of care of their patients. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental Health Status of Double Minority Adolescents: Findings from National Cross-Sectional Health Surveys.

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    Chiang, Szu-Ying; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs; Fenaughty, John; Clark, Terryann; Denny, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Little population-based work has been published about the mental health of adolescents with both sexual/gender (SG) and ethnic minority (i.e. double minority) status. This study aimed to provide an overview on their mental health. Analysis of data from a total of 17,607 high school students from New Zealand's 2007 and 2012 cross-sectional nationally representative Adolescent Health Surveys, including a total of 1306 (7.4%) SG minority participants, of whom 581 (3.3%) were also an ethnic minority. SG minority status, minority ethnicity, and female sex were associated with higher mental distress and poorer well-being. Generally speaking, double minority students reported poorer mental health than SG majority students of the same ethnicity, but reported better mental health than SG minority New Zealand European students. Explanations and future directions for research were suggested to further explore how double minority students negotiate mental health in the context of their communities/cultures in New Zealand.

  12. Attitudes toward organ donation among waitlisted transplant patients: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Jonathan; Pei, Kevin Y; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Gan, Geliang; Deng, Yanhong; Mulligan, David C; Davis, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    Organ shortage remains a major barrier to transplantation. While many efforts have focused on educating the general population regarding donation, few studies have examined knowledge regarding donation and donor registration rates among waitlisted candidates. We aimed to determine waitlisted patients' willingness to donate, elucidate attitudes surrounding organ allocation, and identify barriers to donation. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to assess demographics, knowledge regarding organ donation, and attitudes regarding the allocation process. Responses from 225 of 579 (39%) waitlisted patients were collected. Seventy-one respondents (32%) were registered donors, while 64 patients (28%) noted no interest in participating in donation. A total of 19% of respondents felt their medical treatment would change by being a donor, while 86 patients (38%) felt their condition precluded them from donation. Forty patients (18%) felt they should be prioritized on the waitlist if they agreed to donate. A minority of patients (28%) reported discussion of organ donation with their physician. Waitlisted candidates constitute a population of willing, although often unregistered, organ donors. Moreover, many endorse misconceptions regarding the allocation process and their donation eligibility. In a population for which transplantation is not always possible, education is needed regarding organ donation among waitlisted patients, as this may enhance donation rates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Anxiety and uncertainty in Korean mothers of children with febrile convulsion: cross-sectional survey.

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    Ju, Hyeon Ok; McElmurry, Beverly J; Park, Chang Gi; McCreary, Linda; Kim, Minju; Kim, Eun Joo

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the level of anxiety and uncertainty in Korean mothers of children with febrile convulsion and to identify factors associated with maternal anxiety. In general, febrile convulsions are harmless to the child, but parents perceive the convulsion as frightening. Previous authors of a few studies suggested that providing information was helpful for parents' knowledge, attitude and fear about a febrile convulsion. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. The sample comprised 102 mothers whose children had been diagnosed with a febrile convulsion and admitted to paediatric wards in five general hospitals in South Korea. The researchers gave the questionnaires to nursing departments for distribution and collection by paediatric nurses. To test differences in anxiety and uncertainty by participants' characteristics, t-tests and anova were conducted. Linear regression was used to identify factors associated with maternal state anxiety. Statistical significance level was set at 0.05. A multiple linear regression of maternal anxiety showed that four statistically significant predictors explained 56% of the total variations of maternal anxiety. The significant predictors were uncertainty, frequency of febrile convulsion, income and information about febrile convulsion. Among the significant variables, uncertainty was the dominant contributing factor (p Anxiety in mothers of children with febrile convulsion was especially related to uncertainty, so health care providers can reduce anxiety through decreasing uncertainty. For interventions to decrease maternal anxiety, provision of information and psychosocial support are needed for parents of hospitalised children with febrile convulsions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Orientation of Dental Professionals in India towards Integrative Medicine: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Madhan, Balasubramanian; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Garhnayak, Mirna; Naik, Eslavath Seena

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand on our health care system, including Dentistry, to shift from a bio-medical approach to Integrative model of care. The attitudes of health professionals towards Integrative Medicine (IM) are an important factor that influences this transition. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the orientation of the dental professionals in India towards the principles and practice of Integrative Medicine. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 286 dental faculty and postgraduate students from three dental schools in India. The participants voluntarily and anonymously completed the "Integrative Medicine-30' questionnaire, a 30 item self-report instrument that measures the health care provider's orientation towards Integrative Medicine in five subscales. Data analysis included summary statistics and intergroup comparisons by gender and professional status with independent samples Mann-Whitney U test. The overall orientation of the dental professionals towards IM was almost neutral. While the use of learning resources on Complementary and Alternative Medicine was lower, they showed a more positive orientation towards patient-centred care. Compared to postgraduate students of Dentistry, the dental faculty were more oriented towards IM (median score of 82 vs. 79.5, porientation (82 vs. 78, porientation of dental professionals in India towards the principles and practice of IM.

  15. Nursing personnel's attitudes towards fever and antipyresis of adult patients: cross-sectional survey.

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    Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Konstantinou, Evangelos; Psychogiou, Kalliopi-Styliani; Tsampoula, Iliana; Stefanopoulos, Nikolaos; Bakalis, Nick

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the attitudes of nurses caring for hospitalised adult patients towards fever and antipyresis and to identify the predictors of these attitudes. Fever is a host defence mechanism, whose harmful effects are limited to specific patients. Findings about antipyretic treatment have further challenged the need for routine or aggressive fever suppression. Unfortunately, nurses continue to be fever phobic, while their attitudes towards fever and antipyresis considerably affect antipyretic practice. Prospective, cross-sectional, multicentre survey. A convenience sample of registered and assistant nurses employed in surgical/medical wards and intensive care units of nine Greek hospitals was enrolled. The developed questionnaire included 10 multiple-choice, knowledge-evaluating items about fever and antipyresis, 10 Likert-type attitude-evaluating items towards fever and 10 towards antipyresis. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of attitudes towards fever and antipyresis. The attitudes of the 458 participants were found to be relatively positive towards both fever and antipyresis. Lower fever/antipyresis knowledge score predicted both negative attitude towards fever (p = 0·001) and positive attitude towards antipyresis (p attitude towards antipyresis (p = 0·002). Advancing nurses' evidence-based knowledge about fever and antipyresis is expected to limit their tendency to overtreat fever and favour fever care based on the assessment of actual patient demands. These findings highlight the need for continuing education programmes to eliminate fever phobia and improve nurses' competency for individualised fever care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. German medical students´ exposure and attitudes toward pharmaceutical promotion: A cross-sectional survey

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    Jahnke, Kristine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: Early contact of medical students with pharmaceutical promotion has been shown in many international studies. We assessed the frequency and places of contact of German medical students to pharmaceutical promotion and examined their attitudes toward pharmaceutical promotional activities.Methods: This cross-sectional survey was based on a self-developed questionnaire. It was distributed to all clinical students at the University of Goettingen Medical School in 2010. A 4-point rating scale was used to assess the attitudes toward different statements regarding pharmaceutical promotion.Results: The overall response rate was 55% (702/1287. The proportion of students with direct contact to pharmaceutical sales representatives increased from 21% in the first clinical year up to 77% in the final year. 60% were contacted during their elective clerkship. 80% had accepted promotional gifts. 86% stated their prescribing behavior to be unsusceptible to the influence of accepting promotional gifts. However, 35% of the unsusceptible students assumed doctors to be susceptible. Almost all (90% reported that dealing with pharmaceutical promotion was never addressed during lectures and 65% did not feel well prepared for interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. 19% agreed to prohibit contacts between medical students and the pharmaceutical industry.Conclusions: German medical students get in contact with pharmaceutical promotion early and frequently. There is limited awareness for associated conflicts of interests. Medical schools need to regulate contacts and incorporate the topic in their curriculum to prepare students for interactions with the pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S; Blount, Katrina L; Ritchie, Jessica D; Hodshon, Beth; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-01-01

    In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA) pathway. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%), nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives.

  18. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge and end-of-life device deactivation: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvedy, Samantha M; Cameron, Jan; Lugg, Eugene; Miller, Jennifer; Haedtke, Chris; Hammash, Muna; Biddle, Martha J; Lee, Kyoung Suk; Mariani, Justin A; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Chung, Misook Lee; Moser, Debra K

    2018-01-01

    End-of-life implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation discussions should commence before device implantation and be ongoing, yet many implantable cardioverter defibrillators remain active in patients' last days. To examine associations among implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge, patient characteristics and attitudes to implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation. Cross-sectional survey using the Experiences, Attitudes and Knowledge of End-of-Life Issues in Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients Questionnaire. Participants were classified as insufficient or sufficient implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge and the two groups were compared. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients ( n = 270, mean age 61 ± 14 years; 73% male) were recruited from cardiology and implantable cardioverter defibrillator clinics attached to two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, and two in Kentucky, the United States. Participants with insufficient implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge ( n = 77, 29%) were significantly older (mean age 66 vs 60 years, p = 0.001), less likely to be Caucasian (77% vs 87%, p  = 0.047), less likely to have received implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks (26% vs 40%, p = 0.031), and more likely to have indications of mild cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score trajectory. An interdisciplinary approach is required to ensure that discussions about implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation issues are initiated at appropriate time points, with family members ideally also included.

  19. Small cross-sectional survey of composite restoration attributes associated with choices for replacement

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    Alessandra Ramos Parpaiola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to present a small cross-sectional survey of composite restoration clinical attributes associated with choices for replacement. Ninety-four composite fillings selected to be replaced were included in this study. A questionnaire was filled out after each procedure in order to assess the clinical conditions that indicated the restoration replacement (marginal staining, unsatisfactory restoration anatomy, marginal fracture, fractured restoration body, painful symptoms, dental fracture, composite discoloration and/or restoration displacement. These conditions could be combined. The chi-square and Exact Fisher tests were performed to analyze the different variables (p < 0.05. The results showed that composite shade discoloration was the main cause of restoration replacement (63.8%. Marginal staining (50%, unsatisfactory restoration anatomy (50%, marginal fracture (14.9%, painful symptoms (8.5%, fractured restoration body (4.3%, dental fracture (1.1% and total displacement of the restoration (1.1% were conditions that could be associated. The main cause of dental composite restoration replacement was material shade mismatch with the dental structure (anterior teeth or marginal staining and unsatisfactory restoration shape (posterior teeth. Marginal staining and composite shade discoloration contrasting with dental structure were related to the presence of caries.

  20. Why medical students choose psychiatry - a 20 country cross-sectional survey.

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    Farooq, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory J; Malik, Amit; Ndetei, David M; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2014-01-15

    Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice. Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students' career intentions, motivations, medical school teaching and exposure to psychiatry. We assessed students' attitudes and personality factors. The main outcome measure was likelihood of specializing in psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of factors upon the main outcome. 2198 of 9135 (24%) of students responded (range 4 to 91%) across the countries. Internationally 4.5% of students definitely considered psychiatry as a career (range 1 to 12%). 19% of students (range 0 to 33%) were "quite likely", and 25% were "definitely not" considering psychiatry. Female gender, experience of mental/physical illness, media portrayal of doctors, and positive attitudes to psychiatry, but not personality factors, were associated with choosing psychiatry. Quality of psychiatric placement (correlation coefficient = 0.22, p students choosing psychiatry: importance of own vocation, odds ratio (OR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.61 to 5.91, p student selection and psychiatry teaching which affect career choice. Addressing these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry internationally.

  1. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross-sectional survey.

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    Bleich, Sara N; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A; Gudzune, Kimberly A

    2015-02-01

    (1) To determine the nonphysician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management. (2) To examine nutrition professionals' current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care. (3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals' quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. A 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. nonphysician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy) was analyzed. Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high-quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high-quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74 vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (Pcounseling to obese patients. Yet nutrition professionals' receipt of high-quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  2. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To determine the non-physician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management; 2) To examine nutrition professionals’ current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care; and 3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals’ quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. Design and methods We analyzed a 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. non-physician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy). Results Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74% vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (pcounseling to obese patients. Yet, nutrition professionals’ receipt of high quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. PMID:25445319

  3. Temporomandibular Disorders and Related Factors in a Group of Iranian Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Survey

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    Masoumeh Ebrahimi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs are the most common condition affecting the temporomandibular joint and associated structures. The aim of this study was the epidemiologic evaluation of TMDs and related factors in a group of Iranian adolescents. Materials and methods. This descriptive cross-sectional survey included a sample of 800 high school students (400 girls and 400 boys aged 14 to18 years, in Mashhad, Iran, selected using cluster sampling. Examiners completed questionnaires and performed the clinical examinations. Data were analyzed with the Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results. The prevalence of TMDs in the studied sample was 34.7%. The most common signs of TMDs were clicking, muscle tenderness and TMJ tenderness. The most prevalent predisposing factors of TMDs were clenching, premature contact in protrusive movement and bruxism. A clear predominance was seen in girls (40.5% compared with boys (29% (P = 0.001. Conclusion. Signs and symptoms of TMDs were prevalent in Iranian adolescents with a clear female predominance

  4. Prevalence and correlates of binge drinking among young adults using alcohol: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Carretta, Daniele; Crocamo, Cristina; Schivalocchi, Alessandro; Brambilla, Giulia; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Although binge drinking prevalence and correlates among young people have been extensively studied in the USA and Northern Europe, less is known for Southern Europe countries with relatively healthier drinking cultures. We aimed at analyzing prevalence and correlates of binge drinking in a representative sample of young adults in Italy. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among alcohol-consuming young adults. We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between recent binge drinking and candidate variables. We selected 654 subjects, with 590 (mean age: 20.65 ± 1.90) meeting inclusion criteria. Prevalence for recent binge drinking was 38.0%, significantly higher for females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that high alcohol expectancies, large amount of money available during the weekend, interest for parties and discos, female gender, cannabis use, influence by peers, and electronic cigarettes smoking all were significantly associated with recent binge drinking, whereas living with parents appeared a significant protective factor. More than a third of young adults using alcohol are binge drinkers, and, in contrast with findings from Anglo-Saxon countries, females show higher risk as compared with males. These data suggest the increasing importance of primary and secondary prevention programmes for binge drinking.

  5. [A Cross-sectional Study of School dropout in adolescents: National Mental Health Survey Colombia 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Padilla Muñoz, Andrea; Rincón, Carlos Javier

    2016-12-01

    School dropout in adolescents can have negative consequences, not only for the individual and the family, but also for the society. To identify the characteristics associated with the occurrence of this event might contribute to the planning of a prevention strategy. To evaluate the relationship between the individual and home characteristics and school dropout in adolescents from 12 to 17 years old in Colombia. A cross sectional study was conducted from information taken from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. A study was made of the relationship between the individual and home characteristics and school dropout in adolescents from 12 to 17 years old RESULTS: A higher percentage of school dropouts was found in the older adolescents, females, and those who have children. Among the home characteristics, it was observed that those homes with more than two people, located in rural area, or that are classified as poor, have an increased percentage of school dropout adolescents. Strategies for which the main goal is to prevent school dropout should consider populations with higher prevalence of out-of-school adolescents (female, homes in rural area, or household poverty). Preventive actions of adolescent pregnancy might contribute to reduce the school dropout rate. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking: cross-sectional survey of Polish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karin; Isensee, Barbara; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to smoking has been identified as predictor of smoking onset in adolescence. Aim of the study was to investigate whether receptivity to tobacco marketing, for which a link to adolescent smoking already could be shownin the past, was also associated with susceptibility to smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 1,478 Polish students who reported having never smoked wasconducted. Mean age was 10.1 years and about 53.3% were female. Overall, 84 (5.7%) students were classifiedas susceptible to smoking, and 33 (2.3%) were considered as receptiveto tobacco marketing, operationalised by asking students to name a brand of their favourite cigarette advertisement. Crude logistic regression analyses as well as logistic regression analyses adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, personality characteristics, factors of social influence and smoking-related cognitions revealed a positive association between receptivity to tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking (adjusted odds ratio=3.49 [95% confidence interval: 1.28-9.46], p=0.014). In conclusion, this study revealed that receptivityto tobacco marketing increases susceptibility to smoking. Results providesupport for the almost comprehensive ban of tobacco marketing as existing in Poland and recommend its further expansion towards a total ban including e.g. ban of promotion at point of sale.

  7. Basic Competence of Intensive Care Unit Nurses: Cross-Sectional Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Ritmala-Castrén, Marita; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Critical care patients benefit from the attention of nursing personnel with a high competence level. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate the self-assessed basic competence of intensive care unit nurses and related factors. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A basic competence scale (Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Competence Scale version 1, Likert scale 1–5, 1 = poor and 5 = excellent) was employed among Finnish intensive care unit nurses (n = 431). Intensive care unit nurses' self-assessed basic competence was good (mean 4.19, SD 0.40). The attitude and value base of basic competence was excellent whereas experience base was the poorest compared to the knowledge base and skill base of intensive and critical care nursing. The strongest factor explaining nurses' basic competence was their experience of autonomy in nursing care (F value 60.85, β 0.11, SE 0.01, and P ≤ 0.0001). Clinical competence was self-rated as good. Nurses gave their highest competence self-ratings for ICU patient care according to the principles of nursing care. The ICU nurses also self-rated their professional competence as good. Collaboration was self-rated as the best competence. In basic and continuing education and professional self-development discussions it is meaningful to consider and find solutions for how to improve nurses' experienced autonomy in nursing. PMID:26557676

  8. Basic Competence of Intensive Care Unit Nurses: Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Ritmala-Castrén, Marita; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Critical care patients benefit from the attention of nursing personnel with a high competence level. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate the self-assessed basic competence of intensive care unit nurses and related factors. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A basic competence scale (Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Competence Scale version 1, Likert scale 1-5, 1 = poor and 5 = excellent) was employed among Finnish intensive care unit nurses (n = 431). Intensive care unit nurses' self-assessed basic competence was good (mean 4.19, SD 0.40). The attitude and value base of basic competence was excellent whereas experience base was the poorest compared to the knowledge base and skill base of intensive and critical care nursing. The strongest factor explaining nurses' basic competence was their experience of autonomy in nursing care (F value 60.85, β 0.11, SE 0.01, and P ≤ 0.0001). Clinical competence was self-rated as good. Nurses gave their highest competence self-ratings for ICU patient care according to the principles of nursing care. The ICU nurses also self-rated their professional competence as good. Collaboration was self-rated as the best competence. In basic and continuing education and professional self-development discussions it is meaningful to consider and find solutions for how to improve nurses' experienced autonomy in nursing.

  9. Sexual behaviour of adolescents in Nigeria: cross sectional survey of secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slap, Gail B; Lot, Lucy; Huang, Bin; Daniyam, Comfort A; Zink, Therese M; Succop, Paul A

    2003-01-04

    To determine whether family structure (polygamous or monogamous) is associated with sexual activity among school students in Nigeria. Cross sectional school survey with a two stage, clustered sampling design. 4218 students aged 12-21 years attending 39 schools in Plateau state, Nigeria. Responses from 2705 students were included in the analysis. Report of ever having had sexual intercourse. Variables of interest included sexual history, age, sex, religion, family polygamy, educational level of parents, having a dead parent, and sense of connectedness to parents and school. Overall 909 students (34%) reported ever having had sexual intercourse, and 1119 (41%) reported a polygamous family structure. Sexual activity was more common among students from polygamous families (42% of students) than monogamous families (28%) (chi2=64.23; Pforced sex. Secondary school students in Nigeria from a polygamous family structure are more likely to have engaged in sexual activity than students from a monogamous family structure. This effect is partly explained by a higher likelihood of marriage during adolescence and forced sex. Students' sense of connectedness to their parents and school, regardless of family structure, decreases the likelihood of sexual activity, and fostering this sense may help reduce risky sexual behaviour among Nigerian youth.

  10. Attitudes of Mexican anesthesiologists to indicate preoperative fasting periods: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Mora, Juan; Moyao-García, Diana; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A

    2002-05-17

    BACKGROUND: In Mexico, guidelines for fasting periods, or any audits on this topic are unavailable, and therefore the attitudes of anesthesiologists for recommending preoperative fasting periods are unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional survey of anesthesiologists subscribed to the Annual Updated Course, organized by the Sociedad Mexicana de Anestesiologia in 2000. The response rate was 31.4%. RESULTS: Most respondents were general anesthesiologists, with 5 or more years experience in a clinical post, were working in both public and private hospitals, and were performing anesthetic procedures on both pediatric and adult patients and in both ambulatory and hospitalized patients. Approximately 23% of the respondents considered natural fruit juices to be clear liquids. For a pediatric patient ingesting breast milk 1 h before undergoing a surgical procedure, 45% thought that surgery should be delayed for 3h, followed by those delaying the surgical procedure for 6 to 8 h. Our results show that more than 50% of the anesthesiologists had better defined attitudes for fasting milk and clear liquids in patients of 6 month or under than for older children and adults. However, due to the poor definition or pre-operative fasting, using clear liquids, in all other patient groups, several patients are allowed to go without oral clear liquids administration for prolonged periods. CONCLUSION: Preoperative fasting periods recommended by Mexican anesthesiologists differ from international guidelines.

  11. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW) and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW) was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years). Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41) among participants who had ever tried smoking. Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  12. Job satisfaction and leaving intentions of midwives: analysis of a multinational cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosova, Darja; Gurkova, Elena; Palese, Alvisa; Godeas, Gloria; Ziakova, Katarina; Song, Mi Sook; Lee, Jongwon; Cordeiro, Raul; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Babiarczyk, Beata; Fras, Malgorzata; Nedvedova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between turnover intentions and job satisfaction among hospital midwives from seven countries and to determine how the related variables differ between countries. Studies investigating professional turnover and job satisfaction among midwives are limited in scope. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was used to investigate the intended turnover and job satisfaction relationship among 1190 hospital midwives in European and Asian countries. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included questions regarding the leaving intentions of midwives and the McCloskey/Mueller satisfaction scale. Midwives were least satisfied with their extrinsic rewards and professional opportunities and with the balance between family and work. Significant differences were found in all domains of job satisfaction according to midwives' intentions to leave their current workplace in hospital or profession of midwife, and to work abroad. There are some general satisfying and dissatisfying elements for the profession of midwife across different countries. The results highlight the importance of understanding midwives' leaving intentions and related factors across different countries. To prevent midwife turnover, health-care managers should gain greater insight into the early stage of midwives' turnover intention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cross-Sectional Survey on Newborn Screening in Wisconsin Amish and Mennonite Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieren, Shelby; Grow, Meghan; GoodSmith, Matthew; Spicer, Gretchen; Deline, James; Zhao, Qianqian; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harris, Anne Bradford; Rohan, Angela M; Seroogy, Christine M

    2016-04-01

    Old Order Amish and Mennonites, or Plain populations, are a growing minority in North America with unique health care delivery and access challenges coupled with higher frequencies of genetic disorders. The objective of this study was to determine newborn screening use and attitudes from western Wisconsin Plain communities. A cross-sectional survey, with an overall response rate of 25 %, provided data representing 2010 children. In households with children (n = 297), the rate of newborn screening was 74 % and all children were screened in 40 % of these households. Lack of access to testing was the most common reason for not screening all children and parental age was inversely associated with testing. The majority of respondents reported some or more knowledge of screening, viewed screening as important, and had access to screening in their communities. Households with children who had never received newborn screening (26 %) reported lower frequencies of favorable responses in all categories compared to households that had at least one child screened. The difference in access to newborn screening was less marked between the groups compared to differences on knowledge and consideration of its importance. Moreover, 55 % of households who had never screened any of their children reported being unlikely or unsure of screening any future children. A focus on improving access to newborn screening alongside establishing approaches to change parental perceptions on the importance of newborn screening is necessary for increasing newborn screening in these Plain communities.

  14. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Part 2. Research study on restraint of carbon dioxide generation by green chemistry; 1999 nendo green chemistry ni yoru CO{sub 2} hassei yokusei ni kakawaru chosa kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In connection with green chemistry, a concept of bringing paradigm shift to chemical technologies as something that makes reduction in environmental load compatible with economic activities; surveys were made this year on the developments of fine chemicals from renewable resources such as cellulose among the cases of developing chemical substances/products to be called 'green chemicals' reducing environmental load; developments of surfactants produced by certain microorganism, plastic additives with reduced pollutant loads, particularly fire retardants and environmentally benign reactant solvents; concept of green chemistry in the development of chlorofluorocarbon-alternatives; and up-to-date technological level concerning a design method of chemical materials and an estimation method for chemical safety using quantum chemistry calculation. In regard to the chemical materials and products intrinsically containing a certain level of risk, R and D should be reinforced and accelerated in the future on the alternative materials/products reducing their toxicity. In this case, along with the importance of discussing compatibility of technological possibility with economical adaptability, sociological study seems to be necessary in incorporating environmental load reduction into economic evaluation. (NEDO)

  15. Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data from current meter and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1993-01-26 to 1994-06-13 (NODC Accession 9500088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using current meter and other...

  16. The joint impact on being overweight of self reported behaviours of eating quickly and eating until full : cross sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; Sato, Shinichi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Maeda, Kenji; Kubota, Yoshimi; Nishimura, Setsuko; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo; IMANO, Hironori; Nakamura, Masakazu; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Kurokawa, Michinori; Sasaki, Satoshi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether eating until full or eating quickly or combinations of these eating behaviours are associated with being overweight. Design and participants: Cross sectional survey. Setting: Two communities in Japan. Participants: 3287 adults (1122 men, 2165 women) aged 30-69 who participated in surveys on cardiovascular risk from 2003 to 2006. Main outcome measures: Body mass index (overweight ≥25.0) and the dietary habits of eating until full (lifestyle questionnaire) and spee...

  17. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pyörälä Satu; Hautala Maria; Rantala Merja; Thomson Katariina; Kaartinen Liisa

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country...

  18. A drunk and disorderly country: a nationwide cross-sectional survey of alcohol use and misuse in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, D. G.; Dakkak, M; Gilmore, I T; Hawkey, C.J.; Rhodes, J M; Sheron, N

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To explore current alcohol drinking patterns, behaviours and attitudes in Great Britain. Design and setting Independent online cross-sectional survey. Patients and interventions Survey of 2221 individuals from a representative panel. Main outcome measures and results Excessive alcohol consumption is a widespread problem across Great Britain. Binge-drinking is common among 18?24 year olds, with 19% reporting drinking 10+ drinks on the same drinking day. ?Pre-loading? with alcohol at...

  19. Is tuberculosis health education reaching the public in China? A cross-sectional survey in Guizhou Province

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Li, Yang; Yang, Haiqin; Ehiri, John; Chen, Zaiping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Mei; Liu, Shili; Tang, He; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge about tuberculosis (TB) is important for TB control, and China's national TB control guidelines emphasise TB health promotion. A 2010 national TB epidemiology survey showed that the general public had limited knowledge and awareness of TB. Objective To assess the level of TB knowledge after 5?years of TB health promotion in Guizhou Province, one of the regions with the highest TB burden in China. Design and setting A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 10?237 resid...

  20. Public Land Survey System (PLSS) Quarter Section Polygons, California, 2015, Bureau of Land Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PLSSSecondDivision: This data set represents the GIS Version of the Public Land Survey System including both rectangular and non-rectangular surveys. The primary...

  1. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Daniels

    Full Text Available Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents.This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1 and 3 years after (Group 2 the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology.131 (80.9% of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8% residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3% indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2 and residents who were not (Group 1. The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed, practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed, and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed. More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04, whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02.The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several

  2. Military-related sexual assault in Canada: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Kimberley; Bennett, Rachel; Zamorski, Mark A; Richer, Isabelle

    2017-06-22

    Most research on military-related sexual assault is based on the United States military and has important limitations, such as low response rates. We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault, assess its relation to military service and identify the circumstances, correlates and associations with mental disorders of military-related sexual assault among Canadian military personnel. We used the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional representative survey of Canadian Regular Force personnel (n = 6696). The sample was weighted to be representative of the entire Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force population in 2012 (n = 67 776), as per Statistics Canada requirements. We assessed lifetime trauma exposure and past-year mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We defined lifetime military-related sexual assault as forced sexual activity or unwanted sexual touching that occurred on deployment or in another military workplace, or was perpetrated by Department of National Defence or Canadian Armed Forces personnel. We defined all other sexual assault as non-military-related sexual assault. Self-reported sexual assault was more prevalent among women (non-military-related sexual assault 24.2%, military-related sexual assault 15.5%) than men (5.9% and 0.8%, respectively). About a quarter of women with military-related sexual assault reported experiencing at least 1 event on deployment. After covariates were controlled for, military-related sexual assault was independently associated with any lifetime and any past-year mental disorder (adjusted odds ratio 2.9 and 3.0, respectively) and lifetime and past-year posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio 4.3 and 4.1, respectively). Canadian military women are at increased risk for sexual assault and military-related sexual assault relative to their male counterparts. Deployment may be a period of elevated risk for military-related sexual assault, and

  3. Postpartum nurses' perceptions of barriers to screening for intimate partner violence: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillery Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a human rights violation that is pervasive worldwide, and is particularly critical for women during the reproductive period. IPV includes physical, sexual and emotional abuse. Nurses on in-patient postpartum units are well-positioned to screen women for IPV, yet low screening rates suggest that barriers to screening exist. The purpose of this study was to (a identify the frequency of screening for IPV, (b the most important barriers to screening, (c the relationship between the barriers to screening and the frequency of screening for types of abuse, and (d to identify other factors that contribute to the frequency of screening for IPV. Methods In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 96 nurses from postpartum inpatient units in three Canadian urban hospitals. The survey included the Barriers to Abuse Assessment Tool (BAAT, adapted for postpartum nurses (PPN. Ordinary least squares (OLS regression models were used to predict barriers to screening for each type of IPV. Results The frequency of screening varied by the type of abuse with highest screening rates found for physical and emotional abuse. According to the BAAT-PPN, lack of knowledge was the most important barrier to screening. The BAAT-PPN total score was negatively correlated with screening for physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Using OLS regression models and after controlling for demographic characteristics, the BAAT-PPN explained 14%, 12%, and 11% of the variance in screening for physical, sexual and emotional abuse, respectively. Fluency in the language of the patient was negatively correlated with screening for each type of abuse. When added as Step 3 to OLS regression models, language fluency was associated with an additional decrease in the likelihood of screening for physical (beta coefficient = -.38, P P = .05, and emotional abuse (beta coefficient = -.48, P Conclusions Our findings support an inverse

  4. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look

  5. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. RESULTS: Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to

  6. Adherence to the oral contraceptive pill: a cross-sectional survey of modifiable behavioural determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molloy Gerard J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence to the oral contraceptive pill (OCP is reported as one of the main causes of unintended pregnancy in women that rely on this form of contraception. This study aims to estimate the associations between a range of well-established modifiable psychological factors and adherence to OCP. Method A cross-sectional survey of 130 female University students currently using OCP (Mean age: 20.46 SD: 3.01, range 17–36 was conducted. An OCP specific Medication Adherence Report Scale was used to assess non-adherence. Psychological predictor measures included necessity and concern beliefs about OCP, intentions, perceived behavioural control (pbc, anticipated regret and action and coping planning. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the data. Results Fifty-two per cent of participants reported missing their OCP once or more per month and 14% twice or more per month. In bivariate analysis intentions (r = −0.25, perceived behavioural control (r= −0.66, anticipated regret (r=0.20, concerns about OCP (r =0.31, and action (r= −0.25 and coping (r= −0.28 planning were all significantly associated with adherence to OCP in the predicted direction. In a multivariate model almost half (48% of the variation in OCP adherence could be explained. The strongest and only statistically significant predictors in this model were perceived behavioural control (β=−0.62, p Conclusion The present data point to a number of key modifiable psychological determinants of OCP use. Future work will establish whether changing these variables results in better adherence to the OCP.

  7. Attitudes towards mental illness in Malawi: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crabb Jim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness are strongly linked to suffering, disability and poverty. In order to protect the rights of those with mental disorders and to sensitively develop services, it is vital to gain a more accurate understanding of the frequency and nature of stigma against people with mental illness. Little research about this issue has been conducted in Sub- Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to describe levels of stigma in Malawi. Methods A cross-sectional survey of patients and carers attending mental health and non-mental health related clinics in a general hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were interviewed using an adapted version of the questionnaire developed for the “World Psychiatric Association Program to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia”. Results 210 participants participated in our study. Most attributed mental disorder to alcohol and illicit drug abuse (95.7%. This was closely followed by brain disease (92.8%, spirit possession (82.8% and psychological trauma (76.1%. There were some associations found between demographic variables and single question responses, however no consistent trends were observed in stigmatising beliefs. These results should be interpreted with caution and in the context of existing research. Contrary to the international literature, having direct personal experience of mental illness seemed to have no positive effect on stigmatising beliefs in our sample. Conclusions Our study contributes to an emerging picture that individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa most commonly attribute mental illness to alcohol/ illicit drug use and spirit possession. Our work adds weight to the argument that stigma towards mental illness is an important global health and human rights issue.

  8. Practice nurses' workload, career intentions and the impact of professional isolation: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watt Graham CM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practice nurses have a key role within UK general practice, especially since the 2004 GMS contract. This study aimed to describe that role, identify how professionally supported they felt and their career intentions. An additional aim was to explore whether they felt isolated and identify contributory factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey in one large urban Scottish Health Board, targeted all practice nurses (n = 329. Domains included demographics, workload, training and professional support. Following univariate descriptive statistics, associations between categorical variables were tested using the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend; associations between dichotomous variables were tested using Fisher's Exact test. Variables significantly associated with isolation were entered into a binary logistic regression model using backwards elimination. Results There were 200 responses (61.0% response rate. Most respondents were aged 40 or over and were practice nurses for a median of 10 years. Commonest clinical activities were coronary heart disease management, cervical cytology, diabetes and the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although most had a Personal Development Plan and a recent appraisal, 103 (52.3% felt isolated at least sometimes; 30 (15.5% intended leaving practice nursing within 5 years. Isolated nurses worked in practices with smaller list sizes (p = 0.024 and nursing teams (p = 0.003; were less likely to have someone they could discuss a clinical/professional (p = 0.002 or personal (p Conclusions A significant proportion of practice nurses reported feeling isolated, at least some of the time. They were more likely to be in small practices and more likely to be considering leaving practice nursing. Factors contributing to their isolation were generally located within the practice environment. Providing support to these nurses within their practice setting may help

  9. Transitoriness in cancer patients: a cross-sectional survey of lung and gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaha, Maya; Pandian, Vinciya; Choti, Michael A; Stotsky, Eden; Herman, Joseph M; Khan, Yasmin; Libonati, Carol; Pawlik, Timothy M; Schulick, Richard D; Belcher, Anne E

    2010-02-01

    Despite earlier diagnosis and advancements in treatment, cancer remains a leading cause of death in the world (13% of all deaths according to the World Health Organization) among men and women. Cancer accounts for approximately 20% of the deaths in the USA every year. Here, we report the findings from a cross-sectional survey of psychosocial factors in lung and gastrointestinal cancer patients. The aim of the study was to explore the associations among transitoriness, uncertainty, and locus of control (LOC) with quality of life. Transitoriness is defined as a person's confrontation with life's finitude due to a cancer diagnosis. A total of 126 patients with lung or gastrointestinal cancer completed eight self-reporting questionnaires addressing demographics, spiritual perspective, symptom burden, transitoriness, uncertainty, LOC, and quality of life. Transitoriness, uncertainty, and LOC were significantly associated with one another (r = 0.3267, p = 0.0002/r = 0.1994, p = 0.0252, respectively). LOC/belief in chance has a significant inverse relationship with patients' quality of life (r = -0.2505, p = 0.0047). Transitoriness, uncertainty, and LOC were found to have a significant inverse relationship with patients' quality of life (transitoriness state: r = -0.5363, p = 0.0000/trait: r = -0.4629, p = 0.0000/uncertainty: r = -0.4929, p = 0.0000/internal LOC: r = 0.1759, p = 0.0489/chance LOC: r = -0.2505, p = 0.0047). Transitoriness, uncertainty, and LOC are important concepts as they adversely influence patients' quality of life. Incorporating this finding into the care of cancer patients may provide them with the support they need to cope with treatment and maintenance of a positive quality of life.

  10. The use of adherence aids by adults with diabetes: A cross-sectional survey

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    MacLean Charles D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence with medication taking is a major barrier to physiologic control in diabetes and many strategies for improving adherence are in use. We sought to describe the use of mnemonic devices and other adherence aids by adults with diabetes and to investigate their association with control of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Methods Cross sectional survey of diabetic adults randomly selected from Primary Care practices in the Vermont Diabetes Information System. We used linear regression to examine the associations between the use of various aids and physiologic control among subjects who used oral agents for hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Results 289 subjects (mean age 65.4 years; 51% female used medications for all three conditions. Adherence aids were reported by 80%. The most popular were day-of-the-week pill boxes (50%, putting the pills in a special place (41%, and associating pill taking with a daily event such as a meal, TV show, or bedtime (11%. After adjusting for age, sex, marital status, income, and education, those who used a special place had better glycemic control (A1C -0.36%; P = .04 and systolic blood pressure (-5.9 mm Hg; P = .05 than those who used no aids. Those who used a daily event had better A1C (-0.56%; P = .01 than patients who used no aids. Conclusion Although adherence aids are in common use among adults with diabetes, there is little evidence that they are efficacious. In this study, we found a few statistically significant associations with adherence aids and better diabetes control. However, these findings could be attributed to multiple comparisons or unmeasured confounders. Until more rigorous evaluations are available, it seems reasonable to recommend keeping medicines in a special place for diabetic adults prescribed multiple medications.

  11. A cross-sectional survey to investigate community understanding of medical research ethics committees.

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    Fritschi, Lin; Kelsall, Helen L; Loff, Bebe; Slegers, Claudia; Zion, Deborah; Glass, Deborah C

    2015-07-01

    Study explanatory forms often state that an ethics committee has approved a research project. To determine whether the lay community understand the roles of ethics committees in research, we took a cross-sectional national sample from three sampling frames: the general population (n=1532); cohort study participants (n=397); and case-control study participants (n=151). About half (51.3%) of the participants had heard of ethics committees. Those who had were more likely to be those who had participated in previous surveys, older participants, those born in Australia and those with higher education. Almost all participants agreed that the roles of an ethics committee were to protect participants' privacy and ensure no harm came to study participants and most agreed that the committee's role was to ensure that the research was capable of providing answers. Case-control and cohort participants were more likely than the general population to consider that the role of an ethics committee was to design the research and obtain research funding. Overall, we found that about half of the population are aware of ethics committees and that most could correctly identify that ethics committees are there to protect the welfare and rights of research participants, although a substantial minority had some incorrect beliefs about the committees' roles. Increased education, particularly for migrants and older people, might improve understanding of the role of ethics committees in research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Self-management skills in adolescents with chronic rheumatic disease: A cross-sectional survey

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    Lawson Erica F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adolescents with a diagnosis of lifelong chronic illness, mastery of self-management skills is a critical component of the transition to adult care. This study aims to examine self-reported medication adherence and self-care skills among adolescents with chronic rheumatic disease. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 52 adolescent patients in the Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic at UCSF. Outcome measures were self-reported medication adherence, medication regimen knowledge and independence in health care tasks. Predictors of self-management included age, disease perception, self-care agency, demographics and self-reported health status. Bivariate associations were assessed using the Student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Fisher exact test as appropriate. Independence in self-management tasks were compared between subjects age 13-16 and 17-20 using the chi-squared test. Results Subjects were age 13-20 years (mean 15.9; 79% were female. Diagnoses included juvenile idiopathic arthritis (44%, lupus (35%, and other rheumatic conditions (21%. Mean disease duration was 5.3 years (SD 4.0. Fifty four percent reported perfect adherence to medications, 40% reported 1-2 missed doses per week, and 6% reported missing 3 or more doses. The most common reason for missing medications was forgetfulness. Among health care tasks, there was an age-related increase in ability to fill prescriptions, schedule appointments, arrange transportation, ask questions of doctors, manage insurance, and recognize symptoms of illness. Ability to take medications as directed, keep a calendar of appointments, and maintain a personal medical file did not improve with age. Conclusions This study suggests that adolescents with chronic rheumatic disease may need additional support to achieve independence in self-management.

  13. Social support contributes to resilience among physiotherapy students: a cross sectional survey and focus group study.

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    Bíró, Éva; Veres-Balajti, Ilona; Kósa, Karolina

    2016-06-01

    The present study, taking a resource-oriented approach to mental health, aimed at investigating mental resilience and its determinants among undergraduate physiotherapy students using quantitative and qualitative tools. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey supplemented by 2 focus groups. One university in Hungary. 130 physiotherapy students at years 1, 2, and 3. Sense of coherence, a measure of dynamic self-esteem, as well as social support from family and peers were used to assess mental well-being. A screening instrument for psychological morbidity and perceived stress were used as deficiency-oriented approaches. Student opinions were gathered on positive and negative determinants of mental health. Resilience was lower [mean difference 4.8 (95% CI -3.4; 13.1)], and the occurrence of psychological morbidity (32.5% vs. 0%) was higher among female compared to male students. However, the proportion of students fully supported by their peers was higher among females (63% vs. 37.5%). Female students, unlike their male counterparts, experienced higher stress compared to their peers in the general population. Social support declined as students progressed in their studies though this proved to be the most important protective factor for their mental well-being. Results were fed back to the course organizers recommending the implementation of an evidence-based method to improve social support as delineated by the Guide to Community Preventive Services of the US the outcomes of which are to be seen in the future. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Menstrual Disorders from Puberty to Early Adult Age: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Krupa Hitesh Shah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A female encounters various menstrual disorders from puberty to menopause. We evaluated menstrual disturbances in post-menarche age and young adult age. Aim: To know the prevalence and impact of menstrual abnormalities at early adolescent and young adult age and to evaluate course of disorders identified at early adolescent age. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out through self-administered questionnaire on 367 consented students at Melaka Manipal Medical College at Manipal, during December 2015- April 2016. Data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Prevalence and pattern of menstrual disorders at early adolescent and at young adult age were noted. The mean age of menarche was 12.1 ±1.1 years. Menorrhagia was the most frequent (14.7% and 11.7% and polymenorrhea (7.6 % and 6% was least frequent menstrual disorder at adolescent age and young adult age respectively. Resolution of pubertal menstrual disorders was observed in all disorders, but noticed highest in oligomenorrhea (91%, (p-value <0.05. Prevalence of menstrual related disorder like dysmenorrhea was 88.7% at adolescent age and 67.6% at the young adult age. It was statistically significant reduction. Hindrance in academic performance and social behavior was noted more at young adult age, which was in 23.9% and 46.7% respectively (p-value <0.05. Conclusion: The most prevalent menstrual abnormality was menorrhagia at the early adolescent and the young adult age. Associated the most prevalent menstrual related symptoms were dysmenorrhea at early adolescent age, and premenstrual symptom at the young adult age. The study demonstrates the natural course (decreasing prevalence of all menstrual disorders from early adolescent to young adult age.

  15. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy among Chinese mothers: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

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    Zhu, Jiemin; Chan, Wai Chi Sally; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Ye, Benlan; He, Hong-Gu

    2014-06-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among expectant Chinese mothers in the antenatal period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in the antenatal clinics of three university hospitals in China between September and December 2011. expectant mothers planning to breast feed, and who were at least 18 years of age, expecting a single, healthy, full-term baby, and competent in Mandarin (n=201). a socio-demographic data sheet, the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. the expectant Chinese mothers reported moderate levels of breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers who had had previous experience in breast feeding, who had watched other mothers breast feed their infants, or who had made the decision to breast feed earlier reported higher breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers' perceived social support, perceived attitude of significant others, including husband, mothers, and friends, towards breast feeding are correlated with breast feeding self-efficacy. The best-fit regression analysis revealed five variables that explained 34% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the antenatal period: perceived social support, previous experience of breast feeding, previous experience of watching others breast feed, timing of maternal decision to breast feed, and perceived husband's attitude towards breast feeding. this study highlighted the importance of improving Chinese mothers' breast feeding self-efficacy by considering the main predictors found in this study. health care professionals could develop strategies to promote breast feeding self-efficacy, such as providing opportunities for expectant mothers to learn from others' successful experience, adopt a family-centred approach in the provision of breast feeding education, provide breast feeding education at the beginning of pregnancy or even earlier, and rally comprehensive social

  16. Critical care resources in the Solomon Islands: a cross-sectional survey

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    Westcott Mia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are minimal data available on critical care case-mix, care processes and outcomes in lower and middle income countries (LMICs. The objectives of this paper were to gather data in the Solomon Islands in order to gain a better understanding of common presentations of critical illness, available hospital resources, and what resources would be helpful in improving the care of these patients in the future. Methods This study used a mixed methods approach, including a cross sectional survey of respondents' opinions regarding critical care needs, ethnographic information and qualitative data. Results The four most common conditions leading to critical illness in the Solomon Islands are malaria, diseases of the respiratory system including pneumonia and influenza, diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis. Complications of surgery and trauma less frequently result in critical illness. Respondents emphasised the need for basic critical care resources in LMICs, including equipment such as oximeters and oxygen concentrators; greater access to medications and blood products; laboratory services; staff education; and the need for at least one national critical care facility. Conclusions A large degree of critical illness in LMICs is likely due to inadequate resources for primary prevention and healthcare; however, for patients who fall through the net of prevention, there may be simple therapies and context-appropriate resources to mitigate the high burden of morbidity and mortality. Emphasis should be on the development and acquisition of simple and inexpensive tools rather than complicated equipment, to prevent critical care from unduly diverting resources away from other important parts of the health system.

  17. Limited knowledge of chronic kidney disease among primary care patients – a cross-sectional survey

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    Chow Wai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is the 9th leading cause of death in Singapore. While preventive effects have focused on early detection and education, little is known about the knowledge level of chronic kidney disease (CKD locally. We seek to evaluate the knowledge of CKD among primary care patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1520 patients from 3 primary care centers. Those with existing CKD or on dialysis were excluded. Knowledge was assessed based on 7 questions on CKD in the self-administered questionnaire. One point was given for each correct answer with a maximum of 7 points. Results 1435 completed all 7 questions on CKD. Mean age was 48.9 ±15.0 (SD years. 50.9% were male. 62.3% had a secondary and below education and 52.4% had a monthly household income of ≤ $2000. 43.7% had chronic diseases. Mean score was 3.44 ± 1.53 (out of a maximum of 7. Median score was 4. In multivariate logistic regression, being older {>60 years [Odds Ratio (OR 0.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.32-0.79]; 40–60 years (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43,0.89}, less educated [up to primary education (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.49], having a lower monthly household income [ Conclusion This suggests that CKD education should be targeted at older patients with lower education and lower socioeconomic status.

  18. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

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    Ross JS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Joseph S Ross, Katrina L Blount, Jessica D Ritchie, Beth Hodshon, Harlan M Krumholz Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA Background: In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA pathway. Methods and results: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%, nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Conclusion: Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives. Keywords: FDA, PMA pathway, post-market surveillance

  19. Palliative care consultations in primary care: a cross-sectional survey among Dutch general practitioners.

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    Hoek, Patrick D; Schers, Henk J; Hendriks, Jan C M; Vissers, Kris C P; Hasselaar, Jeroen G J

    2016-06-17

    Expert consultation supports general practitioners (GPs) in delivering adequate palliative homecare. Insight into consultation practices from a GP's perspective is needed in order to shape consultation services to their wishes and needs. To explore palliative care consultation practices from a GP's perspective. Cross-sectional web-based survey among all GPs (n=235) in the region of Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Our questionnaire contained questions about the delivery of palliative care by GPs, their consultation practices and satisfaction with current services. Questions consisted mainly of 5-point Likert scales. We transformed these scales into numerical values to calculate mean scores. Linear mixed models for repeated measurements were used to study differences in scores. GPs most often consulted informal caregivers (mean score 3.6) or fellow GPs (mean score 3.3). Physical problems were discussed the most (mean score 3.5), while social and existential issues were discussed least (mean score 1.9 for both). In their choice of a particular consultation service, GPs considered the quality of the provided advice to be the most important factor. GPs were satisfied with current consultation services, with fellow GPs receiving the highest satisfaction scores (mean score 4.6). Finally, when recalling their last palliative patient, most GPs started requesting consultation during this patient's last month of life. Next to informal caregivers, GPs preferably seek advice from fellow GPs. Physical issues receive much attention during consultations; however, other vital aspects of palliative care seem to remain relatively neglected, such as social and existential issues and a proactive care approach. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey.

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    Berens, Eva-Maria; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Schaeffer, Doris

    2016-11-09

    Health literacy is of increasing importance in public health research. It is a necessary pre-condition for the involvement in decisions about health and health care and related to health outcomes. Knowledge about limited health literacy in different age groups is crucial to better target public health interventions for subgroups of the population. However, little is known about health literacy in Germany. The study therefore assesses the prevalence of limited health literacy and associated factors among different age groups. The Health Literacy Survey Germany is a cross-sectional study with 2,000 participants aged 15 years or older in private households. Perceived health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using the HLS-EU-Q-47 questionnaire. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests and odds ratios were performed stratified for different age groups. The population affected by limited perceived health literacy increases by age. Of the respondents aged 15-29 years, 47.3 % had limited perceived health literacy and 47.2 % of those aged 30-45 years, whereas 55.2 % of the respondents aged 46-64 years and 66.4 % aged 65 years and older showed limited perceived health literacy. In all age groups, limited perceived health literacy was associated with limited functional health literacy, low social status, and a high frequency of doctor visits. The results suggest a need to further investigate perceived health literacy in all phases of the life-course. Particular attention should be devoted to persons with lower social status, limited functional health literacy and/or a high number of doctor visits in all age groups.

  1. Clinical preventive services in Guatemala: a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine physicians.

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    Juan E Corral

    Full Text Available Guatemala is currently undergoing an epidemiologic transition. Preventive services are key to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases, and smoking counseling and cessation are among the most cost-effective and wide-reaching strategies. Internal medicine physicians are fundamental to providing such services, and their knowledge is a cornerstone of non-communicable disease control.A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 to evaluate knowledge of clinical preventive services for non-communicable diseases. Interns, residents, and attending physicians of the internal medicine departments of all teaching hospitals in Guatemala completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants' responses were contrasted with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MoH prevention guidelines and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommendations. Analysis compared knowledge of recommendations within and between hospitals.In response to simulated patient scenarios, all services were recommended by more than half of physicians regardless of MoH or USPSTF recommendations. Prioritization was adequate according to the MoH guidelines but not including other potentially effective services (e.g. colorectal cancer and lipid disorder screenings. With the exception of colorectal and prostate cancer screening, less frequently recommended by interns, there was no difference in recommendation rates by level.Guatemalan internal medicine physicians' knowledge on preventive services recommendations for non-communicable diseases is limited, and prioritization did not reflect cost-effectiveness. Based on these data we recommend that preventive medicine training be strengthened and development of evidence-based guidelines for low-middle income countries be a priority.

  2. Health provider experiences with galactagogues to support breastfeeding: a cross-sectional survey

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    Bazzano AN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra N Bazzano,1 Lisa Littrell,1 Amelia Brandt,1 Shelley Thibeau,2 Kamala Thriemer,3 Katherine P Theall1 1Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 2Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, LA, USA; 3MLT EpiConsult, Jingili, NT, Australia Background: Exclusive breastfeeding for infants up to 6 months is widely recommended, yet breastfeeding rates are relatively low in the US. The most common reason women stop breastfeeding early is a perceived insufficiency of milk. Galactagogues are herbal and pharmaceutical products that can help increase milk supply; however, data on their efficacy and safety is limited. Lactation consultants, obstetricians, and other health providers are an important point of contact for breastfeeding women experiencing challenges with lactation. This study explored providers’ perceptions, experiences, and practices in relation to galactagogue recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a convenience sample of English-speaking health providers in the US who counsel breastfeeding women and their infants. Results: More than 70% of respondents reported to recommend galactagogues. The most frequently recommended galactagogue was fenugreek with respondents indicating that they recommend it either ‘always’ (8.5% or ‘most of the time’ (14.9% and ‘sometimes’ (46.8%. More than 80% of the respondents indicated that galactagogues were useful for their clients and only one-third reported side effects. Reasons for refraining from recommending galactagogues were insufficient evidence of its efficacy and safety. Respondents reported a wide variety of sources of information used for their own education about galactagogues. Discussion: Despite little evidence regarding safety and efficacy, some galactagogues are widely recommended and often perceived to be useful. However, concerns about their efficacy and safety

  3. Relationship between commuting and health outcomes in a cross-sectional population survey in southern Sweden

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    Hansson Erik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for a mobile workforce inevitably means that the length of the total work day (working and traveling time will increase, but the health effects of commuting have been surprisingly little studied apart from perceived stress and the benefits of physically active commuting. Methods We used data from two cross-sectional population-based public health surveys performed in 2004 and 2008 in Scania, Sweden (56% response rate. The final study population was 21, 088 persons aged 18-65, working > 30 h/week. Duration (one-way and mode of commuting were reported. The outcomes studied were perceived poor sleep quality, everyday stress, low vitality, mental health, self-reported health, and absence from work due to sickness during the past 12 months. Covariates indicating socioeconomic status and family situation, overtime, job strain and urban/rural residency were included in multivariate analyses. Subjects walking or cycling to work Results Monotonous relations were found between duration of public transport commuting and the health outcomes. For the category commuting > 60 min odds ratios (ORs ranged from 1.2 - 1.6 for the different outcomes. For car commuting, the relationships were concave downward or flat, with increasing subjective health complaints up to 30-60 min (ORs ranging from 1.2 - 1.4, and lower ORs in the > 60 min category. A similar concave downward relationship was observed for sickness absence, regardless of mode of transport. Conclusions The results of this study are concordant with the few earlier studies in the field, in that associations were found between commutation and negative health outcomes. This further demonstrates the need to consider the negative side-effects of commuting when discussing policies aimed at increasing the mobility of the workforce. Studies identifying population groups with increased susceptibility are warranted.

  4. Relationship between commuting and health outcomes in a cross-sectional population survey in southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Erik; Mattisson, Kristoffer; Björk, Jonas; Östergren, Per-Olof; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2011-10-31

    The need for a mobile workforce inevitably means that the length of the total work day (working and traveling time) will increase, but the health effects of commuting have been surprisingly little studied apart from perceived stress and the benefits of physically active commuting. We used data from two cross-sectional population-based public health surveys performed in 2004 and 2008 in Scania, Sweden (56% response rate). The final study population was 21, 088 persons aged 18-65, working > 30 h/week. Duration (one-way) and mode of commuting were reported. The outcomes studied were perceived poor sleep quality, everyday stress, low vitality, mental health, self-reported health, and absence from work due to sickness during the past 12 months. Covariates indicating socioeconomic status and family situation, overtime, job strain and urban/rural residency were included in multivariate analyses. Subjects walking or cycling to work 60 min odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.2 - 1.6 for the different outcomes. For car commuting, the relationships were concave downward or flat, with increasing subjective health complaints up to 30-60 min (ORs ranging from 1.2 - 1.4), and lower ORs in the > 60 min category. A similar concave downward relationship was observed for sickness absence, regardless of mode of transport. The results of this study are concordant with the few earlier studies in the field, in that associations were found between commutation and negative health outcomes. This further demonstrates the need to consider the negative side-effects of commuting when discussing policies aimed at increasing the mobility of the workforce. Studies identifying population groups with increased susceptibility are warranted.

  5. Attitudes towards mental illness in Malawi: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Crabb, Jim; Stewart, Robert C; Kokota, Demoubly; Masson, Neil; Chabunya, Sylvester; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2012-07-23

    Stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness are strongly linked to suffering, disability and poverty. In order to protect the rights of those with mental disorders and to sensitively develop services, it is vital to gain a more accurate understanding of the frequency and nature of stigma against people with mental illness. Little research about this issue has been conducted in Sub- Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to describe levels of stigma in Malawi. A cross-sectional survey of patients and carers attending mental health and non-mental health related clinics in a general hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were interviewed using an adapted version of the questionnaire developed for the "World Psychiatric Association Program to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia". 210 participants participated in our study. Most attributed mental disorder to alcohol and illicit drug abuse (95.7%). This was closely followed by brain disease (92.8%), spirit possession (82.8%) and psychological trauma (76.1%). There were some associations found between demographic variables and single question responses, however no consistent trends were observed in stigmatising beliefs. These results should be interpreted with caution and in the context of existing research. Contrary to the international literature, having direct personal experience of mental illness seemed to have no positive effect on stigmatising beliefs in our sample. Our study contributes to an emerging picture that individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa most commonly attribute mental illness to alcohol/ illicit drug use and spirit possession. Our work adds weight to the argument that stigma towards mental illness is an important global health and human rights issue.

  6. Melanoma awareness and prevalence of dermoscopic examination among internet users: a cross-sectional survey

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    Grazyna Kaminska-Winciorek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Melanoma presents the greater threat to health the later the disease is detected and treated, although treatment results can be improved by the widespread use of dermoscopy. However, scarce data are available concerning the awareness of dermoscopy and the frequency of its performance in the non-patient population. Aim: To assess the awareness of melanoma detection by dermoscopic examination among the audience of a scientific website. Material and methods : Respondents were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey. They were asked to complete an online questionnaire designed by the authors. The preliminary analysis of 5,154 collected forms and the exclusion of incomplete forms yielded 4,919 fully completed questionnaires; the resulting database was analyzed statistically using logistic regression with the R software program (95% CI. Results: Less than two-fifths (39.2% of respondents reported ever having sought the advice of a medical professional (dermatologist or other specialist, and 25.4% of the respondents had undergone dermoscopy at least once in their life. Furthermore, approximately one-tenth of respondents (10.7% were not aware of this detection tool. The study respondents gained knowledge about dermoscopic examination from television and magazines. The performance of dermoscopy was more increasingly associated with inhabitants of larger locales, the use of higher-SPF sunscreens, and greater awareness of the relationship between the risk of melanoma and sunburn. Conclusions : Awareness of melanoma and sun care varied within the analyzed population. A subset of individuals at high risk of melanoma was identified. This group included those who engaged in risky sun exposure behaviors and who had never been examined by dermoscopy.

  7. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Xing, Kai; Jiao, Mingli; Ma, Hongkun; Qiao, Hong; Hao, Yanhua; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Sun, Hong; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Wu, Qunhong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%). A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%), followed by the patient (22.6%); 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60) resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%). Most respondents (62.8%) did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting) with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats) was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc.). Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  8. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  9. Bullying of medical students in Pakistan: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

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    Syed Ahmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies from other countries have shown that bullying, harassment, abuse or belittlement are a regular phenomenon faced not only by medical students, but also junior doctors, doctors undertaking research and other healthcare professionals. While research has been carried out on bullying experienced by psychiatrists and psychiatry trainees in Pakistan no such research has been conducted on medical students in this country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey on final year medical students in six medical colleges of Pakistan. The response rate was 63%. Fifty-two percent of respondents reported that they had faced bullying or harassment during their medical education, about 28% of them experiencing it once a month or even more frequently. The overwhelming form of bullying had been verbal abuse (57%, while consultants were the most frequent (46% perpetrators. Students who were slightly older, males, those who reported that their medical college did not have a policy on bullying or harassment, and those who felt that adequate support was not in place at their medical college for bullied individuals, were significantly more likely to have experienced bullying. CONCLUSION: Bullying or harassment is faced by quite a large proportion of medical students in Pakistan. The most frequent perpetrators of this bullying are consultants. Adoption of a policy against bullying and harassment by medical colleges, and providing avenues of support for students who have been bullied may help reduce this phenomenon, as the presence of these two was associated with decreased likelihood of students reporting having being bullied.

  10. Administration options for pegfilgrastim prophylaxis: patient and physician preferences from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Hauber, A; Mange, Brennan; Price, Mark A; Wolin, Daniel; Bensink, Mark; Kaye, James A; Chandler, David

    2018-01-01

    Although clinical guidelines recommend administration of pegfilgrastim 1-4 days after a myelosuppressive chemotherapy cycle to decrease the incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN), some physicians administer pegfilgrastim on the same day as chemotherapy administration. A novel on-body injector (OBI) that automatically delivers pegfilgrastim the day after chemotherapy is also available. Our objective was to estimate patient and physician preferences among the pegfilgrastim administration options. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of patients receiving pegfilgrastim and physicians prescribing pegfilgrastim. Respondents' preferences for pegfilgrastim administration options were elicited using direct elicitation; the relative importance of features associated with the options was estimated in a point-allocation exercise. Physicians considered two hypothetical patient profiles when completing the exercises. The samples included 200 patients and 200 physicians. Patients generally preferred the administration option with which they had experience. Among patients, 48.5% with previous in-clinic injections 24 hours after chemotherapy preferred this option; 56.8% with previous OBI administration preferred this option. For a clinically compromised patient, 37.5% of physicians preferred an in-clinic injection option; 49.5% preferred the OBI. For a less compromised patient, 55.5% preferred an in-clinic injection option; 28.0% preferred the OBI. Avoiding the need to return to the clinic was chosen most often as the most important treatment feature for patients and physicians. Patients and physicians identified that returning clinic visits for pegfilgrastim administration may be burdensome. A potential solution to mitigate this burden is the OBI, which allows adherence to the labeled use of pegfilgrastim without return visits to the clinic.

  11. Internists' career choice towards primary care: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Scherz, Nathalie; Markun, Stefan; Aemissegger, Vera; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan

    2017-04-05

    Swiss primary care (PC) is facing workforce shortage. Up to 2011 this workforce was supplied by two board certifications: general medicine and internal medicine. To strengthen them against subspecialties, they were unified into one: general internal medicine. However, since unification general practitioners' career options are no longer restrained by early commitment to PC. This may lead to a decrease of future primary care physicians (PCPs). To gain insights in timing and factors influencing career choice of internists, we addressed a cross sectional survey to all board certified internists in the years 2000-2010 (n = 1462). Main measures were: final career choice (PCPs, hospital internists or subspecialists), timing and factors influencing career choice, and attractiveness of PCP career during medical school and residency. Response rate was 53.2%, 44.8% were female and median age was 45 years old. Final career choice was PCP for 39.1% of participants, 15.0% chose to become hospital internists, 41.8% became subspecialists and 4.0% other. Timing of career choice significantly differed between groups. Most of the subspecialists have chosen their career during residency (65.3%), while only 21.9% of the PCPs chose during residency. Work experience in an academic hospital was negatively associated with becoming PCP (P career choice was more frequently reported among PCPs and chiefs' influence more reported among non-PCPs (P career as PCP to be attractive during medical school, this proportion decreased over time. Timing of career choice of PCPs and subspecialists strongly differed. PCPs opted late for their career and potentially modifiable external factors seem to contribute to their decision. This stresses the importance of fostering attractiveness of PC during medical school as well as during and after residency and of tailored residency positions for future PCPs in the hospital-dominated new general internal medicine training.

  12. Employers' and employees' views on responsibilities for career management in nursing: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Philippou, Julia

    2015-01-01

    To examine nurse employees' and employers' views about responsibilities for managing nurses' careers. Career management policies are associated with cost savings, in terms of workforce recruitment and retention and an increase in job and career satisfaction. In nursing, responsibility for career management remains relatively unexplored. A multicenter, cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Data were collected from 871 nurse employees and employers in the British National Health Service. The study was conducted in 2008, a period when policy reforms aimed at modernizing the healthcare workforce in England. In the current discussions in Europe and the USA about the future of nursing, these data reveal insights not previously reported. Exploratory analyses were undertaken using descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis indicated a temporal dimension to career management responsibilities. Short-term responsibilities for securing funding and time for development lay more with employers. Medium-term responsibilities for assessing nurses' strengths and weakness, determining job-related knowledge and skills and identifying education and training needs appeared to be shared. Long-term responsibilities for developing individual careers and future development plans lay primarily with employees. New ways of managing nurses' career development that lead to greater independence for employees and greater flexibility for employers, while retaining a high-calibre and competent workforce, are needed. Ultimately, career management responsibilities should not tilt to either side but rather be shared to benefit both parties. Clarifying employers' and employees' responsibilities for career management may help both parties to develop a common understanding of each other's role and to meet their obligations in a constructive dialogue. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Road traffic injuries to children during the school commute in Hyderabad, India: cross-sectional survey.

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    Tetali, Shailaja; Edwards, P; Murthy, G V S; Roberts, I

    2016-06-01

    India is motorising rapidly. With increasing motorisation, road traffic injuries are predicted to increase. A third of a billion children travel to school every day in India, but little is known about children's safety during the school commute. We investigated road traffic injury to children during school journeys. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Hyderabad using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling design. We used school travel questionnaires to record any road injury in the past 12 months that resulted in at least 1 day of school missed or required treatment by a doctor or nurse. We estimated the prevalence of road injury by usual mode of travel and distance to school. The total sample was 5842 children, of whom 5789 (99.1%) children answered the question on road injury. The overall prevalence of self-reported road injury in the last 12 months during school journeys was 17% (95% CI 12.9% to 21.7%). A higher proportion of boys (25%) reported a road injury than girls (11%). There was a strong association between road injury, travel mode and distance to school. Children who cycled to school were more likely to be injured compared with children who walked (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). Travel by school bus was safer than walking (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9). A sixth of the children reported a road traffic injury in the past 12 months during school journeys in Hyderabad. Injury prevention interventions should focus on making walking and cycling safer for children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Attitudes and beliefs about chronic pain among nurses- biomedical or behavioral? A cross-sectional survey

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    Venkatesan Prem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in chronic pain. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and attitudes and beliefs related to chronic pain. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the chronic pain-related attitudes and beliefs among nursing professionals in order to evaluate the biomedical and behavioral dimensions of their perceptions on pain. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire - pain attitudes and beliefs scale (PABS - which had 31 items (statements about pain for each of which the person had to indicate the level at which he or she agreed or disagreed with each statement. Factor 1 score indicated a biomedical dimension while factor 2 score indicated a behavioral dimension to pain. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparisons across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA and correlations were done using the Karl-Pearson co-efficient using SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. Results: The overall factor 1 score was 52.95 ± 10.23 and factor 2 score was 20.93 ± 4.72 (P = 0.00. The female nurses had a higher behavioral dimension score (21.1 ± 4.81 than their male counterparts (19.55 ± 3.67 which was significant at P< 0.05 level. Conclusions: Nurses had a greater orientation toward the biomedical dimension of chronic pain than the behavioral dimension. This difference was more pronounced in female nurses and those nurses who reported "very good" general health had higher behavioral dimension scores than those who had "good" general health. The study findings have important curricular implications for nurses and practical implications in palliative care.

  15. Study of nurses′ knowledge about palliative care: A quantitative cross-sectional survey

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    Venkatesan Prem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in palliative care. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and knowledge related to pain and palliative care. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the knowledge about palliative care amongst nursing professionals using the palliative care knowledge test (PCKT. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire- PCKT developed by Nakazawa et al., which had 20 items (statements about palliative care for each of which the person had to indicate ′correct′, ′incorrect′, or ′unsure.′ The PCKT had 5 subscales (philosophy- 2 items, pain- 6 items, dyspnea- 4 items, psychiatric problems- 4 items, and gastro-intestinal problems- 4 items. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA, and correlations were done using Karl-Pearson′s co-efficient using SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. Results: The overall total score of PCKT was 7.16 ± 2.69 (35.8%. The philosophy score was 73 ± .65 (36.5%, pain score was 2.09 ± 1.19 (34.83%, dyspnea score was 1.13 ± .95 (28.25%, psychiatric problems score was 1.83 ± 1.02 (45.75%, and gastro-intestinal problems score was 1.36 ± .97 (34%. (P = .00. The female nurses scored higher than their male counterparts, but the difference was not significant (P > .05. Conclusions: Overall level of knowledge about palliative care was poor, and nurses had a greater knowledge about psychiatric problems and philosophy than the other aspects indicated in PCKT.

  16. Pregnant women's awareness, knowledge and beliefs about pelvic floor muscles: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Hill, Anne-Marie; McPhail, Steven M; Wilson, Judith M; Berlach, Richard G

    2017-10-01

    Pregnant women benefit from completing pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFMEs). The aims of the study were to evaluate pregnant women's levels of awareness, knowledge, and beliefs about the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) and PFMEs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Respondents were pregnant women over the age of 18 years who attended antenatal clinics in Western Australia (WA). Questionnaire items measured awareness and knowledge about PFMs, confidence and beliefs about engaging in PFMEs, and attendance at antenatal education (ANE) classes. Chi-squared tests examined potential associations between questionnaire items and respondent characteristics. Mean gestation of respondents (n = 633 out of 850; 74% response rate) was 28.7 (+7.8) weeks and 50% were giving birth for the first time. Although 76% of respondents knew that PFMs can prevent urinary incontinence, only 27% knew that they prevented faecal incontinence and 41% thought it was normal to leak urine when pregnant. Only n = 72 (11%) were practicing PFMEs. Respondents who had attended ANE (28%) were significantly more knowledgeable about pelvic floor function (p pregnancy was normal (p = 0.02), compared with those who had not attended ANE. Respondents who did not speak English at home (18%) were significantly less knowledgeable about PFMs and PFMEs, and significantly less likely to have attended, or planned to attend, ANE classes. Pregnant women require more health education regarding PFMs. Education should be provided using diverse modes, especially for women from migrant backgrounds and women who do not plan to attend formal ANE classes.

  17. Workplace violence against nurses in Chinese hospitals: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Jiao, Mingli; Ning, Ning; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Cui, Yu; Sun, Hong; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua

    2015-03-26

    To determine the prevalence of workplace violence that Chinese nurses have encountered, identify risk factors and provide a basis for future targeted interventions. Heilongjiang, a province in northeast China. A cross-sectional survey. A total of 588 nurses provided data. There were also in-depth interviews with 12 nurses, 7 hospital administrators and 6 health officials. A total of 7.8% of the nurses reported physically violent experiences and 71.9% reported non-physically violent experiences in the preceding year. Perpetrators were patients or their relatives (93.5% and 82%, respectively), and 24% of nurses experienced non-physical violence that involved Yi Nao (gangs specifically targeting hospitals). Inexperienced nurses were more likely to report physical (13.2%) or non-physical (89.5%) violence compared with experienced nurses. Graduate-level nurses were more likely to perceive and report non-physical violence (84.6%). Nurses who worked rotating shifts were 3.668 times (95% CI 1.275 to 10.554) more likely to experience physical violence, and 1.771 times (95% CI 1.123 to 2.792) more likely to experience non-physical violence compared with nurses who worked fixed day shifts. Higher anxiety levels about workplace violence and work types were associated with violence. Interviewees perceived financial burdens, unsatisfactory treatment outcomes and miscommunications as influencing factors for workplace violence. Preplacement education should focus on high-risk groups to reduce workplace violence. Increased awareness from the public and policymakers is necessary to develop effective control strategies at individual, hospital and national levels. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Are emotional labour strategies by nurses associated with psychological costs? A cross-sectional survey.

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    Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut; Diestel, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Emotional labour is an integral part of the role of nurses with surface and deep acting as the core emotional labour strategies. Surface acting involves the regulation of emotional expression with the aim of bringing it in line with organizational display rules, whereas deep acting aims at modifying the situation or perception of situations in order to change felt emotions, accordingly. Since surface acting is thought to consume more cognitive control resources than deep acting, the study examines whether nurses' cognitive control deficits as a stable personal vulnerability factor exert stronger adverse interactive influences with surface acting on job strain than with deep acting. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in combination with absence data referring to a time period of 12 months after administration of the questionnaires. A hospital and three nursing homes for the elderly located in a federal state in Germany. Questionnaires were distributed to the whole nursing staff of which 195 nurses filled in the questionnaire and permitted collecting their absence data (73% participation rate). In addition to descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations, confirmatory factor analyses and hierarchical moderated regression analyses were performed. Findings revealed significant positive relations of surface acting and cognitive control deficits with indicators of job strain, whereas deep acting was unrelated to strain. In addition, surface acting was found to interact stronger with cognitive control deficits in its relation to strain than deep acting. Compared to nurses with low levels of cognitive control deficits, the adverse influences of surface acting on burnout, depressive symptoms, and sum of days absent were much stronger when high levels of cognitive control deficits were reported. Consequently, interventions are needed to inform nurses on the detrimental influences of surface acting and train them in the daily use of deep acting as the

  19. Workplace bullying among nurses and their related factors in Japan: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Yokoyama, Mami; Suzuki, Miho; Takai, Yukari; Igarashi, Ayumi; Noguchi-Watanabe, Maiko; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko

    2016-09-01

    To explore the association between workplace bullying and workplace environment factors among nurses in Japan. Workplace bullying among nurses is increasing globally and occurs more frequently than among other professions. However, there is little information on the impact of workplace environment factors on nurse bullying in Japan. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were 1152 nurses recruited at seminars or training courses outside of their workplaces in Tokyo. Workplace bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Participants were considered to have been 'bullied' if they reported experiencing at least one negative act on a daily or weekly basis. Workplace environment factors were measured using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, which comprises five domains: nurse participation in hospital affairs; nursing foundations for quality of care; nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses; staffing and resource adequacy; and collegial nurse-physician relationships. A total of 898 (78·0%) questionnaires were returned, of which 825 (71·6%) were analysed. Altogether, 153 (18·5%) nurses were considered 'bullied.' The three most frequent negative acts reported as occurring on a weekly or daily basis were 'someone withholding information which affects your performance' (6·7%), 'being exposed to an unmanageable workload' (4·4%) and 'being shouted at or being the target of spontaneous anger (or rage)' (3·6%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that 'bullied' were associated with low scores on two work environment domains: nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses and staffing and resource adequacy. Effective nurse manager leadership and support as well as appropriate staffing management may positively influence workplace bullying among nurses in Japan. Authentic leadership styles and allowing nurses to easily request days off might also be important

  20. Illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Joossens, Luk; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B; Clancy, Luke; Gallus, Silvano

    2014-05-01

    Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. 18 European countries. For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. A comprehensive measure called an Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: (1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, (2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, (3) it had an inappropriate health warning or (4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. This study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Self medication with antibiotics in Yogyakarta City Indonesia: a cross sectional population-based survey

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    Widayati Aris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self medication with antibiotics has become an important factor driving antibiotic resistance. This study investigated the period prevalence, patterns of use, and socio-demographic factors associated with self medication with antibiotics in Yogyakarta City Indonesia. This cross-sectional population-based survey used a pre-tested questionnaire which was self-administered to randomly selected respondents (over 18 years old in Yogyakarta City Indonesia in 2010 (N = 625. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and logistic regression were applied. Results A total of 559 questionnaires were analyzed (response rate = 90%. The period prevalence of self medication with antibiotics during the month prior to the study was 7.3%. Amoxicillin was the most popular (77% antibiotic for self medication besides ampicilline, fradiomisin-gramisidin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin to treat the following symptoms: the common-cold including cough and sore throat, headache, and other minor symptoms; with the length of use was mostly less than five days. Doctors or pharmacists were the most common source of information about antibiotics for self medication (52%. Antibiotics were usually purchased without prescription in pharmacies (64% and the cost of the purchases was commonly less than US $1 (30%. Previous experience was reported to be the main reason for using non-prescribed antibiotics (54%. There were no socio-demographic variables significantly associated with the actual practice of using non-prescribed antibiotics. However, gender, health insurance, and marital status were significantly associated with the intent to self medicate with antibiotics (P Conclusions This study is the first population-based study of self-medication with antibiotics among the Indonesian population. Usage of non-prescribed antibiotics as well as intent of doing so is common across socio-demographic categories. Given the findings, factors influencing people's intentions to

  2. A cross-sectional survey of patients' beliefs about stress and their help-seeking behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febles, Alberto; Ogden, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Background Stress has become an increasingly common presentation in general practice. This may relate to an increase in stress in people's lives or a change in the meaning of stress and its conceptualisation as a legitimate problem for the GP. Aim To explore patients' beliefs about stress, their association with help-seeking behaviour, and to examine differences by ethnic group. Design of study Cross-sectional survey of general practice patients attending to see their GP. Setting An inner-city London practice. Method Consecutive general practice patients completed a questionnaire, which involved rating a series of symptoms for the extent to which they were associated with stress and describing their help-seeking behaviour. In total, 548 patients completed the questionnaire. Most patients described themselves as black Caribbean (n = 163), black African (n = 48), or white British (n = 187). Results The symptoms most frequently associated with stress were sleeping problems, feeling depressed, feeling panicky, having high blood pressure and feeling anxious; feeling ashamed, experiencing indigestion, having diarrhoea, feeling hot or cold, and suffering from constipation were least commonly associated to stress. This model of stress did not vary by ethnic group. Ethnic group differences were found for the association between the model of stress and help-seeking behaviour. Although white British patients consistently reported that the more a symptom was seen as indicative of stress, the more likely they would be to visit the doctor for that symptom, this association was not found for either black Caribbean or black African patients. Conclusions The belief that stress-related symptoms are a legitimate problem for the GP is not universal and varies according to ethnic group. Stress is used by different patients in different ways and offers a variable pathway to the doctor. PMID:15826434

  3. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

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    Cook Angela

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs. The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations.

  4. Health professional students' rural placement satisfaction and rural practice intentions: A national cross-sectional survey.

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    Smith, Tony; Sutton, Keith; Pit, Sabrina; Muyambi, Kuda; Terry, Daniel; Farthing, Annie; Courtney, Claire; Cross, Merylin

    2017-08-16

    The aim of this study was to profile students undertaking placements at University Departments of Rural Health (UDRHs) and investigate factors affecting students' satisfaction and intention to enter rural practice. Cross-sectional survey comprising 21 core questions used by all UDRHs. Eleven UDRHs across Australia that support students' placements in regional, rural and remote locations. Medical, nursing and allied health students who participated in UDRH placements between July 2014 and November 2015 and completed the questionnaire. Key dependent variables were placement satisfaction and rural practice intention. Descriptive variables were age, gender, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) background, location of placement, healthcare discipline, year of study and type and length of placement. A total of 3328 students responded. The sample was predominantly female (79%), the mean age was 26.0 years and 1.8% identified as ATSI. Most placements (69%) were >2 but ≤12 weeks, 80% were in Modified Monash 3, 4 or 5 geographical locations. Public hospitals and community health made up 63% of placements. Students satisfied with their placement had 2.33 higher odds of rural practice intention. Those satisfied with Indigenous cultural training, workplace supervision, access to education resources and accommodation had higher odds of overall satisfaction and post-placement rural practice intention. The majority of students were highly satisfied with their placement and the support provided by rural clinicians and the UDRHs. UDRHs are well placed to provide health professional students with highly satisfactory placements that foster rural practice intention. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  5. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Xia Wan

    Full Text Available Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years. Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = <0.01. Adjusting for other factors, "tried female cigarette brands" had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41 among participants who had ever tried smoking.Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  6. Why medical students choose psychiatry - a 20 country cross-sectional survey

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    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice. Methods Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students’ career intentions, motivations, medical school teaching and exposure to psychiatry. We assessed students’ attitudes and personality factors. The main outcome measure was likelihood of specializing in psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of factors upon the main outcome. Results 2198 of 9135 (24%) of students responded (range 4 to 91%) across the countries. Internationally 4.5% of students definitely considered psychiatry as a career (range 1 to 12%). 19% of students (range 0 to 33%) were “quite likely”, and 25% were “definitely not” considering psychiatry. Female gender, experience of mental/physical illness, media portrayal of doctors, and positive attitudes to psychiatry, but not personality factors, were associated with choosing psychiatry. Quality of psychiatric placement (correlation coefficient = 0.22, p psychiatry clubs), experience of acutely unwell patients and perceived clinical responsibility were all associated with choice of psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression revealed six factors associated with students choosing psychiatry: importance of own vocation, odds ratio (OR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.61 to 5.91, p psychiatry before medical school, OR 10.8 (5.38 to 21.8, p psychiatry special study module, OR 1.45 (1.05 to 2.01, p = 0.03) or elective OR 4.28 (2.87- 6.38, p psychiatry club, OR 3.25 (2.87 to 6.38, p psychiatry teaching which affect career choice. Addressing these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry internationally. PMID

  7. Pain in adult patients with Pompe disease: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, D; Schober, A K; Kruijshaar, M E; Plug, I; Karabul, N; Deschauer, M; van Doorn, P A; van der Ploeg, A T; Schoser, B; Hanisch, F

    2013-08-01

    Pompe disease is a rare hereditary metabolic myopathy caused by a deficiency of acid-α-glucosidase. We investigated the presence and severity of pain and its interference with daily activities in a large group of adults with Pompe disease, who we compared with an age-matched control group. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey in Germany and The Netherlands. Pain was assessed using the short-form brief pain inventory (BPI). Patients also completed the Short Form-36 item (SF-36v2), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Rotterdam Handicap Scale (RHS). Forty-five percent of the 124 adult Pompe patients reported having had pain in the previous 24h, against 27% of the 111 controls (p=0.004). The median pain severity score in Pompe patients reporting pain was 3.1 (on a scale from 0 to 10), indicating mild pain; against 2.6 amongst controls (p=0.06). The median score of pain interference with daily activities in patients who reported pain was 3.3, against 1.3 in controls (p=0.001). Relative to patients without pain, those with pain had lower RHS scores (p=0.02), lower SF-36 Physical and Mental component summary scores (pPompe patients had experienced pain in the previous 24h. Although pain severity and its interference with daily life were mild, pain was related to a reduced quality of life, less participation in daily life, and greater depression and anxiety. Its management should therefore be seen as part of clinical practice involving Pompe patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social relationships and HRQL: A cross-sectional survey among older Italian adults

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    Damiani Gianfranco

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the association between social relationships and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL among the elderly in Italy. Methods A sample of 33,744 Italian residents, representing the non-institutionalised population aged 60 years and over was extracted from the national ISTAT cross-sectional survey during 1999–2000. HRQL was measured with the SF-12, from which the Physical Component Score (PCS and Mental Component Score (MCS were obtained. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression models with adjustment for the main confounders. Results Our analysis shows a gradient in PCS and MCS among the terziles in seeing/meeting "friends" and "family" and, for PCS, a North-South gradient among the Italian regions. Females, the elderly who reported a lower household income, those who spent less time in recreational and religious activities, who lived too far from their relatives and had few relationships with friends and relatives, were significantly less likely to have an MCS above the median value. For PCS, an increase in HRQL was likely to be associated with a higher educational level, while lower PCS scores were associated with: age 75+, inadequate household income, unmarried status, infrequency of seeing/meeting friends, too high a mean distance from own home to relatives' homes, lack of leisure time spent in recreational activities, living in the Centre-South of Italy, chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and use of drugs during the previous two days. Significant interactions between suffering from one chronic disease and the use of drugs were also found for both MCS and PCS. Conclusion Some dimensions of social relationships were significantly associated with HRQL. These findings are crucial for devising welfare strategies at both the regional and the European level, i.e. in countries such as Italy where the primacy of family support of the elderly has declined

  9. Social relationships and HRQL: a cross-sectional survey among older Italian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Avolio, Maria; Sicuro, Lorella; Rosano, Aldo; Latini, Elide; Damiani, Gianfranco; Ricciardi, Walter

    2008-10-03

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association between social relationships and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) among the elderly in Italy. A sample of 33,744 Italian residents, representing the non-institutionalised population aged 60 years and over was extracted from the national ISTAT cross-sectional survey during 1999-2000. HRQL was measured with the SF-12, from which the Physical Component Score (PCS) and Mental Component Score (MCS) were obtained. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression models with adjustment for the main confounders. Our analysis shows a gradient in PCS and MCS among the terziles in seeing/meeting "friends" and "family" and, for PCS, a North-South gradient among the Italian regions. Females, the elderly who reported a lower household income, those who spent less time in recreational and religious activities, who lived too far from their relatives and had few relationships with friends and relatives, were significantly less likely to have an MCS above the median value. For PCS, an increase in HRQL was likely to be associated with a higher educational level, while lower PCS scores were associated with: age 75+, inadequate household income, unmarried status, infrequency of seeing/meeting friends, too high a mean distance from own home to relatives' homes, lack of leisure time spent in recreational activities, living in the Centre-South of Italy, chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and use of drugs during the previous two days. Significant interactions between suffering from one chronic disease and the use of drugs were also found for both MCS and PCS. Some dimensions of social relationships were significantly associated with HRQL. These findings are crucial for devising welfare strategies at both the regional and the European level, i.e. in countries such as Italy where the primacy of family support of the elderly has declined in recent years.

  10. State income inequality, household income, and maternal mental and physical health: cross sectional national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Robert S; Wise, Paul H; Kennedy, Bruce P; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of state income inequality and individual household income with the mental and physical health of women with young children. Design Cross sectional study. Individual level data (outcomes, income, and other sociodemographic covariates) from a 1991 follow up survey of a birth cohort established in 1988. State level income inequality calculated from the income distribution of each state from 1990 US census. Setting United States, 1991. Participants Nationally representative stratified random sample of 8060 women who gave birth in 1988 and were successfully contacted (89%) in 1991. Main outcome measures Depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression score >15) and self rated health Results 19% of women reported depressive symptoms, and 7.5% reported fair or poor health. Compared with women in the highest fifth of distribution of household income, women in the lowest fifth were more likely to report depressive symptoms (33% v 9%, P<0.001) and fair or poor health (15% v 2%, P<0.001). Compared with low income women in states with low income inequality, low income women in states with high income inequality had a higher risk of depressive symptoms (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 2.6) and fair or poor health (1.8, 0.9 to 3.5). Conclusions High income inequality confers an increased risk of poor mental and physical health, particularly among the poorest women. Both income inequality and household income are important for health in this population. PMID:11090512

  11. Radiation and chemistry in the stratosphere - Sensitivity to O2 absorption cross sections in the Herzberg continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, L.; Yung, Y. L.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that the discrepancies between observed and modeled vertical profiles of such halocarbons as CFCl3, as well as the problem of simultaneously fitting N2O, CH4, CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 profiles with a single eddy diffusion model, are due to an overestimation of the molecular oxygen absorption cross sections in the 200-220 nm spectral region. The replacement of current O2 cross sections in this range with values that are in better agreement with results for the compounds cited leads to N2O, CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 concentration reductions of factors 0.70, 0.62 and 0.19, respectively. Profiles of CH4, H2 and CO remain unchanged, and the predicted concentration of HNO3 above 30 km is reduced by about 50% for yet another improved fit with observations. It is noted that the correction proposed produces a 30% ozone increase near the 20-25 km peak.

  12. Hip dysplasia: a significant risk factor for the development of hip osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional survey of 2232 women and 1336 men (age range 20-91 yr) was to investigate individual risk factors for hip joint osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Standardized, weight-bearing pelvic radiographs were evaluated. Radiological hip joint OA was defined as minimum...

  13. Is medicine use in adolescence risk behavior? Cross-sectional survey of school-aged children from 11 to 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the association between smoking, drunkenness, and medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness in a representative sample of 11- to 15-year-old school-aged children. METHODS: Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Setting: A r...

  14. An Overview of Surveys of Paris Meridian Arc Section Lengths in the 17th and 18th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Miljenko Solarić; Nikola Solarić

    2013-01-01

    A brief introduction is followed by description of the spread of the Paris meridian in France. Following is description of the survey of Paris meridian arc section lengths and production of contemporary maps of France: by Jean Picard, Philippe de la Hire, Jean-Dominique Cassini (Cassini I), Cassini II, Cassini III and Cassini IV.

  15. An Overview of Surveys of Paris Meridian Arc Section Lengths in the 17th and 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief introduction is followed by description of the spread of the Paris meridian in France. Following is description of the survey of Paris meridian arc section lengths and production of contemporary maps of France: by Jean Picard, Philippe de la Hire, Jean-Dominique Cassini (Cassini I, Cassini II, Cassini III and Cassini IV.

  16. The Commissioning and Provision of Advocacy for Problem Drug Users in English DATS: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Tamsin; Weaver, Tim D.; Patterson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated the commissioning and delivery of advocacy for problem drug users. We aimed to quantify provision, describe the commissioning of advocacy services in Drug Action Teams (DATs) and to identify factors influencing advocacy provision. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a randomly selected sample of 50 English DATs. The…

  17. Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents Aged 12-18: A Cross-Sectional Survey of 18,104 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Norio; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Inoue, Ken; Oshima, Norihito; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Inoue, Shimpei; Akechi, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Okazaki, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about accurate prevalence and associated factors of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents in Asian countries. In this study, the prevalence and associated factors of DSH among adolescents in Japan were examined. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire and enrolling 8,620…

  18. Public Land Survey System (PLSS) Section Polygons, Arizona, 2014, Bureau of Land Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PLSS First Division is commonly the section. This is the first set of divisions for a PLSS Township. A section is an area nominally one square mile (2.6 square...

  19. Cross-Sectional and Panel Data Analyses of an Incompletely Observed Variable Derived from the Nonrandomized Method for Surveying Sensitive Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    This article describes (1) the survey methodological and statistical characteristics of the nonrandomized method for surveying sensitive questions for both cross-sectional and panel survey data and (2) the way to use the incompletely observed variable obtained from this survey method in logistic regression and in loglinear and log-multiplicative…

  20. Predicting medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Kuan; Aritejo, Bayu Aji; Tang, Jing-Shia; Chen, Chien-Liang; Chuang, Chia-Chang

    2017-05-01

    Family presence during resuscitation is an emerging trend, yet it remains controversial, even in countries with relatively high acceptance of family presence during resuscitation among medical professionals. Family presence during resuscitation is not common in many countries, and medical professionals in these regions are unfamiliar with family presence during resuscitation. Therefore, this study predicted the medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation by applying the theory of planned behaviour. A cross-sectional survey. A single medical centre in southern Taiwan. Medical staffs including physicians and nurses in a single medical centre (n=714). A questionnaire was constructed to measure the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and behavioural intentions as well as the awareness of family presence during resuscitation and demographics. In total, 950 questionnaires were distributed to doctors and nurses in a medical centre. Among the 714 valid questionnaires, only 11 participants were aware of any association in Taiwan that promotes family presence during resuscitation; 94.7% replied that they were unsure (30.4%) or that their unit did not have a family presence during resuscitation policy (74.8%). Regression analysis was performed to predict medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. The results indicated that only positive attitudes and subjective norms regarding family presence during resuscitation and clinical tenure could predict the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. Because Family presence during resuscitation practice is not common in Taiwan and only 26.19% of the participants agreed to both items measuring the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation, we recommend the implementation of a family presence during resuscitation education program that will enhance the positive beliefs

  1. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

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    Md Iqbal Kabir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design: A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results: The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers with an average of 30 years’ stay in their locality. Most of them (96% had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8% believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015 and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65–2.56 and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00–32.01 per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16–11.66 and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35–8.46, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health

  2. Responsibility for managing musculoskeletal disorders – A cross-sectional postal survey of attitudes

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    Larsson Maria EH

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders are a major burden on individuals, health systems and social care systems and rehabilitation efforts in these disorders are considerable. Self-care is often considered a cost effective treatment alternative owing to limited health care resources. But what are the expectations and attitudes in this question in the general population? The purpose of this study was to describe general attitudes to responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and to explore associations between attitudes and background variables. Methods A cross-sectional, postal questionnaire survey was carried out with a random sample of a general adult Swedish population of 1770 persons. Sixty-one percent (n = 1082 responded to the questionnaire and was included for the description of general attitudes towards responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders. For the further analyses of associations to background variables 683–693 individuals could be included. Attitudes were measured by the "Attitudes regarding Responsibility for Musculoskeletal disorders" (ARM instrument, where responsibility is attributed on four dimensions; to myself, as being out of my hands, to employers or to (medical professionals. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore associations between attitudes to musculoskeletal disorders and the background variables age, sex, education, physical activity, presence of musculoskeletal disorders, sick leave and whether the person had visited a care provider. Results A majority of participants had internal views, i.e. showed an attitude of taking personal responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders, and did not place responsibility for the management out of their own hands or to employers. However, attributing shared responsibility between self and medical professionals was also found. The main associations found between attitude towards responsibility for musculoskeletal

  3. Prevalence and Perceptions of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Hospital Nurses in Pakistan: A Cross-sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attique, Rayan; Asmaa, Yumna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Nursing is a professionally demanding job, and nurses are prone to develop musculoskeletal disorders. However, no data is available regarding its prevalence among Pakistani nurses. This study was conducted to document the pattern of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) in Pakistani nurses and their perceptions about contributing factors and management of WRMDs. Methods A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in six hospitals in Lahore and Rawalpindi, which were selected using a convenient sampling technique. A four-part questionnaire comprised of demographic data, experience of musculoskeletal disorders, and perception of management and contributing factors of WRMDs was distributed among 150 nurses. One hundred and seventeen nurses returned completed forms. Data was analyzed using SPSS Statistics v20 (IBM, Armonk, New York, USA). Ethics review committee approval was obtained by CMH Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry, and informed consent was obtained. Results The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders over a 12-month period was 31.6%, with the most common site being the low back (32%) followed by the shoulder (20%), upper back, and knees (10%). Among those affected, 60.6% sought professional help. Married nurses were more prone to WRMDs (p=0.0001). Regarding management, most (94%) agreed that rest is required to get better, neglecting problems of this kind can cause permanent health problems (89.7%), and physical activity should be avoided (38.7%). Working in the same positions for long periods (93.1%), attending an excessive number of patients in one day (81.2%), and working in awkward and cramped positions (78.6%) were the most commonly perceived risk factors for WRMDs. Conclusion About one-third of Pakistani nurses in this cohort reported work-related musculoskeletal disorders with the low back most commonly affected. There is a need to increase awareness regarding ergonomics and posture

  4. Electronic-cigarette use among young people in Wales: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Graham; Hewitt, Gillian; Evans, John; Littlecott, Hannah J; Holliday, Jo; Ahmed, Nilufar; Moore, Laurence; Murphy, Simon; Fletcher, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of electronic(e)-cigarette use, prevalence of e-cigarette and tobacco use by age, and associations of e-cigarette use with sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco and cannabis use among young people in Wales. Design Data from two nationally-representative cross-sectional surveys undertaken in 2013–2014. Logistic regression analyses, adjusting for school-level clustering, examined sociodemographic characteristics of e-cigarette use, and associations between e-cigarette use and smoking. Setting Primary and secondary schools in Wales. Participants Primary-school children aged 10–11 (n=1601) and secondary-school students aged 11–16 (n=9055). Results Primary-school children were more likely to have used e-cigarettes (5.8%) than tobacco (1.6%). Ever use of e-cigarettes remained more prevalent than ever use of tobacco until age 14–15. Overall, 12.3% of secondary-school students (aged 11–16) reported ever using e-cigarettes, with no differences according to gender, ethnicity or family affluence. The percentage of ‘never smokers’ reporting having used e-cigarettes was 5.3% at age 10–11 to 8.0% at age 15–16. The proportion of children who had ever used an e-cigarette and reported currently smoking increased from 6.9% among 10–11 year olds to 39.2% in 15–16 year olds. Only 1.5% (n=125) of 11–16 year-olds, including 0.3% of never smokers, reported regular e-cigarette use (use at least once a month). Current weekly smokers were 100 times more likely than non-smokers to report regular e-cigarette use (relative risk ratio (RRR=121.15; 95% CI 57.56 to 254.97). Regular e-cigarette use was also more likely among those who had smoked cannabis (RRR 53.03; 95% CI 38.87 to 80.65). Conclusions Many young people (including never-smokers) have tried e-cigarettes. However, regular use is less common, and is associated with tobacco cigarette use. Longitudinal research is needed to understand age-related trajectories of e

  5. Physical activity and associated factors from a cross-sectional survey among adults in northern Tanzania

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    Beatrice John

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient physical activity (PA is a major contributing factor in the growing problem of non-communicable diseases (NCDs in urban and rural Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to determine PA and associated factors among adults in Northern Tanzania. Methods We analyzed secondary data from a cross-sectional serological survey nested within the Magu health and demographic sentinel surveillance population in Magu District Northwestern Tanzania. All resident adults aged 15 years and older were invited to participate in the study, and physical activity data were analyzed for 5663 participants. Data were analyzed using Stata version 13.0. We used logistic regression to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI for risk factors associated with differences in PA. Results In this mainly rural population, 96% reported sufficient PA, with a higher proportion in males (97.3% compared to females (94.8%. In males the odds of sufficient PA were lower in rural areas compared to urban areas (OR = 0.19; P < 0.001; 95% CI = 0.08–0.42, while in females the odds of sufficient PA were higher in rural areas compared to urban areas (OR = 2.27; P < 0.001; 95%CI = 1.59–3.24. Leisure-related activity was low compared to work-related and transport-related activity. Farmers had a higher odds of sufficient PA than those in professional jobs in both males (OR = 9.75; P < 0.001; 95% CI = 3.68–5.82 and females (OR = 2.83; P = 0.021; 95% CI = 1.17–6.86. Conclusion The prevalence of PA in this population was high. However, there is need for PA programs to maintain the high level of compliance during and following the transition to a more urban-based culture.

  6. Antibiotic use in dentistry: A cross-sectional survey from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakrishnan Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a well-known entity and the most common factor leading to this is the irrational use of antibiotics. Several studies from the West have substantiated the irrational use of antibiotics in dentistry. Aims: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of antimicrobial drug use among dental fraternity in a tertiary care teaching dental college and hospital. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of various dental fraternities using a structured validated questionnaire. The study was initiated following approval from Institutional Ethics Committee and interns, junior residents and faculty members of various departments in dentistry were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. A structured validated questionnaire was developed to assess the above-mentioned objectives. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics was used for representing each category of response and kappa statistics were used to assess the reliability in the initial cohort. Chi-square test for independence was used to evaluate the difference in proportion between different professional cadres. Results: A total of 120 participants were recruited out of which 81.6% (98/120 of the participants accepted their frequent antibiotic usage. The most common dental indication of antibiotics among dentists was post dental extraction, attributing to 30.8% (37/120, followed by dental abscess 21.6% (26/120 and 60% (72/120 prescribed antibiotics after most minor surgical procedures. Surprisingly, 37.5% (45/120 of the participants opined that they use antibiotics against viral infection. Regarding the spectrum of antibiotic usage, 74.1% (89/120 preferred broad spectrum instead of narrow spectrum 25.8% (31/120. The commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin 71.7% (86/120, metronidazole 33.3% (40/120, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid 26.6% (32/120. A total of (43/120 35.8% opted generic name for mentioning the

  7. Experience of Lyme disease and preferences for precautions: a cross-sectional survey of UK patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Afrodita; Barnett, Julie; Uzzell, David; Vasileiou, Konstantina; O'Connell, Susan

    2013-05-16

    Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne zoonosis currently affecting approximately 1000 people annually in the UK (confirmed through serological diagnosis) although it is estimated that the real figures may be as high as 3000 cases. It is important to know what factors may predict correct appraisal of LD symptoms and how the experience of LD might predict preferences for future precautionary actions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with early LD patients via the Lyme Borreliosis Unit at the Health Protection Agency. One hundred and thirty participants completed measures of awareness of having been bitten by ticks, knowledge of ticks and LD, interpretation of LD symptoms, suspicions of having LD prior to seeing the General Practitioner (GP), and preferences for precautionary actions during future countryside visits. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to identify key predictors of awareness of having been bitten by ticks and of having LD. t-tests assessed differences between groups of participants on suspicions of having LD and preferences for future precautions. Pearson correlations examined relationships between measures of preferences for precautions and frequency of countryside use, knowledge of ticks and LD, and intentions to avoid the countryside in the future. 73.8% of participants (n = 96) reported a skin rash as the reason for seeking medical help, and 44.1% (n = 64) suspected they had LD before seeing the GP. Participants reporting a direct event in realizing they had been bitten by ticks (seeing a tick on skin or seeing a skin rash and linking it to tick bites) were more likely to suspect they had LD before seeing the doctor. Participants distinguished between taking precautions against tick bites during vs. after countryside visits, largely preferring the latter. Also, the more frequently participants visited the countryside, the less likely they were to endorse during-visit precautions. The results suggest that the risk of LD is

  8. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M

    2016-10-26

    Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day). The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4-11 years), 1131 adolescents (12-17 years), 8003 adults (18-64 years) and 1569 elderly (65 years and older) who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey 'Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands' between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly), male gender (adults), overweight (children), higher education (adults ≥ 30 years), urban environment (adults), chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years), sedentary work (adults), not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years) and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA) guideline (4-to-17-year-olds). Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of the relationship between identified correlates and ST.

  9. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Bernaards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day. Methods The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4–11 years, 1131 adolescents (12–17 years, 8003 adults (18–64 years and 1569 elderly (65 years and older who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey ‘Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands’ between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Results Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly, male gender (adults, overweight (children, higher education (adults ≥ 30 years, urban environment (adults, chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years, sedentary work (adults, not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA guideline (4-to-17-year-olds. Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. Conclusions This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of

  10. Witnessing intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in Ugandan children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Child, Jennifer C; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Hossain, Mazeda; Lees, Shelley; Watts, Charlotte; Naker, Dipak

    2017-02-28

    Existing evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) at home are more likely to experience other forms of violence, but very little evidence is available from lower income countries. In this paper we aim to explore whether Ugandan children who witness IPV at home are also more likely to experience other forms of maltreatment, factors associated with witnessing and experiencing violence, and whether any increased risk comes from parents, or others outside the home. A representative cross-sectional survey of primary schools. 3427 non-boarding primary school students, aged about 11-14 years. Luwero District, Uganda, 2012. Exposure to child maltreatment was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional, and 2 questions measured witnessing IPV. 26% of children reported witnessing IPV, but nearly all of these children had also experienced violence themselves. Only 0.6% of boys and 1.6% of girls had witnessed partner violence and not experienced violence. Increased risk of violence was from parents and also from other perpetrators besides parents. Both girls and boys who witnessed and experienced violence had between 1.66 (95% CI 0.96 to 2.87) and 4.50 (95% CI 1.78 to 11.33) times the odds of reporting mental health difficulties, and 3.23 (95% CI 1.99 to 5.24) and 8.12 (95% CI 5.15 to 12.80) times the odds of using physical or sexual violence themselves. In this sample, witnessing IPV almost never occurred in isolation-almost all children who witnessed partner violence also experienced violence themselves. Our results imply that children in Uganda who are exposed to multiple forms of violence may benefit from intervention to mitigate mental health consequences and reduce use of violence. IPV prevention interventions should be considered to reduce child maltreatment. Large numbers of children also experience maltreatment in

  11. Doctors' use of electronic medical records systems in hospitals: cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lærum, Hallvard; Ellingsen, Gunnar; Faxvaag, Arild

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To compare the use of three electronic medical records systems by doctors in Norwegian hospitals for general clinical tasks. Design Cross sectional questionnaire survey. Semistructured telephone interviews with key staff in information technology in each hospital for details of local implementation of the systems. Setting 32 hospital units in 19 Norwegian hospitals with electronic medical records systems. Participants 227 (72%) of 314 hospital doctors responded, equally distributed between the three electronic medical records systems. Main outcome measures Proportion of respondents who used the electronic system, calculated for each of 23 tasks; difference in proportions of users of different systems when functionality of systems was similar. Results Most tasks listed in the questionnaire (15/23) were generally covered with implemented functions in the electronic medical records systems. However, the systems were used for only 2-7 of the tasks, mainly associated with reading patient data. Respondents showed significant differences in frequency of use of the different systems for four tasks for which the systems offered equivalent functionality. The respondents scored highly in computer literacy (72.2/100), and computer use showed no correlation with respondents' age, sex, or work position. User satisfaction scores were generally positive (67.2/100), with some difference between the systems. Conclusions Doctors used electronic medical records systems for far fewer tasks than the systems supported. What is already known on this topicElectronic information systems in health care have not undergone systematic evaluation, and few comparisons between electronic medical records systems have been madeGiven the information intensive nature of clinical work, electronic medical records systems should be of help to doctors for most clinical tasksWhat this study addsDoctors in Norwegian hospitals reported a low level of use of all electronic medical records systems

  12. Hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa: cross-sectional surveys in four rural and urban communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen E Hendriks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of adult mortality in low-income countries but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension are scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. This study aims to assess the prevalence of hypertension and determinants of blood pressure in four SSA populations in rural Nigeria and Kenya, and urban Namibia and Tanzania. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed four cross-sectional household surveys in Kwara State, Nigeria; Nandi district, Kenya; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Greater Windhoek, Namibia, between 2009-2011. Representative population-based samples were drawn in Nigeria and Namibia. The Kenya and Tanzania study populations consisted of specific target groups. Within a final sample size of 5,500 households, 9,857 non-pregnant adults were eligible for analysis on hypertension. Of those, 7,568 respondents ≥ 18 years were included. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of hypertension in each of the populations under study. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 19.3% (95%CI:17.3-21.3 in rural Nigeria, 21.4% (19.8-23.0 in rural Kenya, 23.7% (21.3-26.2 in urban Tanzania, and 38.0% (35.9-40.1 in urban Namibia. In individuals with hypertension, the proportion of grade 2 (≥ 160/100 mmHg or grade 3 hypertension (≥ 180/110 mmHg ranged from 29.2% (Namibia to 43.3% (Nigeria. Control of hypertension ranged from 2.6% in Kenya to 17.8% in Namibia. Obesity prevalence (BMI ≥ 30 ranged from 6.1% (Nigeria to 17.4% (Tanzania and together with age and gender, BMI independently predicted blood pressure level in all study populations. Diabetes prevalence ranged from 2.1% (Namibia to 3.7% (Tanzania. CONCLUSION: Hypertension was the most frequently observed risk factor for CVD in both urban and rural communities in SSA and will contribute to the growing burden of CVD in SSA. Low levels of control of hypertension are alarming. Strengthening of health

  13. Prescription antibiotics for outpatients in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional health survey conducted in three cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Mohitosh; Roy, Debendra Nath; Tajmim, Afsana; Rajib, Sheikh Shahriar; Hossain, Mosharraf; Farzana, Fahamida; Yasmen, Nelufar

    2014-04-22

    Antibiotics prescribing by physicians have gained due importance across the globe, mainly because of an increase in antibiotic usage, prevalence of infections and drug resistances. The present study is aimed to evaluate the physicians prescribing pattern of antibiotics, their usages by outpatients and disease conditions for which the antibiotics are prescribed in three cities of Bangladesh. This cross sectional health survey was carried out with a self designed standard questionnaire by manual data collection over a three months period (20.03.2013 to 20.06.2013) at three adjacent cities Jessore Sadar, Monirampur and Keshabpur upazila respectively. The data were collected from the patient's prescription and by directly interviewing the patients who were prescribed at least one antibiotic during the study period. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classifications for antibiotics was used and descriptive statistics were applied to the collected data and analyzed using Microsoft Excel software. Modified Wald method was applied to calculate 95% CI. A total of 900 prescriptions were analyzed during the study period. It was found that the prescriber prescribed antibiotics to the patients who were suffering mainly from cold and fever, infections, diarrhea and gonorrhea. The highest prescribed antibiotic groups were cephalosporins (31.78%), macrolides (27.33%), quinolones (16.33%), penicillins (7.11%), and metronidazoles (6.78%) respectively. Two or more antibiotics were prescribed in 25.44% of prescriptions. A total of 66.89% prescriptions had complete information on dosage form, 57% had complete direction for antibiotics use and 64.22% patients completed full course of antibiotics. Although 83% prescriptions have no clinical test for using antibiotics, even though the percentages of patients' disease recovery were 61.78% and in compliance were 38.22%. From this research, it is observed that physicians prescribed antibiotics rationally in some cases but needs to

  14. Pressure ulcer prevalence and prevention practices: a cross-sectional comparative survey in Norway and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Z; Johansen, E; Etten, M van; Strapp, H; Solbakken, T; Smith, B Eskerud; Faulstich, J

    2015-08-01

    This study explored whether the risk assessment method, structured versus clinical judgment, influences pressure ulcer (PU) prevalence or prevention strategies. A cross section survey design was employed with use of a pre-designed data collection instrument. Following ethical approval and consent, data was gathered from two acute care settings, one in Norway (clinical judgment) and one in Ireland (structured risk assessment using the Maelor Score). Data were obtained from 180 patients, 59 in Norway and 121 in Ireland. Of the patients 48% were male and 49% were female, gender was not recorded for 3%. The most common age bracket was 70-99 years of age, 46% of the study population. PU prevalence was 54% in the Norwegian site with the majority of PUs (69%) being category 1, and 12% in the Irish site with the majority (50%) being category 2. Only 8% of patients in the Norwegian site were risk assessed on admission compared with 85% in the Irish site. No dynamic mattresses and four pressure redistribution cushions were in use in the Norwegian site, whereas, in the Irish site, 27 dynamic mattresses and 11 pressure redistribution cushions were used, the majority (44%) for high-risk individuals. Of those at risk of PU development, 15% in the Norwegian site and 56% in the Irish site had a documented repositioning care plan when in bed, and 0% in the Norwegian site and 13% in the Irish site for when seated on a chair. There were inconsistencies in approach to PU risk assessment and prevention across the two clinical settings. However, prevalence rates differed, mainly relating to category 1 PU damage. Even though formal risk assessment is well established in the Irish site, this is not necessarily followed up with appropriated PU prevention. Thus, the method of risk assessment does not seem to influence subsequent care planning, questioning the role of formal risk assessment; however, despite this, risk assessment does put a focus on an important clinical problem. In the

  15. Education of ICU nurses regarding invasive mechanical ventilation: findings from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhermino, Michelle Copede; Inder, Kerry J; Sundin, Deborah; Kuzmiuk, Leila

    2014-08-01

    Continuing education for intensive care unit nurses on invasive mechanical ventilation is fundamental to the acquisition and maintenance of knowledge and skills to optimise patient outcomes. We aimed to determine how intensive care unit nurses perceived current education provided on mechanical ventilation, including a self-directed learning package and a competency programme; identify other important topics and forms of education; and determine factors associated with the completion of educational programmes on invasive mechanical ventilation. A cross-sectional, 30-item, self-administered and semi-structured survey on invasive mechanical ventilation education was distributed to 160 intensive care nurses. Analysis included descriptive statistics and logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with current education completion, reported as adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eighty three intensive care unit nurses responded and the majority (63%) reported not receiving education about mechanical ventilation prior to working in intensive care. Using a Likert rating scale the self-directed learning package and competency programme were perceived as valuable and beneficial. Hands-on-practice was perceived as the most important form of education and ventilator settings as the most important topic. Multivariate analysis determined that older age was independently associated with not completing the self-directed learning package (AOR 0.20, 95% CI 0.04, 0.93). For the competency programme, 4-6 years intensive care experience was independently associated with completion (AOR 17, 95% CI 1.7, 165) and part-time employment was associated with non-completion (AOR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08, 0.68). Registered nurses are commencing their ICU experience with limited knowledge of invasive MV therefore the education provided within the ICU workplace becomes fundamental to safe and effective practice. The perception of continuing education by ICU

  16. A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey of typhoid fever in Fiji.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conall H Watson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi. To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases. We enrolled and assayed plasma of 1787 participants for anti-Vi IgG; 1,531 of these were resident in mainland areas that had not been previously vaccinated against S. Typhi (seropositivity 32.3% (95%CI 28.2 to 36.3%, 256 were resident on Taveuni island, which had been previously vaccinated (seropositivity 71.5% (95%CI 62.1 to 80.9%. The seroprevalence on the Fijian mainland is one to two orders of magnitude higher than expected from confirmed case surveillance incidence, suggesting substantial subclinical or otherwise unreported typhoid. We found no significant differences in seropositivity prevalences by ethnicity, which is in contrast to disease surveillance data in which the indigenous iTaukei Fijian population are disproportionately affected. Using multivariable logistic regression, seropositivity was associated with increased age (odds ratio 1.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.4 per 10 years, the presence of a pit latrine (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1 to 2.3 as opposed to a septic tank or piped sewer, and residence in settlements rather than residential housing or villages (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.7. Increasing seropositivity with age is suggestive of low-level endemic transmission in Fiji. Improved sanitation where pit latrines are used and addressing potential transmission routes in settlements may reduce exposure to S. Typhi. Widespread unreported infection suggests there may be a role for typhoid

  17. A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey of typhoid fever in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Conall H; Baker, Stephen; Lau, Colleen L; Rawalai, Kitione; Taufa, Mere; Coriakula, Jerimaia; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Van, Tan Trinh; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Hens, Niel; Lowry, John H; de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Cano, Jorge; Jenkins, Kylie; Mulholland, E Kim; Nilles, Eric J; Kama, Mike; Edmunds, W John

    2017-07-01

    Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases. We enrolled and assayed plasma of 1787 participants for anti-Vi IgG; 1,531 of these were resident in mainland areas that had not been previously vaccinated against S. Typhi (seropositivity 32.3% (95%CI 28.2 to 36.3%)), 256 were resident on Taveuni island, which had been previously vaccinated (seropositivity 71.5% (95%CI 62.1 to 80.9%)). The seroprevalence on the Fijian mainland is one to two orders of magnitude higher than expected from confirmed case surveillance incidence, suggesting substantial subclinical or otherwise unreported typhoid. We found no significant differences in seropositivity prevalences by ethnicity, which is in contrast to disease surveillance data in which the indigenous iTaukei Fijian population are disproportionately affected. Using multivariable logistic regression, seropositivity was associated with increased age (odds ratio 1.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.4) per 10 years), the presence of a pit latrine (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1 to 2.3) as opposed to a septic tank or piped sewer, and residence in settlements rather than residential housing or villages (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.7). Increasing seropositivity with age is suggestive of low-level endemic transmission in Fiji. Improved sanitation where pit latrines are used and addressing potential transmission routes in settlements may reduce exposure to S. Typhi. Widespread unreported infection suggests there may be a role for typhoid

  18. Mental health literacy in korean older adults: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Lee, H Y; Lee, M H; Simms, T; Park, B H

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health literacy is a fairly new concept, first introduced in 1997. It refers to what people know and believe about mental health disorders. People's knowledge and beliefs help them to recognize, manage and prevent mental disorders. Generally, older adults have lower health literacy compared to young and middle-aged adults. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study on the mental health literacy of Korean older adults. This study looks beyond peoples' ability to recognize mental health disorders and their opinions about them. It identifies factors that are associated with mental health literacy (level of education and social support, the number of people in one's social circles and how individuals rate their health). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Older adults might get more out of mental health literacy programmes in group or social settings. Programmes that use older adult peer educators/supporters, such as the "older people's champions" of the Healthy Passport programme in England, might make the programmes more effective. Mental health campaigns, such as Australia's beyondblue, might increase mental health literacy of older adults. Introduction Korea is experiencing rapid population ageing, spurring an increased need for mental health services for the elderly. Approximately one-third of Korean older adults experience depressive symptoms, and Korea has the highest elder suicide rate among 34 developed nations. Mental health literacy is an important component of promoting mental health, yet studies on the concept have been conducted in few countries. Aim This study examines the level of mental health literacy among Korean older adults and identifies factors associated with their mental health literacy. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 596 community-dwelling Korean adults aged 65 and older. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use framed the study. Results Overall

  19. A cross-sectional survey of participation of asthmatic children in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo-Li; Huang, Ying; Shu, Chang; Lou, Xiao-Li; Fu, Zhou; Zhao, Jing

    2010-08-01

    Physical exercise has been proven to be beneficial to children with asthma, but the traditional view in China is that asthmatic children should not take part in sports. This study was undertaken to investigate the current status of children with asthma taking part in exercise in China. One hundred and twenty-three asthmatic children (7-14 years old) who had visited our asthma control center between February 2009 and June 2009 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Each child had a pulmonary function test and his/her health-related quality of life was assessed. The children also finished a questionnaire about their physical activity. As a control group, 109 nonasthmatic children from a primary school were surveyed about their level of activity. Asthmatic children took part in less exercise than their healthy peers, and 62.6% (77/123) of the children with asthma never reached the criteria of exercise prescription for patients with asthma advised by the American College of Sports Medicine. The asthmatic children were divided into two groups based on the level of activity; compared with the group with a higher physical activity level, more children in the group with lower activity believed that exercise could make asthma worse, more parents and teachers restricted the children's exercise, and fewer doctors approved them participating in exercise. All of the parameters of basic lung function were higher in the group with higher activity level. Moreover, the children with a higher exercise level had a higher score on all parts of the pediatric asthma quality-of-life questionnaire. About 78.5% (96/123) of children ever experienced coughing, chest distress, dyspnea, or gasping during exercise, but 49.6% (61/123) had these symptoms occasionally. Our study reveals that children with asthma do not have enough exercise in China. The concept that children, parents, teachers and doctors have about exercise for patients with asthma is urgent to be updated. We need to

  20. Research in physical chemistry and chemical education: Part A: Water Mediated Chemistry of Oxidized Atmospheric Compounds Part B: The Development of Surveying Tools to Determine How Effective Laboratory Experiments Contribute to Student Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Marta Katarzyna

    atmospherically measured oxidized organic molecules and predictions of atmospheric models at different relative humidities. The chemical education portion of this manuscript presented in Chapters VI and VII includes the development of a survey to determine how effective a laboratory experiment is in contributing to students' understanding of fundamental chemistry. The specific example used is an electrochemical cell. Our initial results showed that while most of our students could answer quantitative questions about the operation of the cell, their conceptual understanding of the microscopic processes that occur within the cell was inconsistent with the material presented in class. In particular, we noticed that while many students were able to correctly describe the events that take place at the surface of the anode and cathode, their understanding of the events that take place at the salt bridge was lacking. In this investigation, we were able to confirm the misconceptions reported in previous studies. Our results suggest that a relatively modest, incremental revision of the experiment reduces these misconceptions and helped the students to develop a molecular-scale picture of the processes that occur within an electrochemical cell.

  1. The organisation and needs of young sections belonging to UEG National Societies: Results of a Europe-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Castro, Valeria; Dolak, Werner; Ilie, Mădălina; Holleran, Grainne; Salaga, Maciej; van Herwaarden, Yasmijn; Burisch, Johan

    2017-08-01

    One of the aims of the Young Talent Group (YTG) is to make United European Gastroenterology (UEG) more attractive for young fellows interested in gastroenterology, and to involve them actively in UEG activities, by collaborating with young GI sections (YGIS) across Europe. Therefore, the YTG launched a survey to collect up-to-date information on YGISs belonging to UEG National Societies. The Friends of YTG were chosen as the target population and received a web-based questionnaire concerning their personal information, the structure of YGIS in their respective country, the YGIS' support mechanisms for young trainees, and ideas on how to improve them. Overall, 24 of 29 Friends answered the survey (83%). Among the Societies surveyed, only half have a young section. Typically, YGIS are supported, but not influenced, by National Societies through several initiatives. Results of the survey suggest that a lack of funding, of harmonised education, and of active roles available within National Societies, were the concerns most prevalent among young fellows. Our survey shows that the development of YGIS is being hindered by organisational, financial, and political issues. The YTG believes that a close collaboration between National Societies, UEG, and the YTG is necessary in order to offer young fellows the most productive and professionally satisfying future possible.

  2. Braided Reach Cross-Section Monitoring Surveys, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2009, the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho released and implemented the Kootenai River Habitat Restoration Master Plan. This plan aimed to restore, enhance, and maintain...

  3. Practice patterns of doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is growing in popularity, especially within the pediatric population. Research on CAM practitioners and their specialties, such as pediatrics, is lacking. Within the chiropractic profession, pediatrics is one of the most recently established post-graduate specialty programs. This paper describes the demographic and practice characteristics of doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate. Methods 218 chiropractors with a pediatric diplomate were invited to complete our survey using either web-based or mailed paper survey methods. Practitioner demographics, practice characteristics, treatment procedures, referral patterns, and patient characteristics were queried with a survey created with the online survey tool, SurveyMonkey©®. Results A total of 135 chiropractors responded (62.2% response rate); they were predominantly female (74%) and white (93%). Techniques most commonly used were Diversified, Activator ®, and Thompson with the addition of cranial and extremity manipulation to their chiropractic treatments. Adjunctive therapies commonly provided to patients included recommendations for activities of daily living, corrective or therapeutic exercise, ice pack\\cryotherapy, and nutritional counseling. Thirty eight percent of respondents' patients were private pay and 23% had private insurance that was not managed care. Pediatrics represented 31% of the survey respondents' patients. Chiropractors also reported 63% of their work time devoted to direct patient care. Health conditions reportedly treated within the pediatric population included back or neck pain, asthma, birth trauma, colic, constipation, ear infection, head or chest cold, and upper respiratory infections. Referrals made to or from these chiropractors were uncommon. Conclusions This mixed mode survey identified similarities and differences between doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate to other surveys of doctors of chiropractic

  4. Boat-based water-surface cross sectional elevation surveys along the upper Willamette River, Oregon, in Spring, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Greg D.; Wellman, Roy; Mangano, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Water-surface elevation measurements were collected in Spring, 2015 along the upper Willamette River, Oregon, between Harrisburg and Corvallis. These surveys were collected over a small range of discharges, from 6,900 cubic feet per second to 8,300 cubic feet per second, using a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) on a motorboat at various cross sections along the river. These datasets were collected for equipment calibration and validation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission. This is one of multiple survey datasets that will be released for this effort.

  5. Reproductive and sexual health in the Maldives: analysis of data from two cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Anne; Pearson, Luwei; Hamel, Candyce; Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    The Maldives faces challenges in the provision of health services to its population scattered across many small islands. The government commissioned two separate reproductive health surveys, in 1999 and 2004, to inform their efforts to improve reproductive and sexual health services. A stratified random sample of islands provided the study base for a cluster survey in 1999 and a follow-up of the same clusters in 2004. In 1999 the household survey enquired about relevant knowledge, attitudes and practices and views and experience of available reproductive health services, with a focus on women aged 15-49 years. The 2004 household survey included some of the same questions as in 1999, and also sought views of men aged 15-64 years. A separate survey about sexual and reproductive health covered 1141 unmarried youth aged 15-24 years. There were 4087 household respondents in 1999 and 4102 in 2004. The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for modern methods was 33% in 1999 and 34% in 2004. Antenatal care improved: more women in 2004 than in 1999 had at least four antenatal care visits (90.0% v 65.1%) and took iron supplements (86.7% v 49.6%) during their last pregnancy. The response rate for the youth survey was only 42% (varying from 100% in some islands to 12% in sites in the capital). The youth respondents had some knowledge gaps (one third did not know if people with HIV could look healthy and less than half thought condoms could protect against HIV), and some unhelpful attitudes about gender and reproductive health. The two household surveys were commissioned as separate entities, with different priorities and data capture methods, rather than being undertaken as a specific research study. The direct comparisons we could make indicated an unchanged CPR and improvements in antenatal care, with the Maldives ahead of the South Asia region for antenatal care. The low response rate in the youth survey limited interpretation of the findings. But the survey highlighted areas

  6. Mobile Phone Use Among Medical Residents: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Survey in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Khan, Samina A; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Chiang, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phones have great potential for medical education, as they allow health care providers and students to access resources efficiently at the precise time at the point-of-care to help in informed decision making. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of mobile phone usage among medical residents and to explore their attitudes, perceptions, and the challenges they experience when using mobile phones in academic and clinical practice. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 133 residents in 17 different specialties across two large academic hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Web-based validated questionnaire measured mobile phone platform preferences, and their uses in general and medical practice. The perception of confidentiality and safety impact of using mobile phones for communication and accessing patient’s data was also explored, alongside challenges of use and how residents learn to use their mobile phone. Results With a response rate of 101/133 (75.9%) and mean age of 27.8 (SD 3.0) years, we found that 100/101 (99.0%) of participants were mobile phone users with mean duration of use of 5.12 (SD 2.4) years, and a range from 1 to 12 years. There was no significant difference in use between male and female respondents. A negative linear correlation was found between age and use duration (P=.004). The most common operating system used by participants was the iOS platform (55/101, 54.5%), with English the most commonly used language to operate residents’ mobile phones (96/100, 96.0%) despite their native language being Arabic. For communication outside medical practice, chatting applications such as WhatsApp matched phone calls as most commonly used tools (each 88/101, 87.1%). These were also the primary tools for medical communication, but used at a lower rate (each 65/101, 64.4%). In medical practice, drug (83/101, 82.2%) and medical (80/101, 79.2%) references and medical calculation

  7. Heart Failure Telemonitoring in Japan and Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Naoko P; Johansson, Peter; Okada, Ikuko; de Vries, Arjen E; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Strömberg, Anna; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-11-13

    Telemonitoring of heart failure (HF) patients is increasingly discussed at conferences and addressed in research. However, little is known about actual use in specific countries. We aimed to (1) describe the use of non-invasive HF telemonitoring, (2) clarify expectations of telemonitoring among cardiologists and nurses, and (3) describe barriers to the implementation of telemonitoring in Japan and Sweden. This study used a cross-sectional survey of non-invasive HF telemonitoring. A total of 378 Japanese (120 cardiologists, 258 nurses) and 120 Swedish (39 cardiologists, 81 nurses) health care professionals from 165 Japanese and 61 Swedish hospitals/clinics nationwide participated in the study (210 in Japan and 98 in Sweden were approached). Data were collected between November 2013 and May 2014 with a questionnaire that was adapted from a previous Dutch study on telemonitoring. The mean age of the cardiologists and nurses was 47 years and 41 years, respectively. Experience at the current position caring for HF patients was 19 years among the physicians and 15 years among the nurses. In total, 7 Japanese (4.2%) and none of the Swedish health care institutions used telemonitoring. One fourth (24.0%, 118/498) of the health care professionals were familiar with the technology (in Japan: 21.6%, 82/378; in Sweden: 30.0%, 36/120). The highest expectations of telemonitoring (rated on a scale from 0-10) were reduced hospitalizations (8.3 in Japan and 7.5 in Sweden), increased patient self-care (7.8 and 7.4), and offering high-quality care (7.8 and 7.0). The major goal for introducing telemonitoring was to monitor physical condition and recognize signs of worsening HF in Japan (94.1%, 352/374) and Sweden (88.7%, 102/115). The following reasons were also high in Sweden: to monitor effects of treatment and adjust it remotely (86.9%, 100/115) and to do remote drug titration (79.1%, 91/115). Just under a quarter of Japanese (22.4%, 85/378) and over a third of Swedish (38.1%, 45

  8. Mobile Phone Use Among Medical Residents: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Amr; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Khan, Samina A; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Koppel, Cristina; Chiang, Michael F

    2016-05-19

    Mobile phones have great potential for medical education, as they allow health care providers and students to access resources efficiently at the precise time at the point-of-care to help in informed decision making. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of mobile phone usage among medical residents and to explore their attitudes, perceptions, and the challenges they experience when using mobile phones in academic and clinical practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 133 residents in 17 different specialties across two large academic hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Web-based validated questionnaire measured mobile phone platform preferences, and their uses in general and medical practice. The perception of confidentiality and safety impact of using mobile phones for communication and accessing patient's data was also explored, alongside challenges of use and how residents learn to use their mobile phone. With a response rate of 101/133 (75.9%) and mean age of 27.8 (SD 3.0) years, we found that 100/101 (99.0%) of participants were mobile phone users with mean duration of use of 5.12 (SD 2.4) years, and a range from 1 to 12 years. There was no significant difference in use between male and female respondents. A negative linear correlation was found between age and use duration (P=.004). The most common operating system used by participants was the iOS platform (55/101, 54.5%), with English the most commonly used language to operate residents' mobile phones (96/100, 96.0%) despite their native language being Arabic. For communication outside medical practice, chatting applications such as WhatsApp matched phone calls as most commonly used tools (each 88/101, 87.1%). These were also the primary tools for medical communication, but used at a lower rate (each 65/101, 64.4%). In medical practice, drug (83/101, 82.2%) and medical (80/101, 79.2%) references and medical calculation applications (61/101, 60.4%) were the most commonly

  9. Test techniques: A survey paper on cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Robert A.; Dress, David A.; Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to get good experimental data in wind tunnels is often compromised by things seemingly beyond our control. Inadequate Reynolds number, wall interference, and support interference are three of the major problems in wind tunnel testing. Techniques for solving these problems are available. Cryogenic wind tunnels solve the problem of low Reynolds number. Adaptive wall test sections can go a long way toward eliminating wall interference. A magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) completely eliminates support interference. Cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and MSBS are surveyed. A brief historical overview is given and the present state of development and application in each area is described.

  10. Epidemiology of non-fatal injuries among Egyptian children: a community-based cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Halawa, Eman Fawzy; Barakat, Abeer; Rizk, Hoda Ibrahim Ibrahim; Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim

    2015-01-01

    Background Injuries are a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to determine the magnitude and characteristics of child injuries in Egypt and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted over 27 Egyptian governorates from June to October, 2011. The target population was 1977 households with children aged 0?18 years who had experienced accidental injuries. Results In the 6-month period before the investi...

  11. Tobacco and alcohol use among male dental and medical students studying in Davangere city: A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    M G Inderjit; Karibasappa, G.N.; L Nagesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess and compare tobacco and alcohol usage among male medical and dental students among students belonging to dental and medical colleges in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: A self-designed questionnaire containing 20 close-ended questions was prepared to collect the required and relevant information pertaining to tobacco and alcohol consumption. The questionnaire was distributed among 400 students belonging to dental and medical...

  12. Relation of sleep quality and sleep duration to type 2 diabetes: a population-based cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Peian; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Pan; Yu, Jiaxi; Zhang, Ning; Wu, Hongmin; Zhao, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between self-reported sleep duration, sleep quality and the prevalence of diabetes in a contemporary sample of Chinese adults. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Community-based investigation in Xuzhou, China. Participants 16?893 Chinese men and women aged 18?75 who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. Primary and secondary outcome measures Self-reported quality and duration of sleep were obtained by questionnaire, and typ...

  13. Inpatient occupational therapists hand-splinting practice for clients with stroke: A cross-sectional survey from Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Cormican Adrienne; Chockalingam Manigandan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Hand splinting after stroke is a common practice despite inadequate evidence. This warrants a better understanding of the therapists’ splinting practice, to develop clinically meaningful treatment options. Aims: The study examined the nature and prevalence of the factors associated with therapists’ hand splinting practice and their perceived splinting efficacy. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional national survey of hand-splinting practice among inpatient occupational therapis...

  14. Body Pain Intensity and Interference in Adults (45?53 Years Old): A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xianglong Xu; Bing Li; Lingli Liu; Yong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Culture and national care models matter both in reporting and treatment of pain status. However, most findings on body pain intensity and interference in adults are from Western studies, with little reliable evidence from China. This study aimed to assess body pain intensity and interference and its associations with demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health behaviors in adults. A cross-sectional survey was performed to collect data from 1224 adults, who were recruited via multis...

  15. Assessing the Enhancement of Awareness of Conservation Issues Using Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Survey Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Guy; Fuggle, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Compares the results of two survey designs administered to visitors of three South African nature reserves to ascertain changes in conservation awareness. Explains the method, data collection, questionnaire design, statistical tests, pretests, pilot studies, results, and conclusions of the study. Finds that no statistical differences between…

  16. Googling caesarean section: a survey on the quality of the information available on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, B T S; Reiter, M; Betrán, A P; Torloni, M R

    2015-04-01

    To examine the quality and completeness of information on caesarean section in web pages used by laypersons in Brazil, a country with very high rates of caesarean delivery. Cross-sectional study. Brazil. A total of 176 Internet websites. The term 'caesarean delivery' and 25 synonyms were entered into the most popular search engines in Brazil. The first three pages of hits were downloaded and assessed by two independent investigators using the DISCERN instrument and a content checklist. Quality and completeness of information on caesarean section. A total of 3900 web pages were retrieved and 176 fulfilled the selection criteria. The overall average DISCERN score was 43.6 (±8.9 SD), of a maximum score of 75; 30% of the pages were of poor or very poor quality and 47% were of moderate quality. Most pages scored low, especially in questions related to reliability of the information. The most frequently covered topics were: indications for caesarean section (80% of websites), which did not reflect clinical practice; short-term maternal risks (80%); and potential benefits of caesarean section (56%), including maternal and doctor convenience. Less than half of the websites mentioned perinatal risks and less than one-third mentioned long-term maternal risks associated with caesarean section, such as uterine rupture (17%) or placenta praevia/accreta (12%) in future pregnancies. The quality and completeness of web-based resources in Portuguese about caesarean section were poor to moderate. Pending improvement of these resources, obstetricians should warn pregnant women about these facts and encourage them to discuss what they have read on the Internet about caesarean section. The quality and completeness of information about caesareans is poor in 176 websites used by Brazilians. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Cesarean section indications and anthropometric parameters in Rwandan nulliparae: preliminary results from a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoma, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    Maternal anthropometric parameters as risk factors for cesarean section have always been a matter of interest and concern for obstetricians. Some of these parameters have been shown to be predictors of dystocia. This study aims at showing the relationship between cesarean section indications and anthropometric parameters sizes in Rwandan nulliparae for the purpose of comparison and appropriate recommendations. A cross-sectional and analytical study was made on data collected from 32 operated patients among 152 nulliparae with singleton pregnancy at term and vertex presentation. Concerned anthropometric parameters were height, weight and six pelvic distances. Fisher exact and Student's tests were used to compare observed proportions and mean values, respectively. Findings were as follows: 1) the overall cesarean section rate was 21.05%; 2) acute fetal distress (31.3 %), generally contracted pelvis (28.1 %), and engagement failure (25%) were the most frequent indications of cesarean section; 3) all patients ≤ 145 cm tall were operated on for general pelvis contraction whose proportion was significantly higher in them than in the others (p difference with other weight categories was not significant; 5) considered external pelvic diameters but the Biiliac Diameter displayed average measurements smaller in clinically contracted pelvis than in other CS indications. External pelvimetry associated with specific other anthropometric parameters could be helpful in the screening of generally contracted pelves, and consequently pregnancies at high risk of cephalopelvic disproportion in nulliparous women, particularly in developing countries with limited resources. Further investigations are requested to deal with this topic in depth.

  18. Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in 9 European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; Wolf, Alexandra; Poortvliet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    -aged children applicable in different European countries. Within the Pro Children Project, such an instrument has been developed. This paper describes the cross-sectional survey in 11-year-olds in 9 countries. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey used nationally, and in 2 countries regionally, representative...

  19. A cross-sectional survey of child and adolescent analysts in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Leon; Karush, Ruth K; Garfinkle, Michael S; Roose, Steven P; Cherry, Sabrina

    2009-08-01

    The field of child and adolescent psychoanalysis has been considered an endangered specialty for many decades. This study surveyed the nature of the practice of child and adolescent analysts (graduates and candidates) affiliated with three institutes accredited by the American Psychoanalytic Association in the New York City area. Sixty-one percent of those surveyed (63 of 103) responded. The child and adolescent analysts in this cohort treat a total of 201 adult, child, and adolescent analytic cases (M = 3.2, SD = 2.6). Of these cases, 17% are at a three-times-weekly frequency. Child and adolescent analytic practice is small, with a total of 56 analytic cases (M = .9, SD = 1.2). While 64% of these analysts have no child or adolescent analytic cases currently in treatment, 24% have very active child and adolescent analytic practices, conducting 73% of all the child and adolescent analyses reported. Implications of these findings and recommendations for future work are discussed.

  20. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  1. A cross-sectional survey on wounds in horses in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoret, C L; Bolwell, C F; Riley, C B

    2016-03-01

    To determine the frequency and type of skin wounds encountered by New Zealand veterinarians in their equine patients, the duration and estimated costs of treatment as well as the expected outcomes for these wounds. An online survey was sent to all veterinarians registered with the New Zealand Equine Veterinary Association. The survey comprised questions on the location and experience of respondents, the number of wound-related cases in relation to the total equine caseload, the type and anatomical location of wounds treated, the frequency, duration and costs of treatments, the outcome of wound treatment and an estimate of the most common causes of death or euthanasia in their equine patients. The survey response rate was 110/262 (41.9%). The median number of equine cases seen by respondents was 20 (interquartile range (IQR) 6-60) per month; of these, five (IQR 2-10) were wound related. Wounds ranked third after lameness and respiratory disease for the relative frequency with which respondents encountered them. Of 102 respondents 59 (58%) reported that their clients frequently treated wounds incurred by their horse without consulting a veterinarian. Wounds on the distal limb, whether involving only the skin or also deeper structures, were reported by 86/101 (85%) respondents as the most frequently encountered. Wounds in this location also incurred the longest treatment period and were the most prone to develop complications. Finally, wounds ranked second, after colic, as the most common cause of death/euthanasia in the veterinary respondents' equine patients. The data obtained via the survey indicate that skin wounds, particularly on the distal limb, are a common occurrence in horses in New Zealand and, when they involve structures underlying the skin, are costly and time-consuming to manage and may lead to decreased performance, retirement or euthanasia. Consequently, we recommend that more effort be devoted to the education of equine veterinarians and owners, and

  2. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leta Tesfaye H; Sandøy Ingvild F; Fylkesnes Knut

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) 2005, w...

  3. An international cross-sectional survey of antimicrobial stewardship programmes in hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, P; Pulcini, C.; Levy Hara, G.; West, R M; Gould, I. M.; Harbarth, S.; Nathwani, D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To report the extent and components of global efforts in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in hospitals. Methods An Internet-based survey comprising 43 questions was disseminated worldwide in 2012. Results Responses were received from 660 hospitals in 67 countries: Africa, 44; Asia, 50; Europe, 361; North America, 72; Oceania, 30; and South and Central America, 103. National AMS standards existed in 52% of countries, 4% were planning them and 58% had an AMS programme. The main barrie...

  4. The Teaching of Ethics and Professionalism in Plastic Surgery Residency: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Katelyn G; Ingraham, John M; Schneider, Lisa F; Saadeh, Pierre B; Vercler, Christian J

    2017-05-01

    The ethical practice of medicine has always been of utmost importance, and plastic surgery is no exception. The literature is devoid of information on the teaching of ethics and professionalism in plastic surgery. In light of this, a survey was sent to ascertain the status of ethics training in plastic surgery residencies. A 21-question survey was sent from the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons meeting to 180 plastic surgery program directors and coordinators via email. Survey questions inquired about practice environment, number of residents, presence of a formal ethics training program, among others. Binary regression was used to determine if any relationships existed between categorical variables, and Poisson linear regression was used to assess relationships between continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at a P value of 0.05. A total of 104 members responded to the survey (58% response rate). Sixty-three percent were program directors, and most (89%) practiced in academic settings. Sixty-two percent in academics reported having a formal training program, and 60% in private practice reported having one. Only 40% of programs with fewer than 10 residents had ethics training, whereas 78% of programs with more than 20 residents did. The odds of having a training program were slightly higher (odds ratio, 1.1) with more residents (P = 0.17). Despite the lack of information in the literature, formal ethics and professionalism training does exist in many plastic surgery residencies, although barriers to implementation do exist. Plastic surgery leadership should be involved in the development of standardized curricula to help overcome these barriers.

  5. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users

    OpenAIRE

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample (n=2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experie...

  6. Using Market Segmentation to Develop a Large Section, Web-Enhanced Survey Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jason; Robertson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Increasing enrollment and decreasing budgets have caused many public universities, such as San Fransisco State University (SFU), to offer mega-sections of courses to hundreds of students. Yet the needs of many students are at odds with the large enrollments, inflexible times, and inconvenient locations of these classes. Jason Cole and Bruce…

  7. National survey of molecular bacterial diversity of New Zealand groundwater: relationships between biodiversity, groundwater chemistry and aquifer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisena, Kosala A; Daughney, Christopher J; Moreau-Fournier, Magali; Ryan, Ken G; Chambers, Geoffrey K

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital component of rural and urban water supplies in New Zealand. Although extensive monitoring of chemical and physical properties is conducted due to the high demand for this valuable resource, current information on its bacterial content is limited. However, bacteria provide an immense contribution to drive the biogeochemical processes in the groundwater ecosystem as in any other ecosystem. Therefore, a proper understanding of bacterial diversity is crucial to assess the effectiveness of groundwater management policies. In this study, we investigated the bacterial community structure in NZ groundwater at a national scale using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) molecular profiling tool and determined the relationships between bacterial diversity and groundwater chemistry, geological parameters and human impact. Considerable bacterial diversity was present and the community structures were strongly related to groundwater chemistry, and in particular to redox potential and human impact, reflecting their potential influence on determination of bacterial diversity. Further, the mean residence time of groundwater also showed relationships with bacterial community structure. These novel findings pertaining to community composition and its relationships with environmental parameters will provide a strong foundation for qualitative exploration of the bacterial diversity in NZ groundwater in relation to sustainable management of this valuable resource. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge of binge eating disorder: a cross-sectional survey of physicians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supina, Dylan; Herman, Barry K; Frye, Carla B; Shillington, Alicia C

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED)--now a designated disorder in the DSM-5--is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED), affecting 2-3% of the US population. This survey of US physicians assesses how BED is diagnosed, treated and referred. Internists, family practitioners, obstetrics/gynecologist (OB/GYNs) and psychiatrists were randomly selected from a nationally-representative panel. Participants completed an online survey and reviewed case vignettes consistent with DSM-5-defined BED, then answered questions to elicit whether they would assess for psychiatric conditions including EDs. Those reporting they would screen and who correctly identified BED in vignettes received additional questions about BED diagnosis, treatment, and referral patterns. Of 278 physicians surveyed, 96% were board-certified and 87% had practiced >10 years. 23% were psychiatrists, 27% family practitioners, 31% internists and 19% OB/GYNs. 92% were 'somewhat likely' to screen for ED after reviewing DSM-5-consistent vignettes. 206 (74%) correctly identified BED. Of these, 33% and 68% reported they proactively screen eating habits for all patients and obese patients, respectively. 10% reported not screening eating habits even in the presence of ED symptoms. Fewer than half reported using DSM criteria in Diagnosing BED, and 56 (27%) did not recognize BED to be a discreet ED. Although ED awareness is improving, understanding BED as a distinct ED is lacking, which may result in low rates of screening and diagnosis. This study illustrates how taking a complete patient history (including probing BED characteristics) may be an effective first-line strategy for clinicians to facilitate optimal care for these patients.

  9. Rotating resident didactics in the emergency department: a cross-sectional survey on current curricular practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzetti, Jeremy B; Aldeen, Amer Z; Mark Courtney, D

    2010-10-01

    Rotating (non-emergency medicine [EM]) residents perform clinical rotations in many academic emergency departments (EDs). The primary objective of this work was to quantify characteristics of rotating residents and the didactic curricula offered to them during their EM rotations. Secondary objectives were to identify barriers to instituting such didactics and to establish ideal curricular contents. A Web-based survey was administered by e-mail to residency directors of all U.S. allopathic EM residency programs. Consent was obtained in the first part of the survey, and the study was deemed exempt from full review by the institutional review board. Questions solicited information regarding type and quantity of rotating residents in their main EDs, the "didactic educational format" available to rotating residents, and ideal and actual didactic curricular contents. Statistics were reported as proportions and means with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and medians with interquartile ranges (IQRs). Surveys were sent to 143 programs, and the response rate was 71%. Ninety-nine percent of respondents had rotating residents in their EDs, and the median number per month was 4 (IQR = 3-6). Five percent of respondents had established didactic curricula specifically for rotating residents, and 64% sent them to either EM resident or medical student lectures. Thirty-one percent of programs reported no didactics, and 65% of these felt there was no need for such education. Resuscitation, trauma, and toxicology were cited as the most important subjects for actual and ideal curricula. Most academic EDs have rotating residents, but very few provide didactic education specific to their learning needs and almost a third provide no didactics. © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  10. To Morcellate or Not to Morcellate: A Cross-Sectional Survey Of Gynecologic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhat, Farr; Apostol, Radu; Greene, Alexis D; Pilkinton, Marjorie L

    2017-01-01

    The inadvertent dissemination of uterine cancer cells with the power morcellator has received much attention in the press and a warning from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Many hospitals prohibit the use of the morcellator in gynecologic surgery. We conducted a survey in an attempt to assess gynecologic surgeons' beliefs regarding the intracorporeal power morcellation of fibroids in light of the risk of dissemination of malignancy in patients in whom the presence of cancer is unknown before surgery. We conducted an Internet-based survey of 3505 members of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons (SLS) to assess demographics, current use of the intracorporeal power morcellator, and whether the recent negative press has affected gynecologic surgeons' use of the morcellator. Of the 3505 SLS members surveyed, 518 responded (response rate, 14.77%). Three hundred thirteen (61%) of the respondents were not using the intracorporeal power morcellator. Of those, 48% reported the reason was a hospital-wide ban, and an additional 17% reported lack of availability (not in stock). Senior attendings with >20 years of experience used the morcellator more often than junior attendings and fellows (P = .007). Furthermore, the morcellator was used significantly less among those with the belief that morcellation of occult malignancy affects survival (P = .013). Three hundred sixty-one (76%) of the participants currently perform laparotomy in fewer than a quarter of their cases; most those cases are still performed using laparoscopic and robot-assisted techniques. The recent negative press suggesting that intracorporeal power morcellation can disseminate occult malignancy and affect survival has decreased the use of the morcellator. Despite the declining use of power morcellation, most practicing gynecologic surgeons have not converted their procedures to laparotomy.

  11. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Villegas-Arrizón, Ascensio; Ledogar, Robert J; Delabra-Jardón, Verónica; Alvarez-Chávez, José; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of bribery to pass examinations and for administrative procedures. The

  12. Patient safety in practical nurses' education: A cross-sectional survey of newly registered practical nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Sears, Nancy; Edge, Dana S; Tregunno, Deborah; Ginsburg, Liane

    2017-04-01

    Practical nurses have experienced an increasing scope of practice, including an expectation to care for complex patients and function on interdisciplinary teams. Little is known about the degree to which patient safety principles are addressed in practical nursing education. To examine self-reported patient safety competencies of practical nurses. A cross-sectional online survey (July 2014) and face-to-face interviews (June 2015). Ontario, Canada. Survey participants were practical nurses newly registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario between January 2012 and December 2013. Interview participants were faculty and students in a practical nursing program in Ontario. Survey respondents completed the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey online. Self-reported competencies in various patient safety domains were compared between classroom and clinical settings. Faculty members were interviewed about educational preparation of practical nurses and students were interviewed to provide insight into interpretation of survey questions. The survey response rate was 28.4% (n=1104/3883). Mean domain scores indicated a high level of confidence in patient safety competence (2years and in those who obtained their education outside of Canada. Faculty believed their approach to teaching and learning instilled a deep understanding of the limits to practical nurse autonomous practice. Practical nurses were confident in what they learned about patient safety in their educational programs. The high degree of patient safety competence may be a true reflection of practical nurses understanding of, and comfort with, the limits of their knowledge and, ultimately, the limits of their individual autonomous practice. Further exploration as to whether the questionnaire requires additional modification for use with practical nurse populations is warranted. However, this study provides the first examination of practical nurses' perspectives and perceptions about patient

  13. HIV Futures 8: Protocol for a Repeated Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Survey of People Living with HIV in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jennifer; Brown, Graham; Lyons, Anthony; Thorpe, Rachel; Dowsett, Gary W; Lucke, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    More than 27,000 Australians currently live with HIV. Most of these people have access to quality clinical care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can expect good general health. However, HIV-related stigma is a problem and many people living with HIV experience poorer than average mental health. Issues of aging are also of increasing concern. This paper describes the methods and sample for the HIV Futures 8 study, a national survey of people living with HIV in Australia that aimed to identify factors that support health and well-being among this population. HIV Futures 8 forms part of a series of cross-sectional surveys (The "HIV Futures" studies) that have been repeated periodically since 1997. In the most recent survey, participants were able to opt into a prospective longitudinal study. HIV Futures 8 was open to people aged over 17 who were living with HIV. Data were collected in 2015/2016 using a self-complete survey that contained approximately 250 items related to physical and mental health, use of ART, HIV exposure and testing, financial security, social connectedness, relationships, life satisfaction, resilience, stigma, use of health and support services, and health literacy. To enable comparison of cross-sectional data over time, questionnaire items were consistent with those used in previous HIV Futures surveys. In HIV Futures 8, participants were invited to volunteer coded information that will allow longitudinal follow-up when participants complete subsequent HIV Futures surveys. The survey was advertised through the networks of HIV organizations, on social media and through HIV clinics and services. HIV Futures 8 was completed by 895 participants. This represents approximately 3.8% of the total number of people living with diagnosed HIV in Australia in 2014. Findings from HIV Futures 8 will contribute important insights into the complexity of factors that support physical and mental well-being among people living with HIV. The findings will also

  14. CLINICAL REABILITATION OF UPPER LIMB IN CHRONIC STROKE IN PORTUGAL A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Vieira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 77% of stroke survivors have upper limb dysfunction. The scientific evidence for interventions in upper limb rehabilitation in stroke has shown variable results. To improve health care treatments in this domain it is needed to know what modalities are actually being used by physiotherapists. Methods: A national web-based survey focused in characterizing the profile of Portuguese physiotherapists working in post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation was conducted in 237 health institutions (n= 462 physiotherapists. The recruitment was conducted from August to December 2014. Analytic and descriptive analysis were used. Results: A total of 179 physiotherapists from 64 different locations from Portugal answered the survey, with a rate of response of 38.7%. The average age of respondents was 29.25±6.4 years old and predominantly finished the graduation or bachelor degree between 2001 and 2010. More than half hadn´t carried out any specialization in neurologic rehabilitation area. The top 5 modalities most used in the rehabilitation of upper limb in acute stroke are Goal Oriented Tasks (93.4% n=141, Motor Learning (89.4% n=135, Passive Mobilization (88.7% n=134, Task Repetition (87.4% n=132 and Bobath/Neurodevelopmental Therapy (86.9% n=131. Conclusions: The main modalities used for physiotherapists in upper limb rehabilitation in acute stroke have sparse levels of evidence. It is important to alert teachers, formers, physiotherapists and students for interventions with supported scientific results.

  15. Rates of criminal victimization in an early intervention for psychosis service - a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rowena; Banbury, Luke

    2017-01-26

    There is a growing body of research looking into the high rates of victimization amongst people with severe mental illness. Studies to date have tended to look at victimization rates in people with chronic mental illness over a wide age range. However, national crime surveys indicate that younger people are more likely to be the victim of crime than older people. There is also evidence that people from ethnic minorities are more likely to experience and less likely to report criminal victimization. This study therefore aimed to look at victimization rates specifically in young people with first episode psychosis (FEP) in Birmingham, one of the most youthful and ethnically diverse cities in the UK. Patients with FEP under the South Birmingham Early Intervention Service were asked to complete a modified version of the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW). Data was compared to control-group data from the CSEW 2014. Patients with FEP were significantly more likely to be victims of crime, in particular violent crime, than their age-matched counterparts. The overall victimization rate was 39%. Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups were more likely to be victims of personal and violent crime than the white FEP population. Victimization rates were broadly in keeping with other UK and international studies. Young people with FEP, particularly those from BME backgrounds, are at significantly greater risk of victimhood than the general population of the West Midlands. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Goals of care conversation teaching in residency - a cross-sectional survey of postgraduate program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze des Ordons, Amanda; Kassam, Aliya; Simon, Jessica

    2017-01-06

    Residents are commonly involved in establishing goals of care for hospitalized patients. While education can improve the quality of these conversations, whether and how postgraduate training programs integrate such teaching into their curricula is not well established. The objective of this study was to characterize perceptions of current teaching and assessment of goals of care conversations, and program director interest in associated curricular integration. An electronic survey was sent to all postgraduate program directors at the University of Calgary. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative comments were analyzed using thematic analysis. The survey response rate was 34% (22/64). Formal goals of care conversation teaching is incorporated into 63% of responding programs, and most commonly involves lectures. Informal teaching occurs in 86% of programs, involving discussion, direct observation and role modeling in the clinical setting. Seventy-three percent of programs assess goals of care conversation skills, mostly in the clinical setting through feedback. Program directors believe that over two-thirds of clinical faculty are prepared to teach goals of care conversations, and are interested in resources to teach and assess goals of care conversations. Themes that emerged include 1) general perceptions, 2) need for teaching, 3) ideas for teaching, and 4) assessment of goals of care conversations. The majority of residency training programs at the University of Calgary incorporate some goals of care conversation teaching and assessment into their curricula. Program directors are interested in resources to improve teaching and assessment of goals of care conversations.

  17. Multimorbidity prevalence and patterns across socioeconomic determinants: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agborsangaya Calypse B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the prevalence of multimorbidity, defined as having two or more chronic conditions, have predominantly focused on the elderly. We estimated the prevalence and specific patterns of multimorbidity across different adult age groups. Furthermore, we examined the associations of multimorbidity with socio-demographic factors. Methods Using data from the Health Quality Council of Alberta (HQCA 2010 Patient Experience Survey, the prevalence of self reported multimorbidity was assessed by telephone interview among a sample of 5010 adults (18 years and over from the general population. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between a range of socio-demographic factors and multimorbidity. Results The overall age- and sex-standardized prevalence of multimorbidity was 19.0% in the surveyed general population. Of those with multimorbidity, 70.2% were aged less than 65 years. The most common pairing of chronic conditions was chronic pain and arthritis. Age, sex, income and family structure were independently associated with multimorbidity. Conclusions Multimorbidity is a common occurrence in the general adult population, and is not limited to the elderly. Future prevention programs and practice guidelines should take into account the common patterns of multimorbidity.

  18. Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. R...

  19. Violence against children perpetrated by peers: A cross-sectional school-based survey in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Wandera, SO; Clarke, K.; Knight, L; Allen, E.; Walakira, E; Namy, S; Naker, D.; DeVries, K.

    2017-01-01

    Violence against children by peers is a global public health problem. We aimed to assess factors associated with peer violence victimization among primary school children in Uganda. We conducted multilevel multivariable logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional data from 3706 primary students in 42 Ugandan primary schools. Among primary school students, 29% and 34% had ever experienced physical and emotional violence perpetrated by their peers, respectively. Factors strongly associated ...

  20. Perceived stress and gastrointestinal symptoms in nursing students in Korea: A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Eun; Mun Mi; Lee Seon; Cho Ho

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although nursing students experience a high level of stress during their training, there has been limited research on stress and its impact on the student's physical responses, such as gastrointestinal symptoms. The aims of this study are to assess the prevalence of GI symptoms in nursing students in Korea and to examine the association between the perceived stress and GI symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. A total of 715 students of a th...

  1. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: A Cross-sectional Questionnaire Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Haluza, Daniela; Cervinka, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Unprotected leisure time exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or artificial tanning beds is the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma, a malignant skin cancer with increasing incidences over the past decades. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of skin health information provided by several sources and different publishing issues on knowledge, risk perception, and sun protective behavior of sunbathers. Methods A cross-sectional questionna...

  2. Updated operational protocols for the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation Chemistry Quality Assurance Project in support of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn

    2017-02-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Quality Systems operates the Precipitation Chemistry Quality Assurance Project (PCQA) for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) and National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network (NADP/MDN). Since 1978, various programs have been implemented by the PCQA to estimate data variability and bias contributed by changing protocols, equipment, and sample submission schemes within NADP networks. These programs independently measure the field and laboratory components which contribute to the overall variability of NADP wet-deposition chemistry and precipitation depth measurements. The PCQA evaluates the quality of analyte-specific chemical analyses from the two, currently (2016) contracted NADP laboratories, Central Analytical Laboratory and Mercury Analytical Laboratory, by comparing laboratory performance among participating national and international laboratories. Sample contamination and stability are evaluated for NTN and MDN by using externally field-processed blank samples provided by the Branch of Quality Systems. A colocated sampler program evaluates the overall variability of NTN measurements and bias between dissimilar precipitation gages and sample collectors.This report documents historical PCQA operations and general procedures for each of the external quality-assurance programs from 2007 to 2016.

  3. Defining and treating acute kidney injury patients in Brazilian intensive care units: Results from a cross-sectional nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, Henrique; do Amaral Campos, Pedro Paulo Zanella; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; de Carvalho, Frederico Bruzzi; Westphal, Glauco; Gusmão, Dimitri; Lisboa, Thiago; Grion, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho; de Assunção, Murillo Santucci Cesar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study is to characterize the practices of Brazilian intensivists toward acute kidney injury (AKI) definition and management. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 36 Brazilian hospitals. Of 731 ICU physicians invited to participate, 310 (42%) responded to the survey. Nearly half of the intensive care unit (ICU) physicians (146/310) do not apply AKIN and/or RIFLE definitions to their ICU patients. Most of the respondents prescribe intravenous fluids as a first-line therapeutic intervention for AKI patients. Although 38% of the surveyed physicians considered worsening of respiratory parameters to be the main criterion for stopping fluid infusion, only 15% considered daily net fluid balance as a criterion. Most of the respondents believed in the benefits of early renal replacement therapy (RRT) and considered worsening acidosis the most important criteria for starting early RRT. The main reason for a nephrologist referral was an urgently needed RRT. Despite recent advances in AKI definition and management, most of the surveyed ICU physicians in Brazil have not incorporated them in their clinical practice. Important differences in the management of AKI patients were observed among Brazilian ICU physicians, which is relevant for educational interventions and future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of burnout, depression, anxiety and stress in Australian midwives: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedy, D K; Sidebotham, M; Gamble, J; Pallant, Julie; Fenwick, J

    2017-01-09

    The health and wellbeing of midwives are important considerations for workforce retention and quality care. The occurrence and relationships among mental health conditions such as burnout and depression have received little attention. We investigated the prevalence of burnout, depression, anxiety and stress in Australian midwives. An online survey was conducted in September 2014. Participants were recruited through the Australian College of Midwives and professional networks. The survey sought personal and professional details. Standard measures included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) (Personal, Work and Client subscales), and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). The sample was collapsed into two groups according to DASS clinical cut-offs (normal/mild versus moderate/severe/extreme). Effect size statistics were calculated and judged according to Cohen's guidelines. One thousand thirty-seven surveys were received. Respondents were predominantly female (98%), with an average age of 46.43 years, and 16.51 years of practice. Using a CBI subscale cut-off score of 50 and above (moderate and higher), 64.9% (n = 643) reported personal burnout; 43.8% (n = 428) reported work-related burnout; and 10.4% (n = 102) reported client-related burnout. All burnout subscales were significantly correlated with depression, anxiety and stress, particularly personal and work-related burnout with Spearman's rho correlations ranging from .51 to .63 (p anxiety (20.4%), and stress (22.1%) symptoms. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed significant differences between groups with depression (r = .43), anxiety (r = .41) and stress (r = 48) having a medium size effect on burnout. Prevalence of personal and work-related burnout in Australian midwives was high. The physical and psychological exhaustion associated with the different types of burnout were reflected in symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Further research is needed to support the

  5. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes-Solís Sergio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. Results In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. Conclusion The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of

  6. Sleep Bruxism-Tooth Grinding Prevalence, Characteristics and Familial Aggregation: A Large Cross-Sectional Survey and Polysomnographic Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Samar; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Huynh, Nelly; Montplaisir, Jacques; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep bruxism (SB) is characterized by tooth grinding and jaw clenching during sleep. Familial factors may contribute to the occurrence of SB. This study aims are: (1) revisit the prevalence and characteristics of SB in a large cross-sectional survey and assess familial aggregation of SB, (2) assess comorbidity such as insomnia and pain, (3) compare survey data in a subset of subjects diagnosed using polysomnography research criteria. Methods: A sample of 6,357 individuals from the general population in Quebec, Canada, undertook an online survey to assess the prevalence of SB, comorbidities, and familial aggregation. Data on familial aggregation were compared to 111 SB subjects diagnosed using polysomnography. Results: Regularly occurring SB was reported by 8.6% of the general population, decreases with age, without any gender difference. SB awareness is concomitant with complaints of difficulties maintaining sleep in 47.6% of the cases. A third of SB positive probands reported pain. A 2.5 risk ratio of having a first-degree family member with SB was found in SB positive probands. The risk of reporting SB in first-degree family ranges from 1.4 to 2.9 with increasing severity of reported SB. Polysomnographic data shows that 37% of SB subjects had at least one first-degree relative with reported SB with a relative risk ratio of 4.625. Conclusions: Our results support the heritability of SB-tooth grinding and that sleep quality and pain are concomitant in a significant number of SB subjects. Citation: Khoury S, Carra MC, Huynh N, Montplaisir J, Lavigne GJ. Sleep bruxism-tooth grinding prevalence, characteristics and familial aggregation: a large cross-sectional survey and polysomnographic validation. SLEEP 2016;39(11):2049–2056. PMID:27568807

  7. Changing perspectives on marijuana use during early adolescence and young adulthood: Evidence from a panel of cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Perron, Brian E; Gonzalez, Jennifer M Reingle; Goings, Trenette Clark

    2016-12-01

    Prior research has often overlooked potential cohort differences in marijuana views and use across adolescence and young adulthood. To begin to address this gap, we conduct an exploratory examination of marijuana views and use among American youth using a panel of cross-sectional surveys. Findings are based on repeated, cross-sectional data collected annually from adolescents (ages 12-17; n=230,452) and young adults (ages 18-21; n=120,588) surveyed as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2014. For each of the birth years between 1986 and 1996, we combined a series of nationally representative cross-sections to provide multi-year data strings designed to approximate nationally representative cohorts. Compared to youth born in the mid-to-late 1980s, youth born in the mid-1990s reported significantly higher levels of marijuana disapproval during the early adolescent years (Age 14: 1988=64.7%, 1994=70.4%) but lower levels of disapproval during the young adult years (Age 19: 1988=32.0%, 1994=25.0%; Age 20: 1988=27.9%, 1994=19.7%). Moreover, the prevalence of marijuana use among youth born in 1994 was significantly lower-compared to youth born in 1988-at age 14 (1988: 11.39%, 1994: 8.19%) and significantly higher at age 18 (1988: 29.67%, 1994: 34.83%). This pattern held even when adjusting for potential confounding by demographic changes in the population across the study period. We see evidence of changes in the perceptions of marijuana use among youth born during the late twentieth century. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sickness absence associated with shared and open-plan offices - a national cross sectional questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Feveile, H; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    of office; the analysis was adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and physical activity during leisure time. Results Sickness absence was significantly related to having a greater number of occupants in the office (P...Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether shared and open-plan offices are associated with more days of sickness absence than cellular offices. Methods The analysis was based on a national survey of Danish inhabitants between 18–59 years of age (response rate 62%), and the study...... for confounders. Compared to cellular offices, occupants in 2-person offices had 50% more days of sickness absence [rate ratio (RR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13–1.98], occupants in 3–6-person offices had 36% more days of sickness absence (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08–1.73), and occupants in open...

  9. Prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines: a cross-sectional survey in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin Hussain; Okumura, Junko; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Akazawa, Manabu; Kimura, Kazuko

    2010-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines in Cambodia, and to determine influential factors. Commonly used anthelminthic medicines were collected from private drug outlets. Medicines were carefully observed including their registration labelling, and their authenticity was investigated with the manufacturers and the Medicines Regulatory Authorities. Samples were analysed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography at the National Health Product Quality Control Centre, Cambodia. Two hundred and three samples of anthelminthics were collected from 137 drug stores. Domestic products constituted 36.9%. Of 196 samples which were verified for registration, 15.8% were not registered. Of 165 samples successfully investigated for their authenticity, 7 (4.2%) were identified as counterfeit. All of these medicines were purchased in open packs or containers, and most of them were foreign manufactured and/or without registration. The results of our survey urge strict implementation of drug registration and vigilance on the availability of unregistered medicines to combat counterfeit medicines in Cambodia.

  10. Healthcare Managers' Perceptions of Patient Perpetrated Aggression and Prevention Strategies: A Cross Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Maria; Swain, Nicola; Gale, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Patient or client aggression towards staff is a risk in healthcare. Healthcare takes place in a variety of settings, including hospitals, community, and Aged Care facilities. A minimal amount is known regarding the existence of safety and training measures available throughout the broad range of hospital and community healthcare services. A web-based survey of the type and frequency of violence experienced by healthcare staff was sent to unit managers working in mental health and older peoples' services of District Health Boards, Non-Governmental Organisations, and Aged Care facilities across New Zealand. One hundred and forty-one managers responded to the survey with a response rate of 79.21%. Managers reported high rates of verbal aggression and assaults against staff within their services. A total of 60% of respondents stated that an increase in assaults against staff was due to an increase in violent events and 43.1% related this to increased staff awareness and reporting of violent events to management. Communication skills and de-escalation training were provided across approximately 95% of organisations. The availability of safety measures including panic buttons, personal alarms, use of security personnel, and police assistance were more widely available and accessible within hospital settings and the community sector was found to mostly rely on police for assistance when violence occurs. The perception of violence is high in healthcare. Prevention and management training is provided in public hospital and aged care setting but not so much in NGOs. All areas of healthcare provision could benefit from increased evidence based aggression prevention programmes.

  11. Traumatic Injuries in Developing Countries: Report from a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey of Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kerry-Ann; Groen, Reinou S.; Kamara, Thaim B.; Farahzard, Mina; Samai, Mohamed; Yambasu, Sahr E.; Cassidy, Laura D.; Kushner, Adam L.; Wren, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the tremendous disability and mortality caused by traumatic injuries worldwide, there is a relative dearth of information on the burden of injuries in developing countries. In an effort to document the surgical burden of disease in Sierra Leone, a nationwide survey was conducted utilizing the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) tool. Here, we report the injury data from this study with the aim to (1) provide an estimate of injury prevalence, (2) determine the mechanisms of injury, and (3) evaluate the degree of injury related deaths. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in Sierra Leone in 2012. Participants were selected using a two-stage random sampling method, which generated a target population of 3750 participants across the 14 districts of Sierra Leone. Frequency distributions of mechanisms of injury based on age, sex, and urban versus rural residence were computed, and bivariate logistic regression models used to determine associations between sociodemographic factors and injury patterns. Results Data was analyzed from 1,843 households and 3,645 respondents, representing a response rate of 98.3%. Four hundred and fifty-two respondents (12.4%) reported at least one traumatic injury in the preceding year. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal injuries, accounting for over 40% of injuries. The extremities were most commonly injured (55% of injuries) regardless of age or sex. Although motor vehicle related injuries were the 4th most common cause of injury overall, they were the leading cause of injury related deaths, accounting for almost 6% of fatal injuries. Conclusion This study provides baseline data on the burden of traumatic injuries in one of the world's poorest nations. In addition to injury prevention measures, immediate strategies to address current healthcare deficits are urgently needed in these resource poor areas. This report is an Original Article with Level I evidence. PMID:23325317

  12. General practitioners' views of clinically led commissioning: cross-sectional survey in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Checkland, Kath; Coleman, Anna; Spooner, Sharon; Gibson, Jonathan; Sutton, Matt

    2017-06-08

    Involving general practitioners (GPs) in the commissioning/purchasing of services has been an important element in English health policy for many years. The Health and Social Care Act 2012 handed responsibility for commissioning of the majority of care for local populations to GP-led Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). In this paper, we explore GP attitudes to involvement in commissioning and future intentions for engagement. Survey of a random sample of GPs across England in 2015. The Eighth National GP Worklife Survey was distributed to GPs in spring 2015. Responses were received from 2611 respondents (response rate = 46%). We compared responses across different GP characteristics and conducted two sample tests of proportions to identify statistically significant differences in responses across groups. We also used multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated with wanting a formal CCG role in the future. While GPs generally agree that they can add value to aspects of commissioning, only a minority feel that this is an important part of their role. Many current leaders intend to quit in the next 5 years, and there is limited appetite among those not currently in a formal role to take up such a role in the future. CCGs were set up as 'membership organisations' but only a minority of respondents reported feeling that they had 'ownership' of their local CCG and these were often GPs with formal CCG roles. However, respondents generally agree that the CCG has a legitimate role in influencing the work that they do. CCGs need to engage in active succession planning to find the next generation of GP leaders. GPs believe that CCGs have a legitimate role in influencing their work, suggesting that there may be scope for CCGs to involve GPs more fully in roles short of formal leadership. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  13. General practitioners’ views of clinically led commissioning: cross-sectional survey in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Checkland, Kath; Coleman, Anna; Spooner, Sharon; Gibson, Jonathan; Sutton, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Involving general practitioners (GPs) in the commissioning/purchasing of services has been an important element in English health policy for many years. The Health and Social Care Act 2012 handed responsibility for commissioning of the majority of care for local populations to GP-led Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). In this paper, we explore GP attitudes to involvement in commissioning and future intentions for engagement. Design and setting Survey of a random sample of GPs across England in 2015. Method The Eighth National GP Worklife Survey was distributed to GPs in spring 2015. Responses were received from 2611 respondents (response rate = 46%). We compared responses across different GP characteristics and conducted two sample tests of proportions to identify statistically significant differences in responses across groups. We also used multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated with wanting a formal CCG role in the future. Results While GPs generally agree that they can add value to aspects of commissioning, only a minority feel that this is an important part of their role. Many current leaders intend to quit in the next 5 years, and there is limited appetite among those not currently in a formal role to take up such a role in the future. CCGs were set up as ‘membership organisations’ but only a minority of respondents reported feeling that they had ‘ownership’ of their local CCG and these were often GPs with formal CCG roles. However, respondents generally agree that the CCG has a legitimate role in influencing the work that they do. Conclusion CCGs need to engage in active succession planning to find the next generation of GP leaders. GPs believe that CCGs have a legitimate role in influencing their work, suggesting that there may be scope for CCGs to involve GPs more fully in roles short of formal leadership. PMID:28596217

  14. Usage and appraisal of educational media by homeopathic therapists – A cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escher Max

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During recent years the market for homeopathic education media has increasingly diversified with old (books, seminars and new media (video-seminars, pc-programs, homeo-wiki and internet-courses. However, little is known about homeopaths’ preferences in using educational media and their requirements of this topic. Aim This survey was designed to gain a better understanding of the usage and appraisal of educational media by homeopaths. Methods 192 homeopathic practitioners (GPs and health practitioners at a educational conference were asked to answer a standardized questionnaire covering the topics “formal education and context of work” (9 items, “homeopathic practise and usage (24 items, “utilization of educational media” (9 items and “favoured attributes for educational media” (11 items. Results Out of 192 homeopaths who attended the conference, 118 completed the questionnaire (response rate 61.5%. For their continuing homeopathic education they predominantly indicated to use books (scale value from 0 = never to 2 = always: 1.72 and seminars (1.54 whereas journals (0.98 and the internet (0.65 were used less often. The most favoured attributes concerning medical education media were reliability (1.76, relevance for clinical practice (1.74 and user friendliness (1.6. Less favoured attributes were inexpensiveness (1.1, graphical material (0.92 and interactivity (0.88. Conclusions The survey illustrates the current situation of medical education media in homeopathy. Although there are parallels to earlier research conducted in conventional GPs, homeopaths are more likely to refer to classical media. New education tools should be designed according to these preferences.

  15. Usage and appraisal of educational media by homeopathic therapists - a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Max; Vollmar, Horst Christian; Holling, Andreas; Raak, Christa; Ostermann, Thomas

    2012-07-13

    During recent years the market for homeopathic education media has increasingly diversified with old (books, seminars) and new media (video-seminars, pc-programs, homeo-wiki and internet-courses). However, little is known about homeopaths' preferences in using educational media and their requirements of this topic. This survey was designed to gain a better understanding of the usage and appraisal of educational media by homeopaths. 192 homeopathic practitioners (GPs and health practitioners) at a educational conference were asked to answer a standardized questionnaire covering the topics "formal education and context of work" (9 items), "homeopathic practise and usage (24 items), "utilization of educational media" (9 items) and "favoured attributes for educational media" (11 items). Out of 192 homeopaths who attended the conference, 118 completed the questionnaire (response rate 61.5%). For their continuing homeopathic education they predominantly indicated to use books (scale value from 0 = never to 2 = always: 1.72) and seminars (1.54) whereas journals (0.98) and the internet (0.65) were used less often. The most favoured attributes concerning medical education media were reliability (1.76), relevance for clinical practice (1.74) and user friendliness (1.6). Less favoured attributes were inexpensiveness (1.1), graphical material (0.92) and interactivity (0.88). The survey illustrates the current situation of medical education media in homeopathy. Although there are parallels to earlier research conducted in conventional GPs, homeopaths are more likely to refer to classical media. New education tools should be designed according to these preferences.

  16. Lumbar spondylolysis: a life long dynamic condition? A cross sectional survey of 4.151 adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jacobsen, Steffen; Rovsing, H C

    2006-01-01

    index examination (P = 0.004). The present study contrasts with commonly held views regarding lumbar spondylolysis. The prevalence of LS increases throughout life and is apparently not a condition restricted to adolescence. Although the cross-sectional nature of the present study prevents an exact......Lumbar spondylolysis (LS) has been the subject of several studies focusing on adolescent athletes. Few, if any, studies have examined LS in the general population. Lysis of the pars interarticularis of the vertebra may be associated with slipping (olisthesis), or it may be stable. In the present...

  17. Lumbar spondylolysis: a life long dynamic condition? A cross sectional survey of 4.151 adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jacobsen, Steffen; Rovsing, HC

    2007-01-01

    index examination (P = 0.004). The present study contrasts with commonly held views regarding lumbar spondylolysis. The prevalence of LS increases throughout life and is apparently not a condition restricted to adolescence. Although the cross-sectional nature of the present study prevents an exact......Lumbar spondylolysis (LS) has been the subject of several studies focusing on adolescent athletes. Few, if any, studies have examined LS in the general population. Lysis of the pars interarticularis of the vertebra may be associated with slipping (olisthesis), or it may be stable. In the present...

  18. Are activity limitations associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in stroke patients? A cross-sectional, clinical survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Klarskov, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To assess self-reported activity limitations in a clinical sample of stroke patients and to identify their association with prevalence, severity and impact on daily life of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Material and methods. A cross-sectional, clinical survey was initiated whereby....... The response rate was 84%. The activity limitations were reported by 17-34% depending on the measurement. Mobility velocity was highly significantly associated (p=0.01) with severity of LUTS. In the LUTS incontinence symptom group, Barthel Index and mobility velocity were significantly associated...

  19. A distributional and cytological survey of the presently recognized taxa of Hibiscus section Furcaria (Malvaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Douglas Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus section Furcaria is a natural group of plants that presently includes 109 recognized taxa. Taxa are found in subsaharan Africa, India, southeastern Asia, Malesia, Australia, islands of the Pacific basin, the Caribbean, North, Central, and South America. The basic chromosome number is x = 18. In nature, ploidy levels range from diploid to decaploid. The taxa exhibit a remarkable amount of genome diversity. At least 13 genomes have been identified, some distributed widely and others with more restricted distributions. No modern taxonomic monograph ofHibiscus section Furcaria exists, but a number of regional studies have appeared that are essentially global in extent. Also, a number of studies of chromosome numbers and genome relationships have been published. The present paper includes a census of all the presently accepted taxa, the geographical distribution of each taxon, and chromosome numbers and genome designations of the 49 taxa for which the information is available. Important mechanisms of speciation include genome divergence at the diploid level, followed by hybridization and allopolyploidy, significant species radiation at the tetraploid and hexaploid levels, and the development of even higher levels of allopolyploids.

  20. Adaptive geostatistical sampling enables efficient identification of malaria hotspots in repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinune N Kabaghe

    Full Text Available In the context of malaria elimination, interventions will need to target high burden areas to further reduce transmission. Current tools to monitor and report disease burden lack the capacity to continuously detect fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of disease distribution exhibited by malaria. These tools use random sampling techniques that are inefficient for capturing underlying heterogeneity while health facility data in resource-limited settings are inaccurate. Continuous community surveys of malaria burden provide real-time results of local spatio-temporal variation. Adaptive geostatistical design (AGD improves prediction of outcome of interest compared to current random sampling techniques. We present findings of continuous malaria prevalence surveys using an adaptive sampling design.We conducted repeated cross sectional surveys guided by an adaptive sampling design to monitor the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in children below five years old in the communities living around Majete Wildlife Reserve in Chikwawa district, Southern Malawi. AGD sampling uses previously collected data to sample new locations of high prediction variance or, where prediction exceeds a set threshold. We fitted a geostatistical model to predict malaria prevalence in the area.We conducted five rounds of sampling, and tested 876 children aged 6-59 months from 1377 households over a 12-month period. Malaria prevalence prediction maps showed spatial heterogeneity and presence of hotspots-where predicted malaria prevalence was above 30%; predictors of malaria included age, socio-economic status and ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets.Continuous malaria prevalence surveys using adaptive sampling increased malaria prevalence prediction accuracy. Results from the surveys were readily available after data collection. The tool can assist local managers to target malaria control interventions in areas with the greatest health impact and is

  1. Massive misuse of antibiotics by university students in China: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhou, Xu-Dong; Hesketh, Therese

    2016-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest threats to global population health this century, and is a major contributor to rising healthcare costs worldwide. The primary cause of this resistance is antibiotic misuse, especially routine inappropriate use of antibiotics for self-limiting illnesses. In China, over prescribing of antibiotics is pervasive leading to very high and increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance in both hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and behaviours of university students in relation to antibiotic use in six Chinese provinces. A stratified, cluster-random sampling method was used to select students across six universities in six provinces (Zhejiang, Wuhan, NanKai, Jilin, Guizhou, and Lanzhou Universities). An anonymous online survey tool, Wen Juan Xing, was used to collect data. Students completed the survey using a smartphone application. χ(2) test and logistic regression model were used to assess associations between knowledge and behaviour. Patient consent and ethical approval were obtained for this study. 11 192/11 459 (98%) students completed the questionnaire. Knowledge of antibiotics and their appropriate use was poor: only 236/11 192 (2%) answered all 13 questions correctly. In terms of healthcare-seeking behaviour, of 3337/11 192 (30%) students who were ill in the preceding month, 913/3337 (27%) went to see a doctor and 600/913 (66%) of these students were prescribed antibiotics; 1711/3337 (51%) treated themselves, 507/1711 (30%) of these with antibiotics. 7057/11 192 (63%) of students keep antibiotics at home. Of 6269/11 192 (56%) students who tried to buy antibiotics from a drugstore in the preceding year, 4133/6269 (66%) tried to do so without prescription and 3964/4133 (96%) succeeded. Students who keep antibiotics at home are almost 5 times more likely to self-treat with antibiotics (OR=4·90, 95% CI 3·48-6·90). Demand for antibiotics

  2. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh An, Dao Thi; Van Minh, Hoang; Huong, Le Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Thi Hai, Phan; Quynh Nga, Pham; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc.) and knowledge on health risks. Results General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS) and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was good (90% and 83%, respectively). However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer) appeared to be lower (51.5%). Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6) and SHS (OR 1.7) than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively). Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively). Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to increase their

  3. Factors associated with antenatal mental disorder in West Africa: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Bola; Crabb, Jim; Tayo, Adetokunbo; Gleadow Ware, Selena H; Dhar, Arup; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2011-11-04

    Maternal mental illness is likely to have a profound impact in less developed parts of the world. A mother experiencing mental illness in a low income setting is at risk of providing sub-optimal care for her offspring which can have grave consequences in an environment where poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnutrition, tropical diseases and a lack of appropriate medical services may be pronounced. Given the profound consequences of antenatal and postnatal mental illness on maternal mental health, foetal wellbeing and childhood growth and development the factors associated with mental illness in a Sub-Saharan setting merit clarification and investigation. A prospective survey design was conducted in Lagos. Self reporting questionnaire 20 items - SRQ20 - assessed the presence of mental illness. The WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Questions assessed women's exposure to violence. Numerous variables potentially associated with mental illness including maternal socio-economic factors, maternal characteristics, obstetric variables and the characteristics of previous children were recorded. Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of a number of variables on the likelihood of presence of mental disorder in the population. 189 women were surveyed. 7% met the criteria for experiencing a common mental disorder according to their score on the SRQ-20. Of variables examined only the number of female children and the presence of inter personal violence predicted being a case of mental illness (OR = 3.400; 95%CI = 1.374 - 8.414 and OR = 5.676; 95%CI = 1.251 - 25.757 respectively). Rates of mental disorder found in our study were lower than those previously observed internationally and in Africa, perhaps reflecting stigma about disclosing symptoms. The predictive nature of violence on mental disorder is in keeping with international evidence. Our study demonstrated that exposure to inter personal violence within the last

  4. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives: To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design: GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc. and knowledge on health risks. Results: General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS was good (90% and 83%, respectively. However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer appeared to be lower (51.5%. Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6 and SHS (OR 1.7 than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively. Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively. Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions: It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to

  5. Presentations to general practice before a cancer diagnosis in Victoria: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Lacey, Karen; Bishop, James F; Cross, Hannah L; Chondros, Patty; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Emery, Jon D

    2016-07-18

    To assess variations in the number of general practitioner visits preceding a cancer diagnosis, and in the length of the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. Analysis of data provided to the Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES; survey response rate, 37.7%) by 1552 patients with one of 19 cancer types and treated in one of five Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre hospitals, 1 October 2012 - 30 April 2013. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had had three or more GP consultations about cancer-related health problems before being referred to hospital. The secondary outcome was the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. 34% of the patients included in the final analyses (426 of 1248) had visited a GP at least three times before referral to a hospital doctor. The odds ratios (reference: rectal cancer; adjusted for age, sex, language spoken at home, and socio-economic disadvantage index score) varied according to cancer type, being highest for pancreatic cancer (3.2; 95% CI, 1.02-9.9), thyroid cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.9-6.6), vulval cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.7-8.7) and multiple myeloma (2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.5), and lowest for patients with breast cancer (0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8), cervical cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-2.1), endometrial cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-1.4) or melanoma (0.7; 95% CI, 0.3-1.5). Cancer type also affected the duration of the interval from symptom onset to seeing a hospital doctor; it took at least 3 months for more than one-third of patients with prostate or colon cancer to see a hospital doctor. Certain cancer types were more frequently associated with multiple GP visits, suggesting they are more challenging to recognise early. In Victoria, longer intervals from the first symptoms to seeing a hospital doctor for colon or prostate cancer may reflect poorer community symptom awareness, later GP referral, or limited access to

  6. Use of tobacco and alcohol by Swiss primary care physicians: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Beat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health behaviours among doctors has been suggested to be an important marker of how harmful lifestyle behaviours are perceived. In several countries, decrease in smoking among physicians was spectacular, indicating that the hazard was well known. Historical data have shown that because of their higher socio-economical status physicians take up smoking earlier. When the dangers of smoking become better known, physicians began to give up smoking at a higher rate than the general population. For alcohol consumption, the situation is quite different: prevalence is still very high among physicians and the dangers are not so well perceived. To study the situation in Switzerland, data of a national survey were analysed to determine the prevalence of smoking and alcohol drinking among primary care physicians. Methods 2'756 randomly selected practitioners were surveyed to assess subjective mental and physical health and their determinants, including smoking and drinking behaviours. Physicians were categorised as never smokers, current smokers and former smokers, as well as non drinkers, drinkers (AUDIT-C Results 1'784 physicians (65% responded (men 84%, mean age 51 years. Twelve percent were current smokers and 22% former smokers. Sixty six percent were drinkers and 30% at risk drinkers. Only 4% were never smokers and non drinkers. Forty eight percent of current smokers were also at risk drinkers and 16% of at risk drinkers were also current smokers. Smoking and at risk drinking were more frequent among men, middle aged physicians and physicians living alone. When compared to a random sample of the Swiss population, primary care physicians were two to three times less likely to be active smokers (12% vs. 30%, but were more likely to be drinkers (96% vs. 78%, and twice more likely to be at risk drinkers (30% vs. 15%. Conclusion The prevalence of current smokers among Swiss primary care physicians was much lower than in the general

  7. Factors associated with antenatal mental disorder in West Africa: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Bola

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mental illness is likely to have a profound impact in less developed parts of the world. A mother experiencing mental illness in a low income setting is at risk of providing sub-optimal care for her offspring which can have grave consequences in an environment where poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnutrition, tropical diseases and a lack of appropriate medical services may be pronounced. Given the profound consequences of antenatal and postnatal mental illness on maternal mental health, foetal wellbeing and childhood growth and development the factors associated with mental illness in a Sub-Saharan setting merit clarification and investigation. Methods A prospective survey design was conducted in Lagos. Self reporting questionnaire 20 items - SRQ20 - assessed the presence of mental illness. The WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Questions assessed women's exposure to violence. Numerous variables potentially associated with mental illness including maternal socio-economic factors, maternal characteristics, obstetric variables and the characteristics of previous children were recorded. Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of a number of variables on the likelihood of presence of mental disorder in the population. Results 189 women were surveyed. 7% met the criteria for experiencing a common mental disorder according to their score on the SRQ-20. Of variables examined only the number of female children and the presence of inter personal violence predicted being a case of mental illness (OR = 3.400; 95%CI = 1.374 - 8.414 and OR = 5.676; 95%CI = 1.251 - 25.757 respectively. Conclusions Rates of mental disorder found in our study were lower than those previously observed internationally and in Africa, perhaps reflecting stigma about disclosing symptoms. The predictive nature of violence on mental disorder is in keeping with international evidence. Our study

  8. Anxiety, stress, and quality of life among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Factors related to quality of life among older adults in Bangladesh: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammad Abbas; Soivong, Pratum; Lasuka, Duangruedee; Juntasopeepun, Phanida

    2017-12-01

    This cross-sectional design study aimed to describe quality of life and examine factors related to quality of life among older adults in Bangladesh. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 280 older adults from ten villages in two southern districts. The results demonstrate that the majority of the participants reported an overall moderate score of quality of life. Moreover, participants' sleep problems, depression, religiosity, and activities of daily living were negatively correlated with quality of life whereas social support and health service availability were positively correlated with quality of life. Implementing intervention programs upon the significant related factors to improve older adults' quality of life is recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Mobile Phone Use in Psychiatry Residents in the United States: Multisite Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

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    Gipson, Shih; Torous, John; Boland, Robert; Conrad, Erich

    2017-11-01

    Mobile technology ownership in the general US population and medical professionals is increasing, leading to increased use in clinical settings. However, data on use of mobile technology by psychiatry residents remain unclear. In this study, our aim was to provide data on how psychiatric residents use mobile phones in their clinical education as well as barriers relating to technology use. An anonymous, multisite survey was given to psychiatry residents in 2 regions in the United States, including New Orleans and Boston, to understand their technology use. All participants owned mobile phones, and 79% (54/68) used them to access patient information. The majority do not use mobile phones to implement pharmacotherapy (62%, 42/68) or psychotherapy plans (90%, 61/68). The top 3 barriers to using mobile technology in clinical care were privacy concerns (56%, 38/68), lack of clinical guidance (40%, 27/68), and lack of evidence (29%, 20/68). We conclude that developing a technology curriculum and engaging in research could address these barriers to using mobile phones in clinical practice.

  11. Undertreatment of rhinitis symptoms in Europe: findings from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M; Zuberbier, T

    2007-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a frequent disease affecting one in five Europeans with a significant impact on patient quality of life, health-care costs, and economic productivity. Although effective treatments exist, the disease often remains undiagnosed and not correctly treated, despite clear diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines from WHO, EAACI (European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology), and GA(2)LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network). This study elucidates the reasons for this discrepancy from the patients' point of view. An internet and telephone survey was conducted with 2,966 randomly selected adults with allergies from the general population in the five major EU countries: UK, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. The main reason that the majority of respondents first visited a medical professional for their rhinitis symptoms was because these symptoms became intolerable. The respondents had not seen a medical professional in the past year for their rhinitis symptoms in 52.6% of the cases, and 30.2% of the respondents preferred nonprescription medication because it did not require visiting a doctor. 'Nontreaters' and 'homeopathic treaters' together made up 26.2% of the respondents, and 40.2% of them gave the cost of medication as a reason they do not use allergy medications. Allergic rhinitis remains widely undertreated in Europe with avoidable socioeconomic consequences. Effective treatment exists, but patients wait too long to seek medical advice, and health providers neglect to actively screen early for allergies.

  12. Assessing access to surgical care in Nepal via a cross-sectional, countrywide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Marissa A; Nagarajan, Neeraja; Gupta, Shailvi; Varadaraj, Varshini; Groen, Reinou S; Shrestha, Sunil; Gurung, Susant; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict; Swaroop, Mamta

    2016-08-01

    Adequate surgical care is lacking in many low- and middle-income countries because of diverse barriers preventing patients from reaching providers. We sought to assess perceived difficulties to accessing surgical care in Nepal using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need tool. Fifteen of 75 Nepali districts were selected proportionate to the population, with 1,350 households surveyed. Household heads answered questions regarding access to health facilities, and 2 household members were interviewed for medical history. Continuous and categorical variables were analyzed via Wilcoxon rank sum test and Pearson χ(2) test. Multivariable logistic regressions for independent predictors of care access were performed controlling for age, sex, location, and literacy. Of respondents with a surgical condition (n = 1,342), 650 (48.4%) accessed care and 237 (17.7%) did not. Unadjusted analyses showed greater median travel times to all facilities (P access care versus those who did. Literate respondents were more likely to access care across all facilities and access variables in adjusted models (odds ratio 1.66-1.80, P access care at any facility in all analyses (P access to needed surgical care in Nepal during their lifetimes, with those not accessing health facilities having lower literacy rates and fewer transport resources. Promoting education, outreach programs, and transportation access could lessen barriers but will require further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Attitudes towards individuals with halitosis: an online cross sectional survey of the Dutch general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, A; van Wijk, A J; Horstman, M; de Baat, C

    2014-02-01

    To derive an estimate of encounters with halitosis and to assess the impact of halitosis on their psychosocial interactions with halitosis patients. Participants were 1,006 members of an online panel, being representative of the population of the Netherlands with regard to gender, age, family situation, education level and labour participation. They were invited to participate in a survey using an online questionnaire with four questions on becoming faced with people having halitosis. Almost 90% of the participants indicated being faced with a person having halitosis regularly, 40% at least once a week, and men significantly more frequently than women. Halitosis was reported to be a strong 'downer' when meeting a person for the first time. Whether one would draw a person's attention to his breath malodour proved to be related to the kind of person involved and appeared to decrease with the increase of the social distance to the person. Drawing a person's attention to his breath malodour would virtually always be performed personally. Halitosis is considered to be one of the most unattractive aspects of social interactions and has potentially damaging effects on psychosocial interactions and relationships.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Medical Cannabis Users: Patterns of Use and Perceived Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Michelle; Cuttler, Carrie; Finnell, John S.; Mischley, Laurie K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The political climate around Cannabis as a medicine is rapidly changing. Legislators are adopting policies regarding appropriate medical applications, while the paucity of research may make policy decisions around conditions for which Cannabis is an effective medicine difficult. Methods: An anonymous online survey was developed to query medical Cannabis users about the conditions they use Cannabis to treat, their use patterns, perception of efficacy, and physical and mental health. Participants were recruited through social media and Cannabis dispensaries in Washington State. Results: A total of 1429 participants identified as medical Cannabis users. The most frequently reported conditions for which they used Cannabis were pain (61.2%), anxiety (58.1%), depression (50.3%), headache/migraine (35.5%), nausea (27.4%), and muscle spasticity (18.4%). On average, participants reported an 86% reduction in symptoms as a result of Cannabis use; 59.8% of medical users reported using Cannabis as an alternative to pharmaceutical prescriptions. Global health scores were on par with the general population for mental health and physical health. Conclusions: While patient-reported outcomes favor strong efficacy for a broad range of symptoms, many medical users are using Cannabis without physician supervision and for conditions for which there is no formal research to support the use of Cannabis (e.g., depression and anxiety). Future research and public policy should attempt to reduce the incongruence between approved and actual use. PMID:28861489

  15. Correlates of sunscreen use among high school students: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coups Elliot J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents put themselves at risk of later skin cancer development and accelerated photo-aging due to their high rates of ultraviolet radiation exposure and low rates of skin protection. The purpose of the current study was to determine which of the Integrative Model constructs are most closely associated with sunscreen use among high school students. Methods The current study of 242 high school students involved a survey based on the Integrative Model including demographic and individual difference factors, skin protection-related beliefs and outcome evaluations, normative beliefs, self-efficacy, sunscreen cues and availability, intentions, and sunscreen use. Our analyses included multiple linear regressions and bootstrapping to test for mediation effects. Results Sunscreen use was significantly associated with female gender, greater skin sensitivity, higher perceived sunscreen benefits, higher skin protection importance, more favorable sunscreen user prototype, stronger skin protection norms, greater perceived skin protection behavioral control, and higher sunscreen self-efficacy. Intentions to use sunscreen mediated the relationships between most skin protection-related beliefs and sunscreen use. Conclusions The current study identified specific variables that can be targeted in interventions designed to increase sunscreen use among adolescents.

  16. Health literacy in hand surgery patients: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Mariano E; Mudgal, Chaitanya S; Jupiter, Jesse B; Ring, David

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with limited health literacy among outpatients presenting to an urban academic hospital-based hand surgeon. A cohort of 200 English- and Spanish-speaking patients completed the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) health literacy assessment tool, a sociodemographic survey, and 2 Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-based computerized adaptive testing questionnaires: Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pain Interference and Upper-Extremity Function. The NVS scores were divided into limited (0-3) and adequate (4-6) health literacy. Multivariable regression modeling was used to identify independent predictors of limited health literacy. A total of 86 patients (43%) had limited health literacy (English-speaking: 33%; Spanish-speaking: 100%). Factors associated with limited health literacy were advanced age, lower income, and being publicly insured or uninsured. Increasing years of education was a protective factor. Primary language was not included in the logistic regression model because all Spanish-speaking patients had limited health literacy. When evaluating health literacy on a continuum, primary language was the factor that most influenced the NVS scores, accounting for 14% of the variability. Limited health literacy was commonplace among patients seeing a hand surgeon, more so in elderly and disadvantaged individuals. We hope our study raises awareness of this issue among hand surgeons and encourages providers to simplify messages and improve communication strategies. Prognostic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Competency assessment and development among health-care leaders: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough Landry, Amy; Stowe, Michael; Haefner, James

    2012-05-01

    In light of the challenges involved in leading a health care organization, it is important that the executives and managers charged with doing so are competent in a variety of areas. However, leading at all organizational levels does not necessarily require the same levels and types of competencies. The purpose of this research is to determine how well competency training works in health care organizations, and to obtain a better understanding of the competencies needed for leaders at different points of their careers and at various organizational levels. Ten health care management competency domains thought to positively influence job performance for health care executives are presented. The study seeks to answer four hypotheses related to self-perceptions of competencies and training opportunities at various hierarchical levels. A survey method was used to sample a subset of the healthcare executive population in the USA, based on three variables of interest, competency training opportunities, self-reported level of competency and hierarchical level. A series of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted to identify perceived differences in both competency level and training opportunities among respondents of various hierarchical levels. The most significant result of our research is that competency training is effective in health care organizations. The implications and need for additional research are discussed.

  18. Prevention and management of hypotension during spinal anaesthesia for elective Caesarean section: a survey of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S M; Cowan, C M; Wilkes, R G

    2001-08-01

    Hypotension during obstetric spinal anaesthesia has traditionally been managed by such measures as fluid preloading, positioning of the patient and the use of vasoconstrictors. However, studies and reports have regularly appeared in the literature disputing the value of conventional management, in particular, the fluid preload. With this in mind, we surveyed UK consultant obstetric anaesthetists to determine current practice in this area. Of the 558 respondents, 486 (87.1%) stated that they routinely give a fluid preload. The fluid chosen by 405 (83.3%) of the preloaders was Hartmann's solution and the usual volume, chosen by 194 (39.9%), was 1000 ml. A simple left lateral position was preferred by 221 respondents (39.6%) overall and in the treatment of hypotension, ephedrine was the sole vasoconstrictor selected by 531 (95.2%). Heavy bupivacaine 0.5% was the local anaesthetic chosen by 545 (97.7%) and 407 (72.9%) respondents indicated the use of additional spinal drugs.

  19. Nurse managers' perception of night-shift napping: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalky, Heyam F; Raeda, AbuAlRub F; Esraa, Aldalqamouni A

    2017-10-04

    Night-shift work often results in sleep deprivation, and this in turn results in fatigue that jeopardizes both nurse and patient safety. Napping is considered a viable deterrent to fatigue, yet hospital administration has been slow to adopt napping. To identify nurse managers' knowledge and approval of napping practices for nurses on night shifts. Nurse managers at nine Jordanian hospitals (n = 129) were surveyed using an Arabic version of a questionnaire previously used in a Canadian study. Descriptive statistics were used to describe results, and a one-way ANOVA was used to determine if relationships existed among nurse manager's approval of napping and nurse demographic characteristics. The majority of nurse managers (61%) knew nurses were napping during breaks. However, the managers reported there was no written policy for napping. A majority thought there were more benefits to napping than drawbacks. Some 55% of nurse managers recognized fatigue as a cause of errors or incidents regarding patient safety, and 40% perceived fatigue to be a factor in staff injuries. This study supports an urgent need for shared responsibility among nursing administration, and bedside nurses to develop evidence-based programs to counteract the effects of nurse fatigue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Variation in childbirth services in California: a cross-sectional survey of childbirth hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korst, Lisa M; Feldman, Daniele S; Bollman, D Lisa; Fridman, Moshe; El Haj Ibrahim, Samia; Fink, Arlene; Wyatt, Lacey; Gregory, Kimberly D

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the resources and activities associated with childbirth services. We adapted models for assessing the quality of healthcare to generate a conceptual framework hypothesizing that childbirth hospital resources and activities contributed to maternal and neonatal outcomes. We used this framework to guide development of a survey, which we administered by telephone to hospital labor and delivery nurse managers in California. We describe the findings by hospital type (ie, integrated delivery system [IDS], teaching, and other [community] hospitals). Of 248 nonmilitary childbirth hospitals in California, 239 (96%)responded; 187 community, 27 teaching, and 25 IDS hospitals reported. The context of services varied across hospital types, with community hospitals more likely to have for-profit ownership, be in a rural or isolated location, and have fewer annual deliveries per hospital. Results included the findings of the following: (1) 24 hour anesthesia availability in 50% of community vs 100% of IDS and teaching hospitals (P Childbirth services varied widely across California hospitals. Cognizance of this variation and linkage of these data to childbirth outcomes should assist in the identification of key resources and activities that optimize the hospital environment for pregnant women and set the groundwork for identifying criteria for the provision of maternal risk-appropriate care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral anticoagulant dosing, administration, and storage: a cross-sectional survey of Canadian health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Siavash; Schulman, Sam; Panju, Mohamed; Pai, Menaka

    2017-11-23

    Direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) use is increasing worldwide. However, if not taken or prescribed correctly, DOACs have serious side effects. It is crucial that healthcare providers (HCPs) offer patients accurate information and counselling around DOACs, to optimize safe and effective use. To assess knowledge around oral anticoagulant indication, dosing, storage, and administration, an electronic survey was distributed to HCPs across Canada from June to August 2017, with 18 questions on the practical use of oral anticoagulants. A total of 191 responses were received: 100 from nurse practitioners, 42 from pharmacists, 27 from Hematologists, 5 from Thrombosis specialists, 4 from internists, 9 from residents and fellows, and 2 each from family physicians and registered nurses. Only 51 (26.7%) of the respondents correctly identified all the approved indications for warfarin and 4 DOACs. Only 101 (52.9%) correctly identified that DOACs are not approved for treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, cerebral sinus venous thrombosis, or mechanical prosthetic valves. 112 (58.6%) felt comfortable or very comfortable prescribing oral anticoagulants. Half of the respondents knew that dabigatran should not be crushed, however only 85 (44.5%) knew that it should not be exposed to moisture. 94 (49%) knew that higher dose rivaroxaban should be taken with food. The results of our study demonstrate that there are important knowledge gaps around HCPs' practical understanding of oral anticoagulants. Future research should focus on educational interventions to improve HCPs' knowledge around indications, dosing, storage, and administration, with the goal of enhancing patient safety.

  2. A cross-sectional survey of water and clean faces in trachoma endemic communities in Tanzania

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    Kiboko Steven

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Face washing is important to interrupt the transmission of trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We aimed to assess the household and personal factors that affected water use and face washing practices in Kongwa, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a household water use survey in 173 households (329 children in January, 2010. Self reported data on water use practices, observed water in the household, and observed clean faces in children were collected. Contingency table analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to measure associations between unclean faces and risk factors. Results We found that women are recognized as primary decision makers on water use in a household, and respondents who reported laziness as a reason that others do not wash children's faces were significantly more likely to have children with clean faces. Washing was reported as a priority for water use in most households. Sixty four percent (95% Confidence Interval = 59%-70% of children had clean faces. Conclusions Attitudes toward face washing and household water use appear to have changed dramatically from 20 years ago when clean faces were rare and men made decisions on water use in households. The sources of these attitudinal changes are not clear, but are positive changes that will assist the trachoma control program in strengthening its hygiene efforts.

  3. School nurse experiences with prescription opioids in urban and rural schools: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison-Sharp, Ella; Estrada, Robin Dawson; Elio, Alice; Prendergast, Melissa; Carpenter, Delesha M

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the use of prescription opioids in schools. The current study aimed to: (1) describe the context within which school nurses encounter student opioid prescriptions; (2) assess school nurses' preferences for training and student education; and (3) explore urban-rural differences in school nurses' experiences and training preferences. A convenience sample of school nurses (n = 633) from North Carolina and South Carolina participated in a brief, anonymous, online survey. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically and statistical tests (t-tests and Chi-square tests) were performed to investigate urban-rural differences. Many school nurses (40.3%) had encountered a student with an opioid prescription, but only 3.6% had naloxone available in case of an overdose. Most school nurses (69.9%), especially rural school nurses, believed students would benefit from opioid education (74.9 versus 66.6%, p = 0.03). The majority of school nurses (83.9%) were interested in opioid-related training. Many school nurses encounter students with prescription opioids and would like additional opioid-related training. The potential benefits of providing naloxone access to prevent opioid-related deaths at schools should be explored.

  4. International Differences in Multiple Sclerosis Health Outcomes and Associated Factors in a Cross-sectional Survey

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    Grace D. Reilly

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a major cause of disability and poor quality of life (QOL. Previous studies have shown differences in MS health outcomes between countries. This study aimed to examine the associations between international regions and health outcomes in people with MS. Self-reported data were taken from the Health Outcomes and Lifestyle In a Sample of people with Multiple Sclerosis online survey collected in 2012. The 2,401 participants from 37 countries were categorized into three regions: Australasia, Europe, and North America. Differences were observed between regions in disability, physical and mental health QOL, fatigue, and depression, but most of these disappeared after adjusting for sociodemographic, disease, and lifestyle factors in multivariable regression models. However, adjusted odds for disability were higher in Europe [odds ratio (OR: 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.28 to 3.67] and North America (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.51 compared to Australasia. There may be other unmeasured factors that vary between regions, including differences in access and quality of healthcare services, determining disability in MS. When assessing differences in MS health outcomes, lifestyle factors and medication use should be taken into consideration.

  5. Suicidal ideation in adolescents and their caregivers: a cross sectional survey in Japan.

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    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Ochi, Marina; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2016-07-11

    Suicide is a leading cause of death in adolescence. Effective strategies are required to prevent suicide. We aimed to assess the prevalence of suicidal ideation in early teens and the relationship between family mental health and suicidal ideation of their child. A population-based survey in a rural town included 185 junior high school students and their caregivers. Suicidal ideation and mental states were assessed with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Profile of Mood States (POMS) form. Nineteen (10.3 %) students experienced suicidal ideation in the preceding weeks and had more mental health problems than students without suicidal ideation. Caregivers of students with suicidal ideation demonstrated significantly higher suicidal depression scores in GHQ. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that suicidal depression of caregivers was the most important factor for suicidal ideation of students. Suicidal ideation of children is associated with suicidal depression of their caregivers. For the prevention of suicide in adolescents, not only their own mental status but also that of caregivers should be taken into consideration.

  6. The impact of an ostomy on older colorectal cancer patients: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Verweij, N M; Hamaker, M E; Zimmerman, D D E; van Loon, Y T; van den Bos, F; Pronk, A; Borel Rinkes, I H M; Schiphorst, A H W

    2017-01-01

    Ostomies are being placed in 35 % of patients after colorectal cancer surgery. As decision-making regarding colorectal surgery is challenging in the older patients, it is important to have insight in the potential impact due to ostomies. An internet-based survey was sent to all members with registered email addresses of the Dutch Ostomy Patient Association. The response rate was 49 %; 932 cases were included of whom 526 were aged Ostomy-related limitations were similar in the different age groups, just as uncertainty (8-10 %) and dependency (18-22 %) due to the ostomy. A reduced quality of life was experienced least in the oldest old group (24 % vs 37 % of the elderly and 46 % of the younger respondents, p ostomy was observed. Older ostomates do not experience more limitations or psychosocial impact due to the ostomy compared to their younger counterparts. Over the years, impact becomes less distinct. Treatment decision-making is challenging in the older colorectal cancer patients but ostomy placement should not be withheld based on age alone.

  7. Gender-specific patterns of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships: a national cross sectional survey in Botswana.

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    Ho-Foster, Ari; Laetsang, Ditiro; Masisi, Mokgweetsi; Anderson, Marina; Tlhoiwe, Derrick; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2010-08-01

    A priority of AIDS prevention in Botswana is to reduce multiple concurrent sexual partnerships. We analysed data from interviews with people aged 16-60 years in a 2007 national stratified random cluster sample of communities across Botswana. Among 768 male and 1784 female respondents, 10% reported multiple sexual partners in the month prior to the survey (MP1); 19% of men and 6% of women. In a multivariate analysis, men were more likely to report MP1 if they had not completed primary education (adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa) 2.13, 95% confidence intervals with adjustment for clustering (CIca) 1.19-3.85), if they were single (ORa 2.29, 95% CIca 1.28-4.11), if they had experienced intimate partner violence in the last year (ORa 2.59, 95% CIca 1.51-4.45) and if they reported acquiescence to high risk sex (ORa 8.32, 95% CIca 3.38-20.46). Women who said they earned more or the same as their partner were also more likely to report MP1 (ORa 1.76, 95% CIca 1.21-2.56). The higher rate of MP1 among men with different forms of choice-disability shows an important potential multiplication of male risk factors. Women with higher income were more likely to have more partners, questioning the idea that multiple concurrent partners is mainly a question of male disposable income.

  8. Transuranic Computational Chemistry.

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    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2018-02-26

    Recent developments in the chemistry of the transuranic elements are surveyed, with particular emphasis on computational contributions. Examples are drawn from molecular coordination and organometallic chemistry, and from the study of extended solid systems. The role of the metal valence orbitals in covalent bonding is a particular focus, especially the consequences of the stabilization of the 5f orbitals as the actinide series is traversed. The fledgling chemistry of transuranic elements in the +II oxidation state is highlighted. Throughout, the symbiotic interplay of experimental and computational studies is emphasized; the extraordinary challenges of experimental transuranic chemistry afford computational chemistry a particularly valuable role at the frontier of the periodic table. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. User fee exemptions and equity in access to caesarean sections: an analysis of patient survey data in Mali

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    El-Khoury Marianne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little rigorous evidence exists on how health service utilization varies across socioeconomic groups after a user fee exemption policy has been implemented, and the evidence that does exist is mixed. In this paper, we estimate the distribution of caesarean section deliveries across socioeconomic groups following Mali’s implementation of a fee exemption policy for caesareans in 2005. Methods We conducted a patient survey in 2010 to collect socioeconomic data from 2,477 women who had caesareans in a representative sample of 25 facilities across all regions of Mali. We used these data along with data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey to construct a wealth index and classify women into population-based wealth groupings. We compared the wealth distribution of women delivering via caesarean section to that of a nationally representative sample of women giving birth. Results We found that wealthier women make up a disproportionate share of those having free caesareans, five years after implementation of the fee exemption policy. Women in the richest two quintiles accounted for 58 percent of all caesareans, while women in the poorest two quintiles accounted for 27 percent of all caesareans. Fewer women in the poorest two-fifths of the population are receiving caesareans than what we would expect given their share in the population of women giving birth. Conclusions While fee exemptions remove important financial barriers to accessing priority maternal health services, they are insufficient to ensure equal access among wealth groups.

  10. Are People With Chronic Diseases Interested in Using Telehealth? A Cross-Sectional Postal Survey

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    Thomas, Clare; Gregory, Alison; Yardley, Lucy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Montgomery, Alan A; Salisbury, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in telehealth—the use of technology to support the remote delivery of health care and promote self-management—as a potential alternative to face-to-face care for patients with chronic diseases. However, little is known about what precipitates interest in the use of telehealth among these patients. Objective This survey forms part of a research program to develop and evaluate a telehealth intervention for patients with two exemplar chronic diseases: depression and raised cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The survey was designed to explore the key factors that influence interest in using telehealth in these patient groups. Methods Thirty-four general practices were recruited from two different regions within England. Practice records were searched for patients with (1) depression (aged 18+ years) or (2) 10-year risk of CVD ≥20% and at least one modifiable risk factor (aged 40-74 years). Within each general practice, 54 patients in each chronic disease group were randomly selected to receive a postal questionnaire. Questions assessed five key constructs: sociodemographics, health needs, difficulties accessing health care, technology-related factors (availability, confidence using technology, perceived benefits and drawbacks of telehealth), and satisfaction with prior use of telehealth. Respondents also rated their interest in using different technologies for telehealth (phone, email and Internet, or social media). Relationships between the key constructs and interest in using the three mediums of telehealth were examined using multivariable regression models. Results Of the 3329 patients who were sent a study questionnaire, 44.40% completed it (872/1740, 50.11% CVD risk; 606/1589, 38.14% depression). Overall, there was moderate interest in using phone-based (854/1423, 60.01%) and email/Internet-based (816/1425, 57.26%) telehealth, but very little interest in social media (243/1430, 16.99%). After adjusting for health needs

  11. Are people with chronic diseases interested in using telehealth? A cross-sectional postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Louisa; Thomas, Clare; Gregory, Alison; Yardley, Lucy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Montgomery, Alan A; Salisbury, Chris

    2014-05-08

    There is growing interest in telehealth-the use of technology to support the remote delivery of health care and promote self-management-as a potential alternative to face-to-face care for patients with chronic diseases. However, little is known about what precipitates interest in the use of telehealth among these patients. This survey forms part of a research program to develop and evaluate a telehealth intervention for patients with two exemplar chronic diseases: depression and raised cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The survey was designed to explore the key factors that influence interest in using telehealth in these patient groups. Thirty-four general practices were recruited from two different regions within England. Practice records were searched for patients with (1) depression (aged 18+ years) or (2) 10-year risk of CVD ≥20% and at least one modifiable risk factor (aged 40-74 years). Within each general practice, 54 patients in each chronic disease group were randomly selected to receive a postal questionnaire. Questions assessed five key constructs: sociodemographics, health needs, difficulties accessing health care, technology-related factors (availability, confidence using technology, perceived benefits and drawbacks of telehealth), and satisfaction with prior use of telehealth. Respondents also rated their interest in using different technologies for telehealth (phone, email and Internet, or social media). Relationships between the key constructs and interest in using the three mediums of telehealth were examined using multivariable regression models. Of the 3329 patients who were sent a study questionnaire, 44.40% completed it (872/1740, 50.11% CVD risk; 606/1589, 38.14% depression). Overall, there was moderate interest in using phone-based (854/1423, 60.01%) and email/Internet-based (816/1425, 57.26%) telehealth, but very little interest in social media (243/1430, 16.99%). After adjusting for health needs, access difficulties, technology

  12. Drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Malawi: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouyannis, Michael; Dacombe, Russell; Dambe, Isaias; Mpunga, James; Faragher, Brian; Gausi, Francis; Ndhlovu, Henry; Kachiza, Chifundo; Suarez, Pedro; Mundy, Catherine; Banda, Hastings T; Nyasulu, Ishmael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To document the prevalence of multidrug resistance among people newly diagnosed with – and those retreated for – tuberculosis in Malawi. Methods We conducted a nationally representative survey of people with sputum-smear-positive tuberculosis between 2010 and 2011. For all consenting participants, we collected demographic and clinical data, two sputum samples and tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).The samples underwent resistance testing at the Central Reference Laboratory in Lilongwe, Malawi. All Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates found to be multidrug-resistant were retested for resistance to first-line drugs – and tested for resistance to second-line drugs – at a Supranational Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory in South Africa. Findings Overall, M. tuberculosis was isolated from 1777 (83.8%) of the 2120 smear-positive tuberculosis patients. Multidrug resistance was identified in five (0.4%) of 1196 isolates from new cases and 28 (4.8%) of 581 isolates from people undergoing retreatment. Of the 31 isolates from retreatment cases who had previously failed treatment, nine (29.0%) showed multidrug resistance. Although resistance to second-line drugs was found, no cases of extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis were detected. HIV testing of people from whom M. tuberculosis isolates were obtained showed that 577 (48.2%) of people newly diagnosed and 386 (66.4%) of people undergoing retreatment were positive. Conclusion The prevalence of multidrug resistance among people with smear-positive tuberculosis was low for sub-Saharan Africa – probably reflecting the strength of Malawi’s tuberculosis control programme. The relatively high prevalence of such resistance observed among those with previous treatment failure may highlight a need for a change in the national policy for retreating this subgroup of people with tuberculosis. PMID:25378741

  13. Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption among University Students in Baghdad: A Cross-section survey from Iraq

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    Rawa Jaafar Kadhim Al-Ameri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol consumption is a well-known public health problem, especially among university students. It was poorly studied in Middle East, especially in Iraq, due to religious and social taboos. This study conducted to throw a light on the prevalence of Alcohol consumption among university students in Baghdad. Subjects and methods: A survey conducted in three universities (Baghdad, Al-Mustansiriyah and Al-Nahrain from Baghdad city, in the duration between January and May 2015. A semi-structured questionnaire form used to collect the data from 1435 university students. The sample selected by multistage random sampling technique with probability proportion to size. Results: The average age (range of the studied sample was 19.8 (18 - 24 years; more than a half of them were females 760 (53%. Alcohol consumption was reported by 9.7% (95%CI: 8.2% - 11.2% of the participants (19.7% males vs. 0.8% females. Heavy Alcohol consumption was reported by 12.2% of consumers. Male students living out of their families or relatives and those of medical group colleges found to be risk factors for Alcohol consumption (PR= 2.65, 95% CI: 1.72 - 4.1 and (PR= 2.72, 95%CI: 1.48 - 5.01 respectively. No significant relations showed between demographic characters of female students and Alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Usage of Alcohol was relatively prevalent among university students in Baghdad, in spite of religious and social barriers in Iraq. Family and college staff supervision and education of the students with meetings targeting health risks and sequels of Alcohol hazardous consumption are the effective ways to control this practice.

  14. Management of asthma in pregnant women by general practitioners: A cross sectional survey

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    Abramson Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poorly controlled asthma can lead to maternal and fetal complications. Despite the known risks of poorly controlled asthma during pregnancy and the need for stepping up therapy when appropriate, there are concerns that management is suboptimal in primary care. Our objective was to investigate the management of asthma during pregnancy by general practitioners providing shared maternity care. Methods A pre-piloted, anonymous mail survey was sent to all general practitioners (n = 842 involved in shared maternity care at six maternity hospitals in Victoria, Australia. Respondents were asked about their perceived safety of individual asthma medications during pregnancy. Approach to asthma management during pregnancy was further explored using scenarios of pregnant women with stable and deteriorating asthma and poor medication adherence. Results Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS were perceived to be the safest and were the preferred preventive medication in first trimester (74.1%, whilst leukotriene receptor antagonists were the least preferred (2.9%. A quarter (25.8% of respondents would stop or decrease patients' ICS doses during pregnancy, even when their asthma was well controlled by current therapy. In addition, 12.1% of respondents were not sure how to manage deteriorating asthma during pregnancy and opted to refer to another health professional. Almost half the respondents (48.9% reported encountering medication nonadherence during pregnancy. Conclusion A lack of confidence and/or knowledge among general practitioners in managing deteriorating asthma in pregnancy was observed despite a good understanding of the safety of asthma medications during pregnancy, compliance with evidence-based guidelines in the selection of preventive medications, and self reported good asthma knowledge.

  15. Knowledge of young African American adults about heart disease: a cross-sectional survey

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    Jones Kathleen M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans have higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality than other ethnic groups. Young adults are prime targets for intervention strategies to prevent and reduce disease risk. The study purpose was to determine the level of knowledge of lifestyle risk factors for CVD among young African American adults in Phoenix. The results will be used to guide the development of CVD outreach programs targeted to this population. The Health Belief Model was used as a conceptual framework. Methods A convenience sample of 172 African American men and women aged 18-26 years completed a questionnaire adapted from the American Heart Association national surveys. Descriptive statistics were compared by age, gender, education level, and health status variables including BMI, smoking status, and physical activity. Results Some aspects of heart-disease were well known among young adult African Americans. Knowledge of certain other important risk factors (menopause and preventive behaviors (eating fewer animal products, however, was more variable and inconsistent among the respondents. Differences in knowledge of individual variables was greater by education level than by gender overall. Predictors of a summary CVD knowledge score included higher education, female gender, and high self-efficacy (adjusted R2 = 0.158, p 2 = 0.064, p Conclusions Evaluation of baseline knowledge of CVD is essential before designing and implementing health promotion programs. Existing strengths and weaknesses in knowledge can guide tailoring of programs to be more effective. Further research would help to identify the range of other characteristics that determine knowledge and risk perception.

  16. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users

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    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K.; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample (n=2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes. PMID:28861492

  17. Wheelchair services and use outcomes: A cross-sectional survey in Kenya and the Philippines

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    Eva S. Bazant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organisation recommends that services accompany wheelchair distribution. This study examined the relationship of wheelchair service provision in Kenya and the Philippines and wheelchair-use–related outcomes.Method: We surveyed 852 adult basic manual wheelchair users. Participants who had received services and those who had not were sought in equal numbers from wheelchair-distribution entities. Outcomes assessed were daily wheelchair use, falls, unassisted outdoor use and performance of activities of daily living (ADL. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariable regression model results are presented.Results: Conditions that led to the need for a basic wheelchair were mainly spinal cord injury, polio/post-polio, and congenital conditions. Most Kenyans reported high daily wheelchair use (60% and ADL performance (80%, while these practices were less frequent in the Philippine sample (42% and 74%, respectively. Having the wheelchair fit assessed while the user propelled the wheelchair was associated with greater odds of high ADL performance in Kenya (odds ratio [OR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6, 5.1 and the Philippines (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.8, 4.5. Wheelchair-related training was associated with high ADL performance in Kenya (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3, 8.4. In the Philippines, training was associated with greater odds of high versus no daily wheelchair use but also odds of serious versus no falls (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4, 4.5.Conclusion: Select services that were associated with some better wheelchair use outcomes and should be emphasised in service delivery. Service providers should be aware that increased mobility may lead to serious falls.

  18. Attitude and Intention Regarding Pain Management among Chinese Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey.

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    Fang, Liang-Yu; Xu, Yin-Chuan; Lin, Dan-Ni; Jin, Jing-Feng; Yan, Min

    2017-08-01

    Optimal pain management is a priority in effective nursing care. Lack of sufficient pain knowledge associated with inadequate pain management has been proved. However, the intention, defined as the predictor of behavior, regarding pain management remains unknown. Therefore, the study was to determine the attitude and intention regarding pain management among Chinese nursing students and investigate the underlying determinants and their interactions in terms of intention toward pain management. The Pain Management Survey Questionnaire, comprising the key determinants of the theory of planned behavior-that is, direct attitude, belief-based intention, subjective norm, direct control, and indirect control-was used to collect data from 512 nursing students who undertook clinical rotation in an affiliated hospital of a medical college in China. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, Pearson correlation analysis, or structural equation modeling analysis. Chinese nursing students reported negative attitudes and behavioral intentions toward pain management. Direct control, subjective norm, belief-based attitude, and indirect control independently predicted nursing students' intention to treat patients with pain. Direct control was the strongest predictor. Structural equation modeling analysis further revealed 39.84% of the variance associated with intention that could be explained by determinants of the theory of planned behavior. Additionally, educational school level and previous pain management training had great effects on pain management intention. Overall, this study identified intention as an important factor in effective pain treatment. Chinese nursing students have negative attitudes and insufficient intention to pain management. Therefore, hospitals and universities in China should manage these factors to improve nursing students' practice regarding pain management. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing

  19. Familial determinants of current smoking among adolescents of Lithuania: a cross-sectional survey 2014.

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    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sirvyte, Dainora

    2015-09-14

    Understanding the role of the family in shaping adolescent health risk behaviours has recently been given increased attention. This study investigated association between current smoking and a range of familial factors in a representative sample of Lithuanian adolescents. Study subjects (N = 3696) were adolescents aged 13- and 15-years from the schools in Lithuania who were surveyed in Spring 2014 according to the methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). A standard HBSC international questionnaire was translated into Lithuanian and used anonymously to obtain information about current smoking patterns and family life (family structure, quality of communication in family, parental monitoring, bonding, parenting style, family time, etc.). Logistic regression was used to assess association between smoking and familial variables. The prevalence of current smoking was 16.5 % (20.8 % in boys and 11.9 % in girls; P adolescents from non-intact families were significantly more likely to be current smokers (OR = 2.10; 95 % CI: 1.74-2.54) compared with intact families. Five independent familial factors were significantly related to increased risk for adolescent smoking: low maternal monitoring (OR = 2.79; 95 % CI: 1.98-3.92), low satisfaction with family relationships (OR = 1.89; 95 % CI: 1.27-2.83), low school-related parental support (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.95), easy communication with the father (OR = 0.56; 95 % CI: 0.38-0.80) and often use of electronic media for communication with parents (OR = 0.66; 95 % CI: 0.50-0.88). The last two determinants showed an inverse effect than it was hypothesized. Higher prevalence of smoking among adolescents of Lithuania is associated with a non- intact family structure as well as weaker parental support and bonding. Family life practices are critical components to be incorporated in prevention and intervention programs for adolescent smoking in Lithuania.

  20. Basic life support education in secondary schools: a cross-sectional survey in London, UK.

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    Salciccioli, Justin D; Marshall, Dominic C; Sykes, Mark; Wood, Alexander D; Joppa, Stephanie A; Sinha, Madhurima; Lim, P Boon

    2017-01-06

    Basic life support (BLS) training in schools is associated with improved outcomes from cardiac arrest. International consensus statements have recommended universal BLS training for school-aged children. The current practice of BLS training in London schools is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess current practices of BLS training in London secondary schools. A prospective audit of BLS training in London secondary schools was conducted. Schools were contacted by email, and a subsequent telephone interview was conducted with staff familiar with local training practices. Response data were anonymised and captured electronically. Universal training was defined as any programme which delivers BLS training to all students in the school. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the results. A total of 65 schools completed the survey covering an estimated student population of 65 396 across 19 of 32 London boroughs. There were 5 (8%) schools that provide universal training programmes for students and an additional 31 (48%) offering training as part of an extracurricular programme or chosen module. An automated external defibrillator (AED) was available in 18 (28%) schools, unavailable in 40 (61%) and 7 (11%) reported their AED provision as unknown. The most common reasons for not having a universal BLS training programme are the requirement for additional class time (28%) and that funding is unavailable for such a programme (28%). There were 5 students who died from sudden cardiac arrest over the period of the past 10 years. BLS training rates in London secondary schools are low, and the majority of schools do not have an AED available in case of emergency. These data highlight an opportunity to improve BLS training and AEDs provision. Future studies should assess programmes which are cost-effective and do not require significant amounts of additional class time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  1. Public primary and secondary skin cancer prevention, perceptions and knowledge: an international cross-sectional survey.

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    Seité, S; Del Marmol, V; Moyal, D; Friedman, A J

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer is continuing to increase worldwide, with sun exposure serving as the primary external aetiologic force in its development. Despite noticeable public health efforts, there continue to be gaps in public awareness and primary and secondary prevention mechanisms. This survey study sought to investigate preventative behaviours regarding sun exposure and skin cancer detection at an international scale. A questionnaire was submitted, both online and by telephone, to a representative sample (based on official demographic statistics on gender, age and region) of people aged from 15 to 65 originating from 23 countries. Questions dealt with demographics, sun exposure and protection, risk knowledge, self-examination, medical advice seeking. Data were then gathered and analysed at different levels. A total of 19 569 respondents were recruited. Overall, sunscreen and sunglasses were the most used measures for sun protection. There were however difference between countries and geographical areas. Some high-risk countries in terms of sun exposure (according to their location to Equator) exhibited higher rates of primary preventative behaviours, in particular Australia, Chile and Greece. There were also discrepancies between countries regarding secondary prevention through self-examination and medical advice seeking. Young people, men, individuals belonging to a lower socio-economic class or having a lower education level were all least likely to know or follow primary and secondary preventive measures. We found imperfections and geographical inequality both regarding primary and secondary prevention of skin cancer. Our study provides insights that could help to target populations more effectively through information campaigns embedded into the global needed endeavour aiming to reduce mid- and long-term development of skin cancer. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. Ethnomedicine for neonatal jaundice: A cross-sectional survey in Qom, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Heydari, Hosein; Saadati, Alireza; Gharehbeglou, Mohammad; Tafaroji, Javad; Akbari, Abolfazl

    2016-12-04

    Traditional Medicine (TM) is popularly used for neonatal jaundice in Iran. to provides evidence for characteristics of traditional medicine use in the treatment of neonatal jaundice in Qom, Iran. Field surveys were carried out during July 2015 - August 2015 in Qom through structured questionnaire in Persian from 212 parents of children with neonatal jaundice. All plant species recorded for the treatment of neonatal jaundice were sampled. Samples were identified by a botanist and obtained a voucher specimens number and deposited in the Shiraz School of Pharmacy Herbarium. The information such as scientific name, family, local name, parts used and preparation method were provided. The Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Relative Family Importance Value (FIV) are also calculated. In total, 165 (78%) of participants reported the use of traditional methods for their neonates. The use of herbal remedies was the most popular form of these traditional interventions. A total of 8 plant species belonging to 7 families were identified. Cotoneaster nummularioides Pojark. Cichorium intybus L. Alhagi maurorum Medik. Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl were most frequent herbs used by neonates and their feeding mother to treat jaundice. Manna was the most popular plant part and distillation and soaking were most frequent preparation methods in these patients. The use of TM in these patients is associated with their previous experience on TM use and their view on its potential risk. This study provided information on the prevalence, associated factors and characteristics of traditional medicine use along with ethnomedicinal knowledge from Qom in Iran on neonatal jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Routine pelvic examinations: A descriptive cross-sectional survey of women's attitudes and beliefs after new guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Juliana M; Vegunta, Suneela; Al-Badri, Mina; Faubion, Stephanie S; Fields, Heather E; Shah, Amit A; Wallace, Mark R; Ruddy, Barbara E; Bryan, Michael J; Temkit, M'hamed; MacLaughlin, Kathy L

    2017-01-01

    Routine pelvic examinations have been a fundamental part of the annual female examination. The 2014 American College of Physicians (ACP) guideline recommends against routine pelvic examinations in asymptomatic, nonpregnant, average-risk women. Our aim was to evaluate women's attitudes and beliefs about pelvic examinations and how knowledge of the new guidelines contributes to attitudes and beliefs. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administered written survey developed through literature review and pretested and revised on the basis of staff suggestions. Nonpregnant women age≥21years presenting to outpatient clinics at Mayo Clinic in Arizona or Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, received the survey. After being asked about pelvic examination practices and beliefs, participants were informed of the ACP guideline, to determine effect on attitudes and beliefs. Demographic characteristics and pertinent medical history questions were collected from participants. In total, 671 women who were predominantly white, married, and educated completed surveys. Participants described pelvic examinations as reassuring, and a majority believed the examinations were useful in detecting ovarian cancer (74.6%), necessary for screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (71.0%), or necessary before initiating contraception (67.0%). After reading the 2014 ACP guideline, significantly fewer women planned to continue yearly pelvic examinations (Ppelvic examinations were necessary for STI screening, contraception initiation, and ovarian cancer detection. After education on the ACP screening guideline, fewer women planned to continue yearly pelvic examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nine-year comparison of presentation and management of acute coronary syndromes in Ireland: a national cross-sectional survey

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    Shelley Emer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shorter time to treatment is associated with lower mortality in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. A previous (1994 survey showed substantial delays for acute myocardial infarction (AMI in Ireland. The present study compared current practice with 1994 and surveyed acute coronary syndromes as a more complete contemporary evaluation of critical cardiac care than assessing AMI alone. Methods Following ethics committee approval, all centres (N = 39 admitting acute cardiac patients to intensive/coronary care unit provided information on 1365 episodes. A cross-sectional survey design was employed. Results Since 1994, median hospital arrival to thrombolysis time was reduced by 41% (76 to 45 minutes. Thrombolysis was delivered more often in the emergency department in 2003 (48% vs 2%. Thrombolysis when delivered in the emergency department was achieved faster than thrombolysis delivered in intensive/coronary care (35 mins v 60 mins; z = 5.62, p Conclusions Substantial improvements in time to thrombolysis have occurred since 1994, probably relating to treatment provision in emergency departments. Patient delay pre-hospital is still the principal impediment to effective treatment of ACS. A recent change of definition of AMI may have precluded an exact comparison between 1994 and 2003 data.

  5. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Tania Jordanova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43% was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%. Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.

  6. A cross-sectional survey of stressors for postpartum women during wartime in a military medical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, David M; Pazdernik, Lisa A

    2006-10-01

    To determine whether having a partner deployed during wartime increased the stress levels in pregnant women and altered the attitudes toward pregnancy or changed birth outcomes. Cross-sectional survey of all postpartum women at Naval Hospital Camp Lejeune. The anonymous survey was administered from May to July 2003. Ninety-five surveys were collected. Fewer patients reported that their partner was deployed (41.1%) than not deployed (58.9%). Women with deployed partners gave birth to larger babies (3526.5 g vs. 3248.7 g, p = 0.016). No difference was seen in the gestational age at delivery, percentage with vaginal delivery, average number of children at home, self-reported stress, or reported weight gain during pregnancy. Women with partners deployed more often reported changed eating habits (56.4% vs. 8.0%, p media coverage impacted their stress level (p = 0.003). Pregnant women with deployed partners gave birth to larger babies. They also more frequently report a change in eating habits and that media coverage impacted their stress level.

  7. Sleep Bruxism-Tooth Grinding Prevalence, Characteristics and Familial Aggregation: A Large Cross-Sectional Survey and Polysomnographic Validation.

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    Khoury, Samar; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Huynh, Nelly; Montplaisir, Jacques; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2016-11-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is characterized by tooth grinding and jaw clenching during sleep. Familial factors may contribute to the occurrence of SB. This study aims are: (1) revisit the prevalence and characteristics of SB in a large cross-sectional survey and assess familial aggregation of SB, (2) assess comorbidity such as insomnia and pain, (3) compare survey data in a subset of subjects diagnosed using polysomnography research criteria. A sample of 6,357 individuals from the general population in Quebec, Canada, undertook an online survey to assess the prevalence of SB, comorbidities, and familial aggregation. Data on familial aggregation were compared to 111 SB subjects diagnosed using polysomnography. Regularly occurring SB was reported by 8.6% of the general population, decreases with age, without any gender difference. SB awareness is concomitant with complaints of difficulties maintaining sleep in 47.6% of the cases. A third of SB positive probands reported pain. A 2.5 risk ratio of having a first-degree family member with SB was found in SB positive probands. The risk of reporting SB in first-degree family ranges from 1.4 to 2.9 with increasing severity of reported SB. Polysomnographic data shows that 37% of SB subjects had at least one first-degree relative with reported SB with a relative risk ratio of 4.625. Our results support the heritability of SB-tooth grinding and that sleep quality and pain are concomitant in a significant number of SB subjects.

  8. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. PMID:26035665

  9. Frequency and circumstances of falls for people with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: A cross sectional survey.

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    Ramdharry, Gita M; Reilly-O'Donnell, Louise; Grant, Robert; Reilly, Mary M

    2017-12-28

    People with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease may be at risk of falls due to distal muscle weakness and sensory impairment. We aimed to understand the frequency of falls in a cohort, where they occurred, injury and to what people attributed the possible cause. A cross-sectional survey design was used. It was sent by post to ascertain the frequency of falls and near falls, plus the circumstances of the last three falls events they could recall. The survey was administered to 252 people with CMT who were patients at a specialist neuromuscular centre. People were approached who had a clinical diagnosis by a neuromuscular specialist neurologist. Not applicable. The Falls Event Questionnaire. Responses were received from 107 people with CMT. Falls and near falls were reported by 86% of survey respondents. The majority of falls occurred at home, and muscular weakness appeared to be blamed the most, with participants describing tripping due to foot drop or joints giving way. A similar pattern was observed for near falls, but they tended to be more frequent. Moderate and major injuries were relatively rare, with the majority of falls resulting in scrapes and bruises or the faller feeling shaken by the experience. The impact of falls is far reaching, in terms of injury risk and the consequences of the fear of falling. Interventions to improve balance and reduce falls are an important rehabilitation focus for people with CMT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools in low socio-economic regions in Nicaragua: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-29

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students' families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.

  11. Training practitioners in preparing systematic reviews: a cross-sectional survey of participants in the Australasian Cochrane Centre training program

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    Silagy Chris

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although systematic reviews of health care interventions are an invaluable tool for health care providers and researchers, many potential authors never publish reviews. This study attempts to determine why some people with interest in performing systematic reviews do not subsequently publish a review; and what steps could possibly increase review completion. Methods Cross-sectional survey by email and facsimile of the 179 participants in Australasian Cochrane Centre training events between 1998 and 2000. Results Ninety-two participants responded to the survey (51 percent. Response rate of deliverable surveys was 82 percent (92/112. The remainder of the participants had invalid or no contact information on file. More than 75 percent of respondents felt that the current workshops met their needs for training. The most critical barriers to completion of a Cochrane review were: lack of time (80 percent, lack of financial support (36 percent, methodological problems (23 percent and problems with group dynamics (10 percent. Conclusions Strategies to protect reviewer time and increase the efficiency of the review process may increase the numbers of trained reviewers completing a systematic review.

  12. Education and severe maternal outcomes in developing countries: a multicountry cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçalp, Ö; Souza, J P; Hindin, M J; Santos, C A; Oliveira, T H; Vogel, J P; Togoobaatar, G; Ha, D Q; Say, L; Gülmezoglu, A M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the relationship between education and severe maternal outcomes among women delivering in healthcare facilities. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-nine countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. Pregnant women admitted to 359 facilities during a period of 2-4 months of data collection between 2010 and 2011. Data were obtained from hospital records. Stratification was based on the Human Development Index (HDI) values of the participating countries. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between maternal morbidity and education, categorised in quartiles based on the years of formal education by country. Coverage of key interventions was assessed. Severe maternal outcomes (near misses and death). A significant association between low education and severe maternal outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.46-2.95), maternal near miss (aOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.25-2.57), and maternal death (aOR 5.62; 95% CI 3.45-9.16) was observed. This relationship persisted in countries with medium HDIs (aOR 2.36; 95% CI 1.33-4.17) and low HDIs (aOR 2.65; 95% CI 1.54-2.57). Less educated women also had increased odds of presenting to the hospital in a severe condition (i.e. with organ dysfunction on arrival or within 24 hours: aOR 2.06; 95% CI 1.36-3.10). The probability that a woman received magnesium sulphate for eclampsia or had a caesarean section significantly increased as education level increased (P education are at greater risk for severe maternal outcomes, even after adjustment for key confounding factors. This is particularly true for women in countries that have poorer markers of social and economic development. © 2014 RCOG The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  13. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

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    Pyörälä Satu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. Results The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39% responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308, dogs (n = 989 and cats (n = 311. For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%, followed by dry-cow therapy (21%, subclinical mastitis (6% and treatment for acute enteritis (4%. The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459, benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379, while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%. Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%, followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%. Conclusion This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful

  14. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: results of use in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja; Hautala, Maria; Pyörälä, Satu; Kaartinen, Liisa

    2008-04-14

    Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39%) responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308), dogs (n = 989) and cats (n = 311). For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%), followed by dry-cow therapy (21%), subclinical mastitis (6%) and treatment for acute enteritis (4%). The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459), benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379), while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%). Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%), followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%). This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful method for the collection of information on

  15. Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbada, Chidozie E; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B; Arije, Olujide O; Dada, Olumide O; Akinwande, Olabisi A; Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Alonge, Ibidun A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy.

  16. Comorbidity of headache and functional constipation in children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaloo, Soror; Dehghani, Seyyed Mohsen; Hashemi, Seyyed Mohammad; Heydari, Mojtaba; Heydari, Seyyed Taghi

    2014-10-01

    Constipation and headache are prevalent conditions among children worldwide. Previous studies have shown the relationship between upper gastrointestinal complaints and headache in children. However, the association with lower gastrointestinal complaints such as constipation has not been investigated until present. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between headache and chronic functional constipation in children aged 4-12 years old. This cross-sectional study has evaluated the prevalence of headache in 326 children in Shiraz, Iran 2012. All the subjects and their parents were interviewed based on a structured questionnaire for the diagnosis of constipation and headache. Children with constipation were selected from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic Affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The control group was selected from healthy children attending Shiraz schools. Diagnosis of headache and constipation were made based on the second Edition of The International Headache Classification (ICHD-2) and ROME III criteria, respectively. Headache prevalence among children with constipation was significantly higher (19.8%) than that of the control group (5.6%) [Odds ratio (OR) 4.192, pconstipated children (14.9% vs. 1.4%, in the control group, respectively, pconstipation, which can result from the effect of these comorbid conditions with emotional stress, depression, and anxiety.

  17. No increase in prevalence of somatization in functional vs organic dyspepsia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, D J; Bercik, P; Morgan, D G; Bolino, C; Pintos-Sanchez, M I; Moayyedi, P; Ford, A C

    2015-07-01

    Psychological factors are associated with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Literature suggests that somatization is associated with functional dyspepsia (FD). However, the relationship between organic dyspepsia (OD), FD, and FD subtypes and somatization is poorly described. We aimed to examine this issue in a cross-sectional study of secondary care patients. Demographic and GI symptom data were collected from 4224 adult patients via the Rome III questionnaire. Somatization data were collected using the patient health questionnaire-12. Mean somatization score and number of somatic symptoms were compared between patients with organic and FD, and between FD subtypes using analysis of variance. The same comparison was undertaken for the proportion of patients reporting individual somatic symptoms. Exactly, 783 patients met criteria for dyspepsia, of whom 231 (29.5%) had organic disease following upper GI endoscopy. Mean somatization scores and number of somatic symptoms were no higher in functional vs OD (p = 0.23; p = 0.19). In addition, while the prevalence of somatization in FD was relatively high, there was no difference in severity of somatization in FD subgroups. Somatization is associated with functional and OD to the same degree. Overall severity of somatization did not appear to vary according to FD subtype. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence in pregnant women: A cross-sectional survey in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoghli, Alireza; Nabavi, Seyed Mahmood; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Kolifarhood, Goodarz; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Namazi, Roshanak; Fallahnezhad, Mojtaba; Mohajeri, Mansor; Mousavinasab, Nouraldin; Zanjani, Rahim Sorouri; Saeini, Mohammad Reza; Jalilvand, Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from infected mothers to their neonates is one of the most important routes of infection. The exact prevalence rate of HBV in Iranian pregnant mothers is not well known but based on different studies it is estimated between 0.35% and 6.5%. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnant women of selected provinces in Iran. At this cross-sectional study, seven provinces supposed to be of high and low prevalence of hepatitis B in the general population selected. Multistage sampling was used to enroll 5261 parturient women who attended the target provinces birth facilities, during January to March of 2011, were recruited to study. To determine the statistically significant mean and proportion differences, t-test and χ (2) test were used, respectively. Overall 1.2% was positive HBsAg of which 11% of them were hepatitis B e-antigen positive as well. The eastern and north eastern provinces were considerably higher in HBsAg seropositivity than the west and northwest of the country. In view of the considerable prevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women, screening all pregnant women prioritizing the eastern and north-eastern provinces is strongly recommended.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and breast feeding practices of postnatal mothers: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Susheela, T; Mythili, D

    2015-10-01

    Breast feeding has several benefits for both the infants and mothers. However, despite strong evidences in support of breast feeding its prevalence has remained low worldwide. The objective of the present study was to examine the knowledge and attitude towards breast feeding and infant feeding practices among Indian postnatal mothers. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among randomly selected postnatal mothers at Pediatric outpatient department at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Our findings revealed that a majority (88.5%) of the mothers were breast feeders. However, merely 27% of the mothers were exclusive breast feeders and only 36.9% initiated breast feeding within an hour. While mothers have good knowledge on breast feeding (12.05±1.74, M±SD), the average score of the Iowa Infant Feeding Scale (IIFAS) (58.77±4.74, M ±SD) indicate neutral attitudes toward breast feeding. Mothers those who were currently breast feeding (58.83 ± 4.74) had more positive attitudes than non- breastfeed mothers (45.21±5.22). Our findings also show that the level of exclusive breast-feeding was low. Thus, it is important to provide prenatal education to mothers and fathers on breast-feeding. We also recommend strengthening the public health education campaigns to promote breast-feeding.

  20. Gender Discrimination among Medical Students in Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeeh Hashmi, Ali; Rehman, Amra; Butt, Zeeshan; Awais Aftab, Muhammad; Shahid, Aimen; Abbas Khan, Sahar

    2013-04-01

    To examine the prevalence and magnitude of gender discrimination experienced by undergraduate medical students, and its repercussions on their academic performance and emotional health. A cross sectional study of 500 medical and dental students studying at a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan. Majority (78%) of students reported being victims of gender discrimination. Females were the main perpetrators (70.8%).Most common forms were denied opportunities (63%), followed by neglecting students' needs (44.3%), and unethical talk (43.6%). Most common places of gender discrimination were teachers' offices (43.7%) and lecture halls (37.2%). Most of the perpetrators were clerical staff (48%) and professors (43%).Gender discrimination did not affect the academic performance of most victims (62.6%). The most common emotional responses were anger (57.6%), frustration (46.7%) and helplessness (40.3%). 52.4% of students said that gender discrimination still continues and the majority (83.3%) did not report the problem to college authorities. RESULTS demonstrate that gender discrimination is widely prevalent in undergraduate medical education. Females are both the main victims as well as the main perpetrators. In most cases gender discrimination does not affect academic performance but does cause emotional distress.

  1. Helicopter emergency medical services in major incident management: A national Norwegian cross-sectional survey.

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    Anne Siri Johnsen

    Full Text Available Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS aim to bring a highly specialised crew to the scene of major incidents for triage, treatment and transport. We aim to describe experiences made by HEMS in Norway in the management of major incidents.Doctors, rescue paramedics and pilots working in Norwegian HEMS and Search and Rescue Helicopters (SAR January 1st 2015 were invited to a cross-sectional study on experiences, preparedness and training in major incident management.We identified a total of 329 Norwegian crewmembers of which 229 (70% responded; doctors 101/150, (67%, rescue paramedics 64/78 (82%, pilots 64/101, (63%. HEMS and SAR crewmembers had experience from a median of 2 (interquartile range 0-6 major incidents. Road traffic incidents were the most frequent mechanism and blunt trauma the dominating injury. HEMS mainly contributed with triage, treatment and transport. Communication with other emergency services prior to arrival was described as bad, but good to excellent when cooperating on scene. The respondents called for more interdisciplinary exercises.HEMS and SAR crewmembers have limited exposure to major incident management. Interdisciplinary training on frequent scenarios with focus on cooperation and communication is called for.

  2. Workplace Violence against Health Care Workers in North Chinese Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peihang; Zhang, Xue; Sun, Yihua; Ma, Hongkun; Jiao, Mingli; Xing, Kai; Kang, Zheng; Ning, Ning; Fu, Yapeng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei

    2017-01-19

    This research aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers, explore the frequency distribution of violence in different occupational groups, and determine which healthcare occupation suffers from WPV most frequently. Furthermore, the current study aimed to compare risk factors affecting different types of WPV in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional design was utilized. A total of 1899 healthcare workers from Heilongjiang, a province in Northeastern China, completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 83.3% reported exposure to workplace violence, and 68.9% reported non-physical violence. Gender, education, shift work, anxiety level, and occupation were significantly correlated with physical violence (p violence, which critically affected doctors. Thus, gender, age, profession, anxiety, and shift work were predictive of workplace violence toward healthcare workers. Doctors appeared to experience non-physical workplace violence with particularly higher frequency when compared to nurses and other workers in hospitals. For healthcare workers, interventions aimed at WPV reduction should be enacted according to the types of violence, profession, and other factors underlying the various types of WPV in hospitals.

  3. Workplace Violence against Health Care Workers in North Chinese Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace violence (WPV against healthcare workers, explore the frequency distribution of violence in different occupational groups, and determine which healthcare occupation suffers from WPV most frequently. Furthermore, the current study aimed to compare risk factors affecting different types of WPV in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional design was utilized. A total of 1899 healthcare workers from Heilongjiang, a province in Northeastern China, completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 83.3% reported exposure to workplace violence, and 68.9% reported non-physical violence. Gender, education, shift work, anxiety level, and occupation were significantly correlated with physical violence (p < 0.05 for all correlations. Additionally, age, professional title, and occupation were correlated with non-physical violence, which critically affected doctors. Thus, gender, age, profession, anxiety, and shift work were predictive of workplace violence toward healthcare workers. Doctors appeared to experience non-physical workplace violence with particularly higher frequency when compared to nurses and other workers in hospitals. For healthcare workers, interventions aimed at WPV reduction should be enacted according to the types of violence, profession, and other factors underlying the various types of WPV in hospitals.

  4. Risk of child obesity from parental obesity: analysis of repeat national cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, Philip; Morrison, David S

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the potential to reduce childhood obesity through targeted interventions of overweight households. Cross-sectional nationally representative samples of the Scottish population. Households in Scotland during 2008 and 2009. A total of 1651 households with parents and children aged 2-15 years. The WHO cut-off points for adult body mass index (BMI): overweight (25 to obese (≥30 kg/m2). Overweight and obesity in childhood respectively defined as a BMI 85th to obese. Seventy-five percent (1606/2128) of all children lived with a parent who was overweight or obese. Among obese children, 58% (185/318) lived with an obese parent. The population attributable risk percentage of child obesity associated with parental obesity was 32.5%. Targeting obese households would require substantial falls in adult weight and need to reach 38% of all children; it might achieve a reduction in the prevalence of childhood obesity of 14% in these households (from 26% to 12%). Targeting parents with BMI ≥ 40 might reduce the overall prevalence of child obesity by 9%. Such an intervention would require large weight loss, consistent with approaches used for morbidly obese adults; it would involve 4% of all children and lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity in these households from 57% to 16%. Family-based interventions for obesity would be most efficiently targeted at obese children whose parents are morbidly obese.

  5. [A cross sectional survey on the prevalence of active pulmonary tuberculosis in three 'key' elderly population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuguang; Zhang, Xiulei; Zhu, Li; Li, Haitao; Guo, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yu; Liang, Mingli; Li, Rong; Chu, Dan

    2014-06-01

    To conduct a survey on the prevalence of active pulmonary tuberculosis among 65 year olds or above. Study subjects would include those with characteristics of TB suspicious symptoms, diabetes and close contacts. Purpose-sampling method was applied to choose 3 counties in Shandong province as the study sites, relying on the local basic public health service, for those elderly under 65 years old or above. The study team would introduce the process and contents of this study to the subjects followed by chest X-ray and sputum smears on those registered tuberculosis suspects, patients with diabetes, TB close contacts in the past 2 years, from January to September, 2013. 82 active pulmonary TB cases were identified among 9 041 cases who received the examination, with a crude prevalence rate as 9.1‰. From patients having both suspicious TB and diabetic symptoms, patients with diabetes or having suspicious symptoms of TB, the prevalence rates of active TB were 115‰, 3.4‰, 0.9‰ respectively. No active pulmonary TB case was found in the TB close contacts, patients with diabetes, or those people with suspicious TB symptoms. TB prevalence rates among all the above mentioned groups were significantly different (χ(2) = 697.478, P = 0.000). Prevalence rate of active pulmonary TB with diabetes was 18 times (RR = 17.951) higher than those non-diabetic patients, and 2 times higher than those with suspicious symptoms (RR = 3.860). Results from single factor analysis showed that diabetes were closely related to the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis(χ(2) = 46.637, P = 0.000), the longer duration of diabetes and the higher risk of tuberculosis(RR > 1). Our data showed that active pulmonary TB prevalence was high in elderly diabetes patients which suggesting that 'Key crowd screening program' should be introduced into case-finding strategy on TB, with special focus on TB patients with diabetes or those people having suspicious symptoms of TB.

  6. Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: A cross-sectional survey

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    van Straten Annemieke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Happiness has been associated with a range of favourable health outcomes through two pathways: its relationship with favourable biological responses to stress and with healthy lifestyles and prudent health behaviours. There are a substantial number of cross-cultural studies about happiness, but none of them has studied the association of happiness with perceived stress and health behaviours in Latin American samples. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between general happiness and these variables in a Latin American sample. Methods We conducted a survey to examine the status of 3461 students aged between 17 and 24 years old (mean age = 19.89; SD = 1.73 who attended University of Santiago de Chile during 2009. The healthy behaviours indexes assessed were the frequency of daily physical exercise, fruits/vegetables intake, breakfast and lunch intake, smoking, alcohol and other drugs consumption. We also included the assessment of perceived stress and Body Mass Index. All of them were evaluated using a self-report questionnaire. Results The univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female and younger was related to a higher happiness, as well as that people self-reporting daily physical activity, having lunch and fruits and vegetables each day had a higher likelihood (OR between 1.33 and 1.40 of being classified as "very happy". Those who informed felt stressed in normal circumstances and during tests situations showed a lower likelihood (0.73 and 0.82, respectively of being considered "very happy". Regarding drug consumption, taking tranquilizers under prescription was negative related to "subjective happiness" (OR = 0.62, whereas smoking was positive associated (OR = 1.20. Conclusions The findings of this study mainly support the relationship between happiness and health outcomes through the two pathways previously mentioned. They also underscore the

  7. Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: A cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Happiness has been associated with a range of favourable health outcomes through two pathways: its relationship with favourable biological responses to stress and with healthy lifestyles and prudent health behaviours. There are a substantial number of cross-cultural studies about happiness, but none of them has studied the association of happiness with perceived stress and health behaviours in Latin American samples. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between general happiness and these variables in a Latin American sample. Methods We conducted a survey to examine the status of 3461 students aged between 17 and 24 years old (mean age = 19.89; SD = 1.73) who attended University of Santiago de Chile during 2009. The healthy behaviours indexes assessed were the frequency of daily physical exercise, fruits/vegetables intake, breakfast and lunch intake, smoking, alcohol and other drugs consumption. We also included the assessment of perceived stress and Body Mass Index. All of them were evaluated using a self-report questionnaire. Results The univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female and younger was related to a higher happiness, as well as that people self-reporting daily physical activity, having lunch and fruits and vegetables each day had a higher likelihood (OR between 1.33 and 1.40) of being classified as "very happy". Those who informed felt stressed in normal circumstances and during tests situations showed a lower likelihood (0.73 and 0.82, respectively) of being considered "very happy". Regarding drug consumption, taking tranquilizers under prescription was negative related to "subjective happiness" (OR = 0.62), whereas smoking was positive associated (OR = 1.20). Conclusions The findings of this study mainly support the relationship between happiness and health outcomes through the two pathways previously mentioned. They also underscore the importance of that some healthy

  8. Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras, José A; Kuhne, Walter; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; van Straten, Annemieke; Cuijpers, Pim

    2011-06-07

    Happiness has been associated with a range of favourable health outcomes through two pathways: its relationship with favourable biological responses to stress and with healthy lifestyles and prudent health behaviours. There are a substantial number of cross-cultural studies about happiness, but none of them has studied the association of happiness with perceived stress and health behaviours in Latin American samples. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between general happiness and these variables in a Latin American sample. We conducted a survey to examine the status of 3461 students aged between 17 and 24 years old (mean age = 19.89; SD = 1.73) who attended University of Santiago de Chile during 2009. The healthy behaviours indexes assessed were the frequency of daily physical exercise, fruits/vegetables intake, breakfast and lunch intake, smoking, alcohol and other drugs consumption. We also included the assessment of perceived stress and Body Mass Index. All of them were evaluated using a self-report questionnaire. The univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female and younger was related to a higher happiness, as well as that people self-reporting daily physical activity, having lunch and fruits and vegetables each day had a higher likelihood (OR between 1.33 and 1.40) of being classified as "very happy". Those who informed felt stressed in normal circumstances and during tests situations showed a lower likelihood (0.73 and 0.82, respectively) of being considered "very happy". Regarding drug consumption, taking tranquilizers under prescription was negative related to "subjective happiness" (OR = 0.62), whereas smoking was positive associated (OR = 1.20). The findings of this study mainly support the relationship between happiness and health outcomes through the two pathways previously mentioned. They also underscore the importance of that some healthy behaviours and person's cognitive

  9. Perceptions regarding helmet use: a cross-sectional survey of female pillions in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Maryam; Siddiqui, Selma Marie; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Swaroop, Mamta

    2017-05-01

    In 2011, road traffic injury-associated fatalities among motorized two-wheeler (MTW) pillion riders (backseat two-wheeler passengers) rose 30% in Karachi. Despite mandatory helmet laws, helmet use fell 20% the same year. This study aims to identify opinions of female pillions on helmet usage and whether various forms of media influence their self-perception. Trained surveyors, using a survey tool used in similar studies in South Asia, conducted random, man-on-the-street interviews of 400 women in four areas of Karachi. Data pertaining to demographics, opinions on helmet laws, media influences, and helmet usage were collected. Data were analyzed in SAS 9.3 using chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests. Of the 400 women, 98.8% (n = 394) reported never wearing a helmet while riding on a MTW as a pillion rider. Women with a postsecondary or higher (US ninth grade) education level were more likely to be aware of helmet laws (38.6%) than women with lower education levels (24.6%, P = 0.005). Most women (82.4%, n = 329) supported mandatory laws and 97% (n = 289) recognized that disability was the more likely to result than death in event of a traumatic brain injury. Nearly all (98.5%, n = 394) stated that they would use a helmet if they were men, regardless of age, education level, or employment status. Television news was the most influential media form (83.7%, n = 334), with most women finding it effective because of its informative nature (91.3%, n = 303). Most Pakistani women do not personally use helmets when riding MTWs, yet most believe helmet use should be legally required for MTW riders and drivers. These data show that media outlets such as television can be used as a platform to educate the public about helmet usage, which may lead to improved helmet compliance among female MTW pillions in Pakistan. Furthermore, investigations into improved helmet comfort and appearance by collaborating with helmet manufacturers may have a positive impact on helmet use

  10. The natural history of pedal puncture wounds in diabetics: a cross-sectional survey

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    East Jeffrey M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgeons usually witness only the limb-threatening stages of infected, closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Given that this catastrophic outcome often represents failure of conservative management of pre-infected wounds, some suggest consideration of invasive intervention (coring or laying-open for pre-infected wounds in hope of preventing contamination from evolving into infection, there being no evidence based guidelines. However, an invasive pre-emptive approach is only justifiable if the probability of progression to catastrophic infection is very high. Literature search revealed no prior studies on the natural history of closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Methods A survey was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire on 198 adult diabetics resident in the parish of St. James, Jamaica. The sample was selected using a purposive technique designed to mirror the social gradient and residential distribution of the target population and is twice the number needed to detect a prevalence of puncture wounds of 14% with a range of 7-21% in a random sample of the estimated adult diabetic population. Results The prevalence of a history of at least one closed pedal puncture wound since diagnosis of diabetes was 25.8% (CI; 19.6-31.9%. The only modifiable variable associated at the 5% level of significance with risk of pedal puncture wound, after adjustment by multivariable logistic regression, was site of interview/paying status, a variable substantially reflective of income more so than quality-of-care. Of 77 reported episodes of closed pedal puncture wound among 51 participants, 45.4% healed without medical intervention, 27.3% healed after non-surgical treatment by a doctor and 27.3% required surgical intervention ranging from debridement to below-knee amputation. Anesthetic foot (failure to feel the puncture and sole of the forefoot as site of puncture were the variables significantly associated with

  11. What do popular Spanish women's magazines say about caesarean section? A 21-year survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torloni, MR; Campos Mansilla, B; Merialdi, M; Betrán, AP

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Caesarean section (CS) rates are increasing worldwide and maternal request is cited as one of the main reasons for this trend. Women's preferences for route of delivery are influenced by popular media, including magazines. We assessed the information on CS presented in Spanish women's magazines. Design Systematic review. Setting Women's magazines printed from 1989 to 2009 with the largest national distribution. Sample Articles with any information on CS. Methods Articles were selected, read and abstracted in duplicate. Sources of information, scientific accuracy, comprehensiveness and women's testimonials were objectively extracted using a content analysis form designed for this study. Main outcome measures Accuracy, comprehensiveness and sources of information. Results Most (67%) of the 1223 selected articles presented exclusively personal opinion/birth stories, 12% reported the potential benefits of CS, 26% mentioned the short-term and 10% mentioned the long-term maternal risks, and 6% highlighted the perinatal risks of CS. The most frequent short-term risks were the increased time for maternal recovery (n = 86), frustration/feelings of failure (n = 83) and increased post-surgical pain (n = 71). The most frequently cited long-term risks were uterine rupture (n = 57) and the need for another CS in any subsequent pregnancy (n = 42). Less than 5% of the selected articles reported that CS could increase the risks of infection (n = 53), haemorrhage (n = 31) or placenta praevia/accreta in future pregnancies (n = 6). The sources of information were not reported by 68% of the articles. Conclusions The portrayal of CS in Spanish women's magazines is not sufficiently comprehensive and does not provide adequate important information to help the readership to understand the real benefits and risks of this route of delivery. PMID:24467797

  12. Exploring the missing link - Empathy among dental students: An institutional cross-sectional survey

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    Vikram Pal Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empathy plays an important role in healthy dentist and patient relationship. Hence, the aim of the study is to (a to measure the self-reported empathy levels among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students. (b To review the trend of changes in empathy level with experience, age, and gender among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out in two private dental institutions situated in Sri Ganganagar, India, with a sample size of 978. Data were obtained from the 1 st to final year (BDS, interns, and postgraduate students from January to March 2015. An empathy level of students was assessed by the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy - Health Profession Students Version Questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis using Kaiser′s criteria was undertaken to appraise the construct validity and dimensionality. Based on the results of the factor analysis, three factors were selected; labeled as "perspective taking," "compassionate care," and "standing in patient′s shoes." Results: The majority of the students was female in a equivalent  ratio of 1338:618. There were significant differences in empathy scores by gender and age (P < 0.01. The lowest and highest mean empathy scores were found in postgraduate (mean = 108.77, standard deviation [SD] =9.12 and 1 st year (mean = 117.23, SD = 14.19 dental students, respectively. Conclusion: Dental educators should consider the likely decline in empathy among students as early as possible and adopt communication teaching strategies to promote the development of empathy and reduce the risk of further decline.

  13. Medical Students' Opinions About the Commercialization of Healthcare: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civaner, M Murat; Balcioglu, Harun; Vatansever, Kevser

    2016-06-01

    There are serious concerns about the commercialization of healthcare and adoption of the business approach in medicine. As market dynamics endanger established professional values, healthcare workers face more complicated ethical dilemmas in their daily practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the willingness of medical students to accept the assertions of commercialized healthcare and the factors affecting their level of agreement, factors which could influence their moral stance when market demands conflict with professional values. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three medical schools in Turkey. The study population consisted of first-, third-, and sixth-year students, and 1,781 students participated in total. Students were asked to state if they agreed with the assertions of commercialized healthcare. Of all students, 87.2 per cent agreed with at least one of the assertions, and one-fifth (20.8 per cent) of them agreed with more than half of the assertions. First-year students significantly agreed more with some assertions than third- and sixth-year students. Being female, having mid-level family income, choosing medicine due to idealistic reasons, and being in the third or sixth years of medical study increased the probability of disagreement. Also, studying in a medical school that included integrated lectures on health policies, rights related to health, and health inequities, along with early field visits, increased the probability of disagreement. This study suggests that agreement with the assertions of commercialized healthcare might be prevalent among students at a considerable level. We argue that this level of agreement is not compatible with best practice in professional ethics and indicates the need for an educational intervention in order to have physicians who give priority to patients' best interests in the face of market demands.

  14. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

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    Shamsa Zafar

    Full Text Available For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries.Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%, late pregnancy (35% and the postnatal period (31% among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727 and Malawi (1732. Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity.One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective. Both infective (Pakistan and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon ( 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001, intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02 were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings.Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  15. Perceived stress and gastrointestinal symptoms in nursing students in Korea: A cross-sectional survey

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    Lee Eun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although nursing students experience a high level of stress during their training, there has been limited research on stress and its impact on the student's physical responses, such as gastrointestinal symptoms. The aims of this study are to assess the prevalence of GI symptoms in nursing students in Korea and to examine the association between the perceived stress and GI symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. A total of 715 students of a three-year associate degree nursing program in a Korean college participated. The Perceived Stress Scale and a GI Symptoms Questionnaire were administered through a self-reported system. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression analysis were performed using SPSS 17.0. Results Sixty-five percent of the nursing students experienced more than one GI symptom, with 31.1% of students reporting more than three GI symptoms. Most of the nursing students complained of upper dysmotility and bowel symptoms. In addition, students who reported higher perceived stress were significantly more likely to complain of GI symptoms. Compared to nursing students with the lowest perceived stress level, the adjusted odds ratio (OR for GI symptoms in students with the highest perceived stress level was 3.52 times higher (95% CI = 2.05-6.06. Conclusions GI symptoms that are highly prevalent among nursing students are significantly associated with the perceived stress level. High perceived stress should be considered a risk factor for GI symptoms. To reduce perceived stress, stress management programs including cognitive reappraisal training are needed in nursing curriculum.

  16. Perceived stress and gastrointestinal symptoms in nursing students in Korea: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Mun, Mi Suk; Lee, Seon Hye; Cho, Ho Soon Michelle

    2011-11-08

    Although nursing students experience a high level of stress during their training, there has been limited research on stress and its impact on the student's physical responses, such as gastrointestinal symptoms. The aims of this study are to assess the prevalence of GI symptoms in nursing students in Korea and to examine the association between the perceived stress and GI symptoms. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. A total of 715 students of a three-year associate degree nursing program in a Korean college participated. The Perceived Stress Scale and a GI Symptoms Questionnaire were administered through a self-reported system. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression analysis were performed using SPSS 17.0. Sixty-five percent of the nursing students experienced more than one GI symptom, with 31.1% of students reporting more than three GI symptoms. Most of the nursing students complained of upper dysmotility and bowel symptoms. In addition, students who reported higher perceived stress were significantly more likely to complain of GI symptoms. Compared to nursing students with the lowest perceived stress level, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for GI symptoms in students with the highest perceived stress level was 3.52 times higher (95% CI = 2.05-6.06). GI symptoms that are highly prevalent among nursing students are significantly associated with the perceived stress level. High perceived stress should be considered a risk factor for GI symptoms. To reduce perceived stress, stress management programs including cognitive reappraisal training are needed in nursing curriculum.

  17. A cross-sectional survey on nursing students' attitude towards research

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    Samia Saud Al Furaikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing research promotes optimum care for patients through evidence-based nursing practice. Students' attitude towards research motivates them to engage in research, develop research skills and apply research findings in clinical settings to promote positive patient outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyse the attitudes of undergraduate nursing students towards research component in order to discover implications for the best practices in teaching/learning process. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional investigation was carried out with purposively selected n = 186, level 5–8 students at the College of Nursing-A, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Al-Ahsa from 2016 to 2107. With informed, voluntary consent, data on students' attitudes towards research were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 32 items on a Likert scale of strongly agree (4 to strongly disagree (1 with the scores ranging from 32 to 128. Analyses were performed using SPSS version 20. Results: The overall attitude towards research was positive with a mean score (68.4 ± 6.580. Most of the students (78% regarded that research is useful for the nursing profession. Positive attitude towards research was demonstrated by 68% of the nursing students, 61% reported that research plays an important role in professional and personal life, whereas the highest proportion of students (71% perceived research as a difficult, complicated, stressful subject and 64% reported statistical difficulty. Conclusion: Although many of the students have a favourable attitude towards the research process and acknowledge its usefulness and benefit to the nursing profession, many of them perceived their research course as stressful. Most of them reported having negative feelings and anxiety towards the research process. Incorporating research course(s into the curriculum at the pre-university level and

  18. Evaluating Scientific Research Knowledge and Attitude among Medical Representative in Jordan: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukattash, Tareq; Alattar, Meys; Farha, Rana Abu; Alsous, Mervat; Jarab, Anan; El-Hajii, Feras; Mukattash, Ibrahim L

    2017-08-28

    Pharmaceutical companies provide a broad range of different mandatory trainings to their medical representatives to keep the business running, however research related training has often been neglected by these companies. Thus, this study was developed to assess the amount of scientific research knowledge and interest among pharmacy medical representatives in Jordan. A cross sectional study was conducted in Jordan in 2016. During the study period, a questionnaire was administered to 250 medical representatives working in pharmaceutical companies to evaluate their scientific research knowledge and attitudes. The majority of medical representatives had positive attitudes towards clinical trials and research communication and believe that it will increase the value of their work, but a considerable number of medical representatives did not detail clinical trials on every visit and found difficulty in answering clinical trials and research related questions asked by health care professionals. Most of the medical representatives did not have a complete understanding of some basic research terminologies. Medical representatives working in multinational companies seemed to have a significantly better understanding of research and terminologies compared to local companies (P-value= 0.000). Also Medical representatives with higher educational degrees seemed to have significantly better understanding of basic research terminologies (P-value= 0.023). The majority of medical representatives had positive attitudes towards clinical trials and research communication and found that it will increase the value of their work, but still there is a gap in their frequency of detailing. Thus, local pharmaceutical companies need to invest more in research and clinical trials knowledge kind of training. Also, universities need to include research related courses and subject in their bachelors' program curriculum in order to make pharmacists equipped in terms of research knowledge

  19. Social capital - a neglected issue in diabetes control: a cross-sectional survey in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Jafari, Najmeh; Nazer, Saeed; Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Zamani, Ahmadreza

    2013-01-01

    Glycaemic control is an essential component in diabetes management. There is growing attention on the protective effects of social capital on health, where social capital comprises features of society that facilitate co-operation for mutual benefit. The aim of this study was to investigate its role as a social determinant of health in the glycaemic control of diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a diabetes care charity institute, Isfahan, Iran from July 2010 to September 2010. Based on the level of HbA1c, all patients were divided into two groups: HbA1c level ≤ 7 as controlled diabetes and HbA1c level > 7 as uncontrolled diabetes. Sixty patients were randomly selected from each group (controlled diabetes and uncontrolled diabetes) and all agreed to participate. Social capital was measured using the Integrated Questionnaire for the Measurement of Social Capital (SC-IQ). The mean age of participants in the controlled diabetes group was 51.3 (SD: 7.8) years and 50.1(SD: 7.2) in the uncontrolled group. The mean social capital score was 185.1 (CI 95% 181.4-188.6) in the controlled group and 175.4 (CI 95% 171.8-178.8) in the uncontrolled group. There was a significant negative correlation between empowerment and political action and trust and solidarity dimensions and the level of HbA1c. In multiple regression analysis, trust and solidarity and empowerment and political action were significant predictors of the HbA1c. The results of this study suggest that social participation, trust, and empowerment and political action may determine how effectively the patient's diabetes has been managed. This initial finding warrants subsequent experimental investigations designed to identify strategies that can be used to foster the creation of social capital to improve diabetes control. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. The quality of oncology nursing care: A cross sectional survey in three countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Andreas; Adamakidou, Theodoula; Cloconi, Constantina; Charalambous, Melanie; Tsitsi, Theologia; Vondráčková, Lucie; Bužgová, Radka

    2017-04-01

    The increase in patients diagnosed with and living with cancer calls for the provision of quality nursing care within this paradigm, one that can reflect the complex needs of the patient that cancer and its treatments induce. The study aimed to evaluate the quality of oncology nursing care, as perceived, by hospitalized cancer patients in three European countries. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. In-patients diagnosed with cancer were selected based on explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected with the Quality of Oncology Nursing Care Scale- QONCS, comprising of 34 items grouped in 5 domains. Sociodemographic data was also retrieved. The sample included 610 patients receiving care in 2 hospitals in Cyprus (n = 274), 1 hospital in Greece (n = 144) and 2 hospitals in the Czech Republic (n = 192). Statistically significant differences were found between the three countries and across all domains of the QONCS, with the exception of the spiritual and religious care (p = 0.136). Age and days of treatment produced statistically significant differences across all the domains of the QONCS, whilst gender did not produced any statistically significant differences (p ranged from (0.136-0.369). This is one of the first studies that provide evidence on the Quality of Nursing Care delivered to patients diagnosed with cancer in various European countries. Discrepancies were found between the participating countries. However, the provision of spiritual and religious care by the nurses received the lowest scores across the three participating countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pain in Parkinson disease: a cross-sectional survey of its prevalence, specifics, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, Carsten; Wrobel, Nathalie; Grashorn, Wiebke; Fruendt, Odette; Wesemann, Katharina; Diedrich, Sabrina; Bingel, Ulrike

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate prevalence, phenotype, and therapeutic realities of pain in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Therefore, we assessed 181 outpatients with PD using a cross-sectional approach applying the German Pain Questionaire (DSF), the PainDetect, and a self-developed Parkinson Disease Pain Questionaire (UPDPQ) covering detailed therapeutic aspects. Furthermore, we investigated the association between pain and PD-disease characteristics, quality of life (PDQ-39), depression, and anxiety (HADS-D, HADS-A). Overall, prevalence of pain was high (95.4%); 91.1% suffered from chronic pain, but in only 22.3% of them, pain disorder was diagnosed. Pain impaired everyday-life moderately to very severely in 48.4% of patients and was the most distressing symptom in 10.2% of all patients. Pain was localized mainly in the back (71.4%) or joints (52.4%), frequently occurred as pain attacks (79%) but appeared with neuropathic character in only 15.3% of patients. Most patients (74.2%) received some kind of pain treatment, mainly provided by orthopedists (62.0%) or general practitioners (50.0%). Physiotherapy (61.3%), pain killers (54.4%), or massage (35.5%) were the most frequent therapeutic measures. Rehabilitative therapy (96.3%) and physiotherapy (89.5%) were rated as most effective, but with vastly temporary effects. 53.3% of patients attributed PD as the main cause for their pain, but only 33.6% found relief from anti-parkinsonian drugs. High levels of pain were associated with higher scores of depression and anxiety, and lower quality of life. Results suggest that pain in PD is frequent, complex, and quality-of-life-impairing but under-diagnosed and unsystematically treated and indicate need to systematically investigate pathophysiology-based treatment strategies.

  2. Road traffic crashes among farm vehicle drivers in southern China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Yang, Yaming; Chen, Yu; Yao, Hongyan; Wu, Ming; Cui, Mengjing; Li, Yang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Cong; Li, Zhen; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2017-01-02

    The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and potential risk factors of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes among farm vehicle drivers in southern China. A cross-sectional study was used to interview 1,422 farm vehicle drivers in southern China. Farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes that occurred from December 2013 to November 2014 were investigated. Data on farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes and related factors were collected by face-to-face interviews. The prevalence of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes among the investigated drivers was 7.2%. Farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes were significantly associated with self-reported vision problem (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.86-10.87), self-reported sleep disorders (AOR = 10.03, 95% CI, 6.28-15.99), self-reported stress (AOR = 20.47, 95% CI, 9.96-42.08), reported history of crashes (AOR = 5.40, 95% CI, 3.47-8.42), reported history of drunk driving (AOR = 5.07, 95% CI, 2.97-8.65), and reported history of fatigued driving (AOR = 5.72, 95% CI, 3.73-8.78). The number of road traffic crashes was highest in the daytime and during harvest season. In over 96% of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes, drivers were believed to be responsible for the crash. Major crash-causing factors included improper driving, careless driving, violating of traffic signals or signs, and being in the wrong lane. Findings of this study suggest that farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes have become a burgeoning public health problem in China. Programs need to be developed to prevent farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes in this emerging country.

  3. Epidemiology of chronic rhinosinusitis: results from a cross-sectional survey in seven Chinese cities.

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    Shi, J B; Fu, Q L; Zhang, H; Cheng, L; Wang, Y J; Zhu, D D; Lv, W; Liu, S X; Li, P Z; Ou, C Q; Xu, G

    2015-05-01

    Chronic sinusitis (CRS) is a common otorhinolaryngologic disease that is frequently encountered in everyday practice, but there is a lack of precise data regarding the prevalence of CRS in developing countries. We performed a national investigation in China to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CRS. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation in 2012. A stratified four-stage sampling method was used to select participants randomly from seven cities in mainland China. All participants were interviewed face-to-face via a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between smoking and sinusitis after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. This study included a total of 10 636 respondents from seven cities. The overall prevalence of CRS was 8.0% and ranged from 4.8% to 9.7% in seven centres. Chronic sinusitis affected approximately 107 million people in mainland China. Chronic sinusitis was particularly prevalent among people with specific medical conditions, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and gout. The prevalence was slightly higher among males (8.79%) than females (7.28%) (P = 0.004), and the prevalence varied by age group, ethnicity and marital status and education (P  0.05). Both second-hand tobacco smoke and active smoking were independent risk factors for CRS (P = 0.001). Chronic sinusitis is an important public health problem in China. Our study provides important information for the assessment of the economic burden of CRS and the development and promotion of public health policies associated with CRS particularly in developing countries. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A cross-sectional survey of quality of life in colostomates: a report from Iran

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    Mahjoubi Bahar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the complications that colostomies may cause, patient self-assessments of their social, emotional, physical, sexual and functional conditions may help their surgeons to evaluate the impact of their interventions or use supplementary methods to maintain patient functional status or decrease its loss to the minimum level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Quality of Life in Iranian patients with colostomies and to compare the age and gender differences among them. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2009 to 2010 to evaluate the quality of life of 96 patients who had undergone surgery for rectal cancer and had permanent colostomies. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancers Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 and the EORTC QLQ-CR38 were used to assess patient Quality of Life. Results The mean scores for the functional subscales were as follows: Physical Function, 70.9 (±2.2; Role Function, 68.4 (±2.6; Emotional Function, 56.9 (±2.7; Cognitive Function, 68.7 (± 2.6; and Social Function, 64.2 (±3.3. The EORTC questionnaires showed significant differences between males and females. Males had better body image scores. Sexual Function and Sexual Enjoyment were impaired in both males and females, but males had significantly higher scores and better roles in Physical and Sexual Functions. More sexual enjoyment problems in older ages were observed in both males and females. Conclusion Having a colostomy was associated with a high level of emotional and sexual function impairment. The differing challenges between males and females should encourage us to design sex-specific interventions that improve the quality of life in this group of patients.

  5. Hearing Impairment and the Amelioration of Avoidable Medical Error: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Henn, Patrick; OʼTuathaigh, Colm; Keegan, Darrelle; Smith, Simon

    2017-02-16

    Hearing loss contributes to suboptimal medical treatment. We investigated the nature and magnitude of potential health-care harm of hearing loss alone on a patient's understanding of medical consultations, investigations, and treatments of health conditions unrelated to their hearing loss. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based design of a convenience sample of students with hearing loss, registered with the institutional disability support service in 8 Irish and 15 UK third-level institutions. Content analysis of open-ended item responses identified and coded emergent themes. Closed-ended questionnaire items recorded demographic and clinically relevant characteristics. Ninety-five responses were received and analyzed. Fifty-six (58.9%) indicated "yes" to mishearing a physician/nurse in a hospital. Approximately 60.7% identified this in relation to consultation content; 33.9% mishearing; and 21.4% misinterpreting what was said, including diagnosis, guidelines and advice, and matters relating to medications. Approximately 22.3% indicated physician/nurse-patient communication failures; 19.6% identified failure to initiate/maintain eye contact, turning away from the patient, speaking while wearing surgical masks, excluding the possibility of lip reading. Approximately 7.1% identified speaking in too low a volume or too fast. Concerning common words misheard or misinterpreted, 23.2% identified phonological similarity such as similar sounding words and numbers, 7.4% discrimination of unvoiced consonants. Similar findings emerged in GP clinics. Most hearing-impaired students experienced difficulty in understanding health-care professionals in a hospital and general practice setting. This underscores the importance for health-care providers to identify hearing-impaired patients and to augment communication using visual aids, a quite environment and optimizing lip reading communication.

  6. Cross-sectional survey of sexual dysfunction and quality of life among older people in Indonesia.

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    Santosa, Ailiana; Ohman, Ann; Högberg, Ulf; Stenlund, Hans; Hakimi, Mohammad; Ng, Nawi

    2011-06-01

    The burden of sexual dysfunction among older people in many low- and middle-income countries is not well known. Understanding sexual dysfunction among older people and its impact on quality of life is essential in the design of appropriate health promotion programs. To assess levels of sexual function and their association with quality of life while controlling for different sociodemographic determinants and chronic diseases among men and women over 50 years of age in rural Indonesia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia in 2007. The study involved 14,958 men and women over 50 years old. The association between sexual dysfunction and quality of life after controlling for potential confounders (e.g., sociodemographic determinants and self-reported chronic diseases) was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Self-reported quality of life. Older men more commonly reported sexual activity, and sexual problems were more common among older women. The majority of older men and women reported their quality of life as good. Lack of sexual activity, dissatisfaction in sexual life, and presence of sexual problems were associated with poor self-reported quality of life in older men after adjustment for age, marital status, education, and history of chronic diseases. A presence of sexual problems was the only factor associated with poor self-reported quality of life in women. Being in a marital relationship might buffer the effect of sexual problems on quality of life in men and women. Sexual dysfunction is associated with poor quality of life among older people in a rural Javanese setting. Therefore, promotion of sexual health should be an integral part of physical and mental health campaigns in older populations. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Job discrimination against childhood cancer survivors in Japan: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Keiko; Ishida, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Naoko

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the policies to identify job discrimination by company recruiters against childhood cancer survivors in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a mailed questionnaire for the Japanese companies that were divided into three groups: companies listed on the stock market, companies not listed on the stock market, and public offices. We randomly selected 2000 of the 4000 listed companies and 2500 of the 4300 unlisted companies. We selected 47 public offices from prefectures and 17 from government ordinance-designated cities. Outcomes were health certificate requirements, how to treat past medical history and present illness, childhood cancer survivors' employment experience, and company's policy for evaluating applicants based on past medical history and present illness. Response rates were 17.7% for listed companies, 28.9% for unlisted companies, and 56.3% for public offices. A health certificate was required by 86% of listed companies, 77% of unlisted companies, and 75% of public offices. However, 33% of listed companies and 36% of unlisted companies, and none of the public offices demanded it at the time of application. Small numbers of private companies (0.7% of listed companies and 1.0% of unlisted companies) and public offices (4%) reject applicants outright if they have a disease in their past medical history. Using multivariate analysis, we found that large companies and company policies were significantly associated with the demand for a health certificate at the time of job applications. In Japan, employment-related discrimination still occurs in a small number of companies and public offices. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy: a cross-sectional survey

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    Bynum Debra L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of life expectancy assist physicians and patients in medical decision-making. The time-delayed benefits for many medical treatments make an older adult's life expectancy estimate particularly important for physicians. The purpose of this study is to assess older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy. Methods We performed a mixed qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional study in which 116 healthy adults aged 70+ were recruited from two local retirement communities. We interviewed them regarding their beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy in the context of a larger study on cancer screening beliefs. Semi-structured interviews of 80 minutes average duration were performed in private locations convenient to participants. Demographic characteristics as well as cancer screening beliefs and beliefs about life expectancy were measured. Two independent researchers reviewed the open-ended responses and recorded the most common themes. The research team resolved disagreements by consensus. Results This article reports the life-expectancy results portion of the larger study. The study group (n = 116 was comprised of healthy, well-educated older adults, with almost a third over 85 years old, and none meeting criteria for dementia. Sixty-four percent (n = 73 felt that their physicians could not correctly estimate their life expectancy. Sixty-six percent (n = 75 wanted their physicians to talk with them about their life expectancy. The themes that emerged from our study indicate that discussions of life expectancy could help older adults plan for the future, maintain open communication with their physicians, and provide them knowledge about their medical conditions. Conclusion The majority of the healthy older adults in this study were open to discussions about life expectancy in the context of discussing cancer screening tests, despite awareness that their physicians' estimates could be inaccurate

  9. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Shamsa; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Rahman, Atif; Neilson, James P.; van den Broek, Nynke R.

    2015-01-01

    Background For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective) and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries. Methods Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%), late pregnancy (35%) and the postnatal period (31%) among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727) and Malawi (1732). Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity. Results One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective). Both infective (Pakistan) and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi) was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon (morbidity: 26.9% of women in Pakistan 2.6% in Malawi had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) > 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p morbidity in both settings. Conclusions Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. PMID:26390124

  10. Vitamin D levels and allergic diseases. An italian cross-sectional multicenter survey.

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    Lombardi, C; Passalacqua, G

    2017-03-01

    Background. During the two last decades, the interest in the role of Vitamin D (VD) in allergic disease has increased. Apart from the well-known actions of VD in bone metabolism, recent studies suggested its possible role as an immune-modulator in allergy. Objective. This study, conducted over the Italian territory, evaluated the possible correlations between VD serum level and diagnosed allergic diseases (rhinitis / asthma, food allergy, atopic dermatitis). Thus, VD was assessed in patients with physician-diagnosed allergic diseases. Methods. The study was carried out in hospital- and private practice-based setting between October 2012 and March 2013, and 18 Centers participated. Only adult patients, with at least one positive skin prick test were included. The diagnostic procedures and the data collection were standardized among the centers. VD levels were assayed by the same laboratory test. Results. Three hundred and nine patients were enrolled (132 male, mean age 37.5 ± 17 years). Of them, 40% reported a positive family history for allergies (asthma / rhinitis). Rhinitis plus asthma was present in 47% of patients, atopic dermatitis in 15%, and a consistent clinical history of food allergy associated with positive skin tests was present in 25% of subjects. There was no significant association between VD level and age, sex, family history, rhinitis, or food allergy. VD levels were overall lower in patients with asthma and rhinitis, but without statistical significance. A significant difference in VD levels was detected between patient with or without atopic dermatitis. VD was not related to seasonal allergens, whereas a significant negative correlation was seen for house dust mite and dog dander. Conclusion. Our data, derived from a cross-sectional study involving only allergic patients, agree partially with the current literature. Nonetheless, the association between VD levels and allergies appeared weak. Studies involving larger samples would be required to

  11. Improving immunization in Afghanistan: results from a cross-sectional community-based survey to assess routine immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugali, Raveesha R; Mansoor, Farooq; Parwiz, Sardar; Ahmad, Fazil; Safi, Najibullah; Higgins-Steele, Ariel; Varkey, Sherin

    2017-04-04

    Despite progress in recent years, Afghanistan is lagging behind in realizing the full potential of immunization. The country is still endemic for polio transmission and measles outbreaks continue to occur. In spite of significant reductions over the past decade, the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age continues to remain high at 91 per 1000 live births. The study was a descriptive community-based cross sectional household survey. The survey aimed to estimate the levels of immunization coverage at national and province levels. Specific objectives are to: establish valid baseline information to monitor progress of the immunization program; identify reasons why children are not immunized; and make recommendations to enhance access and quality of immunization services in Afghanistan. The survey was carried out in all 34 provinces of the country, with a sample of 6125 mothers of children aged 12-23 months. Nationally, 51% of children participating in the survey received all doses of each antigen irrespective of the recommended date of immunization or recommended interval between doses. About 31% of children were found to be partially vaccinated. Reasons for partial vaccination included: place to vaccinate child too far (23%), not aware of the need of vaccination (17%), no faith in vaccination (16%), mother was too busy (15%), and fear of side effects (11%). The innovative mechanism of contracting out delivery of primary health care services in Afghanistan, including immunization, to non-governmental organizations is showing some positive results in quickly increasing coverage of essential interventions, including routine immunization. Much ground still needs to be covered with proper planning and management of resources in order to improve the immunization coverage in Afghanistan and increase survival and health status of its children.

  12. Improving immunization in Afghanistan: results from a cross-sectional community-based survey to assess routine immunization coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveesha R. Mugali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite progress in recent years, Afghanistan is lagging behind in realizing the full potential of immunization. The country is still endemic for polio transmission and measles outbreaks continue to occur. In spite of significant reductions over the past decade, the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age continues to remain high at 91 per 1000 live births. Methods The study was a descriptive community-based cross sectional household survey. The survey aimed to estimate the levels of immunization coverage at national and province levels. Specific objectives are to: establish valid baseline information to monitor progress of the immunization program; identify reasons why children are not immunized; and make recommendations to enhance access and quality of immunization services in Afghanistan. The survey was carried out in all 34 provinces of the country, with a sample of 6125 mothers of children aged 12–23 months. Results Nationally, 51% of children participating in the survey received all doses of each antigen irrespective of the recommended date of immunization or recommended interval between doses. About 31% of children were found to be partially vaccinated. Reasons for partial vaccination included: place to vaccinate child too far (23%, not aware of the need of vaccination (17%, no faith in vaccination (16%, mother was too busy (15%, and fear of side effects (11%. Conclusion The innovative mechanism of contracting out delivery of primary health care services in Afghanistan, including immunization, to non-governmental organizations is showing some positive results in quickly increasing coverage of essential interventions, including routine immunization. Much ground still needs to be covered with proper planning and management of resources in order to improve the immunization coverage in Afghanistan and increase survival and health status of its children.

  13. The prevalence of common skin infections in four districts in Timor-Leste: a cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Skin infections are a common public health problem in developing countries; however, they are rarely managed using a population based approach. Recent data on the burden of skin infections in Timor-Leste are limited. Our survey appears to be the only widespread survey conducted in more than 30 years and was designed to determine the baseline prevalence of some common skin infections in Timor-Leste. Methods We conducted a cross sectional survey in 14 sites including community health clinics, schools and hospitals within four different geographical regions. Participants were examined for five conditions (scabies, pyoderma, fungal infections, leprosy and yaws) by a multidisciplinary team. Analyses were conducted using EpiInfo version 6.04d. Results We examined the skin of 1535 participants aged between four months and 97 years. The majority of participants were male, aged between 11 and 20 years and had at least one condition of interest (56.0%, 56.0%, and 63.1%, respectively). Fungal infections were the most common presentation (39.0%) and males were more commonly affected than females (42.3% vs 34.0%, respectively, pvalue < 0.0001). Among those people with more than one condition the two most common co-infections were scabies with either pyoderma or a fungal infection (38.0% and 32.0%, respectively). The survey identified 29 previously undiagnosed cases of leprosy and six cases of yaws. Conclusions Our findings indicate the need for a comprehensive programme to address these conditions. There are successful disease control programmes in place within the country and it is hoped a healthy skin programme could be integrated into an established disease control programme in order to maximise health benefits and resources. PMID:20219136

  14. 'Do as we say, not as we do:' a cross-sectional survey of injuries in injury prevention professionals.

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    Ezzat, Allison; Brussoni, Mariana; Schneeberg, Amy; Jones, Sarah J

    2014-06-01

    As the leading cause of death and among the top causes of hospitalisation in Canadians aged 1-44 years, injury is a major public health concern. Little is known about whether knowledge, training and understanding of the underlying causes and mechanisms of injury would help with one's own prevention efforts. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, we hypothesised that injury prevention professionals would experience fewer injuries than the general population. An online cross-sectional survey was distributed to Canadian injury prevention practitioners, researchers and policy makers to collect information on medically attended injuries. Relative risk of injury in the past 12 months was calculated by comparing the survey data with injury incidence reported by a comparable subgroup of adults from the (Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)) from 2009 to 2010. We had 408 injury prevention professionals complete the survey: 344 (84.5%) women and 63 (15.5%) men. In the previous 12 months, 86 individuals reported experiencing at least one medically attended injury (21,235 people per 100,000 people); with sports being the most common mechanism (41, 33.6%). Fully 84.8% individuals from our sample believed that working in the field had made them more careful. After accounting for age distribution, education level and employment status, injury prevention professionals were 1.69 (95% CI 1.41 to 2.03) times more likely to be injured in the past year. Despite their convictions of increasing their own safety behaviour and that of others, injury prevention professionals' knowledge and training did not help them prevent their own injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Health facility service availability and readiness for intrapartum and immediate postpartum care in Malawi: A cross-sectional survey.

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    Naoko Kozuki

    Full Text Available This analysis seeks to identify strengths and gaps in the existing facility capacity for intrapartum and immediate postpartum fetal and neonatal care, using data collected as a part of Malawi's Helping Babies Breath program evaluation. From August to September 2012, the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP conducted a cross-sectional survey in 84 Malawian health facilities to capture current health facility service availability and readiness and health worker capacity and practice pertaining to labor, delivery, and immediate postpartum care. The survey collected data on availability of equipment, supplies, and medications, and health worker knowledge and performance scores on intrapartum care simulation and actual management of real clients at a subset of facilities. We ran linear regression models to identify predictors of high simulation performance of routine delivery care and management of asphyxiated newborns across all facilities surveyed. Key supplies for infection prevention and thermal care of the newborn were found to be missing in many of the surveyed facilities. At the health center level, 75% had no clinician trained in basic emergency obstetric care or newborn care and 39% had no midwife trained in the same. We observed that there were no proportional increases in available transport and staff at a facility as catchment population increased. In simulations of management of newborns with breathing problems, health workers were able to complete a median of 10 out of 16 tasks for a full-term birth case scenario and 20 out of 30 tasks for a preterm birth case scenario. Health workers who had more years of experience appeared to perform worse. Our study provides a benchmark and highlights gaps for future evaluations and studies as Malawi continues to make strides in improving facility-based care. Further progress in reducing the burden of neonatal and fetal death in Malawi will be partly predicated on guaranteeing

  16. Inpatient occupational therapists hand-splinting practice for clients with stroke: A cross-sectional survey from Ireland

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    Cormican Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hand splinting after stroke is a common practice despite inadequate evidence. This warrants a better understanding of the therapists′ splinting practice, to develop clinically meaningful treatment options. Aims: The study examined the nature and prevalence of the factors associated with therapists′ hand splinting practice and their perceived splinting efficacy. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional national survey of hand-splinting practice among inpatient occupational therapists (OTs in Ireland. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two therapists participated in this national survey.Statistical analysis used: A number of factors were analyzed to explore their relationship with therapists′ perception of splint efficacy using Spearman′s rank order correlation. Results: 53(85.5% out of 62 survey respondents prescribed splints to their clients at the time of taking the survey. To reduce spasticity, to correct contractures and thus increase range of motion (ROM were the commonly used splinting goals. These were the goals that were significantly associated with the therapists′ splinting efficacy too. Conclusions: Hand-splint prescription following stroke was found to be a common practice among OTs who perceive splints to be quite effective. A custom-made, volar forearm-based wrist-hand splint is the preferred splint among therapists to achieve a number of clinical aims such as improving ROM, stretching soft tissue contractures and reducing spasticity in the upper extremity. A wide variety of splinting regimens is currently practiced, reflecting the lack of a universally accepted and comprehensive practice guideline to regulate therapy. Methodologically valid clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of therapist-preferred splints in achieving their favored outcomes are needed. Development of common, universally accepted therapeutic guidelines based on comprehensive scientific review of such studies is thus needed.

  17. Inpatient occupational therapists hand-splinting practice for clients with stroke: A cross-sectional survey from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienne, Cormican; Manigandan, Chockalingam

    2011-07-01

    Hand splinting after stroke is a common practice despite inadequate evidence. This warrants a better understanding of the therapists' splinting practice, to develop clinically meaningful treatment options. The study examined the nature and prevalence of the factors associated with therapists' hand splinting practice and their perceived splinting efficacy. A cross-sectional national survey of hand-splinting practice among inpatient occupational therapists (OTs) in Ireland. Sixty-two therapists participated in this national survey. A number of factors were analyzed to explore their relationship with therapists' perception of splint efficacy using Spearman's rank order correlation. 53(85.5%) out of 62 survey respondents prescribed splints to their clients at the time of taking the survey. To reduce spasticity, to correct contractures and thus increase range of motion (ROM) were the commonly used splinting goals. These were the goals that were significantly associated with the therapists' splinting efficacy too. Hand-splint prescription following stroke was found to be a common practice among OTs who perceive splints to be quite effective. A custom-made, volar forearm-based wrist-hand splint is the preferred splint among therapists to achieve a number of clinical aims such as improving ROM, stretching soft tissue contractures and reducing spasticity in the upper extremity. A wide variety of splinting regimens is currently practiced, reflecting the lack of a universally accepted and comprehensive practice guideline to regulate therapy. Methodologically valid clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of therapist-preferred splints in achieving their favored outcomes are needed. Development of common, universally accepted therapeutic guidelines based on comprehensive scientific review of such studies is thus needed.

  18. Impact of conflict on medical education: a cross-sectional survey of students and institutions in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Vanes, Ashton; Hassounah, Sondus; Shawki, Marwan; Ismail, Omar Abdulkadir; Fung, Chi; Kedia, Tara; Rawaf, Salman; Majeed, Azeem

    2016-02-16

    This study surveyed all Iraqi medical schools and a cross-section of Iraqi medical students regarding their institutional and student experiences of medical education amidst ongoing conflict. The objective was to better understand the current resources and challenges facing medical schools, and the impacts of conflict on the training landscape and student experience, to provide evidence for further research and policy development. Deans of all Iraqi medical schools registered in the World Directory of Medical Schools were invited to participate in a survey electronically. Medical students from three Iraqi medical schools were invited to participate in a survey electronically. Primary: Student enrolment and graduation statistics; human resources of medical schools; dean perspectives on impact of conflict. Secondary: Medical student perspectives on quality of teaching, welfare and future career intentions. Of 24 medical schools listed in the World Directory of Medical Schools, 15 replied to an initial email sent to confirm their contact details, and 8 medical schools responded to our survey, giving a response rate from contactable medical schools of 53% and overall of 33%. Five (63%) medical schools reported medical student educational attainment being impaired or significantly impaired; 4 (50%) felt the quality of training medical schools could offer had been impaired or significantly impaired due to conflict. A total of 197 medical students responded, 62% of whom felt their safety had been threatened due to violent insecurity. The majority (56%) of medical students intended to leave Iraq after graduating. Medical schools are facing challenges in staff recruitment and adequate resource provision; the majority believe quality of training has suffered as a result. Medical students are experiencing added psychological stress and lower quality of teaching; the majority intend to leave Iraq after graduation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  19. Chronic insomnia, quality-of-life, and utility scores: comparison with good sleepers in a cross-sectional international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Damien; Morin, Charles M; Uchiyama, Makoto; Hakimi, Zalmaï; Cure, Sandrine; Walsh, James K

    2012-01-01

    Chronic insomnia has a recognized impact on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) but data on utility scores across countries are lacking. The objective of the present study was to assess health related quality of life (HRQoL) and utility scores in individuals from three different countries (USA, France, and Japan), comparing sufferers of chronic insomnia to good sleepers. A cross-sectional survey (SLEEPI-i) of 4067 persons in the US (n=1298; 478 good sleepers and 820 patients with insomnia), France (n=1858; 998 good sleepers and 860 patients with insomnia) and Japan (n=911; 506 good sleepers and 405 patients with insomnia). Enrollment and data collection using consumer panels were web-based in the US and France, and gathered via a postal survey in Japan. People with chronic insomnia (>6 months) were selected based on Insomnia Severity Index scores (ISI). Severity of insomnia was assessed using the ISI score and HRQoL was assessed using the self-administered Short-Form SF-36 Health Survey. Utility scores were derived using the algorithm developed by Brazier et al. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. In all countries, people with chronic insomnia (40% treated) reported lower SF-36 scores in each of eight domains compared with good sleepers (Pgood sleepers (mean scores 0.63 versus 0.72 in the US, 0.57 versus 0.67 in France, and 0.67 versus 0.77 in Japan, P<.0001). This survey suggests that chronic insomnia is associated with significant impairment of HRQoL and decreased utilities across the different geographical regions studied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Cross-sectional survey of smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in adults in Jiangxi province, 2013].

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    Chen, Y Y; Zhu, L P; Yan, W; Liu, J; Ji, L; Xu, Y

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation in adults of Jiangxi province in 2013. Methods: Multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 6 000 individuals aged ≥18 years from 10 chronic and non-communicable disease and risk factor surveillance points of Jiangxi province in 2013. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information about the risk factors for chronic and non-communicable diseases and 5 997 records were used in final analysis of smoking and smoking cessation. Sample was weighted to represent the adult population of Jiangxi province. The prevalence of different groups were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of current smoking of the sample was 21.53% (1 291/5 997). After complex weighting, the prevalence of smoking was 26.07% in adults in Jiangxi (95%CI:23.48%-28.66%), and it was much higher in men (50.62%, 95%CI: 46.31%-54.94%) than in women(1.46%, 95%CI: 0.57%-2.35%), the difference was statistically significant (Psmoking prevalence were significant among different age groups (P=0.029), and the smoking prevalence increased with educational level, but decreased with the worse of self-reported health condition. Most current smokers smoked every day (87.16%, 95%CI: 83.29%-91.03%) and averagely 19.27 (95%CI: 17.69-20.85) cigarettes were smoked daily. The proportion of smokers with average daily consumption ≥20 cigarettes was 64.74% (95%CI: 55.79%-73.70%). The smokers'average age of starting daily smoking was 20.28 (95%CI: 19.74-20.82) years old, which was lower in men [20.11(95%CI: 19.61-20.61) years old] than in women [26.88(95%CI: 24.73-29.03) years old], the difference was statistically significant (Psmoking, and the proportion was 17.46%(95%CI: 0%-37.71%) in female smokers. The smoking cessation rate was 14.80% (95%CI: 10.88%-18.72%) and increased with age, the increase of income level and the worse of self-reported health condition. The successful smoking cessation rate

  1. Primary headache disorders in the adult general population of Pakistan - a cross sectional nationwide prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herekar, A A; Ahmad, A; Uqaili, U L; Ahmed, B; Effendi, J; Alvi, S Z; Shahab, M A; Javed, U; Herekar, A D; Khanani, Rafiq; Steiner, T J

    2017-12-01

    The large geographical gaps in our knowledge of the prevalence and burden of headache disorders include almost all of Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). We report a nationwide population-based study in Pakistan, an EMR country with the sixth largest population in the world, conducted as a project within the Global Campaign against Headache. We surveyed six locations from the four provinces of Pakistan: Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan. We randomly selected and visited rural and urban households in each. One adult member (18-65 years) of each household, also randomly selected, was interviewed by a trained non-medical interviewer from the same location using a previously-validated structured questionnaire translated into Urdu, the national language. We estimated 1-year prevalences of the headache disorders of public-health importance and examined their associations with demographic variables using multivariate analysis. There were 4223 participants (mean age 34.4 ± 11.0 years; male 1957 [46.3%], female 2266 [53.7%]; urban 1443 [34.2%], rural 2780 [65.8%]). Participation proportion was 89.5%. Headache in the previous year was reported by 3233 (76.6% [95% CI: 75.3-77.8%]). The age- and gender-adjusted 1-year prevalence of migraine was 22.5% [21.2-23.8%] (male 18.0% [16.8-19.2%], female 26.9% [25.6-28.2%]), of tension-type headache (TTH) 44.6% [43.1-46.1%] (male 51.2% [49.7-52.7%], female 37.9% [36.4-39.4%]), of probable medication-overuse headache 0.7% [0.5-1.0%] (male 0.7% [0.5-1.0%], female 0.8% [0.5-1.1%]) and of other headache on ≥15 days/month 7.4% [6.6-8.2%] (male 4.4% [3.8-5.0%], female 10.4% [9.5-11.3%]). Migraine was more prevalent in females by a factor of 3:2 although this association barely survived (P = 0.039) after correcting for other factors. TTH was more prevalent in males by about 4:3 (P = 0.026). All headache and migraine were age-related, peaking in the age group 40-49 years; TTH peaked a decade earlier. Higher

  2. PLSS Townships and Sections, Public Land Survey square-mile section boundaries within Sedgwick County. Layer was developed interactively by GIS staff. Primary attribues include section, township, and range identifiers, and x-y coordinates, and Public Safety (ortho) map numbers., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — PLSS Townships and Sections dataset current as of 2008. Public Land Survey square-mile section boundaries within Sedgwick County. Layer was developed interactively...

  3. Contributions to a shallow aquifer study by reprocessed seismic sections from petroleum exploration surveys, eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.

    1994-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Drilling Company of Abu Dhabi, is conducting a 4-year study of the fresh and slightly saline groundwater resources of the eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate. Most of this water occurs in a shallow aquifer, generally less than 150 m deep, in the Al Ain area. A critical part of the Al Ain area coincides with a former petroleum concession area where about 2780 km of vibroseis data were collected along 94 seismic lines during 1981-1983. Field methods, acquistion parameters, and section processing were originally designed to enhance reflections expected at depths ranging from 5000 to 6000 m, and subsurface features directly associated with the shallow aquifer system were deleted from the original seismic sections. The original field tapes from the vibroseis survey were reprocessed in an attempt to extract shallow subsurface information (depths less than 550 m) for investigating the shallow aquifer. A unique sequence of reproccessing parameters was established after reviewing the results from many experimental tests. Many enhancements to the resolution of shallow seismic reflections resulted from: (1) application of a 20-Hz, low-cut filter; (2) recomputation of static corrections to a datum nearer the land surface; (3) intensive velocity analyses; and (4) near-trace muting analyses. The number, resolution, and lateral continuity of shallow reflections were greatly enhanced on the reprocessed sections, as was the delineation of shallow, major faults. Reflections on a synthetic seismogram, created from a borehole drilled to a depth of 786 m on seismic line IQS-11, matcheddprecisely with shallow reflections on the reprocessed section. The 33 reprocessed sections were instrumental in preparing a map showing the major structural features that affect the shallow aquifer system. Analysis of the map provides a better understanding of the effect of these shallow features on the regional occurrence, movement, and quality of

  4. A survey of state-of-the-art surface chemistries to minimize fouling from human and animal biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszykowski, Christophe; Sheikh, Sonia; Thompson, Michael

    2015-10-15

    Upon contact with bodily fluids, synthetic materials spontaneously acquire a layer of various species (most notably proteins) on their surface. The concern with respect to biomedical equipment, implants or devices resides in the possibility for biological processes with potentially harmful effects to ensue. In biosensor technology, the issue with this natural fouling phenomenon is that of non-specific adsorption to sensing platforms, which generates an often overwhelming interference signal that prevents the detection, not to mention the quantification, of target analytes present at considerably lower concentration. To alleviate this ubiquitous, recurrent problem - this genuine biotechnological plague - considerable research efforts have been devoted over the last few decades to engineer antifouling coatings. Extensive literature now exists that describes stealth organic adlayers capable of reducing fouling surface coverage Γ down to a few ng cm(-2)- however from biotechnologically irrelevant buffered solutions free or nearly depleted of any potentially interfering species. Regrettably indeed, few coatings are known to display/retain such level of performance when exposed to otherwise more complex, real-life biosamples (even diluted). Herein, we comprehensively review the state-of-the-art surface chemistries developed to date (January 2015) to minimize fouling from 8 such uncomparatively more challenging biological media (blood plasma, blood serum, cell lysate, cerebrospinal fluid, egg, milk, saliva, and urine) - whether of human or animal origin. Literature search for another 25 biological milieux generated no (exploitable) hit. Also discussed in this Review are the identification of the species responsible for fouling, and the dependence of antifouling properties on biosample source variability.

  5. Community-based cross-sectional survey of latent tuberculosis infection in Afar pastoralists, Ethiopia, using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and tuberculin skin test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Legesse, Mengistu; Ameni, Gobena; Mamo, Gezahegne; Medhin, Girmay; Bjune, Gunnar; Abebe, Fekadu

    2011-01-01

    ...) and tuberculin skin tests (TST). A community-based cross-sectional survey of LTBI involving 652 apparently healthy adult pastoralists was undertaken in the pastoral community of Amibara District of the Afar Region between April and June 2010...

  6. Socioeconomic disadvantage, social participation and networks and the self-rated health of English men and women with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities: cross sectional survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris

    2008-01-01

    ...: Cross-sectional survey of self-reported health status and indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage and social connectedness in 1273 English adults with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities. Results...

  7. Antecedents of hospital nurses' intention to leave the organization: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Andrea; Manganelli, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    Leadership and perceived organizational support inspire trust in the leader and in the organization. Consequently, these aspects may contribute to a reduction in job burnout among nurses and, in the end, of the intention on their part to leave the hospital. It is crucial to develop models in order to simultaneously test the correlations between these relevant psychosocial variables, so that complexity of the nursing work environment may be better understood. We expected to give support to and to further corroborate results in the literature linking perceived leadership style – and particularly servant leadership – perceived organizational support, trust in the leader and in the organization, job burnout among nurses and their subsequent intention to leave the hospital. Cross-sectional study. Two Italian large size public hospitals. Two samples including both graduates and non-graduates members of the nursing staff. Overall mean age was equal to 42.06 years while the general mean for tenure was 12.99 years. Data were collected in 2012. A regression model with latent variables was tested via structural equation modeling using LISREL. The multi-sample procedure was also applied in order to test invariance of results between the two samples. Servant leadership was positively associated with trust in the leader and perceived organizational support was positively associated with trust in the organization. Trust in the leader and trust in the organization displayed a negative correlation with the emotional exhaustion and cynicism factors of job burnout, and a positive correlation with the professional efficacy factor. Furthermore, trust scores mediated the effects of servant leadership and perceived organizational support on job burnout factors. The cynicism factor was negatively associated with intention to leave the organization and it also mediated the effects of both trust in the leader and servant leadership on intention to leave. On the other hand, trust in the

  8. A nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey of health-related quality of life in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms in Denmark (MPNhealthSurvey: survey design and characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brochmann N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nana Brochmann,1 Esben Meulengracht Flachs,2 Anne Illemann Christensen,3 Christen Lykkegaard Andersen,1 Knud Juel,3 Hans Carl Hasselbalch,1 Ann-Dorthe Zwisler4 1Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Roskilde, 2Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, 3National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, 4Danish Knowledge Centre for Rehabilitation and Palliative Care, University of Southern Denmark and Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Objective: The Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, Denmark, and the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, created the first nationwide, population-based, and the most comprehensive cross-sectional health-related quality of life (HRQoL survey of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. In Denmark, all MPN patients are treated in public hospitals and treatments received are free of charge for these patients. Therefore, MPN patients receive the best available treatment to the extent of its suitability for them and if they wish to receive the treatment. The aims of this article are to describe the survey design and the characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents. Material and methods: Individuals with MPN diagnoses registered in the Danish National Patient Register (NPR were invited to participate. The registers of the Danish Civil Registration System and Statistics Denmark provided information regarding demographics. The survey contained 120 questions: validated patient-reported outcome (PRO questionnaires and additional questions addressing lifestyle. Results: A total of 4,704 individuals were registered with MPN diagnoses in the NPR of whom 4,236 were eligible for participation and 2,613 (62% responded. Overall, the respondents covered the broad spectrum of MPN patients, but patients 70–79 years old, living with

  9. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  10. Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiken, L.H.; Sermeus, W.; Heede, K. Van den; Sloane, D.M.; Busse, R.; McKee, M.; Bruyneel, L.; Rafferty, A.M.; Griffiths, P.; Moreno-Casbas, M.T.; Tishelman, C.; Scott, A.; Brzostek, T.; Kinnunen, J.; Schwendimann, R.; Heinen, M.M.; Zikos, D.; Sjetne, I.S.; Smith, H.L.; Kutney-Lee, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hospitals with a good organisation of care (such as improved nurse staffing and work environments) can affect patient care and nurse workforce stability in European countries. DESIGN: Cross sectional surveys of patients and nurses. SETTING: Nurses were surveyed in

  11. 42 CFR 493.839 - Condition: Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Chemistry. 493.839 Section 493.839... These Tests § 493.839 Condition: Chemistry. The specialty of chemistry includes for the purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of routine chemistry, endocrinology, and toxicology. ...

  12. Airplane pilot mental health and suicidal thoughts: a cross-sectional descriptive study via anonymous web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alexander C; Donnelly-McLay, Deborah; Weisskopf, Marc G; McNeely, Eileen; Betancourt, Theresa S; Allen, Joseph G

    2016-12-15

    The Germanwings Flight 9525 crash has brought the sensitive subject of airline pilot mental health to the forefront in aviation. Globally, 350 million people suffer from depression-a common mental disorder. This study provides further information on this important topic regarding mental health especially among female airline pilots. This is the first study to describe airline pilot mental health-with a focus on depression and suicidal thoughts-outside of the information derived from aircraft accident investigations, regulated health examinations, or identifiable self-reports, which are records protected by civil aviation authorities and airline companies. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study via an anonymous web-based survey administered between April and December 2015. Pilots were recruited from unions, airline companies, and airports via convenience sampling. Data analysis included calculating absolute number and prevalence of health characteristics and depression scores. One thousand eight hundred thirty seven (52.7%) of the 3485 surveyed pilots completed the survey, with 1866 (53.5%) completing at least half of the survey. 233 (12.6%) of 1848 airline pilots responding to the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), and 193 (13.5%) of 1430 pilots who reported working as an airline pilot in the last seven days at time of survey, met depression threshold-PHQ-9 total score ≥ 10. Seventy-five participants (4.1%) reported having suicidal thoughts within the past two weeks. We found a significant trend in proportions of depression at higher levels of use of sleep-aid medication (trend test z = 6.74, p < 0.001) and among those experiencing sexual harassment (z = 3.18, p = 0.001) or verbal harassment (z = 6.13, p < 0.001). Hundreds of pilots currently flying are managing depressive symptoms perhaps without the possibility of treatment due to the fear of negative career impacts. This study found 233 (12.6%) airline pilots meeting

  13. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  14. Sex differences in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and male engineers: a comparative cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Fisher, Murray

    2011-08-01

    There continue to be assumptions within the nursing literature that nursing is synonymous with a feminine sex role identity. A comparative cross-sectional survey consisting of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Australian sex role scale was used to determine sex difference in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and with male engineers. A statistically significant difference in femininity was found between all the samples (F((2,908)) = 20.24, p female nurses and the two male samples on the two masculine scales (F((2,908)) = 12.48, p female nurses, a similar difference was found between male nurses and male engineers, supporting the notion that male nurses perceive themselves as having feminine characteristics essentially required for nursing.

  15. A cross-sectional survey of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests in a typically developing Turkish child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevikaslan, Ahmet; Evans, David W; Dedeoğlu, Ceyda; Kalaça, Sibel; Yazgan, Yankı

    2014-08-01

    This study examined compulsive-like behaviors (CLBs) which are higher-order types of Repetitive Behaviors And Restricted Interests (RBRIs) in typically developing children in Turkey. Caregivers of 1,204 children between 8 and 72 months were interviewed with Childhood Routines Inventory (CRI) by trained interviewers in a cross-sectional survey. Factor analysis of the CRI revealed two factor structures comprising "just right behaviors" and "repetitive/sensory sensitivity behaviors". CLB frequency peaked at 2-4 years with declines after age four. In contrast to the previous CRI studies reporting no gender difference, CLBs were more common in males in 12-23 and 48-59 month age groups on both total CLB frequency and repetitive/sensory sensitivity behaviors. Also ages of onsets for CRI items were somewhat later than reported in other samples. Our findings supported the findings of the previous CRI studies while also revealing new perspectives in need of further investigation.

  16. Prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infections in Spain: A cross-sectional hospital-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Ana; García, Juan; de Mendoza, Carmen; Benito, Rafael; Aguilera, Antonio; Ortíz de Lejarazu, Raul; Ramos, José M; Trigo, Matilde; Eirós, Jose M; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Torres, Alvaro; Calderón, Enrique; Hernandez, Araceli; Gomez, Cesar; Marcaida, Goizane; Soriano, Vincent

    2010-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 was examined in 5742 sera belonging to consecutive adult outpatients attended during June 2008 at 13 different hospitals across Spain. Overall, 58.8% were female. Foreigners represented 8% of the study population. Seven individuals were seropositive for HTLV-2 (overall prevalence 0.12%). No cases of HTLV-1 infection were found. All HTLV-2(+) subjects were Spanish natives, of whom six were coinfected with HIV-1 and five with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Moreover, all but one of the HTLV-2(+) subjects had been intravenous drug users. In summary, this cross-sectional survey suggests that the rate of HTLV infection in Spain is low, and is mostly represented by HTLV-2. Infected individuals are generally Spanish natives with a prior history of intravenous drug use and are coinfected with HIV-1 and/or HCV.

  17. Hip dysplasia: a significant risk factor for the development of hip osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional survey of 2232 women and 1336 men (age range 20-91 yr) was to investigate individual risk factors for hip joint osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Standardized, weight-bearing pelvic radiographs were evaluated. Radiological hip joint OA was defined as minimum......, only hip dysplasia was associated with hip OA prevalence, P LT 0.001 in right hips and P = 0.001 in left hips. CONCLUSIONS: Of the individual risk factors investigated in this study, only age and hip dysplasia were associated with the development of hip osteoarthritis....... joint space width (JSW) /=60 yr of age. Of factors entered into logistic regression analyses, only age (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P LT 0.001 for left hips) and hip dysplasia (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P = 0.004 for left hips) were significantly associated with hip OA prevalence in women. In men...

  18. Attitudes toward consumer involvement in mental health services: a cross-sectional survey of Indian medical and nursing undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Bm, Suresh

    2016-06-01

    To understand the views of medical and nursing undergraduates regarding consumer involvement in mental health services. A descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted in Bangalore, South India, among medical (n=155) and nursing (n=116) undergraduates using self-reported the Mental Health Consumer Participation Questionnaire of Happell et al. ''Mental health consumer'' or ''consumer'' is defined as a person who is currently using mental health services as either an in-patient or out-patient. The overall mean score on Mental Health Consumer Participation Questionnaire (54.1±6.7) implies that 64% of the participants hold positive attitudes towards consumer involvement in mental health services. Medical students possessed more positive attitudes than nursing in: consumer capacity (pundergraduate level.

  19. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  20. Awareness about medical research among resident doctors in a tertiary care hospital: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattatray B Pawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Every medical practitioner should strive to contribute to the generation of evidence by conducting research. For carrying out research, adequate knowledge, practical skills, and development of the right attitude are crucial. A literature review shows that data regarding knowledge, attitude, and practices toward medical research, among resident doctors in India, is lacking. Aims: This study was conducted to assess research-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among resident doctors. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a pretested, structured, and pre-validated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: With approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee and a verbal consent, a cross-sectional survey among 100 resident doctors pursuing their second and third years in the MD and MS courses was conducted using a structured and pre-validated questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: The concept of research hypothesis was known to 58% of the residents. Ninety-eight percent of the residents were aware of the procedure to obtain informed consent. Seventy-six percent agreed that research training should be mandatory. Although 88% of the residents were interested in conducting research in future, 50% had participated in research other than a dissertation project, 28% had made scientific presentations, and only 4% had publications. Lack of time (74%, lack of research curriculum (42%, and inadequate facilities (38% were stated as major obstacles for pursuing research. Conclusions: Although resident doctors demonstrated a fairly good knowledge and positive attitude toward research, it did not translate into practice for most of them. There is a need to improve the existing medical education system to foster research culture among resident doctors

  1. Social disparities in children’s exposure to second hand smoke at home: a repeated cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisinger Charlotta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. We hypothesised that there has been a growth in social inequality in children’s exposure to SHS at home over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal change in smoking in homes including children, focusing on the socioeconomic differences. Methods Data is from a repeated cross-sectional survey, ‘Health Profiles of the Capital Region of Denmark’ conducted in 2007 and 2010, in 29 municipalities. The response rate was 52.3%, in both surveys. Our study included persons aged 25 to 64, living with children ≤15 years of age; N=9,289 in 2007 and 12,696 in 2010. Analyses were weighted for size of municipality and for non-response, which was higher among men and among persons who were younger, had a lower income, were living alone, were unemployed, and/or were of an ethnicity other than Danish. Regression analyses were used to investigate smoking in homes including children across parent/adult education levels, focusing on temporal changes. Results There were significant large socioeconomic differences in both 2007 and 2010. In 2010 it was more than 11 times more likely for a child to be exposed to SHS at home if the parent had very low education than if they were highly educated (p Conclusions Marked social inequalities in children’s exposure to SHS and a significant temporal decrease in exposure, independent of the education level of the parent/adult, were found in repeated large cross-sectional population-based studies. Social disparities have persisted over time, but not increased. Both clinical and population policy interventions will be needed in order to control child SHS exposure. We call for legislative protection of children from tobacco smoke inside their home as a supplement to parental education and support for smoking cessation.

  2. Harmonized Cross-Sectional Surveys Focused on Fluid Intake in Children, Adolescents and Adults: The Liq.In7 Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Homero; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Gandy, Joan; Kavouras, Stavros A; Moreno, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    To assess the intake of water and all other beverages in children, adolescents and adults. Three thousand six hundred eleven children (8 ± 2 years), 8,109 adolescents (13 ± 2 years) and 16,276 adults (40 ± 14 years) (47% men) were recruited in 15 cross-sectional surveys (liquid intake across 7 days, Liq.In7 study) and completed a 7-day fluid-specific record to assess total fluid intake (TFI), where TFI was defined as the sum of drinking water and other type of beverages. The median TFI was 1.2, 1.2 and 1.8 liters/day in children, adolescents and adults respectively, with important differences observed between countries. Only 39% of children, 25% of adolescents and 51% of adults met the European Food Safety Authority adequate intake (AI) recommendations of water from fluids. In the surveys of Spain, France, Belgium, Germany, Turkey, Iran, Indonesia and China, water was the major contributor (47-78%) to TFI. In the adult surveys of UK, Poland, Japan and Argentina, hot beverages were the highest contributor to TFI. The fluid intake of children and adolescents in Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay was characterized by a contribution of juices and sweet beverages that was as important as the contribution of water to TFI. Given that a relatively high proportion of subjects, especially children and adolescents, failed to meet the recommended AI of water from fluids and that water intake was not the highest contributor to TFI in all countries, undertaking actions to increase water intake are warranted. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross sectional customer surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanovsky, Tamara; Huang, Christina Y; Nonas, Cathy A; Matte, Thomas D; Bassett, Mary T; Silver, Lynn D

    2011-07-26

    To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases. Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants' menus to contain details of the energy content of all menu items). Setting 168 randomly selected locations of the top 11 fast food chains in New York City during lunchtime hours. 7309 adult customers interviewed in 2007 and 8489 in 2009. Energy content of individual purchases, based on customers' register receipts and on calorie information provided for all items in menus. For the full sample, mean calories purchased did not change from before to after regulation (828 v 846 kcal, P = 0.22), though a modest decrease was shown in a regression model adjusted for restaurant chain, poverty level for the store location, sex of customers, type of purchase, and inflation adjusted cost (847 v 827 kcal, P = 0.01). Three major chains, which accounted for 42% of customers surveyed, showed significant reductions in mean energy per purchase (McDonald's 829 v 785 kcal, P = 0.02; Au Bon Pain 555 v 475 kcal, PKFC 927 v 868 kcal, P<0.01), while mean energy content increased for one chain (Subway 749 v 882 kcal, P<0.001). In the 2009 survey, 15% (1288/8489) of customers reported using the calorie information, and these customers purchased 106 fewer kilocalories than customers who did not see or use the calorie information (757 v 863 kcal, P<0.001). Although no overall decline in calories purchased was observed for the full sample, several major chains saw significant reductions. After regulation, one in six lunchtime customers used the calorie information provided, and these customers made lower calorie choices.

  4. Profile of tobacco users identified in primary care practice and predictors of readiness to quit: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Sophia; Tulloch, Heather E.; Gharib, Marie; Pipe, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of tobacco use and describe the characteristics of tobacco users identified in primary care practices. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 49 primary care practices in the province of Ontario. Consecutive patients were screened for smoking status at the time of their clinic appointment. Patients reporting current tobacco use completed a survey, which documented sociodemographic and smoking-related characteristics. Multilevel modelling was used to examine predictors of readiness to quit smoking and the presence of anxiety and/or depression. Results: A total of 56 592 patients were screened, and 5245 tobacco users participated in the survey. Prevalence of tobacco use was 18.2% and varied significantly across practices (range 12.4%-36.1%). Of the respondents, 46.3% reported current anxiety and/or depression, and 61.3% reported smoking within the first 30 minutes of waking. A total of 41.1% of respondents reported they were ready to quit smoking in the next 6 months, and 30.1% reported readiness to quit in the next 30 days. Readiness to quit was positively associated with higher self-efficacy, male sex, presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and more years of tobacco use. The presence of anxiety and/or depression was associated with lower cessation self-efficacy and time to first cigarette within 30 minutes of waking, but did not predict readiness to quit. Interpretation: Tobacco users identified in primary care practices reported high rates of nicotine dependence and anxiety and/or depression, but also high rates of readiness to quit. Study findings support the need to tailor interventions to address the needs of tobacco users identified in primary care settings. PMID:27280113

  5. Attitudes and perceptions of medical students about family medicine in Spain: protocol for a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Villa, Josep Jiménez; Hijar, Antonio Monreal; Tuduri, Xavier Mundet; Puime, Angel Otero; Zurro, Amando Martín

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that family medicine (FM) has become established as a specialty in the past 25 years, this has not been reflected in the inclusion of the specialty in the majority of medical schools in Spain. Almost 40% of the students will work in primary care but, in spite of this, most universities do not have an assessed placement as such. There are only specific practice periods in health centres or some student-selected components with little weight in the overall curricula. Objectives To evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of medical students about FM in the health system and their perception about the need for specific training in FM at the undergraduate level. To explore change over time of these attitudes and perceptions and to examine potential predictive factors for change. Finally, we will review what teaching activity in FM is offered across the Spanish schools of medicine. Methods Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Each one of the different analyses will consist of two surveys: one for all the students in the first, third and fifth year of medical school in all the Spanish schools of medicine asking about their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes in relation to primary care and FM. There will be an additional survey for the coordinating faculty of the study in each university about the educational activities related to FM that are carried out in their centres. The repetition of the study every 2 years will allow for an analysis of the evolution of the cohort of students until they receive their degree and the potential predictive factors. Discussion This study will provide useful information for strategic planning decisions, content and educational methodology in medical schools in Spain and elsewhere. It will also help to evaluate the influence of the ongoing changes in FM, locally and at the European level, on the attitudes and perceptions of the students towards FM in Spain.

  6. Use of Social Media for Professional Development by Health Care Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media can be used in health care settings to enhance professional networking and education; patient communication, care, and education; public health programs; organizational promotion; and research. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the use of social media networks for the purpose of professional development among health care professionals in Saudi Arabia using a purpose-designed Web-based survey. Methods A cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken. A link to the survey was posted on the investigator’s personal social media accounts including Twitter, LinkedIn, and WhatsApp. Results A total of 231 health care professionals, who are generally social media users, participated in the study. Of these professionals, 70.6% (163/231) use social media for their professional development. The social media applications most frequently used, in the descending order, for professional development were Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, and LinkedIn. The majority of respondents used social media for professional development irrespective of their age group, with the highest proportion seen in those aged 20-30 years. Social media were perceived as being most beneficial for professional development in terms of their impact on the domains of knowledge and problem solving and least helpful for enhancing clinical skills. Twitter was perceived as the most helpful type of social media for all domains listed. Respondents most frequently reported that social media were useful for professional development for the reasons of knowledge exchange and networking. Conclusions Social media are frequently used by health care professionals in Saudi Arabia for the purposes of professional development, with Twitter most frequently used for this purpose. These findings suggest that social media networks can be powerful tools for engaging health care professionals in their professional development. PMID:27731855

  7. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a cross-sectional survey exploring knowledge, attitude and practice of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, M; Manocha, R; Ong, J J

    2016-09-26

    To explore general practitioner's (GP) knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) in Australia. Cross-sectional survey. Australia. GPs who attended a women's health seminar and GPs who subscribed to a non-governmental, national health professional organisation database that provides education to primary care professionals. A national online survey of GPs was conducted for the 10-week period, starting 1 week prior and 2 months after a Women's Health seminar was held in Perth on 8 August 2015. 31 questions prompted GPs' knowledge, attitudes and practice in managing patients asking about FGCS. The survey was fully completed by 443 GPs; 54% had seen patients requesting FGCS. Overall, 75% (95% CI 71% to 79%) of GPs rated their knowledge of FGCS as inadequate and 97% (95% CI 94% to 99%) had been asked by women of all ages about genital normality. Of those who had seen patients requesting FGCS, nearly half (44%, 95% CI 38% to 51%) reported they had insufficient knowledge of risks of FGCS procedures and 35% (95% CI 29% to 41%) reported seeing females younger than 18 years of age requesting FGCS. Just over half (56%, 95% CI 51% to 60%) of the GPs felt that women should be counselled before making a referral for FGCS. More than half the GPs suspected psychological disturbances in their patients requesting FGCS such as depression, anxiety, relationship difficulties and body dysmorphic disorder. GPs see women of all ages presenting with genital anatomy concerns and in those who request FGCS, GPs often suspected a range of mental health difficulties. GPs require greater education to support their patients who request FGCS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Attitudes and perceptions of medical students about family medicine in Spain: protocol for a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Villa, Josep Jiménez; Hijar, Antonio Monreal; Tuduri, Xavier Mundet; Puime, Ángel Otero

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that family medicine (FM) has become established as a specialty in the past 25 years, this has not been reflected in the inclusion of the specialty in the majority of medical schools in Spain. Almost 40% of the students will work in primary care but, in spite of this, most universities do not have an assessed placement as such. There are only specific practice periods in health centres or some student-selected components with little weight in the overall curricula. Objectives To evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of medical students about FM in the health system and their perception about the need for specific training in FM at the undergraduate level. To explore change over time of these attitudes and perceptions and to examine potential predictive factors for change. Finally, we will review what teaching activity in FM is offered across the Spanish schools of medicine. Methods Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Each one of the different analyses will consist of two surveys: one for all the students in the first, third and fifth year of medical school in all the Spanish schools of medicine asking about their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes in relation to primary care and FM. There will be an additional survey for the coordinating faculty of the study in each university about the educational activities related to FM that are carried out in their centres. The repetition of the study every 2 years will allow for an analysis of the evolution of the cohort of students until they receive their degree and the potential predictive factors. Discussion This study will provide useful information for strategic planning decisions, content and educational methodology in medical schools in Spain and elsewhere. It will also help to evaluate the influence of the ongoing changes in FM, locally and at the European level, on the attitudes and perceptions of the students towards FM in Spain. PMID:22189348

  9. Doctors' personal health care choices: A cross-sectional survey in a mixed public/private setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao David VK

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among Western countries, it has been found that physicians tend to manage their own illnesses and tend not have their own independent family physicians. This is recognized as a significant issue for both physicians and, by extension, the patients under their care, resulting in initiatives seeking to address this. Physicians' personal health care practices in Asia have yet to be documented. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional postal questionnaire survey was conducted in Hong Kong, China. All 9570 medical practitioners in Hong Kong registered with the Hong Kong Medical Council in 2003 were surveyed. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were applied. Results There were 4198 respondents to the survey; a response rate of 44%. Two-thirds of respondents took care of themselves when they were last ill, with 62% of these self-medicating with prescription medication. Physicians who were graduates of Hong Kong medical schools, those working in general practice and non-members of the Hong Kong College of Family Physicians were more likely to do so. Physician specialty was found to be the most influential reason in the choice of caregiver by those who had ever consulted another medical practitioner. Only 14% chose consultation with a FM/GP with younger physians and non-Hong Kong medical graduates having a higher likelihood of doing so. Seventy percent of all respondents believed that having their own personal physician was unnecessary. Conclusion Similar to the practice of colleagues in other countries, a large proportion of Hong Kong physicians self-manage their illnesses, take self-obtained prescription drugs and believe they do not need a personal physician. Future strategies to benefit the medical care of Hong Kong physicians will have to take these practices and beliefs into consideration.

  10. Use of Social Media for Professional Development by Health Care Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsobayel, Hana

    2016-09-12

    Social media can be used in health care settings to enhance professional networking and education; patient communication, care, and education; public health programs; organizational promotion; and research. The aim of this study was to explore the use of social media networks for the purpose of professional development among health care professionals in Saudi Arabia using a purpose-designed Web-based survey. A cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken. A link to the survey was posted on the investigator's personal social media accounts including Twitter, LinkedIn, and WhatsApp. A total of 231 health care professionals, who are generally social media users, participated in the study. Of these professionals, 70.6% (163/231) use social media for their professional development. The social media applications most frequently used, in the descending order, for professional development were Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, and LinkedIn. The majority of respondents used social media for professional development irrespective of their age group, with the highest proportion seen in those aged 20-30 years. Social media were perceived as being most beneficial for professional development in terms of their impact on the domains of knowledge and problem solving and least helpful for enhancing clinical skills. Twitter was perceived as the most helpful type of social media for all domains listed. Respondents most frequently reported that social media were useful for professional development for the reasons of knowledge exchange and networking. Social media are frequently used by health care professionals in Saudi Arabia for the purposes of professional development, with Twitter most frequently used for this purpose. These findings suggest that social media networks can be powerful tools for engaging health care professionals in their professional development.

  11. Leadership training in a family medicine residency program: Cross-sectional quantitative survey to inform curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Erin; Moore, Ainsley; Schabort, Inge

    2017-03-01

    To assess the current status of leadership training as perceived by family medicine residents to inform the development of a formal leadership curriculum. Cross-sectional quantitative survey. Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont, in December 2013. A total of 152 first- and second-year family medicine residents. Family medicine residents' attitudes toward leadership, perceived level of training in various leadership domains, and identified opportunities for leadership training. Overall, 80% (152 of 190) of residents completed the survey. On a Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 4 = neutral, 7 = strongly agree), residents rated the importance of physician leadership in the clinical setting as high (6.23 of 7), whereas agreement with the statement "I am a leader" received the lowest rating (5.28 of 7). At least 50% of residents desired more training in the leadership domains of personal mastery, mentorship and coaching, conflict resolution, teaching, effective teamwork, administration, ideals of a healthy workplace, coalitions, and system transformation. At least 50% of residents identified behavioural sciences seminars, a lecture and workshop series, and a retreat as opportunities to expand leadership training. The concept of family physicians as leaders resonated highly with residents. Residents desired more personal and system-level leadership training. They also identified ways that leadership training could be expanded in the current curriculum and developed in other areas. The information gained from this survey might facilitate leadership development among residents through application of its results in a formal leadership curriculum. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  12. Patient and visitor violence in the general hospital, occurrence, staff interventions and consequences: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Sabine; Hantikainen, Virpi; Needham, Ian; Kok, Gerjo; Dassen, Theo; Halfens, Ruud J G

    2012-12-01

    AIM.: This study focuses on the experience of healthcare staff with regard to patient and visitor violence in a general hospital. The occurrence of patient and visitor violence, staffs' interventions and the consequences of violence for different professions are investigated. There is a lack of studies describing the factors influencing the occurrence of patient and visitor violence, intervention strategies and consequences. Existing studies often focus on nurses' experiences and single interactive factors between staff and patients/visitors involved. A cross-sectional survey. The survey was conducted in 2007 including 2495 staff working on different wards in a Swiss university general hospital. The questionnaire used was the Survey of Violence Experienced by Staff German Version-Revised. Half of the staff experienced patient and visitor violence in the past 12 months and 11% in the past week. The age of the staff and the length of experience in their present workplace influenced the exposure to patient and visitor violence. Violence occurred mainly when staff carried out tasks involving close personal contact. Only 16% of the staff was trained in aggression management. The feeling of confidence in managing patient and visitor violence depended significantly on the organizational attitude towards violence. The principal interventions used were calming and informative discussion. To prevent patient and visitor violence and improve management strategies, training which focuses on communication skills, which is specific to the professional context and which emphasizes patient centeredness, need to be designed and implemented. A strong organizational commitment is imperative to reduce violence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Contraceptive use among HIV-infected women and men receiving antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Hancock

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family planning (FP is an essential health service and an important part of comprehensive HIV care. However, there is limited information about the contraceptive needs of people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, which in turn has hampered efforts to expand and integrate FP services into existing HIV programs. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey to determine FP prevalence and predictors among HIV-positive women and men attending 18 public antiretroviral therapy (ART clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Trained peer counselors administered the 10-question survey to those seeking care for five days at each of the target sites. Results From February to April 2014, we surveyed 7,046 HIV-infected patients receiving routine HIV services. Use of modern contraception was reported by 69 % of female ART patients and 79 % of male ART patients. However, highly effective contraceptive use and dual method use were low among women (38 and 25 %, respectively and men (19 and 14 %, respectively. HIV disclosure status (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 4.91, 95 % confidence interval (CI = 3.32–7.24 for women, AOR = 3.58, 95 % CI = 2.39–5.38 for men and sexual activity in the last 6 months (AOR = 5.80, 95 % CI = 4.51–7.47 for women, AOR = 6.24, 95 % CI = 3.51–11.08 for men were associated with modern contraceptive use in multivariable regression. Most respondents said they would access FP services if made available within ART clinic. Conclusions While FP-ART integration may be a promising strategy for increasing FP service uptake, such services must focus on assessing sexual activity and advocating for dual method use to increase effective contraceptive use and prevent unintended pregnancies.

  14. Patient perceptions of glucocorticoid side effects: a cross-sectional survey of users in an online health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Ruth; Patel, Rikesh; Humphreys, Jennifer; McBeth, John; Dixon, William G

    2017-04-03

    To identify the side effects most important to glucocorticoid (GC) users through a survey of a UK online health community (Healthunlocked.com). Online cross-sectional survey. Participants were recruited through Healthunlocked.com, an online social network for health. Adults who were currently taking GCs, or had taken GCs in the past month. Responders scored the importance of listed side effects from 1 to 10, with 10 being of high importance to them. For each side effect, histograms were plotted, and the median rating and IQR were determined. Side effects were ranked by median ranking (largest to smallest) and then IQR (smallest to largest). The scores were categorised as low (scores 1-3), medium (scores 4-7) and high (scores 8-10) importance. 604 responders completed the survey. Histograms of side effect scores showed a skew towards high importance for weight gain, a U-shaped distribution for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, eye disease and infections, and a skew towards low importance for acne. When ranked, the side effect of most importance to responders was weight gain (median score=9, IQR 6-10) followed by insomnia and moon face with equal median score (8) and IQR (5-10). Three serious side effects, CVD, diabetes and infections, were ranked of lower importance overall but had wide ranging scores (median score=8, IQR 1-10). The three most highly rated side effects were not clinically serious but remained important to patients, perhaps reflecting their impact on quality of life and high prevalence. This should be taken into consideration when discussing treatment options and planning future GC safety studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. International travel in the immunocompromised patient: a cross-sectional survey of travel advice in 254 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialy, C; Horne, K; Dendle, C; Kanellis, J; Littlejohn, G; Ratnam, I; Woolley, I

    2015-06-01

    Our primary aim was to determine the rate of overseas travel in immunocompromised individuals attending appropriate clinics at an Australian tertiary care hospital. We also aimed to characterise health-seeking behaviour prior to travel and investigated sources of pre-travel advice, compared travel patterns and activities between three specific immunosuppressed groups, and examined pre-immunosuppression patient serology. We implemented a cross-sectional survey of patients between February and August 2012. This survey was implemented among three outpatient populations at Monash Medical Centre, an Australian tertiary care hospital. We recruited 254 immunosuppressed adults from three patient populations: human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals, renal transplant patients and rheumatology patients requiring immunosuppressive therapy. No clinical intervention was performed. In the 10 years preceding the survey, 153 (60.2%) participants reported international travel. Of these, 105 (68.6%) were immunosuppressed at the time of travel. These patients were 47.6% male and 60% Australian born. Forty per cent were visiting friends and relatives as part of their travel. Fifty-four per cent of those immunocompromised at the time of travel were going to high-risk destinations. Pathology files indicated that serological screening was frequently not performed prior to immunosuppression in the renal transplant and rheumatology groups. Immunocompromised patients often travel to high-risk destinations with limited or inadequate pre-travel preparations. Doctors caring for the immunocompromised should be aware of travel risks, suitable vaccination protocols and when to refer to specialist travel clinics. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  16. Patterns of vulnerability to non-fatal injuries in Sudan: initial evidence from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Safa

    2014-10-01

    Successful injury prevention requires identification and targeting of particularly vulnerable groups. Little is known about injury vulnerability patterns in Sudan. This paper aimed to fill this gap using survey data. Data from the Sudan Household Health Survey were used. This was a national cross-sectional interview survey of 83,510 individuals selected by multistage cluster random sampling. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to investigate the association of cause-specific injury that received care by traditional healers, outpatient care and inpatient care, and those that received only inpatient care, with age, gender, area of residence (urban or rural), socioeconomic status and education. Relevant interactions were tested. Independent of other sociodemographic variables, men were at higher risk of road traffic injury (prevalence ratio (PR): 3.3 95% CI 2.4 to 4.7), falls (PR: 1.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 1.9), assault (PR: 3.0 95% CI 1.8-5) and mechanical injury (PR: 2.0 95% CI 1.2 to 3.1) that received any form of healthcare. Those aged 65 years and over also had the highest risk of those injury causes, while children under 5 years were the most likely to suffer burn injuries. Socioeconomic status was associated with assault (PR for the richest group 0.4 95% CI 0.2 to 0.8). Vulnerability patterns for injury that received inpatient care were fairly similar for some causes. In Sudan, existing disease prevention and health promotion programmes should expand to target men, children under 5 years, elderly people and those of low socioeconomic status with injury prevention interventions. Further research is needed to investigate the context-specific proximal risk factors that shape the various vulnerability patterns observed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. HIV infection in fishing communities of Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda--a cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, Alex; Muyonga, Michael; Mulumba, Noordin

    2013-01-01

    Uganda's first AIDS case was reported in a fishing village. Thereafter, due to varying risk factors, the epidemic spread heterogeneously to all regions, with some populations more affected. Given the recent rising trends in HIV infection in Uganda, it is crucial to know the risk factors in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among fishing communities. A cross-sectional survey of 46 fishing communities was conducted in 2010. Following written consent, 911 randomly selected respondents age 15-59 years were interviewed and gave blood for HIV testing. HIV testing was conducted in the field and central laboratory according to national algorithm. Survey protocol was approved by the Science and Ethics Committee of Uganda Virus Research Institute, and cleared by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Data was captured by EPIINFO and statistical analysis done in SPSS. Overall HIV prevalence was 22%; there was no difference by sex (x (2) test, p>0.05). Association with HIV infection was determined by x (2) test, p<0.5. Never married respondents had lower HIV prevalence (6.2%) than the ever married (24.1%). HIV prevalence was lower in younger respondents, age 15-24 years (10.8%) than in age group 25 years and above (26.1%). Muslims had lower HIV prevalence (14.4%) than Christians (25.2%). HIV prevalence was higher among respondents reporting 3 or more lifetime sexual partners (25.3%) than in those reporting less numbers (10.8%). HIV prevalence was higher among uncircumcised men (27%) than in circumcised men (11%). Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors for HIV infection; age, religion, ever condom use and number of lifetime sexual partners. HIV prevalence in the surveyed communities was three times higher than of general population. This underscores the need for tailor made HIV combination prevention interventions targeting fishing communities.

  18. HIV infection in fishing communities of Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda--a cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Opio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uganda's first AIDS case was reported in a fishing village. Thereafter, due to varying risk factors, the epidemic spread heterogeneously to all regions, with some populations more affected. Given the recent rising trends in HIV infection in Uganda, it is crucial to know the risk factors in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among fishing communities. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey of 46 fishing communities was conducted in 2010. Following written consent, 911 randomly selected respondents age 15-59 years were interviewed and gave blood for HIV testing. HIV testing was conducted in the field and central laboratory according to national algorithm. Survey protocol was approved by the Science and Ethics Committee of Uganda Virus Research Institute, and cleared by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Data was captured by EPIINFO and statistical analysis done in SPSS. FINDINGS: Overall HIV prevalence was 22%; there was no difference by sex (x (2 test, p>0.05. Association with HIV infection was determined by x (2 test, p<0.5. Never married respondents had lower HIV prevalence (6.2% than the ever married (24.1%. HIV prevalence was lower in younger respondents, age 15-24 years (10.8% than in age group 25 years and above (26.1%. Muslims had lower HIV prevalence (14.4% than Christians (25.2%. HIV prevalence was higher among respondents reporting 3 or more lifetime sexual partners (25.3% than in those reporting less numbers (10.8%. HIV prevalence was higher among uncircumcised men (27% than in circumcised men (11%. Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors for HIV infection; age, religion, ever condom use and number of lifetime sexual partners. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence in the surveyed communities was three times higher than of general population. This underscores the need for tailor made HIV combination prevention interventions targeting

  19. HIV Infection in Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda – A Cross-Sectional Sero-Behavioral Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, Alex; Muyonga, Michael; Mulumba, Noordin

    2013-01-01

    Background Uganda's first AIDS case was reported in a fishing village. Thereafter, due to varying risk factors, the epidemic spread heterogeneously to all regions, with some populations more affected. Given the recent rising trends in HIV infection in Uganda, it is crucial to know the risk factors in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among fishing communities. Methodology A cross-sectional survey of 46 fishing communities was conducted in 2010. Following written consent, 911 randomly selected respondents age 15–59 years were interviewed and gave blood for HIV testing. HIV testing was conducted in the field and central laboratory according to national algorithm. Survey protocol was approved by the Science and Ethics Committee of Uganda Virus Research Institute, and cleared by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Data was captured by EPIINFO and statistical analysis done in SPSS. Findings Overall HIV prevalence was 22%; there was no difference by sex (x2 test, p>0.05). Association with HIV infection was determined by x2 test, p<0.5. Never married respondents had lower HIV prevalence (6.2%) than the ever married (24.1%). HIV prevalence was lower in younger respondents, age 15–24 years (10.8%) than in age group 25 years and above (26.1%). Muslims had lower HIV prevalence (14.4%) than Christians (25.2%). HIV prevalence was higher among respondents reporting 3 or more lifetime sexual partners (25.3%) than in those reporting less numbers (10.8%). HIV prevalence was higher among uncircumcised men (27%) than in circumcised men (11%). Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors for HIV infection; age, religion, ever condom use and number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions HIV prevalence in the surveyed communities was three times higher than of general population. This underscores the need for tailor made HIV combination prevention interventions targeting fishing

  20. Men with disabilities - A cross sectional survey of health promotion, social inclusion and participation at community Men's Sheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Parsons, Richard; Vaz, Sharmila; Buchanan, Angus

    2016-01-01

    The intersections between chronicity, disability and social inequality are well understood. Novel ways to counter the social determinants of health and disability are needed. Men's Sheds are a community space where men can participate in a range of shared activities and potentially experience a health and social benefits. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to inform future research by determining who attended Men's Sheds and the range of health, social, community, and educational activities undertaken there. This paper explores the membership of people with disabilities (PWD) at Men's Sheds and the factors that predict their membership. An online survey link was sent to all known Men's Sheds internationally in 2012. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential (univariate and multivariate) statistics. 32.2% of international sheds and 29% of Australian sheds specifically targeted the inclusion of PWD. 80% of these sheds have significantly more members with disabilities than sheds who do no target PWD. Factors associated with greater membership of PWD included the provision of transport, social outings and promoting occupational skills. PWD are being encouraged to join and are joining Men's Sheds. This is significant as the value of participation and inclusion toward better health and wellbeing is well known. Men's Sheds offer a community space where the social determinants of chronicity and disability can potentially be countered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Socio-demographic and clinical features of Irish iatrogenic hepatitis C patients: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A discrete sub-group of iatrogenically-acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals exists in the Irish population on whom limited current research data is available. The aim of this study was to establish a current profile of the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the Irish iatrogenic hepatitis C population and to determine factors predicting symptoms experienced. METHODS: An anonymous, national, cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore this populations\\' self-reported health and social attributes. Data were collected on 290 respondents. RESULTS: Mean time since infection was 26 years. Eighty-four percent (n = 237) of respondents were female (mean age = 55.9 +\\/- 9.6 years). Hepatic and extra-hepatic symptoms were common (62% and 99% respectively). Fatigue and pain were frequent complaints while 89% reported diagnosed co-morbid disease. On logistic regression, female gender, age and co-morbid disease emerged as independent predictors of self-reported symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study describes the current status of the iatrogenically infected patient cohort in Ireland, adding to existing knowledge regarding the clinical course and consequences of HCV infection. Changing healthcare needs were shown by comparison with earlier surveys in this same population, in terms of disease progression, development of co-morbid disease and ageing.

  2. Specialty satisfaction, positive psychological capital, and nursing professional values in nursing students: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Chung Hee; Park, Ju Young

    2017-10-01

    Ideally, college majors should be chosen to achieve self-realization and correspond to self-concept. However, some students select a major based on extrinsic factors, rather than aptitude or interests, because of a lack of employment opportunities. If they have negative college experiences with an unsatisfactory major, they might not engage fully in their occupation following graduation. This study aimed to identify factors affecting specialty satisfaction in preclinical practice nursing-college students. A cross-sectional descriptive survey. A nonprobability convenience sample of 312 nursing-college students at colleges in Deajeon City, South Korea. The survey questionnaire was distributed to those who agreed to participate. Freshmen and sophomore nursing students (n=312). Participants were 312 students at colleges in Deajeon City. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, which were analyzed using SPSS/WIN. Positive psychological capital and nursing professional values were positively correlated with specialty satisfaction. Significant predictors for specialty satisfaction included hope and optimism (as components of positive psychological capital), the roles of nursing service and originality of nursing (as nursing professional values), and aptitude/interests and job value (as motives for selecting a major). The findings suggested that nursing students' specialty satisfaction was partially linked to positive psychological capital and professional values. Therefore, the promotion of positive factors should be useful in enhancing specialty satisfaction in preclinical-practice nursing-college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.