WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey route location

  1. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to k-LocVRP is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so t...

  2. Dahomey Breeding Bird Survey Route

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Document contains route directions and map for the naitonal Dahomey BBS route. Includes milage for where specific listening stations are located along the route...

  3. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  4. The future of route survey?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, H.H.; Groot, T. de

    1995-01-01

    Several NATO Navies carry out route survey operations as a peace time operation aimed to improve the MCM efficiency in times of crisis or war. The main result of route survey operations is information about the environmental conditions of an area, and about the mine like contacts present in the

  5. ROUTES: a computer program for preliminary route location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.E. Reutebuch

    1988-01-01

    An analytical description of the ROUTES computer program is presented. ROUTES is part of the integrated preliminary harvest- and transportation-planning software package, PLANS. The ROUTES computer program is useful where grade and sideslope limitations are important in determining routes for vehicular travel. With the program, planners can rapidly identify route...

  6. An inventory location routing model with environmental considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerhlaly Sanaa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider an integrated Inventory Location Routing problem ILRP. The objective is to select depots to open, the routes to perform distribution from the capacitated depots to the clients by a homogeneous fleet of vehicles and over a multi-period planning horizon. To solve the problem, an exact model is designed in order to minimize the total cost (location, routing and inventory and the routing CO2 emissions, while respecting transport and storage constraints for a hazardous material. We have also studied an industrial real case to illustrate the problem.

  7. Routing helicopters for crew exchanges on off-shore locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, G.; Tijssen, G.A.

    This paper deals with a vehicle routing problem with split demands, namely the problem of determining a flight schedule for helicopters to off-shore platform locations for exchanging crew people employed on these platforms. The problem is formulated as an LP model and solved by means of a

  8. Survey: Matheuristics for Rich Vehicle Routing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, Karl F.; Schmid, Verena

    This paper surveys recent developments of hybrid solution techniques for different vehicle routing problems. Only hybridizations of heuristic and exact solution techniques are considered. Most of the existing hybrid approaches are based on set-covering formulations, local branching or different decomposition techniques.

  9. Modeling a four-layer location-routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution is an indispensable component of logistics and supply chain management. Location-Routing Problem (LRP is an NP-hard problem that simultaneously takes into consideration location, allocation, and vehicle routing decisions to design an optimal distribution network. Multi-layer and multi-product LRP is even more complex as it deals with the decisions at multiple layers of a distribution network where multiple products are transported within and between layers of the network. This paper focuses on modeling a complicated four-layer and multi-product LRP which has not been tackled yet. The distribution network consists of plants, central depots, regional depots, and customers. In this study, the structure, assumptions, and limitations of the distribution network are defined and the mathematical optimization programming model that can be used to obtain the optimal solution is developed. Presented by a mixed-integer programming model, the LRP considers the location problem at two layers, the allocation problem at three layers, the vehicle routing problem at three layers, and a transshipment problem. The mathematical model locates central and regional depots, allocates customers to plants, central depots, and regional depots, constructs tours from each plant or open depot to customers, and constructs transshipment paths from plants to depots and from depots to other depots. Considering realistic assumptions and limitations such as producing multiple products, limited production capacity, limited depot and vehicle capacity, and limited traveling distances enables the user to capture the real world situations.

  10. Optimization of location routing inventory problem with transshipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Nor Edayu Abd; Shariff, S. Sarifah Radiah; Zahari, Siti Meriam

    2015-05-01

    Location Routing Inventory Problem (LRIP) is a collaboration of the three components in the supply chain. It is confined by location-allocation, vehicle routing and inventory management. The aim of the study is to minimize the total system cost in the supply chain. Transshipment is introduced in order to allow the products to be shipped to a customer who experiences a shortage, either directly from the supplier or from another customer. In the study, LRIP is introduced with the transshipment (LRIPT) and customers act as the transshipment points. We select the transshipment point by using the p-center and we present the results in two divisions of cases. Based on the analysis, the results indicated that LRIPT performed well compared to LRIP.

  11. Mobile close combat tactical trainer location and routing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djang, P.; Scott, M.

    1994-12-31

    In the short term future, the Army will purchase 21 Mobile Close Combat Tactical Trainers (MCCTTs) for the Reserve Component. The Army plans to buy 11 Armor and 10 Infantry versions of these trainers. The trainers are high fidelity simulators that teach tactical operations at the company and platoon level. The simulators are mounted on 3 tractor-trailers and are capable of traveling to the cities, towns and villages (known as home stations) where the Reserve Component platoons reside. The TRADOC System Manager - Combined Arms Tactical Trainer requested that TRAC-WSMR conduct a stationing analysis to determine where these devices should be located. We have created location and routing models for both Armor and Infantry MCCTTs. We developed a p-median model to determine the locations that minimize the distance between the MCCTTs and a number of home stations. Once we know where to locate the MCCTTs, we developed transportation, set covering and traveling salesperson models to decide the routing strategy that minimizes the distance the MCCTTs must travel, thereby prolonging their life. Our models insure that all platoons receive a minimum of three MCCTT training sessions per year and that the units do not have to travel more than 60 miles away from their home. If the Army uses the same routing strategy for the MCCTTs as they have done for a predecessor system, then our efforts have estimated annual savings of 700, 000 or 10 Million over the system life. Finally, given the current training requirement, our work demonstrates that the Army`s procurement strategy needs to be adjusted; we show that the Army needs to buy fewer Infantry MCCTTs than planned; we show that if the excess is converted to Armor MCCTTs, then a less expensive overall solution can be computed.

  12. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  13. Solving Inventory Routing Problems Using Location Based Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Hanczar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory routing problems (IRPs occur where vendor managed inventory replenishment strategies are implemented in supply chains. These problems are characterized by the presence of both transportation and inventory considerations, either as parameters or constraints. The research presented in this paper aims at extending IRP formulation developed on the basis of location based heuristics proposed by Bramel and Simchi-Levi and continued by Hanczar. In the first phase of proposed algorithms, mixed integer programming is used to determine the partitioning of customers as well as dates and quantities of deliveries. Then, using 2-opt algorithm for solving the traveling sales-person problem the optimal routes for each partition are determined. In the main part of research the classical formulation is extended by additional constraints (visit spacing, vehicle filling rate, driver (vehicle consistency, and heterogeneous fleet of vehicles as well as the additional criteria are discussed. Then the impact of using each of proposed extensions for solution possibilities is evaluated. The results of computational tests are presented and discussed. Obtained results allow to conclude that the location based heuristics should be considered when solving real life instances of IRP. (original abstract

  14. Mobility-Assisted on-Demand Routing Algorithm for MANETs in the Presence of Location Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Kien Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mobility-assisted on-demand routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks in the presence of location errors. Location awareness enables mobile nodes to predict their mobility and enhances routing performance by estimating link duration and selecting reliable routes. However, measured locations intrinsically include errors in measurement. Such errors degrade mobility prediction and have been ignored in previous work. To mitigate the impact of location errors on routing, we propose an on-demand routing algorithm taking into account location errors. To that end, we adopt the Kalman filter to estimate accurate locations and consider route confidence in discovering routes. Via simulations, we compare our algorithm and previous algorithms in various environments. Our proposed mobility prediction is robust to the location errors.

  15. Express Routing Transportation Surveys. Research Department Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter D.

    Express routing, under consideration by San Diego (California) Public Schools, is a form of bus transportation that picks up and drops off students at centralized points instead of driving through residential neighborhoods. This report examines other, similar districts' experiences in applying express routing in integration and other school…

  16. A survey on clustering routing protocols in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuxun

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions.

  17. A Survey on Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuxun Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions.

  18. JUSTIFICATION OF PERIOD OF PASSENGER ROUTE CHOICE SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbachov, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the justification of reasonability of taking into account the situation of equally possible passenger route choice when modeling such a choice with proper mathematical models. The approach to determine the number of days to survey the factual passenger route choice, which will be enough to develop the choice models, is given.

  19. A Survey of Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wujun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vehicle routing problem (VRP has become an important content in logistics management research, and has been widely used in transportation system, logistics distribution system and express delivery system. In this paper, we discuss the classification of VRP, and summarize the common constraints of VRP, model algorithm and the main research results in recent years. Finally, we analyzes the future of VRP, and it is considered that the intelligent vehicle routing problem and intelligent heuristic algorithm will be an important field of future research.

  20. Models for disaster relief shelter location and supply routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This project focuses on the development of a natural disaster response planning model that determines where to locate points of distribution for relief supplies after a disaster occurs. Advance planning (selecting locations for points of distribution...

  1. Location-routing Problem with Fuzzy time windows and Traffic time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Teimoori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The location-routing problem is a relatively new branch of logistics system. Its objective is to determine a suitable location for constructing distribution warehouses and proper transportation routing from warehouse to the customer. In this study, the location-routing problem is investigated with considering fuzzy servicing time window for each customer. Another important issue in this regard is the existence of congested times during the service time and distributing goods to the customer. This caused a delay in providing service for customer and imposed additional costs to distribution system. Thus we have provided a mathematical model for designing optimal distributing system. Since the vehicle location-routing problem is Np-hard, thus a solution method using genetic meta-heuristic algorithm was developed and the optimal sequence of servicing for the vehicle and optimal location for the warehouses were determined through an example.

  2. In-route skyline querying for location-based services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuegang, Huang; Jensen, Kristian S.

    2005-01-01

    With the emergence of an infrastructure for location-aware mobile services, the processing of advanced, location-based queries that are expected to underlie such services is gaining in relevance, While much work has assumed that users move in Euclidean space, this paper assumes that movement...... their efficient computation. The queries take into account several spatial preferences. and they intuitively return a set of most interesting results for each result returned by the corresponding non-skyline queries. The paper also covers a performance study of the proposed techniques based on real point...

  3. Location-Based Self-Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks in Home Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SeungHo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless sensor networks in home automation (WSNHA is attractive due to their characteristics of self-organization, high sensing fidelity, low cost, and potential for rapid deployment. Although the AODVjr routing algorithm in IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee and other routing algorithms have been designed for wireless sensor networks, not all are suitable for WSNHA. In this paper, we propose a location-based self-adaptive routing algorithm for WSNHA called WSNHA-LBAR. It confines route discovery flooding to a cylindrical request zone, which reduces the routing overhead and decreases broadcast storm problems in the MAC layer. It also automatically adjusts the size of the request zone using a self-adaptive algorithm based on Bayes' theorem. This makes WSNHA-LBAR more adaptable to the changes of the network state and easier to implement. Simulation results show improved network reliability as well as reduced routing overhead.

  4. Inferring Groups of Objects, Preferred Routes, and Facility Locations from Trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida

    In today’s society, GPS-enabled devices are used widely. A broad range of location-based services (LBS) allow users to receive and share information related to their positions. Thus, it is possible to accumulate GPS data, and it is expected that the amount of available GPS data will increase very...... done with real vehicle trajectory data and an existing online routing service shows that local drivers take diverse routes and that their preferred routes differ from the ones proposed by the routing service. Next, we propose a routing service that exploits historical route usage data from local...... the optimal segment. Algorithm AUG uses graph augmentation, and algorithm ITE uses iterative road-network partitioning. Empirical studies show that algorithms are capable to offer high performance in realistic settings....

  5. Social survey findings on en route noise annoyance issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Most surveys of residents' reactions to aircraft noise were conducted in the vicinity of airports. The findings in those surveys have supported planning and regulatory actions for the airport noise environment. Now, however, aircraft noise planning and regulations are being considered for a new environment, the en route environment. As policy makers search for bases for public policy in these new noise environments, it is appropriate to ask whether the same scientific evidence which supports airport noise policy can also support en route noise policy. Several aspects of that question are considered. An introduction establishes the scope of the present study and examines alternative study methodologies. Next, the selected study methodology is described and important assumptions are listed. The body of the paper then consists of the findings on en route issues. The final section presents findings on relevant research methods and considers priorities for further research.

  6. Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Survey and Research Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Bakar, Kamalrulnizam Abu; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22368490

  7. Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

  8. A multi-objective location routing problem using imperialist competitive algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Golmohammadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most manufacturing units try to locate their requirements and the depot vehicle routing in order to transport the goods at optimum cost. Needless to mention that the locations of the required warehouses influence on the performance of vehicle routing. In this paper, a mathematical programming model to optimize the storage location and vehicle routing are presented. The first objective function of the model minimizes the total cost associated with the transportation and storage, and the second objective function minimizes the difference distance traveled by vehicles. The study uses Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA to solve the resulted problems in different sizes. The preliminary results have indicated that the proposed study has performed better than NSGA-II and PAES methods in terms of Quality metric and Spacing metric.

  9. Multiple criteria facility location problems: A survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; SteadieSeifi, Maryam; Asgari, Nasrin

    2010-01-01

    .... There are many decision making problems whose information is spatial (geographical). These kinds of decisions are called location decisions. Location decisions are now a major part of operations research and management science (named location science). Facility location, location science and location models are terms that can be used instead. Facility lo...

  10. Exact route-length formulas and a storage location assignment heuristic for picker-to-parts warehouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arjan; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2017-01-01

    Order picking is one of the most time-critical processes in warehouses. We focus on the combined effects of routing methods and storage location assignment on process performance. We present exact formulas for the average route length under any storage location assignment for four common routing

  11. A Comprehensive Survey on Hierarchical-Based Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Review, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs. Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

  12. 1999 Breeding Bird Survey Route Paths for the Lower 48 States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays a 1999 snapshot of the approximate route paths of active Breeding Bird Survey routes in the lower 48 States. The paths are a visual...

  13. North Mississippi Refuges Complex Raptor Survey Routes and Procedure

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains maps and location information for raptor survey points and procedures to conduct on Dahomey, Coldwater River, and Tallahatchie NWR.

  14. A Mathematical Model for the Industrial Hazardous Waste Location-Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Boyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology progress is a cause of industrial hazardous wastes increasing in the whole world . Management of hazardous waste is a significant issue due to the imposed risk on environment and human life. This risk can be a result of location of undesirable facilities and also routing hazardous waste. In this paper a biobjective mixed integer programing model for location-routing industrial hazardous waste with two objectives is developed. First objective is total cost minimization including transportation cost, operation cost, initial investment cost, and cost saving from selling recycled waste. Second objective is minimization of transportation risk. Risk of population exposure within bandwidth along route is used to measure transportation risk. This model can help decision makers to locate treatment, recycling, and disposal centers simultaneously and also to route waste between these facilities considering risk and cost criteria. The results of the solved problem prove conflict between two objectives. Hence, it is possible to decrease the cost value by marginally increasing the transportation risk value and vice versa. A weighted sum method is utilized to combine two objectives function into one objective function. To solve the problem GAMS software with CPLEX solver is used. The problem is applied in Markazi province in Iran.

  15. Routing in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Tiab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, industrial wireless sensor networks have attracted more attention, due to their large benefits in terms of faster installation, cost savings, and flexibility. Nevertheless, the acceptance of wireless sensor networks by the industrial community is not without its difficulties. In fact, several research efforts have been made in this field and a number of state-of-the-art reviews exist, presenting the current standards, the challenges, and the design principles. However, a comprehensive review on routing protocols appears to be missing. In this paper, we give a survey on routing protocols for industrial monitoring applications of the wireless sensor networks technology, and we present their limitations and weaknesses according to the industrial requirements.

  16. All-Direction Random Routing for Source-Location Privacy Protecting against Parasitic Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Zeng, Jiwen

    2017-03-17

    Wireless sensor networks are deployed to monitor the surrounding physical environments and they also act as the physical environments of parasitic sensor networks, whose purpose is analyzing the contextual privacy and obtaining valuable information from the original wireless sensor networks. Recently, contextual privacy issues associated with wireless communication in open spaces have not been thoroughly addressed and one of the most important challenges is protecting the source locations of the valuable packages. In this paper, we design an all-direction random routing algorithm (ARR) for source-location protecting against parasitic sensor networks. For each package, the routing process of ARR is divided into three stages, i.e., selecting a proper agent node, delivering the package to the agent node from the source node, and sending it to the final destination from the agent node. In ARR, the agent nodes are randomly chosen in all directions by the source nodes using only local decisions, rather than knowing the whole topology of the networks. ARR can control the distributions of the routing paths in a very flexible way and it can guarantee that the routing paths with the same source and destination are totally different from each other. Therefore, it is extremely difficult for the parasitic sensor nodes to trace the packages back to the source nodes. Simulation results illustrate that ARR perfectly confuses the parasitic nodes and obviously outperforms traditional routing-based schemes in protecting source-location privacy, with a marginal increase in the communication overhead and energy consumption. In addition, ARR also requires much less energy than the cloud-based source-location privacy protection schemes.

  17. A Survey of the Routing and Wavelength Assignment Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    When transmitting data in an all-optical network, data connections must be established in such a way that two or more connections never share a wavelength on the same fi ber. The NP-hard Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem consists of finding paths and wavelengths for a set of data co...... connections. This survey introduces the RWA and gives an overview of heuristic, metaheuristic and exact solution methods from the literature. Running times for the heuristic methods are presented and computational results are discussed....

  18. Green open location-routing problem considering economic and environmental costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Toro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new bi-objective vehicle routing problem that integrates the Open Location Routing Problem (OLRP, recently presented in the literature, coupled with the growing need for fuel consumption minimization, named Green OLRP (G-OLRP. Open routing problems (ORP are known to be NP-hard problems, in which vehicles start from the set of existing depots and are not required to return to the starting depot after completing their service. The OLRP is a strategic-level problem involving the selection of one or many depots from a set of candidate locations and the planning of delivery radial routes from the selected depots to a set of customers. The concept of radial paths allows us to use a set of constraints focused on maintaining the radiality condition of the paths, which significantly simplifies the set of constraints associated with the connectivity and capacity requirements and provides a suitable alternative when compared with the elimination problem of sub-tours traditionally addressed in the literature. The emphasis in the paper will be placed on modeling rather than solution methods. The model proposed is formulated as a bi-objective problem, considering the minimization of operational costs and the minimization of environmental effects, and it is solved by using the epsilon constraint technique. The results illustrate that the proposed model is able to generate a set of trade-off solutions leading to interesting conclusions about the relationship between operational costs and environmental impact.

  19. Multiple Charging Station Location-Routing Problem with Time Window of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-ying

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the electric vehicle (EV multiple charging station location-routing problem with time window to optimize the routing plan of capacitated EVs and the strategy of charging stations. In particular, the strategy of charging stations includes both infrastructure-type selection and station location decisions. The problem accounts for two critical constraints in logistic practice: the vehicle loading capacity and the customer time windows. A hybrid heuristic that incorporates an adaptive variable neighborhood search (AVNS with the tabu search algorithm for intensification was developed to address the problem. The specialized neighborhood structures and the selection methods of charging station used in the shaking step of AVNS were proposed. In contrast to the commercial solver CPLEX, experimental results on small-scale test instances demonstrate that the algorithm can find nearly optimal solutions on small-scale instances. The results on large-scale instances also show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  20. Location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and optimum allocation of emergency resources are the most important tasks, which need to be accomplished during crisis. When a natural disaster such as earthquake, flood, etc. takes place, it is necessary to deliver rescue efforts as quickly as possible. Therefore, it is important to find optimum location and distribution of emergency relief resources. When a natural disaster occurs, it is not possible to reach some damaged areas. In this paper, location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling is investigated. In this study, there is no need to visit all the places and some demand points receive their needs from the nearest possible location. The proposed study is implemented for some randomly generated numbers in different sizes. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed method was capable of reaching desirable solutions in reasonable amount of time.

  1. A survey of routing protocols in wireless body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Khan, Abdul Waheed

    2014-01-13

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses.

  2. A mathematical model for the municipal solid waste location-routing problem with intermediate transfer stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Asefi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management is one of the challenging issues in mega cities due to various interrelated factors such as operational costs and environmental concerns. Cost as one of the most significant constraints of municipal solid waste management can be effectively economized by efficient planning approaches. Considering diverse waste types in an integrated municipal solid waste system, a mathematical model of the location-routing problem is formulated and solved in this study in order to minimize the total cost of transportation and facility establishment.

  3. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  4. Anonymity Preserving Routing In Location Privacy Schemes In Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Regin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy measures need to be developed to prevent the opponent from determining the physical locations of source sensors and sinks. An opponent can easily intercept network traffic due to the use of a broadcast medium for routing packets and get detailed information such as packet transmission time and frequency to perform traffic analysis and infer the locations of monitored objects and data sinks. On the other hand, sensors usually have limited processing speed and energy supplies. It is very expensive to apply traditional anonymous communication techniques for hiding the communication between sensor nodes and sinks. The existing source-location privacy protects the location of monitored objects to increase the number of messages sent by the source before the object is located by the attacker. The flooding technique has the source node send each packet through numerous paths to a sink making it difficult for an opponent to trace the source. The locations of sinks can be protected from a local eavesdropper by hashing the ID field in the packet header. But opponent can track sinks by carrying out time correlation and rate monitoring attacks. Besides protection some source nodes are transferring relatively large amounts of data in existing system. As a result, these nodes run out of battery faster due to improper position of nodes and sinks. Thus in the proposed system the sinks should be located as optimally as possible to reduce traffic flow and energy consumption for sensor nodes. Hence Sink placement problem is resolved for minimizing the delay as well as maximizing the lifetime of a WSN. Thus proposed system is efficient in terms of overhead and functionality when compared to existing system.

  5. The Design of a Sustainable Location-Routing-Inventory Model Considering Consumer Environmental Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhuan Tang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to design a sustainable supply chain (SSC network, which takes into consideration consumer environmental behaviors (CEBs. CEBs not only affect consumers’ demand for products with low carbon emissions, they also affect their willingness to pay premium prices for products with low carbon emissions. We incorporate CEBs into the SSC network model involving location, routing and inventory. Firstly, a multi-objective optimization model comprised of both the costs and the carbon emissions of a joint location-routing-inventory model is proposed and solved, using a multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO algorithm. Then, a revenue function including CEBs is presented on the basis of a Pareto set of the trade-off between costs and carbon emissions. A computational experiment and sensitivity analysis are conducted, employing data from the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC. The results clearly indicate that our research can be applied to actual supply chain operations. In addition, some practical managerial insights for enterprises are offered.

  6. Fault Location Based on Synchronized Measurements: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Al-Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive survey on transmission and distribution fault location algorithms that utilize synchronized measurements. Algorithms based on two-end synchronized measurements and fault location algorithms on three-terminal and multiterminal lines are reviewed. Series capacitors equipped with metal oxide varistors (MOVs, when set on a transmission line, create certain problems for line fault locators and, therefore, fault location on series-compensated lines is discussed. The paper reports the work carried out on adaptive fault location algorithms aiming at achieving better fault location accuracy. Work associated with fault location on power system networks, although limited, is also summarized. Additionally, the nonstandard high-frequency-related fault location techniques based on wavelet transform are discussed. Finally, the paper highlights the area for future research.

  7. A heuristic algorithm for a multi-product four-layer capacitated location-routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to solve a complex multi-product four-layer capacitated location-routing problem (LRP in which two specific constraints are taken into account: 1 plants have limited production capacity, and 2 central depots have limited capacity for storing and transshipping products. The LRP represents a multi-product four-layer distribution network that consists of plants, central depots, regional depots, and customers. A heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the four-layer LRP. The heuristic uses GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure and two probabilistic tabu search strategies of intensification and diversification to tackle the problem. Results show that the heuristic solves the problem effectively.

  8. A Critical Review of Surveys Emphasizing on Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks-An Anatomization under General Survey Design Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, Waqas; Fischer, Stefan; Rehan, Maaz

    2017-07-26

    A large number of routing-related surveys are published so far for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that exhibit either complete or partial emphasis on routing in WSNs. These surveys classify and discuss the relevant routing protocols published mainly in the fields of classical, energy efficient, secure, hierarchical, geographic, intelligent, Quality of Service (QoS)-based and multipath WSNs. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study is presented so far which may clearly categorize the routing-related survey literature for WSNs.To fill this gap, an effort is made in this paper for presenting an in-depth review of already published routing-related survey literature in WSNs. Our review initially proposes a generalized survey design model and afterwards analyzes the routing-related survey literature in the light of the devised General Survey Design Framework (GSDF). Such an analysis describes the design soundness of the published routing-related surveys. Therefore, our review puts forth an original classification based on the frequency-of-survey-publication and taxonomizes the corresponding routing-related fields into high, medium and low focused areas of survey publication in WSNs. Furthermore, the surveys belonging to each main category are sub-categorized into various sub-classes and briefly discussed according to their design characteristics. On the one hand, this review is useful for beginners who may easily explore the already published routing-related survey literature in WSNs in a single document and investigate it by spending less effort. On the other hand, it is useful for expert researchers who may explore the trends and frequency of writing surveys in different areas of routing in WSNs. The experts may explore those areas of routing which are either neglected or least focused or lack in design soundness as per general survey design framework. In the end, insights and future research directions are outlined and a reasonable conclusion is put forth

  9. A Critical Review of Surveys Emphasizing on Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks—An Anatomization under General Survey Design Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Rehan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A large number of routing-related surveys are published so far for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs that exhibit either complete or partial emphasis on routing in WSNs. These surveys classify and discuss the relevant routing protocols published mainly in the fields of classical, energy efficient, secure, hierarchical, geographic, intelligent, Quality of Service (QoS-based and multipath WSNs. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study is presented so far which may clearly categorize the routing-related survey literature for WSNs.To fill this gap, an effort is made in this paper for presenting an in-depth review of already published routing-related survey literature in WSNs. Our review initially proposes a generalized survey design model and afterwards analyzes the routing-related survey literature in the light of the devised General Survey Design Framework (GSDF. Such an analysis describes the design soundness of the published routing-related surveys. Therefore, our review puts forth an original classification based on the frequency-of-survey-publication and taxonomizes the corresponding routing-related fields into high, medium and low focused areas of survey publication in WSNs. Furthermore, the surveys belonging to each main category are sub-categorized into various sub-classes and briefly discussed according to their design characteristics. On the one hand, this review is useful for beginners who may easily explore the already published routing-related survey literature in WSNs in a single document and investigate it by spending less effort. On the other hand, it is useful for expert researchers who may explore the trends and frequency of writing surveys in different areas of routing in WSNs. The experts may explore those areas of routing which are either neglected or least focused or lack in design soundness as per general survey design framework. In the end, insights and future research directions are outlined and a reasonable conclusion

  10. A Critical Review of Surveys Emphasizing on Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks—An Anatomization under General Survey Design Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A large number of routing-related surveys are published so far for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that exhibit either complete or partial emphasis on routing in WSNs. These surveys classify and discuss the relevant routing protocols published mainly in the fields of classical, energy efficient, secure, hierarchical, geographic, intelligent, Quality of Service (QoS)-based and multipath WSNs. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study is presented so far which may clearly categorize the routing-related survey literature for WSNs.To fill this gap, an effort is made in this paper for presenting an in-depth review of already published routing-related survey literature in WSNs. Our review initially proposes a generalized survey design model and afterwards analyzes the routing-related survey literature in the light of the devised General Survey Design Framework (GSDF). Such an analysis describes the design soundness of the published routing-related surveys. Therefore, our review puts forth an original classification based on the frequency-of-survey-publication and taxonomizes the corresponding routing-related fields into high, medium and low focused areas of survey publication in WSNs. Furthermore, the surveys belonging to each main category are sub-categorized into various sub-classes and briefly discussed according to their design characteristics. On the one hand, this review is useful for beginners who may easily explore the already published routing-related survey literature in WSNs in a single document and investigate it by spending less effort. On the other hand, it is useful for expert researchers who may explore the trends and frequency of writing surveys in different areas of routing in WSNs. The experts may explore those areas of routing which are either neglected or least focused or lack in design soundness as per general survey design framework. In the end, insights and future research directions are outlined and a reasonable conclusion is put forth

  11. A Survey on Position-Based Routing Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ya-Ping

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN have attracted much attention in recent years for its unique characteristics and wide use in many different applications. Routing protocol is one of key technologies in WSN. In this paper, the position-based routing protocols are surveyed and classified into four categories: flooding-based, curve-based, grid-based and ant algorithm-based intelligent. To each category, the main contribution of related routing protocols is shown including the relationship among the routing protocols. The different routing algorithms in the same category and the different categories are compared based on popular metrics. Moreover, some open research directions in WSN are also discussed.

  12. Routing and Scheduling Algorithms for WirelessHARTNetworks: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Marcelo; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2015-04-24

    Wireless communication is a trend nowadays for the industrial environment. A number of different technologies have emerged as solutions satisfying strict industrial requirements (e.g., WirelessHART, ISA100.11a, WIA-PA). As the industrial environment presents a vast range of applications, adopting an adequate solution for each case is vital to obtain good performance of the system. In this context, the routing and scheduling schemes associated with these technologies have a direct impact on important features, like latency and energy consumption. This situation has led to the development of a vast number of routing and scheduling schemes. In the present paper, we focus on the WirelessHART technology, emphasizing its most important routing and scheduling aspects in order to guide both end users and the developers of new algorithms. Furthermore, we provide a detailed literature review of the newest routing and scheduling techniques forWirelessHART, discussing each of their features. These routing algorithms have been evaluated in terms of their objectives, metrics, the usage of theWirelessHART structures and validation method. In addition, the scheduling algorithms were also evaluated by metrics, validation, objectives and, in addition, by multiple superframe support, as well as by the redundancy method used. Moreover, this paper briefly presents some insights into the main WirelessHART simulation modules available, in order to provide viable test platforms for the routing and scheduling algorithms. Finally, some open issues in WirelessHART routing and scheduling algorithms are discussed.

  13. Optimization of Location-Routing Problem for Cold Chain Logistics Considering Carbon Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songyi; Tao, Fengming; Shi, Yuhe

    2018-01-06

    In order to solve the optimization problem of logistics distribution system for fresh food, this paper provides a low-carbon and environmental protection point of view, based on the characteristics of perishable products, and combines with the overall optimization idea of cold chain logistics distribution network, where the green and low-carbon location-routing problem (LRP) model in cold chain logistics is developed with the minimum total costs as the objective function, which includes carbon emission costs. A hybrid genetic algorithm with heuristic rules is designed to solve the model, and an example is used to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. Furthermore, the simulation results obtained by a practical numerical example show the applicability of the model while provide green and environmentally friendly location-distribution schemes for the cold chain logistics enterprise. Finally, carbon tax policies are introduced to analyze the impact of carbon tax on the total costs and carbon emissions, which proves that carbon tax policy can effectively reduce carbon dioxide emissions in cold chain logistics network.

  14. Herpetofauna Inventory Survey Routes for 2001 Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona(pisp_herp01)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile maps the survey routes of the Herp 2001 Inventory crews for Pipe Springs National Monument. The other parks visited were Bryce Canyon, Capitol Reef,...

  15. Herpetofauna Inventory Survey Routes for 2002 Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_herp02)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile maps the survey routes of the Herp 2002 Inventory crews for Pipe Spring National Monument. The other parks visited were Arches, Bryce Canyon, Capitol...

  16. Solving a multi-objective location routing problem for infectious waste disposal using hybrid goal programming and hybrid genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narong Wichapa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious waste disposal remains one of the most serious problems in the medical, social and environmental domains of almost every country. Selection of new suitable locations and finding the optimal set of transport routes for a fleet of vehicles to transport infectious waste material, location routing problem for infectious waste disposal, is one of the major problems in hazardous waste management. Determining locations for infectious waste disposal is a difficult and complex process, because it requires combining both intangible and tangible factors. Additionally, it depends on several criteria and various regulations. This facility location problem for infectious waste disposal is complicated, and it cannot be addressed using any stand-alone technique. Based on a case study, 107 hospitals and 6 candidate municipalities in Upper-Northeastern Thailand, we considered criteria such as infrastructure, geology and social & environmental criteria, evaluating global priority weights using the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (Fuzzy AHP. After that, a new multi-objective facility location problem model which hybridizes fuzzy AHP and goal programming (GP, namely the HGP model, was tested. Finally, the vehicle routing problem (VRP for a case study was formulated, and it was tested using a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA which hybridizes the push forward insertion heuristic (PFIH, genetic algorithm (GA and three local searches including 2-opt, insertion-move and interexchange-move. The results show that both the HGP and HGA can lead to select new suitable locations and to find the optimal set of transport routes for vehicles delivering infectious waste material. The novelty of the proposed methodologies, HGP, is the simultaneous combination of relevant factors that are difficult to interpret and cost factors in order to determine new suitable locations, and HGA can be applied to determine the transport routes which provide a minimum number of vehicles

  17. Heat Retreat Locations in Cities – The Survey-Based Location Analysis of Heat Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neht, Alice; Maximini, Claudia; Prenger-Berninghoff, Kathrin

    2017-12-01

    The adaptation of cities to climate change effects is one of the major strategies in urban planning to encounter the challenges of climate change (IPCC 2014). One of the fields of climate change adaption is dealing with heat events that occur more frequently and with greater intensity. Cities in particular are vulnerable to these events due to high population and infrastructure density. Proceeding urbanization calls for the existence of sufficient heat retreat locations (HRL) to enable relief for the population from heat in summer. This is why an extensive analysis of HRL is needed. This paper aims at the development of a survey-based location analysis of heat relief by identifying user groups, locations and characteristics of HRL based on a home survey that was conducted in three German cities. Key results of the study show that the majority of the participants of the survey are users of existing HRL, are affected by heat, and perceive heat as a burden in summer. Moreover, HRL that are located in close proximity are preferred by most users while their effect depends on the regional context that has to be considered in the analysis. Hence, this research presents an approach to heat relief that underlines the importance of HRL in cities by referring to selected examples of HRL types in densely populated areas of cities. HRL should especially be established and secured in densely built-up areas of cities. According to results of the survey, most HRL are located in public spaces, and the overall accessibility of HRL turned out to be an issue.

  18. A survey on temperature-aware routing protocols in wireless body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, Christian Henry Wijaya; Moh, Sangman

    2013-08-02

    The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node's circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  19. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  20. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  1. Visual Perception by Drivers of the Advertisements Located at Selected Major Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichajło, Lesław

    2017-10-01

    This article characterizes the research based on the analysis of the eye fixation points on the advertisements. The research has been realized in real road and traffic conditions. The group of 12 drivers was equipped with the glasses occulometric measurement system mounted on the driver’s head. The participants were driving their private cars. The analysis was concentrated on the fixations on the advertisement tables located along the selected national roads in Rzeszów area (Poland). For better recognition if the advertisements have distracted the drivers the number of fixations on the advertisements has been compared with the fixations on the road signs. The active drivers have observed many visual attractors like advertisements, road signs and cars being ahead and on another lane. Passive drivers have low number of fixations on road signs and advertisements. Their fixations typically have been localized on survey and they probably used the peripheral vision in order to recognition of road sign shapes. The results show, that: the percentage of fixations on the advertisement and road signs is different for each participants; the highest percentage of fixated advertisements was on the section with small number of advertisements, but in the city area, when a group of advertisements was on the road, the participants selected some of them, yet no participant fixated all advertisements localized in a small distance between them; the single advertisement visible from the long distance strongly attracts the visual perception; the percentage of the fixated advertisements was higher than road signs.

  2. Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Based on Hybrid Route Planning and Location Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Kari Rye; Grønbæk, Kaj; Scharling, Tejs

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces methods and services called PerPosNav for development of custom indoor pedestrian navigation applications to be deployed on a variety of platforms. PerPosNav combines symbolic and geometry based modeling of buildings, and in turn combines graph-based and geometric route...

  3. A node-disjoint multi-path routing protocol based on location ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Meghanathan / International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2010, pp. 66-80. 70 the destination node. The LUVs are stored in the LUV-Database maintained for the latest broadcast route discovery procedure initiated by the source. The destination runs a local path selection heuristic to extract ...

  4. A Novel Power Efficient Location-Based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-Upper-Limit for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate. PMID:23676625

  5. Incorporating location, routing, and inventory decisions in a bi-objective supply chain design problem with risk-pooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza; Forouzanfar, Fateme; Ebrahimnejad, Sadoullah

    2013-07-01

    This paper considers a single-sourcing network design problem for a three-level supply chain. For the first time, a novel mathematical model is presented considering risk-pooling, the inventory existence at distribution centers (DCs) under demand uncertainty, the existence of several alternatives to transport the product between facilities, and routing of vehicles from distribution centers to customer in a stochastic supply chain system, simultaneously. This problem is formulated as a bi-objective stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear programming model. The aim of this model is to determine the number of located distribution centers, their locations, and capacity levels, and allocating customers to distribution centers and distribution centers to suppliers. It also determines the inventory control decisions on the amount of ordered products and the amount of safety stocks at each opened DC, selecting a type of vehicle for transportation. Moreover, it determines routing decisions, such as determination of vehicles' routes starting from an opened distribution center to serve its allocated customers and returning to that distribution center. All are done in a way that the total system cost and the total transportation time are minimized. The Lingo software is used to solve the presented model. The computational results are illustrated in this paper.

  6. Bus Stops Location and Bus Route Planning Using Mean Shift Clustering and Ant Colony in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supangat, Kenny; Eko Soelistio, Yustinus

    2017-03-01

    Traffic Jam has been a daily problem for people in Jakarta which is one of the busiest city in Indonesia up until now. Even though the official government has tried to reduce the impact of traffic issues by developing a new public transportation which takes up a lot of resources and time, it failed to diminish the problem. The actual concern to this problem actually lies in how people move between places in Jakarta where they always using their own vehicle like cars, and motorcycles that fill most of the street in Jakarta. Among much other public transportations that roams the street of Jakarta, Buses is believed to be an efficient transportation that can move many people at once. However, the location of the bus stop is now have moved to the middle of the main road, and its too far for the nearby residence to access to it. This paper proposes an optimal location of optimal bus stops in West Jakarta that is experimentally proven to have a maximal distance of 350 m. The optimal location is estimated by means of mean shift clustering method while the optimal routes are calculated using Ant Colony algorithm. The bus stops locations rate of error is 0.07% with overall route area of 32 km. Based on our experiments, we believe our proposed bus stop plan can be an interesting alternative to reduce traffic congestion in West Jakarta.

  7. An Improved Multi-Objective Programming with Augmented ε-Constraint Method for Hazardous Waste Location-Routing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous waste location-routing problems are of importance due to the potential risk for nearby residents and the environment. In this paper, an improved mathematical formulation is developed based upon a multi-objective mixed integer programming approach. The model aims at assisting decision makers in selecting locations for different facilities including treatment plants, recycling plants and disposal sites, providing appropriate technologies for hazardous waste treatment, and routing transportation. In the model, two critical factors are taken into account: system operating costs and risk imposed on local residents, and a compensation factor is introduced to the risk objective function in order to account for the fact that the risk level imposed by one type of hazardous waste or treatment technology may significantly vary from that of other types. Besides, the policy instruments for promoting waste recycling are considered, and their influence on the costs and risk of hazardous waste management is also discussed. The model is coded and calculated in Lingo optimization solver, and the augmented ε-constraint method is employed to generate the Pareto optimal curve of the multi-objective optimization problem. The trade-off between different objectives is illustrated in the numerical experiment.

  8. Combining Facility Location and Routing Decisions in Sustainable Urban Freight Distribution under Horizontal Collaboration: How Can Shippers Be Benefited?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Ouhader

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the potential economic, environmental, and social effects of combining depot location and vehicle routing decisions in urban road freight transportation under horizontal collaboration. We consider a city in which several suppliers decide to joint deliveries to their customers and goods are delivered via intermediate depots. We study a transportation optimization problem from the perspective of sustainability development. This quantitative approach is based on three-objective mathematical model for strategic, tactical, and operational decision-making as a two-echelon location routing problem (2E-LRP. The objectives are to minimize cost and CO2 emissions of the transportation and maximize the created job opportunities. The model was solved with the ε-constraint method using extended known instances reflecting the real distribution in urban area to evaluate several goods’ delivery strategies. The obtained results by comparing collaborative and noncollaborative scenarios show that collaboration leads to a reduction in CO2 emissions, transportation cost, used vehicles, and travelled distances in addition to the improvement of the vehicles load rate but collaboration affects negatively social impact. To evaluate the effect of the method used to allocate the total gains to the different partners, we suggest to decision makers a comparison between well-known allocation methods.

  9. An Airlift Hub-and-Spoke Location-Routing Model with Time Windows: Case Study of the CONUS-to-Korea Airlift Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, David

    1998-01-01

    .... This study develops an alternative hub-and-spoke combined location-routing integer linear programming prototype model, and uses this model to determine what advantages a hub-and-spoke system offers...

  10. A novel approach to find and optimize bin locations and collection routes using a geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Seyed Mohammad Hassan; Danesh, Shahnaz; Karrabi, Seyed Mohsen; Shad, Rouzbeh

    2017-07-01

    One of the major challenges in big cities is planning and implementation of an optimized, integrated solid waste management system. This optimization is crucial if environmental problems are to be prevented and the expenses to be reduced. A solid waste management system consists of many stages including collection, transfer and disposal. In this research, an integrated model was proposed and used to optimize two functional elements of municipal solid waste management (storage and collection systems) in the Ahmadabad neighbourhood located in the City of Mashhad - Iran. The integrated model was performed by modelling and solving the location allocation problem and capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) through Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The results showed that the current collection system is not efficient owing to its incompatibility with the existing urban structure and population distribution. Application of the proposed model could significantly improve the storage and collection system. Based on the results of minimizing facilities analyses, scenarios with 100, 150 and 180 m walking distance were considered to find optimal bin locations for Alamdasht, C-metri and Koohsangi. The total number of daily collection tours was reduced to seven as compared to the eight tours carried out in the current system (12.50% reduction). In addition, the total number of required crews was minimized and reduced by 41.70% (24 crews in the current collection system vs 14 in the system provided by the model). The total collection vehicle routing was also optimized such that the total travelled distances during night and day working shifts was cut back by 53%.

  11. Improvement Schemes for Indoor Mobile Location Estimation: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianga Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Location estimation is significant in mobile and ubiquitous computing systems. The complexity and smaller scale of the indoor environment impose a great impact on location estimation. The key of location estimation lies in the representation and fusion of uncertain information from multiple sources. The improvement of location estimation is a complicated and comprehensive issue. A lot of research has been done to address this issue. However, existing research typically focuses on certain aspects of the problem and specific methods. This paper reviews mainstream schemes on improving indoor location estimation from multiple levels and perspectives by combining existing works and our own working experiences. Initially, we analyze the error sources of common indoor localization techniques and provide a multilayered conceptual framework of improvement schemes for location estimation. This is followed by a discussion of probabilistic methods for location estimation, including Bayes filters, Kalman filters, extended Kalman filters, sigma-point Kalman filters, particle filters, and hidden Markov models. Then, we investigate the hybrid localization methods, including multimodal fingerprinting, triangulation fusing multiple measurements, combination of wireless positioning with pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR, and cooperative localization. Next, we focus on the location determination approaches that fuse spatial contexts, namely, map matching, landmark fusion, and spatial model-aided methods. Finally, we present the directions for future research.

  12. Routing in IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 6LoWPANs (IPv6-based Low-Power Personal Area Networks are formulated by devices that are compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. To moderate the effects of network mobility, the Internet Protocol (IP does not calculate routes; it is left to a routing protocol, which maintains routing tables in the routers. 6LowPAN uses an adaptation layer between the network (IPv6 and data link layer (IEEE802.15.4 MAC to fragment and reassemble IPv6 packets. The routing in 6LoWPAN is primarily divided on the basis of routing decision taken on adaptation or network layer. The objective of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art survey of existing routing protocols: LOAD, M-LOAD, DYMO-Low, Hi-Low, Extended Hi-Low, and S-AODV. These routing protocols have compared on the basis of different metric like energy consumption, memory uses, mobility, scalability, routing delay, an RERR message, a Hello message, and local repair. We have also presented the taxonomy of routing requirement; parameter for evaluating routing algorithm, and it was found that the routing protocol has its own advantages depending upon the application where it is used.

  13. National Geochemical Survey Locations and Results for Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with other state and federal agencies, industry, and academia, is conducting a National Geochemical...

  14. Settlement patterns and communication routes of the western Maya wetlands: An archaeological and remote-sensing survey, Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, David R.

    This dissertation investigates the role of the seasonal wetlands in the political economy and subsistence strategies of the ancient Maya of Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico. A combination of pedestrian surveys and remote-sensing tasks were performed in order to better understand the settlement patterns and potential communication routes in and through the wetlands between Chunchucmil and the Gulf of Mexico. These western wetlands had been proposed as the principal avenue for interregional trade between coastal merchants and inland consumers, yet were thought to be uninhabited and uncultivable. Following the survey tasks outlined in this dissertation, these wetlands were found to contain an abundance of archaeological settlements and features indicating habitation, utilization, and trade throughout this diverse ecological zone. The remote-sensing platforms utilized in this study include both multispectral (Landsat) and synthetic aperture radar (AirSAR), combined with additional remotely sensed resources. One of the goals of this survey was to test the capabilities of these two sensors for the direct detection of archaeological features from air and space. The results indicate that Landsat can be highly successful at detecting site location and measuring site size under certain environmental conditions. The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar proved to be adept at detecting large mounded architecture within the Yucatecan karstic plain, but its further utility is hampered by limitations of resolution, scale, and land cover. One of the salient features of the landscape west of Chunchucmil is a network of stone pathways called andadores. These avenues through the wetlands outline a dendritic network of communication, trade, and extraction routes. The following dissertation places this network and its associated settlements (from suburban centers to diminutive camps) within their regional context, examining the roles they may have played in supporting a large mercantile

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  16. Location-Routing Problem with Simultaneous Home Delivery and Customer’s Pickup for City Distribution of Online Shopping Purchases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in online shopping, the Last Mile delivery is regarded as one of the most expensive and pollutive—and yet the least efficient—stages of the e-commerce supply chain. To address this challenge, a novel location-routing problem with simultaneous home delivery and customer’s pickup is proposed. This problem aims to build a more effective Last Mile distribution system by providing two kinds of service options when delivering packages to customers. To solve this specific problem, a hybrid evolution search algorithm by combining genetic algorithm (GA and local search (LS is presented. In this approach, a diverse population generation algorithm along with a two-phase solution initialization heuristic is first proposed to give high quality initial population. Then, advantaged solution representation, individual evaluation, crossover and mutation operations are designed to enhance the evolution and search efficiency. Computational experiments based on a large family of instances are conducted, and the results obtained indicate the validity of the proposed model and method.

  17. Incorporating location, routing, and inventory decisions in a bi-objective supply chain design problem with risk-pooling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza; Forouzanfar, Fateme; Ebrahimnejad, Sadoullah

    2013-01-01

    ...) under demand uncertainty, the existence of several alternatives to transport the product between facilities, and routing of vehicles from distribution centers to customer in a stochastic supply chain...

  18. A Pseudo-Parallel Genetic Algorithm Integrating Simulated Annealing for Stochastic Location-Inventory-Routing Problem with Consideration of Returns in E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Bailing Liu; De Hui Chen; Yanhui Li; Xiang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Facility location, inventory control, and vehicle routes scheduling are three key issues to be settled in the design of logistics system for e-commerce. Due to the online shopping features of e-commerce, customer returns are becoming much more than traditional commerce. This paper studies a three-phase supply chain distribution system consisting of one supplier, a set of retailers, and a single type of product with continuous review (Q, r) inventory policy. We formulate a stochastic location-...

  19. A Survey of Routing Issues and Associated Protocols in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless sensor networks are a newly emerging wireless technology in which small size sensors with limited energy and limited memory and bandwidth are deployed in deep sea water and various monitoring operations like tactical surveillance, environmental monitoring, and data collection are performed through these tiny sensors. Underwater wireless sensor networks are used for the exploration of underwater resources, oceanographic data collection, flood or disaster prevention, tactical surveillance systems, and unmanned underwater vehicles. Sensor nodes consist of a small memory, a central processing unit, and an antenna. Underwater networks are much different from terrestrial sensor networks as radio waves cannot be used in underwater wireless sensor networks. Acoustic channels are used for communication in deep sea water. Acoustic signals have many limitations, such as limited bandwidth, higher end-to-end delay, network path loss, higher propagation delay, and dynamic topology. Usually, these limitations result in higher energy consumption with a smaller number of packets delivered. The main aim nowadays is to operate sensor nodes having a smaller battery for a longer time in the network. This survey has discussed the state-of-the-art localization based and localization-free routing protocols. Routing associated issues in the area of underwater wireless sensor networks have also been discussed.

  20. A Survey on an Energy-Efficient and Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundile, Olayinka O; Alfa, Attahiru S

    2017-05-10

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form an important part of industrial application. There has been growing interest in the potential use of WSNs in applications such as environment monitoring, disaster management, health care monitoring, intelligence surveillance and defence reconnaissance. In these applications, the sensor nodes (SNs) are envisaged to be deployed in sizeable numbers in an outlying area, and it is quite difficult to replace these SNs after complete deployment in many scenarios. Therefore, as SNs are predominantly battery powered devices, the energy consumption of the nodes must be properly managed in order to prolong the network lifetime and functionality to a rational time. Different energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols have been proposed in literature over the years. The energy-efficient routing protocols strive to increase the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption in each SN. On the other hand, the energy-balanced routing protocols protract the network lifetime by uniformly balancing the energy consumption among the nodes in the network. There have been various survey papers put forward by researchers to review the performance and classify the different energy-efficient routing protocols for WSNs. However, there seems to be no clear survey emphasizing the importance, concepts, and principles of load-balanced energy routing protocols for WSNs. In this paper, we provide a clear picture of both the energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols for WSNs. More importantly, this paper presents an extensive survey of the different state-of-the-art energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols. A taxonomy is introduced in this paper to classify the surveyed energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols based on their proposed mode of communication towards the base station (BS). In addition, we classified these routing protocols based on the solution types or algorithms, and the input decision

  1. A Survey on an Energy-Efficient and Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundile, Olayinka O.; Alfa, Attahiru S.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form an important part of industrial application. There has been growing interest in the potential use of WSNs in applications such as environment monitoring, disaster management, health care monitoring, intelligence surveillance and defence reconnaissance. In these applications, the sensor nodes (SNs) are envisaged to be deployed in sizeable numbers in an outlying area, and it is quite difficult to replace these SNs after complete deployment in many scenarios. Therefore, as SNs are predominantly battery powered devices, the energy consumption of the nodes must be properly managed in order to prolong the network lifetime and functionality to a rational time. Different energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols have been proposed in literature over the years. The energy-efficient routing protocols strive to increase the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption in each SN. On the other hand, the energy-balanced routing protocols protract the network lifetime by uniformly balancing the energy consumption among the nodes in the network. There have been various survey papers put forward by researchers to review the performance and classify the different energy-efficient routing protocols for WSNs. However, there seems to be no clear survey emphasizing the importance, concepts, and principles of load-balanced energy routing protocols for WSNs. In this paper, we provide a clear picture of both the energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols for WSNs. More importantly, this paper presents an extensive survey of the different state-of-the-art energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols. A taxonomy is introduced in this paper to classify the surveyed energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols based on their proposed mode of communication towards the base station (BS). In addition, we classified these routing protocols based on the solution types or algorithms, and the input decision

  2. Location, Location, Location!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  3. Air Mobility Command’s En Route Support Infrastructure: A Construct of Aircraft Type and Geographic Location Utilized to Assess En Route Aircraft Logistic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Support Locations (2000 – 2004)........................................... 99 Table C5 . KC-10 Logistic Support Locations (2000 – 2004...information for the following aircraft descriptions. C-5 Galaxy . The C-5 is one of the largest aircraft in the world and is a critical AMC...airlift asset. The Galaxy is used as a heavy-lift, air refuelable cargo transport for massive strategic airlift over long ranges, including outsize cargo

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Stream Gages located in the Central Valley, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the locations of, and links to USGS gages on the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central...

  5. A model for distribution centers location-routing problem on a multimodal transportation network with a meta-heuristic solving approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazayeli, Saeed; Eydi, Alireza; Kamalabadi, Isa Nakhai

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, organizations have to compete with different competitors in regional, national and international levels, so they have to improve their competition capabilities to survive against competitors. Undertaking activities on a global scale requires a proper distribution system which could take advantages of different transportation modes. Accordingly, the present paper addresses a location-routing problem on multimodal transportation network. The introduced problem follows four objectives simultaneously which form main contribution of the paper; determining multimodal routes between supplier and distribution centers, locating mode changing facilities, locating distribution centers, and determining product delivery tours from the distribution centers to retailers. An integer linear programming is presented for the problem, and a genetic algorithm with a new chromosome structure proposed to solve the problem. Proposed chromosome structure consists of two different parts for multimodal transportation and location-routing parts of the model. Based on published data in the literature, two numerical cases with different sizes generated and solved. Also, different cost scenarios designed to better analyze model and algorithm performance. Results show that algorithm can effectively solve large-size problems within a reasonable time which GAMS software failed to reach an optimal solution even within much longer times.

  6. How to Best Name a Place? Facilitation and Inhibition of Route Learning Due to Descriptive and Arbitrary Location Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilinger, Tobias; Schulte-Pelkum, Jörg; Frankenstein, Julia; Hardiess, Gregor; Laharnar, Naima; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2016-01-01

    Establishing verbal memory traces for non-verbal stimuli was reported to facilitate or inhibit memory for the non-verbal stimuli. We show that these effects are also observed in a domain not indicated before-wayfinding. Fifty-three participants followed a guided route in a virtual environment. They were asked to remember half of the intersections by relying on the visual impression only. At the other 50% of the intersections, participants additionally heard a place name, which they were asked to memorize. For testing, participants were teleported to the intersections and were asked to indicate the subsequent direction of the learned route. In Experiment 1, intersections' names were arbitrary (i.e., not related to the visual impression). Here, participants performed more accurately at unnamed intersections. In Experiment 2, intersections' names were descriptive and participants' route memory was more accurate at named intersections. Results have implications for naming places in a city and for wayfinding aids.

  7. How to best name a place? Facilitation and inhibition of route learning due to descriptive and arbitrary location labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eMeilinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Establishing verbal memory traces for non-verbal stimuli was reported to facilitate or inhibit memory for the non-verbal stimuli. We show that these effects are also observed in a domain not indicated before – wayfinding. Fifty-three participants followed a guided route in a virtual environment. They were asked to remember half of the intersections by relying on the visual impression only. At the other 50% of the intersections, participants additionally heard a place name, which they were asked to memorize. For testing, participants were teleported to the intersections and were asked to indicate the subsequent direction of the learned route. In Experiment 1, intersections’ names were arbitrary (i.e., not related to the visual impression. Here, participants performed more accurately at unnamed intersections. In Experiment 2, intersections’ names were descriptive and participants’ route memory was more accurate at named intersections. Results have implications for naming places in a city and for wayfinding aids.

  8. Using Route and Survey Information to Generate Cognitive Maps : Differences Between Normally Sighted and Visually Impaired Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.; Kooijman, Aart C.

    Visually impaired people (VIP) have to rely on different information to generate a cognitive map of their environment than normally sighted people. This study explored the extent to which a cognitive map could be generated by auditory information of route-type and survey-type descriptions of a

  9. Aggregation and non aggregation techniques for large facility location problems: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Chandra Ade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A facility location problem is concerned with determining the location of some useful facilities in such a way so to fulfil one or a few objective functions and constraints. We survey those problems where, in the presence of a large number of customers, some form of aggregation may be required. In addition, a review on conditional location problems where some (say q facilities already exist in the study area is presented.

  10. A hybrid genetic-simulated annealing algorithm for the location-inventory-routing problem considering returns under e-supply chain environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhui; Guo, Hao; Wang, Lin; Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Facility location, inventory control, and vehicle routes scheduling are critical and highly related problems in the design of logistics system for e-business. Meanwhile, the return ratio in Internet sales was significantly higher than in the traditional business. Many of returned merchandise have no quality defects, which can reenter sales channels just after a simple repackaging process. Focusing on the existing problem in e-commerce logistics system, we formulate a location-inventory-routing problem model with no quality defects returns. To solve this NP-hard problem, an effective hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed. Results of numerical examples show that HGSAA outperforms GA on computing time, optimal solution, and computing stability. The proposed model is very useful to help managers make the right decisions under e-supply chain environment.

  11. A Pseudo-Parallel Genetic Algorithm Integrating Simulated Annealing for Stochastic Location-Inventory-Routing Problem with Consideration of Returns in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facility location, inventory control, and vehicle routes scheduling are three key issues to be settled in the design of logistics system for e-commerce. Due to the online shopping features of e-commerce, customer returns are becoming much more than traditional commerce. This paper studies a three-phase supply chain distribution system consisting of one supplier, a set of retailers, and a single type of product with continuous review (Q, r inventory policy. We formulate a stochastic location-inventory-routing problem (LIRP model with no quality defects returns. To solve the NP-hand problem, a pseudo-parallel genetic algorithm integrating simulated annealing (PPGASA is proposed. The computational results show that PPGASA outperforms GA on optimal solution, computing time, and computing stability.

  12. A Hybrid Genetic-Simulated Annealing Algorithm for the Location-Inventory-Routing Problem Considering Returns under E-Supply Chain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Facility location, inventory control, and vehicle routes scheduling are critical and highly related problems in the design of logistics system for e-business. Meanwhile, the return ratio in Internet sales was significantly higher than in the traditional business. Many of returned merchandise have no quality defects, which can reenter sales channels just after a simple repackaging process. Focusing on the existing problem in e-commerce logistics system, we formulate a location-inventory-routing problem model with no quality defects returns. To solve this NP-hard problem, an effective hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm (HGSAA is proposed. Results of numerical examples show that HGSAA outperforms GA on computing time, optimal solution, and computing stability. The proposed model is very useful to help managers make the right decisions under e-supply chain environment.

  13. A Hybrid Genetic-Simulated Annealing Algorithm for the Location-Inventory-Routing Problem Considering Returns under E-Supply Chain Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Facility location, inventory control, and vehicle routes scheduling are critical and highly related problems in the design of logistics system for e-business. Meanwhile, the return ratio in Internet sales was significantly higher than in the traditional business. Many of returned merchandise have no quality defects, which can reenter sales channels just after a simple repackaging process. Focusing on the existing problem in e-commerce logistics system, we formulate a location-inventory-routing problem model with no quality defects returns. To solve this NP-hard problem, an effective hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed. Results of numerical examples show that HGSAA outperforms GA on computing time, optimal solution, and computing stability. The proposed model is very useful to help managers make the right decisions under e-supply chain environment. PMID:24489489

  14. Solving a bi-objective mathematical model for location-routing problem with time windows in multi-echelon reverse logistics using metaheuristic procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezavati, V. R.; Beigi, M.

    2016-06-01

    During the last decade, the stringent pressures from environmental and social requirements have spurred an interest in designing a reverse logistics (RL) network. The success of a logistics system may depend on the decisions of the facilities locations and vehicle routings. The location-routing problem (LRP) simultaneously locates the facilities and designs the travel routes for vehicles among established facilities and existing demand points. In this paper, the location-routing problem with time window (LRPTW) and homogeneous fleet type and designing a multi-echelon, and capacitated reverse logistics network, are considered which may arise in many real-life situations in logistics management. Our proposed RL network consists of hybrid collection/inspection centers, recovery centers and disposal centers. Here, we present a new bi-objective mathematical programming (BOMP) for LRPTW in reverse logistic. Since this type of problem is NP-hard, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is proposed to obtain the Pareto frontier for the given problem. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm. Also, the present work is an effort to effectively implement the ɛ-constraint method in GAMS software for producing the Pareto-optimal solutions in a BOMP. The results of the proposed algorithm have been compared with the ɛ-constraint method. The computational results show that the ɛ-constraint method is able to solve small-size instances to optimality within reasonable computing times, and for medium-to-large-sized problems, the proposed NSGA-II works better than the ɛ-constraint.

  15. Solving a bi-objective location routing problem by a NSGA-II combined with clustering approach: application in waste collection problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Masoud; Farrokhi-Asl, Hamed; Asgarian, Bahare

    2017-10-01

    It is observed that the separated design of location for depots and routing for servicing customers often reach a suboptimal solution. So, solving location and routing problem simultaneously could achieve better results. In this paper, waste collection problem is considered with regard to economic and societal objective functions. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to locate depots and treatment facilities and design the routes starting from depots to serve customers. A new mathematical model is proposed and two objective functions including economic objective (opening cost of depots and treatment facility and transportation cost) and societal objective; that is, negative impact of treatment facilities which are close to towns are addressed in this study. A straightforward order based solution representation is applied for coding solutions of the problem and clustering approach is used to generate appropriate initial solutions. Moreover, three multi-objective decomposition methods including weighted sum, goal programming, and goal attainment are applied to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Number of test problems are conducted and the results obtained by algorithms are compared with respect to some comparison metrics. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed hybrid NSGA-II outperforms all decomposition methods, but the computational times for decomposition methods are less than NSGA-II.

  16. A survey of evaluation platforms for ad hoc routing protocols: a resilience perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Friginal López, Jesús; Andrés Martínez, David De; Ruiz García, Juan Carlos; Martínez Raga, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Routing protocols allow for the spontaneous formation of wireless multi-hop networks without dedicated infrastructure, also known as ad hoc networks. Despite significant technological advances, difficulties associated with the evaluation of ad hoc routing protocols under realistic conditions, still hamper their maturation and significant roll out in real world deployments. In particular, the resilience evaluation of ad hoc routing protocols is essential to determine their ability of keeping t...

  17. Comparing distances in mental images constructed from visual experience or verbal descriptions: the impact of survey versus route perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péruch, Patrick; Chabanne, Vanessa; Nesa, Marie-Pascale; Thinus-Blanc, Catherine; Denis, Michel

    2006-11-01

    Mental images constructed after visual examination of a spatial configuration or after processing a verbal description of that configuration have been shown to share similar properties, in particular the capacity to preserve metric information contained in the configuration represented. In the present study, we investigated the properties of mental images constructed under learning conditions resulting from the combination of a visual or a verbal mode of acquisition and a survey or route perspective. Participants memorized a virtual environment (a garden containing six objects) under one of four learning conditions: (a) viewing a map of the garden (visual-survey); (b) viewing a video presentation of a journey along the path around the garden (visual-route); (c) listening to a verbal description of the map of the garden (verbal-survey); and (d) listening to a verbal description of the journey around the garden (verbal-route). The participants were then invited to compare the distances separating objects in the garden mentally. Experiment 1, where the pairs of distances to be compared had a common starting point, revealed that the frequency of correct responses was higher, and response times were shorter when participants had learned about the environment visually rather than by a verbal description. The conditions involving a survey perspective resulted in a higher frequency of correct responses and shorter response times than those involving a route perspective. Lastly, a symbolic distance effect was obtained in the first three conditions, in that the greater the difference between the two distances being compared, the higher the frequency of correct responses, and the shorter the response times. Experiment 2, where the pairs of distances had different starting points, replicated these results, although longer response times revealed that the comparison process was more costly. Taken together, these findings support the view that mental spatial representations

  18. Routing and Scheduling Algorithms for WirelessHART Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Marcelo; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication is a trend nowadays for the industrial environment. A number of different technologies have emerged as solutions satisfying strict industrial requirements (e.g., WirelessHART, ISA100.11a, WIA-PA). As the industrial environment presents a vast range of applications, adopting an adequate solution for each case is vital to obtain good performance of the system. In this context, the routing and scheduling schemes associated with these technologies have a direct impact on important features, like latency and energy consumption. This situation has led to the development of a vast number of routing and scheduling schemes. In the present paper, we focus on the WirelessHART technology, emphasizing its most important routing and scheduling aspects in order to guide both end users and the developers of new algorithms. Furthermore, we provide a detailed literature review of the newest routing and scheduling techniques for WirelessHART, discussing each of their features. These routing algorithms have been evaluated in terms of their objectives, metrics, the usage of the WirelessHART structures and validation method. In addition, the scheduling algorithms were also evaluated by metrics, validation, objectives and, in addition, by multiple superframe support, as well as by the redundancy method used. Moreover, this paper briefly presents some insights into the main WirelessHART simulation modules available, in order to provide viable test platforms for the routing and scheduling algorithms. Finally, some open issues in WirelessHART routing and scheduling algorithms are discussed. PMID:25919371

  19. Air Quality Survey of some locations in the Niger Delta Area | Adoki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of air quality in Oyigbo (Obigbo) and environs in the Niger delta area of Nigeria revealed that air quality in the area is affected to varying degrees by industrial, human and natural activities. Results indicate that SOx values were below acceptable values for ambient conditions at most of the locations. The annual ...

  20. The role of visual and spatial working memory in forming mental models derived from survey and route descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Labate, Enia; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Hamilton, Colin; Gyselinck, Valérie

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the involvement of spatial and visual working memory (WM) in the construction of flexible spatial models derived from survey and route descriptions. Sixty young adults listened to environment descriptions, 30 from a survey perspective and the other 30 from a route perspective, while they performed spatial (spatial tapping [ST]) and visual (dynamic visual noise [DVN]) secondary tasks - believed to overload the spatial and visual working memory (WM) components, respectively - or no secondary task (control, C). Their mental representations of the environment were tested by free recall and a verification test with both route and survey statements. Results showed that, for both recall tasks, accuracy was worse in the ST than in the C or DVN conditions. In the verification test, the effect of both ST and DVN was a decreasing accuracy for sentences testing spatial relations from the opposite perspective to the one learnt than if the perspective was the same; only ST had a stronger interference effect than the C condition for sentences from the opposite perspective from the one learnt. Overall, these findings indicate that both visual and spatial WM, and especially the latter, are involved in the construction of perspective-flexible spatial models. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Solving a Closed-Loop Location-Inventory-Routing Problem with Mixed Quality Defects Returns in E-Commerce by Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a closed-loop location-inventory-routing problem model considering both quality defect returns and nondefect returns in e-commerce supply chain system. The objective is to minimize the total cost produced in both forward and reverse logistics networks. We propose a combined optimization algorithm named hybrid ant colony optimization algorithm (HACO to address this model that is an NP-hard problem. Our experimental results show that the proposed HACO is considerably efficient and effective in solving this model.

  2. The transfer from survey (map-like) to route representations into Virtual Reality Mazes: effect of age and cerebral lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Laura; Rusconi, Maria Luisa; Scarabelli, Chiara; Stampatori, Chiara; Mattioli, Flavia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2011-01-31

    To go from one place to another, we routinely generate internal representations of surrounding spaces, which can include egocentric (body-centred) and allocentric (world-centred) coordinates, combined into route and survey representations.Recent studies have shown how both egocentric and allocentric representations exist in parallel and are joined to support behaviour according to the task.Our study investigated the transfer from survey (map-like) to route representations in healthy and brain-damaged subjects. The aim was two-fold: first, to understand how this ability could change with age in a sample of healthy participants, aged from 40 to 71 years old; second, to investigate how it is affected after a brain lesion in a 8 patients' sample, with reference to specific neuropsychological frames. Participants were first required to perform the paper and pencil version of eight mazes, then to translate the map-like paths into egocentric routes, in order to find the right way into equivalent Virtual Reality (VR) mazes.Patients also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, including a specific investigation of some topographical orientation components. As regards the healthy sample, we found age-related deterioration in VR task performance. While education level and gender were not found to be related to performance, global cognitive level (Mini Mental State Examination), previous experience with computer and fluidity of navigation into the VR appeared to influence VR task results.Considering the clinical sample, there was a difficulty in performing the VR Maze task; executive functions and visuo-spatial abilities deficits appeared to be more relevant for predicting patients' results. Our study suggests the importance of developing tools aimed at investigating the survey to route transfer ability in both healthy elderly and clinical samples, since this skill seems high cognitive demanding and sensitive to cognitive decline.Human-computer interaction

  3. The transfer from survey (map-like to route representations into Virtual Reality Mazes: effect of age and cerebral lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stampatori Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To go from one place to another, we routinely generate internal representations of surrounding spaces, which can include egocentric (body-centred and allocentric (world-centred coordinates, combined into route and survey representations. Recent studies have shown how both egocentric and allocentric representations exist in parallel and are joined to support behaviour according to the task. Our study investigated the transfer from survey (map-like to route representations in healthy and brain-damaged subjects. The aim was two-fold: first, to understand how this ability could change with age in a sample of healthy participants, aged from 40 to 71 years old; second, to investigate how it is affected after a brain lesion in a 8 patients' sample, with reference to specific neuropsychological frames. Methods Participants were first required to perform the paper and pencil version of eight mazes, then to translate the map-like paths into egocentric routes, in order to find the right way into equivalent Virtual Reality (VR mazes. Patients also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, including a specific investigation of some topographical orientation components. Results As regards the healthy sample, we found age-related deterioration in VR task performance. While education level and gender were not found to be related to performance, global cognitive level (Mini Mental State Examination, previous experience with computer and fluidity of navigation into the VR appeared to influence VR task results. Considering the clinical sample, there was a difficulty in performing the VR Maze task; executive functions and visuo-spatial abilities deficits appeared to be more relevant for predicting patients' results. Conclusions Our study suggests the importance of developing tools aimed at investigating the survey to route transfer ability in both healthy elderly and clinical samples, since this skill seems high cognitive

  4. A survey on routing protocols for large-scale wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changle; Zhang, Hanxiao; Hao, Binbin; Li, Jiandong

    2011-01-01

    With the advances in micro-electronics, wireless sensor devices have been made much smaller and more integrated, and large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) based the cooperation among the significant amount of nodes have become a hot topic. "Large-scale" means mainly large area or high density of a network. Accordingly the routing protocols must scale well to the network scope extension and node density increases. A sensor node is normally energy-limited and cannot be recharged, and thus its energy consumption has a quite significant effect on the scalability of the protocol. To the best of our knowledge, currently the mainstream methods to solve the energy problem in large-scale WSNs are the hierarchical routing protocols. In a hierarchical routing protocol, all the nodes are divided into several groups with different assignment levels. The nodes within the high level are responsible for data aggregation and management work, and the low level nodes for sensing their surroundings and collecting information. The hierarchical routing protocols are proved to be more energy-efficient than flat ones in which all the nodes play the same role, especially in terms of the data aggregation and the flooding of the control packets. With focus on the hierarchical structure, in this paper we provide an insight into routing protocols designed specifically for large-scale WSNs. According to the different objectives, the protocols are generally classified based on different criteria such as control overhead reduction, energy consumption mitigation and energy balance. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of each protocol, we highlight their innovative ideas, describe the underlying principles in detail and analyze their advantages and disadvantages. Moreover a comparison of each routing protocol is conducted to demonstrate the differences between the protocols in terms of message complexity, memory requirements, localization, data aggregation, clustering manner and

  5. 78 FR 78948 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... 460 Location Study FEIS/ROD, incorporate new information, update the alternatives and impacts analyses... alternatives analysis responsibilities, consideration will also be given to the alternative from the DEIS to.../default_noflash.asp ) and by newspaper advertisement. In addition to the draft SEIS public involvement...

  6. Bee-Inspired Algorithms Applied to Vehicle Routing Problems: A Survey and a Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago A. S. Masutti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle routing problems constitute a class of combinatorial optimization tasks that search for optimal routes (e.g., minimal cost routes for one or more vehicles to attend a set of nodes (e.g., cities or customers. Finding the optimal solution to vehicle routing tasks is an NP-hard problem, meaning that the size of problems that can be solved by exhaustive search is limited. From a practical perspective, this class of problems has a wide and important set of applications, from the distribution of goods to the integrated chip design. Rooted on the use of collective intelligence, swarm-inspired algorithms, more specifically bee-inspired approaches, have been used with good performance to solve such problems. In this context, the present paper provides a broad review on the use of bee-inspired methods for solving vehicle routing problems, introduces a new approach to solve one of the main tasks in this area (the travelling salesman problem, and describes open problems in the field.

  7. A survey of solution methods for the continuous location allocation problem

    OpenAIRE

    Brimberg, Jack; Hansen, Pierre; Mladonovic, Nenad; Salhi, Said

    2008-01-01

    In this survey, we examine an important class of facility location problems known as the multisource Weber\\ud problem (also referred to as the continuous location-allocation problem). We also show how recent advances in the use of\\ud metaheuristic rules have significantly improved the ability to solve problems of this type. The new solution methods are\\ud discussed for both the well known multisource Weber problem and its counterpart the capacitated case. Research issues\\ud which we believe t...

  8. The location of infinite electrodes in pole-pole electrical surveys : consequences for 2D imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Robain, Henri; Albouy, Yves; Dabas, M.; Descloitres, Marc; Camerlynck, C.; Mechler, P.; Tabbagh, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 2D-multielectrode electrical survey using the pole-pole array, the distance to "infinite electrodes" is actually finite. As a matter of fact, the available cable length generally impose a poor approximation of theoretical location of these electrodes at infinity. This study shows that in most of the cases, the resulting apparent resistivity pseudosection is strongly distorted. Numerical simulation validated by field test also shows that a particular finite array provides results that are a...

  9. Routing in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: A Survey of Existing Protocols and Open Research Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Bhandary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of wireless sensor networks (WSNs and technology, applicability of WSNs as a system is touching new heights. The development of multimedia nodes has led to the creation of another intelligent distributed system, which can transfer real-time multimedia traffic, ubiquitously. Wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs are applicable in a wide range of areas including area monitoring and video surveillance. But due to unreliable error-prone communication medium and application specific quality of service (QoS requirements, routing of real-time multimedia traffic in WMSNs poses a serious problem. The paper discusses various existing routing strategies in WMSNs, with their properties and limitations which lead to open research issues. Further, detailed classification and analytical comparison of discussed protocols are also presented.

  10. A survey on the taxonomy of cluster-based routing protocols for homogeneous wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided.

  11. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ishii

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided.

  12. LITERATURE SURVEY ON EXISTING POWER SAVING ROUTING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING NETWORK LIFE TIME IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mariyappan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a special type of wireless network in which a collection of wireless mobile devices (called also nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the need of any pre-existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Currently, Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs play a significant role in university campus, advertisement, emergency response, disaster recovery, military use in battle fields, disaster management scenarios, in sensor network, and so on. However, wireless network devices, especially in ad hoc networks, are typically battery-powered. Thus, energy efficiency is a critical issue for battery-powered mobile devices in ad hoc networks. This is due to the fact that failure of node or link allows re-routing and establishing a new path from source to destination which creates extra energy consumption of nodes and sparse network connectivity, leading to a more likelihood occurrences of network partition. Routing based on energy related parameters is one of the important solutions to extend the lifetime of the node and reduce energy consumption of the network. In this paper detail literature survey on existing energy efficient routing method are studied and compared for their performance under different condition. The result has shown that both the broadcast schemes and energy aware metrics have great potential in overcoming the broadcast storm problem associated with flooding. However, the performances of these approaches rely on either the appropriate selection of the broadcast decision parameter or an energy efficient path. In the earlier proposed broadcast methods, the forwarding probability is selected based on fixed probability or number of neighbors regardless of nodes battery capacity whereas in energy aware schemes energy inefficient node could be part of an established path. Therefore, in an attempt to remedy the paucity of research and to address the gaps identified in this area, a study

  13. Location of Ancient Building Remains by Geophysical Surveys in the Bogoroditsky Nunnery of Kazan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepak, Z.

    2003-04-01

    In the beginning of the 20th cent., several cathedrals, towers and fence of the Bogoroditsky Nunnery, an architectural monument of the 18-19th cent., were destroyed. However, some attempts to rebuild the nunnery have been made in the recent years. For this purpose, transient electromagnetic sounding, using the equipment ImpulseAuto M-1/0-20, was conducted in 2000-02 to locate the remains of ancient buildings in the cultural layer. The resulting vertical sections of total electric conduction S(H) along the survey lines revealed the former position of the Our Lady Church, Candlemas Day Church, Trinity Cathedral, Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan (COLK), and of some towers and walls. Archaeological excavations revealed the remains of a stone apse of the COLK's eastern part. Preserved drawings permitted the precise location of the Cathedral. These data will be used for the minimising further excavations and in engineering and restoration works.

  14. Fundamental Lifetime Mechanisms in Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Razak, Shukor Abd

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes' energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues. PMID:23202008

  15. Fundamental Lifetime Mechanisms in Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukor Abd Razak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes’ energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues.

  16. A Survey of Algorithms and Systems for Expert Location in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Theodoros; Liu, Kun; Terzi, Evimaria

    Given a particular task and a set of candidates, one often wants to identify the right expert (or set of experts) that can perform the given task. We call this problem the expert-location problem and we survey its different aspects as they arise in practice. For example, given the activities of candidates within a context (e.g., authoring a document, answering a question), we first describe methods for evaluating the level of expertise for each of them. Often, experts are organized in networks that correspond to social networks or organizational structures of companies. We next devote part of the chapter for describing algorithms that compute the expertise level of individuals by taking into account their position in such a network. Finally, complex tasks often require the collective expertise of more than one experts. In such cases, it is more realistic to require a team of experts that can collaborate towards a common goal. We describe algorithms that identify effective expert teams within a network of experts. The chapter is a survey of different algorithms for expertise evaluation and team identification. We highlight the basic algorithmic problems and give some indicative algorithms that have been developed in the literature. We conclude the chapter by providing a comprehensive overview of real-life systems for expert location.

  17. Environmental Baseline Survey for JP-8 Pipeline Route Nellis Air Force Base Las Vegas, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    substances have occurred, at IRP Site SS-46, located in Nellis AFB Area I. Former engine test cells and former and current RCRA storage are located within...and some limestone are also found to the east of Nellis AFB on Frenchman and Sunrise mountains . These are likely to make up most of the bedrock...release sources include former ASTs and OWSs at the test cell area that were in use during the 1970s. The current RCRA 90-day accumulation site

  18. Emergency Physicians as Good Samaritans: Survey of Frequency, Locations, Supplies and Medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor W. Burkholder, MD, MPH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the frequency and locations in which emergency physicians (EPs are bystanders to an accident or emergency; equally uncertain is which contents of an “emergency kit” may be useful during such events. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and locations of Good Samaritan acts by EPs and also determine which emergency kit supplies and medications were most commonly used by Good Samaritans. Methods: We conducted an electronic survey among a convenience sample of EPs in Colorado. Results: Respondents reported a median frequency of 2.0 Good Samaritan acts per five years of practice, with the most common locations being sports and entertainment events (25%, road traffic accidents (21%, and wilderness settings (19%. Of those who had acted as Good Samaritans, 86% reported that at least one supply would have been useful during the most recent event, and 66% reported at least one medication would have been useful. The most useful supplies were gloves (54%, dressings (34%, and a stethoscope (20%, while the most useful medications were oxygen (19%, intravenous fluids (17%, and epinephrine (14%. Conclusion: The majority of EPs can expect to provide Good Samaritan care during their careers and would be better prepared by carrying a kit with common supplies and medications where they are most likely to use them.

  19. Incorporation of Spatial Interactions in Location Networks to Identify Critical Geo-Referenced Routes for Assessing Disease Control Measures on a Large-Scale Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzai-Hung Wen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases mainly spread through interpersonal contact. Class suspension is the most direct strategy to prevent the spread of disease through elementary or secondary schools by blocking the contact network. However, as university students usually attend courses in different buildings, the daily contact patterns on a university campus are complicated, and once disease clusters have occurred, suspending classes is far from an efficient strategy to control disease spread. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological framework for generating campus location networks from a routine administration database, analyzing the community structure of the network, and identifying the critical links and nodes for blocking respiratory disease transmission. The data comes from the student enrollment records of a major comprehensive university in Taiwan. We combined the social network analysis and spatial interaction model to establish a geo-referenced community structure among the classroom buildings. We also identified the critical links among the communities that were acting as contact bridges and explored the changes in the location network after the sequential removal of the high-risk buildings. Instead of conducting a questionnaire survey, the study established a standard procedure for constructing a location network on a large-scale campus from a routine curriculum database. We also present how a location network structure at a campus could function to target the high-risk buildings as the bridges connecting communities for blocking disease transmission.

  20. Location of plant species in Norway gathered as a part of a survey vegetation mapping programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryn, Anders; Kristoffersen, Hans-Petter; Angeloff, Michael; Nystuen, Ingvild; Aune-Lundberg, Linda; Endresen, Dag; Svindseth, Christian; Rekdal, Yngve

    2015-01-01

    Georeferenced species data have a wide range of applications and are increasingly used for e.g. distribution modelling and climate change studies. As an integrated part of an on-going survey programme for vegetation mapping, plant species have been recorded. The data described in this paper contains 18.521 registrations of plants from 1190 different circular plots throughout Norway. All species localities are georeferenced, the spatial uncertainty is provided, and additional ecological information is reported. The published data has been gathered from 1991 until 2015. The entries contain all higher vascular plants and pteridophytes, and some cryptogams. Other ecological information is also provided for the species locations, such as the vegetation type, the cover of the species and slope. The entire material is stored and available for download through the GBIF server. PMID:26958614

  1. Location of plant species in Norway gathered as a part of a survey vegetation mapping programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Bryn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Georeferenced species data have a wide range of applications and are increasingly used for e.g. distribution modelling and climate change studies. As an integrated part of an on-going survey programme for vegetation mapping, plant species have been recorded. The data described in this paper contains 18.521 registrations of plants from 1190 different circular plots throughout Norway. All species localities are georeferenced, the spatial uncertainty is provided, and additional ecological information is reported. The published data has been gathered from 1991 until 2015. The entries contain all higher vascular plants and pteridophytes, and some cryptogams. Other ecological information is also provided for the species locations, such as the vegetation type, the cover of the species and slope. The entire material is stored and available for download through the GBIF server.

  2. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  3. New mathematical modeling for a location-routing-inventory problem in a multi-period closed-loop supply chain in a car industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzanfar, F.; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.; Bashiri, M.; Baboli, A.; Hadji Molana, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper studies a location-routing-inventory problem in a multi-period closed-loop supply chain with multiple suppliers, producers, distribution centers, customers, collection centers, recovery, and recycling centers. In this supply chain, centers are multiple levels, a price increase factor is considered for operational costs at centers, inventory and shortage (including lost sales and backlog) are allowed at production centers, arrival time of vehicles of each plant to its dedicated distribution centers and also departure from them are considered, in such a way that the sum of system costs and the sum of maximum time at each level should be minimized. The aforementioned problem is formulated in the form of a bi-objective nonlinear integer programming model. Due to the NP-hard nature of the problem, two meta-heuristics, namely, non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO), are used in large sizes. In addition, a Taguchi method is used to set the parameters of these algorithms to enhance their performance. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms, the results for small-sized problems are compared with the results of the ɛ-constraint method. Finally, four measuring metrics, namely, the number of Pareto solutions, mean ideal distance, spacing metric, and quality metric, are used to compare NSGA-II and MOPSO.

  4. Time-lapse electrical surveys to locate infiltration zones in weathered hard rock tropical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubda, M.; Descloitres, M.; Yalo, N.; Ribolzi, O.; Vouillamoz, J. M.; Boukari, M.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.

    2017-07-01

    In West Africa, infiltration and groundwater recharge processes in hard rock areas are depending on climatic, surface and subsurface conditions, and are poorly documented. Part of the reason is that identification, location and monitoring of these processes is still a challenge. Here, we explore the potential for time-lapse electrical surveys to bring additional information on these processes for two different climate situations: a semi-arid Sahelian site (north of Burkina and a humid Sudanian site (north of Benin), respectively focusing on indirect (localized) and direct (diffuse) recharge processes. The methodology is based on surveys in dry season and rainy season on typical pond or gully using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and frequency electromagnetic (FEM) apparent conductivity mapping. The results show that in the Sahelian zone an indirect recharge occurs as expected, but infiltration doesn't takes place at the center of the pond to the aquifer, but occurs laterally in the banks. In Sudanian zone, the ERT survey shows a direct recharge process as expected, but also a complicated behavior of groundwater dilution, as well as the role of hardpans for fast infiltration. These processes are ascertained by groundwater monitoring in adjacent observing wells. At last, FEM time lapse mapping is found to be difficult to quantitatively interpreted due to the non-uniqueness of the model, clearly evidenced comparing FEM result to auger holes monitoring. Finally, we found that time-lapse ERT can be an efficient way to track infiltration processes across ponds and gullies in both climatic conditions, the Sahelian setting providing results easier to interpret, due to significant resistivity contrasts between dry and rain seasons. Both methods can be used for efficient implementation of punctual sensors for complementary studies. However, FEM time-lapse mapping remains difficult to practice without external information that renders this method less attractive for

  5. What Exactly Is a Centrally Located Lung Tumor? Results of an Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Roberto F; Vial, Macarena R; Miller, Russell; Mudambi, Lakshmi; Grosu, Horiana B; Eapen, George A; Jimenez, Carlos A; Morice, Rodolfo C; Cornwell, Lorraine; Ost, David

    2017-01-01

    Accurate mediastinal staging is a cornerstone in the management of patients with lung cancer. For patients with radiographically normal mediastinum, current lung cancer guidelines recommend invasive mediastinal staging when tumors are centrally located. However, definitions of central tumors are nonspecific, and there are discrepancies among guidelines (e.g., some use the inner one-third of the hemithorax, whereas others use the inner two-thirds). To describe the definitions of central tumors used by pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons in their practices. An online questionnaire was e-mailed to members of the American Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology and members of the Cardiothoracic Surgery Network. A total of 218 participants completed our survey (12% response rate). Most common definitions for central tumors were: inner one-third of the hemithorax (55%), in contact with hilar structures (29%), and inner two-thirds of the hemithorax (15%). Of note, 29% of participants chose a definition fabricated specifically for this survey and not supported by guidelines. Regarding the method to delineate the thirds of the hemithorax, 182 (84%) participants chose a system of concentric lines arising in the hilum, whereas 31 (14%) chose straight lines in the sagittal plane of the chest. We found strikingly similar responses in members of both societies. A uniform definition of tumor centrality is currently lacking, and should be formulated. Studies using objective measurements that evaluate the ability of these different definitions of central lung tumors to predict N2 disease are needed to construct a clear and evidence-based definition.

  6. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    of a connection between two locations. This could be an urban bus schedule where busses are routed and this routing creates a bus schedule which the passengers between locations use. In this thesis various routing and scheduling problems will be presented. The topics covered will be routing from an origin...... set cost making the cost of the individual vehicle routes inter-dependant. Depending on the problem type, the size of the problems and time available for solving, different solution methods can be applicable. In this thesis both heuristic methods and several exact methods are investigated depending...... on the problems needed to be solved. The solution methods applied to the problems cover dynamic programming for multi constrained shortest paths, Branch-and-cut for liner shipping, Simulated annealing for transporting assisted passengers in airports, branch-cut-and-price for vehicle routing with time windows...

  7. SURVEY OF CULTURABLE AIRBORNE BACTERIA AT FOUR DIVERSE LOCATIONS IN OREGON: URBAN, RURAL, FOREST, AND COASTAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the risks of microbial air pollution from microorganisms used for pesticides and bioremediation, or emanating from composting, fermentation tanks, or other agricultural and urban sources, airborne microbial levels must be evaluated. This study surveyed the atmospheri...

  8. SDF technology in location and navigation procedures: a survey of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Jan M.; Ziółkowski, Cezary

    2017-04-01

    The basis for development the Doppler location method, also called the signal Doppler frequency (SDF) method or technology is the analytical solution of the wave equation for a mobile source. This paper presents an overview of the simulations, numerical analysis and empirical studies of the possibilities and the range of SDF method applications. In the paper, the various applications from numerous publications are collected and described. They mainly focus on the use of SDF method in: emitter positioning, electronic warfare, crisis management, search and rescue, navigation. The developed method is characterized by an innovative, unique property among other location methods, because it allows the simultaneous location of the many radio emitters. Moreover, this is the first method based on the Doppler effect, which allows positioning of transmitters, using a single mobile platform. In the paper, the results of the using SDF method by the other teams are also presented.

  9. Use of ultralight aircraft for material location and road surveys in remote rural areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jones, DJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available photographs and maps are often not available. The best method available to conduct the various types of survey is thus by helicopter or fixed wing aircraft, although the higher speeds of fixed wing aircraft typically render this option unsuitable... for certain functions. However, the costs of operating helicopters and fixed wing aircraft are very expensive and thus they are usually only used in the initial stages of projects for the basic surveys and thereafter all work is done from the ground...

  10. Tabulations of Responses from the 1999 Survey of Spouses of Active Duty Personnel. Volume 1. Current Location, Military Assignments, and Military Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deak, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on current location, spouse's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse employment, family information, economic issues, and background...

  11. A health survey of a colonia located on the west Texas, US/Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert L; Olson, Thomas; Robinson, Kris; Wiebe, John; DiGregorio, Rena; Guillermina, Mina; Albrechtsen, Justin; Bean, Nathaniel H; Ortiz, Melchor

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about how health disparities affect the health status and general health perceptions of Hispanics living in Texas colonias. The purpose of this study was to conduct a health survey of residents (n = 216) of a colonia community on the border between El Paso, Texas and Juarez, Mexico. Instruments used in this study included a researcher developed demographic questionnaire, the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH), Cutting down, Annoyance by criticism, Guilty feeling and Eye-openers (CAGE) for alcohol consumption, and the Short Form version 2 (SF36v2) health survey. Study findings show the average participant was approximately 42 years old, attained an average of 9.6 years of education, earned an average annual household income of $17,575 and had an average SASH score of 25.4. SASH scores range from 12 to 60, with higher scores suggesting higher levels of American acculturation. Findings from this health survey suggest the average resident of the colonia may have health disadvantages when compared to residents from other parts of El Paso and Texas. Binge drinking was self-reported by 13.4% of all participants; with 5.6% having a CAGE score greater than 2 (indicating an increased propensity towards problems with alcohol). The self-report rates of diabetes, depression and anxiety were 15.3%, 20.4% and 16.7% respectively. The SF36v2 composite functional health status scores mirrored the national norms.

  12. A Survey of Point-of-interest Recommendation in Location-based Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shenglin; King, Irwin; Lyu, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-interest (POI) recommendation that suggests new places for users to visit arises with the popularity of location-based social networks (LBSNs). Due to the importance of POI recommendation in LBSNs, it has attracted much academic and industrial interest. In this paper, we offer a systematic review of this field, summarizing the contributions of individual efforts and exploring their relations. We discuss the new properties and challenges in POI recommendation, compared with traditiona...

  13. The role of drinking locations in university student drinking: findings from a national web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Paschall, Mallie J; Langley, John D; Baxter, Joanne; Bourdeau, Beth

    2010-09-01

    The study examined associations between type of drinking location and alcohol use in a national sample of New Zealand university students. We conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey with random sampling of 17- to 24-year-old undergraduates from six university campuses in 2005. There were 2548 respondents (response fraction: 63%). Measures included the number of standard drinks (10 g ethanol) consumed on each day of the preceding week in pubs/bars/nightclubs, student flats/houses, residential halls, and 'other' locations (e.g., restaurants). We used multilevel regression to test for associations between type of drinking location and consumption per episode, adjusting for student- and episode-level covariates. Respondents consumed an average of 7.1 drinks (SD 5.2) per drinking day, including 5.4 drinks (SD 4.5) in pubs/bars/nightclubs, flats/houses, and residential halls, and 3.7 drinks (SD 3.4) in other locations. Overall, men drank more per location (mean 8.4, SD 6.3) than did women (mean 6.2, SD 4.0). Multilevel analyses revealed positive associations between the first three location types and drinks per episode relative to other locations when adjusting for student- and episode-level covariates including duration of episode. Certain drinking locations (i.e., pubs, residential halls, off-campus houses) appear to promote or facilitate heavy alcohol consumption among students. Better enforcement of laws prohibiting service to intoxication should be prioritized to reduce alcohol-related harm among university students. Consideration should be given to strengthening alcohol policies in residential halls and methods for managing heavy drinking in private residences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Use of subcutaneous route for comfort care in neonatal palliative population: Systematic review and survey of practices in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouvreau, N; Tandonnet, J; Tandonnet, O; Renesme, L

    2017-09-01

    Subcutaneous hydration (hypodermoclysis) and drug administration is a widely used method of analgesic therapy in adult palliative care medicine. Very little is known about its use in neonatal medicine. Evidence-based guidelines do not exist due to a lack of data. In this study, the advantages of subcutaneous analgesic therapy in terms of comfort in neonatal palliative care situations were investigated. This report details the results of a systematic review associated with a survey in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and pediatric palliative care departments (PPCTs) in France. No article was available in the Medline database. In Google®, we found six guidelines that described the use of the subcutaneous route in the pediatric palliative population. The participation rate in the survey was approximately 83 % for French NICUs and 74 % for PPCTs. Eleven percent of NICUs and 27 % of PPCTs had already used subcutaneous drug administration for palliative care, mainly for analgesia and terminal sedation. Limiting factors of its use were mainly alternative options and the lack of data. Nevertheless, 76 % of NICUs and 73 % of PPCTs expressed an interest in the use of the subcutaneous route in NICUs. Ninety-one percent of French NICUs and 80 % of PPCTs were interested in elaborating a protocol using the subcutaneous route for analgesia, anxiolysis, or terminal sedation. The subcutaneous route can be advantageous for comfort care in the neonatal palliative population. Studies are needed to define the modalities, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of therapeutics in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating the location of baleen whale calls using dual streamers to support mitigation procedures in seismic reflection surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shima H; Tolstoy, Maya; Wilcock, William S D

    2017-01-01

    In order to mitigate against possible impacts of seismic surveys on baleen whales it is important to know as much as possible about the presence of whales within the vicinity of seismic operations. This study expands on previous work that analyzes single seismic streamer data to locate nearby calling baleen whales with a grid search method that utilizes the propagation angles and relative arrival times of received signals along the streamer. Three dimensional seismic reflection surveys use multiple towed hydrophone arrays for imaging the structure beneath the seafloor, providing an opportunity to significantly improve the uncertainty associated with streamer-generated call locations. All seismic surveys utilizing airguns conduct visual marine mammal monitoring surveys concurrent with the experiment, with powering-down of seismic source if a marine mammal is observed within the exposure zone. This study utilizes data from power-down periods of a seismic experiment conducted with two 8-km long seismic hydrophone arrays by the R/V Marcus G. Langseth near Alaska in summer 2011. Simulated and experiment data demonstrate that a single streamer can be utilized to resolve left-right ambiguity because the streamer is rarely perfectly straight in a field setting, but dual streamers provides significantly improved locations. Both methods represent a dramatic improvement over the existing Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) system for detecting low frequency baleen whale calls, with ~60 calls detected utilizing the seismic streamers, zero of which were detected using the current R/V Langseth PAM system. Furthermore, this method has the potential to be utilized not only for improving mitigation processes, but also for studying baleen whale behavior within the vicinity of seismic operations.

  16. A Survey of Wireless Fair Queuing Algorithms with Location-Dependent Channel Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca VARGATU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of wireless networks has brought more and more attention to topics related to fair allocation of resources, creation of suitable algorithms, taking into account the special characteristics of wireless environment and insurance fair access to the transmission channel, with delay bound and throughput guaranteed. Fair allocation of resources in wireless networks requires significant challenges, because of errors that occur only in these networks, such as location-dependent and bursty channel errors. In wireless networks, frequently happens, because interference of radio waves, that a user experiencing bad radio conditions during a period of time, not to receive resources in that period. This paper analyzes some resource allocation algorithms for wireless networks with location dependent errors, specifying the base idea for each algorithm and the way how it works. The analyzed fair queuing algorithms differ by the way they treat the following aspects: how to select the flows which should receive additional services, how to allocate these resources, which is the proportion received by error free flows and how the flows affected by errors are compensated.

  17. Sourcebook of locations of geophysical surveys in tunnels and horizontal holes, including results of seismic refraction surveys, Rainier Mesa, Aqueduct Mesa, and Area 16, Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, R.D.; Kibler, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic refraction surveys have been obtained sporadically in tunnels in zeolitized tuff at the Nevada Test Site since the late 1950's. Commencing in 1967 and continuing to date (1982), .extensive measurements of shear- and compressional-wave velocities have been made in five tunnel complexes in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas and in one tunnel complex in Shoshone Mountain. The results of these surveys to 1980 are compiled in this report. In addition, extensive horizontal drilling was initiated in 1967 in connection with geologic exploration in these tunnel complexes for sites for nuclear weapons tests. Seismic and electrical surveys were conducted in the majority of these holes. The type and location of these tunnel and borehole surveys are indexed in this report. Synthesis of the seismic refraction data indicates a mean compressional-wave velocity near the nuclear device point (WP) of 23 tunnel events of 2,430 m/s (7,970 f/s) with a range of 1,846-2,753 m/s (6,060-9,030 f/s). The mean shear-wave velocity of 17 tunnel events is 1,276 m/s (4,190 f/s) with a range of 1,140-1,392 m/s (3,740-4,570 f/s). Experience indicates that these velocity variations are due chiefly to the extent of fracturing and (or) the presence of partially saturated rock in the region of the survey.

  18. GPR and bulk ground resistivity surveys in graveyards: locating unmarked burials in contrasting soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James D; Pringle, Jamie K; Goodwin, Jon

    2014-04-01

    With graveyards and cemeteries globally being increasingly designated as full, there is a growing need to identify unmarked burial positions to find burial space or exhume and re-inter if necessary. In some countries, for example the U.S. and U.K., burial sites are not usually re-used; however, most graveyard and cemetery records do not have maps of positions. One non-invasive detection method is near-surface geophysics, but there has been a lack of research to-date on optimal methods and/or equipment configuration. This paper presents three case studies in contrasting burial environments, soil types, burial styles and ages in the U.K. Geophysical survey results reveal unmarked burials could be effectively identified from these case studies that were not uniform or predicted using 225 MHz frequency antennae GPR 2D 0.5 m spaced profiles. Bulk ground electrical surveys, rarely used for unmarked burials, revealed 1 m probe spacings were optimal compared to 0.5 m, with datasets needing 3D detrending to reveal burial positions. Results were variable depending upon soil type; in very coarse soils GPR was optimal; whereas resistivity was optimal in clay-rich soils and both were optimal in sandy and black earth soils. Archaeological excavations revealed unmarked burials, extra/missing individuals from parish records and a variety of burial styles from isolated, brick-lined, to vertically stacked individuals. Study results, evidence unmarked burial targets were significantly different from clandestine burials of murder victims which are used as analogues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changing the route of immunotherapy administration: an 18-year survey in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajno, Giovanni B; Caminiti, Lucia; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapy can be administered either sublingually (sublingual immunotherapy [SLIT]) or subcutaneously (subcutaneous immunotherapy [SCIT]). The rate of route switching, required by patients, can provide an indirect evaluation of patients' preferences and adherence. The authors retrospectively reviewed patients' files over an 18-year period to quantify the changes in the route of administration. The clinical records of children referred for respiratory allergy between 1994 and 2011 and prescribed with SLIT or SCIT were reviewed. The specific causes of the shift from SLIT to SCIT and vice versa were always assessed, with a special attention to adverse events. The records of 4933 children (2289 male patients, aged 4-18 years) were reviewed. Six hundred forty-eight patients received SCIT and 4285 patients received SLIT. Of the 4285 SLIT patients, 340 (7.9%) shifted to SCIT, mainly with Parietaria judaica and grasses. The 85.8% of the changes were caused by a perceived low efficacy. None of the parents required the route change for side effects. Of the 648 patients initially treated with SCIT, 54 (8.3%) shifted to SLIT, 85% of them for local or systemic side effects, but none for poor efficacy. The rate of SCIT/SLIT changes is, overall, low and because of poor efficacy for SLIT and side effects for SCIT.

  20. mizuRoute version 1: A river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Sampson, Kevin; Nijssen, Bart; Mao, Yixin; McMillan, Hilary; Viger, Roland; Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren E.; Woods, Ross; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute. The mizuRoute tool post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data. Both types of river network include river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons, but the vector-based river network can represent finer-scale river lines than the grid-based network. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. First, hillslope routing is performed with a gamma-distribution-based unit-hydrograph to transport runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function – unit-hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute tool also includes scripts (python, NetCDF operators) to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities to produce spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) data set in which over 54 000 river segments and their contributing areas are mapped across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  1. The monastery of Soumela and ancient trade routes connected to it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Köse

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that trade routes and temples had a close relation. It is not possible to exempt monasteries from this generalization. It is inevitable to build connection between trade and three monasteries located in the area where trade routes passing. The Monastery of Soumela comes front among the rest two with its unique location on summer trade route. Watch towers and camel inns at the vicinity of the Monastery prove this fact. Another important aspect related to Soumela Monastery and her connection to the trade routes is the demographic structure and settlement of villages located on the trade destinations. Especially travelers’ memoirs and registers of Ottoman Empire show that for a long period there was a lively economy in the region. Field surveys at the last years also show the importance of trade routes passing from the region.

  2. A Primer of Multicast Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Whereas unicast routing determines a path from one source node to one destination node, multicast routing determines a path from one source to many destinations, or from many sources to many destinations. We survey multicast routing methods for when the set of destinations is static, and for when it is dynamic. While most of the methods we review are tree based, some non-tree methods are also discussed. We survey results on the shape of multicast trees, delay constrained multicast routing, aggregation of multicast traffic, inter-domain multicast, and multicast virtual private networks. We focu

  3. Localización de paraderos de detención y diseño óptimo de rutas en el transporte de personal A location-routing approach for personnel transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M Albornoz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo abordamos un problema que consiste en la selección de paraderos de detención y el respectivo diseño de rutas en los recorridos de buses que transportan personal desde el entorno de sus hogares al lugar en que laboran. Proponemos un modelo de programación entera de localización y ruteo como formulación matemática del problema en su conjunto. La formulación empleada permite alcanzar una solución óptima del problema al resolver diversas instancias de tamaño pequeño y mediano del mismo. Sin embargo, ante instancias de gran tamaño se hace necesario el empleo de alguna estrategia alternativa de resolución. Por ello se presenta igualmente un esquema jerárquico que resuelve el problema a través de un modelo de localización por cobertura para la selección de paraderos, seguido de otro diferente para el diseño de rutas, que asume como dada la ubicación de los puntos de detención. Este último considera igualmente el empleo de la heurística de Holmes y Parker en la resolución de las instancias de mayor tamaño. Los resultados exhibidos permiten apreciar la calidad de las soluciones entregadas por la estrategia alternativa respecto de la solución óptima del modelo propuesto y la necesidad de contar con alternativas de resolución en problemas de gran tamaño.In this paper we face a problem that considers the selection of several bus stops from many potential ones and the respective design of optimal routes for the bus transportation of personnel from the surroundings of their houses to the place in which they work. We propose an integer programming model for the mathematical formulation of the resulting location-routing problem. The proposed location-routing model is suitable to solve little and medium size instances of the problem. However, to face large size instances of the problem an alternative strategy is needed. For that purposes, we propose a hierarchical scheme by solving a set covering location model for

  4. Sediment Sample Locations Collected in May 2014 from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Number 2014-310-FA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Barnegat Bay, located along the eastern shore of New Jersey, was significantly impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Scientists from the U.S. Geological...

  5. Preliminary archaeological survey of proposed gas well locations in Green Township (Scioto County) and Elizabeth Township (Lawrence County) Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.B.; Peebles, C.S.; Zielinski, R.E.

    1978-10-24

    The present archaeological survey and cultural resource assessment were conducted for the United States Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center in areas to be disturbed by gas well drilling and holding pond construction. The project area is the Pine Creek drainage system, which is a tributary of the Ohio River in Scioto and Lawrence Counties, Ohio. The literature search indicated that prehistoric archaeological sites do occur and have been documented in the Pine Creek drainage system. Presently, no archaeological sites have been reported in locations of direct impact. The literature search also indicated that historic features from the early iron industry period, ca. 1840 to 1870, are likely to occur throughout the project area. Field reconnaissance identified three prehistoric archaeological sites and one historic site in and adjacent to the proposed locations of disturbance. Two sites were determined to be of significant research value and may be nominated to the National Register of Historic Places. Consequently, recommendations were made to minimize the adverse effects of the proposed drilling project on these archaeological sites.

  6. A Nationwide Survey on Patient's versus Physician´s Evaluation of Biological Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis in Relation to Disease Activity and Route of Administration: The Be-Raise Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mits, Sophie; Lenaerts, Jan; Vander Cruyssen, Bert; Mielants, Herman; Westhovens, René; Durez, Patrick; Elewaut, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Biological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the cornerstones of current treatment strategies for the disease. Surprisingly little information exists on whether the route of administration affects patients' treatment satisfaction. It is equally unclear whether rheumatologists are able to accurately perceive their patients' appreciation. Thus, the Belgian Be-raise survey aimed to examine whether RA patient's experience of their current biological treatment coincided with the treating physician's perception. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted by 67 Belgian rheumatologists providing data obtained from 550 RA patients. Patients under stable dose of biologics for at least 6 months, were enrolled consecutively and all completed questionnaires. Separate questionnaires were completed by the treating rheumatologist which evaluated their patient's perception of the route of treatment administration. This study therefore evaluates whether a treating physician perceives the satisfaction with the route of administration to the same degree as the patient. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 293 and 257 patients who obtained treatment via the intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) route of administration, respectively. 58.4% of patients were in DAS28-CRP(3) remission. Patient satisfaction with disease control was higher (44% scored ≥ 9) than that of the treating physician (35%), regardless of the route of administration (pbiological treatment is high, but there is a considerable mismatch between patients´ and rheumatologists´ appreciation on the route of administration of biological therapy in RA. Physicians consistently consider IV biological therapy to be less satisfactory. Patient´s appreciation is largely dependent on disease control, irrespective of the route of administration. Therefore, and encouraging shared decision making, we suggest that physicians and patients discuss the route of administration of biologicals in an open way.

  7. Magnetotelluric survey to locate the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone in the northeastern Great Basin, Nevada, Utah, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    North-central Nevada contains a large amount of gold in linear belts, the origin of which is not fully understood. During July 2008, September 2009, and August 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project, collected twenty-three magnetotelluric soundings along two profiles in Box Elder County, Utah; Elko County, Nevada; and Cassia, Minidoka, and Blaine Counties, Idaho. The main twenty-sounding north-south magnetotelluric profile begins south of Wendover, Nev., but north of the Deep Creek Range. It continues north of Wendover and crosses into Utah, with the north profile terminus in the Snake River Plain, Idaho. A short, three-sounding east-west segment crosses the main north-south profile near the northern terminus of the profile. The magnetotelluric data collected in this study will be used to better constrain the location and strike of the concealed suture zone between the Archean crust and the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. This report releases the magnetotelluric sounding data that was collected. No interpretation of the data is included.

  8. Locations of sediment samples collected in the Cape Ann - Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area (SEDIMENTSAMPLES - Shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  9. Locatable mineral assessment tracts for the U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, Carma A.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Denning, Paul D.; Giles, Stuart A.; Hall, Susan M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hearn, Carter B.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Lund, Karen; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Rytuba, James J.; Smith, Steven M.; Stillings, Lisa; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Vikre, Peter G.; Wallis, John C.; Wilson, Anna B.; Zientek, Michael L.; Zurcher, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    The polygon (vector) feature class represents locatable mineral resource assessment tracts (tracts of land) associated with the Department of the Interior (DOI) Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Montana, Wyoming and Utah, central Idaho, and the Oregon-Nevada-Idaho border area. The mineral-resources tracts are geographic areas that were assessed by the USGS and were determined to be geologically favorable for a deposit type of interest to a depth of 1 kilometer. Qualitative assessment methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) were used to develop tract boundaries and to assign a level of mineral-resource potential and certainty to each tract. The general process included (1) identifying possible mineral deposit types for locatable commodities specified by BLM for each focal area, (2) outlining those areas that potentially contained mineral deposits based on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, soil and stream-sediment geochemistry, alteration mineral assemblages inferred from satellite imagery, BLM claims and permit data, mineral-exploration activity, and existing mineral-resource assessment data, and (3) evaluating the level of mineral-resource potential and level of certainty associated with the outlined areas using BLM assessment categories. A full description of the assessment is provided in the accompanying report (Day and others, 2016).SFAs, identified by agencies of the DOI, are high-quality sagebrush habitat areas supporting high densities of breeding greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). SFAs are within priority habitat areas or areas where land-use measures are intended to minimize or avoid habitat disturbance. Seven SFAs are within the USGS Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment Project study area. They include the Bear River Watershed, North-Central Idaho, North-Central Montana, Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada, and

  10. Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 1990-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feely, Richard A [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Lamb, Marilyn F. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Greeley, Dana J. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Wanninkhof, Rik [NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

    1999-10-01

    As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake by the oceans. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. !'he results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon. fugacity of C02• and pH. the a~:,rreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO) survey: whereas. in the case of total alkaliniry. the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.

  11. Survey Response in a Statewide Social Experiment: Differences in Being Located and Collaborating, by Race and Hispanic Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Mason, Lisa Reyes; Kim, Youngmi; Clancy, Margaret; Sherraden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether and how survey response differs by race and Hispanic origin, using data from birth certificates and survey administrative data for a large-scale statewide experiment. The sample consisted of mothers of infants selected from Oklahoma birth certificates using a stratified random sampling method (N = 7,111). This study…

  12. still117_0502 - Point coverage of locations of digital still frames captured during survey HMPR-117-2005-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne lasertransmitter/receiver with a...

  13. still117_0502 - Point coverage of locations of digital still frames captured during survey HMPR-117-2005-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne LidarSurvey)system which consists of an airborne lasertransmitter/receiver with a...

  14. Finding rendezvous: An approach to locating Rocky Mountain Rendezvous sites through use of historic documents, geophysical survey, and LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Rory J.

    The general locations of the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous have been known to historians through documentary evidence since the mid to late 1800s. While the approximate locations of the rendezvous sites provided through historic documents have sufficed for the placement of signs and markers commemorating these annual events, archaeologists seeking to learn more about the yearly gathering of mountain men and native peoples through excavations need a more precise area to begin their search on the landscape. The exact locations of the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous are yet unknown in the sense of an archaeologist visiting a rendezvous site, trowel in hand, and hoping to unearth a small portion of fur trade history. In this study, I present a method for moving from the approximate locations for the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous sites provided by historic documents to identifying specific rendezvous archaeological sites through use of historic documents, geophysical survey, and GIS modeling. The first paper in this dissertation examines the demographics of the rendezvous. By use of historic documents, I present a method for estimating the number of people who may have been present at the rendezvous and winter camps from 1825 through 1829. By using this method for estimating people at the rendezvous, it becomes clear more native people were in attendance at the rendezvous and winter camps than trappers and traders of European descent. Once armed with the knowledge a rendezvous site should more closely resemble the archaeological signature of a Protohistoric native camp than a historic Euroamerican archaeological site, the search for a Protohistoric native camp to be mapped with geophysical survey instruments can begin. During this study, such a search resulted in the successful mapping of a portion of the camp surrounding a fur trading post on the banks of Powder River in east-central Wyoming. The final section in the dissertation will address the issue of where and how to focus a

  15. Density and location of simulated signs of injury affect efficacy of ground surveys for Asian longhorned beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveys for the detection and delimitation of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) currently rely upon visual examination of trees to discover the presence of signs of attack such as oviposition pits and exit holes. Understanding the factors ...

  16. Dimensions and location of high-involvement management:fresh evidence from the UK Commission's 2011 Employer Skills Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Stephen; Nolte, Sandra; Burridge, Mark; Rudloff, Daniela; Green, William

    2015-01-01

    High-involvement management is typically seen as having three components: worker involvement, skill and knowledge acquisition and motivational supports. The prescriptive literature implies the elements should be used together; but using data from the UK Commission's Employer Skills Survey of 2011 we find that these dimensions of high-involvement management are in reality separate. Two types of involvement, role and organisational, are not strongly related, and motivational supports are not st...

  17. Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2012-01-01

    Between November 2009 and September 2011, temporary seismographs deployed under the EarthScope USArray program were situated on a 70-km grid covering the Barnett Shale in Texas, recording data that allowed sensing and locating regional earthquakes with magnitudes 1.5 and larger. I analyzed these data and located 67 earthquakes, more than eight times as many as reported by the National Earthquake Information Center. All 24 of the most reliably located epicenters occurred in eight groups within 3.2 km of one or more injection wells. These included wells near Dallas–Fort Worth and Cleburne, Texas, where earthquakes near injection wells were reported by the media in 2008 and 2009, as well as wells in six other locations, including several where no earthquakes have been reported previously. This suggests injection-triggered earthquakes are more common than is generally recognized. All the wells nearest to the earthquake groups reported maximum monthly injection rates exceeding 150,000 barrels of water per month (24,000 m3/mo) since October 2006. However, while 9 of 27 such wells in Johnson County were near earthquakes, elsewhere no earthquakes occurred near wells with similar injection rates. A plausible hypothesis to explain these observations is that injection only triggers earthquakes if injected fluids reach and relieve friction on a suitably oriented, nearby fault that is experiencing regional tectonic stress. Testing this hypothesis would require identifying geographic regions where there is interpreted subsurface structure information available to determine whether there are faults near seismically active and seismically quiescent injection wells. PMID:22869701

  18. Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2012-08-28

    Between November 2009 and September 2011, temporary seismographs deployed under the EarthScope USArray program were situated on a 70-km grid covering the Barnett Shale in Texas, recording data that allowed sensing and locating regional earthquakes with magnitudes 1.5 and larger. I analyzed these data and located 67 earthquakes, more than eight times as many as reported by the National Earthquake Information Center. All 24 of the most reliably located epicenters occurred in eight groups within 3.2 km of one or more injection wells. These included wells near Dallas-Fort Worth and Cleburne, Texas, where earthquakes near injection wells were reported by the media in 2008 and 2009, as well as wells in six other locations, including several where no earthquakes have been reported previously. This suggests injection-triggered earthquakes are more common than is generally recognized. All the wells nearest to the earthquake groups reported maximum monthly injection rates exceeding 150,000 barrels of water per month (24,000 m(3)/mo) since October 2006. However, while 9 of 27 such wells in Johnson County were near earthquakes, elsewhere no earthquakes occurred near wells with similar injection rates. A plausible hypothesis to explain these observations is that injection only triggers earthquakes if injected fluids reach and relieve friction on a suitably oriented, nearby fault that is experiencing regional tectonic stress. Testing this hypothesis would require identifying geographic regions where there is interpreted subsurface structure information available to determine whether there are faults near seismically active and seismically quiescent injection wells.

  19. Selfish Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    requires a notion of currency to employ some kind of side payments to the selfish players. A detailed survey of previous research on these topics is...related to transportation cost. Transportation Re- search, 13B(1):65–80, 1979. 148 [28] D. Braess. Uber ein paradoxon der verkehrsplanung

  20. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  1. Lateralization of route continuation and route order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Ham, Ineke J M; Van Den Hoven, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Navigation is a complex cognitive ability and its structure is still poorly understood. Memory for route continuation and route order are hypothesized to be at least partially separate components of navigation ability. In the current experiment, participants studied a route in virtual reality. The

  2. An observational descriptive survey of rosacea in the Chinese population: clinical features based on the affected locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-fu Xie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background There is currently no study that has evaluated the differences in epidemiological and clinical characteristics among rosacea patients according to different facial sites. Methods Clinical and demographic data were obtained from 586 rosacea patients. The patients were divided into four groups based on the main sites involved with the rosacea lesions (full-face, cheeks, nose, or perioral involvement. Clinical signs were measured through self-reported, dermatologist-evaluated grading of symptoms, and physiological indicators of epidermal barrier function. Results There were 471 (80.4%, 49 (8.4%, 52 (8.9%, and 14 (2.4% cases in the full-face, cheek, nasal and perioral groups, respectively. Compared with the healthy control, the full-face group had lower water content and higher transepidermal water loss (TEWL in the cheeks, and chin; the perioral group had lower water content and higher TEWL in the chin; while the nasal group had the normal water content and TEWL. Compared with the full-face group, the nasal group had more severe phymatous changes, less severe self-reported and dermatologist-evaluated grading of symptoms. All the patients in the perioral or the nasal group had their first rosacea lesions start and remain at the chin or on the nose. In the full-face group, 55.8% of patients had their lesions start with the full face, 40.1% on the cheek, and the rest (4.1% on the nose. Conclusion Significant differences in clinical features were observed among rosacea patients with lesions at four different sites. The lesion localization of each group was relatively stable and barely transferred to other locations.

  3. Predictors of HIV infection and prevalence for syphilis infection among injection drug users in China: community-based surveys along major drug trafficking routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yujiang; Lu, Fan; Zeng, Gang; Sun, Xinhua; Xiao, Yan; Lu, Lin; Liu, Wei; Ni, Mingjian; Qu, Shuquan; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Jianbo; Wu, Pingsheng; Vermund, Sten H

    2008-08-25

    To assess the predictors and prevalence of HIV infection among injection drug users in highly endemic regions along major drug trafficking routes in three Chinese provinces. We enrolled participants using community outreach and peer referrals. Questionnaire-based interviews provided demographic, drug use, and sexual behavior information. HIV was tested via ELISA and syphilis by RPR. Of the 689 participants, 51.8% were HIV-infected, with persons living in Guangxi having significantly lower prevalence (16.4%) than those from Xinjiang and Yunnan (66.8% and 67.1%, respectively). Syphilis seropositivity was noted in 5.4%. Longer duration of IDU, greater awareness of HIV transmission routes, and living in Xinjiang or Yunnan were associated with HIV seropositivity on multivariable analysis. Independent risk factors differed between sites. In Guangxi, being male and having a longer duration of IDU were independent risk factors for HIV infection; in Xinjiang, older age and sharing needles and/or syringes were independent factors; in Yunnan, more frequent drug injection, greater awareness of HIV transmission routes, and higher income were independent predictors of HIV seropositivity. Prevalence rates of HIV among IDUs in China are more than two out of three in some venues. Risk factors include longer duration of IDU and needle sharing. Also associated with HIV were factors that may indicate some success in education in higher risk persons, such as higher knowledge. A systemic community-level intervention with respect to evidenced-based, population-level interventions to stem the spread of HIV from IDU in China should include needle exchange, opiate agonist-based drug treatment, condom distribution along with promotion, and advocacy for community-based VCT with bridges to HIV preventive services and care.

  4. Analysis of surveying and legal problems in granting right-of-way and expropriation for the purpose of locating technical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembecka, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A condition which determines the location of technical infrastructure is an entrepreneur holding the right to use the property for construction purposes. Currently, there are parallel separate legal forms allowing the use of a real property for the purpose of locating transmission lines, i.e. transmission easement (right-of-way) established under the civil law and expropriation by limiting the rights to a property under the administrative law. The aim of the study is to compare these forms conferring the right to use real properties and to analyze the related surveying and legal problems occurring in practice. The research thesis of the article is ascertainment that the current legal provisions for establishing legal titles to a property in order to locate transmission lines need to be amended. The conducted study regarded legal conditions, extent of expropriation and granting right-of-way in the city of Krakow, as well as the problems associated with the ambiguous wording of the legal regulations. Part of the research was devoted to the form of rights to land in order to carry out similar projects in some European countries (France, Czech Republic, Germany, Sweden). The justification for the analysis of these issues is dictated by the scale of practical use of the aforementioned forms of rights to land in order to locate technical infrastructure. Over the period of 2011-2014, 651 agreements were concluded on granting transmission right-of-way for 967 cadastral parcels owned by the city of Krakow, and 105 expropriation decisions were issued, limiting the use of real properties in Krakow.

  5. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    A behaviourally realistic description of the route choice process should consider variables that are both observable, such as travel time and cost, and unobservable, such as attitudes, perceptions, spatial abilities and network knowledge. This manuscript focuses on automotive route choice behaviour...... by proposing a methodology for collecting and analyzing behavioural indicators and modelling route choices of individuals driving habitually from home to their workplace. A web-based survey was designed to collect attitudinal data and observed route choices among faculty and staff members of Turin Polytechnic....... A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...

  6. Geodetic Control Points, NGS_Control Points - Published National Geodetic Survey Markers located in Glynn County that were either set or recovered by County staff., Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Glynn County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Control Points dataset current as of 2009. NGS_Control Points - Published National Geodetic Survey Markers located in Glynn County that were either set or...

  7. Global Locator, Local Locator, and Identifier Split (GLI-Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Menth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The locator/identifier split is an approach for a new addressing and routing architecture to make routing in the core of the Internet more scalable. Based on this principle, we developed the GLI-Split framework, which separates the functionality of current IP addresses into a stable identifier and two independent locators, one for routing in the Internet core and one for edge networks. This makes routing in the Internet more stable and provides more flexibility for edge networks. GLI-Split can be incrementally deployed and it is backward-compatible with the IPv6 Internet. We describe its architecture, compare it to other approaches, present its benefits, and finally present a proof-of-concept implementation of GLI-Split.

  8. Routing in opportunistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

  9. Evolutionary algorithms for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bräysy, Olli; Dullaert, Wout; Gendreau, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys the research on evolutionary algorithms for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). The VRPTW can be described as the problem of designing least cost routes from a single depot to a set of geographically scattered points. The routes must be designed in such a way

  10. 75 FR 66344 - Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA AGENCY... action proposes to amend Jet Route J-93 in California between the Julian VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range... is necessary to realign Jet Route J-93 with the revised location of the Penasco VOR. The Proposal The...

  11. The Torus Routing Chip

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dally, William J; Seitz, Charles L

    1986-01-01

    The torus routing chip (TRC) is a self-timed chip that performs deadlock-free cut-through routing in k-ary n-cube multiprocessor interconnection networks using a new method of deadlock avoidance called virtual channels...

  12. Hazmat Routes (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes (NTAD) were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  13. Toward Compact Interdomain Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Krioukov, Dmitri; claffy, kc

    2005-01-01

    Despite prevailing concerns that the current Internet interdomain routing system will not scale to meet the needs of the 21st century global Internet, networking research has not yet led to the construction of a new routing architecture with satisfactory and mathematically provable scalability characteristics. Worse, continuing empirical trends of the existing routing and topology structure of the Internet are alarming: the foundational principles of the current routing and addressing archite...

  14. Location and analysis of sediment samples collected in 2014 by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY (Esri point shapefile, GCS WGS 84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geophysical and sampling survey in October 2014 that focused on a series of shoreface-attached ridges offshore of...

  15. User habits and multimodal route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Katona

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of route planning researches are monitored by logistic and automotive industries. The economic aspects of the cost saving are in the focus of the attention. An optimal route could cause time or fuel savings. An effective driving or an optimal route is a good basis to achieve an economical aim. Moreover the spread of new automotive solutions especially in case of electric cars the optimisation has particular significance regarding the limited battery storage. Additionally the autonomous car development could not be neglected. As a result the society could expect safer roads, better space usage and effective resource management. Nevertheless the requirements of users are extremely diverse, which is not negligible. Supporting these aims, in this paper the connection between the multimodal route planning and the user requirements are investigated. The examination is focused to a sensitivity analysis and a survey to evaluate the data and support the settings of a user habit effect to the final route.

  16. Levantamento das aves marinhas no percurso Rio de Janeiro: Bahia (Brasil A survey of the marine birds in the route Rio de Janeiro: Bahía (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Pacheco Coelho

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine birds were surveyed between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, latitudes 24º44'S and 17º50'S, from July to September 1984. Sixteen species were recorded belonging to six families, with most sightings occurring between 24º44'S and 22º3$'S. Data suggest two distinct communities, the more southerly one is represented by Daption capense and the one further north by Puffinus gravis.

  17. A survey of the reasons patients do not chose percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy (PEG/PEJ) as a route for long-term feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chan; Li, Mei-Hui; Watson, Roger

    2011-03-01

    To investigate why patients do not choose percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy as a route for long-term feeding. Home enteral tube feeding is well recognised as a valuable therapeutic option for patients requiring nutritional support following discharge from hospital. The number of patients discharged from hospital and receiving home enteral tube feeding increases annually in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study. Participants (n = 607) were chosen from one free-standing home care agency and three hospital-based home care departments in Taipei. A review of the patients' records to gather demographic data, medical diagnosis, length of home care and length of intubation prior to the home visit was conducted. A face-to-face interview was conducted at the time of the home visit. The prevalence rate of home enteral tube feeding was 70.3% (n = 427). Of the 427 tube-fed subjects, 93.4% were fed with a nasogastric tube. The most common reasons for refusing to use percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy were 'too old to suffer from an operation', 'worried about wound infection or leakage after performing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy' and 'to keep subjects' body integrity'. Stroke, no dementia, poor activities of daily living and poor cognitive status were significant predictors of being tube-fed, while higher education and better cognitive status were significant predictors of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy use. The reasons patients refused to use percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy reflect the influence of cultural values and the level of patients' education, which home health care nurses need to discuss with patients in detail. Investigating patients' perspective on the meaning of 'body' in Taiwanese culture and the decision-making processes related to home enteral tube feeding is recommended for nurses to provide

  18. A Survey on Investigating the Need for Intelligent Power-Aware Load Balanced Routing Protocols for Handling Critical Links in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sivakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks connectivity is always an issue of concern. Due to dynamism in the behavior of mobile nodes, efficiency shall be achieved only with the assumption of good network infrastructure. Presence of critical links results in deterioration which should be detected in advance to retain the prevailing communication setup. This paper discusses a short survey on the specialized algorithms and protocols related to energy efficient load balancing for critical link detection in the recent literature. This paper also suggests a machine learning based hybrid power-aware approach for handling critical nodes via load balancing.

  19. [Sociodemographic and mental health risk factors: Global and local conditions according to the Survey results "mental health in the general population" in 18 international locations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaud, F; Benradia, I; Bouet, R; Caria, A; Roelandt, J L

    2017-12-01

    Mental Health in General Population survey (MHGP) is a socio-anthropological and epidemiological multicentre research carried out by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health (Lille, France). It assessed the prevalence of major mental disorders in the general population with 15,747 people aged 18 years and above in 18 sites worldwide: 6 European sites, 4 sites in the Maghreb, 4 sites in the Indian Ocean, 2 sites in the Caribbean and two sites in the Pacific Ocean. To assess the risk of the presence of at least one mental disorder in terms of sociodemographic factors (gender, age, marital status, family income, education level, professional activity, religious practice and social isolation) and location (zone [Europe, North Africa, Indian Ocean, Caribbean Islands and the Indian Ocean Islands] and "investigation site"). Statistical analysis was performed using data collected in 18 international sites of the MHGP survey. Logistic regression was used to model the relationship between sociodemographic and geographic factors and the presence of at least one disorder (mood disorder, anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder, abuse or dependence on alcohol or drugs), evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) diagnostic questionnaire. The prevalence of mental disorders rates vary among 18 sites, ranging from 15.5 % (Andorra) to 60 % (Algiers). The adjusted global epidemiological model (18 cluster sites) confirms a decreased level of risk of at least a psychiatric pathology due to a favorable sociodemographic "profile": marital status (married), family income (higher), age group (60 years and above), educational level (university), gender (male), practice of religion (among believers), employment (exercised). Analysis at geographical situation's level confirms existence of sub socio-geo-demographic models differentiated by ranking and levels of variables' modalities. Classification of variables and their

  20. UN ALGORITMO METAHEURÍSTICO BASADO EN RECOCIDO SIMULADO CON ESPACIO DE BÚSQUEDA GRANULAR PARA EL PROBLEMA DE LOCALIZACIÓN Y RUTEO CON RESTRICCIONES DE CAPACIDAD A META-HEURISTIC ALGORITHM BASED ON THE SIMULATED ANNEALING WITH GRANULAR SEARCH SPACE FOR THE CAPACITATED LOCATION ROUTING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Willmer Escobar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Consideramos el problema de localización y ruteo con restricciones de capacidad (CLRP, en el cual la meta es determinar los depósitos a ser abiertos, los clientes a ser asignados a cada depósito abierto, y las rutas a ser construidas para satisfacer las demandas de los clientes. El objetivo es minimizar la suma de los costos de abrir depósitos, de los costos de los vehículos usados, y de los costos variables asociados con la distancia recorrida por las rutas. En este paper, proponemos una metaheurística basada en simulado y recocido con espacio de búsqueda granular para resolver el problema CLRP. Experimentos computacionales en instancias de benchmarking tomadas de la literatura muestran que el algoritmo propuesto es capaz de obtener, dentro de tiempos computacionales razonables, soluciones de alta calidad mostrando su eficacia.The article deals with the Capacitated Location Routing Problem (CLRP where the goal is to determine the depots to be opened, the customers to be assigned to each deposit opened, and the routes to be constructed for fulfilling customers' demands. The objective is to minimize the sum of costs resulting from opening depots, costs resulting from used vehicles, and variable costs associated to the distance across the routes. In this paper, a metaheuristic based on simulated annealing with granular search space for solving the CLRP is proposed. Computational experiments on benchmarking instances taken from literature show that the proposed algorithm is able to obtain high-quality solutions within reasonable computational times, thus showing its efficiency.

  1. Multicast Routing of Hierarchical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Nachum

    1992-01-01

    The issue of multicast of broadband, real-time data in a heterogeneous environment, in which the data recipients differ in their reception abilities, is considered. Traditional multicast schemes, which are designed to deliver all the source data to all recipients, offer limited performance in such an environment, since they must either force the source to overcompress its signal or restrict the destination population to those who can receive the full signal. We present an approach for resolving this issue by combining hierarchical source coding techniques, which allow recipients to trade off reception bandwidth for signal quality, and sophisticated routing algorithms that deliver to each destination the maximum possible signal quality. The field of hierarchical coding is briefly surveyed and new multicast routing algorithms are presented. The algorithms are compared in terms of network utilization efficiency, lengths of paths, and the required mechanisms for forwarding packets on the resulting paths.

  2. SED_ARCHIVE - Database for the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples, including locations, sample data and collection information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community for over 40 years. In that time...

  3. Sound velocity profile locations collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY in 2011 (Geographic, WGS 84, Esri Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped approximately 336 square kilometers of the lower shoreface and inner-continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York in...

  4. Location of Sea-Floor Photographs Acquired During U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) field activity 05007 (RAFA05007) from Quicks Hole, Massachusetts (RAF05007_BOTPHOTOS shapefile, Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  5. Grab Sample Locations & Surficial Sediment Texture collected by the U.S. Geological Survey 1999-2003 offshore of the Grand Strand, South Carolina region (GRABS, Point shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  6. Locations and analysis of sediment samples collected in the Duxbury to Hull Massachusetts survey area (DH_SedimentSamples shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal...

  7. Locations of Sea-Floor Photographs Acquired During U.S. Geological Survey Cruise 09059 Offshore of Rocky Point, New York (RAFA09059_RPBOTPHOTOS, Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  8. Locations of bottom photographs collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_BOTTOMPHOTOS Esri Shapefile, Geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal...

  9. Location and analysis of microfossil samples from vibracores collected by the U.S. Geological Survey within Apalachicola Bay, Florida, 2007 (APP-07_Microfossils, points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 24 vibracores within Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vibracores were collected using a Rossfelder electric percussive...

  10. JPEG images of seismic reflection profiles with adjacent vibracore locations collected by the U.S. Geological Survey within Apalachicola Bay, Florida (2005-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 24 vibracores within Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vibracores were collected using a Rossfelder electric vibracore...

  11. Location of radiocarbon age dates sampled from vibracores collected by the U.S. Geological Survey within Apalachicola Bay, Florida, 2007 (APP-07_AgeDates, points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 24 vibracores within Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vibracores were collected using a Rossfelder electric percussive...

  12. Location of Sea Floor Photographs Acquired During U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cruise 2011-006-FA in Rhode Island Sound (2011-006_995BOTPHOTOS, Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  13. Vehicle Routing in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2010-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. In industry and the public sector, vehicle routing tools provide substantial savings every day. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently ...

  14. A THEMIS Survey of Flux Ropes and Traveling Compression Regions: Location of the Near-Earth Reconnection Site During Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Auster, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2011-01-01

    A statistical study of flux ropes and traveling compression regions (TCRs) during the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) second tail season has been performed. A combined total of 135 flux ropes and TCRs in the range GSM X approx -14 to -31 R(sub E) were identified, many of these occurring in series of two or more events separated by a few tens of seconds. Those occurring within 10 min of each other were combined into aggregated reconnection events. For the purposes of this survey, these are most likely the products of reconnect ion occurring simultaneously at multiple, closely spaced x-lines as opposed to statistically independent episodes of reconnection. The 135 flux ropes and TCRs were grouped into 87 reconnection events; of these, 28 were moving tailward and 59 were moving Earthward. The average location of the near-Earth x-line determined from statistical analysis of these reconnection events is (X(sub GSM), Y*(sub GSM)) = (-30R(sub E), 5R(sub E)), where Y* includes a correction for the solar aberration angle. A strong east-west asymmetry is present in the tailward events, with >80% being observed at GSM Y* > O. Our results indicate that the Earthward flows are similarly asymmetric in the midtail region, becoming more symmetric inside - 18 R(sub E). Superposed epoch analyses indicate that the occurrence of reconnection closer to the Earth, i.e., X > -20 R(sub E), is associated with elevated solar wind velocity and enhanced negative interplanetary magnetic field B(sub z). Reconnection events taking place closer to the Earth are also far more effective in producing geomagnetic activity, judged by the AL index, than reconnection initiated beyond X approx -25 R(sub E).

  15. Analytical correlation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Tingrong

    2008-01-01

    In Kleinrock and Kamoun's paper, the inverse relation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model is illustrated. In this paper we give the analytical correlation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model.

  16. Understanding Route Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    ERX Routing Protocols Configuration Guide, Vol. 2,” Juniper. [10] L. Gao and J. Rexford, “Stable Internet Routing Without Global Coor- dination,” in...Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, 2000. [11] T. Griffin, F. B. Shepherd, and G. T. Wilfong, “The stable paths problem and interdomain routing.” IEEE/ACM Trans...and G. Xie, “On Guidelines for Safe Route Redistributions,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Internet Network Management Workshop, 2007. [14] J. L. Sobrinho

  17. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  18. Route Availabililty Planning Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Route Availability Planning Tool (RAPT) is a weather-assimilated decision support tool (DST) that supports the development and execution of departure management...

  19. Field Division Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multihop communication objectives and constraints impose a set of challenging requirements that create difficult conditions for simultaneous optimization of features such as scalability and performance. Routing in wireless multihop networks represents a crucial component of the overall network efficacy because it is a lower layer that enables the actual functionality of networks. We have developed field division routing (FDR, a distributed and nonhierarchical routing protocol that aims to coordinated addressing of scalability, topology alternations, latency, throughput, energy efficiency, and local storage requirements. FDR is based upon two optimization mechanisms: a reactive and focused diffusion that collects only network topology information directly required for making localized routing decisions, and a protocol for sharing routing information among neighboring nodes. Routing table initialization and maintenance are scalable in terms of both storage and overhead traffic necessary for building routing tables. FDR provides guaranteed connectivity while providing near-optimal all-node-pairs message delivery. The protocol is also power-efficient to a wide spectrum of topology changes that induce relatively few messages to update routing tables network-wide. We analyzed the new routing protocol both theoretically and using simulation.

  20. Gene Locater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Sehar, Anoosha; Rehman, Inayat-Ur

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Locating genes on a chromosome is important for understanding the gene function and its linkage and recombination. Knowledge of gene positions on chromosomes is necessary for annotation. The study is essential for disease genetics and genomics, among other aspects. Currently available...... software's for calculating recombination frequency is mostly limited to the range and flexibility of this type of analysis. GENE LOCATER is a fully customizable program for calculating recombination frequency, written in JAVA. Through an easy-to-use interface, GENE LOCATOR allows users a high degree...

  1. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours. The map below does not display...

  2. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  3. Synthetic Aperture Sonar Survey to Locate Archaeological Resources in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary on NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries vessel SRVx between 20100823 and 20100901

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SAS technology exemplifies recent advances in geophysical survey technology that will revolutionize maritime archaeological remote sensing. Applied Signal Technology...

  4. Arctic PRISM Shorebird Location and Plot Survey Geodatabase. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management (2012).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This dataset consists of shorebird surveys conducted as part of the Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM). This dataset was derived...

  5. A Critique of Adaptive Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Pertel, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    This report refutes claims that adaptive routing performs better than dimension-order routing. Simulation results are presented that show dimension-order routing achieves both higher throughput and lower latency than adaptive routing. Specious claims for the advantages of adaptive routing are critiqued.

  6. BGP-Based Routing Configuration Management for Multidomain Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    extend the network management system to exterior routing configuration in dynamically changed topology. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Routing in the Internet ...in is mostly based on BGP protocol [1]. The Internet is in fact the composition of autonomous systems (AS), each of them is independently...Bruin, O. Bonaventure, Open Issues in Interdomain Routing: A Survey, IEEE Network Magazine,Volume 19, 11.2005 [7] D. Street, Global Information Grid

  7. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  8. Coordinated Optimization of Aircraft Routes and Locations of Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-17

    aircraft, de- noted with superscript UAS, as follows (a comma stands for merging ma- trices row-wise, and a semicolon stands for merging column-wise...O’Rourke, J. 1987. Art gallery theorems and algorithms. New York: Oxford University Press. Osman, I. H. 1993. Metastrategy simulated annealing and tabu

  9. An investigation of multilevel refinement in routing and location problems

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney, Demane O'Neil

    2008-01-01

    Multilevel refinement is a collaborative hierarchical solution technique. The multilevel technique aims to enhance the solution process of optimisation problems by improving the asymptotic convergence in the quality of solutions produced by its underlying local search heuristics and/or improving the convergence rate of these heuristics. To these aims, the central methodologies of the multilevel technique are filtering solutions from the search space (via coarsening), reducing the amount of pr...

  10. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  11. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  12. Indoor Space Location Model Based on Location Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Zeng, G.; Huang, Y.; Yang, X.

    2017-10-01

    Location is the basis for the realization of location services, the integrity of the location information and its way of representation in indoor space model directly restricts the quality of location services. The construction of the existing indoor space model is mostly for specific applications and lack of uniform representation of location information. Several geospatial standards have been developed to meet the requirement of the indoor spatial information system, among which CityGML LOD4 and IndoorGML are the most relevant ones for indoor spatial information. However, from the perspective of Location Based Service (LBS), the CityGML LOD4 is more inclined to visualize the indoor space. Although IndoorGML is mainly used for indoor space navigation and has description (such as geometry, topology, and semantics) benefiting for indoor LBS, this standard model lack explicit representation of indoor location information. In this paper, from the perspective of Location Based Service (LBS), based on the IndoorGML standard, an indoor space location model (ISLM) conforming to human cognition is proposed through integration of the geometric and topological and semantic features of the indoor spatial entity. This model has the explicit description of location information which the standard indoor space model of IndoorGML and CityGML LOD4 does not have, which can lay the theoretical foundation for indoor location service such as indoor navigation, indoor routing and location query.

  13. Industrial Vehicle Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2008-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently solve VRP instances with more than 50-100 customers in reasonable time, which is generally a sma...

  14. Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Route Special Education Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Dewey, James F.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Corbett, Nancy L.; Denslow, David; Lotfinia, Babik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors estimated costs of alternative route preparation to provide states a basis for allocating training funds to maximize production. Thirty-one special education alternative route program directors were interviewed and completed cost tables. Two hundred and twenty-four program graduates were also surveyed. The authors…

  15. Genetic algorithm for flood detection and evacuation route planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Rahul; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    A genetic-type algorithm is presented that uses satellite geospatial data to determine the most probable path to safety for individuals in a disaster area, where a traditional routing system cannot be used. The algorithm uses geological features and disaster information to determine the shortest safe path. It predicts how a flood can change a landform over time and uses this data to predict alternate routes. It also predicts safe routes in rural locations where GPS/map-based routing data is unavailable or inaccurate. Reflectance and a supervised classification algorithm are used and the output is compared with RFPI and PCR-GLOBWB data.

  16. Routing Slips from the Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Joan

    1972-01-01

    To facilitate the routing of periodicals, a computerized system of printing and updating routing lists was designed to replace a manual one. A computer program generates a data base of staff routing choices and prints out routing slips for each periodical. (Author/NH)

  17. Collective network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  18. Predicting the Operational Acceptability of Route Advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Antony; Lee, Paul

    2017-01-01

    NASA envisions a future Air Traffic Management system that allows safe, efficient growth in global operations, enabled by increasing levels of automation and autonomy. In a safety-critical system, the introduction of increasing automation and autonomy has to be done in stages, making human-system integrated concepts critical in the foreseeable future. One example where this is relevant is for tools that generate more efficient flight routings or reroute advisories. If these routes are not operationally acceptable, they will be rejected by human operators, and the associated benefits will not be realized. Operational acceptance is therefore required to enable the increased efficiency and reduced workload benefits associated with these tools. In this paper, the authors develop a predictor of operational acceptability for reroute advisories. Such a capability has applications in tools that identify more efficient routings around weather and congestion and that better meet airline preferences. The capability is based on applying data mining techniques to flight plan amendment data reported by the Federal Aviation Administration and data on requested reroutes collected from a field trial of the NASA developed Dynamic Weather Routes tool, which advised efficient route changes to American Airlines dispatchers in 2014. 10-Fold cross validation was used for feature, model and parameter selection, while nested cross validation was used to validate the model. The model performed well in predicting controller acceptance or rejection of a route change as indicated by chosen performance metrics. Features identified as relevant to controller acceptance included the historical usage of the advised route, the location of the maneuver start point relative to the boundaries of the airspace sector containing the maneuver start (the maneuver start sector), the reroute deviation from the original flight plan, and the demand level in the maneuver start sector. A random forest with forty

  19. Reliable Internet Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    subprefixes. We refer to this attack as sub-prefix hijacking. 66 There are other variants of prefix hijacking, such as wormhole [49] attacks. Wormhole attacks...are a countermeasure the adversary can employ against secure routing protocols. Wormhole attacks are not discussed in this chapter because in our

  20. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  1. Whirlpool routing for mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present the Whirlpool Routing Protocol (WARP), which efficiently routes data to a node moving within a static mesh. The key insight in WARP\\'s design is that data traffic can use an existing routing gradient to efficiently probe the topology, repair the routing gradient, and communicate these repairs to nearby nodes. Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP\\'s behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP\\'s packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

  2. A multi-parametric evolution strategies algorithm for vehicle routing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, David; Bräysy, Olli; Dullaert, Wout

    Vehicle routing problems are at the heart of most decision support systems for real-life distribution problems. In vehicle routing problem a set of routes must be determined at lowest total cost for a number of resources (i.e. fleet of vehicles) located at one or several points (e.g. depots,

  3. Would You Follow Your Own Route Description? Cognitive Strategies in Urban Route Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Christoph; Tenbrink, Thora; Wiener, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper disentangles cognitive and communicative factors influencing planning strategies in the everyday task of choosing a route to a familiar location. Describing the way for a stranger in town calls for fundamentally different cognitive processes and strategies than actually walking to a destination. In a series of experiments, this paper…

  4. Documentation of the Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process for modeling surface-water flow with the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Chartier, Kevin L.; White, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    A flexible Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process that solves the continuity equation for one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface-water flow routing has been developed for the U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater model, MODFLOW-2005. Simple level- and tilted-pool reservoir routing and a diffusive-wave approximation of the Saint-Venant equations have been implemented. Both methods can be implemented in the same model and the solution method can be simplified to represent constant-stage elements that are functionally equivalent to the standard MODFLOW River or Drain Package boundary conditions. A generic approach has been used to represent surface-water features (reaches) and allows implementation of a variety of geometric forms. One-dimensional geometric forms include rectangular, trapezoidal, and irregular cross section reaches to simulate one-dimensional surface-water features, such as canals and streams. Two-dimensional geometric forms include reaches defined using specified stage-volume-area-perimeter (SVAP) tables and reaches covering entire finite-difference grid cells to simulate two-dimensional surface-water features, such as wetlands and lakes. Specified SVAP tables can be used to represent reaches that are smaller than the finite-difference grid cell (for example, isolated lakes), or reaches that cannot be represented accurately using the defined top of the model. Specified lateral flows (which can represent point and distributed flows) and stage-dependent rainfall and evaporation can be applied to each reach. The SWR1 Process can be used with the MODFLOW Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF1) Package to permit dynamic simulation of runoff from the land surface to specified reaches. Surface-water/groundwater interactions in the SWR1 Process are mathematically defined to be a function of the difference between simulated stages and groundwater levels, and the specific form of the reach conductance equation used in each reach. Conductance can be

  5. The contribution of snacks to dietary intake and their association with eating location among Norwegian adults - results from a cross-sectional dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Jannicke B; Løken, Elin B; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene F

    2015-04-12

    Snack consumption has been reported to increase over recent decades. Little is known about possible associations between snack composition and snack eating location. In the present study, we aimed to describe the contribution of snacks to dietary intake in Norwegian adults and to investigate whether the composition of snacks differed according to where they were eaten. Dietary data were collected in 2010 and 2011 using two telephone administered 24 h recalls about four weeks apart. In total, 1787 participants aged 18-70 years completed two recalls. The recorded eating locations were at home, other private household, work/school, restaurant/cafe/fast-food outlet and travel/meeting. Snacks contributed to 17% and 21% of the energy intake in men and women, respectively. Compared with main meals, snacks had a higher fiber density (g/MJ) and contained a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrates, added sugars and alcohol, while the percentages of energy from fat and protein were lower. The top five energy-contributing food groups from snacks were cakes, fruits, sugar/sweets, bread and alcoholic beverages. Snacks were mostly eaten at home (58% of all snacks) or at work/school (23% of all snacks). Snacks consumed at work/school contained less energy, had a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrates and had lower percentages of energy from added sugars, alcohol and fat than snacks consumed at home. Snacks consumed during visits to private households and at restaurants/cafe/fast-food outlets contained more energy, had a higher percentage of energy from fat and had a lower fiber density than snacks consumed at home. We conclude that snacks are an important part of the diet and involve the consumption of both favorable and less favorable foods. Snacks eaten at home or at work/school were generally healthier than snacks consumed during visits to other private households or at restaurants/cafe/fast-food outlets. Nutritional educators should recommend healthy snack

  6. Integrated magnetic, gravity, and GPR surveys to locate the probable source of hydrocarbon contamination in Sharm El-Sheikh area, south Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mona; Rashed, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Sharm El-Sheikh waters were suddenly hit by hydrocarbon spills which created a serious threat to the prosperous tourism industry in and around the city. Analysis of soil samples, water samples, and seabed samples collected in and around the contaminated bay area showed anomalous levels of hydrocarbons. An integrated geophysical investigation, using magnetic, gravity, and ground penetrating radar geophysical tools, was conducted in the headland overlooking the contaminated bay in order to delineate the possible subsurface source of contamination. The results of the geophysical investigations revealed three underground manmade reinforced concrete tanks and a complicated network of buried steel pipes in addition to other unidentified buried objects. The depths and dimensions of the discovered objects were determined. Geophysical investigations also revealed the presence of a north-south oblique slip fault running through the eastern part of the studied area. Excavations, conducted later on, confirmed the presence of one of the tanks delineated by the geophysical surveys.

  7. 3D Building Evacuation Route Modelling and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W.; Armenakis, C.

    2014-11-01

    The most common building evacuation approach currently applied is to have evacuation routes planned prior to these emergency events. These routes are usually the shortest and most practical path from each building room to the closest exit. The problem with this approach is that it is not adaptive. It is not responsively configurable relative to the type, intensity, or location of the emergency risk. Moreover, it does not provide any information to the affected persons or to the emergency responders while not allowing for the review of simulated hazard scenarios and alternative evacuation routes. In this paper we address two main tasks. The first is the modelling of the spatial risk caused by a hazardous event leading to choosing the optimal evacuation route for a set of options. The second is to generate a 3D visual representation of the model output. A multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach is used to model the risk aiming at finding the optimal evacuation route. This is achieved by using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) on the criteria describing the different alternative evacuation routes. The best route is then chosen to be the alternative with the least cost. The 3D visual representation of the model displays the building, the surrounding environment, the evacuee's location, the hazard location, the risk areas and the optimal evacuation pathway to the target safety location. The work has been performed using ESRI's ArcGIS. Using the developed models, the user can input the location of the hazard and the location of the evacuee. The system then determines the optimum evacuation route and displays it in 3D.

  8. The impact of meeting locations for men having sex with men on the risk for bacterial sexually transmitted infections: analyses from a cross-sectional online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, U; an der Heiden, M; Gassowski, M; Kruspe, M; Drewes, J

    2015-11-04

    Opportunities for men having sex with men (MSM) to meet each other have very much improved by new communication technologies. Meeting venue-based characteristics can impact how many partners are met and how much sexual risk is taken. We analysed the association between physical and virtual venues and the risk for bacterial sexually transmitted infections (bSTIs) among participants in an MSM online survey. Data were collected during 2013/2014 with a survey targeting MSM living in Germany. The impact of the meeting place with the last non-steady anal sex partner on diagnosis with a bSTI in the previous year was analysed using bivariate and multivariate regression analysis, taking into account self-reported HIV status, serostatus communication, condom use, partner number, age and city size. The study sample consisted of 8878 respondents (7799 not diagnosed with HIV; 1079 diagnosed with HIV). Meeting partners online was most common (62% HIV-/51% HIV+), followed by sex venues (11% HIV-/25% HIV+); other venues were each reported by 2-6% of the respondents. Venue-dependent proportions reporting bSTIs in the recent year were 2-4 folds higher among men diagnosed with HIV. In multivariate analysis, HIV status was the strongest predictor for bSTIs (OR=5.0; 95% CI 2.8 to 8.7). Compared with meeting partners online, sex (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5) and social venues (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.6) were associated with increased bSTI risk for men not diagnosed with HIV, but the risk when meeting partners by smartphone apps was only of borderline significance (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9 to 2.3). For men diagnosed with HIV, bSTI risk increased for sex venues (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1), and was lower for non-gay/other venues (OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5). Venues are connected to social-behavioural facets of corresponding sexual encounters, and may be important arenas for differential HIV and STI education, treatment and prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  9. Sediment sample locations and grain size results from samples collected in Barnegat Bay, NJ by the U.S. Geological Survey during 3 surveys in 2012 and 2013 (Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Water quality in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary along the New Jersey coast is the focus of a multidisciplinary research project begun in 2011 by the U.S....

  10. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  11. Occurrence of radon in the Polish underground tourist routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are about 200 underground tourist routes in Poland. There are caves, mines or underground structures. This paper presents the results of the research intended to identify the extent of the occurrence of radon concentrations in underground areas of tourist routes. Material and Methods: We conducted the measurement of periodic concentrations of radon (1–2 months in the summer using type Tastrak trace detectors. We determined the average concentrations of radon in air in 66 underground tourist routes in Poland. Results: The research results comprise 259 determinations of average radon concentrations in 66 routes. The arithmetic average of the results was 1610 Bqm–3, and the maximum measured concentration was over 20 000 Bqm–3. The minimum concentration was 100 Bqm–3 (threshold method considering the arithmetic average of the measurements. It was found that in 67% of the routes, the average concentration of radon has exceeded 300 Bqm–3 and in 22 underground routes it exceeded 1000 Bqm–3. Conclusions: Radon which occurs in many Polish underground tourist routes may be an organizational, legal and health problem. It is necessary to develop a program of measures to reduce radon concentrations in underground routes, especially routes located in the former mines. Med Pr 2015;66(4:557–563

  12. The implementation of multi-task geophysical survey to locate Cleopatra Tomb at Tap-Osiris Magna, Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt “Phase II”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Abbas

    2012-06-01

    VLF-EM data were collected along parallel lines covering the investigated site with a line-to-line spacing of 1 m. The point-to-point distance of 1 m along the same line was employed. The data were qualitatively interpreted by Fraser filtering process and quantitatively by 2-D VLF inversion of tipper data and forward modeling. Results obtained from VLF-EM interpretation are correlated with 2-D resistivity imaging and drilling information. Findings showed a highly resistive zone at a depth extended from about 25–45 m buried beneath Osiris temple, which could be indicated as the tomb of Cleopatra and Anthony. This result is supported by Fraser filtering and forward modeling results. The depth of archeological findings as indicated from the geophysical survey is correlated well with the depth expected by archeologists, as well as, the depth of discovered tombs outside Tap-Osiris Magna temple. This depth level has not been reached by drilling in this site. We hope that the site can be excavated in the future based on these geophysical results.

  13. Stochastic vehicle routing with recourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand inst...

  14. Robust Dynamic Multi-objective Vehicle Routing Optimization Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-Nan; Cheng, Jian; Luo, Sha; Gong, Dun-Wei

    2017-03-21

    For dynamic multi-objective vehicle routing problems, the waiting time of vehicle, the number of serving vehicles, the total distance of routes were normally considered as the optimization objectives. Except for above objectives, fuel consumption that leads to the environmental pollution and energy consumption was focused on in this paper. Considering the vehicles' load and the driving distance, corresponding carbon emission model was built and set as an optimization objective. Dynamic multi-objective vehicle routing problems with hard time windows and randomly appeared dynamic customers, subsequently, were modeled. In existing planning methods, when the new service demand came up, global vehicle routing optimization method was triggered to find the optimal routes for non-served customers, which was time-consuming. Therefore, robust dynamic multi-objective vehicle routing method with two-phase is proposed. Three highlights of the novel method are: (i) After finding optimal robust virtual routes for all customers by adopting multi-objective particle swarm optimization in the first phase, static vehicle routes for static customers are formed by removing all dynamic customers from robust virtual routes in next phase. (ii)The dynamically appeared customers append to be served according to their service time and the vehicles' statues. Global vehicle routing optimization is triggered only when no suitable locations can be found for dynamic customers. (iii)A metric measuring the algorithms' robustness is given. The statistical results indicated that the routes obtained by the proposed method have better stability and robustness, but may be sub-optimum. Moreover, time-consuming global vehicle routing optimization is avoided as dynamic customers appear.

  15. Routing of Electric Vehicles: City Distribution in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Esben; Larsen, Allan; Nørrelund, Anders Vedsted

    In this work, a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows considering EV constraints of limited driving range and freight capacity is addressed (EVRPTW). The EVs are allowed to recharge at certain locations, and aspects of intelligent location of these recharging points are considered. The object...

  16. Low back pain beliefs are associated to age, location of work, education and pain-related disability in Chinese healthcare professionals working in China: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B-K; Smith, Anne J; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Chen, Gang; Burnett, Angus F; Briggs, Andrew M

    2014-07-28

    Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Evidence pointing towards a more efficacious model of care using a biopsychosocial approach for LBP management highlights the need to understand the pain-related beliefs of patients and those who treat them. The beliefs held by healthcare professionals (HCPs) are known to influence the treatment advice given to patients and consequently management outcomes. Back pain beliefs are known to be influenced by factors such as culture, education, health literacy, place of work, personal experience of LBP and the sequelae of LBP such as disability. There is currently a knowledge gap among these relationships in non-western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between LBP-related beliefs among Chinese HCPs and characteristics of these HCPs. A convenience sample of 432 HCPs working in various health settings in Shanghai, China, completed a series of questionnaires assessing their demographic characteristics, LBP status, pain-related disability and their beliefs about their own LBP experience, using the Back beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) and the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ). Younger Chinese HCPs (20-29 years) held more negative beliefs and attitudes related to LBP compared to older HCPs (>40years; BBQ mean difference [95% CI]: 2.4 [0.9 - 3.9], p = 0.001). HCPs working outside tertiary hospitals had poorer beliefs concerning the inevitable consequences of LBP (BBQ mean difference [95% CI]: -2.4 [-3.8 - -1.0], p = 0.001). HCPs who experienced LBP had higher level of fear avoidance beliefs when experiencing high LBP-related disability (FABQ-physical mean difference [95% CI]: 2.8 [1.5 - 4.1], p beliefs if they had completed postgraduate study (FABQ-physical mean difference [95% CI]: 2.9 [-5.8 - 0.0], p = 0.049). This study suggests that LBP-related beliefs and attitudes among Chinese HCPs are influenced by age, location of work, level of LBP-related disability and education

  17. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  18. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  19. 14 CFR 221.41 - Routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routing. 221.41 Section 221.41 Aeronautics... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Contents of Tariff § 221.41 Routing. (a) Required routing. The route or routes over which...) Individually stated routings—Method of publication. The routing required by paragraph (a) of this section shall...

  20. An overview of smart grid routing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; OU, Qinghai; Shen, Haijuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper summarizes the typical routing algorithm in smart grid by analyzing the communication business and communication requirements of intelligent grid. Mainly from the two kinds of routing algorithm is analyzed, namely clustering routing algorithm and routing algorithm, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of typical routing algorithm in routing algorithm and applicability.

  1. Improving routing efficiency through intermediate target based geographic routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongming Fei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The greedy strategy of geographical routing may cause the local minimum problem when there is a hole in the routing area. It depends on other strategies such as perimeter routing to find a detour path, which can be long and result in inefficiency of the routing protocol. In this paper, we propose a new approach called Intermediate Target based Geographic Routing (ITGR to solve the long detour path problem. The basic idea is to use previous experience to determine the destination areas that are shaded by the holes. The novelty of the approach is that a single forwarding path can be used to determine a shaded area that may cover many destination nodes. We design an efficient method for the source to find out whether a destination node belongs to a shaded area. The source then selects an intermediate node as the tentative target and greedily forwards packets to it, which in turn forwards the packet to the final destination by greedy routing. ITGR can combine multiple shaded areas to improve the efficiency of representation and routing. We perform simulations and demonstrate that ITGR significantly reduces the routing path length, compared with existing geographic routing protocols.

  2. Routing of Electric Vehicles: Case Study of City Distribution in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Esben; Larsen, Allan; Nørrelund, Anders Vedsted

    freight magnitude and the distribution of goods in the old city centre. Based on the survey, analysis of possible UCC locations was carried out using simulation. Distribution from the UCC is assumed to be conducted with electric vehicles (EVs) as they are considered suitable for the overall aim. However...... a tour. Furthermore, intelligent location of these recharging points is considered. The objective is to find a least cost plan for routing and recharging the vehicles so that each customer is serviced by exactly one vehicle within its time windows and the vehicle capacity and driving range constraints...... are satisfied. The EVRPTW is a new problem that only has received little attention in the literature; see for example [2] and [3]. The costs are compared to distribution conducted by conventional vehicles. A heuristic method is developed and tested on the data generated on the basis of real-life collected data...

  3. Prairie chicken lek survey 2012 : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring prairie chicken lek surveys in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1963, and is preformed on established survey routes....

  4. Adolescent school travel: Is online mapping a practical alternative to GPS-assessed travel routes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Tom; Schipperijn, Jasper; Snizek, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    AbstractBackground Geographically accurate travel routes are necessary to estimate exposure to the environment and its potential influence on travel behaviour. Although assessing travel behaviours with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers is increasingly common, these protocols place...... noticeable burden on participants and processing these data is time consuming and error-prone. Interactive online mapping surveys allow users to draw their own travel routes, and may offer a time and cost-effective alternative; however, these routes are still self-reported, and their true accuracy remains...... between routes, and how these varied by mode of travel and other route characteristics. Results GPS-assessed routes were longer than the routes participants drew across all travel modes. Routes travelled actively displayed 12.32% higher agreement compared to those travelled passively (p

  5. Degree 3 Networks Topological Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2009-01-01

    Topological routing is a table free alternative to traditional routing methods. It is specially well suited for organized network interconnection schemes. Topological routing algorithms correspond to the type O(1), constant complexity, being very attractive for large scale networks. It has been p...... proposed for many topologies and this work compares the algorithms for three degree three topologies using a more analytical approach than previous studies....

  6. Fish survey, fishing duration, and other data from net trawls in the Bering Sea and other locations from the G. B. REED and other platforms as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 21 September 1948 to 19 February 1976 (NODC Accession 7601767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish survey, fishing duration, and other data were collected from net trawls in the Bering Sea and other locations from the G. B. REED and other platforms from 21...

  7. a Strategy of Designing Routing Algorithms Based on Ideal Routings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjo, K.; Shimogawa, S.; Yamada, J.; Oida, K.

    This paper proposes a strategy of designing routing algorithms for connectionless packet-switched networks. This strategy consists of three design elements as follows: [A] the notion of ideal routings is introduced to provide the upper performance limits attained by improving routing algorithm and it serves as a standard to measure the performance of other algorithms; [B] a method of constructing simple algorithms is presented under implementation conditions from ideal routings; [C] a method is described to enhance the performance limits of [A]. By using these elements, simple algorithms with a maximum degree of performance attainment are realized. By "degree of performance attainment", we mean that we can see how much room is left for the improvement of algorithms. We develop [A] and [B] with the performance measures of throughput and average packet delay and the M/M/1 queuing network. We decide ideal static routings and their performance limits from [A]. We obtain a new simple algorithm from [B] based on the notion of the ideal routings in implementation conditions. The designed algorithm improves the throughput and the average delay, which are comparable to those from ideal static routings. This improvement is contrasted to the adaptive and distributed OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), a standard Internet routing protocol.

  8. Indoor Semantic Modelling for Routing: The Two-Level Routing Approach for Indoor Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liu

    2017-11-01

    stand for their connectivity; the detailed (second level focuses on transition spaces such as openings and Spaces of Interest (SOI, and geometric networks are generated regarding these spaces. Nodes of a geometric network refers to locations of doors, windows and subspaces (SOIs inside of the larger spaces; and the edges represent detailed paths among these geometric nodes. A combination of the two levels can represent complex buildings in specified spaces, which avoids maintaining a largescale complete network. User preferences on ordered SOIs are considered in routing on the logical network, and preferences on ordered Points of Interest (POI are adopted in routing on geometric networks. In a geometric network, accessible obstacle-avoiding paths can be computed for users with different sizes. To facilitate automatic generation of the two types of network in any building, a new data model named Indoor Navigation Space Model (INSM is proposed to store connectivity, semantics and geometry of indoor spaces for buildings. Abundant semantics of building components are designed in INSM based on navigational functionalities, such as VerticalUnit(VU and HorizontalConnector(HC as vertical and horizontal passages for pedestrians. The INSM supports different subdivision ways of a building in which indoor spaces can be assigned proper semantics. A logical and geometric network can be automatically derived from INSM, and they can be used individually or together for indoor routing. Thus, different routing options are designed. Paths can be provided by using either the logical network when some users are satisfied with a rough description of the path (e.g., the name of spaces, or a geometric path is automatically computed for a user who needs only a detailed path which shows how obstacles can be avoided. The two-level routing approach integrates both logical and geometric networks to obtain paths, when a user provides her/his preferences on SOIs and POIs. For example, routing results

  9. Route choice behavior in a radial structured urban network: Do people choose the orbital or the route through the city center?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Tom; Tutert, Bas

    2015-01-01

    We use a license plate survey to study route choice through the city center of a medium-sized Dutch city, in which car drivers can basically choose between the orbital and center ring. For a sample of 1397 trips, we fitted a multinomial logit regression model. According to this model, route choice

  10. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  11. APPROXIMATE MODELS FOR FLOOD ROUTING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. For rapid calculation of the downstream effects» of the propagation of floods due to the collapse of a dam or intense rainfall, two appmximateflood routing models are presented in this paper. A nonlinear technique for. flood routing is developed that respects the physics of floods in waterways. The models are ...

  12. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  13. Preventing Restricted Space Inference in Online Route Planning Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Dorfmeister

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online route planning services compute routes from any given location to a desired destination address. Unlike offline implementations, they do so in a traffic-aware fashion by taking into consideration up-to-date map data and real-time traffic information. In return, users have to provide precise location information about a route’s endpoints to a not necessarily trusted service provider. As suchlike leakage of personal information threatens a user’s privacy and anonymity, this paper presents PrOSPR, a comprehensive approach for using current online route planning services in a privacy-preserving way, and introduces the concept of k-immune route requests to avert inference attacks based on restricted space information. Using a map-based approach for creating cloaked regions for the start and destination addresses, our solution queries the online service for routes between subsets of points from these regions. This, however, might result in the returned path deviating from the optimal route. By means of empirical evaluation on a real road network, we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach regarding quality of service and communication overhead.

  14. Evaluating Trajectory Queries over Imprecise Location Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Scott, Xike; Cheng, Reynold; Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory queries, which retrieve nearby objects for every point of a given route, can be used to identify alerts of potential threats along a vessel route, or monitor the adjacent rescuers to a travel path. However, the locations of these objects (e.g., threats, succours) may not be precisely...... obtained due to hardware limitations of measuring devices, as well as the constantly-changing nature of the external environment. Ignoring data uncertainty can render low query quality, and cause undesirable consequences such as missing alerts of threats and poor response time in rescue operations. Also...

  15. 76 FR 61266 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Grand Teton National Park, Bicycle Routes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ..., Grand Teton National Park, Bicycle Routes, Fishing and Vessels AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... (Park) as routes for bicycle use. National Park Service (NPS) regulations require issuance of a special regulation to designate bicycle routes that are located off park roads and outside developed areas. The first...

  16. Delay Tolerance in Underwater Wireless Communications: A Routing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Hussain Bouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to terrestrial networks, underwater wireless networks (UWNs also aid several critical tasks including coastal surveillance, underwater pollution detection, and other maritime applications. Currently, once underwater sensor nodes are deployed at different levels of the sea, it is nearly impossible or very expensive to reconfigure the hardware, for example, battery. Taking this issue into account, considerable amount of research has been carried out to ensure minimum energy costs and reliable communication between underwater nodes and base stations. As a result, several different network protocols were proposed for UWN, including MAC, PHY, transport, and routing. Recently, a new paradigm was introduced claiming that the intermittent nature of acoustic channel and signal resulted in designing delay tolerant routing schemes for the UWN, known as an underwater delay tolerant network. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of underwater routing protocols with emphasis on the limitations, challenges, and future open issues in the context of delay tolerant network routing.

  17. Time optimal route planning algorithm of LBS online navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Bao, Shitai; Su, Kui; Fang, Qiushui; Yang, Jingfeng

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes a time optimal route planning optimization algorithm in the mode of LBS online navigation based on the improved Dijkstra algorithms. Combined with the returning real-time location information by on-line users' handheld terminals, the algorithm can satisfy requirement of the optimal time in the mode of LBS online navigation. A navigation system is developed and applied in actual navigation operations. Operating results show that the algorithm could form a reasonable coordination on the basis of shortest route and fastest velocity in the requirement of optimal time. The algorithm could also store the calculated real-time route information in the cache to improve the efficiency of route planning and to reduce the planning time-consuming.

  18. Routing Based on Information about the Routes of Fixed-Route Traveling Nodes and on Destination Areas Aimed at Reducing the Load on the DTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Okamoto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in delay/disruption tolerant networking (DTN is growing as a means of communication in times of disaster. To ensure that a DTN works well in an emergency, it is desirable to promote general use of the DTN, so that it will also be used in normal times. Since the DTN uses mobile terminals and vehicles, which are not dedicated network devices, as relay nodes, the routing method should be such that it does not impose a large processing load on relay nodes. This paper considers use of a DTN for a day-to-day service of delivering content to a specific area and proposes a new routing method that is based on information about the routes of fixed-route traveling nodes, such as public transportation vehicles. The destination of a bundle is specified not by a terminal identifier, but by an area, which is identified by its location information. This paper presents an outbound-type bundle protocol, which is used by relay nodes when they have received a forwarding-bundle request from a sending terminal and try to determine whether the bundle can reach its destination area. Using simulation, the superiority of the proposed routing was confirmed by comparing it to existing routing methods in terms of the bundle arrival rate and factors that affect the network load, such as the number of bundle copies, the number of hops and the maximum required buffer size.

  19. Pressure Transducer Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Files are located here, defining the locations of the pressure transducers on the HIRENASD model. These locations also correspond to the locations that analysts...

  20. Location of bottom photographs along with images collected in 2014 by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY (JPEG images and Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geophysical and sampling survey in October 2014 that focused on a series of shoreface-attached ridges offshore of...

  1. Location of sea floor video tracklines along with videos collected in 2014 by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY (MP4 videos files and Esri polyline shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geophysical and sampling survey in October 2014 that focused on a series of shoreface-attached ridges offshore of...

  2. Route Fidelity during Marine Megafauna Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W. Horton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and protection of marine megafauna require robust knowledge of where and when animals are located. Yet, our ability to predict animal distributions in space and time remains limited due to difficulties associated with studying elusive animals with large home ranges. The widespread deployment of satellite telemetry technology creates unprecedented opportunities to remotely monitor animal movements and to analyse the spatial and temporal trajectories of these movements from a variety of geophysical perspectives. Reproducible patterns in movement trajectories can help elucidate the potential mechanisms by which marine megafauna navigate across vast expanses of open-ocean. Here, we present an empirical analysis of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, and northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris satellite telemetry-derived route fidelity movements in magnetic and gravitational coordinates. Our analyses demonstrate that: (1 humpback whales, great white sharks and northern elephant seals are capable of performing route fidelity movements across millions of square kilometers of open ocean with a spatial accuracy of better than 150 km despite temporal separations as long as 7 years between individual movements; (2 route fidelity movements include significant (p < 0.05 periodicities that are comparable in duration to the lunar cycles and semi-cycles; (3 latitude and bedrock-dependent gravitational cues are stronger predictors of route fidelity movements than spherical magnetic coordinate cues when analyzed with respect to the temporally dependent moon illumination cycle. We further show that both route fidelity and non-route fidelity movement trajectories, for all three species, describe overlapping in-phase or antiphase sinusoids when individual movements are normalized to the gravitational acceleration present at migratory departure sites. Although these empirical results provide an

  3. A secure 3-way routing protocols for intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, Ramesh; Parasuraman, Ganesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET). The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS) routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET.

  4. A Secure 3-Way Routing Protocols for Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Sekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET. The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET.

  5. Including Accident Information in Automatic Bicycle Route Planning for Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D. Singleton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2007 there were 9071 traffic accidents involving bicycles within London and this paper demonstrates the utility of Geographic Information Systems as a tool for analysing and visualising these occurrences. Through linkage of these spatial locations to a street network dataset it was possible to create a variety of intelligence about the types of street infrastructure where accidents predominantly occur. Additionally, a network routing algorithm was adapted to account for the frequency of accidents within a series of proposed journeys. This pilot routing application compared the quickest route with an accident avoidance weighted route between a series of origins and destinations. The results demonstrated that the routes avoiding areas of high accident volume did not increase journey length significantly; however they did provide a “safer” route based on empirical evidence over the volume of accident locations.

  6. Road Routes for Waste Disposal - MDC_RecyclingRoute

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — This CURBSIDE RECYCLING ROUTES BOUNDARIES LAYER IS A polygon feature class created for the Miami-Dade Department of Solid Waste Management (DSWM). It contains the...

  7. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  8. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Koussis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses; therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised. Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing scheme assist in error control, but optimal grids are derived by numerical experimentation. Exact solutions of the convection-diffusion equation, for a single and a composite wave, are reverse-routed and in both instances the wave is backtracked well for a range of grid parameters. In the arduous test of a square pulse, the result is comparable to those of more complex methods. Seeding outflow data with random errors enhances instability; to cope with the spurious oscillations, the reversed solution is conditioned by smoothing via low-pass filtering or optimisation. Good-quality inflow hydrographs are recovered with either smoothing treatment, yet the computationally demanding optimisation is superior. Finally, the reverse Muskingum routing method is compared to a reverse-solution method of the St. Venant equations of flood wave motion and is found to perform equally well, at a fraction of the computing effort. This study leads us to conclude that the efficiently attained good inflow identification rests on the simplicity of the Muskingum reverse routing scheme that endows it with numerical robustness.

  9. Mesoporous Vanadium Nitride Synthesized by Chemical Routes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mishra, Pragnya P; Theerthagiri, J; Panda, Rabi N

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline vanadium nitride (VN) materials are synthesized by two different routes, namely, the urea route and the ammonia route, using various V2O5 precursors obtained by citric acid–based sol–gel method...

  10. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shapefile of Transit Routes - Please refer to each resource for active dates of the route information. Routes change over time,

  11. Adolescent school travel: Is online mapping a practical alternative to GPS-assessed travel routes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Tom; Schipperijn, Jasper; Snizek, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    AbstractBackground Geographically accurate travel routes are necessary to estimate exposure to the environment and its potential influence on travel behaviour. Although assessing travel behaviours with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers is increasingly common, these protocols place...... unknown. Methods A total of 196 adolescents drew their usual route to school within an online mapping survey and wore a GPS receiver for 7 days. Individual home-to-school routes were extracted from GPS data. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess differences in distance and spatial agreement...... the assessment period. Conclusions Online mapping surveys are a feasible method for route assessment in adolescents, particularly for active travel routes. With the integration of survey questions, there is considerable potential for understanding the intricacies of travel behaviours. However, the self...

  12. 76 FR 43393 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... transactions and PIN debit transactions. Issuer processing costs. The Board's survey requested covered issuers... Routing AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board... & Statistics; for users of Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) only, contact (202/263-4869); Board of...

  13. 75 FR 81721 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... cards have the capability to accept PIN-based debit transactions. According to the Board's survey of... unaffiliated PIN-based networks. Transaction routing. The Board proposes to prohibit issuers and payment card... two unaffiliated PIN debit networks. The Board recognizes that the nature of a three-party system...

  14. Effective Privacy-Preserving Online Route Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    locations to an existing service incurs a substantial loss of quality of service, and the service may well return a result that may be not helpful to the user. We propose a solution that is able to return accurate route planning results when source and destination regions are used in order to achieve...... privacy. The solution re-uses a standard online RPS rather than replicate this functionality, and it needs no trusted third party. The solution is able to compute the exact results without leaking of the exact locations to the RPS or un-trusted parties. In addition, we provide heuristics that reduce...... the number of times that the RPS needs to be queried, and we also describe how the accuracy and privacy requirements can be relaxed to achieve better performance. An empirical study offers insight into key properties of the approach....

  15. Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Non-Uniform Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Molinaro, Marco; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    The capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) [21] involves distributing (identical) items from a depot to a set of demand locations in the shortest possible time, using a single capacitated vehicle. We study a generalization of this problem to the setting of multiple vehicles having non-uniform...

  16. Fatigue mitigation effects of en-route napping on commercial airline pilots flying international routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jarret Taylor

    The introduction of ultra-long range commercial aircraft and the evolution of the commercial airline industry has provided new opportunities for air carriers to fly longer range international route segments while deregulation, industry consolidation, and the constant drive to reduce costs wherever possible has pressured airline managements to seek more productivity from their pilots. At the same time, advancements in the understanding of human physiology have begun to make their way into flight and duty time regulations and airline scheduling practices. In this complex and ever changing operating environment, there remains an essential need to better understand how these developments, and other daily realities facing commercial airline pilots, are affecting their fatigue management strategies as they go about their rituals of getting to and from their homes to work and performing their flight assignments. Indeed, the need for commercial airline pilots to have access to better and more effective fatigue mitigation tools to combat fatigue and insure that they are well rested and at the top of their game when flying long-range international route segments has never been greater. This study examined to what extent the maximum fatigue states prior to napping, as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments, were affected by a number of other common flight assignment related factors. The study also examined to what extent the availability of scheduled en-route rest opportunities, in an onboard crew rest facility, affected the usage of en-route napping as a fatigue mitigation strategy, and to what extent the duration of such naps affected the perceived benefits of such naps as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments. The study utilized an online survey tool to collect data on crew position, prior flight segments flown in the same duty period, augmentation, commuting, pre-flight rest obtained in the

  17. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  18. 78 FR 59339 - Intracoastal Waterway Route “Magenta Line” on NOAA Nautical Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... an Intracoastal Waterway Route, a ``recommended route'' known to recreational boaters and commercial... may be mailed to Lt.j.g. Leslie Flowers, Office of Coast Survey, 1315 East-West Highway, 6312, Silver Spring MD 20906. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lt.j.g. Leslie Flowers, telephone 301- 713-2730, ext...

  19. Discovering Congested Routes Using Vehicle Trajectories in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Soo Bok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The popular route recommendation and traffic monitoring over the road networks have become important in the location-based services. The schemes to find out the congested routes were proposed by considering the number of vehicles in a road segment. However, the existing schemes do not consider the features of each road segment such as width, length, and direction in a road network. Furthermore, the existing schemes fail to consider the average moving speed of vehicles. Therefore, they can detect the incorrect density routes. To overcome such problems, we propose a new discovering scheme of congested routes through the analysis of vehicle trajectories in a road network. The proposed scheme divides each road into segments with different width and length in a road network. And then, the congested road segment is detected through the saturation degree of the road segment and the average moving speed of vehicles in the road segment. Finally, we compute the final congested routes by using a clustering scheme. The experimental results have shown that the proposed scheme can efficiently discover the congested routes in the different directions of the roads.

  20. Location Privacy Leakage through Sensory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices bring benefits as well as the risk of exposing users’ location information, as some embedded sensors can be accessed without users’ permission and awareness. In this paper, we show that, only by using the data collected from the embedded sensors in mobile devices instead of GPS data, we can infer a user’s location information with high accuracy. Three issues are addressed which are route identification, user localization in a specific route, and user localization in a bounded area. The Dynamic Time Warping based technique is designed and we develop a Hidden Markov Model to solve the localization problem. Real experiments are performed to evaluate our proposed methods.

  1. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  2. Distributed Systems Technology Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    S-106 WMh IN7 Distributed Systems Technology Survey Eric C. Cooper Aooousion For DTUC TAIB 1hanUMMOMOd 03 .Tustrifitles AVailability Codes T I F.E .CT...should be connected redundantly, so that there we several paths or routs between any two nodes. In message, swiching , Individuial messages we routed...ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Cod) -7b. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code ) CARENGIE-HELLON UNIVERSITY ESD/XRSI PITTSBURGH, PA 15213 HANSCOM AIR FORCE

  3. Information processing and routing in wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2006-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art cross-layer optimization techniques for energy-efficient information processing and routing in wireless sensor networks. Besides providing a survey on this important research area, three specific topics are discussed in detail - information processing in a collocated cluster, information transport over a tree substrate, and information routing for computationally intensive applications. The book covers several important system knobs for cross-layer optimization, including voltage scaling, rate adaptation, and tunable compression. By exploring tradeoffs of en

  4. Location of Sea-Floor Photographs Acquired During U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cruise 06005 (RAFA06005) in Great Round Shoal Channel, Offshore Massachusetts (RAF06005_BOTPHOTOS, Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  5. Location of Sea Floor Photographs Acquired During U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cruise 2010-010 in Long Island Sound, North of Orient Point, New York (2010-010_OPBOTPHOTOS, Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  6. Location of sound velocity profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the nearshore surrounding the Elizabeth Islands, MA (2010-003-FA_SVPs, ESRI point shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  7. SVPprofile_locs.shp - Location of sound velocity profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2007, 2009, and 2011 in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay, MA (Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  8. Locations of Sea-Floor Photographs Acquired During U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cruise 2011-006-FA in the Vicinity of Cross Rip Channel, Offshore Massachusetts (2011_006_CRBOTPHOTOS shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  9. Location and analysis of grain-size data sampled from vibracores collected by the U.S. Geological Survey within Apalachicola Bay, Florida, 2007 (APP-07_GrainSize, points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 24 vibracores within Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vibracores were collected using a Rossfelder electric percussive...

  10. Sediment Sample Locations Collected from March 2012 to July 2013 from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Numbers 12BIM01, 12BIM02, 12BIM05, and 13BIM06)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) conducted a time-series collection of shallow sediment...

  11. Locations of Sea-Floor Photographs Acquired During U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cruise 2010-015-FA Offshore in Northeastern Long Island Sound (Geographic, WGS84, H12012_BOTPHOTOS.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  12. Sound velocity profile locations, images, and processed text collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of Muskeget Channel, MA, 2010 (Geographic, WGS 84, Esri Shapefile, PNG images, and text files)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected in a collaboration between the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The primary objective of this...

  13. Seismic-reflection profile tracklines that are located adjacent to vibracores collected by the U.S. Geological Survey within Apalachicola Bay, Florida (Seismic_Cores_INT.shp, 2005-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 24 vibracores within Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vibracores were collected using a Rossfelder electric percussive...

  14. Location of Sea-Floor Photographs Acquired During U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cruise 2012-002-FA in Block Island Sound (2012-002_296BOTPHOTOS shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  15. A Scope for MANET Routing and Security Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lathies Bhasker T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANET are wireless networks which utilize mobile nodes for communicating among them and in the external transmission range. The vulnerable nature of the network causes various security threats which upset its growth. In this survey, initially the existing security attacks in MANET are analyzed. The attacks categories fall under two stages that include internal and external attacks. The former attack is due to the malicious nodes within the network and later attack is caused by the nodes which do not belong to the network. Then the secure, efficient dynamic routing techniques which are main issues concerned with ad hoc networks are surveyed. Overall, our survey mainly concentrates the existing security attacks and possible routing solution in MANET.

  16. Optimizing wind farm cable routing considering power losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy, but as wind farms are getting larger and more remotely located, installation and infrastructure costs are rising. It is estimated that the expenses for electrical infrastructure account for 15-30% of the overall initial costs, hence...... it is important to optimize o shore inter-array cable routing. The routing should connect all turbines to one (or more) o shore sub-station(s) while respecting cable capacities, no-cross restrictions, connection-limits at the substation, and obstacles at the site. The objective is to minimize both the capital...

  17. Vehicle Routing With User Generated Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    Rapidly increasing volumes of GPS data collected from vehicles provide new and increasingly comprehensive insight into the routes that drivers prefer. While routing services generally compute shortest or fastest routes, recent studies suggest that local drivers often prefer routes that are neithe...

  18. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  19. STRATEGI DAN ALGORITMA ROUTING DALAM JARINGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufadhol Mufadhol

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungsi routing memiliki hubungan dengan nilai nilai misalnya: tanpa kesalahan, sederhana, kokoh, stabil, optimal dan adil. Selain itu harus diingat juga faktor perhitungan efisiensi. Fungsi utama dari jaringan packet-switched adalah menerima paket dari stasiun pengirim yang akan didistribusikan ke stasiun penerima. Ada beberapa strategi routing antara lain: : fixed routing, flooding, random routing dan adaptive routing. Mekanisme Perilaku konsep lalu lintas jaringan memiliki tiga jenis tipe umum, yaitu aliran kontrol, kontrol kemacetan dan menghindari kebuntuan.

  20. Optimization of OSPF Routing in IP Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Andreas; Fortz, Bernard; Gourdin, Eric; Holmberg, Kaj; Klopfenstein, Olivier; Pióro, Michał; Tomaszewski, Artur; Ümit, Hakan

    The Internet is a huge world-wide packet switching network comprised of more than 13,000 distinct subnetworks, referred to as Autonomous Systems (ASs) autonomous system AS . They all rely on the Internet Protocol (IP) internet protocol IP for transport of packets across the network. And most of them use shortest path routing protocols shortest path routing!protocols , such as OSPF or IS-IS, to control the routing of IP packets routing!of IP packets within an AS. The idea of the routing is extremely simple — every packet is forwarded on IP links along the shortest route between its source and destination nodes of the AS. The AS network administrator can manage the routing of packets in the AS by supplying the so-called administrative weights of IP links, which specify the link lengths that are used by the routing protocols for their shortest path computations. The main advantage of the shortest path routing policy is its simplicity, allowing for little administrative overhead. From the network engineering perspective, however, shortest path routing can pose problems in achieving satisfactory traffic handling efficiency. As all routing paths depend on the same routing metric routing!metric , it is not possible to configure the routing paths for the communication demands between different pairs of nodes explicitly or individually; the routing can be controlled only indirectly and only as a whole by modifying the routing metric. Thus, one of the main tasks when planning such networks is to find administrative link weights that induce a globally efficient traffic routing traffic!routing configuration of an AS. It turns out that this task leads to very difficult mathematical optimization problems. In this chapter, we discuss and describe exact integer programming models and solution approaches as well as practically efficient smart heuristics for such shortest path routing problems shortest path routing!problems .

  1. 49 CFR 356.9 - Elimination of routing restrictions-regular route carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elimination of routing restrictions-regular route carriers. 356.9 Section 356.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS MOTOR CARRIER ROUTING REGULATIONS § 356.9 Elimination of routing restrictions—regular route...

  2. Efficiency of Choice Set Generation Methods for Bicycle Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine; W. Axhausen, Kay

    travelling information with GPS loggers, compared to self-reported RP data, is more accurate geographic locations and routes. Also, the GPS traces give more reliable information on times and prevent trip underreporting, and it is possible to collect information on many trips by the same person without......With a growing interest in sustainable transport systems, the interest has increased on encouraging more cycling. To encourage cycling, it is important to identify which network attributes influence cyclists route choice and evaluate the trade-offs among these attributes. To analyse travel...... reporting fatigue. GPS data require nevertheless extensive post-processing and in some cases mode imputation. They also require a very detailed digital network to map the routes accurately, which can lead to high computation times during choice set generation, as well as issues with behavioural realism...

  3. Secure Geographic Routing in Ad Hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahariadis Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Security in sensor networks is one of the most relevant research topics in resource constrained wireless devices and networks. Several attacks can be suffered in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks (WSN, which are highly susceptible to attacks, due to the limited resources of the nodes. In this paper, we propose innovative and lightweight localization techniques that allow for intrusion identification and isolation schemes and provide accurate location information. This information is used by our routing protocol which additionally incorporates a distributed trust model to prevent several routing attacks to the network. We finally evaluate our algorithms for accurate localization and for secure routing which have been implemented and tested in real ad hoc and wireless sensor networks.

  4. SPICE ROUTE: LOGISTIC JOURNEY OF SPICES IN RETAIL SUPPLY CHAIN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulrajan Rajkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the findings of the study of the routes and the distance traveled by spices from the farming location to the consumer in traditional and organised retailing. This research study is primarily exploratory in nature, and the research instruments include interviews and survey through questionnaires with players in the spice supply chain. The study is to track the spice routes by the retailers for assessing the current state of the supply chain management practices, and evaluate ‘food mileage’ clocked by them. ‘Food miles’ is a relatively recent concept in retailing and result of this study reveals that significant increase in food miles in the case of organised retailers. Longer food miles of spices are an indicator of the shift towards organised retailing. The speed at which spices reach their destination as well as the time taken between any two points was not observed. This is the limitation of this study, and also the scope for further research. The research study is not aimed at finding the factors related to the food mileage.

  5. GPS in Pedestrian and Spatial Behaviour Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder

    with an electronic questionnaire, for example in the shape of a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) or cell phone, a whole new array of survey possibilities comes into being. Respondents can be asked to register their activities, evaluate or in other ways describe the attractiveness of places based on their actual....... It will then be possible to analyse how the use of urban spaces are embedded in the wider context of activity patterns (work, school etc.). The general pattern of everyday itineraries, including route choice and time spent at different locations ?on the way? can also be analysed.    If the personal GPS device is combined...... position in the urban area. Thus a new form of integration between research into activity patterns and urban places will be possible.    The paper presents the possibilities in spatial behaviour and pedestrian surveys with GPS and electronic questionnaires. Demonstrative mapping of test data from passive...

  6. Dynamic Routing of Short Transfer Baggage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    of dispatch. Computational results are presented for real-life passenger data with stochastic bag arrival times and travel times. The results indicate that the algorithm is able to dispatch the baggage considerably better than the manual delivery plans reported in the case study, and due to its fast running...... times, the algorithm is suitable for dynamic dispatching. Investigations on the impact of uncertainty and fleet size make it possible to support a trade-off between fleet size and expected service level.......We consider a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem that arises in airports when transporting baggage for passengers with connecting flights. Each bag can be delivered in two locations with disjunctive time windows. The task is to define multiple trips for the vehicles in order to deliver bags...

  7. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  8. The routed inventory pooling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Harmen Willem

    2013-01-01

    In supply chains vloeit een groot deel van de kosten voort uit voorraden en transport. Om deze reden wordt veel onderzoek gedaan naar technieken en concepten die de voorraad- en transportkosten helpen te verlagen. Twee populaire onderzoeksgebieden zijn Inventory Routing, waarbij het doel is optimale

  9. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  10. Anticipatory routing of police helicopters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Urk, Rick; van Urk, Rick; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Hans, Elias W.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a decision support application for the Dutch Aviation Police and Air Support unit for routing their helicopters in anticipation of unknown future incidents. These incidents are not known in advance, yet do require a swift response. A response might include the dispatch of a police

  11. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie, S.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  12. Network harness: bundles of routes in public transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, B.; von Ferber, C.; Holovatch, T.

    2009-12-01

    Public transport routes sharing the same grid of streets and tracks are often found to proceed in parallel along shorter or longer sequences of stations. Similar phenomena are observed in other networks built with space consuming links such as cables, vessels, pipes, neurons, etc. In the case of public transport networks (PTNs) this behavior may be easily worked out on the basis of sequences of stations serviced by each route. To quantify this behavior we use the recently introduced notion of network harness. It is described by the harness distribution P(r, s): the number of sequences of s consecutive stations that are serviced by r parallel routes. For certain PTNs that we have analyzed we observe that the harness distribution may be described by power laws. These power laws indicate a certain level of organization and planning which may be driven by the need to minimize the costs of infrastructure and secondly by the fact that points of interest tend to be clustered in certain locations of a city. This effect may be seen as a result of the strong interdependence of the evolutions of both the city and its PTN. To further investigate the significance of the empirical results we have studied one- and two-dimensional models of randomly placed routes modeled by different types of walks. While in one dimension an analytic treatment was successful, the two dimensional case was studied by simulations showing that the empirical results for real PTNs deviate significantly from those expected for randomly placed routes.

  13. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  14. A Novel Constructive Routing Algorithm for Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenan Karagul

    2014-01-01

      In this study, a new constructive routing algorithm for fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem is proposed in which residual costs rather than vehicle types are considered for route selection...

  15. Shapley Facility Location Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Porat, Omer; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Facility location games have been a topic of major interest in economics, operations research and computer science, starting from the seminal work by Hotelling. Spatial facility location models have successfully predicted the outcome of competition in a variety of scenarios. In a typical facility location game, users/customers/voters are mapped to a metric space representing their preferences, and each player picks a point (facility) in that space. In most facility location games considered i...

  16. Many routes lead to Rome: potential causes for the multi-route migration system of Red Knots, Calidris canutus Islandica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Silke; Ens, Bruno J; Klaassen, Marcel

    2010-06-01

    Migrants, such as birds or representatives of other taxa, usually make use of several stopover sites to cover the distance between their site of origin and destination. Potentially, multiple routes exist, but often little is known about the causes and consequences of alternative migration routes. Apart from their geographical distribution, the suitability of potential sites might play an important role in the animals' decisions for a particular itinerary. We used an optimal-migration model to test three nonmutually exclusive hypotheses leading to variations in the spring migration routes of a subspecies of Red Knot, Calidris canutus islandica, which migrates from wintering grounds in Western Europe to breeding grounds in Greenland and the Canadian Arctic: the breeding location hypothesis, the energy budget hypothesis, and the predation risk hypothesis. Varying only breeding location, the model predicted that birds breeding in the Canadian Arctic and on West Greenland stop over on Iceland, whereas birds breeding in East and Northeast Greenland migrate via northern Norway, a prediction that is supported by empirical findings. Energy budgets on stopover sites had a strong influence on the choice of route and staging times. Varying foraging-intensity and mass-dependent predation risk prompted the birds to use less risky sites, if possible. The effect of simultaneous changes in the energy budget and predation risk strongly depended on the site where these occurred. Our findings provide potential explanations for the observations that C. canutus islandica uses a diverse array of migration routes. Scrutinizing the three alternative driving forces for the choice of migratory routes awaits further, specific data collection in rapidly developing fields of research (e.g., predation risk assessment, GPS tracking). Generally, the type of modeling presented here may not only highlight alternative explanations, but also direct follow-up empirical research.

  17. Location, Location, Location: Where Do Location-Based Services Fit into Your Institution's Social Media Mix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekritz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Foursquare is a location-based social networking service that allows users to share their location with friends. Some college administrators have been thinking about whether and how to take the leap into location-based services, which are also known as geosocial networking services. These platforms, which often incorporate gaming elements like…

  18. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Muhammad; Sher, Arshad; Abdul, Wadood; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

    2017-03-19

    In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast), second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast), and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast). In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC) is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast.

  19. Location, location, location: the BRMS1 protein and melanoma progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riker Adam I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The metastasis suppressor, BRMS1, has been demonstrated to cause dramatic regression of metastatic lesions without blocking orthotopic tumor growth. The role of BRMS1 is well-documented for several non-melanoma malignancies, such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. However, its role in melanoma is just beginning to be understood, with a recent article by Slipicevic et al. highlighting the levels of expression of BRMS1 in benign nevi, primary and metastatic melanoma samples. Their findings emphasize that the intracellular location of BRMS1 protein (cytoplasmic or nuclear, appears to have a significant impact upon the metastatic capacity of melanoma cells. Interestingly, this selective localization translates into a statistically significant decrease in the relapse-free period in melanoma patients, further associated with a thicker Breslow's depth of primary melanomas. However, and more importantly, this study begins to define a clearer role for BRMS1 in melanoma that is strictly dependent upon its cellular location, with nuclear expression associated with invasive and metastatic capacity and cytoplasmic expression resulting in repressive effects upon progression and metastasis. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/12/73

  20. The "path" not taken: exploring structural differences in mapped- versus shortest-network-path school travel routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buliung, Ron N; Larsen, Kristian; Faulkner, Guy E J; Stone, Michelle R

    2013-09-01

    School route measurement often involves estimating the shortest network path. We challenged the relatively uncritical adoption of this method in school travel research and tested the route discordance hypothesis that several types of difference exist between shortest network paths and reported school routes. We constructed the mapped and shortest path through network routes for a sample of 759 children aged 9 to 13 years in grades 5 and 6 (boys = 45%, girls = 54%, unreported gender = 1%), in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We used Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare reported with shortest-path route measures including distance, route directness, intersection crossings, and route overlap. Measurement difference was explored by mode and location. We found statistical evidence of route discordance for walkers and children who were driven and detected it more often for inner suburban cases. Evidence of route discordance varied by mode and school location. We found statistically significant differences for route structure and built environment variables measured along reported and geographic information systems-based shortest-path school routes. Uncertainty produced by the shortest-path approach challenges its conceptual and empirical validity in school travel research.

  1. The “Path” Not Taken: Exploring Structural Differences in Mapped- Versus Shortest-Network-Path School Travel Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristian; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Stone, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. School route measurement often involves estimating the shortest network path. We challenged the relatively uncritical adoption of this method in school travel research and tested the route discordance hypothesis that several types of difference exist between shortest network paths and reported school routes. Methods. We constructed the mapped and shortest path through network routes for a sample of 759 children aged 9 to 13 years in grades 5 and 6 (boys = 45%, girls = 54%, unreported gender = 1%), in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We used Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare reported with shortest-path route measures including distance, route directness, intersection crossings, and route overlap. Measurement difference was explored by mode and location. Results. We found statistical evidence of route discordance for walkers and children who were driven and detected it more often for inner suburban cases. Evidence of route discordance varied by mode and school location. Conclusions. We found statistically significant differences for route structure and built environment variables measured along reported and geographic information systems–based shortest-path school routes. Uncertainty produced by the shortest-path approach challenges its conceptual and empirical validity in school travel research. PMID:23865648

  2. The Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    This paper introduces the Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the Pyramidal Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...... route is defined as a route on which the vehicle first visits customers in increasing order of customer index, and on the remaining part of the route visits customers in decreasing order of customer index. Provided that customers are indexed in nondecreasing order of distance from the depot, the shape...

  3. The pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the pyramidal traveling salesman problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...... route is defined as a route on which the vehicle first visits customers in increasing order of customer index, and on the remaining part of the route visits customers in decreasing order of customer index. Moreover, this paper develops an exact branch-and-cut-and-price (BCP) algorithm for the PCVRP...

  4. Sand auger and trench site locations collected in March/April and October 2014 from Assateague Island, Maryland (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Numbers [FAN] 2014-301-FA and 2014-322-FA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has a long history of responding to and documenting the impacts of storms along the Nation’s coasts and incorporating these data into...

  5. The Time Window Vehicle Routing Problem Considering Closed Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsa Syahputri, Nenna; Mawengkang, Herman

    2017-12-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) determines the optimal set of routes used by a fleet of vehicles to serve a given set of customers on a predefined graph; the objective is to minimize the total travel cost (related to the travel times or distances) and operational cost (related to the number of vehicles used). In this paper we study a variant of the predefined graph: given a weighted graph G and vertices a and b, and given a set X of closed paths in G, find the minimum total travel cost of a-b path P such that no path in X is a subpath of P. Path P is allowed to repeat vertices and edges. We use integer programming model to describe the problem. A feasible neighbourhood approach is proposed to solve the model

  6. Smartphones as locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  7. Noise Source Location Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed O’Keefe

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method to determine locations of noise sources that minimize modal coupling in complex acoustic volumes. Using the acoustic source scattering capabilities of the boundary element method, predictions are made of mode shape and pressure levels due to various source locations. Combining knowledge of the pressure field with a multivariable function minimization technique, the source location generating minimum pressure levels can be determined. The analysis also allows for an objective comparison of “best/worst” locations. The technique was implemented on a personal computer for the U.S. Space Station, predicting 5–10 dB noise reduction using optimum source locations.

  8. Route Scherrer and Route Einstein closed for construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that Route Scherrer will be inaccessible for two and a half months from the beginning of March and that part of Route Einstein will be closed for two weeks from the end of February.   Figure 1. The part of Route Scherrer between Building 510 and Building 53 (see Figure 1) will be closed from the beginning of March until mid-May for civil engineering works.   The superheated water pipes supplying the buildings in this area date back to 1959 and therefore present a significant risk of leakage. In order to ensure the reliable supply of superheated water, and, by extension, heating, to all premises near the Main Building (i.e. Buildings 500, 501, 503, 60, 62, 63 and 64), a new buried service duct will be installed between the basements of Buildings 53 and 61 to house a new superheated water pipe. Figure 2. The following car parks will, however, remain accessible for the duration of the works: the Cèdres car park, the car park for Buildings 4 and 5, and the ca...

  9. River network routing on the NHDPlus dataset

    OpenAIRE

    David, Cédric,; Maidment, David,; Niu, Guo-Yue; Yang, Zong-Liang; Habets, Florence; Eijkhout, Victor

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The mapped rivers and streams of the contiguous United States are available in a geographic information system (GIS) dataset called National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus). This hydrographic dataset has about 3 million river and water body reaches along with information on how they are connected into net- works. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) provides stream- flow observations at about 20 thousand gauges located on theNHDP...

  10. Cairo Public Transport Route Finder – A Pilot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Ahmed Ahmed Mohamed Hassan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to facilitate the choice of transport links leading from a starting location to a destination in greater Cairo, we propose in this work a public transportation mobile (android application to assist users of public transport. The system is a pilot application that considers the public mini-buses network in three areas of Cairo, and builds the database of the mini-bus network verified on the ground. From this database, the transportation network graph consisting of nodes and possible links between them is constructed. Upon request, the system then identifies the series of public transport possible, calculates the shortest path between the two chosen locations, and displays the bus, or series of buses, and the routes to the user, ordered by distance. The specialized algorithm Dijkstra was implemented to find the shortest route.

  11. En route air traffic flow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The report covers the conception, design, development, and initial implementation of an advanced simulation technique applied to a study of national air traffic flow and its control by En Route Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC). It is intende...

  12. Performances of Different Global Positioning System Devices for Time-Location Tracking in Air Pollution Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Liu, Zhen; Houston, Douglas; Jaimes, Guillermo; McConnell, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Background: People’s time-location patterns are important in air pollution exposure assessment because pollution levels may vary considerably by location. A growing number of studies are using global positioning systems (GPS) to track people’s time-location patterns. Many portable GPS units that archive location are commercially available at a cost that makes their use feasible for epidemiological studies. Methods: We evaluated the performance of five portable GPS data loggers and two GPS cell phones by examining positional accuracy in typical locations (indoor, outdoor, in-vehicle) and factors that influence satellite reception (building material, building type), acquisition time (cold and warm start), battery life, and adequacy of memory for data storage. We examined stationary locations (eg, indoor, outdoor) and mobile environments (eg, walking, traveling by vehicle or bus) and compared GPS locations to highly-resolved US Geological Survey (USGS) and Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quadrangle (DOQQ) maps. Results: The battery life of our tested instruments ranged from 20 minutes and varied significantly by building structure type and by cold or warm start. No GPS device was found to have consistently superior performance with regard to spatial accuracy and signal loss. At fixed outdoor locations, 65%–95% of GPS points fell within 20-m of the corresponding DOQQ locations for all the devices. At fixed indoor locations, 50%–80% of GPS points fell within 20-m of the corresponding DOQQ locations for all the devices except one. Most of the GPS devices performed well during commuting on a freeway, with >80% of points within 10-m of the DOQQ route, but the performance was significantly impacted by surrounding structures on surface streets in highly urbanized areas. Conclusions: All the tested GPS devices had limitations, but we identified several devices which showed promising performance for tracking subjects’ time location patterns in epidemiological studies

  13. Interdomain Routing Security (BGP-4)

    OpenAIRE

    Zouaghi, Rostom

    2008-01-01

    The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the most important protocol for the interconnectivity of the Internet. Although it has shown acceptable performance, there are many issues about its capability to meet the scale of the growth of the Internet, mainly because of the security issues that surround interdomain routing. The Internet is important to many organisations in various contexts. Thus, it is required to provide a highly secure protocol to keep the normal operation of the Internet. BGP...

  14. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle R...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown....

  15. On Guidelines for Safe Route Redistributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    for enterprise networks. Company mergers , multi-vendor environments, and business expansions all contribute to the existence of multiple routing...the system transitions to a different state. In addition, we color a routing instance in white when it does not have a route to the destination, and in...expressed or implied, of the U.S. government. 7. REFERENCES [1] Bhandari. Survivable networks, algorithms for diverse routing. Springer, 1999. [2] Cisco

  16. Cultural Routes and Intangible Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Zabbini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical interpretation of thematic routes helps to predict the effects on the territories visited by cultured tourists who want to enrich their cultural and emotional baggage. After the analysis of some interpretations, this paper will examine how the practical implementation of an itinerary approved by the Council of Europe has evolved over the years. And it will also reflect on the practical results in the areas involved in that project. "The Hannibal Pathway ", the main overland walk on the "Phoenician Route - Cultural Route recognized by the Council of Europe" – represents a case of study that allows to reflect over the impact of cultural tourism based on immaterial heritage. In fact, in the areas where the battle of 21 June 217 BC took place, nothing tangible is left, except the landscape that has kept its conformation intact. In these areas, thanks to the foresight of the local governments in the last three decades, the landscape of the plain has been preserved. This makes possible today to propose an historical path precisely based on the landscape and on the new techniques for the valorization of the heritage. In the Tuoro plain it is possible to see the battlefields, thus retracing the various stages of the battle, supported by the Documentation Centre of the Capra Palace and virtual reconstructions of high technical quality.

  17. Location of bottom photographs along with images collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2015 along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA (JPEG images and Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy in the fall of 2012. The...

  18. Location of bottom photographs along with images collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2014 along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA (JPEG images and Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological...

  19. Location and analysis of sediment samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2014 along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA (Esri point shapefile and CSV file, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological...

  20. Location and analyses of sediment samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2015 along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA (Esri point shapefile and CSV file, Geographic, WGS 84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy in the fall of 2012. The...

  1. Location of sound velocity profiles along with profile plots collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2014 along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA (PNG images, CSV text, and Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological...

  2. Locations of Sea-Floor Photographs Acquired During U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cruise 2011-006-FA in Block Island Sound (2011_006_BISBOTPHOTOS.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS, in cooperation with NOAA, is producing detailed maps of the seafloor off southern New England. The current phase of this cooperative research program is...

  3. Locations of bottom photographs collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005 (Geographic, WGS 84, Esri point shapefile, 2005-004-FA_PHOTOS.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In freshwater bodies of New Hampshire, the most problematic aquatic invasive plant species is Myriophyllum heterophyllum or variable leaf water-milfoil. Once...

  4. Sediment sample and textural properties at 40 sample locations collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005 (Geographic, WGS 84, Esri point shapefile, 2005-004-FA_SAMPLES.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In freshwater bodies of New Hampshire, the most problematic aquatic invasive plant species is Myriophyllum heterophyllum or variable leaf water-milfoil. Once...

  5. Trackline navigation for video data from 40 sample locations collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005 (Geographic, WGS 84, Esri polyline shapefile, 2005-004-FA_VIDEOTRK.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In freshwater bodies of New Hampshire, the most problematic aquatic invasive plant species is Myriophyllum heterophyllum or variable leaf water-milfoil. Once...

  6. Sound velocity profile locations collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005 (Geographic, WGS 84, Esri point shapefile, 2005-004-FA_SVP.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In freshwater bodies of New Hampshire, the most problematic aquatic invasive plant species is Myriophyllum heterophyllum or variable leaf water-milfoil. Once...

  7. Preserving Source Location Privacy for Energy Harvesting WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changqin; Ma, Ming; Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Anfeng

    2017-01-01

    Fog (From cOre to edGe) computing employs a huge number of wireless embedded devices to enable end users with anywhere-anytime-to-anything connectivity. Due to their operating nature, wireless sensor nodes often work unattended, and hence are exposed to a variety of attacks. Preserving source-location privacy plays a key role in some wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. In this paper, a redundancy branch convergence-based preserved source location privacy scheme (RBCPSLP) is proposed for energy harvesting sensor networks, with the following advantages: numerous routing branches are created in non-hotspot areas with abundant energy, and those routing branches can merge into a few routing paths before they reach the hotspot areas. The generation time, the duration of routing, and the number of routing branches are then decided independently based on the amount of energy obtained, so as to maximize network energy utilization, greatly enhance privacy protection, and provide long network lifetimes. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the RBCPSLP scheme allows a several-fold improvement of the network energy utilization as well as the source location privacy preservation, while maximizing network lifetimes. PMID:28358341

  8. Preserving Source Location Privacy for Energy Harvesting WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changqin; Ma, Ming; Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Anfeng

    2017-03-30

    Fog (From cOre to edGe) computing employs a huge number of wireless embedded devices to enable end users with anywhere-anytime-to-anything connectivity. Due to their operating nature, wireless sensor nodes often work unattended, and hence are exposed to a variety of attacks. Preserving source-location privacy plays a key role in some wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. In this paper, a redundancy branch convergence-based preserved source location privacy scheme (RBCPSLP) is proposed for energy harvesting sensor networks, with the following advantages: numerous routing branches are created in non-hotspot areas with abundant energy, and those routing branches can merge into a few routing paths before they reach the hotspot areas. The generation time, the duration of routing, and the number of routing branches are then decided independently based on the amount of energy obtained, so as to maximize network energy utilization, greatly enhance privacy protection, and provide long network lifetimes. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the RBCPSLP scheme allows a several-fold improvement of the network energy utilization as well as the source location privacy preservation, while maximizing network lifetimes.

  9. Robustness in facility location

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lokven, Sander W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Facility location concerns the placement of facilities, for various objectives, by use of mathematical models and solution procedures. Almost all facility location models that can be found in literature are based on minimizing costs or maximizing cover, to cover as much demand as possible. These models are quite efficient for finding an optimal location for a new facility for a particular data set, which is considered to be constant and known in advance. In a real world situation, input da...

  10. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    2004-01-01

    .Mobile users frequently follow the same route to a destination as they did during previous trips to the destination, and the route and destination are important aspects of the context for a range of services. This paper presents key concepts underlying a software component that discovers the routes of a user...

  11. 76 FR 766 - Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Parts 1011, 1034, 1102, 1104, and 1115 Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders... Transportation Board (Board or STB) proposes to establish regulations governing the issuance of emergency routing... regulations governing the issuance of emergency routing orders upon application of the National Railroad...

  12. 45 CFR 1310.20 - Trip routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip routing. 1310.20 Section 1310.20 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.20 Trip routing. (a) Each agency providing... routing are adhered to: (1) The time a child is in transit to and from the Head Start or Early Head Start...

  13. Topological Routing in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    Topological Routing to large-scale networks are discussed. Hierarchical extensions are presented along with schemes for shortest path routing, fault handling and path restoration. Further reserach in the area is discussed and perspectives on the prerequisites for practical deployment of Topological Routing...

  14. Topological Routing in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    Topological Routing to large-scale networks are discussed. Hierarchical extensions are presented along with schemes for shortest path routing, fault handling and path restoration. Further reserach in the area is discussed and perspectives on the prerequisites for practical deployment of Topological Routing...

  15. Is Entrepreneurship a Route Out of Deprivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankish, Julian S.; Roberts, Richard G.; Coad, Alexander Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Frankish J. S., Roberts R. G., Coad A. and Storey D. J. Is entrepreneurship a route out of deprivation?, Regional Studies. This paper investigates whether entrepreneurship constitutes a route out of deprivation for those living in deprived areas. The measure of income/wealth used is based...... the wealth distribution. Hence, entrepreneurship can be a route out of deprivation....

  16. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    performance, the article examines how the growing locative media industry can learn from the location-aware performative strategies employed by artists who create situated and urban performances for the curious participant. The academic frames employed in the analysis draw on psychogeography, site......-specific performance, social and cultural geography, and aspects of phenomenology....... traversed. While becoming destination aware, the individual loses her location awareness. The article proposes that the reason people get lost when using sat-nav is due to a wrong location-performative paradigm. As an alternative, the article introduces and analyzes two performance-related examples...

  17. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  18. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  19. Generic Network Location Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mwansa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the Generic Network Location Service based on the Chord implementation utilizing data structures called distributed hash tables (DHT or structured overlay networks, which are used to build scalable self-managing distributed systems. The provided algorithms guarantee resilience in the presence of dynamism: they guarantee consistent lookup results in the presence of nodes failing and leaving. Generic Network Location Service provides a Location Service system based on DHT technology, which is storing device location records in nodes within a Chord DHT. Location records are consisting of network device identification keys as attributes, which are used to create replicas of additional location records through established Chord hashing mechanisms. Storing device location records, in places address-able (using the DHT lookup by individual location record keys provides a simple way of implementing transla¬tion functions similar to well¬ known network services (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM. The generic network location ser¬vice presented in the paper is not supposed to be a substitu¬tion of the existing translation techniques (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM, but it is considered as an overlay service that uses data available in existing systems and provides some translations currently unavailable.

  20. Active faults crossing trunk pipeline routes: some important steps to avoid the disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besstrashnov, Vladimir; Strom, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Trunk pipelines that pass through tectonically active areas connecting oil and gas reservoirs with terminals and refineries cross active faults that can produce large earthquakes. Besides strong motion affecting vast areas, these earthquakes are often associated with surface faulting that provides additional hazard to pipelines. To avoid significant economic losses and environmental pollution, pipelines should be designed to sustain both effects (shaking and direct rupturing) without pipe damage and spill. Special studies aimed to provide necessary input data for the designers should be performed in the course of engineering survey. However, our experience on conducting and review of such studies for several oil and gas trunk pipelines in Russia show urgent need of more strict definition of basic conceptions and approaches used for identification and localization of these potentially hazardous tectonic features. Identification of active faults (fault zones) considered as causative faults - sources of strong motion caused by seismic waves that affect dozens kilometers of pipeline route can be done by use of both direct and indirect evidence of Late Pleistocene - Holocene activity of faults and fault zones. Since strong motion parameters can be considered as constant within the near-field zone, which width in case of large earthquake is up to dozens kilometers, accuracy of active fault location is not so critical and ±1-2 km precision provided by use of indirect evidence is acceptable. In contrast, if one have to identify and characterize zones of potential surface rupturing that require special design of the endangered pipeline section, only direct evidence of such activity can provide reliable input data for crossing design with relevant accuracy of fault location, amount and direction of displacement. Only traces of surface faults displacing Late Pleistocene - Holocene sediments and/or geomorphic features are considered as direct evidence of fault activity. Just

  1. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  2. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses important characteristics seen within dynamic vehicle routing problems. We discuss the differences between the traditional static vehicle routing problems and its dynamic counterparts. We give an in-depth introduction to the degree of dynamism measure which can be used...... to classify dynamic vehicle routing systems. Methods for evaluation of the performance of algorithms that solve on-line routing problems are discussed and we list some of the most important issues to include in the system objective. Finally, we provide a three-echelon classification of dynamic vehicle routing...... systems based on their degree of dynamism and the system objective....

  3. Route learning and shortcut performance in adults with intellectual disability: a study with virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengue-Topio, Hursula; Courbois, Yannick; Farran, Emily K; Sockeel, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn routes though a virtual environment (VE) and to make a novel shortcut between two locations was assessed in 18 adults with intellectual disability and 18 adults without intellectual disability matched on chronological age. Participants explored two routes (A ⇔ B and A ⇔ C) until they reached a learning criterion. Then, they were placed at B and were asked to find the shortest way to C (B ⇔ C, five trials). Participants in both groups could learn the routes, but most of the participants with intellectual disability could not find the shortest route between B and C. However, the results also revealed important individual differences within the intellectual disability group, with some participants exhibiting more efficient wayfinding behaviour than others. Individuals with intellectual disability may differ in the kind of spatial knowledge they extract from the environment and/or in the strategy they use to learn routes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Genetic Algorithm on Inventory Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Aydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventory routing problem can be defined as forming the routes to serve to the retailers from the manufacturer, deciding on the quantity of the shipment to the retailers and deciding on the timing of the replenishments. The difference of inventory routing problems from vehicle routing problems is the consideration of the inventory positions of retailers and supplier, and making the decision accordingly. Inventory routing problems are complex in nature and they can be solved either theoretically or using a heuristics method. Metaheuristics is an emerging class of heuristics that can be applied to combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we provide the relationship between vendor-managed inventory and inventory routing problem. The proposed genetic for solving vehicle routing problem is described in detail.

  5. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  6. A Multi-Depot Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem with Delivery Options Arising in the Last Mile Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lin; Baldacci, Roberto; Vigo, Daniele; Wang, Xu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new city logistics problem arising in the last mile distribution of e-commerce. The problem involves two levels of routing problems. The first requires a design of the routes for a vehicle fleet located at the depots to transport the customer demands to a subset of the

  7. Joint Power Charging and Routing in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jie; Chen, Jian; Deng, Yansha; Wang, Xingwei; Aghvami, Abdol-Hamid

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology has inspired the transition from traditional battery-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) towards wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs). While extensive efforts have been made to improve charging efficiency, little has been done for routing optimization. In this work, we present a joint optimization model to maximize both charging efficiency and routing structure. By analyzing the structure of the optimization model, we first decompose the problem and propose a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal charging efficiency for the predefined routing tree. Furthermore, by coding the many-to-one communication topology as an individual, we further propose to apply a genetic algorithm (GA) for the joint optimization of both routing and charging. The genetic operations, including tree-based recombination and mutation, are proposed to obtain a fast convergence. Our simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm reduces the number of resident locations and the total moving distance. We also show that our proposed algorithm achieves a higher charging efficiency compared with existing algorithms.

  8. Joint Power Charging and Routing in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of wireless power transfer (WPT technology has inspired the transition from traditional battery-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs towards wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. While extensive efforts have been made to improve charging efficiency, little has been done for routing optimization. In this work, we present a joint optimization model to maximize both charging efficiency and routing structure. By analyzing the structure of the optimization model, we first decompose the problem and propose a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal charging efficiency for the predefined routing tree. Furthermore, by coding the many-to-one communication topology as an individual, we further propose to apply a genetic algorithm (GA for the joint optimization of both routing and charging. The genetic operations, including tree-based recombination and mutation, are proposed to obtain a fast convergence. Our simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm reduces the number of resident locations and the total moving distance. We also show that our proposed algorithm achieves a higher charging efficiency compared with existing algorithms.

  9. Locations of photographs acquired using a SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) within Barnegat Bay New Jersey by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2012, and 2013 (Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Water quality in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary along the New Jersey coast is the focus of a multidisciplinary research project begun in 2011 by the U.S....

  10. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  11. Construction of a new waste-water treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A new waste-water treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue until February 2009.

  12. Construction of a new wastewater treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A new wastewater treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue through until February 2009.

  13. Design of Logistics Route Planning for Printing Enterprises Based on Baidu Map

    OpenAIRE

    Da Zhong-Yue; Yang Wen-Jie; Ran Pei-Pei; Qian Xing-Gen; Shao Shuai; Pan Shun; Shi Bing-Jie; Li Yan; He Rui-Li; Xiao Yong-Hao

    2017-01-01

    As traditional printing industry is facing fierce competition in the market and logistics becomes a new sources of growth, the traditional printing enterprises want to build and improve their logistics system. So in this paper, the author has designed the logistics planning system based on the Baidu map development kit. It has the function of route planning and location tracking. This system meet the printing enterprise logistics route planning and tracking demand.

  14. Design of Logistics Route Planning for Printing Enterprises Based on Baidu Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Zhong-Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As traditional printing industry is facing fierce competition in the market and logistics becomes a new sources of growth, the traditional printing enterprises want to build and improve their logistics system. So in this paper, the author has designed the logistics planning system based on the Baidu map development kit. It has the function of route planning and location tracking. This system meet the printing enterprise logistics route planning and tracking demand.

  15. Determining an optimum inventory route for an areal object: the case of forest inventory in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Etula

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, routing based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS has become a major branch of technology, which has been used especially in applications related to transport and logistics. However, in terms of the development of methods, routing in a cross-country environment is more difficult, and hence research into it has been relatively scarce. This is particularly true in the context of complex routing problems involving visits to several locations. A typical example of a problem of this kind is field inventory, which is a data collection procedure used in many application areas, particularly those related to environmental research and the management of natural resources. This study presents a problem in which an efficient inventory route is determined for an areal object, such that the area visible from the route meets a prescribed threshold, while maintaining the shortest possible route. Although this problem, referred to here as the Areal Inventory Problem (AIP, is closely related to a multitude of routing and location allocation methods known in the context of GIS, none of them is very well-suited for solving the AIP. This study describes a general solution procedure for the AIP, and introduces an implementation of a heuristic algorithm that can be used to solve a real-world AIP within a reasonable time frame. The proposed approach is demonstrated with actual data related to field inventory practices carried out by the Finnish Forest Centre.

  16. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  17. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  18. SGA Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The stream geomorphic assessment is a physical assessment competed by geomorphologists to determine the condition and sensitivity of a stream. The SGA locations...

  19. Waste Recovery Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Locations where City residents are encouraged to drop off and dispose or recycle of unwanted materials. Information provided is subject to change. Please call ahead...

  20. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  1. Smart Location Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  2. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  3. VT Hospital Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of...

  4. DNA fingerprinting of Southern Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus fuliginatus) to determine movement across California State Route 67

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of this project was to primarily assess east-west connectivity across Route 67 and secondarily, north-south connectivity across Scripps Poway Parkway and...

  5. Exploring en-route parking type and parking-search route choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Sholomo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of an on-going research investigating the joint choice of parking type, parking facility and cruising-for-parking route. The importance of this issue derives from the significant share of cruising-for-parking traffic in urban areas, the relevance of parking...... policies as travel demand management tools, the growing interest in parking guidance information systems, and the need for representing parking-search behavior in traffic assignment and micro-simulation models. This paper addresses two main topics. First, the development of a methodological framework...... is introduced, including a behavioral model, its mathematical representation and the variable specification. Second, the design of a two-wave field survey accompanies the framework, with the aim of revealing the determinants of cruising-for-parking by retrieving both self-reported and GPS data. This paper...

  6. Location and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Alumura, Sibel A.; Karab, Bahar Y.; Melo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Facility location decisions play a critical role in designing logistics networks. This article provides some guidelines on how location decisions and logistics functions can be integrated into a single mathematical model to optimize the configuration of a logistics network. This will be illustrated by two generic models, one supporting the design of a forward logistics network and the other addressing the specific requirements of a reverse logistics network. Several special cases and extensio...

  7. A survey on Darknet and various Techniques of Onion Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Mathakar, Hansraj; Dedakia, Mitesh; Orpe, Akshay

    2017-01-01

    The World Wide Web is quite a large web space. Today, we assume that modern world is connected and we can obtain information in a flash. That is true to some extent, all thanks to the modern search engines (Google, Bing etc). These search engine’s algorithms process huge amount of information in a fraction of seconds. In the real word, this visible web has huge amount of information which is not indexed. Hence this information cannot be identified by the traditional web crawlers. This huge am...

  8. Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Siyuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in wireless networks has been heavily studied in the last decade. Many routing protocols are based on classic shortest path algorithms. However, shortest path-based routing protocols suffer from uneven load distribution in the network, such as crowed center effect where the center nodes have more load than the nodes in the periphery. Aiming to balance the load, we propose a novel routing method, called Circular Sailing Routing (CSR, which can distribute the traffic more evenly in the network. The proposed method first maps the network onto a sphere via a simple stereographic projection, and then the route decision is made by a newly defined "circular distance" on the sphere instead of the Euclidean distance in the plane. We theoretically prove that for a network, the distance traveled by the packets using CSR is no more than a small constant factor of the minimum (the distance of the shortest path. We also extend CSR to a localized version, Localized CSR, by modifying greedy routing without any additional communication overhead. In addition, we investigate how to design CSR routing for 3D networks. For all proposed methods, we conduct extensive simulations to study their performances and compare them with global shortest path routing or greedy routing in 2D and 3D wireless networks.

  9. Getting to the elephants: Gesture and preschoolers' comprehension of route direction information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Elizabeth E; Sweller, Naomi

    2017-11-01

    During early childhood, children find spatial tasks such as following novel route directions challenging. Spatial tasks place demands on multiple cognitive processes, including language comprehension and memory, at a time in development when resources are limited. As such, gestures accompanying route directions may aid comprehension and facilitate task performance by scaffolding cognitive processes, including language and memory processing. This study examined the effect of presenting gesture during encoding on spatial task performance during early childhood. Three- to five-year-olds were presented with verbal route directions through a zoo-themed spatial array and, depending on assigned condition (no gesture, beat gesture, or iconic/deictic gesture), accompanying gestures. Children presented with verbal route directions accompanied by a combination of iconic (pantomime) and deictic (pointing) gestures verbally recalled more than children presented with beat gestures (rhythmic hand movements) or no gestures accompanying the route directions. The presence of gesture accompanying route directions similarly influenced physical route navigation, such that children presented with gesture (beat, pantomime, and pointing) navigated the route more accurately than children presented with no gestures. Across all gesture conditions, location information (e.g., the penguin pond) was recalled more than movement information (e.g., go around) and descriptive information (e.g., bright red). These findings suggest that speakers' gestures accompanying spatial task information influence listeners' recall and task performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

    1971-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

  11. Near real-time traffic routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  12. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  13. Zone routing in a torus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  14. The Tractor and Semitrailer Routing Considering Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of the minimization of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in the VRP is important to logistics companies. The paper deals with the tractor and semitrailer routing problem with full truckload between any two depots of the network; an integer programming model with the objective of minimizing CO2 emissions per ton-kilometer is proposed. A two-stage approach with the same core steps of the simulated annealing (SA in both stages is designed. The number of tractors is provided in the first stage and the CO2 emissions per ton-kilometer are then optimized in the second stage. Computational experiments on small-scale randomly generated instances supported the feasibility and validity of the heuristic algorithm. To a practical-scale problem, the SA algorithm can provide advice on the number of tractors, the routes, and the location of the central depot to realize CO2 emissions decrease.

  15. Routes of Industrial Heritage: On the Animation of Sedentary Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgeir Rinke Bangstad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the recent proliferation of cultural heritage routes and networks will be analyzed as an attempt to animate and revitalize idle artefacts and landscapes. With a specific focus on the sedentary, immobile sites of former industrial production, it will be claimed that the route is an appropriate and understandable way of dealing with industrial sites that have lost their stable place in a sequence of productions. If the operational production site is understood as a place of where, above all, function and efficiency guide the systematic interaction between labour, raw material and technology, then the absence of this order is what makes an abandoned factory seem so isolated and out of place. It becomes disconnected from the web of production of which it was part and from which it gained its meaning and stability. In this regard, it makes sense to think of industrial heritage routes as an effort to bring the isolated site back into place. Following Barbara Kirshenblatt Gimblett, we have come to think of cultural heritage as an opportunity that is granted to artifacts, lifestyles and places of a 'second life'. Industrial heritage routes occasion such a reanimation of former industrial sites according to the principles cultural tourism, place production, professional networking and best practice learning. As a mode of operation, the route has some potential advantages over the bounded, site-specific approach. It extends the historic context of the site in question beyond the isolated, geographical location. Orchestrating sites in a wider heritage network is a way of emphasizing a notion of culture that stresses interaction, movement and encounters with that which lies beyond the local. It may also grant heritage professionals an opportunity to work in closer relation to what goes on elsewhere.

  16. Geostar - Navigation location system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Donald A.

    The author describes the Radiodetermination Satellite Service (RDSS). The initial phase of the RDSS provides for a unique service enabling central offices and headquarters to obtain position-location information and receive short digital messages from mobile user terminals throughout the contiguous United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. The system employs a spread-spectrum, CDMA modulation technique allowing multiple customers to use the system simultaneously, without preassigned coordination with fellow users. Position location is currently determined by employing an existing radio determination receiver, such as Loran-C, GPS, or Transit, in the mobile user terminal. In the early 1990s position location will be determined at a central earth station by time-differential ranging of the user terminals via two or more geostationary satellites. A brief overview of the RDSS system architecture is presented with emphasis on the user terminal and its diverse applications.

  17. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  18. Northern Sea Route and Icebreaking Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Bering: Coming to grips with a circumpolar giant. Northern Perspectives, July-August, 16(4): 4-5. Armstrong, T. (1988b) Soviet proposals for the Arctic: A... geopolitics of the Northern Sea Route. Interna- tional Challenges, 12(1): 21-25. Ostreng, W. and A. Jorgensen-Dahl (1991) The Northern Sea Route pro- ject...ronment in the context of circumpolar cooperation. In Proceedings from the Northern Sea Route Expert Meeting, 13-14 October, 1992, Tromso, Norway (H

  19. GOOGLE MAPS FOR CROWDSOURCED EMERGENCY ROUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nedkov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Gathering infrastructure data in emergency situations is challenging. The affected by a disaster areas are often large and the needed observations numerous. Spaceborne remote sensing techniques cover large areas but they are of limited use as their field of view may be blocked by clouds, smoke, buildings, highways, etc. Remote sensing products furthermore require specialists to collect and analyze the data. This contrasts the nature of the damage detection problem: almost everyone is capable of observing whether a street is usable or not. The crowd is fit for solving these challenges as its members are numerous, they are willing to help and are often in the vicinity of the disaster thereby forming a highly dispersed sensor network. This paper proposes and implements a small WebGIS application for performing shortest path calculations based on crowdsourced information about the infrastructure health. The application is built on top of Google Maps and uses its routing service to calculate the shortest distance between two locations. Impassable areas are indicated on a map by people performing in-situ observations on a mobile device, and by users on a desktop machine who consult a multitude of information sources.

  20. Google Maps for Crowdsourced Emergency Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedkov, S.; Zlatanova, S.

    2012-08-01

    Gathering infrastructure data in emergency situations is challenging. The affected by a disaster areas are often large and the needed observations numerous. Spaceborne remote sensing techniques cover large areas but they are of limited use as their field of view may be blocked by clouds, smoke, buildings, highways, etc. Remote sensing products furthermore require specialists to collect and analyze the data. This contrasts the nature of the damage detection problem: almost everyone is capable of observing whether a street is usable or not. The crowd is fit for solving these challenges as its members are numerous, they are willing to help and are often in the vicinity of the disaster thereby forming a highly dispersed sensor network. This paper proposes and implements a small WebGIS application for performing shortest path calculations based on crowdsourced information about the infrastructure health. The application is built on top of Google Maps and uses its routing service to calculate the shortest distance between two locations. Impassable areas are indicated on a map by people performing in-situ observations on a mobile device, and by users on a desktop machine who consult a multitude of information sources.

  1. Robust facility location

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizosa Priego, Emilio José; Nickel, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Let A be a nonempty finite subset of the plane representing the geographical coordinates of a set of demand points (towns, …), to be served by a facility, whose location within a given region S is sought. Assuming that the unit cost for a∈A if the facility is located at x∈S is proportional to dist(x,a) — the distance from x to a — and that demand of point a is given by ωa, minimizing the total transportation cost TC(ω,x) amounts to solving the Weber problem. In practice, it may be the case, h...

  2. Location-based games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    to create meaningful experiences; and of the prerequisites of a meaningful meeting between players and locations. The dissertation contributes to the field of LBG research by offering an enhanced understanding of LBGs, and LBG player experiences, as well as providing an expanded vocabulary describing LBG...... elements. In addition, the dissertation provides design knowledge concerning creating LBGs that uses certain emergent opportunities when combining location-aware technologies with game mechanics to make use of the six dimensions of LBGs and to involve the player’s body – i.e. make a meaningful meeting...

  3. Chemical routes to discharging graphenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Stephen A; Buckley, David J; Yau, Hin Chun; Skipper, Neal T; Howard, Christopher A; Shaffer, Milo S P

    2017-03-02

    Chemical and electrochemical reduction methods allow the dispersion, processing, and/or functionalization of discrete sp(2)-hybridised nanocarbons, including fullerenes, nanotubes and graphenes. Electron transfer to the nanocarbon raises the Fermi energy, creating nanocarbon anions and thereby activating an array of possible covalent reactions. The Fermi level may then be partially or fully lowered by intended functionalization reactions, but in general, techniques are required to remove excess charge without inadvertent covalent reactions that potentially degrade the nanocarbon properties of interest. Here, simple and effective chemical discharging routes are demonstrated for graphenide polyelectrolytes and are expected to apply to other systems, particularly nanotubides. The discharging process is inherently linked to the reduction potentials of such chemical discharging agents and the unusual fundamental chemistry of charged nanocarbons.

  4. Routing in double layered satellite network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaofeng; Fei, Gao

    2009-07-01

    With the fast development of aviation technology and network, satellite communication systems are not limited to a signal satellite any more, they are now oriented to network. Double LEO/MEO network can separate network manage from traffic in physical layer in order to manage total network and operate central routing. At last, aiming at the problem of the frequency link switch, we give a new routing protocol (OSPF_SAT) based on OSPF routing protocol. The optimized strategy routing algorithm and is applied to the model, with the result of getting less link switch ratio.

  5. Computerized routing: Its time has come

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Miller

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The costs of commercial fleet management in South Africa continue to rise ahead of the inflation rate. Computerised routing and scheduling promises to alleviate the situation provided it is judiciously applied. This article describes the nature of the routing problem and ways to cope with its complexity. Some results of research into South African firms are presented and this leads to a discussion of computer-based routing and scheduling. The authors offer a framework for assessing routing situations and apply it to cases in South Africa. The relative benefits of the application of computer solutions are discussed and recommendations are made.

  6. A Machine Learning Concept for DTN Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovich, Rachel; Hylton, Alan; Papachristou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept and architecture of a machine learning based router for delay tolerant space networks. The techniques of reinforcement learning and Bayesian learning are used to supplement the routing decisions of the popular Contact Graph Routing algorithm. An introduction to the concepts of Contact Graph Routing, Q-routing and Naive Bayes classification are given. The development of an architecture for a cross-layer feedback framework for DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) protocols is discussed. Finally, initial simulation setup and results are given.

  7. Aircraft route forecasting under adverse weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hauf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper storm nowcasts in the terminal manoeuvring area (TMA of Hong Kong International Airport are used to forecast deviation routes through a field of storms for arriving and departing aircraft. Storms were observed and nowcast by the nowcast system SWIRLS from the Hong Kong Observatory. Storms were considered as no-go zones for aircraft and deviation routes were determined with the DIVSIM software package. Two days (21 and 22 May 2011 with 22 actual flown routes were investigated. Flights were simulated with a nowcast issued at the time an aircraft entered the TMA or departed from the airport. These flights were compared with a posteriori simulations, in which all storm fields were known and circumnavigated. Both types of simulated routes were then compared with the actual flown routes. The qualitative comparison of the various routes revealed generally good agreement. Larger differences were found in more complex situations with many active storms in the TMA. Route differences resulted primarily from air traffic control measures imposed such as holdings, slow-downs and shortcuts, causing the largest differences between the estimated and actual landing time. Route differences could be enhanced as aircraft might be forced to circumnavigate a storm ahead in a different sense. The use of route forecasts to assist controllers coordinating flights in a complex moving storm field is discussed. The study emphasises the important application of storm nowcasts in aviation meteorology.

  8. Skier triggering of backcountry avalanches with skilled route selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinickas, Alexandra; Haegeli, Pascal; Jamieson, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Jamieson (2009) provided numerical estimates for the baseline probabilities of triggering an avalanche by a backcountry skier making fresh tracks without skilled route selection as a function of the North American avalanche danger scale (i.e., hazard levels Low, Moderate, Considerable, High and Extreme). Using the results of an expert survey, he showed that triggering probabilities while skiing directly up, down or across a trigger zone without skilled route selection increase roughly by a factor of 10 with each step of the North American avalanche danger scale (i.e. hazard level). The objective of the present study is to examine the effect of skilled route selection on the relationship between triggering probability and hazard level. To assess the effect of skilled route selection on triggering probability by hazard level, we analysed avalanche hazard assessments as well as reports of skiing activity and triggering of avalanches from 11 Canadian helicopter and snowcat operations during two winters (2012-13 and 2013-14). These reports were submitted to the daily information exchange among Canadian avalanche safety operations, and reflect professional decision-making and route selection practices of guides leading groups of skiers. We selected all skier-controlled or accidentally triggered avalanches with a destructive size greater than size 1 according to the Canadian avalanche size classification, triggered by any member of a guided group (guide or guest). These operations forecast the avalanche hazard daily for each of three elevation bands: alpine, treeline and below treeline. In contrast to the 2009 study, an exposure was defined as a group skiing within any one of the three elevation bands, and consequently within a hazard rating, for the day (~4,300 ratings over two winters). For example, a group that skied below treeline (rated Moderate) and treeline (rated Considerable) in one day, would receive one count for exposure to Moderate hazard, and one count for

  9. Optimizing Cruising Routes for Taxi Drivers Using a Spatio-Temporal Trajectory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of the taxi route-planning literature has focused on driver strategies for finding passengers and determining the hot spot pick-up locations using historical global positioning system (GPS trajectories of taxis based on driver experience, distance from the passenger drop-off location to the next passenger pick-up location and the waiting times at recommended locations for the next passenger. The present work, however, considers the average taxi travel speed mined from historical taxi GPS trajectory data and the allocation of cruising routes to more than one taxi driver in a small-scale region to neighboring pick-up locations. A spatio-temporal trajectory model with load balancing allocations is presented to not only explore pick-up/drop-off information but also provide taxi drivers with cruising routes to the recommended pick-up locations. In simulation experiments, our study shows that taxi drivers using cruising routes recommended by our spatio-temporal trajectory model can significantly reduce the average waiting time and travel less distance to quickly find their next passengers, and the load balancing strategy significantly alleviates road loads. These objective measures can help us better understand spatio-temporal traffic patterns and guide taxi navigation.

  10. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  11. 25 CFR 169.8 - Public survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public survey. 169.8 Section 169.8 Indians BUREAU OF... survey. (a) The terminal of the line of route shall be fixed by reference of course and distance to the nearest existing corner of the public survey. The maps, as well as the engineer's affidavit and the...

  12. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random

  13. The Czech Locative Chameleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarald Taraldsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that under certain circumstances, the Czech locative prepositions (LOC show up as directional prepositions (DIR and vice versa, (under different circumstances the Czech DIR PPs show up as LOC. We argue that such a chameleon life of the PPs is structurally dependent.

  14. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations. Real Time Communication: Peer-to-Peer (P2P). Datagram flows between the two conversing partners; Exposes the IP addresses of all the participants to one another. If A knows B's VoIP ID, she can establish a call with Bob & obtain his current ...

  15. General minisum circle location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points...

  16. ATL: ASA Tutor Locator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Maurice; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    ASA Tutor Locator creates ad hoc transient communities consisting of peer tutors, seeded with document fragments found in the learning network, to answer content questions of students. The sources are available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/asa-atl. Available under the three clause BSD

  17. ATL: A Tutor Locator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, André; Brouwers, Maurice; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A Tutor Locator creates ad hoc transient communities consisting of peer tutors, seeded with document fragments found in the learning network, to answer content questions of students. The sources are available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/asa-atl.Available under the three clause BSD licence,

  18. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  19. RFID Location Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zi Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social services, people’s living standards improve further requirements, there is an urgent need for a way to adapt to the complex situation of the new positioning technology. In recent years, RFID technology have a wide range of applications in all aspects of life and production, such as logistics tracking, car alarm, security and other items. The use of RFID technology to locate, it is a new direction in the eyes of the various research institutions and scholars. RFID positioning technology system stability, the error is small and low-cost advantages of its location algorithm is the focus of this study.This article analyzes the layers of RFID technology targeting methods and algorithms. First, RFID common several basic methods are introduced; Secondly, higher accuracy to political network location method; Finally, LANDMARC algorithm will be described. Through this it can be seen that advanced and efficient algorithms play an important role in increasing RFID positioning accuracy aspects.Finally, the algorithm of RFID location technology are summarized, pointing out the deficiencies in the algorithm, and put forward a follow-up study of the requirements, the vision of a better future RFID positioning technology.

  20. Optimal Facility-Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A J

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Christoph Witzgall, the honoree of this Symposium, can count among his many contributions to applied mathematics and mathematical operations research a body of widely-recognized work on the optimal location of facilities. The present paper offers to non-specialists a sketch of that field and its evolution, with emphasis on areas most closely related to Witzgall's research at NBS/NIST.

  1. Spatiotemporal AED Location Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Timothy C.Y.; Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Morrison, Laurie J.; Brooks, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mathematical optimization can be used to plan future AED placement to maximize out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) coverage. Many public access AEDs are placed in locations without 24/7 access. AED coverage can be overestimated unless temporal availability is considered. Objective: To

  2. US Hazardous Materials Routes, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [hazardous_material_routes_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  3. Smart Indoor Positioning/Location and Navigation: A Lightweight Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Puértolas Montañés

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new location indoor system is presented, which shows the position and orientation of the user in closed environments, as well as the optimal route to his destination through location tags. This system is called Labelee, and it makes easier the interaction between users and devices through QR code scanning or by NFC tag reading, because this technology is increasingly common in the latest smartphones. With this system, users could locate themselves into an enclosure with less interaction.

  4. ESecRout: An Energy Efficient Secure Routing for Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Yin; Madria, Sanjay K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Energy Efficient Secure Routing Protocol for Sensor Networks (ESecRout). The protocol uses the symmetric cryptography to secure messages, and uses a small cache in sensor nodes to record the partial routing path (previous and next nodes) to the destination. It guarantees that the destination will be able to identify and discard the tampered messages and ensure that the messages received are not tampered with. Simulation shows ESecRout's performance comparison with...

  5. Time-Location Patterns of a Population Living in an Air Pollution Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmei (May Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the time-location pattern of 107 residents living in air pollution hotspots, the Waterfront South and Copewood/Davis Streets communities in Camden, NJ. Most residents in the two communities are minority and impoverished individuals. Results showed that employment status played the fundamental role in determining time-location patterns of this study population, and the variations of time-location pattern by season and by day-type were partially attributed to employment status. Compared to the National Human Activity Pattern Survey, the Camden cohort spent significantly more time outdoors (3.8 hours versus 1.8 hours and less time indoors (19.4 hours versus 20.9 hours than the general US population, indicating a higher risk of exposure to ambient air pollution for the Camden cohort. The findings of the study are important for understanding exposure routes and sources for the socioeconomically disadvantaged subgroup and ultimately help develop effective strategies to reduce community exposure to ambient air pollution in “hotspots”.

  6. AN INTEGRATED PRODUCTION, INVENTORY, WAREHOUSE LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokendra Kumar Devangan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an integrated production and distribution planning optimization model for multiple manufacturing locations, producing multiple products with deterministic demand at multiple locations. There are multiple modes of transport from plants to demand locations and warehouses. This study presents a model which allows decision makers to optimize plant production, transport and warehouse location simultaneously to fulfill the demands at customer locations within a multi-plant, multi-product, and multi-route supply chain system when the locations of the plants are already fixed. The proposed model is solved for sample problems and tested using real data from a cement manufacturing company in India. An analysis of the results suggests that this model can be used for various strategic and tactical production and planning decisions.

  7. Locating and Tracking Everything Digital

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Telcos need actual locations for highly localized and targeted ads, location based services. Telcos need actual locations for highly localized and targeted ads, location based services. Governments need to know the location of the buyers for tax – state tax etc. Locating friends ...

  8. In campus location finder using mobile application services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Low Weng; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    Navigation services become very common in this era, the application include Google Map, Waze and etc. Although navigation application contains the main routing service in open area but not all of the buildings are recorded in the database. In this project, an application is made for the indoor and outdoor navigation in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). It is used to help outsider and new incoming students by navigating them from their current location to destination using mobile application name "U Finder". Thunkable website has been used to build the application for outdoor and indoor navigation. Outdoor navigation is linked to the Google Map and indoor navigation is using the QR code for positioning and routing picture for navigation. The outdoor navigation can route user to the main faculties in UTHM and indoor navigation is only done for the G1 building in UTHM.

  9. Electric current locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  10. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...

  11. Perspectives on Illegal Routes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    region as a result of economic, social and political problems. Africans have through the ages moved .... The aim of this study is to look into perspectives on illegal routes in Nigeria as it relates to the Nigeria Immigration ... proliferation of illegal routes and ways of managing and curbing such. The data collected will assist the ...

  12. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  13. Biocatalytic Route to Surface Active Lipid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Xu, Xuebing

    Lipid can be structurally modified in order to attain improved functional properties. This work look into the possibilities of developing surface active lipids with improved functional properties through biocatalytic route. Biocatalytic route to surface active lipid are usually complex involving ...... distinct self assembling property and find useful application in surfactant industry....

  14. Routing in Optical and Stochastic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.

    2015-01-01

    In most types of networks (e.g., optical or transportation networks), finding one or more best paths from a source to a destination, is one of the biggest concerns of network users and providers. This process is known as routing. The routing problems differ accordingly depending on different

  15. Suitable Route Recommendation Inspired by Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Jiajin; Zhou, Erzhong; Huang, Zhisheng; Zhong, Ning; Zhong, Ning; Ma, Jianhua; Liu, Jiming; Huang, Runhe; Tao, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of mobile phones, large amounts of real and reliable mobile phone data are being generated every day. These mobile phone data represent the practical travel routes of users and imply the intelligence of them in selecting a suitable route. Usually, an experienced user

  16. Joint Route Planning under Varying Market Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Braysy, O.; Dullaert, W.; Fleuren, H.A.; Salomon, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - To provide empirical evidence on the level of savings that can be attained by joint route planning and how these savings depend on specific market characteristics.Design/methodology/approach - Joint route planning is a measure that companies can take to decrease the costs of their

  17. Inventory routing for dynamic waste collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of collecting waste from sensor equipped underground containers. These sensors enable the use of a dynamic collection policy. The problem, which is known as a reverse inventory routing problem, involves decisions regarding routing and container selection. In more dense

  18. Inventory routing for dynamic waste collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of collecting waste from sensor equipped underground containers. These sensors enable the use of a dynamic collection policy. The problem, which is known as a reverse inventory routing problem, involves decisions regarding routing and container selection. In more dense

  19. 7 CFR 1000.3 - Route disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.3 Route disposition. Route disposition means a delivery to a retail or wholesale outlet...

  20. Spring migration routes and chronology of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): a synthesis of Pacific coast studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, S.E.W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Wilson, M.T.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Esler, Daniel; Boyd, W.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding interconnectivity among wintering, stopover, and breeding areas of migratory birds is pivotal to discerning how events occurring in each might have a cross-seasonal effect on another. Such information can guide the location and timing of conservation efforts. Thus, we examined spring migration routes, chronology, and stopover use of 85 surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) marked with satellite transmitters at four Pacific Flyway wintering sites: San Quintin Bay, Baja California; San Francisco Bay, California; Puget Sound, Washington; and Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Eighty-three percent of marked scoters followed two main routes to the breeding area: a Southern Inland route involving staging in Puget Sound and Strait of Georgia and protracted inland migration, or a Northern Coastal route characterized by short movements along the Pacific coast of British Columbia and southeast Alaska with inland migration initiating from Lynn Canal and surrounding areas. Route choice was related to nesting site latitude in the Canadian Northern Boreal Forest. Data from birds tracked over 2 years indicated strong migration route fidelity, but altered chronology and stopover locations between years. Departure date varied by wintering site, but arrival and apparent settling dates were synchronous, suggesting individuals adjusted migration timing to meet an optimized reproductive schedule.

  1. Production Subcontracting and Location

    OpenAIRE

    Holl, Adelheid

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a panel of Spanish manufacturing firms, I examine factors that explain firms’ production subcontracting decisions and test whether there is any evidence that production subcontracting is facilitated in areas typically associated with higher agglomeration economies. The results show that location matters. Firms in industry agglomerations are more likely to subcontract production activities. While in general, larger and older firms as well as high wage firms show a greater proba...

  2. Choosing locations of landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Špacapan, Matjaž

    2008-01-01

    In my Graduation thesis we deal with the problem of choosing the most appropriate location of landfills and the criteria used in this process. The problem of waste management is one of the most critical areas of environmental protection in Slovenia. In these matters, the existing legislation and law directives in the Republic of Slovenia are followed. After this we have to pay attention to the composition of the waste and the technologies of waste management. Before we place a new facility fo...

  3. Optimal Facility-Location

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Christoph Witzgall, the honoree of this Symposium, can count among his many contributions to applied mathematics and mathematical operations research a body of widely-recognized work on the optimal location of facilities. The present paper offers to non-specialists a sketch of that field and its evolution, with emphasis on areas most closely related to Witzgall?s research at NBS/NIST.

  4. Entanglement-Gradient Routing for Quantum Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2017-10-27

    We define the entanglement-gradient routing scheme for quantum repeater networks. The routing framework fuses the fundamentals of swarm intelligence and quantum Shannon theory. Swarm intelligence provides nature-inspired solutions for problem solving. Motivated by models of social insect behavior, the routing is performed using parallel threads to determine the shortest path via the entanglement gradient coefficient, which describes the feasibility of the entangled links and paths of the network. The routing metrics are derived from the characteristics of entanglement transmission and relevant measures of entanglement distribution in quantum networks. The method allows a moderate complexity decentralized routing in quantum repeater networks. The results can be applied in experimental quantum networking, future quantum Internet, and long-distance quantum communications.

  5. Design of a routing controller in ASON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dongfeng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Aiping; Li, Jian; Chen, Xiaoyi; Gu, Wanyi

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, according to the ITU-T recommendation G.8080, we present a novel architecture of RC based on the extended GMPLS, which consists of interface component, OSPF-TE component, route computation component and routing information database. The RC is emulated in the ASON simulation software developed by us, where the OSPF is extended as the routing protocol and GMPLS RSVP-TE is adopted as signalling protocol. In the simulation, the RWA scheme, the fixed shortest path routing way and first fit wavelength algorithm, is used. The simulation results of RC have been presented in terms of flooding time (FT), flooding overhead (FO) and route computing time. The FT and FO just have a very little change under different traffic load, which indicates that re-flooding is rare and the RC works efficiently.

  6. Dynamic routing based on real-time traffic information in LBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nianbo; Li, Qingquan; Song, Ying

    2005-10-01

    Location based services (LBS) are capturing global spotlights increasingly, in which users tend to pick up navigation service as their favorites. This paper examines the dynamic routing problems based on real-time traffic information in LBS. At first, the overall structure of dynamic navigation system is illustrated, which is composed of four ingredients: traffic data collection, digital road map, static routing and dynamic re-routing. Traffic data collection is the task of traffic information center (TIC), where various sources of data are fused into link travel times that are used as criteria to choose candidates in path determining. Digital road map includes digital road network and historical traffic data, where the topology relationship of road network is elementarily explored and the method to represent statistical traffic data is referred to. Routing with historical traffic data and dynamic re-routing with live traffic data are two main functions of dynamic navigation service. The flow of dynamic re-routing algorithm is exhibited. Lastly, a first-in-first-out (FIFO) time-depend shortest path algorithm is discussed for dynamic routing, which adopts the adaptive A * algorithm based on binary heap priority queue and RB-tree.

  7. RFID-WSN integrated architecture for energy and delay- aware routing a simulation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Jameel; Tayyab, Muhammad; Nawaz, Menaa

    2015-01-01

    The book identifies the performance challenges concerning Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and analyzes their impact on the performance of routing protocols. It presents a thorough literature survey to identify the issues affecting routing protocol performance, as well as a mathematical model for calculating the end-to-end delays of the routing protocol ACQUIRE; a comparison of two routing protocols (ACQUIRE and DIRECTED DIFFUSION) is also provided for evaluation purposes. On the basis of the results and literature review, recommendations are made for better selection of protocols regarding the nature of the respective application and related challenges. In addition, this book covers a proposed simulator that integrates both RFID and WSN technologies. Therefore, the manuscript is divided in two major parts: an integrated architecture of smart nodes, and a power-optimized protocol for query and information interchange.

  8. The predictive power of airborne gamma ray survey data on the locations of domestic radon hazards in Norway: A strong case for utilizing airborne data in large-scale radon potential mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethurst, M A; Watson, R J; Baranwal, V C; Rudjord, A L; Finne, I

    2017-01-01

    It is estimated that exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is responsible for as many as 300 deaths a year due to lung cancer. To address this, the authorities in Norway have developed a national action plan that has the aim of reducing exposure to radon in Norway (Norwegian Ministries, 2010). The plan includes further investigation of the relationship between radon hazard and geological conditions, and development of map-based tools for assessing the large spatial variation in radon hazard levels across Norway. The main focus of the present contribution is to describe how we generate map predictions of radon potential (RP), a measure of radon hazard, from available airborne gamma ray spectrometry (AGRS) surveys in Norway, and what impact these map predictions can be expected to have on radon protection work including land-use planning and targeted surveying. We have compiled 11 contiguous AGRS surveys centred on the most populated part of Norway around Oslo to produce an equivalent uranium map measuring 180 km × 102 km that represents the relative concentrations of radon in the near surface of the ground with a spatial resolution in the 100 s of metres. We find that this map of radon in the ground offers a far more detailed and reliable picture of the distribution of radon in the sub-surface than can be deduced from the available digital geology maps. We tested the performances of digital geology and AGRS data as predictors of RP. We find that digital geology explains approximately 40% of the observed variance in ln RP nationally, while the AGRS data in the Oslo area split into 14 bands explains approximately 70% of the variance in the same parameter. We also notice that there are too few indoor data to characterise all geological settings in Norway which leaves areas in the geology-based RP map in the Oslo area, and elsewhere, unclassified. The AGRS RP map is derived from fewer classes, all characterised by more than 30 indoor measurements, and the

  9. Routing, construction and maintenance of pipelines in landslide terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanek, M. [Geo-Enginering (M.S.T.) Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Factors influencing the location and routing of pipelines, and the effects of unstable terrain features on construction and maintenance are discussed. Examples from northwestern Alberta and northeastern British Columbia are cited to illustrate the various techniques, such as overhead crossings of valleys and directional drilling to install pipelines below streams, adopted by pipeline construction companies to deal with the challenges presented by sensitive and unstable terrain. The case histories cited also serve to emphasize the importance of terrain analysis and the proper identification of potential problem areas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Critical Routes: Women Facing Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Critical Routes International Seminar – Women Facing Violence , which took place in Porto Alegre in 2008. The seminar was promoted by the Graduate Program on Collective Health at Unisinos and by the Public Health School/RS and was supported by outstanding researchers working in the fields of collective health, and social and human sciences. Initially, we discuss some conceptual aspects about gender violence, its dimensions and its consequences for the health and the life quality of the affected women. Our understanding is that violence is one of the most effective methods of controlling women in societies scarred with gender hierarchies. The structure of the seminar focused on three main discussion themes: breaking up with the violence, mechanisms for working with gender and hearing the services. These themes were chosen aiming at looking for ways to help the women and to explore efficient mechanisms to combat, reduce and, if possible, eliminate the violence perpetrated against women. At the end of the seminar, we reiterate the political commitment on the accomplishment of the public policies to face violence and the fight against all inequality, discrimination and violence forms based on gender.

  11. Aircraft en route noise annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from a laboratory experiment conducted in order to quantify the annoyance experienced by people on the ground in response to en route noise (ERN) generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. Objectives included the comparison of annoyance responses to ERN with the annoyance responses to takeoff and landing noise; the comparison of the annoyance responses to advanced turboprop aircraft ERN with those of the turbofan ERN; and also the ability of aircraft noise measurement procedures and corrections to predict annoyance to ERN. Tests were conducted at the Langley Acoustics Research Laboratory on 32 human subjects selected at random. Subjects judged the annoyance level of 24 Propfan Test Assessment advanced turboprop ERN stimuli, 18 conventional turbofan ERN stimuli, and 60 conventional turboprop and turbofan takeoff and landing noise stimuli. Analysis of resulting data compared annoyance responses to different aircraft types and operations, examined the ability of current noise measurement and correction procedures to predict annoyance ERN, and calculated optimum duration correction magnitudes for ERN.

  12. Data-centric multiobjective QoS-aware routing protocol for body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Md Abdur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address Quality-of-Service (QoS)-aware routing issue for Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) in delay and reliability domains. We propose a data-centric multiobjective QoS-Aware routing protocol, called DMQoS, which facilitates the system to achieve customized QoS services for each traffic category differentiated according to the generated data types. It uses modular design architecture wherein different units operate in coordination to provide multiple QoS services. Their operation exploits geographic locations and QoS performance of the neighbor nodes and implements a localized hop-by-hop routing. Moreover, the protocol ensures (almost) a homogeneous energy dissipation rate for all routing nodes in the network through a multiobjective Lexicographic Optimization-based geographic forwarding. We have performed extensive simulations of the proposed protocol, and the results show that DMQoS has significant performance improvements over several state-of-the-art approaches.

  13. P-bRS: A Physarum-Based Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is an extremely challenging issue due to the features of WSNs. Inspired by the large and single-celled amoeboid organism, slime mold Physarum polycephalum, we establish a novel selecting next hop model (SNH. Based on this model, we present a novel Physarum-based routing scheme (P-bRS for WSNs to balance routing efficiency and energy equilibrium. In P-bRS, a sensor node can choose the proper next hop by using SNH which comprehensively considers the distance, energy residue, and location of the next hop. The simulation results show how P-bRS can achieve the effective trade-off between routing efficiency and energy equilibrium compared to two famous algorithms.

  14. MULTI-VEHICLE COVERING TOUR PROBLEM: BUILDING ROUTES FOR URBAN PATROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Alves de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this paper we study a particular aspect of the urban community policing: routine patrol route planning. We seek routes that guarantee visibility, as this has a sizable impact on the community perceived safety, allowing quick emergency responses and providing surveillance of selected sites (e.g., hospitals, schools. The planning is restricted to the availability of vehicles and strives to achieve balanced routes. We study an adaptation of the model for the multi-vehicle covering tour problem, in which a set of locations must be visited, whereas another subset must be close enough to the planned routes. It constitutes an NP-complete integer programming problem. Suboptimal solutions are obtained with several heuristics, some adapted from the literature and others developed by us. We solve some adapted instances from TSPLIB and an instance with real data, the former being compared with results from literature, and latter being compared with empirical data.

  15. 78 FR 76189 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study, Prince George...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... alternatives and impacts analyses, and assess impacts not previously evaluated in the FEIS/ROD. To streamline... eliminated from consideration by FHWA. In order that the USACE may fulfill its required alternatives analysis... including their Web site ( http://www.virginiadot.org/default_noflash.asp ) and by newspaper advertisement...

  16. 49 CFR 397.103 - Requirements for State routing designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Preferred Highway Routes for Highway Route Controlled Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials,” or an... REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS; DRIVING AND PARKING RULES Routing of Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 397.103 Requirements for State routing designations. (a) The State routing agency, as defined in...

  17. Location of Planet X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  18. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    such as Beck, The Killing, Trapped and The Bridge as well as a range of other important Nordic Noir cases. The book positions the development of Nordic Noir on the global market for popular television drama and places the international attention towards Nordic crime dramas within regional development of drama......This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...

  19. The LHCb Vertex Locator

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, L

    2004-01-01

    LHCb is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), dedicated to the study of b-hadron physics. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is a sub-detector which reconstructs primary and secondary vertices, which is of importance for the processes under study. It is a silicon micro-strip detector operated in a harsh radiation environment with demands of high read-out speed and the use of minimal material. In this paper, the LHCb VELO is introduced and the technology choices of the detector are motivated. We report on the present status of the project and one possible upgrade technology is presented.

  20. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...... production in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Consequently, Nordic Noir is read as both a transnational financial and creative phenomenon and as a local possibility for community building. The book is aimed at readers with an interest in crime drama as well as television scholars and students...

  1. Competitive facility location models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononov, A. V.; Kochetov, Yu. A.; Plyasunov, A. V.

    2009-06-01

    Two classes of competitive facility location models are considered, in which several persons (players) sequentially or simultaneously open facilities for serving clients. The first class consists of discrete two-level programming models. The second class consists of game models with several independent players pursuing selfish goals. For the first class, its relationship with pseudo-Boolean functions is established and a novel method for constructing a family of upper and lower bounds on the optimum is proposed. For the second class, the tight PLS-completeness of the problem of finding Nash equilibriums is proved.

  2. Indoor Location Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  3. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchiades, F. G.; Daros, M. T.; Boschi, A. O.

    2010-07-01

    In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. NABUCCO pipeline route selection through Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Volkan [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Geomatics Engineering; Yomralioglu, Tahsin [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Geomatics Engineering

    2011-03-15

    Pipelines are one of the most effective methods of transferring energy sources like petroleum and gas. In pipeline projects, decreasing the cost, reducing environmental issues and shortening the construction time are related to determining the right route at the beginning of the project. Route determination is usually carried out manually with the help of traditional methods. However, this technique is not effective in many situations because it does not evaluate the factors that affect the route as a whole. In fact, technique, economy, environmental and sociological issues should be examined as a whole in the route determination process. Evaluation of the factors affecting the route is possible with the analysis of many spatial datasets from the same system. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been shown to be an effective way for analyzing these types of intensive datasets. In this study, a suggestion related to the NABUCCO Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline project has been made using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is a technique using GIS and multi-criteria decision making. The effectiveness of this method was proven by comparing part of the determined Optimal Route with a length of 557 km with the Proposed Route, which has currently been planned. (orig.)

  5. Solving the time dependent vehicle routing problem by metaheuristic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Farhana; Potts, Chris; Bennell, Julia

    2015-02-01

    The problem we consider in this study is Time Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem (TDVRP) which has been categorized as non-classical VRP. It is motivated by the fact that multinational companies are currently not only manufacturing the demanded products but also distributing them to the customer location. This implies an efficient synchronization of production and distribution activities. Hence, this study will look into the routing of vehicles which departs from the depot at varies time due to the variation in manufacturing process. We consider a single production line where demanded products are being process one at a time once orders have been received from the customers. It is assumed that order released from the production line will be loaded into scheduled vehicle which ready to be delivered. However, the delivery could only be done once all orders scheduled in the vehicle have been released from the production line. Therefore, there could be lateness on the delivery process from awaiting all customers' order of the route to be released. Our objective is to determine a schedule for vehicle routing that minimizes the solution cost including the travelling and tardiness cost. A mathematical formulation is developed to represent the problem and will be solved by two metaheuristics; Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) and Tabu Search (TS). These algorithms will be coded in C ++ programming and run using 56's Solomon instances with some modification. The outcome of this experiment can be interpreted as the quality criteria of the different approximation methods. The comparison done shown that VNS gave the better results while consuming reasonable computational efforts.

  6. Optimization for routing vehicles of seafood product transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenandi, I. A.; Juan, Y.; Budi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, increasing usage of marine products is creating new challenges for businesses of marine products in terms of transportation that used to carry the marine products like seafood to the main warehouse. This can be a problem if the carrier fleet is limited, and there are time constraints in terms of the freshness of the marine product. There are many ways to solve this problem, including the optimization of routing vehicles. In this study, this strategy is to implement in the marine product business in Indonesia with such an expected arrangement of the company to optimize routing problem in transportation with time and capacity windows. Until now, the company has not used the scientific method to manage the routing of their vehicle from warehouse to the location of marine products source. This study will solve a stochastic Vehicle Routing Problems (VRP) with time and capacity windows by using the comparison of six methods and looking the best results for the optimization, in this situation the company could choose the best method, in accordance with the existing condition. In this research, we compared the optimization with another method such as branch and bound, dynamic programming and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). Finally, we get the best result after running ACO algorithm with existing travel time data. With ACO algorithm was able to reduce vehicle travel time by 3189.65 minutes, which is about 23% less than existing and based on consideration of the constraints of time within 2 days (including rest time for the driver) using 28 tons capacity of truck and the companies need two units of vehicles for transportation.

  7. Geomorphology and early Neolithic migration routes into the Transylvanian Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perşoiu, Ioana; Măţău, Florica; Perşoiu, Aurel

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we discuss the geomorphological conditioning of the migration routes of the early Neolithic communities into the Transylvanian Depression (Carpathian Mts., East Central Europe), as reflected by the spatial and temporal distribution of the Starčevo - Criş archaeological sites in the western part of Romania. The inventoried archaeological sites are located along rivers, preferentially positioned in the floodplain and low fluvial terraces; between 70 - 450 m asl, with few sites at higher elevations along rivers in the mountainous areas. The main access route across the Carpathian Mts was eastward from the Pannonian Basin, along the Mureş River. During Starčevo - Criş I and II, the communities were present only in the western part of the Transylvanian Depression, at the edge of the Apuseni Mountains. They have split along the main rivers and some small tributaries, and moved to the north, along Someşul Mic River and its right side tributaries. Starting with Starčevo - Criş III, the number of the early Neolithic communities has increased, mainly along Mureş River and its main tributaries (Târnava Mică, Târnava Mare, Arieş), associated with a slow eastward movement. A secondary eastward route was along the low alluvial plains (known as The Western Romanian Plain) of Mureş, Criş and Someş Rivers. Here too, the peoples moved from the area of Mureş alluvial plain to the NE. They arrived in the perimeter of the Someş alluvial plain only during Starčevo - Criş III and IV. From there, further to the east, neolithic sites are generally absent along the main (1-5 km wide) floodplains but present in the hilly area (crossed but smaller and narrower valleys), suggesting a possible geomorphologic control on the spreading routes. The third route was along Olt River and seams to have occurred only during Starcevo - Criş III and IV. These communities moved to the east, along the main river and occupied Braşov Depression and other small scale

  8. Routing problems based on hils system platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Adamski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The logistic systems are very complex socio-technical systems. In this paper the proposal of application of the hierarchical multi-layers system platform HILS approach for the solution of the complex vehicle routing problems is presented. The interactive system functional structure was proposed which by intelligent dedicated inter-layers interactions enables the professional solutions of these practical problems. To illustrate these capabilities the complex example of the real-time VRP-SPD-TW routing problem was presented in which upper layers offers the context-related real-time updating network specifications that stimulates the adequate routing parameters and specifications updating for problem solution in optimization layer. At the bottom dispatching control layer the DISCON (Dispatching CONtrol method from public transport was adopted to logistics applications in which the actual routing is treated as obligatory reference schedule to be stabilized. The intelligence aspects are related among others to HILS based decomposition, context-related trade-offs between routing modifications and corrective dispatching control capabilities e.g. priority or route guidance actions. Methods: Decomposition of the vehicle routing problem for the HILS layers tasks creating the ILS system hierarchical structure. Dedicated solution method for the VRP-SPD-TW routing problem. The recognition of the control preferences structure by AHP-Entropy methods. DISCON and PIACON multi-criteria interacting control methods. Results: Original formulation and solution of the vehicle routing problem by system-wide approach with essential practical advantages: consistency, lack of redundancy, essential reduction of dimension, dedicated formulation, multi-criteria approach, exploration of the integration and intelligence features supported by the intelligent PIACON-DISCON methods control activities Conclusions: The presented proposal creates the professional

  9. Managing changes of location classes of gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Sergio B.; Sousa, Antonio Geraldo de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Most of the gas pipeline design codes utilize a class location system, where the design safety factor and the hydrostatic test factor are determined according to the population density in the vicinities of the pipeline route. Consequently, if an operator is requested or desires to maintain an existing gas pipeline in compliance with its design code, it will reduce the operational pressure or replace pipe sections to increase the wall thickness whenever a change in location class takes place. This article introduces an alternative methodology to deal with changes in location classes of gas pipelines. Initially, selected codes that utilize location class systems are reviewed. Afterwards, a model for the area affected by an ignition following a natural gas pipeline leak is described. Finally, a methodology to determine the MAOP and third part damage mitigation measures for gas transport pipelines that underwent changes in location class is presented. (author)

  10. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    . Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system and business processes. On basis of a case study, we describe in this paper a system that is cheap and easy to implement due to the use of simple mobile phones......On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology...

  11. A Graphical Method for Great Circle Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Tien-Pen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A great circle route (GCR is the shortest route on a spherical earth model. Do we have a visual diagram to handle the shortest route? In this paper, a graphical method (GM is proposed to solve the GCR problems based on the celestial meridian diagram (CMD in celestial navigation. Unlike developed algebraic methods, the GM is a geometric method. Appling computer software to graph, the GM does not use any equations but is as accurate as using algebraic methods. In addition, the GM, which emphasizes the rotational surface, can depict a GCR and judge its benefit.

  12. Rich Vehicle Routing Problems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min

    . We first consider a vehicle routing problem with cross-docking options, in which products are picked up from suppliers by vehicles, consolidated at the depot and immediately delivered to customers by the same set of vehicles. It is more complex than the traditional vehicle routing problems...... the company’s solution in terms of all the objectives, including the travel time, customer waiting and daily workload balances, under the given constraints considered in the work. Finally, we address an integrated vehicle routing and driver scheduling problem, in which a large number of practical constraints...

  13. Children's route choice during active transportation to school: difference between shortest and actual route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessing, Dirk; de Vries, Sanne I; Hegeman, Geertje; Verhagen, Evert; van Mechelen, Willem; Pierik, Frank H

    2016-04-12

    The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of environmental correlates that are associated with route choice during active transportation to school (ATS) by comparing characteristics of actual walking and cycling routes between home and school with the shortest possible route to school. Children (n = 184; 86 boys, 98 girls; age range: 8-12 years) from seven schools in suburban municipalities in the Netherlands participated in the study. Actual walking and cycling routes to school were measured with a GPS-device that children wore during an entire school week. Measurements were conducted in the period April-June 2014. Route characteristics for both actual and shortest routes between home and school were determined for a buffer of 25 m from the routes and divided into four categories: Land use (residential, commercial, recreational, traffic areas), Aesthetics (presence of greenery/natural water ways along route), Traffic (safety measures such as traffic lights, zebra crossings, speed bumps) and Type of street (pedestrian, cycling, residential streets, arterial roads). Comparison of characteristics of shortest and actual routes was performed with conditional logistic regression models. Median distance of the actual walking routes was 390.1 m, whereas median distance of actual cycling routes was 673.9 m. Actual walking and cycling routes were not significantly longer than the shortest possible routes. Children mainly traveled through residential areas on their way to school (>80% of the route). Traffic lights were found to be positively associated with route choice during ATS. Zebra crossings were less often present along the actual routes (walking: OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05-0.58; cycling: OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14-0.67), and streets with a high occurrence of accidents were less often used during cycling to school (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.76). Moreover, percentage of visible surface water along the actual route was higher

  14. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...... such as Beck, The Killing, Trapped and The Bridge as well as a range of other important Nordic Noir cases. The book positions the development of Nordic Noir on the global market for popular television drama and places the international attention towards Nordic crime dramas within regional development of drama...... production in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Consequently, Nordic Noir is read as both a transnational financial and creative phenomenon and as a local possibility for community building. The book is aimed at readers with an interest in crime drama as well as television scholars and students...

  15. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...... production in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Consequently, Nordic Noir is read as both a transnational financial and creative phenomenon and as a local possibility for community building. The book is aimed at readers with an interest in crime drama as well as television scholars and students...... of television drama, and it offers a comprehensible, scholarly and methodologically original approach to the popularity of Nordic television crime dramas....

  16. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. How Induction Programs Affect the Decision of Alternate Route Urban Teachers to Remain Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCascio, Steven J.; Smeaton, Patricia S.; Waters, Faith H.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study analyzes the induction programs for alternate route beginning teachers in low socioeconomic, urban schools. The researcher surveyed 53 teachers at the end of their first year and conducted six in-depth follow-up interviews. The study found that half the teachers did not receive an induction program congruent with state…

  18. Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks: Advances and Future Trends in Physical, MAC and Routing Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Climent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current researchon underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communicationstack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art onthe physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threadsand surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances inunderwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and

  19. Urban routes and commuting bicyclist’s aesthetic experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpa Stefansdottir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines whether and in what way aesthetic experience is involved in the judged quality of bicyclist’s route which they have chosen to ride between home and work. In this respect it is considered important to distinguish aesthetic experience from experience that is related to the influence of instrumental or functional features. The aesthetic impact is primarily related to features that stimulate emotional well-being when cycling. An online survey was conducted in three Nordic cities, Odense, Trondheim and Reykjavík, concentrating on cycling in different urban surroundings. The interpretation of the meanings and values associated with certain features or characteristics that influenced the commuting cyclists’ aesthetic experience is in this paper based on three theoretical viewpoints: (1 the phenomenology of perception and experience, (2 urban design theory and (3 environmental aesthetic theories and methods. The last theory involves the interpretation of experience from the environment into aesthetic meaning. The results of the survey indicate that aesthetic experience is of value to most of the respondents and is, therefore, of importance in developing the quality of bicycle routes for commuting. Greenery and contact with the natural environment and distance from motorised traffic are the most important influences on pleasurable aesthetic experience.

  20. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    locations, which is a common and important constraint in real-world routing and planning problems. We solve this problem by means of branch-and-price as well as proposing a hybrid heuristic, which combines an Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search with an embedded local search and labeling procedure...

  1. Metaheuristics applied to vehicle routing. A case study. Parte 1: formulating the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo González Vargas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with VRP (vehicle routing problem mathematical formulation and presents some methodologies used by different authors to solve VRP variation. This paper is presented as the springboard for introducing future papers about a manufacturing company’s location decisions based on the total distance traveled to distribute its product.

  2. The influence of risk mitigation measures on the risks, costs and routing of CO2 pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M. M J; Raben, I. M E; Ramírez, A.; Spruijt, M. P N; Faaij, A. P C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether, and if so, in what way risks would influence the design, costs and routing of CO2 pipelines. This article assesses locational and societal risks of CO2 pipeline transport and analyses whether rerouting or implementing additional risk mitigation measures

  3. The influence of risk mitigation measures on the risks, costs and routing of CO 2pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M.M.J.; Raben. I.M.E.; Ramírez, A.; Spruijt, M.P.N.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether, and if so, in what way risks would influence the design,costs and routing of CO2pipelines. This article assesses locational and societal risks of CO2pipelinetransport and analyses whether rerouting or implementing additional risk mitigation measures is

  4. A specialized column generation approach for a vehicle routing problem with demand allocation

    OpenAIRE

    A Ghoniem; C R Scherrer; S Solak

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by logistical operations for a food bank, this paper addresses a class of vehicle routing problems with demand allocation considerations over a network of partner agencies locations and candidate delivery sites. Any delivery tour starts at a central depot operated by the food bank and selected delivery sites are sequentially visited in order to supply goods to a set of partner agencies who travel from their respective locations to their assigned delivery sites. The problem is modell...

  5. Artesian Wetlands Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Artesian Wetlands Survey includes data on the wetlands in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. Data recorded includes location, area of influence, area inundated,...

  6. Interpolative Boolean algebra based multicriteria routing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Marina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality-of-service of distributed applications, we propose a multi-criteria algorithm based on interpolative Boolean algebra for routing in an overlay network. We use a mesh topology because it can be easily implemented, and it makes addressing of the cores quite simple during routing. In this paper, we consider four criteria: buffer usage, the distance between peers, bandwidth, and remaining battery power. The proposed routing algorithm determines the path which satisfies quality-of service requirements using interpolative Boolean algebra; the decision at each node is made based on the ranking of available options considering multiple constraints. The simulation shows that the proposed approach provides better results than the standard shortest path routing algorithm.

  7. State Route 60 automated truck facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A research was conducted to evaluate a dedicated automated truck lane along a case study route 60 (Pomona : Freeway) to accommodate higher truck volume using AHS technologies and to estimate the associated costs of : such technologies. A cost analysi...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Alternative Administration Routes of Melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D.; Andersen, L. P.H.; Rosenberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melatonin is traditionally administered orally but has a poor and variable bioavailability. This study aims to present an overview of studies investigating the pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed...... and included experimental or clinical studies, investigating pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin in vivo. Alternative administration routes were defined as all administration routes except oral and intravenous. Results: 10 studies were included in the review. Intranasal...... administration exhibited a quick absorption rate and high bioavailability. Transdermal administration displayed a variable absorption rate and possible deposition of melatonin in the skin. Oral transmucosal administration of melatonin exhibited a high plasma concentration compared to oral administration...

  9. A Multistage Method for Multiobjective Route Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Gen, Mitsuo

    The multiobjective route selection problem (m-RSP) is a key research topic in the car navigation system (CNS) for ITS (Intelligent Transportation System). In this paper, we propose an interactive multistage weight-based Dijkstra genetic algorithm (mwD-GA) to solve it. The purpose of the proposed approach is to create enough Pareto-optimal routes with good distribution for the car driver depending on his/her preference. At the same time, the routes can be recalculated according to the driver's preferences by the multistage framework proposed. In the solution approach proposed, the accurate route searching ability of the Dijkstra algorithm and the exploration ability of the Genetic algorithm (GA) are effectively combined together for solving the m-RSP problems. Solutions provided by the proposed approach are compared with the current research to show the effectiveness and practicability of the solution approach proposed.

  10. Coordinated Platoon Routing in a Metropolitan Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Jeffrey; Munson, Todd; Sokolov, Vadim

    2016-10-10

    Platooning vehicles—connected and automated vehicles traveling with small intervehicle distances—use less fuel because of reduced aerodynamic drag. Given a network de- fined by vertex and edge sets and a set of vehicles with origin/destination nodes/times, we model and solve the combinatorial optimization problem of coordinated routing of vehicles in a manner that routes them to their destination on time while using the least amount of fuel. Common approaches decompose the platoon coordination and vehicle routing into separate problems. Our model addresses both problems simultaneously to obtain the best solution. We use modern modeling techniques and constraints implied from analyzing the platoon routing problem to address larger numbers of vehicles and larger networks than previously considered. While the numerical method used is unable to certify optimality for candidate solutions to all networks and parameters considered, we obtain excellent solutions in approximately one minute for much larger networks and vehicle sets than previously considered in the literature.

  11. Integrating routing decisions in public transportation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    This book treats three planning problems arising in public railway transportation planning: line planning, timetabling, and delay management, with the objective to minimize passengers’ travel time. While many optimization approaches simplify these problems by assuming that passengers’ route choice is independent of the solution, this book focuses on models which take into account that passengers will adapt their travel route to the implemented planning solution. That is, a planning solution and passengers’ routes are determined and evaluated simultaneously. This work is technically deep, with insightful findings regarding complexity and algorithmic approaches to public transportation problems with integrated passenger routing. It is intended for researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, or operations research, working in the field of public transportation from an optimization standpoint. It is also ideal for students who want to gain intuition and experience in doing complexity proofs ...

  12. Human BDCM Mulit-Route PBPK Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains the code for the BDCM human multi-route model written in the programming language acsl. The final published manuscript is provided since it...

  13. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Murafuji, Toshihiro [Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF{sub 3} as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  14. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  15. Light olefins - challenges from new production routes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, H. [Linde Engineering, Pullach (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Light Olefins are the building blocks for many modern plastic products and are produced in large quantities. Driven by high crude oil prices, production is shifted to regions with low cost raw materials. Alternatives to the traditional production from Naphta, AGO and other crude products are becoming attractive. This paper evaluates several methods Ethylene and Pro-pylene production economically and also the regional advantageous routes. The analysis includes Steamcracking, dehydrogenation, dehydration of Ethanol, Methanol based routes and olefin conversion by Metathesis. (orig.)

  16. Criteria for Solar Car Optimized Route Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Hasicic, Mehrija; Bilic, Damir; Siljak, Harun

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives a thorough overview of Solar Car Optimized Route Estimation (SCORE), novel route optimization scheme for solar vehicles based on solar irradiance and target distance. In order to conduct the optimization, both data collection and the optimization algorithm itself have to be performed using appropriate hardware. Here we give an insight to both stages, hardware and software used and present some results of the SCORE system together with certain improvements of its fusion and op...

  17. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    on the contingency. For instance, if an enemy weapon is expected to hit a particular section of the ship, routes can be configured to avoid that...used to access fan rooms, storerooms, and spaces where interior bulkheads are required to be airtight. These doors prevent the spread of fire, toxic ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DYNAMIC ESCAPE ROUTES

  18. ACO Agent Based Routing in AOMDV Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Amanpreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is a group of moving nodes which can communicate with each other without the help of any central stationary node. All the nodes in the MANET act as router for forwarding data packets. The nodes in the network also move randomly and there exists no fixed infrastructure. So, path breaks are the frequent problem in MANET. The routing protocol faces a lot of problem due these path breaks. Therefore, the routing protocol which is multipath in nature is more reliable than a unipath routing protocol. Ant colony optimization is a relatively new technique which is suitable for the optimization problems. AOMDV is a multipath routing protocol. Thus, if there happens to be path break, the packets can start following the new path which has already been selected. In this paper, we are trying to add ant’s agents into AOMDV behavior. In this way, the new protocol will be benefited by the dual properties i.e. of ant’s nature and multipath nature of AOMDV. The modified concept is simulated and the outcomes are compared with AOMDV, AODV and DSR routing protocols for few performance parameters. Results obtained are encouraging; the new algorithm performs better than traditional unipath and multipath routing protocols.

  19. Annoyance caused by aircraft en route noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance response of people on the ground to enroute noise generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. The en route noises were ground level recordings of eight advanced turboprop aircraft flyovers and six conventional turbofan flyovers. The eight advanced turboprop enroute noises represented the NASA Propfan Test Assessment aircraft operating at different combinations of altitude, aircraft Mach number, and propeller tip speed. The conventional turbofan en route noises represented six different commercial airliners. The overall durations of the en route noises varied from approximately 40 to 160 sec. In the experiment, 32 subjects judged the annoyance of the en route noises as well as recordings of the takeoff and landing noises of each of 5 conventional turboprop and 5 conventional turbofan aircraft. Each of the noises was presented at three sound pressure levels to the subjects in an anechoic listening room. Analysis of the judgments found small differences in annoyance between three combinations of aircraft type and operation. Current tone and corrections did not significantly improve en route annoyance prediction. The optimum duration-correction magnitude for en route noise was approximately 1 dB per doubling of effective duration.

  20. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.