WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey risk perception

  1. A score for measuring health risk perception in environmental surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang; Rava, Marta; Braggion, Marco; Grassi, Mario; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2015-09-15

    In environmental surveys, risk perception may be a source of bias when information on health outcomes is reported using questionnaires. Using the data from a survey carried out in the largest chipboard industrial district in Italy (Viadana, Mantova), we devised a score of health risk perception and described its determinants in an adult population. In 2006, 3697 parents of children were administered a questionnaire that included ratings on 7 environmental issues. Items dimensionality was studied by factor analysis. After testing equidistance across response options by homogeneity analysis, a risk perception score was devised by summing up item ratings. Factor analysis identified one latent factor, which we interpreted as health risk perception, that explained 65.4% of the variance of five items retained after scaling. The scale (range 0-10, mean ± SD 9.3 ± 1.9) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Most subjects (80.6%) expressed maximum risk perception (score = 10). Italian mothers showed significantly higher risk perception than foreign fathers. Risk perception was higher for parents of young children, and for older parents with a higher education, than for their counterparts. Actual distance to major roads was not associated with the score, while self-reported intense traffic and frequent air refreshing at home predicted higher risk perception. When investigating health effects of environmental hazards using questionnaires, care should be taken to reduce the possibility of awareness bias at the stage of study planning and data analysis. Including appropriate items in study questionnaires can be useful to derive a measure of health risk perception, which can help to identify confounding of association estimates by risk perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  3. Occupational biological risk knowledge and perception: results from a large survey in Rome, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria De Giusti; Carmela RN Corrao; Alice Mannocci; Caterina Palazzo; Roberta Riccardi; Silvia Lisa Schmidt; Sabrina Sernia; Giuseppe La Torre

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perception of occupational biological risk among workers in several occupations was carried out in the industrial area of Rome. METHODS: The study was carried out in the period of March-April 2010 using a questionnaire with 33 items on the following areas: a) socio-demographic data; b) perception of the biological risks in ordinary occupational activity; c) knowledge about biological risks; d) biological risks in the working environment. T...

  4. Women's perception of risks of adverse fetal pregnancy outcomes: a large-scale multinational survey

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Irene; Mccrea, Rachel; Lupattelli, Angela; Nordeng, Hedvig Marie Egeland

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine pregnant women and new mothers? perception of risks in pregnancy. Design, settings and participants This was a large-scale multinational survey including 9113 pregnant women and new mothers from 18 countries in Europe, North America and Australia. Main outcomes Risk perception scores (0?10) for harmful effects to the fetus were derived for: (1) medicines (over-the-counter medicine and prescribed medicine), (2) food substances (eggs and blue veined cheese), (3) herbal su...

  5. Influence of flood risk perception and other factors on risk-reducing behaviour: a survey of municipalities along the Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, G.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Huitema, D.

    2014-01-01

    A survey of German public officials responsible for municipal flood management along the Rhine has been carried out to assess their perceptions of flood risk and protective behaviour. A sociopsychological framework based on expectancy-valence models was used to develop an overview of potentially

  6. Yucca Mountain socioeconomic project report on the 1987 risk perception telephone surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunreuther, H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Wharton School of Finance and Commerce; Slovic, P. [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States); Nigg, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Desvousges, W.H. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1987-09-01

    The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples` perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain.

  7. Occupational biological risk knowledge and perception: results from a large survey in Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giusti, Maria; Corrao, Carmela R N; Mannocci, Alice; Palazzo, Caterina; Riccardi, Roberta; Schmidt, Silvia Lisa; Sernia, Sabrina; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perception of occupational biological risk among workers in several occupations was carried out in the industrial area of Rome. The study was carried out in the period of March-April 2010 using a questionnaire with 33 items on the following areas: a) socio-demographic data; b) perception of the biological risks in ordinary occupational activity; c) knowledge about biological risks; d) biological risks in the working environment. The questionnaire was submitted to a convenience sample of workers of an industrial area in Southern Rome. 729 participants entered the study from the following work activities: food, catering, service, farming and breeding, healthcare, school and research (males 57.2%; mean age 37.4 years, SD = 10.9). Significant associations were found between different activity areas with respect to the relevance of the biological risk (p = 0.044) and the perception of the biological risk (p physical contact for the catering and food group, 66.7% and 61.90% respectively; air and blood for the health and research group, with 73.50% and 57.00% respectively; and physical contact and blood for the service group, 63.10 % and 48.30%. Significant difference of proportions were found about the prevalent effect caused by the biological agents was the occurrence of infectious diseases (59.90% food group, 91.60% health and research and 79.30% service group) (p perception of knowledge resulted in a good rank (sufficient, many or complete) in the food and catering group, 78.3% with significant difference compared to other professions (p < 0.001). All participants show good knowledge the effects induced by biological agents and it is significant that almost half of the respondents are aware of the risks concerning allergies. Nevertheless, it is surprising that this risk is known mainly by workers of service, farming and breeding, to a greater extent than it is known by health workers.

  8. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-15

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  9. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-02-15

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  10. Surveying clinician perceptions of risk assessment and management practices in mental health service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Timothy; Isobel, Sophie; Derrick, Kate

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to survey multidisciplinary mental health staff on their perceptions of risk assessment and management practices in a local health district in Sydney. The research team developed the risk assessment and management survey (RAMS) which was distributed to staff across the district from November 2013 to January 2014. A total of 340 RAMS were distributed and 164 were returned (48% response rate). There was considerable agreement that risk assessment and management is essential to maintaining safety and delivering good mental health care, and respondents reported high levels of confidence in their judgement when carrying out such practices. Respondents identified organisational pressure in relation to risk assessment and management but also felt supported. However, 65% of respondents considered that there 'is good evidence that risk assessment and management practices are effective in reducing risk in mental health care', when this is not the case. The confidence that clinicians placed in risk assessment and management practices (despite an absence of evidence) is disconcerting. Given the dominance of risk assessment and management, health services mandating such practices have a duty to inform employees of the current evidence base for this approach in reducing risk. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  11. Women's perception of risks of adverse fetal pregnancy outcomes: a large-scale multinational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Irene; McCrea, Rachel L; Lupattelli, Angela; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2015-06-01

    To determine pregnant women and new mothers' perception of risks in pregnancy. This was a large-scale multinational survey including 9113 pregnant women and new mothers from 18 countries in Europe, North America and Australia. Risk perception scores (0-10) for harmful effects to the fetus were derived for: (1) medicines (over-the-counter medicine and prescribed medicine), (2) food substances (eggs and blue veined cheese), (3) herbal substances (ginger and cranberries) (4) alcohol and tobacco, and (5) thalidomide. Overall, 80% (6453/8131) of women perceived the risk of giving birth to a child with a birth defect to be ≤ 5 of 100 births. The women rated cranberries and ginger least harmful (mean risk perception scores 1.1 and 1.5 of 10, respectively) and antidepressants, alcohol, smoking and thalidomide as most harmful (7.6, 8.6, 9.2 and 9.4 out of 10, respectively). The perception varied with age, level of education, pregnancy status, profession and geographical region. Noticeably, 70% had not heard about thalidomide, but of those who had (2692/9113), the risk perception scores were 0.4-0.5 points lower in women below 25 years compared to women aged 26-30 years. In general, women perceived the risks of giving birth to a child with birth defects low, but there were substantial disparities between women's perceived risks and the actual risks when it comes to over-the-counter agents against nausea and prescribed medication. The study revealed that few women knew of thalidomide, suggesting that the general awareness among women of the teratogenic effects of thalidomide is declining, but it has left a general scepticism about safety of medication in pregnancy. This may have some severe consequences if women are left without medical treatments in pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Occupational biological risk knowledge and perception: results from a large survey in Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Giusti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perception of occupational biological risk among workers in several occupations was carried out in the industrial area of Rome. METHODS: The study was carried out in the period of March-April 2010 using a questionnaire with 33 items on the following areas: a socio-demographic data; b perception of the biological risks in ordinary occupational activity; c knowledge about biological risks; d biological risks in the working environment. The questionnaire was submitted to a convenience sample of workers of an industrial area in Southern Rome. RESULTS: 729 participants entered the study from the following work activities: food, catering, service, farming and breeding, healthcare, school and research (males 57.2%; mean age 37.4 years, SD = 10.9. Significant associations were found between different activity areas with respect to the relevance of the biological risk (p = 0.044 and the perception of the biological risk (p < 0.001. With respect to vehicles of infectious agents, the highest percentages of the most common biological risk exposures were: air and physical contact for the catering and food group, 66.7% and 61.90% respectively; air and blood for the health and research group, with 73.50% and 57.00% respectively; and physical contact and blood for the service group, 63.10 % and 48.30%. Significant difference of proportions were found about the prevalent effect caused by the biological agents was the occurrence of infectious diseases (59.90% food group, 91.60% health and research and 79.30% service group (p < 0.001. The perception of knowledge resulted in a good rank (sufficient, many or complete in the food and catering group, 78.3% with significant difference compared to other professions (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: All participants show good knowledge the effects induced by biological agents and it is significant that almost half of the respondents are aware of the risks concerning allergies

  13. Psychological distress and the perception of radiation risks: the Fukushima health management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuriko; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    To assess relationships between the perception of radiation risks and psychological distress among evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. We analysed cross-sectional data from a survey of evacuees conducted in 2012. Psychological distress was classified as present or absent based on the K6 scale. Respondents recorded their views about the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation, including immediate, delayed and genetic (inherited) health effects, on a four-point Likert scale. We examined associations between psychological distress and risk perception in logistic regression models. Age, gender, educational attainment, history of mental illness and the consequences of the disaster for employment and living conditions were potential confounders. Out of the 180,604 people who received the questionnaire, we included 59,807 responses in our sample. There were 8717 respondents reporting psychological distress. Respondents who believed that radiation exposure was very likely to cause health effects were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed than other respondents: odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (99.9% confidence interval, CI: 1.42-1.89) for immediate effects; OR: 1.48 (99.9% CI: 1.32-1.67) for delayed effects and OR: 2.17 (99.9% CI: 1.94-2.42) for genetic (inherited) effects. Similar results were obtained after controlling for individual characteristics and disaster-related stressors. Among evacuees of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, concern about radiation risks was associated with psychological distress.

  14. Seismic risk perception test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    population and territory); seismic risk in general; risk information and their sources; comparison between seismic risk and other natural hazards. Informative data include: Region, Province, Municipality of residence, Data compilation, Age, Sex, Place of Birth, Nationality, Marital status, Children, Level of education, Employment. The test allows to obtain the perception score for each factor: Hazard, Exposed value, Vulnerability. These scores can be put in relation with the scientific data relating to hazard, vulnerability and the exposed value. On January 2013 started a Survey in the Po Valley and Southern Apennines. The survey will be conducted via web using institutional sites of regions, provinces, municipalities, online newspapers to local spreading, etc. Preliminary data will be discussed. Improve our understanding of the perception of seismic risk would allow us to inform more effectively and to built better educational projects to mitigate risk.

  15. Sex workers clients in Italy: results of a phone survey on HIV risk behaviour and perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Mulieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sex workers (SW clients represent a bridge population for HIV transmission from high risk to low risk general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional anonymous telephone survey was carried out at the AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections Helpline of National Institute of Health in Italy. The questionnaire was proposed on a voluntary basis to a sample of 119 subjects from helpline users. RESULTS: The 119 participants were all males, aged between 19 and 59 years and mostly accessed female prostitutes. Vaginal intercourses with SW were more frequently reported, followed by passive oral, active oral sex and active anal intercourses. Cumulatively, 86.6% and 84.6% of vaginal and anal intercourses were respectively reported as regularly protected by condom. DISCUSSION: The telephone interview allowed an eased access, a high response rate and a standardised evaluation of questions CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary a constant monitoring of the characteristics, behaviour, risk perception and testing of SW clients in Italian and other populations.

  16. European road users’ risk perception and mobility : the SARTRE 4 survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antov, D. Banet, A. Barbier, C. Bellet, T. Bimpeh, Y. Boulanger, A. Brandstätter, C. Britschgi, V. Brosnan, M. Buttler, I. Cestac, J. , De Craen, S. de Delhomme, P. Dogan, E. Drápela, E. Forward, S. Freeman, R. Furian, G. Gábor, M. Goldenbeld, C. Henriksson, P. Holte, H. Kraïem, S. Papadimitriou, E. Podlesek, A. Polic, M. Sánchez-Martín, F. Sardi, G.-M. Schmidt, E.-A. Silverans, P. Siska, T. Skládaná, P. Theofilatos, A. Below, A. von Yannis, G. Zaidel, D. & Zavrides, N.

    2012-01-01

    The SARTRE (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) project started in 1991. It consists of a European wide survey about knowledge of road traffic laws and road traffic risks, attitudes regarding road safety issues, reported road traffic behaviours, transport habits and needs in several

  17. Young adults’ risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to cigarettes – results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Methods We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (ages 18–34)(n=2871)(including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to non-combustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22–33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and non-users of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being “less risky” and rate cigars and SLT as being “more risky” than older young adults. Conclusion The public’s views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type, and age group. While “less risky” perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are “more risky” than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. PMID:26304709

  18. Perception of teratogenic and foetotoxic risk by health professionals: a survey in Midi-Pyrenees area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase-Michel C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Counselling or prescribing drugs during pregnancy requires health professionals to assess risk/benefit ratio for women and their baby. A misperception of the risk may lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess teratogenic and/or foetotoxic risk perception of common medications by general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists (CPs from the Midi-Pyrenees area.Methods: 103 GPs and 104 CPs were interviewed. For 21 given drugs, a visual-analogue scale was used to evaluate the risk to give birth to a malformed infant if the mother had taken the drug during first trimester of pregnancy. For 9 drugs, health professionals had to say if they thought there was a potential foetotoxic and/or neonatal risk when drugs were administered during late pregnancy.Results: 97% and 91% of GPs and CPs respectively thought that isotretinoin and thalidomide are teratogenic and more than 80% thought that amoxicillin and acetaminophen are safe in early pregnancy. However, 19% of the GPs and 33% of CPs answered there were no teratogenic risk for valproate. Around 11% of both GPs and CPs said that warfarin was safe during pregnancy. For 22% of GPs and for 13% and 27% of CPs respectively, ibuprofen and enalapril were safe on late pregnancy. For each drug, mean value of perceived teratogenic risk by health professionals was higher than values that can be found in scientific references. Concerning isotretinoin, thalidomide and metoclopramide, perceived teratogenic risk was higher for CPs.Conclusion: These data show that the potential teratogenic and foetotoxic risk of several commonly used drugs is unknown by health professionals. Conversely, GPs and CPs who think that a risk exists, overestimate it. This misperception can lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Measuring children's self-reported sport participation, risk perception and injury history: development and validation of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F

    2011-01-01

    Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Spanish-Language Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes: Translation Process and Assessment of Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Kevin L; Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Kennedy, Christine; Chen, Jyu-Lin; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Janson, Susan L

    2016-12-01

    Create a Spanish-language version of the Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes (RPS-DD) and assess psychometric properties. The Spanish-language version was created through translation, harmonization, and presentation to the tool's original author. It was field tested in a foreignborn Latino sample and properties evaluated in principal components analysis. Personal Control, Optimistic Bias, and Worry multi-item Likert subscale responses did not cluster together. A clean solution was obtained after removing two Personal Control subscale items. Neither the Personal Disease Risk scale nor the Environmental Health Risk scale responses loaded onto single factors. Reliabilities ranged from .54 to .88. Test of knowledge performance varied by item. This study contributes to evidence of validation of a Spanish-language RPS-DD in foreign-born Latinos.

  1. Risk communication: climate change as a human-health threat, a survey of public perceptions in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Roberto; Vincenti, Karen; Calleja, Neville

    2012-02-01

    Scientific evidence shows that climate change is very likely the product of human behaviour and lifestyle. The effects of climate change on human health are diverse in nature and range from direct effects due to extreme weather events such as heat waves, floods and storms, to indirect effects such as those caused by water and food shortages. A telephone survey was conducted between January and February 2009, on a stratified representative random sample of the Maltese population over the age of 18 years (N = 310,819). Five hundred and forty-three individuals successfully participated in the survey giving a response rate of 92.7%. The respondent sample was very similar to the target population by gender (P = 0.977), age (P = 0.767) and district (P = 0.812). The results of the study demonstrate a very strong relationship between the perception of climate change as a threat to health and well-being, support for climate change mitigation policy and a willingness to implement measures to address climate change. The findings of this study show that the perception that climate change may claim lives, cause disease, reduce the standard of living and worsen water shortages, may be the strongest driver behind support for climate change mitigation policy and a willingness to act. It is recommended that, in order to gain more public support, climate change campaigns and risk communication strategies should frame climate change as a threat to human health and general well-being.

  2. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  3. Risk Perception and Disaster Preparedness in Immigrants and Canadian-Born Adults: Analysis of a National Survey on Similarities and Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, An Gie; Lemyre, Louise; Pinsent, Celine; Krewski, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Research has documented that immigrants tend to experience more negative consequences from natural disasters compared to native-born individuals, although research on how immigrants perceive and respond to natural disaster risks is sparse. We investigated how risk perception and disaster preparedness for natural disasters in immigrants compared to Canadian-born individuals as justifications for culturally-adapted risk communication and management. To this end, we analyzed the ratings on natural disaster risk perception beliefs and preparedness behaviors from a nationally representative survey (N = 1,089). Factor analyses revealed three underlying psychological dimensions of risk perception: external responsibility for disaster management, self-preparedness responsibility, and illusiveness of preparedness. Although immigrants and Canadian-born individuals shared the three-factor structure, there were differences in the salience of five risk perception beliefs. Despite these differences, immigrants and Canadian-born individuals were similar in the level of risk perception dimensions and disaster preparedness. Regression analyses revealed self-preparedness responsibility and external responsibility for disaster management positively predicted disaster preparedness whereas illusiveness of preparedness negatively predicted disaster preparedness in both groups. Our results showed that immigrants' risk perception and disaster preparedness were comparable to their Canadian-born counterparts. That is, immigrant status did not necessarily yield differences in risk perception and disaster preparedness. These social groups may benefit from a risk communication and management strategy that addresses these risk perception dimensions to increase disaster preparedness. Given the diversity of the immigrant population, the model remains to be tested by further population segmentation. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Perception of Product Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides several explanations for consumer risk perception. For frequently repeated behavior that is seemingly under their own control, consumers tend to be overly optimistic. This occurs in spite of the general tendency of consumers to be risk averse. Specific dimensions of different

  5. Risk perception and priority setting for intervention among hepatitis C virus and environmental risks: a cross-sectional survey in the Cairo community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewedar Sahar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV recently emerged as a major public health hazard in Egypt. However, dramatic healthcare budget constraints limit access to the costly treatment. We assessed risk perception and priority setting for intervention among HCV, unsafe water, and outdoor air pollution in Cairo city. Methods A survey was conducted in the homes of a representative sample of household heads in Cairo city. Risk perception was assessed using the "psychometric paradigm" where health hazards are evaluated according to several attributes and then summarized by principal component analysis. Priority setting was assessed by individual ranking of interventions reducing health hazards by 50% over five years. The Condorcet method was used to aggregate individual rankings of the three interventions (main study or two of three interventions (validation study. Explanatory factors of priority setting were explored in multivariate generalized logistic models. Results HCV was perceived as having the most severe consequences in terms of illness and out-of-pocket costs, while outdoor air pollution was perceived as the most uncontrollable risk. In the main study (n = 2,603, improved water supply received higher priority than both improved outdoor air quality (60.1%, P P Conclusions The Cairo community prefers to further improving water supply as compared to improved outdoor air quality and screening and treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  6. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Crescimbene, M.; La Longa, F.; R. Camassi; Pino, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Communication of natural hazards and their consequences are among the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years social studies evidenced that risk communication is strongly influenced by risk perception of citizens. A theory of risk perception that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological, cultural, and their interact...

  7. The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeken, Koen van; Carle, Benny; Hardeman, Frank [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences.

  8. Risk perception and priority setting for intervention among hepatitis C virus and environmental risks: a cross-sectional survey in the Cairo community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwarzinger, Michaël; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Gad, Rita R; Dewedar, Sahar; Fontanet, Arnaud; Carrat, Fabrice; Luchini, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    .... However, dramatic healthcare budget constraints limit access to the costly treatment. We assessed risk perception and priority setting for intervention among HCV, unsafe water, and outdoor air pollution in Cairo city...

  9. PERSONAL VALUES, BELIEFS, AND ECOLOGICAL RISK PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change...

  10. Where’s Your Phone? A Survey of Where Women Aged 15-40 Carry Their Smartphone and Related Risk Perception: A Survey and Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are now owned by most young adults in many countries. Installed applications regularly update while the phone is in standby. If it is kept near the body, this can lead to considerably higher exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation than occurred without internet access. Very little is known about current smartphone carrying habits of young women. This survey used an online questionnaire to ask about smartphone location under several circumstances to inform the power calculation for a women’s health study. They were also asked about risk perceptions. Data was analysed using Pearson chi square. Three age categories were made: 15–20, 21–30, 31–40. Smartphones were generally kept on standby (96% by day, 83% at night). Of all participants, in the last week the most common locations of the phone when not in use or during passive use was off-body (86%), in the hand (58%), a skirt/trouser pocket (57%), or against the breast (15%). Pocket and near-the-breast storage were significant by age (χ215.04, p = 0.001 and χ210.96, p = 0.04, respectively), both positively influenced by the youngest group. The same influence lay in the association between holding the phone (χ211.082, p = 0.004) and pocket-storage (χ219.971, pphone against the head. More than half kept the phone 20–50 cms from their head at night (53%), while 13% kept it closer than 20 cms. Many (36%) thought RF-EMR exposure was related to health problems while 16% did not. There was no relationship between thinking RF-EMR exposure causes health problems in general and carrying the phone against the upper or lower body (p = 0.69 and p = 0.212, respectively). However, calls with the phone against the head were positively related to perception of health risk (χ2 6.695, p = 0.035). Our findings can be used in the power calculation for a case-control study. PMID:28060844

  11. Where's Your Phone? A Survey of Where Women Aged 15-40 Carry Their Smartphone and Related Risk Perception: A Survey and Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are now owned by most young adults in many countries. Installed applications regularly update while the phone is in standby. If it is kept near the body, this can lead to considerably higher exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation than occurred without internet access. Very little is known about current smartphone carrying habits of young women. This survey used an online questionnaire to ask about smartphone location under several circumstances to inform the power calculation for a women's health study. They were also asked about risk perceptions. Data was analysed using Pearson chi square. Three age categories were made: 15-20, 21-30, 31-40. Smartphones were generally kept on standby (96% by day, 83% at night). Of all participants, in the last week the most common locations of the phone when not in use or during passive use was off-body (86%), in the hand (58%), a skirt/trouser pocket (57%), or against the breast (15%). Pocket and near-the-breast storage were significant by age (χ215.04, p = 0.001 and χ210.96, p = 0.04, respectively), both positively influenced by the youngest group. The same influence lay in the association between holding the phone (χ211.082, p = 0.004) and pocket-storage (χ219.971, pphone against the head. More than half kept the phone 20-50 cms from their head at night (53%), while 13% kept it closer than 20 cms. Many (36%) thought RF-EMR exposure was related to health problems while 16% did not. There was no relationship between thinking RF-EMR exposure causes health problems in general and carrying the phone against the upper or lower body (p = 0.69 and p = 0.212, respectively). However, calls with the phone against the head were positively related to perception of health risk (χ2 6.695, p = 0.035). Our findings can be used in the power calculation for a case-control study.

  12. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides.

  13. Computer Availability and Principals' Perceptions of Online Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Roberts, Alice M.; Kyle, Tonja M.; Flint, Katherine H.; Ross, Alexander L. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based risk behavior surveys traditionally have been administered via paper-and-pencil. This study assessed the feasibility of conducting in-class online surveys in US high schools. Methods: A paper-and-pencil questionnaire assessing computer availability and perceptions of online surveys was mailed to a nationally representative…

  14. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  15. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades-Lopez, A. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia (Spain); Martinez-Arias, R.; Diaz-Hidalgo, M. [Faculty of Psychology, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  16. IRSN 2011 opinion survey. The perception of risks and safety by French people. Global results; 2011 Barometre IRSN. La perception des risques et de la securite par les Francais. Resultats d'ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Like every year, this report presents and comments the results of an opinion survey on risks, and more particularly on nuclear and radiological risks. The first part addresses the current concerns of French people (the main concerns in the present society and with respect to the environment, how science is considered). The second part addresses the opinion on expertise (who should control a hazardous installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist bodies). The third part examines the reaction of people in front of 33 different hazardous situations (risks to which people feel being exposed, confidence in authorities, confidence in information on hazards, hierarchy of 33 situations and relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses the nuclear issue (nuclear risk, ability and credibility of nuclear actors, the Chernobyl accident, radioactive wastes, demand of information on the nuclear risk).

  17. Knowledge and perceptions of health and environmental risks related to artisanal gold mining by the artisanal miners in Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Adama; De Brouwer, Christophe; Hien, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Artisanal gold mining is an activity ensuring the survival of about 700,000 families in Burkina Faso with a considerable contribution to the national economy. Techniques and chemicals used in the operation, have adverse impacts on health and the environment. Our study aims to evaluate the perceptions and knowledge of these different impacts among artisanal gold miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in artisanal gold mines Bouda and Nagsene in the region of the North of Burkina Faso. Two hundred miners over 18 years of age were interviewed. Results All the participants have recognized that gold mining has health impacts and 88.5% felt these impacts as important with a significantly higher proportion among those with more than 3 years' seniority (p = 0.001). The environmental impacts were perceived as important by 64.5% of miners, with a significant difference according to the position (p = 0.004). Sixty percent (60%) of respondents could identify at least 3 of the 5 health impacts of gold mining listed and 49.5% acknowledged at least 3 impacts on the environment. The diggers had significantly more knowledge about the symptoms (p mining. Findings might be used to develop more effective awareness campaigns in the future. Communication with diggers must focus on the risk perception because it appears that raising risk perceptions from low to high would have a major effect on behavior. PMID:29187949

  18. Knowledge and perceptions of health and environmental risks related to artisanal gold mining by the artisanal miners in Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Adama; De Brouwer, Christophe; Hien, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining is an activity ensuring the survival of about 700,000 families in Burkina Faso with a considerable contribution to the national economy. Techniques and chemicals used in the operation, have adverse impacts on health and the environment. Our study aims to evaluate the perceptions and knowledge of these different impacts among artisanal gold miners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in artisanal gold mines Bouda and Nagsene in the region of the North of Burkina Faso. Two hundred miners over 18 years of age were interviewed. All the participants have recognized that gold mining has health impacts and 88.5% felt these impacts as important with a significantly higher proportion among those with more than 3 years' seniority (p = 0.001). The environmental impacts were perceived as important by 64.5% of miners, with a significant difference according to the position (p = 0.004). Sixty percent (60%) of respondents could identify at least 3 of the 5 health impacts of gold mining listed and 49.5% acknowledged at least 3 impacts on the environment. The diggers had significantly more knowledge about the symptoms (p environmental impacts of artisanal gold mining. Findings might be used to develop more effective awareness campaigns in the future. Communication with diggers must focus on the risk perception because it appears that raising risk perceptions from low to high would have a major effect on behavior.

  19. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Wiedemann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study’s multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance. Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means

  20. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M; Freudenstein, Frederik; Böhmert, Christoph; Wiart, Joe; Croft, Rodney J

    2017-06-08

    An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study's multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the

  1. What’s the seismic risk perception in Italy?

    OpenAIRE

    Crescimbene, M.; La Longa, F.; R. Camassi; Pino, N. A.; Peruzza, L

    2014-01-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents preliminary results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy. The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 5,000 on-line tests have been compiled from January 23rd till Jul...

  2. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  3. Risk perception as a driver for risk management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, María; Mañez, María

    2016-04-01

    Risk is generally defined as the "combination of the probability of the occurrence of an event and its negative consequences" ( UNISDR, 2009). However, the perception of a risk differs among cultures regarding different features such as the context,causes, benefits or damage. Risk perception is the subjective valuation of the probability of an event happening and how concerned individuals or groups are with the consequences (Sjöberg, 2004). Our study is based on an existing framework for risk perception (Rehn and Rohrmann, 2000). We analyse the characteristics of the risk perception regarding extreme events (e.g.droughts) and how the perception of the group drives the action to manage the risk. We do this to achieve an overview of the conditions that let stakeholders join each other to improve risk management especially when governments are not reacting properly. For our research, attention is paid on risk perception of Multi-Sector Partnerships not taking into account the individual level of risk perception. We focus on those factors that make risk management effective and increase resilience. Multi-Sector Partnerships, considered as significant governance structures for risk management, might contribute to reduce vulnerability in prone areas to natural hazards and disasters. The Multi-Sector Partnerships used for our research are existing partnerships identified in the cases studies of the European project ENHANCE. We implement a survey to analyse the perception of risk in the case studies. That survey is based on the Cultural Theory (Douglas and Wildavsky, 1982)and the Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers, 1975). We analyse the results using the Qualitative-Comparative Analysis proposed by Ragin in 1987. The results show the main characteristics of a risk culture that are beneficial to manage a risk. Those characteristics are shaped by the perception of risk of the people involved in the partnership, which in turn shapes their risk management. Nevertheless, we

  4. Institutional trust, information, and risk perceptions; Report of findings of the Las Vegas metropolitan area survey, June 29--July 1, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushkatel, A.H.; Pijawka, K.D. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This study reports on the preliminary results of a survey of attitudes and perceptions of Las Vegas area residents regarding the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. The survey`s focus was to examine the various dimensions of trust and confidence in government`s efforts to develop the country`s nuclear waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  5. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen; DeBono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C.; Weathers, Melinda R.; Maibach, Edward W.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%), heat-related problems (75–84%), cancer (61–90%), and infectious diseases (49–62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience

  6. Public perceptions of climate change as a human health risk: surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen; Debono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C; Weathers, Melinda R; Maibach, Edward W

    2010-06-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78-91%), heat-related problems (75-84%), cancer (61-90%), and infectious diseases (49-62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the

  7. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Akerlof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%, their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%, and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76% as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31% said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45% and children (33% are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%, heat-related problems (75–84%, cancer (61–90%, and infectious diseases (49–62%. Canadians also named sunburn (79% and injuries from extreme weather events (73%, and Maltese cited allergies (84%. However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the

  8. Awareness of disaster reduction frameworks and risk perception of natural disaster: a questionnaire survey among Philippine and Indonesian health care personnel and public health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuzawa, Motoki; O Telan, Elizabeth; Kawano, Razel; S Dizon, Carmela; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Ashino, Yugo; Egawa, Shinichi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Izumi, Takako; Ono, Yuichi; Hattori, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    As the impacts of natural disasters have grown more severe, the importance of education for disaster medicine gains greater recognition. We launched a project to establish an international educational program for disaster medicine. In the present study, we surveyed medical personnel and medical/public health students in the Philippines (n = 45) and Indonesia (n = 67) for their awareness of the international frameworks related to disaster medicine: the Human Security (securing individual life and health), the Sphere Project (international humanitarian response), and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (international strategy for disaster reduction). In both countries, more than 50% responders were aware of human security, but only 2 to 12% were aware of the latter two. The survey also contained questions about the preferred subjects in prospective educational program, and risk perception on disaster and disaster-related infections. In the Philippines, significant disasters were geophysical (31.0%), hydrological (33.3%), or meteorological (24.8%), whereas in Indonesia, geophysical (63.0%) and hydrological (25.3%) were significant. Moreover, in the Philippines, leptospirosis (27.1%), dengue (18.6%), diarrhea (15.3%), and cholera (10.2%) were recognized common disaster-related infections. In Indonesia, diarrhea (22.0%) and respiratory infection (20.3%) are major disaster-related infections. Water-related infections were the major ones in both countries, but the profiles of risk perception were different (Pearson's chi-square test, p = 1.469e-05). The responders tended to overestimate the risk of low probability and high consequence such as geophysical disaster. These results are helpful for the development of a postgraduate course for disaster medicine in Asia Pacific countries.

  9. Citizens' perceptions of the presence and health risks of synthetic chemicals in food: results of an online survey in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumarega, José; Larrea, Cristina; Muñoz, Araceli; Pallarès, Natàlia; Gasull, Magda; Rodríguez, Giselle; Jariod, Manel; Porta, Miquel

    To explore factors influencing perceptions and viewpoints on the responsibility for the presence of toxic substances in food, on enforcement of laws and regulations that control human exposure to toxic substances in food, and on the effectiveness of such regulations. An online survey was completed by 740 individuals from several parts of Spain (median age, 47 years; 67% were women; 70% had completed university studies). Over 87% of respondents said that it was possible that throughout their lives they could have accumulated in their body toxic substances potentially dangerous to their health. The attribution of the responsibility for toxic substances in food to a larger number of social groups was more frequent among respondents who consulted information about the problem more often (odds ratio [OR]: 1.92), who correctly identified factors that increase the likelihood of toxic substances in food being harmful to human health (OR: 2.86), who better knew the health problems that may be caused by such substances (OR: 2.48), and who recognised more food groups that tend to have concentrations of toxic substances potentially harmful to health (OR: 2.92) (all p values <0.001). Women were 65% less likely than men to answer that regulations on toxic substances in food are effective (p<0.001); and so were participants who identified more food groups with potentially toxic concentrations. Among study participants there was a widespread scepticism and distrust towards the enforcement and effectiveness of laws and regulations that in Spain aim to control human exposure to toxic substances in food. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing public flood risk perception for understanding the level of risk preparedness - Evidence from a community-based survey (the Bend Subcarpathians, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balteanu, Dan; Micu, Dana; Dumitrascu, Monica; Chendes, Viorel; Dragota, Carmen; Kucsicsa, Gheorghita; Grigorescu, Ines; Persu, Mihaela; Costache, Andra

    2016-04-01

    Floods (slow-onset and rapid) are among the costliest hydro-meteorological hazards in Romania, with strong societal and economic impacts, especially in small rural settlements, with a limited adaptive capacity to their adverse effects induced by the regional socio-economic context (e.g. aging population, low economic power). The study-area is located in the Bend Subcarpathians (Romania), a region with high tectonic mobility (the Seismic Vrancea Region), active slope processes (e.g. shallow and deep-seated landslides, mud flow, gully erosion) and increasing frequency of flash floods associated to heavy rainfalls. The study was conducted in the framework of the project "Vulnerability of the environment and human settlements to floods in the context of Global Environmental Change - VULMIN" (PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.1-1587), funded by the Ministry of National Education over the 2012-2016 period (http://www.igar-vulmin.ro). Prior research derived valuable insights into the local population vulnerability to extreme hydro-meteorological events, revealing an increased individual experience to past hydrological events, a high level of worry associated to flood recurrence, a low rate of the perceived trustworthiness in national institutions and authorities, as well as evident differences between the perception of community members and local authorities in terms of risk preparedness. In the present study, an attempt has been made for developing an advanced understanding of the current level of flood risk preparedness within some communities strongly affected by the floods of 1970-1975, 2005 and 2010. The recent events had a significant impact on local communities and infrastructure in terms of the financial losses, causing a visible stress and even psychological trauma on some residents of the most affected households. The selected communities are located in areas affected by recurrent hydro-meteorological hazards (floods and flash floods), with return periods below 10 years. A

  11. Wind speed perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzgun Agdas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. METHOD: We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk. The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  12. Wind Speed Perception and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D.; Masters, Forrest J.

    2012-01-01

    Background How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human–wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. Method We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Results Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual–perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. Conclusion These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters. PMID:23226230

  13. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents' Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Maoyong; Jin, Yanhong

    2015-11-17

    The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) 2001-2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods.

  14. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents’ Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoyong Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods.

  15. Global risks survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The top five risks facing the globe over the next decade, in order of the likelihood of their occurring, are severe income disparity, chronic fiscal imbalance, rising greenhouse gas emissions, water supply crises, and the mismanagement of population aging. That is according to a survey of more than 1000 experts from industry, government, academia, and civil society, presented in the World Economic Forum's Global Risks 2013 report that was issued on 8 January.

  16. Risk analysis methodology survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    NASA regulations require that formal risk analysis be performed on a program at each of several milestones as it moves toward full-scale development. Program risk analysis is discussed as a systems analysis approach, an iterative process (identification, assessment, management), and a collection of techniques. These techniques, which range from simple to complex network-based simulation were surveyed. A Program Risk Analysis Handbook was prepared in order to provide both analyst and manager with a guide for selection of the most appropriate technique.

  17. Prevalence of use and perceptions of risk of novel and other alternative tobacco products among sexual minority adults: Results from an online national survey, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Pratibha; Salazar, Laura F; Kota, Krishna K; Pechacek, Terry F

    2017-11-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB]) populations experience disparities in cigarette use, but sparse evidence exists about novel and other alternative tobacco product use. In this study, we compared rates of novel and other alternative tobacco product use, risk perceptions, and worldview between LGB and heterosexual (HET) adults. An online survey administered in 2014-2015, using a weighted probability sample of 11,525 U.S. adults, assessed awareness of tobacco products; ever and current use of e-cigarettes, cigars, little cigars and cigarillos, and hookahs; perceptions of e-cigarettes; and worldview (individualism vs. communitarianism). Bivariate and adjusted multivariable analyses were performed to determine differences between LGB and HET groups. In the adjusted analyses, LGB adults were 1.5 times more likely to have ever used e-cigarettes (95% CI 1.2-1.9) and 1.9 times more likely to have ever used hookahs (95% CI 1.5-2.4) as compared to HET adults. A lower percentage of LGB adults, as compared to HET adults (16.7% vs. 19.2%), believed that exposure to vapors from e-cigarettes was "harmful" and reported that they "did not know" of any harm (35.1% vs. 39.8%). LGB were 20% less likely than were HET adults to endorse an individualistic worldview. These results suggest that a disparity exists, whereby LGB adults are more likely to have used e-cigarettes and hookahs. In addition, although vapor from e-cigarettes contains nicotine and other chemicals, LGB adults are less likely to perceive exposure to secondhand vapor as harmful. Tailored awareness campaigns and interventions are needed to convey the risks and curb use of these products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objective of this study was to assess community risk knowledge and perception of potential mercury and arsenic toxicity and/or exposure from artisanal gold mining in Rwamagasa in northwestern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of respondents in five sub-villages in the Rwamagasa Village located in Geita District in northwestern Tanzania near Lake Victoria was conducted. This area has a history of artisanal gold mining and many of the population continue to work as miners. Using a clustered random selection approach for recruitment, a total of 160 individuals over 18 years of age completed a structured interview. Results The interviews revealed wide variations in knowledge and risk perceptions concerning mercury and arsenic exposure, with 40.6% (n=65 and 89.4% (n=143 not aware of the health effects of mercury and arsenic exposure respectively. Males were significantly more knowledgeable (n=59, 36.9% than females (n=36, 22.5% with regard to mercury (x2=3.99, px2=22.82, p= Conclusions The knowledge of individuals living in Rwamagasa, Tanzania, an area with a history of artisanal gold mining, varied widely with regard to the health hazards of mercury and arsenic. In these communities there was limited awareness of the threats to health associated with exposure to mercury and arsenic. This lack of knowledge, combined with minimal environmental monitoring and controlled waste management practices, highlights the need for health education, surveillance, and policy

  19. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...... utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...... evidence that farmers engage in multiple risk management practices in order to reduce losses from cattle morbidity and mortality. The results suggest that government strategies that aim at reducing farmers’ risk need to be tailored to specific farm and farmer characteristics. Findings from this study have...

  1. Perceived threat, risk perception, and efficacy beliefs related to SARS and other (emerging) infectious diseases: results of an international survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de O.; Veldhuijzen, I.; Elam, G.; Aro, A.R.; Abraham, T.; Bishop, G.D.; Voeten, H.A.C.M.; Richardus, J.H.; Brug, J.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. METHOD: A computer-assisted phone survey was conducted

  2. Perceived threat, risk perception, and efficacy beliefs related to SARS and other (emerging) infectious diseases: Results of an international survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. de Zwart (Onno); I.K. Veldhuijzen (Irene); E. Elam (Gillian); A.R. Aro (Arja); A. Abraham (Thomas); G.D. Bishop (George); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J. Brug (Hans)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. Method: A computer-assisted phone survey

  3. Illness perceptions, risk perception and worry in SDH mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsteijn, L.T. van; Kaptein, A.A.; Louisse, A.; Biermasz, N.R.; Smit, J.W.; Corssmit, E.P.

    2014-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mutation carriers are predisposed for developing paragangliomas. This study aimed to explore illness perceptions, risk perception and disease-related worry in these individuals. All consecutive SDHB and SDHD mutation carriers followed at the Department of Endocrinology

  4. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    , as a particular branch of food manufacturing, has in the past been able to dodge implication in major risk debates. The latest crisis in a related industry was the temporary banning of several brands of the Coca-Cola Co. in 1999 in Belgium following symptoms of nausea and vomiting amongst people who had consumed...

  5. Risk perception of climate change: Empirical evidence for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Simora, Michael; Frondel, Manuel; Sommer, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The perception of risks associated with climate change appears to be a key factor for the support of climate policy measures. Using a generalized ordered logit approach and drawing on a unique data set originating from two surveys conducted in 2012 and 2014, each among more than 6,000 German households, we analyze the determinants of individual risk perception associated with three kinds of natural hazards: heat waves, storms, and floods. Our focus is on the role of objective risk measures an...

  6. Illness perceptions, risk perception and worry in SDH mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hulsteijn, L T; Kaptein, A A; Louisse, A; Biermasz, N R; Smit, J W A; Corssmit, E P M

    2014-03-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mutation carriers are predisposed for developing paragangliomas. This study aimed to explore illness perceptions, risk perception and disease-related worry in these individuals. All consecutive SDHB and SDHD mutation carriers followed at the Department of Endocrinology of the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), a tertiary referral center, were eligible for inclusion. Illness perceptions were assessed using the validated Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised and compared to reference populations. Risk perception and worry were measured by two items each and associations with illness perceptions explored. Twenty SDHB and 118 SDHD mutation carriers responded. Compared with various reference groups, SDH mutation carriers perceived less controllability of their condition. SDHB mutation carriers considered their condition to be less chronic in nature (p = 0.005) and perceived more personal (p = 0.018) and treatment control (p = 0.001) than SDHD mutation carriers. Mutation carriers with manifest disease reported more negative illness perceptions and a higher risk perception of developing subsequent tumors than asymptomatic mutation carriers. Illness perceptions, risk perception and disease-related worry were strongly correlated. Risk perception and disease-related worry may be assessed through illness perceptions. The development of interventions targeting illness perceptions may provide tools for genetic counseling.

  7. Exploring Risk Perceptions of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    de Zwart, Onno

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about risk perception of infectious diseases, with a special focus on the emerging infections SARS and avian influenza, and explores potential determinants of risk perception and the relation of risk perception with precautionary behaviours. In this first chapter I discuss the context of emerging diseases, the theoretical framework, relevant studies on risk perception and infectious diseases, and the research questions addressed in this thesis.

  8. On the perception and operationalization of risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Ganzach

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare and critique two measures of risk perception. We suggest that a single question --- ``How risky is the situation?'' --- captures the concept of risk perception more accurately than the multiple-item measure used by Sitkin and Weingart (1995. In fact, this latter measure inadvertently captures notions of attractiveness or expected return, rather than risk perception. We further propose that the error underlying the construction of Sitkin and Weingart's measure is explained in terms of a top-down model of risk perception, in which perceived risk and perceived return are consequences, rather than determinants, of attractiveness. Two studies compare the validity of the two alternative measures.

  9. Exploring Risk Perceptions of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. de Zwart (Onno)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about risk perception of infectious diseases, with a special focus on the emerging infections SARS and avian influenza, and explores potential determinants of risk perception and the relation of risk perception with precautionary behaviours. In this first chapter I discuss

  10. Heart Disease Risk Perception in College Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John S.; Grant, Melinda; Hill, Kathy L.; Brizzolara, Jeff; Belmont, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The authors sought to assess the perception of risks for coronary heart disease (CHD) in college men and women. They surveyed 470 undergraduates from 2 major 4-year institutions who completed a questionnaire that measured perceived risks for heart disease. Sixty-eight percent of the respondents rated their risks as lower or much lower than those…

  11. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerking, S.D.; Khaddaria, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14–22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk,

  12. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Elias; Thomas, Deborah S K; Dewey, Deborah; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E; Konje, Eveline

    2013-01-25

    An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objective of this study was to assess community risk knowledge and perception of potential mercury and arsenic toxicity and/or exposure from artisanal gold mining in Rwamagasa in northwestern Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey of respondents in five sub-villages in the Rwamagasa Village located in Geita District in northwestern Tanzania near Lake Victoria was conducted. This area has a history of artisanal gold mining and many of the population continue to work as miners. Using a clustered random selection approach for recruitment, a total of 160 individuals over 18 years of age completed a structured interview. The interviews revealed wide variations in knowledge and risk perceptions concerning mercury and arsenic exposure, with 40.6% (n=65) and 89.4% (n=143) not aware of the health effects of mercury and arsenic exposure respectively. Males were significantly more knowledgeable (n=59, 36.9%) than females (n=36, 22.5%) with regard to mercury (x²=3.99, pmining (n=63, 73.2%) were more knowledgeable about the negative health effects of mercury than individuals in other occupations. Of the few individuals (n=17, 10.6%) who knew about arsenic toxicity, the majority (n=10, 58.8%) were miners. The knowledge of individuals living in Rwamagasa, Tanzania, an area with a history of artisanal gold mining, varied widely with regard to the health hazards of mercury and arsenic. In these communities there was limited awareness of the threats to health associated with exposure to mercury and arsenic. This lack of

  13. Determinants of waterpipe use amongst adolescents in Northern Sweden: a survey of use pattern, risk perception, and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramji, Rathi; Arnetz, Judy; Nilsson, Maria; Jamil, Hikmet; Norström, Fredrik; Maziak, Wasim; Wiklund, Ywonne; Arnetz, Bengt

    2015-09-15

    Determinants of waterpipe use in adolescents are believed to differ from those for other tobacco products, but there is a lack of studies of possible social, cultural, or psychological aspects of waterpipe use in this population. This study applied a socioecological model to explore waterpipe use, and its relationship to other tobacco use in Swedish adolescents. A total of 106 adolescents who attended an urban high-school in northern Sweden responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Prevalence rates for waterpipe use were examined in relation to socio-demographics, peer pressure, sensation seeking behavior, harm perception, environmental factors, and depression. Thirty-three percent reported ever having smoked waterpipe (ever use), with 30% having done so during the last 30 days (current use). Among waterpipe ever users, 60% had ever smoked cigarettes in comparison to 32% of non-waterpipe smokers (95% confidence interval 1.4-7.9). The odds of having ever smoked waterpipe were three times higher among male high school seniors as well as students with lower grades. Waterpipe ever users had three times higher odds of having higher levels of sensation-seeking (95% confidence interval 1.2-9.5) and scored high on the depression scales (95% confidence interval 1.6-6.8) than non-users. The odds of waterpipe ever use were four times higher for those who perceived waterpipe products to have pleasant smell compared to cigarettes (95% confidence interval 1.7-9.8). Waterpipe ever users were twice as likely to have seen waterpipe use on television compared to non-users (95% confidence interval 1.1-5.7). The odds of having friends who smoked regularly was eight times higher for waterpipe ever users than non-users (95% confidence interval 2.1-31.2). The current study reports a high use of waterpipe in a select group of students in northern Sweden. The study adds the importance of looking at socioecological determinants of use, including peer pressure and exposure to media marketing

  14. Risk perception and credibility of risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L

    1992-10-01

    Experts and the public frequently disagree when it comes to risk assessment. The reasons for such disagreement are discussed, and it is pointed out that disagreement among experts and lack of full understanding of real risks contributes to skepticism among the public. The notion that people are in general reacting in a highly emotional and non-rational, phobic, manner is rejected. The very conditions for risk assessment present to the public, and common-sense cognitive dynamics, are better explanations of risk perception, as are some social psychological concepts. If trust is to be established in a country where it is quite low some kind of politically regulated public influence on decision making and risk monitoring is probably needed, e.g. by means of a publicly elected and responsible ombudsman. 57 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs.

  15. Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Private forest owners and invasive plants: risk perception and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; Susan. Charnley

    2012-01-01

    We investigated nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners' invasive plant risk perceptions and mitigation practices using statistical analysis of mail survey data and qualitative analysis of interview data collected in Oregon's ponderosa pine zone. We found that 52% of the survey sample was aware of invasive plant species considered problematic by local...

  17. Entrepreneurship, risk perception and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.; Willebrands, Daan

    Risk attitudes of entrepreneurs are well-established drivers of business performance. Most empirical studies in this field only take into account risk propensity, leaving out the complementary concept of risk perception. Using data on 611 entrepreneurs from Tanzania, we show that risk perception is

  18. "At Risk of Harm"? An Exploratory Survey of School Counsellors in the UK, Their Perceptions of Confidentiality, Information Sharing and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Peter; Palmer, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to explore perceptions of UK school counsellors of confidentiality and information sharing in therapeutic work with children and young people, using qualitative methods. The research design employed a two-stage process, using questionnaires and follow-up interviews, with a small, non-random sample of school…

  19. Risk perception of musculoskeletal injury among critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Jeong; Faucett, Julia; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas; Landry, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    Nursing is known as an occupation with high risk of musculoskeletal injury. Nurses' perceptions about the risk of injury may have a role in preventing such injury. The aim of this study was to investigate how nurses perceived the risk of musculoskeletal injury from work and identify factors associated with their risk perception. In a cross-sectional study using a postal survey, 361 critical care nurses reported on risk perception, physical workload, psychosocial job factors, safety climate, musculoskeletal symptoms, and safe work behavior. Of all critical care nurse respondents, 83% perceived that they were more likely than not to have a musculoskeletal injury within 1 year. On average, nurses perceived the risk of musculoskeletal injury as lower to themselves than to coworkers. This more positive perception of risk to self had stronger correlations with symptom experiences. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that higher risk perception of injury was associated with greater job strain, greater physical workload, lack of availability of lifting devices or lifting teams, and more symptoms. Study findings indicated that most critical care nurses were concerned about their ergonomic job risks. Their risk perceptions about musculoskeletal injury risk were affected by physical work exposures, psychosocial job stressors, and experience with musculoskeletal symptoms, but not by perceived workplace safety climate. The findings underscore the need for management efforts to improve physical and psychosocial working conditions and create a safe work environment.

  20. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders.

  1. Risk perception and the economic crisis: a longitudinal study of the trajectory of perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William J; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a longitudinal survey of public response to the economic crisis to understand the trajectory of risk perception amidst an ongoing crisis. A nation-wide panel responded to seven surveys beginning in late September 2008 at the peak of the crisis and concluded in October 2009. At least 600 respondents participated in each survey, with 413 completing all seven surveys. Our online survey focused on perceptions of risk (savings, investments, retirement, job), negative emotions toward the financial crisis (sadness, anxiety, fear, anger, worry, stress), confidence in national leaders to manage the crisis (President Obama, Congress, Treasury Secretary, business leaders), and belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives despite the crisis. We employed latent growth curve modeling to analyze change in risk perception throughout the crisis. Our results suggest that, in general, people's perceptions of risk appear to decrease most rapidly during the initial phase of a crisis and then begin to level off. Negative emotion about the crisis was the most predictive of increased risk perception, supporting the notion of risk as feelings. Belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives was also predictive. Confidence in national leaders, however, was not predictive of perceived risk. Finally, our results demonstrate that groups may experience a crisis differently depending on a combination of personal characteristics such as gender, income, numeracy, and political attitude. Risk management and communication should work in sync with these mechanisms and differences across groups. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Use of marijuana and changing risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M

    2015-05-01

    To improve understanding of which adolescents were most likely to perceive marijuana as not harmful. Analyses were based on the SHARP survey, conducted in 3 large school districts in Utah in 2009, 2011, and 2013, among students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12. Across school grades, students who viewed marijuana as not harmful were ≥9 times more likely to have used marijuana. The perception that marijuana has no risk was higher in males, Hispanics, youth not living with their mother or father, and increased with school grade and decreased with the education of the student's guardian. Those historically identified as high risk for marijuana use also were most likely to view marijuana as not harmful.

  3. Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysing data from the Kenya Diffusion and Ideational Change (KDIC) Project, this paper investigates the determinants of the reported degree of risk perception of getting infected by HIV. In particular, adopting a social interaction approach, we argue that individual risk perception is shaped by social network influences.

  4. Public Perceptions of Environmental Risk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    China, as a ‘double risk’ society, is in urgent need for effective environmental risk management systems. Compared with other risks, man-made environmental risks have not been given due weight. Public awareness and perceptions of environmental risks are crucial in all phases of effective risk

  5. Characteristics of e-cigarette users and their perceptions of the benefits, harms and risks of e-cigarette use: survey results from a convenience sample in Ottawa, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. Volesky; Maki, A.; Scherf, C.; Watson, L. M.; E. Cassol; P. J. Villeneuve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although e-cigarette use (‘‘vaping’’) is increasing in Canada, few attempts have been made to describe e-cigarette users (‘‘vapers’’). In this context, we conducted a study in Ottawa, Canada, to describe e-cigarette users’ perceptions of the benefits, harms and risks of e-cigarettes. We also collected information on why, how and where they use e-cigarettes as well as information on side effects. Methods: A 24-item online survey was administered to individuals who purchased e-cig...

  6. Bus operator perceptions of safety risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of TriMet bus operators addressing safety risks in their assigned work. Surveyed risk factors : were organized into five categories: vehicle design and condition; route layout; operating conditions; fatigue...

  7. Risk perception influences athletic pacing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklewright, Dominic; Parry, David; Robinson, Tracy; Deacon, Greg; Renfree, Andrew; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Matthews, William J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine risk taking and risk perception associations with perceived exertion, pacing, and performance in athletes. Two experiments were conducted in which risk perception was assessed using the domain-specific risk taking (DOSPERT) scale in 20 novice cyclists (experiment 1) and 32 experienced ultramarathon runners (experiment 2). In experiment 1, participants predicted their pace and then performed a 5-km maximum effort cycling time trial on a calibrated Kingcycle mounted bicycle. Split times and perceived exertion were recorded every kilometer. In experiment 2, each participant predicted their split times before running a 100-km ultramarathon. Split times and perceived exertion were recorded at seven checkpoints. In both experiments, higher and lower risk perception groups were created using median split of DOSPERT scores. In experiment 1, pace during the first kilometer was faster among lower risk perceivers compared with higher risk perceivers (t(18) = 2.0, P = 0.03) and faster among higher risk takers compared with lower risk takers (t(18) = 2.2, P = 0.02). Actual pace was slower than predicted pace during the first kilometer in both the higher risk perceivers (t(9) = -4.2, P = 0.001) and lower risk perceivers (t(9) = -1.8, P = 0.049). In experiment 2, pace during the first 36 km was faster among lower risk perceivers compared with higher risk perceivers (t(16) = 2.0, P = 0.03). Irrespective of risk perception group, actual pace was slower than predicted pace during the first 18 km (t(16) = 8.9, P perception groups. Initial pace is associated with an individual's perception of risk, with low perceptions of risk being associated with a faster starting pace. Large differences between predicted and actual pace suggest that the performance template lacks accuracy, perhaps indicating greater reliance on momentary pacing decisions rather than preplanned strategy.

  8. Time will tell: changes in risk perception and the processing of risk information about the Y2K-risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuttschreuter, M.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2004-01-01

    A field study was performed on the perceived risks related to the Y2K-problem. Two cross-sectional surveys were executed to study whether risk perception regarding the Y2K-problem, the perceived societal and personal capabilities to mitigate the risks, the attitude toward computers and the attitude

  9. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  10. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  11. The impact of cigarette branding and plain packaging on perceptions of product appeal and risk among young adults in Norway: A between-subjects experimental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Ingeborg

    2013-12-04

    This study examined the perceptions of cigarette packaging and the potential impact of plain packaging regulations. The hypothesis was that the branded cigarette packages would be rated more positively than the corresponding plain packs with and without descriptors. Between-subjects experimental online survey. Male and female participants were separately randomised to one of the three experimental conditions: fully branded cigarette packs, plain packs with descriptors and plain packs without descriptors; participants were asked to evaluate 12 individual cigarette packages. The participants were also asked to compare five pairs of packs from the same brand family. Norway. 1010 youths and adults aged 15-22. Ratings of appeal, taste and harmfulness for individual packages. Ratings of taste, harm, quality, 'would rather try' and 'easier to quit' for pairs of packages. Plain with and without descriptors packs were rated less positively than the branded packs on appeal (index score 1.63/1.61 vs 2.42, ppackaging could lead to a reduction in positive perceptions of cigarettes among young people.

  12. Impact of Risk Perception on Risk Communication and Community Resilience Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, T. G.; Thompson, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Past studies have demonstrated there is a relationship between risk perception, risk tolerance and mitigation planning. When people experience high-risk perception, their risk tolerance is typically lowered causing them to become more likely to support the implementation of mitigation policies including those that are either cost intensive or politically controversial. Understanding stakeholder risk perception could therefore provide information about the likelihood of implementation of various mitigation strategies. Varied risk communication methods are needed to accurately represent community risk so as to better inform decision-making. In response to this need, this research examines the effect of risk perception on community resilience through a case study of Fernan Lake, ID. Researchers conducted a survey of Fernan Lake residents to determine their risk perception of the impact of blue-green algae blooms on community resilience. Survey questions were developed based on traditional risk perception factors like vested interest, social trust, knowledge, possible benefits or losses, relevance to individual and potential for control. The results were used to determine residents' risk perception of the impact of blue green algae blooms on Socio-Ecological System resource availability and future development and growth potential. Focus groups were then conducted to validate the survey results. Research results demonstrate that residents are concerned about the impacts of blue-green algae blooms, but the level of interest in acting on those concerns and their willingness to consider more aggressive mitigation strategies varies across the study area. This research demonstrates the need for varied risk communication approaches, depending upon community mitigation goals.

  13. Stroke Risk Perception in Atrial Fibrillation Patients is not Associated with Clinical Stroke Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournaise, Anders; Skov, Jane; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Leppin, Anja

    2015-11-01

    Clinical risk stratification models, such as the CHA2DS2-VASc, are used to assess stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. No study has yet investigated whether and to which extent these patients have a realistic perception of their personal stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the association between AF patients' stroke risk perception and clinical stroke risk. In an observational cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 178 AF patients with a mean age of 70.6 years (SD 8.3) in stable anticoagulant treatment (65% treatment duration >12 months). Clinical stroke risk was scored through the CHA2DS2-VASc, and patients rated their perceived personal stroke risk on a 7-point Likert scale. There was no significant association between clinical stroke risk assessment and patients' stroke risk perception (rho = .025; P = .741). Approximately 60% of the high-risk patients had an unrealistic perception of their own stroke risk, and there was no significant increase in risk perception from those with a lower compared with a higher risk factor load (χ(2) = .010; P = .522). Considering possible negative implications in terms of lack of motivation for lifestyle behavior change and adequate adherence to the treatment and monitoring of vitamin K antagonist, the apparent underestimation of risk by large subgroups warrants attention and needs further investigation with regard to possible behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk attitudes and risk perceptions in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Bonnie I; Greeke, Emily; LaRussa, Allison; Stuart, Fiona; Rintell, David J; Chitnis, Tanuja; Healy, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about risk attitudes and risk perceptions in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objectives of this paper are to investigate the range of risk attitudes and risk perceptions and examine associations between risk attitudes and risk perceptions and demographic and clinical features of the disease. A total of 223 individuals completed a risk questionnaire. Risk attitude was measured using two rating scales and a standard gamble scenario. Risk perception was measured by asking participants to estimate the likelihood of disease progression and the likelihood of minor and serious side effects associated with common MS therapies. Participants were risk neutral overall and risk averse on issues related to health and safety. There was a significant association between disease duration and risk attitude, with patients with longer disease duration showing greater tolerance for risk. On the standard gamble scenario, males were significantly more likely to take treatments with a likelihood of death of 1:10,000 or 1:100,000 than females. Individuals with higher disability or a progressive disease course were significantly more likely to expect progression at two, five and 10 years. Individuals with MS demonstrate low tolerance for risk. Risk attitudes and perceptions are influenced by some demographic and clinical features of the disease.

  15. Perception of flood and landslide risk in Italy: a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salvati, P; C. Bianchi; F. Fiorucci; P. Giostrella; Marchesini, I.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Inundations and landslides are widespread phenomena in Italy, where they cause severe damage and pose a threat to the population. Little is known about the public perception of landslide and flood risk. This is surprising, as an accurate perception is important for the successful implementation of many risk reduction or adaptation strategies. In an attempt to address this gap, we have conducted two national surveys to measure the perception of landslide and flood risk amongs...

  16. General knowledge about climate change, factors influencing risk perception and willingness to insure

    OpenAIRE

    Menny, Claas; Osberghaus, Daniel; Pohl, Max; Werner, Ute

    2011-01-01

    In two empirical surveys in Germany the link between the information respondents have about climate change and their risk perception of the phenomenon was analysed. We found that a better understanding of the effects of climate change might lead to a decrease of the perceived hazard. In contrast, a high self-declared knowledge about climate change might correspond with higher risk perception. Further factors affecting the risk perception of climate change are gender, experience of extreme wea...

  17. Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhar, Sara E.; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A.

    2009-01-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the ...

  18. Empirical analysis of farmers' drought risk perception: objective factors, personal circumstances, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duinen, Rianne van; Filatova, Tatiana; Geurts, Peter; Veen, Anne van der

    2015-04-01

    Drought-induced water shortage and salinization are a global threat to agricultural production. With climate change, drought risk is expected to increase as drought events are assumed to occur more frequently and to become more severe. The agricultural sector's adaptive capacity largely depends on farmers' drought risk perceptions. Understanding the formation of farmers' drought risk perceptions is a prerequisite to designing effective and efficient public drought risk management strategies. Various strands of literature point at different factors shaping individual risk perceptions. Economic theory points at objective risk variables, whereas psychology and sociology identify subjective risk variables. This study investigates and compares the contribution of objective and subjective factors in explaining farmers' drought risk perception by means of survey data analysis. Data on risk perceptions, farm characteristics, and various other personality traits were collected from farmers located in the southwest Netherlands. From comparing the explanatory power of objective and subjective risk factors in separate models and a full model of risk perception, it can be concluded that farmers' risk perceptions are shaped by both rational and emotional factors. In a full risk perception model, being located in an area with external water supply, owning fields with salinization issues, cultivating drought-/salt-sensitive crops, farm revenue, drought risk experience, and perceived control are significant explanatory variables of farmers' drought risk perceptions. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Cultural theory and individual perceptions of environmental risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L; Sievers, [No Value

    Understanding differences in environmental risk perception and risk judgments might facilitate the development of effective environmental risk management strategies, including risk communication. Cultural theory holds that systematic individual differences exist in the perception of environmental

  20. High risk drinking and college students' self-perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Gabriel C; Wong, Eugene H

    2005-12-01

    The present study examined the relationship between high risk drinking and college students' self-perceptions. High risk drinking was defined as the consumption of four or more drinks in a row for women and five or more drinks in a row for men during a single sitting (within the last year). Historical trends regarding college-age drinking indicate that 44% of college students fit the criteria for high risk drinking at least once over the past year. A survey was administered to 210 college students (52 men and 158 women) between 18 and 22 years of age (M = 20.9, SD = 1.3) to assess their use of alcohol and their self-perceptions. Students' self-perceptions were measured with four subscales from the Neemann-Harter Self-perception Profile for College Students. Students either volunteered to participate in this study outside of class or were solicited during class. It was predicted that students' self-perceptions would differ significantly depending upon their alcohol consumption, i.e., 17.1% were Abstainers, 25.2% were Nonproblem Drinkers, and 57.6% were High Risk Drinkers. Analysis gave significant difference on Global Self-worth between students who abstained and those who were High Risk Drinkers. However, students' perceptions of Scholastic Competence, Intellectual Ability, and Social Acceptance did not differ significantly for the alcohol consumption groups. In addition to high risk drinking, a number of other variables were associated with self-perceptions, such as high school alcohol use, low high school GPA, and students' reported academic involvement. These relations are discussed.

  1. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  2. Correlates of overdose risk perception among illicit opioid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Behar, Emily; Coffin, Philip O

    2016-02-01

    Opioid-related mortality continues to increase in the United States. The current study assesses demographic and behavioral predictors of perceived overdose risk among individuals who use opioids illicitly. By examining these correlates in the context of established overdose risk factors, we aim to assess whether characteristics and behaviors that have been associated with actual overdose risk translate to higher perception of risk. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 172 adult illicit opioid users in San Francisco, CA and used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of perception of high risk for opioid overdose. Age (aOR=0.96, 95%CI=0.93-1.00) and number of injection days per month (0.91, 0.86-0.97) were associated with a lower odds of perceived high overdose risk. There was no independent association between use of opioid analgesics, concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines or cocaine, or HIV status and overdose risk perception. Opioid users who injected more frequently and those who were older were less likely to perceive themselves as being at risk of overdose, notwithstanding that those who inject more are at higher risk of overdose and those who are older are at higher risk overdose mortality. In addition, despite being established overdose risk factors, there was no relationship between use of opioid analgesics, concurrent use of opioids and cocaine or benzodiazepines, or self-reported HIV status and overdose risk perception. These findings highlight key populations of opioid users and established risk factors that may merit focused attention as part of education-based overdose prevention and opioid management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An existential approach to risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Ian H

    2002-02-01

    Existential, or existential-phenomenological philosophical approaches to the social psychology of risk perception provide a novel framework for understanding issues that are common to all humanity, such as fear of death, freedom and responsibility, isolation and meaninglessness, as these anxieties are a function of existing, or being-in-the-world. These fundamental anxieties can be related theoretically to the ways people perceive risks within social and cultural milieus, and can also be used practically within case studies, as demonstrated in the three examples presented, which examine perceptions of climate change, food-related risks, and environmental awareness via a mixture of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The discussion focuses on the possible insights that can be gained from taking an existential perspective on risk perception, and relates notions of contemporary technologically-oriented societies to the existential challenges faced by individuals and societies in the contemporary world.

  4. Knowledge, risk perception and practice regarding tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Window opening during bus transportation is recommended as a tuberculosis prevention strategy.Yet, drivers are affected by lack knowledge and risk perception of passengers and assistants. Boosting knowledge of and notifying the high risk of tuberculosis transmission for every passenger could be too costly.

  5. Perceptions of high risk sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, D M

    1997-10-01

    High risk sports were rated as to risk, appeal, and likelihood of participation by 282 men and 162 women. Ascending order of perceived risk was skiing, scuba diving, bungee jumping, rock climbing, motorcycle racing, hang gliding, cliff jumping, and skydiving. Profile analysis showed stated likelihood of participation to be directly related to appeal and inversely related to perceived risk.

  6. The influence of knowledge on risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Reiko; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Many researches on risk perception have often been concerned with reaction of the public to modern technology. A major concern is the public fear of such new technology as nuclear power and genetic engineering. When the perceived risk was examined using a risk ranking technique, Japanese school teachers, university students and also NIRS staffs (female clerical staffs and researchers) viewed nuclear power to be much riskier than the objective estimation. Many technical experts have believed that this great fear results from an overestimation of risk by the public due to lack of scientific knowledge. So far, several studies reported the results to examine the correlation of the perception of some risk sources with knowledge about them, although their conclusions are inconsistent. When the perceived risk by trainees on a radiation protection course in NIRS was examined, nuclear power was rated as the second and 14th among 30 risk items by those who majored in life sciences in college and by those in physics, chemistry or technology, respectively. The perceived risk of nuclear power did not change among trainees by training offered fundamental knowledge about radiation during the course. On the other hand, the orders of smoking and alcoholic beverages rose considerably. Our results are consistent with the previous reports, i.e., what people learn initially about risk source has more important role in risk perception than what they learn later, and the increase of perceived risk is more easier than its decrease. Knowledge is now recognized as one of the factors which influence on risk perception. However, a special emphasis is now placed on risk communication in order to make partnership between communicators and receivers in the risk management. (author)

  7. Seeking Risks: Towards a Quantitative Risk Perception Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Nyre, Åsmund,; Jaatun, Martin,

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Cross-Domain Conference and Workshop on Multidisciplinary Research and Practice for Information Systems (CD-ARES 2013); International audience; Existing instruments for measuring risk perception have focused on an abstract version of the concept, without diving into the the details of what forms the perception of likelihood and impact. However, as information security risks become increasingly complex and difficult for users to understand, this approach may be less feasible. The avera...

  8. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Webster

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Webster1, Emma Heeley21Cardiovascular Division, 2Neurological and Mental Health Division, The George Institute for International Health, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.Keywords: risk perception, cardiovascular disease, cardioprotective lifestyle

  9. [Construction and application of both adolescent multi-domain risk behavior questionnaire and risk perception questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Li; Zhang, Li-jin

    2011-06-01

    According to the Domain Specific Theory (DST) in risk-taking, this study intended to construct adolescent risk-taking behavior questionnaire and risk perception questionnaire inferred many domains for studying the adolescent risk-taking behavior and risk perception. With 422 middle school students in Yinchuan as subjects to develop the questionnaire. 2402 middle school students in Ningxia and Anhui were surveyed using the questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) indicated that both of the questionnaires contain four domains named society, recreation, safe and moral, and 33 items, which could explain 41.25% and 45.5% of the total variance respectively. The split-half reliability were 0.848, 0.890 and the coefficient of internal consistency were 0.900 and 0.938. The fit indices of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were as follows: χ(2)/df = 8.36 and 6.73, RMSEA = 0.066 and 0.054, NFI = 0.97 and 0.97, CFI = 0.97 and 0.97 separately. Gender difference in adolescent risk-taking behavior and risk perception were noticed, with F (1, 2288) = 56.256, P behaviors increased with age, F (2, 2288) = 140.067, P perception decreased with age, F (2, 2288) = 54.900, P behavior and risk perception.

  10. Risk perception regarding drug use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widnes, Sofia F; Schjøtt, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Pregnant women, but also physicians, have unrealistically high perceptions of teratogenic drug effects. This may result in suboptimal treatment of disease and even influence decisions of whether to continue pregnancy. To attain more realistic teratogenic risk perceptions, several factors that influence this issue should be considered, and these are further discussed in this Clinical Opinion. Importantly, drug use may have several benefits, both for the pregnant woman's health and to avoid negative fetal effects of untreated maternal disease. A greater focus on this aspect may act to balance risk perceptions. Furthermore, both pregnant women and physicians need access to drug information sources that provide realistic risk estimates to increase confidence in appropriate drug use and prescribing. We suggest that access to decision support and individually tailored information provided by drug information centers may contribute to this goal. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perception of risk and the attribution of responsibility for accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Laura N

    2014-03-01

    Accidents, one often hears, "happen"; we accept, and even expect, that they will be part of daily life. But in situations in which injury or death result, judgments of responsibility become critical. How might our perceptions of risk influence the ways in which we allocate responsibility for an accident? Drawing from attribution and risk perception theory, this study investigates how perceived controllability and desirability of risk, in addition to perceived danger and recreational risk-taking, relate to attributions of responsibility for the cause of unintentional injury in a unique setting: U.S. national parks. Three parks, Mount Rainier, Olympic, and Delaware Water Gap, provide the setting for this survey-based study, which considers how park visitors (N = 447) attribute responsibility for the cause of a hypothetical visitor accident. Results suggest that respondents tended to make more internal (i.e., related to characteristics of the victim), rather than external (i.e., related to characteristics of the park, or park management) attributions. As respondents viewed park-related risk as controllable, they were more likely to attribute the cause of the accident to the victim. Moreover, among other significant variables, having experienced a similar accident predicted lower internal causal attribution. Opportunities for future research linking risk perception and attribution variables, as well as practical implications for the management of public outdoor settings, are presented. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in

  13. Rural Community Disaster Preparedness and Risk Perception in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Disasters will continue to occur throughout the world and it is the responsibility of the government, health care systems, and communities to adequately prepare for potential catastrophic scenarios. Unfortunately, low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable following a disaster. By understanding disaster preparedness and risk perception, interventions can be developed to improve community preparedness and avoid unnecessary mortality and morbidity following a natural disaster. Problem The purpose of this study was to assess disaster preparedness and risk perception in communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. After designing a novel disaster preparedness and risk perception survey based on guidelines from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC; Geneva, Switzerland), investigators performed a cross-sectional survey of potentially vulnerable communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. Data were entered and analyzed utilizing the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap; Harvard Catalyst; Boston, Massachusetts USA) database. A total of 230 study participants were surveyed, composed of 37% males, 63% females, with ages ranging from 18-85 years old. Those surveyed who had previously experienced a disaster (41%) had a higher perception of future disaster occurrence and potential disaster impact on their community. Overall, the study participants consistently perceived that earthquakes and infection had the highest potential impact of all disasters. Twenty-six percent of participants had an emergency supply of food, 24% had an emergency water plan, 24% had a first aid kit at home, and only 20% of the study participants had an established family evacuation plan. Natural and man-made disasters will remain a threat to the safety and health of communities in all parts of the world, especially within vulnerable communities in LMICs; however, little research has been done to identify disaster perception

  14. Risk communication, risk perception, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakko, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Risk communication is about building trust while deploying an interactive and ongoing communication process in which audience members are active participants. This interactive participation may not solve a public health crisis, but it will help reduce unwarranted fear, anxiety and distrust. Consequently, if a government agency fails to understand how to effectively communicate about health risks, their trustworthiness and credibility may suffer, and a crisis event may go from bad to worse.

  15. Weight perceptions of parents with children at risk for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Eva M; Becker, Tara L; Carrel, Aaron L

    2012-01-20

    The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes among African American, Latino American, and Native American children in the United States has led to increasing focus on strategies for prevention. However, little is known about the perceptions toward weight, nutrition, and physical activity among these youth. This pilot study explored the perceptions of body weight among overweight and obese children and their parents. Thirty eight children, ages 8-16 years who were enrolled in a diabetes prevention study were surveyed to assess their perception of their weight. Nearly all (84%) of the children were obese. When asked whether they considered themselves to be overweight, African-American children were less likely to report that they were overweight than other children (33% vs. 80% of other children, p = 0.01). The parents of these children (n = 29) were also surveyed to assess their perception of their child's weight. The parents of two-thirds (65%) of the children reported that the child was overweight, while the rest reported their child was underweight or the right weight. African-American parents were less likely to report that their child's weight was unhealthy compared to other parents (46% vs. 77%, p = 0.069). This study's findings indicate that future intervention efforts should assess children's and parents' awareness of obesity and diabetes risk and these factors should be considered when developing prevention interventions for families with youth at risk for diabetes in underserved communities.

  16. Weight perceptions of parents with children at risk for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Eva M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes among African American, Latino American, and Native American children in the United States has led to increasing focus on strategies for prevention. However, little is known about the perceptions toward weight, nutrition, and physical activity among these youth. This pilot study explored the perceptions of body weight among overweight and obese children and their parents. Results Thirty eight children, ages 8-16 years who were enrolled in a diabetes prevention study were surveyed to assess their perception of their weight. Nearly all (84% of the children were obese. When asked whether they considered themselves to be overweight, African-American children were less likely to report that they were overweight than other children (33% vs. 80% of other children, p = 0.01. The parents of these children (n = 29 were also surveyed to assess their perception of their child's weight. The parents of two-thirds (65% of the children reported that the child was overweight, while the rest reported their child was underweight or the right weight. African-American parents were less likely to report that their child's weight was unhealthy compared to other parents (46% vs. 77%, p = 0.069. Conclusions This study's findings indicate that future intervention efforts should assess children's and parents' awareness of obesity and diabetes risk and these factors should be considered when developing prevention interventions for families with youth at risk for diabetes in underserved communities.

  17. Perception of risks by opinion leaders 2011; 2011 Perception des risques par des leaders d'opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The authors report a survey made just after the Fukushima accident on a panel of opinion leaders (belonging to political, economical or media sector) in order to compare their perception of risks with that of the public. The questions addressed the perception of risks, the role of scientific experts, the usefulness and breaks on the diffusion of expertise results, the perception of pluralist bodies, and the Fukushima accident. The answers are analysed and discussed with respect to fifteen hazardous situations, to their opinion of expertise, and to their opinion on safety audit and information

  18. Factors Impacting Food Safety Risk Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    We developed and applied a model of consumer risk perceptions of beef food safety to better understand the underlying drivers of consumer demand for food safety. We show how consumer demographics, country-of-residence, as well as reliance on, and trust in, alternative food safety information sources

  19. Risk Perception, Communication and Food Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an effective communication strategy about different food hazards depends not only on technical risk assessments (for example related to health or the environment) but must also take into account consumer perceptions and preferences. In addition, consumers make decisions about food choices

  20. Social Influence on Risk Perception During Adolescence.

    OpenAIRE

    L. J. Knoll; Magis-Weinberg, L.; speekenbrink, m; Blakemore, S J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before ...

  1. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P

    2017-12-01

    Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p < 0.001). There appears to be a mismatch between injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or

  2. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Ruth; Heeley, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient's risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV) risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.

  3. PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother's consumption of conta...

  4. Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Hsu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1 the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2 the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3 consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception.

  5. The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We examine how affect and accessible thoughts following a major natural disaster influence everyday risk perception. A survey was conducted in the months following the 2004 south Asian Tsunami in a representative sample of the Swedish population (N = 733). Respondents rated their experienced affect as well as the perceived risk and benefits of various everyday decision domains. Affect influenced risk and benefit perception in a way that could be predicted from both the affect-congruency and affect heuristic literatures (increased risk perception and stronger risk-benefit correlations). However, in some decision domains, self-regulation goals primed by the natural disaster predicted risk and benefit ratings. Together, these results show that affect, accessible thoughts and motivational states influence perceptions of risks and benefits. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Farmers' motivations, risk perceptions and risk management strategies in a developing economy: Bangladesh experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquaculture farmers' risk perceptions and risk management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research. Therefore, an exploratory study has been undertaken to provide empirical insight into Bangladeshi coastal shrimp farmers' risk perceptions and risk management respon...

  7. Predictors of children's and adolescents' risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Chandler, C C; Elkin, T David

    2005-01-01

    To test cognitive-developmental, social-cognitive, motivational, and cognitive hypotheses about the psychological mechanisms underlying children's risk perception. Youth (N = 1315) ranging from 9 to 17 years of age completed measures assessing adolescent egocentrism, personal experience with four negative health events, how much they worried about the health events, and their perceived skill for event-related activities. The measures were completed twice, 12 months apart. Lacking personal experience with and worrying less about health threats were significant predictors of more optimistically biased risk perception a year later. The lack of experience with and not worrying about serious health consequences may desensitize children to potential health risks. Clinical applications for health education programs are discussed.

  8. Adolescents' risk perceptions on mobile phones and their base stations, their trust to authorities and incivility in using mobile phones: a cross-sectional survey on 2240 high school students in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoy, Hur; Durusoy, Raika; Karababa, Ali Osman

    2013-01-25

    Use of mobile phones has rapidly risen among adolescents despite a lack of scientific certainty on their health risks. Risk perception is an important determinant of behavior, and studies on adolescents' risk perceptions of mobile phones or base stations are very scarce. This study aims to evaluate high school students' risk perceptions on mobile phones and base stations, their trust to authorities, their opinions regarding incivility while using mobile phones and to assess associated factors. For this cross-sectional study, 2530 students were chosen with stratified cluster sampling among 20,493 high school students studying in Bornova district of Izmir, Turkey, among whom 2240 (88.5%) participated. Risk perceptions and opinions were questioned with a 5-point Likert scale for 24 statements grouped under four dimensions. The mean responses to the four dimensions were categorized as trust to authority and incivility dimensions were 3.69 ± 0.89, 4.34 ± 0.78, 3.77 ± 0.93, 3.16 ± 0.93 and the prevalence of high risk perception was 65.1%, 86.7%, 66.2%, 39.7%, respectively. In the mobile phone dimension; students attending industrial technical high school had lower risk perceptions while female students, lower mothers' education groups and students not using mobile phones (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.80-4.40) had higher risk perceptions. In the base station dimension girls had higher risk perceptions (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.20-2.37). Girls and students attending industrial technical high school had significantly lower risk perception however 11-12th grade group perceived the risk higher (OR = 1.45 95% CI = 1.15-1.84) in the trust to authority dimension. For the incivility dimension, female students (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.14-1.82), illiterate/only literate mothers (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.04-2.75) and students not using mobile phones (OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.62-3.87) perceived higher risk. Understanding the effects of these determinants might aid in developing more effective

  9. Risk perception and public concerns of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Hae-Joon; Song, Dae Jong; Cho, Yong Min; Choi, Jae Wook

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the difference between the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones and the risk perception of other factors such as environment and food was analyzed. The cause of the difference in the psychological and social factors that affect the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves was also analyzed. A questionnaire survey on the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was carried out on 1001 subjects (men and women) over the age of 20. In the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones, women had higher risk perception than men. Logistic regression analysis, where the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves and the group with low risk perception were used as dependent variables, indicated that the risk perception of electromagnetic waves in women was 1.815 times statistically significantly higher than the risk perception of men (95% CI: 1.340-2.457). Also, high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was observed when the subjects considered that they had more personal knowledge (OR: 1.416, 95% CI: 1.216-1.648), that the seriousness of the risk to future generations was high (OR: 1.410, 95% CI: 1.234-1.611), and their outrage for the occurrence of accidents related to electromagnetic waves was high (OR: 1.460, 95% CI: 1.264-1.686). The results of this study need to be sufficiently considered and reflected in designing the risk communication strategies and communication methods for the preventive measures and advice on electromagnetic waves from cellular phones. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Perception of flood and landslide risk in Italy: a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salvati, P; C. Bianchi; F. Fiorucci; P. Giostrella; Marchesini, I.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Inundations and landslides are widespread phenomena in Italy, where they cause severe damage and pose a threat to the population. Little is known on the perception of the population of landslides and floods. This is surprising, as an accurate perception is important for the successful implementation of many risk reduction or adaptation strategies. In an attempt to fill this gap, we have conducted two national surveys to measure the perception of landslide an...

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Health Risks, Social Risks, and Benefits Differ Across Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria; Delucchi, Kevin; Cash, David; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses perceptions of overall harm, short-term health and social risks, long-term health risks, and benefits associated with various tobacco products including conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, chew, and hookah. This study also assesses whether and how perceptions differ by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and previous experience with tobacco. A total of 722 high school students completed an online survey, answering questions about their use and perceptions of a variety of tobacco products. Differences in perceptions across products were assessed using a generalized estimation equation with an exchangeable correlation structure. Adolescents rated the various tobacco products as conferring significantly different levels of risks and benefits. Generally, adolescents rated cigarettes as most risky, followed by cigars and chew, with hookah and e-cigarettes rated as least risky. Adolescents rated hookah followed by cigarettes and e-cigarettes as most likely to make them look cool or fit in and cigars and chew as least likely to confer these benefits. There were interaction effects by age and use, with older adolescents and those with tobacco experience holding lower perceptions of risk. There were no significant interaction effects by race/ethnicity or gender. Given the significant differences in adolescents' perceptions of risks and benefits of using different tobacco products and research showing the predictive relationship between perceptions and behavior, there is a need for comprehensive messaging that discusses risks of all tobacco products, particularly hookah and e-cigarettes. There is also a need to address perceived benefits of tobacco products, especially hookah and e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adolescents’ Perceptions of Health Risks, Social Risks, and Benefits Differ Across Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria; Delucchi, Kevin; Cash, David; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study assesses perceptions of overall harm, short-term health and social risks, long-term health risks, and benefits associated with various tobacco products including conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, chew, and hookah. This study also assesses whether and how perceptions differ by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and previous experience with tobacco. Methods A total of 722 high school students completed an online survey, answering questions about their use and perceptions of a variety of tobacco products. Differences in perceptions across products were assessed using a generalized estimation equation with an exchangeable correlation structure. Results Adolescents rated the various tobacco products as conferring significantly different levels of risks and benefits. Generally, adolescents rated cigarettes as most risky, followed by cigars and chew, with hookah and e-cigarettes rated as least risky. Adolescents rated hookah followed by cigarettes and e-cigarettes as most likely to make them look cool or fit in and cigars and chew as least likely to confer these benefits. There were interaction effects by age and use, with older adolescents and those with tobacco experience holding lower perceptions of risk. There were no significant interaction effects by race/ethnicity or gender. Conclusion Given the significant differences in adolescents’ perceptions of risks and benefits of using different tobacco products and research showing the predictive relationship between perceptions and behavior, there is a need for comprehensive messaging that discusses risks of all tobacco products, particularly hookah and e-cigarettes. There is also a need to address perceived benefits of tobacco products, especially hookah and e-cigarettes. PMID:27107909

  13. Risk Perception and the Public Acceptance of Drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Reece A; Greer, Dominique A; Greer, Duncan G; Mehta, Amisha M

    2015-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft, or drones, are a rapidly emerging sector of the aviation industry. There has been limited substantive research, however, into the public perception and acceptance of drones. This article presents the results from two surveys of the Australian public designed to investigate (1) whether the public perceive drones to be riskier than existing manned aviation, (2) whether the terminology used to describe the technology influences public perception, and (3) what the broader concerns are that may influence public acceptance of the technology. We find that the Australian public currently hold a relatively neutral attitude toward drones. Respondents did not consider the technology to be overly unsafe, risky, beneficial, or threatening. Drones are largely viewed as being of comparable risk to that of existing manned aviation. Furthermore, terminology had a minimal effect on the perception of the risks or acceptability of the technology. The neutral response is likely due to a lack of knowledge about the technology, which was also identified as the most prevalent public concern as opposed to the risks associated with its use. Privacy, military use, and misuse (e.g., terrorism) were also significant public concerns. The results suggest that society is yet to form an opinion of drones. As public knowledge increases, the current position is likely to change. Industry communication and media coverage will likely influence the ultimate position adopted by the public, which can be difficult to change once established. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. How are lung cancer risk perceptions and cigarette smoking related?-testing an accuracy hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei-Shih; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Tseng, Tung-Sung; Zhao, Shixi

    2016-10-01

    Subjective risk perception is an important theoretical construct in the field of cancer prevention and control. Although the relationship between subjective risk perception and health behaviors has been widely studied in many health contexts, the causalities and associations between the risk perception of developing lung cancer and cigarette smoking have been inconsistently reported among studies. Such inconsistency may be from discrepancies between study designs (cross-sectional versus longitudinal designs) and the three hypotheses (i.e., the behavior motivation hypothesis, the risk reappraisals hypothesis, and the accuracy hypothesis) testing different underlying associations between risk perception and cigarette-smoking behaviors. To clarify this issue, as an initial step, we examined the association between absolute and relative risk perceptions of developing lung cancer and cigarette-smoking behaviors among a large, national representative sample of 1,680 U.S. adults by testing an accuracy hypothesis (i.e., people who smoke accurately perceived a higher risk of developing lung cancer). Data from the U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed using logistic regression and multivariate linear regression to examine the associations between risk perception and cigarette-smoking behaviors among 1,680 U.S. adults. Findings from this cross-sectional survey suggest that absolute and relative risk perceptions were positively and significantly correlated with having smoked >100 cigarettes during lifetime and the frequency of cigarette smoking. Only absolute risk perception was significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day among current smokers. Because both absolute and relative risk perceptions are positively related to most cigarette-smoking behaviors, this study supports the accuracy hypothesis. Moreover, absolute risk perception might be a more sensitive measurement than relative risk perception for perceived lung

  15. Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rübsamen, Nicole; Castell, Stefanie; Horn, Johannes; Karch, André; Ott, Jördis J.; Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Zoch, Beate; Krause, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred during the past 5 decades, but none has affected European countries like the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. We used an online questionnaire to investigate risk perceptions in Germany during this epidemic peak. Our questionnaire covered risk perceptions, knowledge about transmission routes, media use, reactions to the outbreak, attitudes toward measures to prevent the spread of EVD and vaccination against EVD, and willingness to volunteer for aid missions. Of 974 participants, 29% indicated that they worried about EVD, 4% correctly stated virus transmission routes, and 75% incorrectly rated airborne transmission and transmission by asymptomatic patients as possible. Many indicated that if a patient were flown to Germany for treatment in a nearby hospital, they would adapt preventive behavior. Although most participants were not worried about EVD at the current stage of the epidemic, misperceptions regarding transmission were common and could trigger inappropriate behavior changes. PMID:25989020

  16. Cultural theory and risk perception: validity and utility explored in the French context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Mays, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    Explaining perceived risk can draw upon factors related to the person (e.g. demographics, personality, social/professional status, political orientation), or to the risk source (e.g. health impacts, economic effects). According to Cultural Theory risk perceptions are culturally biased. Wildavsky and Dake operationalised the Cultural Theory with questionnaire scales and found that resulting `cultural profiles` best predict individual differences in risk perception. A French version of their questionnaire was inserted into a representative national risk opinion survey of May 1993; 1022 adults (age 18 and over) were interviewed. Major results are presented. The four cultural scales (hierarchy, egalitarianism, fatalism and individualism) show high correlations with political orientation as expected, but also with, for example, age, gender, income and education level. However, scale relationships to perception of risk situations (twenty, mainly technological) are not as strong as expected. Sjoeberg found similar results in Sweden. The utility of the existing operationalisation of Cultural Theory for risk perception analysis is discussed. (author).

  17. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna J. Gamage

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.

  18. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Prasanna J.; Fortington, Lauren V.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys) perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers. PMID:28829390

  19. Risk perception, psychological heuristics and the water fluoridation controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Andrea M L; Kiss, Simon J

    2015-04-29

    Increasingly, support for water fluoridation has come under attack. We seek an explanation, focusing on the case of Waterloo, Ontario, where a 2010 referendum overturned its water fluoridation program. In particular, we test whether individuals perceive the risks of water fluoridation based not on 'hard' scientific evidence but on heuristics and cultural norms. A sample of 376 residents in Waterloo were surveyed in June 2012 using random digit dialing. We use factor analysis, OLS regression, as well as t-tests to evaluate a survey experiment to test the credibility hypothesis. Perceptions of fluoride as a risk are lower among those who perceive fluoride's benefits (B = .473, p < 0.001) and those whose cultural view is 'egalitarian' (B = .156, p < 0.05). The experiment shows a lower level of perception of fluoride's benefits among respondents who are told that water fluoridation is opposed by a national advocacy group (Group A) compared to those who are told that the government and the World Health Organization support fluoridation (Group B) (t = 1.6547, p < 0.05), as well as compared to the control group (t = 1.8913, p < 0.05). There is no difference between Group B and the control, possibly because people's already general support for fluoridation is less prone to change when told that other public organizations also support fluoridation. Public health officials should take into account cultural norms and perceptions when individuals in a community appear to rise up against water fluoridation, with implications for other public health controversies.

  20. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Webster; Emma Heeley

    2010-01-01

    Ruth Webster1, Emma Heeley21Cardiovascular Division, 2Neurological and Mental Health Division, The George Institute for International Health, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine hea...

  1. Characteristics of e-cigarette users and their perceptions of the benefits, harms and risks of e-cigarette use: survey results from a convenience sample in Ottawa, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Volesky

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although e-cigarette use (‘‘vaping’’ is increasing in Canada, few attempts have been made to describe e-cigarette users (‘‘vapers’’. In this context, we conducted a study in Ottawa, Canada, to describe e-cigarette users’ perceptions of the benefits, harms and risks of e-cigarettes. We also collected information on why, how and where they use e-cigarettes as well as information on side effects. Methods: A 24-item online survey was administered to individuals who purchased e-cigarettes or e-cigarette-related supplies at one of Ottawa’s 17 e-cigarette shops. Descriptive analyses characterized respondents, and logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the relationship between respondents’ characteristics and their perception of e-cigarette harms. Results: The mean age of the 242 respondents was 38.1 years (range: 16–70 years; 66% were male. Nearly all had smoked 100 or more cigarettes in their lifetime (97.9%. More than 80% indicated that quitting smoking was a very important reason for starting to use e-cigarettes and 60% indicated that they intend to stop using e-cigarettes at some point. About 40% reported experiencing some side effects within 2 hours of using e-cigarettes. Those who did not report experiencing any of the listed side effects had approximately 3.2 times higher odds of perceiving e-cigarettes as harmless than those who reported having side effects (odds ratio ¼ 3.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.75–5.73. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that most e-cigarette users are using them to reduce or stop smoking cigarettes and perceive them as harmless. Due to our use of convenience sampling, the reader should be cautious in generalizing our findings to all Canadian e-cigarette users.

  2. Characteristics of e-cigarette users and their perceptions of the benefits, harms and risks of e-cigarette use: survey results from a convenience sample in Ottawa, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volesky, K D; Maki, A; Scherf, C; Watson, L M; Cassol, E; Villeneuve, P J

    2016-07-01

    Although e-cigarette use ("vaping") is increasing in Canada, few attempts have been made to describe e-cigarette users ("vapers"). In this context, we conducted a study in Ottawa, Canada, to describe e-cigarette users' perceptions of the benefits, harms and risks of e-cigarettes. We also collected information on why, how and where they use e-cigarettes as well as information on side effects. A 24-item online survey was administered to individuals who purchased e-cigarettes or e-cigarette-related supplies at one of Ottawa's 17 e-cigarette shops. Descriptive analyses characterized respondents, and logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the relationship between respondents' characteristics and their perception of e-cigarette harms. The mean age of the 242 respondents was 38.1 years (range: 16-70 years); 66% were male. Nearly all had smoked 100 or more cigarettes in their lifetime (97.9%). More than 80% indicated that quitting smoking was a very important reason for starting to use e-cigarettes and 60% indicated that they intend to stop using e-cigarettes at some point. About 40% reported experiencing some side effects within 2 hours of using e-cigarettes. Those who did not report experiencing any of the listed side effects had approximately 3.2 times higher odds of perceiving e-cigarettes as harmless than those who reported having side effects (odds ratio = 3.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.75-5.73). Our findings suggest that most e-cigarette users are using them to reduce or stop smoking cigarettes and perceive them as harmless. Due to our use of convenience sampling, the reader should be cautious in generalizing our findings to all Canadian e-cigarette users.

  3. Making sense of fishermen's risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Grøn, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we reflect on the possible reasons for the acceptability of risk in sea fishing and the implications they may have for safety actions and interventions. The data presented in the paper were collected during three trips at sea on fishing vessels in connection with a study of slips...... by the need to adopt coping strategies, ie compromises and resilience in an environment marked by uncertainty and unpredictability. The difference between lay and expert knowledge is particularly salient in the case of safety researchers and fishermen. In order to make sense of the fishermen’s risk perception...

  4. Association between school-level prevalence of electronic cigarette use and student-level use behaviors, pre-use intentions, and risk perceptions: Evidence from the 2014 U.S. National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Adam M

    2016-12-27

    Adolescent electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") use tripled in recent years, yet little is known about the school-level correlates of teenage e-cigarette use, harm and risk perceptions, or pre-use intentions to use. Multilevel regression and 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey data were used to assess school-level e-cigarette prevalence and person-level e-cigarette use as well as age at initiation and frequency of use (among initiates), expectations for future use (among abstainers); and perceived e-cigarette addictivity and harm. Lifetime use was higher among students in medium- (odds ratio[OR]=2.30, 95% confidence interval[CI]=1.82, 2.89) and high- (OR=4.66, 95% CI=3.67, 5.90) versus low-use schools. Past 30-day-use followed a similar pattern. Multilevel ordinal logistic models revealed that initiates from high-use schools reported more days of use in the past month (OR=2.25, 95% CI=1.52, 3.33) and higher age-at-first-use (OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.08, 2.00) than students at lowuse schools. Expectations for future use were higher among abstainers from medium- and highuse versus low-use schools, and among all students, perceived addictivity and harm caused by ecigarettes were lower in medium- and high- versus low-use schools. School context is associated with multiple dimensions of e-cigarette use, pre-use intentions, and perceptions of e-cigarette health risks. The current study demonstrates a link between school prevalence of e-cigarette use and studentlevel use, as well as perceived risks of e-cigarette use, age of initiation and frequency of use among users, and intentions to use among abstainers. Health communication and prevention initiatives should target school social environments to promote nicotine abstinence and a culture of health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seohyun Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors.

  6. Impact of knowledge and misconceptions on benefit and risk perception of CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallquist, Lasse; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is assumed to be one of the key technologies in the mitigation of climate change. Public acceptance may have a strong impact on the progress of this technology. Benefit perception and risk perception are known to be important determinants of public acceptance of CCS. In this study, the prevalence and effect of cognitive concepts underlying laypeople's risk perception and benefit perception of CCS were examined in a representative survey (N=654) in Switzerland. Results confirm findings from previous qualitative studies and show a quantification of a variety of widespread intuitive concepts that laypeople hold about storage mechanisms as well as about leakage and socioeconomic issues, which all appeared to influence risk perception and benefit perception. The perception of an overpressurized reservoir and concerns about diffuse impacts furthermore amplified risk perception. Appropriate images about storage mechanisms and climate change awareness were increasing the perception of benefits. Knowledge about CO2 seemed to lower both perceived benefits and perceived risks. Implications for risk communication and management are discussed.

  7. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  8. HIV Risk Perception and Risky Behavior Among People Who Inject Drugs in Kermanshah, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Mehdi; Ahounbar, Elahe; Karimi, Salah Eddin; Ahmadi, Sina; Najafi, Mohammad; Bazrafshan, Ali; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Farhadi, Mohammad Hassan; Higgs, Peter; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Sharhani, Asaad; Armoon, Bahram; Waye, Katherine

    2017-08-01

    Understanding and increasing awareness on individual risk for HIV infection as well as HIV risk perception's effects on different behavioral outcomes for people who inject drugs (PWID) is important for policymaking and planning purposes. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether HIV risk perception was associated with greater injection and sexual risk-taking behaviors among PWIDs. We surveyed 460 PWID in Kermanshah regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, HIV risk perception, and drug-related risk behaviors in the month prior to the study. Three classes of HIV risk perception were identified using ordinal regression to determine factors associated with HIV risk perception. Study participants were categorized as follows: "low" (n = 100, 22%), "moderate" (n = 150, 32%), and "high" (n = 210, 46%) risk perception for becoming infected with HIV. The odds of categorizing as "high" risk for HIV was significantly greater in PWID that reported unprotected sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.4, p value 0.02), receptive syringe sharing (AOR 1.8, p value 0.01), and multiple sex partners (AOR 1.4, p value 0.03). PWID who reported unprotected sex had 2.7 times the odds of "high" risk perception when compared to PWID with "low" risk perception. Findings show that PWID could rate their HIV risk with acceptable accuracy. Additionally, perceived HIV risk was associated with many risk factors for transmission of HIV, emphasizing the importance of developing targeted prevention and harm reduction programs for all domains of risk behaviors, both sexual and drug-related use.

  9. Climate change and coastal aquaculture farmers’ risk perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of risk perception in relation to climate change threats, comparison of risk perceptions in two different regions, and derives general results of what affect peoples’ level of risk perceptions. Revelation of individual risk perception is essential for local acceptance...... and cooperation. We do this by a comparative study with Bangladesh shrimp farmers and Danish mussel farmers. Since these people live on the edge of subsistence, already small changes in the climate will affect them significantly. Farmers in both developed and developing economies are concerned about global...... climate change but there are significant differences in farmers’ perceptions of the causes of global climate change in developed and developing countries....

  10. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  11. Safe cycling: how do risk perceptions compare with observed risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Meghan; Babul, Shelina; Becker, H J E H Jack; Brubacher, Jeffery R; Chipman, Mary; Cripton, Peter; Cusimano, Michael D; Friedman, Steven M; Harris, M Anne; Hunte, Garth; Monro, Melody; Reynolds, Conor C O; Shen, Hui; Teschke, Kay

    2012-07-10

    Safety concerns deter cycling. The Bicyclists' Injuries and the Cycling Environment (BICE) study quantified the injury risk associated with 14 route types, from off-road paths to major streets. However, when it comes to injury risk, there may be discordance between empirical evidence and perceptions. If so, even if protective infrastructure is built people may not feel safe enough to cycle. This paper reports on the relationship between perceived and observed injury risk. The BICE study is a case-crossover study that recruited 690 injured adult cyclists who visited emergency departments in Toronto and Vancouver. Observed risk was calculated by comparing route types at the injury sites with those at randomly selected control sites along the same route. The perceived risk was the mean response of study participants to the question "How safe do you think this site was for cyclists on that trip?", with responses scored from +1 (very safe) to -1 (very dangerous). Perceived risk scores were only calculated for non-injury control sites, to reduce bias by the injury event. The route type with the greatest perceived risk was major streets with shared lanes and no parked cars (mean score = -0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.54-0.11), followed by major streets without bicycle infrastructure (-0.07, CI -0.14-0.00). The safest perceived routes were paved multi-use paths (0.66, CI 0.43-0.89), residential streets (0.44, CI 0.37-0.51), bike paths (0.42, CI 0.25-0.60) and residential streets marked as bike routes with traffic calming (0.41, CI 0.32-0.51). Most route types that were perceived as higher risk were found to be so in our injury study; similarly, most route types perceived as safer were also found to be so. Discrepancies were observed for cycle tracks (perceived as less safe than observed) and for multiuse paths (perceived as safer than observed). Route choices and decisions to cycle are affected by perceptions of safety, and we found that perceptions usually

  12. Long-term impacts of bovine spongiform encephalopathy on beef risk perceptions and risk attitudes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muringai, Violet; Goddard, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the objective was to examine whether or not changes in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) concerns exert an effect on people's risk perceptions and risk attitudes regarding consuming beef in Canada, 8 years after finding the first domestic animal with BSE. Data were collected from two surveys (2071 respondents) conducted with the same respondents in 2008 and 2011 in Canada. Data on meat consumption for the same households were also available from the Nielsen Homescan panel over the period 2002 to 2009. Based on census data, the current sample is generally not representative of the Canadian population, but the sample is unique in that the same individuals responded to two surveys and there is an ability to track their evolving household purchases of beef before the first survey and between the two surveys. In essence, alterations in beef risk perceptions are significantly influenced by changes in concerns regarding (1) feed given to livestock, (2) animal diseases and BSE, (3) trust in manufacturers, the government, and farmers, and (4) demographic characteristics. There were significant differences in beef purchases across households, with alterations to their risk perceptions and risk attitudes. In conclusion, although the first domestic incident of BSE was in 2003, concerns regarding BSE are still contributing to consumers' risk perceptions but not to their risk attitudes with respect to consumption of beef in 2011.

  13. Customer perceptions of agency risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A; Chen, Y C

    1996-04-01

    A government agency commissioned a baseline study of how its customers view the agency's risk information. The 70% response rate to a mail survey allows analysis by subgroups representing customers' primary interests. Although this agency traditionally has been responsible for ensuring plant and animal health at the farm gate (or where imported), responses emphasized emerging customer concerns about the environment and human health. Customers think many risk communication activities are important, but that the agency is not especially effective in conducting those activities. Customers are moderately satisfied with much of the risk information they receive, although many have little contact from or interaction with the agency. Customers identified other sources they use, which suggest potentially effective channels for this agency's risk messages. The study provides a baseline for measuring change in the agency's risk communication effectiveness. It also can be a model when other organizations plan their own risk communication evaluations.

  14. Adolescents’ risk perceptions on mobile phones and their base stations, their trust to authorities and incivility in using mobile phones: a cross-sectional survey on 2240 high school students in Izmir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of mobile phones has rapidly risen among adolescents despite a lack of scientific certainty on their health risks. Risk perception is an important determinant of behavior, and studies on adolescents’ risk perceptions of mobile phones or base stations are very scarce. This study aims to evaluate high school students’ risk perceptions on mobile phones and base stations, their trust to authorities, their opinions regarding incivility while using mobile phones and to assess associated factors. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 2530 students were chosen with stratified cluster sampling among 20,493 high school students studying in Bornova district of Izmir, Turkey, among whom 2240 (88.5%) participated. Risk perceptions and opinions were questioned with a 5-point Likert scale for 24 statements grouped under four dimensions. The mean responses to the four dimensions were categorized as risk perception scores for the mobile phone, base station, trust to authority and incivility dimensions were 3.69 ± 0.89, 4.34 ± 0.78, 3.77 ± 0.93, 3.16 ± 0.93 and the prevalence of high risk perception was 65.1%, 86.7%, 66.2%, 39.7%, respectively. In the mobile phone dimension; students attending industrial technical high school had lower risk perceptions while female students, lower mothers’ education groups and students not using mobile phones (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.80-4.40) had higher risk perceptions. In the base station dimension girls had higher risk perceptions (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.20-2.37). Girls and students attending industrial technical high school had significantly lower risk perception however 11-12th grade group perceived the risk higher (OR = 1.45 95% CI = 1.15-1.84) in the trust to authority dimension. For the incivility dimension, female students (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.14-1.82), illiterate/only literate mothers (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.04-2.75) and students not using mobile phones (OR

  15. An empirical study of the toxic capsule crisis in China: risk perceptions and behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianjun; Keller, L Robin; Wu, Ping; Xu, Yifan

    2014-04-01

    The outbreak of the toxic capsule crisis during April 2012 aroused widespread public concern about the risk of chromium-contaminated capsules and drug safety in China. In this article, we develop a conceptual model to investigate risk perceptions of the pharmaceutical drug capsules and behavioral responses to the toxic capsule crisis and the relationship between associated factors and these two variables. An online survey was conducted to test the model, including questions on the measures of perceived efficacy of the countermeasures, trust in the State FDA (Food and Drug Administration), trust in the pharmaceutical companies, trust in the pharmaceutical capsule producers, risk perception, concern, need for information, information seeking, and risk avoidance. In general, participants reported higher levels of risk perception, concern, and risk avoidance, and lower levels of trust in the three different stakeholders. The results from the structural equation modeling procedure suggest that perceived efficacy of the countermeasures is a predictor of each of the three trust variables; however, only trust in the State FDA has a dampening impact on risk perception. Both risk perception and information seeking are significant determinants of risk avoidance. Risk perception is also positively related to concern. Information seeking is positively related to both concern and need for information. The theoretical and policy implications are also discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Modeling perceptions of climatic risk in crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmuth, Evelyn; Parker, Phillip; Aurbacher, Joachim; Högy, Petra; Dabbert, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    In agricultural production, land-use decisions are components of economic planning that result in the strategic allocation of fields. Climate variability represents an uncertainty factor in crop production. Considering yield impact, climatic influence is perceived during and evaluated at the end of crop production cycles. In practice, this information is then incorporated into planning for the upcoming season. This process contributes to attitudes toward climate-induced risk in crop production. In the literature, however, the subjective valuation of risk is modeled as a risk attitude toward variations in (monetary) outcomes. Consequently, climatic influence may be obscured by political and market influences so that risk perceptions during the production process are neglected. We present a utility concept that allows the inclusion of annual risk scores based on mid-season risk perceptions that are incorporated into field-planning decisions. This approach is exemplified and implemented for winter wheat production in the Kraichgau, a region in Southwest Germany, using the integrated bio-economic simulation model FarmActor and empirical data from the region. Survey results indicate that a profitability threshold for this crop, the level of "still-good yield" (sgy), is 69 dt ha-1 (regional mean Kraichgau sample) for a given season. This threshold governs the monitoring process and risk estimators. We tested the modeled estimators against simulation results using ten projected future weather time series for winter wheat production. The mid-season estimators generally proved to be effective. This approach can be used to improve the modeling of planning decisions by providing a more comprehensive evaluation of field-crop response to climatic changes from an economic risk point of view. The methodology further provides economic insight in an agrometeorological context where prices for crops or inputs are lacking, but farmer attitudes toward risk should still be included in

  17. Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

    2011-01-01

    The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men's labor migration affects their non-migrating wives' perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men's migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and…

  18. Climate Change Risk Perception in Taiwan: Correlation with Individual and Societal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Han, Ziqiang

    2018-01-08

    This study differentiates the risk perception and influencing factors of climate change along the dimensions of global severity and personal threat. Using the 2013 Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSGS) data (N = 2001) as a representative sample of adults from Taiwan, we investigated the influencing factors of the risk perceptions of climate change in these two dimensions (global severity and personal threat). Logistic regression models were used to examine the correlations of individual factors (gender, age, education, climate-related disaster experience and risk awareness, marital status, employment status, household income, and perceived social status) and societal factors (religion, organizational embeddedness, and political affiliations) with the above two dimensions. The results demonstrate that climate-related disaster experience has no significant impact on either the perception of global severity or the perception of personal impact. However, climate-related risk awareness (regarding typhoons, in particular) is positively associated with both dimensions of the perceived risks of climate change. With higher education, individuals are more concerned about global severity than personal threat. Regarding societal factors, the supporters of political parties have higher risk perceptions of climate change than people who have no party affiliation. Religious believers have higher risk perceptions of personal threat than non-religious people. This paper ends with a discussion about the effectiveness of efforts to enhance risk perception of climate change with regard to global severity and personal threat.

  19. A Survey of Perceptions of the Virginia Tech Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallon, Marianne; Leishman, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The recent shootings at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute (Virginia Tech) shocked the nation and brought violence on college campuses to the forefront of the nation's attention. We surveyed college students and faculty/staff three weeks after the incident about their perceptions of the Virginia Tech shooting, subsequent media exposure, and school…

  20. A Survey of Librarian Perceptions of Information Literacy Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearwood, Simone L.; Foasberg, Nancy M.; Rosenberg, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching research competencies and information literacy is an integral part of the academic librarian's role. There has long been debate among librarians over what are the most effective methods of instruction for college students. Library Faculty members at a large urban university system were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the…

  1. The Psychology of Hazard Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. F.

    2012-12-01

    A critical step in preparing for natural hazards is understanding the risk: what is the hazard, its likelihood and range of impacts, and what are the vulnerabilities of the community? Any hazard forecast naturally includes a degree of uncertainty, and often these uncertainties are expressed in terms of probabilities. There is often a strong understanding of probability among the physical scientists and emergency managers who create hazard forecasts and issue watches, warnings, and evacuation orders, and often such experts expect similar levels of risk fluency among the general public—indeed, the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) states in the introduction to its earthquake rupture forecast maps that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities—from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [1] However, cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [see, e.g., 2-5] that the WGCEP's expectation of probability literacy is inaccurate. People neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probability information, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [6]. Even the most ubiquitous of probabilistic information—weather forecasts—are systematically misinterpreted [7]. So while disaster risk analysis and assessment is undoubtedly a critical step in public preparedness and hazard mitigation plans, it is equally important that scientists and practitioners understand the common psychological barriers to accurate probability perception before they attempt to communicate hazard risks to the public. This paper discusses several common, systematic distortions in probability perception and use, including: the influence of personal experience on use of statistical information; temporal discounting and construal level theory; the effect

  2. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Maldonado, Alejandra

    2017-01-25

    This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA-a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  3. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayajit Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA—a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  4. Parental risk perceptions of child exposure to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Laura; Kostjukovsky, Inessa

    2015-02-06

    Tobacco smoke exposure harms children and adults. Yet, 40% of children worldwide are exposed to tobacco smoke in their homes. Such widespread parental failure to protect children is puzzling, and may be related to risk perceptions. No consensus exists about how to measure parental risk perceptions of tobacco smoke exposure. The objective of this research was to study Parental Risk Perceptions of child Exposure to Tobacco Smoke (PRETS) using various dimensions of risk perceptions: likelihood of harm, susceptibility to harm, and severity of harm. We aimed to estimate PRETS and identify correlates of PRETS, and assess the association between PRETS, parental smoking status, and home smoking behaviors. We conducted 132 face-to-face interviews with parents of infants. Parents who smoked regularly believed that infant tobacco smoke exposure was less dangerous than did other parents (p = .0158). Birthplace of parent was significantly associated with risk perception (p = .0019); parents of Russian origin believed the overall risk to be less than did those born elsewhere. Smoking status, ethnicity, and employment status were associated with smoking in the home. The relationship between smoking behavior in the home and risk perceptions was complex, and may have been modified by ethnicity. Parental risk perceptions concerning child exposure to tobacco smoke are associated with smoking behavior and ethnicity. Understanding how to measure risk perceptions, and identifying risk perception dimensions which differ between families with and without home smoking bans, may contribute to the development of effective interventions to protect children from the harmful effects of tobacco smoke exposure.

  5. Is seeing believing? Perceptions of wildfire risk over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Hannah Brenkert-Smith

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing challenges to understanding how hazard exposure and disaster experiences influence perceived risk lead us to ask: Is seeing believing? We approach risk perception by attending to two components of overall risk perception: perceived probability of an event occurring and perceived consequences if an event occurs. Using a two-period longitudinal data set...

  6. Hendra Virus and Horse Owners – Risk Perception and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Nina; McLaughlin, Amanda; Taylor, Melanie; Moloney, Barbara; Wright, Therese; Field, Hume

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus), commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63%) had seen their state’s Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn’t done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk-management scenarios

  7. Hendra virus and horse owners--risk perception and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kung

    Full Text Available Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus, commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63% had seen their state's Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn't done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk

  8. Hendra virus and horse owners--risk perception and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Nina; McLaughlin, Amanda; Taylor, Melanie; Moloney, Barbara; Wright, Therese; Field, Hume

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus), commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63%) had seen their state's Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn't done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk-management scenarios.

  9. An assessment of change in risk perception and optimistic bias for hurricanes among Gulf Coast residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig; Meyer, Michelle A; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on levels of concern for hurricanes among individuals living along the Gulf Coast during the quiescent two-year period following the exceptionally destructive 2005 hurricane season. A small study of risk perception and optimistic bias was conducted immediately following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Two years later, a follow-up was done in which respondents were recontacted. This provided an opportunity to examine changes, and potential causal ordering, in risk perception and optimistic bias. The analysis uses 201 panel respondents who were matched across the two mail surveys. Measures included hurricane risk perception, optimistic bias for hurricane evacuation, past hurricane experience, and a small set of demographic variables (age, sex, income, and education). Paired t-tests were used to compare scores across time. Hurricane risk perception declined and optimistic bias increased. Cross-lagged correlations were used to test the potential causal ordering between risk perception and optimistic bias, with a weak effect suggesting the former affects the latter. Additional cross-lagged analysis using structural equation modeling was used to look more closely at the components of optimistic bias (risk to self vs. risk to others). A significant and stronger potentially causal effect from risk perception to optimistic bias was found. Analysis of the experience and demographic variables' effects on risk perception and optimistic bias, and their change, provided mixed results. The lessening of risk perception and increase in optimistic bias over the period of quiescence suggest that risk communicators and emergency managers should direct attention toward reversing these trends to increase disaster preparedness. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Social influence on risk perception during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Lisa J; Magis-Weinberg, Lucía; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-05-01

    Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before rating each situation again. All age groups showed a significant social-influence effect, changing their risk ratings in the direction of the provided ratings; this social-influence effect decreased with age. Most age groups adjusted their ratings more to conform to the ratings of the adult social-influence group than to the ratings of the teenager social-influence group. Only young adolescents were more strongly influenced by the teenager social-influence group than they were by the adult social-influence group, which suggests that to early adolescents, the opinions of other teenagers about risk matter more than the opinions of adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Middle East respiratory syndrome risk perception among students at a university in South Korea, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seongwoo; Cho, Sung-Il

    2017-06-01

    The 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in South Korea was a serious threat to public health, and was exacerbated by the inappropriate responses of major institutions and the public. This study examined the sources of confusion during the MERS outbreak and identified the factors that can affect people's behavior. An online survey of the risk perception of university students in South Korea was performed after the epidemic had peaked. The questionnaire addressed the major social determinants in South Korea during the MERS epidemic. The analysis included data from 1,470 subjects who provided complete answers. The students had 53.5% of the essential knowledge about MERS. Women showed higher risk perception than men, and trust in the media was positively associated with risk perception (P perception was positively associated with overreaction by the public (odds ratio, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-3.60; P perception of MERS risk and that perception of a high level of risk led to overreaction. Risk perception was associated with most of the social factors examined and overreaction by the public. Therefore, providing accurate information and data to the public, establishing trust, and facilitating the development of an attitude will all be important in future crises. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a survey to assess adolescent perceptions of teen parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W; Nandakumar, Ratna

    2012-01-01

    Initiatives designed to prevent teen pregnancy are often based on adult perceptions of the negative aspects of a teen birth. Qualitative research has revealed that teens may perceive positive rewards associated with teen parenting. These perceptions have not yet been examined through survey research. The theory of reasoned action proposes that individuals assess the costs and rewards prior to engaging in a behavior and provides a framework for the development of a survey instrument designed to measure adolescent thoughts about the costs and rewards of the teen parenting experience. This manuscript describes the development and testing of a quantitative survey instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceptions. Pretesting, piloting, exploratory factor analysis, and a variety of reliability and validity measures were used to determine the value of the measure. The thoughts on teen parenting survey (TTPS) demonstrates an alpha level of .90. The TTPS yields a cumulative score of teen perceptions about the impact of a teen birth during the adolescent years that may be used to assess youth beliefs, correlated with demographic data, used to identify teens at risk for pregnancy/parenting, or provide a pretest/posttest to assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to foster realistic attitudes toward teen parenting.

  13. Heart attack risk perception biases among hypertension patients: the role of educational level and worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurel M; Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Volpp, Kevin G; Kimmel, Stephen E

    2012-01-01

    Risk biases such as comparative optimism (thinking one is better off than similar others) and risk inaccuracy (misestimating one's risk compared to one's calculated risk) for health outcomes are common. Little research has investigated racial or socioeconomic differences in these risk biases. Results from a survey of individuals with poorly controlled hypertension (N=813) indicated that participants showed (1) comparative optimism for heart attack risk by underestimating their heart attack risk compared to similar others, and (2) risk inaccuracy by overestimating their heart attack risk compared to their calculated heart attack risk. More highly educated participants were more comparatively optimistic because they rated their personal risk as lower; education was not related to risk inaccuracy. Neither race nor the federal poverty level was related to risk biases. Worry partially mediated the relationship between education and personal risk. Results are discussed as they relate to the existing literature on risk perception.

  14. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Brown, Tim W C

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  15. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Freudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one’s own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  16. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M.; Brown, Tim W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  17. Perceptions of risk in the management of nuclear wastes: Mapping elite and mass beliefs and attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Espey, J.L.; Rouse, A.A.; Molund, D.H. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Inst. for Public Policy)

    1991-06-01

    This report describes the results of a set of five surveys designed to assess the perceived risks of nuclear waste management policy in Colorado and New Mexico. Within these states, mail surveys of randomly selected samples were taken of members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, members of the Sierra Club, members of business associations, and state legislators. In addition, a telephone sample of randomly selected households was conducted in Colorado and New Mexico. Using these data, the perceptions of the risk of nuclear waste management -- from production of nuclear energy through permanent storage of nuclear wastes -- are compared for each of the five samples. The degree of trust in, and the perceived political influence of, the more prominent policy actors are assessed. Certain cognitive attributes, including degree of subjective certainty regarding beliefs about risks of nuclear wastes, and likelihood of altering perceived risks when confronted with new information, are compared across samples. In addition, the sample scores from rudimentary knowledge tests about the characteristics of radiation are compared. The relationships among the knowledge scores, cognitive attributes and risk perceptions are evaluated. Perceptions of the balance of media coverage are measured, as are the possible direct and indirect roles of media exposure in risk perception. Aggregate models, testing an array of hypotheses about the bases of nuclear waste risk perceptions, are conducted. These tests indicate that risk perceptions are related to a complex set of factors, and that these factors may differ significantly across the different sub-populations. Finally, the relationships between risk perception and political participation -- including registering to vote, political party affiliation, and level of political activism -- are analyzed. 5 figs., 33 tabs.

  18. State prison mental heath services recipients perception of care survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Bruce B; Sawyer, Don A; Kahkejian, Deborah; Moffitt, Catherine; Lilly, Stephanie N

    2007-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated the importance of patient perceptions' of mental health service quality. No studies, however, could be found that surveyed recipients in prison, despite the rapid growth of patients, and litigation in these settings. Patients were asked to complete an anonymous survey in private, and sealed it in an envelope. Of 613 respondents, most were satisfied (79%), agreed they had sufficient access to therapists (78%), were involved with treatment decisions (84%), and thought the MH services they had received would help them better deal with a crisis and emotional stress (75%). There were differences among mental health programs/housing units. Several of perception questions were significantly correlated with medication compliance, admission to crisis observation cells, and receiving disciplinary infractions. Random samples were requested, but likely only a convenience sample was obtained. However, the positive results suggest the need to strive to enhance patient quality of care ratings.

  19. Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Ming; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Howe, Peter D.; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a threat to human societies and natural ecosystems, yet public opinion research finds that public awareness and concern vary greatly. Here, using an unprecedented survey of 119 countries, we determine the relative influence of socio-demographic characteristics, geography, perceived well-being, and beliefs on public climate change awareness and risk perceptions at national scales. Worldwide, educational attainment is the single strongest predictor of climate change awareness. Understanding the anthropogenic cause of climate change is the strongest predictor of climate change risk perceptions, particularly in Latin America and Europe, whereas perception of local temperature change is the strongest predictor in many African and Asian countries. However, other key factors associated with public awareness and risk perceptions highlight the need to develop tailored climate communication strategies for individual nations. The results suggest that improving basic education, climate literacy, and public understanding of the local dimensions of climate change are vital to public engagement and support for climate action.

  20. Risk perceptions, optimism, and natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V Kerry

    2008-12-01

    This article uses the panel survey developed for the Health and Retirement Study to evaluate whether Hurricane Andrew in 1992 altered longevity expectations of respondents who lived in Dade County, Florida, the location experiencing the majority of about 20 billion dollars of damage. Longevity expectations have been used as a proxy measure for both individual subjective risk assessments and dispositional optimism. The panel structure allows comparison of those respondents' longevity assessments when the timing of their survey responses bracket Andrew with those of individuals where it does not. After controlling for health effects, the results indicate a significant reduction in longevity expectations due to the information respondents appear to have associated with the storm.

  1. Risk perception and clinical decision making in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aim to present new knowledge about different perspectives of health care professionals’ risk perceptions and clinical decision making. Furthermore, we intend to discuss differences between professional and personal risk perceptions and the impact on decisions in terms of both short...... and long-term outcomes. Background Insight into healthcare professionals’ perception of risk is a cornerstone for understanding their strategies for practising preventive care. The way people perceive risk can be seen as part of a general personality trait influenced by a mixture of individual...... considerations and the specific context. Most research has been focused on understanding of the concepts of risk. However healthcare professionals’ risk perception and personal attitudes also affect their clinical decision-making and risk communication. The differences between health care professionals’ personal...

  2. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  3. Preparing for Local Adaptation: Understanding Flood Risk Perceptions in Pittsburgh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, K.; Wong-Parodi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Pittsburgh experiences numerous floods every year. Aging and insufficient infrastructure contribute to flash floods and to over 20 billion gallons of combined sewer overflows annually, contaminating Pittsburgh's streets, basements, and waterways. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate this problem by causing more intense and more frequent extreme precipitation events in Western Pennsylvania. For a stormwater adaptation plan to be implemented effectively, the City will need informed public support. One way to achieve public understanding and support is through effective communication of the risks, benefits, and uncertainties of local flooding hazards and adaptation methods. In order to develop these communications effectively, the city and its partners will need to know what knowledge and attitudes the residents of Pittsburgh already hold about flood risks. Here we seek to (1) identify Pittsburgh residents' knowledge level, risk perception and attitudes towards flooding and storm water management, and (2) pre-test communications meant to inform and empower Pittsburghers about flood risks and adaptation strategies. We conduct a city-wide survey of 10,000 Pittsburgh renters and homeowners from four life situations: high risk, above poverty; high-risk, below poverty; low risk, above poverty; and low-risk, below poverty. Mixed media recruitment strategies (online and paper-based solicitations guided/organized by community organizations) assist in reaching all subpopulations. Preliminary results suggest participants know what stormwater runoff is, but have a weak understanding of how stormwater interacts with natural and built systems. Furthermore, although participants have a good understanding of the difference between green and gray infrastructure, this does not translate into a change in their willingness to pay for green infrastructure adaptation. This suggests additional communications about flood risks and adaptation strategies.

  4. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk perception and knowledge about osteoporosis: well informed but not aware? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patricia; Lavielle, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Identify the level of knowledge and risk perception of developing osteoporosis (OP) and its association with socio-demographic variables and risk factors. Individuals older than 18 years living in Mexico City were surveyed. The sample, which was designed to be representative of this population, was randomly selected and stratified by socioeconomic level, age, and sex. The Multiple Osteoporosis Prevention Survey, designed to assess OP-related knowledge, risk perception, was used. Four hundred and fifty-five individuals, homogeneously distributed according to defined strata, were surveyed. Almost 29 % (28.9 %) of subjects consumed tobacco, and 13.4 % had a family history of OP. Most subjects reported a lower-than-recommended calcium daily intake. Fifty-three and a half percent identified most risk factors adequately, and almost all (97.9 %) had received some sort of information about OP. Sixty-six and a half percent of subjects perceived OP as a serious disease; 51.5 % considered themselves to be personally responsible for acquiring it; 50.2 % were concerned about suffering from it; and 47.1 % considered it likely they would develop it. The most important variables associated with the perception of risk were age (perception of their risk in developing it. Interventions should aim at raising awareness about personal responsibility and about the likelihood of developing this condition.

  6. Genre-specific media and perceptions of personal and social risk of smoking among South Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jiyeon; Cho, Hyunyi; Lee, Jinro

    2011-05-01

    The smoking rate among adult men in South Korea is one of the highest in the world, standing at about 53%. Although various mass media-based educational initiatives have been taken to reduce this rate, their contribution toward the smoking risk perceptions of South Koreans has not been investigated. This study examined the association between genre-specific media exposure and personal and social risk perceptions of smokers and nonsmokers. Data from a survey of 558 South Korean college students (39% smokers) show that genre-specific media exposure differentially predicts personal and social risk perceptions of smokers and nonsmokers. News media exposure predicted smokers' personal risk perceptions, whereas entertainment media exposure predicted nonsmokers' personal risk perceptions. Exposure to a hybrid genre, health infotainment, predicted social risk perceptions, but not personal risk perceptions, of both smokers and nonsmokers. High rates of exposure to medical documentary were associated with low personal risk perceptions of nonsmokers, but not smokers. These results collectively suggest that mixed-media strategies may effectively address perceptions of personal and social risk of smoking. Suggestions for future research, and theoretical and practical implications, are offered.

  7. Risk perception - Issues for flood management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradford, R. A.; O'Sullivan, J. J.; Van Der Craats, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    European countries. The research forms part of two research projects funded under the 2nd ERA-Net CRUE Funding Initiative: URFlood and FREEMAN. Risk perception is conceptualised as a pillar of social resilience, representing an innovative approach to the issue. From this process recommendations......Public perception of flood risk and flood risk information is often overlooked when developing flood risk management plans. As scientists and the public at large perceive risk in very different ways, flood risk management strategies are known to have failed in the past due to this disconnect...... are identified for improving flood risk management plans through public participation....

  8. Relative risk perception for terrorism: implications for preparedness and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponecchia, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Risk and climate change: perceptions of key policy actors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Richard C; Davidson, Debra J; Wellstead, Adam

    2004-10-01

    This article examines factors that predict perceptions of risk associated with global climate change. The research focuses on the perceptions of those associated with climate change policy making in the prairie region of Canada. The data are from an online survey (n=851) of those policy actors. The analysis integrates several dominant approaches to the study of risk perception: psychometric approaches that examine the effects of cognitive structure; demographic assessments that examine, for example, differences in perception based on gender or family status; and political approaches that suggest that one's position in the policy process may affect his or her perceived risk. Attitudes toward climate change are to a degree predicted by all of these factors, but only when indirect effects are observed. Sociodemographic characteristics have little direct effect on perceived risk, but do affect general beliefs that affect risk perceptions. Perceived risk is related more strongly to these general beliefs or world views than to more specific beliefs about the effects of climate change on weather patterns. Position within the policy process also contributes to our understanding of perceptions, with industry and governmental actors demonstrating similar attitudes, which contrast with environmental groups and university researchers.

  10. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk perception of future cardiovascular disease in women diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, Jessica; Chandrasekaran, Suchitra; Limaye, Meghana; Srinivas, Sindhu; Durnwald, Celeste P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a woman's risk perception for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) after being diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. A prospective cohort of women diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) was studied. Each woman completed two surveys, one prior to hospital discharge and one 2 weeks later, designed to assess knowledge of and risk perception for future CVD based on their recent diagnosis of a HDP. Rates of postpartum depression were also assessed. Of the 146 subjects included, 28% were diagnosed with preeclampsia with severe features, 52.1% with preeclampsia with mild features, and 19.9% had chronic hypertension. Women with severe features and those delivering preterm were more likely to report a perception of increased risk of both recurrent HDP in a future pregnancy (p = 0.004 and 0.005, respectively) and hypertension later in life (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Women delivering preterm were more likely to report an accurate perception of increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke compared to those delivering at term (p = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively). Disease severity and preterm delivery were associated with a higher likelihood of the perception of an increased risk for both recurrent HDP and hypertension in the future. Only preterm delivery was associated with a higher risk perception for stroke and myocardial infarction. Interventions targeted at improved health awareness in women diagnosed with HDP are warranted.

  12. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities.

  13. Perceptions of health risks of cigarette smoking: A new measure reveals widespread misunderstanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosnick, Jon A; Malhotra, Neil; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung; Bruera, Eduardo F; Chang, LinChiat; Pasek, Josh; Thomas, Randall K

    2017-01-01

    Most Americans recognize that smoking causes serious diseases, yet many Americans continue to smoke. One possible explanation for this paradox is that perhaps Americans do not accurately perceive the extent to which smoking increases the probability of adverse health outcomes. This paper examines the accuracy of Americans' perceptions of the absolute risk, attributable risk, and relative risk of lung cancer, and assesses which of these beliefs drive Americans' smoking behavior. Using data from three national surveys, statistical analyses were performed by comparing means, medians, and distributions, and by employing Generalized Additive Models. Perceptions of relative risk were associated as expected with smoking onset and smoking cessation, whereas perceptions of absolute risk and attributable risk were not. Additionally, the relation of relative risk with smoking status was stronger among people who held their risk perceptions with more certainty. Most current smokers, former smokers, and never-smokers considerably underestimated the relative risk of smoking. If, as this paper suggests, people naturally think about the health consequences of smoking in terms of relative risk, smoking rates might be reduced if public understanding of the relative risks of smoking were more accurate and people held those beliefs with more confidence.

  14. Risk perception of tsunami in the community of Arauco, Chile - a contribution of risk perception to disaster risk management at local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, M. Sc. Susanne; Edilia Jaque Castillo, Dra.; Braun, JProf. Andreas Ch., ,, Dr.

    2017-04-01

    The research was carried out in the city center of the coastal community of Arauco, Central Chile. The community of Arauco was one of the most affected communities of the tsunami in Chile, the 27th of February 2010. For the data evaluation, the affected inhabitants of the community have been surveyed via standardized questionnaires. Furthermore experts of different fields, amongst others, Disaster Risk Management (DRM), risk education, urban and regional planning, as well as geology have been consulted in form of expert interviews. The results revealed a high risk perception part of the affected community and a weakness of DRM especially at local level, which opens a gap between the evaluation and treatment of risk by experts and risk perception of the affected community. The risk perception of the affected community, here, is predominantly determined by ecological vulnerability, expressed in direct and indirect experience of a tsunami and by institutional vulnerability, expressed among others by a weakness of DRM at local level and a mistrust in responsible institutions for DRM. Due to the institutional vulnerability and the mistrust in responsible institutions we recommend a Community Based Approach (CBA) to strengthen DRM at local level and to take advantage of the high risk perception and knowledge of the affected community. Involving the community in DRM, we assume to close the gap between risk evaluation of experts and risk perception of the inhabitants and to come up with the unique necessities and conditions at local level. Especially in centralized countries, DRM is less effective, because at the one hand, decisions are made distant from the affected communities, so that measures often do not come up with the unique conditions and necessities at local level, and on the other hand measures often do not find acceptance by the affected community. Furthermore centralized DRM is often not effective and quick in response in case of emergency. Another obstacle

  15. The Impact of Microbiology Instruction on Students' Perceptions of Risks Related to Microbial Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Lee, Tammy; Poland, Kayla; Robert, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined students' perceptions of the risks associated with microbial transmission before and after taking a microbiology class. Participants included undergraduate students (n = 132) enrolled in a microbiology course at two universities and one community college. Students completed a survey at the beginning and end of the course and a…

  16. School Counsellors' Perceptions on Working with Student High-Risk Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gregory E.; Jeffery, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The current exploratory-descriptive study used a survey design method to examine guidance counsellors' and educational psychologists' perceptions of their preparation, motivation, and effectiveness in preventing, assessing, and intervening into student high-risk behaviour. The study also explored training associated with addressing high-risk…

  17. Parent Perceptions of Children's Leisure and the Risk of Damaging Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyndal; Black, Deborah; Bundy, Anita; Williams, Warwick

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the attitudes of parents of adolescent children (with, and without, hearing impairment), with the following objectives: (1) compare perceptions of the parent groups regarding the risk of leisure-noise-related hearing injury; and (2) investigate how comfortable parents felt endorsing their child's…

  18. Differences in head and neck cancer risk perception between smoking and nonsmoking NASCAR attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura J; Chin-Quee, Anthony L; Berg, Carla J; Wise, Justin C; Hapner, Edie R

    2012-07-01

    Although research has documented a difference in cancer risk perception between smokers and nonsmokers, this has not been specifically documented for head and neck cancer. The aim of this study was to determine differences in risk perception for head and neck cancer between smokers and nonsmokers in an at-risk population. A cross-sectional survey was administered. Community-based head and neck cancer screenings. Participants completed a 28-item questionnaire assessing sociodemographic information, smoking status, and risk perception of head and neck cancer. In total, 507 participants completed the questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANCOVA) using dependent variables related to risk perception of head and neck cancer evidenced a significant main effect that smokers (mean [SD], 1.10 [0.07]) worried about head and neck cancer significantly more than nonsmokers (0.64 [0.06]), F(1, 459) = 26.97, P < .001, η(2) = .06, and nonsmokers (2.70 [0.05]) believed head and neck cancer was significantly more dangerous than did smokers (2.53 [0.06]), F(1, 459) = 5.90, P = .015, η(2) = .01. Findings indicated differences in perception of risk for head and neck cancer between smokers and nonsmokers. By gaining a better understanding of the psychosocial factors related to perceived risk of head and neck cancer, otolaryngologists and health care providers may better tailor interventions aimed at increasing awareness of cancer risk and promoting cessation.

  19. RISK MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL MARKETS: A SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Tomek, William G.; Peterson, Hikaru Hanawa

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys and evaluates the current state of knowledge about marketing strategies to manage price and revenue risk for farm commodities. What does existing research tell about the benefits and costs of alternative risk management strategies? What are the limitations of this research? What are the gaps in our knowledge?

  20. Risk perception - issues for flood management in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, R. A.; O'Sullivan, J. J.; van der Craats, I. M.; Krywkow, J.; Rotko, P.; Aaltonen, J.; Bonaiuto, M.; De Dominicis, S.; Waylen, K.; Schelfaut, K.

    2012-07-01

    Public perception of flood risk and flood risk information is often overlooked when developing flood risk management plans. As scientists and the public at large perceive risk in very different ways, flood risk management strategies are known to have failed in the past due to this disconnect between authorities and the public. This paper uses a novel approach in exploring the role of public perception in developing flood risk communication strategies in Europe. Results are presented of extensive quantitative research of 1375 questionnaire responses from thirteen communities at risk across six European countries. The research forms part of two research projects funded under the 2nd ERA-Net CRUE Funding Initiative: URFlood and FREEMAN. Risk perception is conceptualised as a pillar of social resilience, representing an innovative approach to the issue. From this process recommendations are identified for improving flood risk management plans through public participation.

  1. Radiation risk perception and public information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggs-Mayes, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    We as Health Physicists face what, at many times, appears to be a hopeless task. The task simply stated is informing the public about the risks (or lack thereof) of radiation. Unfortunately, the public has perceived radiation risks to be much greater than they actually are. An example of this problem is shown in a paper by Arthur C. Upton. Three groups of people -- the League of Women Voters, students, and Business and Professional Club members -- were asked to rank 30 sources of risk according to their contribution to the number of deaths in the United States. Not surprisingly, they ranked nuclear power much higher and medical x-rays much lower than the actual values. In addition to the perception problem, we are faced with another hurdle: health physicists as communicators. Members of the Health Physics Society (HPS) found that the communication styles of most health physicists appear to be dissimilar to those of the general public. These authors administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to the HPS Baltimore-Washington Chapter. This test, a standardized test for psychological type developed by Isabel Myers, ask questions that provide a quantitative measure of our natural preferences in four areas. Assume that you as a health physicist have the necessary skills to communicate information about radiation to the public. Health physicists do nothing with these tools. Most people involved in radiation protection do not get involved with public information activies. What I will attempt to do is heighten your interest in such activities. I will share information about public information activities in which I have been involved and give you suggestions for sources of information and materials. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Perception of mobile phone and base station risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Earle, Timothy C; Gutscher, Heinz; Keller, Carmen

    2005-10-01

    Perceptions of risks associated with mobile phones, base stations, and other sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF) were examined. Data from a telephone survey conducted in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland are presented (N = 1,015). Participants assessed both risks and benefits associated with nine different sources of EMF. Trust in the authorities regulating these hazards was assessed as well. In addition, participants answered a set of questions related to attitudes toward EMF and toward mobile phone base stations. According to respondents' assessments, high-voltage transmission lines are the most risky source of EMF. Mobile phones and mobile phone base stations received lower risk ratings. Results showed that trust in authorities was positively associated with perceived benefits and negatively associated with perceived risks. People who use their mobile phones frequently perceived lower risks and higher benefits than people who use their mobile phones infrequently. People who believed they lived close to a base station did not significantly differ in their level of risks associated with mobile phone base stations from people who did not believe they lived close to a base station. Regarding risk regulation, a majority of participants were in favor of fixing limiting values based on the worst-case scenario. Correlations suggest that belief in paranormal phenomena is related to level of perceived risks associated with EMF. Furthermore, people who believed that most chemical substances cause cancer also worried more about EMF than people who did not believe that chemical substances are that harmful. Practical implications of the results are discussed.

  3. The association between risk perception and behavior. Results of structural equation modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundmo, T.; Hestad, H. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: there are at least four hypotheses about the association between risk perception and behaviour. The first one is that perceived risk caused by risk exposure may awake a person's 'attention' towards the potentially-hazardous risk source, and hence cause safer behaviour. The second hypothesis is that the affective reactions may be seen as reactions to stress, i.e. a strain factor, which may reduce a person's ability to cope with risk and therefore cause enhanced risk behaviour. The third hypothesis is that risk judgements and risk behaviours are both dependent variables which do not affect each other. Consequently, a positive correlation between perceived risk and behaviour may be caused by the fact that perception and behaviour both are affected by the same predictor variables. Risk perception contain a rational as well as an emotional 'component'. The fourth hypothesis is that rational judgements of risk and emotional reactions to risk may be related differently to risk behaviour. In the present study the rational judgements and the affective reactions are split and different measures are aimed at determining both the components. The core aim of this paper is to determine whether or not they are differently related to risk behaviour. The results are based on a self-completion questionnaire survey which was carried out among employees (n=814) at 14 plants within the industrial company Norsk Hydro in 1997 and 1998. The plants belonged to several divisions within the company. The results showed that the rational and emotional components of risk perception were related differently to risk behaviour. The rational risk judgements had a moderate direct as well as an indirect effect on risk behaviour. The affective reactions to risk were caused by the probability judgements and did not affect risk behaviour. (authors)

  4. Nurses' and students' perception of risk from medical practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Adachi

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Although both nurses and students conceived various risk contents from medical practices, their conceptions still differed. Knowledge of these differences in the structure of risk perception and conceived risk contents of various medical practices between nurses and students could be utilized to improve risk communication in clinical practice.

  5. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: Awareness, risk compensation, and risk perceptions among South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth; Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira; Eaton, Lisa A; Nkoko, Koena

    2018-01-25

    Medical male circumcision (MMC) is a proven method of HIV risk reduction for men in southern Africa. MMC promotion campaigns and scale-up programmes are widely implemented throughout the Republic of South Africa. However, the impact of promoting MMC on women's awareness, beliefs, and behaviours has been understudied. We conducted a self-administered anonymous survey of 279 women receiving health services in an impoverished township located in Cape Town, South Africa. Results showed that two in three women were unaware that male circumcision partially protects men from contracting HIV. Women who were aware of MMC for HIV prevention also endorsed beliefs that male circumcision reduces the need for men to worry about HIV and reduces the need for men to use condoms. Male circumcision awareness was also related to reduced perceptions of HIV risk among women. Multivariable models showed that women's MMC awareness, circumcision risk compensation beliefs, and risk perceptions were associated with decreased condom use and higher HIV risk index scores defined as number of condomless vaginal intercourse X number of sex partners. These results suggest a need for MMC education efforts tailored for women living in communities with high-HIV prevalence where men are targeted for MMC.

  6. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  7. Social norms and risk perception: predictors of distracted driving behavior among novice adolescent drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Patrick M; Bingham, C Raymond; Zakrajsek, Jennifer S; Shope, Jean T; Sayer, Tina B

    2014-05-01

    Adolescent drivers are at elevated crash risk due to distracted driving behavior (DDB). Understanding parental and peer influences on adolescent DDB may aid future efforts to decrease crash risk. We examined the influence of risk perception, sensation seeking, as well as descriptive and injunctive social norms on adolescent DDB using the theory of normative social behavior. 403 adolescents (aged 16-18 years) and their parents were surveyed by telephone. Survey instruments measured self-reported sociodemographics, DDB, sensation seeking, risk perception, descriptive norms (perceived parent DDB, parent self-reported DDB, and perceived peer DDB), and injunctive norms (parent approval of DDB and peer approval of DDB). Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to predict the influence of descriptive and injunctive social norms, risk perception, and sensation seeking on adolescent DDB. 92% of adolescents reported regularly engaging in DDB. Adolescents perceived that their parents and peers participated in DDB more frequently than themselves. Adolescent risk perception, parent DDB, perceived parent DDB, and perceived peer DDB were predictive of adolescent DDB in the regression model, but parent approval and peer approval of DDB were not predictive. Risk perception and parental DDB were stronger predictors among males, whereas perceived parental DDB was stronger for female adolescents. Adolescent risk perception and descriptive norms are important predictors of adolescent distracted driving. More study is needed to understand the role of injunctive normative influences on adolescent DDB. Effective public health interventions should address parental role modeling, parental monitoring of adolescent driving, and social marketing techniques that correct misconceptions of norms related to around driver distraction and crash risk. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Family history assessment: impact on disease risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Ruffin, Mack T; Nease, Donald E; Gramling, Robert; Acheson, Louise S; O'Neill, Suzanne M; Rubinstein, Wendy S

    2012-10-01

    Family Healthware™, a tool developed by the CDC, is a self-administered web-based family history tool that assesses familial risk for six diseases (coronary heart disease; stroke; diabetes; and colon, breast, and ovarian cancers) and provides personalized prevention messages based on risk. The Family Healthware Impact Trial (FHITr) set out to examine the clinical utility of presenting personalized preventive messages tailored to family history risk for improving health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Family Healthware on modifying disease risk perceptions, particularly among those who initially underestimated their risk for certain diseases. A total of 3786 patients were enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the clinical utility of Family Healthware. Participants were recruited from 41 primary care practices among 13 states between 2005 and 2007. Perceived risk for each disease was assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up using a single-item comparative risk question. Analyses were completed in March 2012. Compared to controls, Family Healthware increased risk perceptions among those who underestimated their risk for heart disease (15% vs 9%, prisk perceptions. Family Healthware was effective at increasing disease risk perceptions, particularly for metabolic conditions, among those who underestimated their risk. Results from this study also demonstrate the relatively resistant nature of risk perceptions. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.govNCT00164658. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. 77 FR 74280 - Proposed Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey); Comment Request AGENCY.... Title: Learner's Perception (LP) Survey, VA Form 10-0439. OMB Control Number: 2900-0691. Type of Review... trainees perception of their clinical experience with VA versus non-VA facilities. VA will use the data to...

  10. 78 FR 11965 - Agency Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey) Activities Under OMB Review...'s Perception (LP) Survey, VA Form 10-0439. OMB Control Number: 2900-0691. Type of Review: Extension... trainees perception of their clinical experience with VA versus non-VA facilities. VA will use the data to...

  11. Natural hazard risk perception of Italian population: case studies along national territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Teresita; Tupputi Schinosa, Francesca De Luca; Zuddas, Isabella; Preto, Mattia; Marengo, Angelo; Esposito, Alessandro; Figliozzi, Emanuele; Rapinatore, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Risk perception is judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of risks, in last few years risk perception studies focused on provide cognitive elements to communication experts responsible in order to design citizenship information and awareness appropriate strategies. Several authors in order to determine natural hazards risk (Seismic, landslides, cyclones, flood, Volcanic) perception used questionnaires as tool for providing reliable quantitative data and permitting comparison the results with those of similar surveys. In Italy, risk perception studies based on surveys, were also carried out in order to investigate on national importance Natural risk, in particular on Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean Fields volcanic Risks, but lacked risk perception studies on local situation distributed on whole national territory. National importance natural hazard were frequently reported by national mass media and there were debate about emergencies civil protection plans, otherwise could be difficult to obtain information on bonded and regional nature natural hazard which were diffuses along National territory. In fact, Italian peninsula was a younger geological area subjected to endogenous phenomena (volcanoes, earthquake) and exogenous phenomena which determine land evolution and natural hazard (landslide, coastal erosion, hydrogeological instability, sinkhole) for population. For this reason we decided to investigate on natural risks perception in different Italian place were natural hazard were taken place but not reported from mass media, as were only local relevant or historical event. We carried out surveys in different Italian place interested by different types of natural Hazard (landslide, coastal erosion, hydrogeological instability, sinkhole, volcanic phenomena and earthquake) and compared results, in order to understand population perception level, awareness and civil protection exercises preparation. Our findings support that risks

  12. Exposure knowledge and risk perception of RF EMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik eFreudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented study is part of the EU Project LEXNET (Low EMF Exposure Future Networks, which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF electro-magnetic fields (EMF exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere.We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception. Therefore we evaluated respondents’ risk perceptions of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF risk perception is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features - except distance - do influence people’s general RF EMF risk perceptions. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF risk perception of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher risk perception, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and risk perception. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries.

  13. Survey of factors associated with nurses' perception of patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun A; Lee, Sui Jin; Choi, Go Un

    2011-01-01

    To describe the nurses' perception of hospital organization related to cultural issues on the safety of the patient and reporting medical errors. In addition, to identify factors associated with the safety of the patient and the nurse. A survey conducted during December 2008-Jannuary 2009, with 126 nurses using the Korean version of the AHRQ patient safety survey, a self-report 5-point Likert scale. Stata 10.0 was used for descriptive analysis, ANOVA (Analysis of variance) and logistic regression. National Cancer Center in Korea. The means for a working environment related to patient safety was 3.4 (±0.62). The associated factors of duration were at a present hospital, a special area, and direct contact with patients. Among organizational culture factors related to patient safety, the means were 3.81(±0.54) for the boss/manager's perception of patient safety and 3.37(±0.49) for the cooperation/collaboration between units. The frequent number of errors reported by nurses were 1~2(22.2%) times over the past 12 months. For incidence reporting, the items that the 'nurses perceived for communication among clinicians as fair' had a means of 3.23(±0.40) and the 'overall evaluation of patient safety was a good' 3.34(±0.73). The nurses' perception of cooperation and collaboration between units were associated with the direct contact between the patient and the nurse. The frequency of incidence reporting was associated with the duration of working hours at the present hospital and also their work experience. The nurses' perception of hospital environment, organizational culture, and incidence reporting was above average and mostly associated with organizational culture.

  14. Legalized marijuana: Language-associated knowledge of laws and risk perceptions among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppolo, Rebecca H; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Bull, Sheana S; Maffey, Ali; Levinson, Arnold

    2017-12-20

    This study examines the extent to which knowledge of recreational marijuana laws, health effects, and perceptions of risk for marijuana use differ between Spanish- and English-speaking Latino survey respondents from a registry of Colorado adults. Spanish-speaking Latino respondents (n = 47) had less accurate knowledge of laws permitting use of marijuana than English-speaking Latino respondents (n = 154), while reporting greater agreement with negative health effects and higher perception of risk associated with marijuana use. The results suggest that efforts to communicate health and informational messaging to the public about legalized marijuana should consider linguistic variations when tailoring campaigns for Latino audiences.

  15. Smoking behaviour, risk perception and attitudes toward anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to establish smoking behaviour, perceptions of health risks of smoking and attitudes toward anti-smoking legislation among a sample of South African university students. Undergraduates (225 women and 105 men) completed measures of behaviours, attitudes and perceptions related to smoking. The results showed that ...

  16. Farmers' perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there is an enormous potential for improving adoption of hybrid rice in Bangladesh, it is going through some difficulties in practice. Understanding farmers' perception about difficulties is critical to successful promotion. The present study was conducted to analyze farmers' perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice ...

  17. Nanotechnology Awareness, Opinions and Risk Perceptions among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were elicited…

  18. Teachers' Risk Perception and Needs in Addressing Infectious Disease Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emmy M. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.; Lo, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus has led to numerous precautionary school closures in several countries. No research is available on the school teachers' perceptions as a health protective resource in controlling communicable disease outbreaks. The purposes of this study were to examine the risk perception, the perceived understanding…

  19. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Informal Risk Perceptions and Formal Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayford, Jerry [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Economists have argued persuasively that our goals are wider than just risk minimization, and that they include a prudent weighing of costs and benefits. This economic line of thought recognizes that our policy goals are complex. As we widen the range of goals we are willing to entertain, though, we need to check that the methods we customarily employ are appropriate for the tasks to which we customarily apply them. This paper examines some economic methods of risk assessment, in light of the question of what our policy goals are and should be. Once the question of goals is open, more complexities than just cost intrude: what the public wants and why begs to be addressed. This leads us to the controversial issue of public risk perceptions. We have now examined a number of procedures that experts use to make public policy decisions. Behind all these issues is always the question of social welfare: what actions can we take, what policies should we embrace, to make the world a better place? In many cases, the public and the experts disagree about what the right choice is. In the first section, we saw a possible defense of the experts based on democratic theory: the people's participation, and even their will, can be legitimately set aside in the pursuit of their true interests. If this defense is to work, a great deal of weight rests on the question of the people's interests and the competence and integrity of the experts' pursuit of it. But at the same time, social preferences are ill-defined, and so are not good candidates for rational actor theory. Both the prescriptive legitimacy claim and the very workings of formal theory we have seen to depend on informal, qualitative, political judgments. Unfortunately, we have also seen a steady pattern of expert reliance on technical procedures even when they were manifestly unsuited to the task. The experts seem so intent on excluding informal thought that they would prefer even a bad quantitative process to

  1. Risk, its perception and the media: the MMR controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Alison Jane

    2008-07-01

    This article aims to explore how the media contributes to and generates 'risk' and 'risk perception.' The example of parents refusing to have their children immunised with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine following negative media reporting will be discussed. The media appears to have an important influence on the perception of risk. We are living in a society that is increasingly aware of risk, and in which risk is socially constructed. It is important that healthcare professionals provide clear, consistent, evidence-based information to clients, ensuring that any areas of uncertainty are acknowledged. Otherwise, the public's trust in the healthcare professional will be undermined.

  2. Hazard proximity and risk perception of tsunamis in coastal cities: Are people able to identify their risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Juan Pablo; Bronfman, Nicolás C; Cisternas, Pamela C; Repetto, Paula B

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have previously reported that hazard proximity can influence risk perception among individuals exposed to potential hazards. Understanding this relationship among coastline communities at risk of flood events caused by storms and/or tsunamis, is important because hazard proximity, should be recognized when planning and implementing preparation and mitigation actions against these events. Yet, we are not aware of studies that have examined this relationship among coastline inhabitants facing the risk of a tsunami. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hazard proximity and perceived risk from tsunamis among coastline inhabitants. Participants were 487 residents of the coastal city of Iquique, Chile. They completed a survey during the spring of 2013 that assessed their perceived risk from several natural and non-natural hazards. We found that hazard proximity maintains a negative relationship with the perception of tsunami risk among coastline inhabitants. While this result confirms the general trend obtained in previous studies, this one is conclusive and significant. In contradiction with previous findings, we found that participants from the highest socioeconomic status reported the highest levels of risk perception. This finding can be explained by the fact that most participants from the highest socioeconomic status live closer to the coastline areas, so their risk perception reflects the place where they live, that is in a tsunami inundation zone. Once again, hazard proximity proved to be a determinant factor of risk perception. Our findings have important implications for the development of plans and programs for tsunami preparedness and mitigation. These indicate that individuals do use environmental cues to evaluate their own risk and can potentially make correct choices when having or not to evacuate. Also suggest that preparedness should incorporate how hazard proximity is recognized by individuals and

  3. Hazard proximity and risk perception of tsunamis in coastal cities: Are people able to identify their risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Juan Pablo; Bronfman, Nicolás C.; Cisternas, Pamela C.; Repetto, Paula B.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have previously reported that hazard proximity can influence risk perception among individuals exposed to potential hazards. Understanding this relationship among coastline communities at risk of flood events caused by storms and/or tsunamis, is important because hazard proximity, should be recognized when planning and implementing preparation and mitigation actions against these events. Yet, we are not aware of studies that have examined this relationship among coastline inhabitants facing the risk of a tsunami. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hazard proximity and perceived risk from tsunamis among coastline inhabitants. Participants were 487 residents of the coastal city of Iquique, Chile. They completed a survey during the spring of 2013 that assessed their perceived risk from several natural and non-natural hazards. We found that hazard proximity maintains a negative relationship with the perception of tsunami risk among coastline inhabitants. While this result confirms the general trend obtained in previous studies, this one is conclusive and significant. In contradiction with previous findings, we found that participants from the highest socioeconomic status reported the highest levels of risk perception. This finding can be explained by the fact that most participants from the highest socioeconomic status live closer to the coastline areas, so their risk perception reflects the place where they live, that is in a tsunami inundation zone. Once again, hazard proximity proved to be a determinant factor of risk perception. Our findings have important implications for the development of plans and programs for tsunami preparedness and mitigation. These indicate that individuals do use environmental cues to evaluate their own risk and can potentially make correct choices when having or not to evacuate. Also suggest that preparedness should incorporate how hazard proximity is recognized by individuals and

  4. Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bubeck, P.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Suu, L.T.T.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Following the renewed attention for non-structural flood risk reduction measures implemented at the household level, there has been an increased interest in individual flood risk perceptions. The reason for this is the commonly-made assumption that flood risk perceptions drive the motivation of

  5. The globalization of risk and risk perception: why we need a new model of risk communication for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Brocard Paterson, Pauline; Erondu, Ngozi

    2012-11-01

    Risk communication and vaccines is complex and the nature of risk perception is changing, with perceptions converging, evolving and having impacts well beyond specific geographic localities and points in time, especially when amplified through the Internet and other modes of global communication. This article examines the globalization of risk perceptions and their impacts, including the example of measles and the globalization of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine risk perceptions, and calls for a new, more holistic model of risk assessment, risk communication and risk mitigation, embedded in an ongoing process of risk management for vaccines and immunization programmes. It envisions risk communication as an ongoing process that includes trust-building strategies hand-in-hand with operational and policy strategies needed to mitigate and manage vaccine-related risks, as well as perceptions of risk.

  6. Nanotechnology risk perceptions and communication: emerging technologies, emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara; Satterfield, Terre

    2011-11-01

    Nanotechnology involves the fabrication, manipulation, and control of materials at the atomic level and may also bring novel uncertainties and risks. Potential parallels with other controversial technologies mean there is a need to develop a comprehensive understanding of processes of public perception of nanotechnology uncertainties, risks, and benefits, alongside related communication issues. Study of perceptions, at so early a stage in the development trajectory of a technology, is probably unique in the risk perception and communication field. As such it also brings new methodological and conceptual challenges. These include: dealing with the inherent diversity of the nanotechnology field itself; the unfamiliar and intangible nature of the concept, with few analogies to anchor mental models or risk perceptions; and the ethical and value questions underlying many nanotechnology debates. Utilizing the lens of social amplification of risk, and drawing upon the various contributions to this special issue of Risk Analysis on Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication, nanotechnology may at present be an attenuated hazard. The generic idea of "upstream public engagement" for emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is also discussed, alongside its importance for future work with emerging technologies in the risk communication field. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Perceptions of cardiovascular risk among patients with hypertension or diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijling, B.D.; Lobo, C.M.; Keus, I.M.; Jenks, K.M.; Akkermans, R.P.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Prins, A.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to examine risk perceptions among patients at moderate to high cardiovascular risk. A questionnaire about perceived absolute risk of myocardial infarction and stroke was sent to 2424 patients with hypertension or diabetes. Response rate was 86.3% and 1557 patients without atherosclerotic

  8. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  9. Exposure knowledge and risk perception of RF EMF

    OpenAIRE

    Frederik eFreudenstein; Peter Michael Wiedemann

    2015-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU Project LEXNET (Low EMF Exposure Future Networks), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere.We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception. Therefore we evaluated respondents’ risk p...

  10. Understanding how perceptions of tobacco constituents and the FDA relate to effective and credible tobacco risk messaging: A national phone survey of U.S. adults, 2014–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella H. Boynton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The passage of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has necessitated the execution of timely, innovative, and policy-relevant tobacco control research to inform Food and Drug Administration (FDA regulatory and messaging efforts. With recent dramatic changes to tobacco product availability and patterns of use, nationally representative data on tobacco-related perceptions and behaviors are vital, especially for vulnerable populations. Methods The UNC Center for Regulatory Research on Tobacco Communication conducted a telephone survey with a national sample of adults ages 18 and older living in the United States (U.S.. The survey assessed regulatory relevant factors such as tobacco product use, tobacco constituent perceptions, and tobacco regulatory agency credibility. The study oversampled high smoking/low income areas as well as cell phone numbers to ensure adequate representation among smokers and young adults, respectively. Coverage extended to approximately 98 % of U.S. households. Results The final dataset (N = 5,014 generated weighted estimates that were largely comparable to other national demographic and tobacco use estimates. Results revealed that over one quarter of U.S. adults, and over one third of smokers, reported having looked for information about tobacco constituents in cigarette smoke; however, the vast majority was unaware of what constituents might actually be present. Although only a minority of people reported trust in the federal government, two thirds felt that the FDA can effectively regulate tobacco products. Conclusions As the FDA continues their regulatory and messaging activities, they should expand both the breadth and availability of constituent-related information, targeting these efforts to reach all segments of the U.S. population, especially those disproportionately vulnerable to tobacco product use and its associated negative health outcomes.

  11. Climate change risk perception and communication: addressing a critical moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Climate change is an increasingly salient issue for societies and policy-makers worldwide. It now raises fundamental interdisciplinary issues of risk and uncertainty analysis and communication. The growing scientific consensus over the anthropogenic causes of climate change appears to sit at odds with the increasing use of risk discourses in policy: for example, to aid in climate adaptation decision making. All of this points to a need for a fundamental revision of our conceptualization of what it is to do climate risk communication. This Special Collection comprises seven papers stimulated by a workshop on "Climate Risk Perceptions and Communication" held at Cumberland Lodge Windsor in 2010. Topics addressed include climate uncertainties, images and the media, communication and public engagement, uncertainty transfer in climate communication, the role of emotions, localization of hazard impacts, and longitudinal analyses of climate perceptions. Climate change risk perceptions and communication work is critical for future climate policy and decisions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Environmental risk perception from visual cues: the psychophysics of tornado risk perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, Barry; Fischhoff, Baruch; Davis, Alexander; Broomell, Stephen B.

    2015-12-01

    Lay judgments of environmental risks are central to both immediate decisions (e.g., taking shelter from a storm) and long-term ones (e.g., building in locations subject to storm surges). Using methods from quantitative psychology, we provide a general approach to studying lay perceptions of environmental risks. As a first application of these methods, we investigate a setting where lay decisions have not taken full advantage of advances in natural science understanding: tornado forecasts in the US and Canada. Because official forecasts are imperfect, members of the public must often evaluate the risks on their own, by checking environmental cues (such as cloud formations) before deciding whether to take protective action. We study lay perceptions of cloud formations, demonstrating an approach that could be applied to other environmental judgments. We use signal detection theory to analyse how well people can distinguish tornadic from non-tornadic clouds, and multidimensional scaling to determine how people make these judgments. We find that participants (N = 400 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk) have heuristics that generally serve them well, helping participants to separate tornadic from non-tornadic clouds, but which also lead them to misjudge the tornado risk of certain cloud types. The signal detection task revealed confusion regarding shelf clouds, mammatus clouds, and clouds with upper- and mid-level tornadic features, which the multidimensional scaling task suggested was the result of participants focusing on the darkness of the weather scene and the ease of discerning its features. We recommend procedures for training (e.g., for storm spotters) and communications (e.g., tornado warnings) that will reduce systematic misclassifications of tornadicity arising from observers’ reliance on otherwise useful heuristics.

  13. Impact of place attachment on risk perception: exploring the multidimensionality of risk and the scale of risk

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Fátima

    2013-01-01

    The literature is inconclusive regarding the relationship between place attachment and risk perception. Place attachment relates to reduced risk perception in some contexts and higher levels in others. Furthermore, longitudinal studies have shown that this relationship can change over time. In order to elucidate this relationship, we explored the multidimensionality of risk perception using the Slovic et al. paradigm with three types of risks: environmental, social and economic. A...

  14. Understanding public perceptions of benefits and risks of childhood vaccinations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geoboo

    2014-03-01

    In the face of a growing public health concern accompanying the reemerging threat of preventable diseases, this research seeks mainly to explain variations in the perceived benefits and risks of vaccinations among the general public in the United States. As Mary Douglas and Aaron Wildavsky's grid-group cultural theory of risk perception claims, the analytical results based upon original data from a nationwide Internet survey of 1,213 American adults conducted in 2010 suggest that individuals' cultural predispositions contribute to the formation of their perceptions pertaining to vaccine benefits and risks at both societal and individual levels, in conjunction with other factors suggested by previous risk perception literature, such as perceived prevalence of diseases, trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics. Those with a strong hierarch orientation tend to envision greater benefits and lesser risks and conceive of a relatively high ratio of benefit to risk when compared to other cultural types. By contrast, those with a strong fatalist tendency are inclined to emphasize risks and downplay benefits while conceiving of a low vaccination benefit-risk ratio. Situated between hierarchs and fatalists, strong egalitarians are prone to perceive greater benefits, smaller risks, and a more positive benefit-risk ratio than strong individualists. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Some recent research findings on the social dynamics of environmental risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlick-Jones, T. [Surrey Univ., Centre for Environnement Strategy, Guildford (United Kingdom); Marchi, B. de; Del Zotto, M.; Pellizzoni, L.; Ungaro, D. [Institute for International Sociology, Gorizia (Italy); Prades Lopez, A.; Diaz Hidalgo, M. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia (Spain); Pidgeon, N. [School of Psychology, University of Wales at Bangor (United Kingdom); Sime, J. [Jonathan-Sime Associates, Godalming, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: key themes: social dynamics of public risk perception; trust, tolerability, and risk management; discourses of environmental risk; implications for risk communication and environmental valuation; application of mixed qualitative/quantitative methods in risk perception research. This paper presents some of the key findings of a two-year comparative European study (the PRISP Project) on public perception of risks associated with industrial sites in the UK, Italy and Spain. The project utilised a mixed-method approach (comprising community ethnography, semi-structured interviews, questionnaire survey and focus groups), within a Grounded Theory framework, to examine the social dynamics of risk comprehension, tolerability and politics in settings adjacent to a range of industrial facilities. These often complex industrial zones present a portfolio of 'acute' and 'chronic' risks including hazards associated with sites regulated by the European Union COMAH Directive. Our findings have important implications for the regulation of both major accident hazard and pollution risks, risk communication programmes, industrial risk management practices and for the methodological basis of health and safety and environmental valuation techniques. (authors)

  16. Phthalate exposure through food and consumers' risk perception of chemicals in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Wormuth, Matthias

    2009-08-01

    Phthalates have been detected in various types of retail foods. Consumers' exposure to phthalates is common. Consumers are concerned about chemicals in food. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between consumers' exposure to phthalates through food, consumers' interest in a natural and healthy diet, risk perception of food chemicals, and consumers' diet patterns. We collected data through a mail survey in the adult Swiss-German population (N = 1,200). We modeled exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) based on a food frequency questionnaire and phthalate concentrations reported from food surveys. Using rating scales, we assessed risk perceptions of chemicals in food and interest in a natural and healthy diet. Higher risk perceptions and higher natural and healthy diet interest were associated with higher daily doses of DEHP, BBP, and DEP. No health risk from phthalates in food was identified for the vast majority of the population. Four consumers' diet clusters were discerned, with differences in phthalate exposure, risk perceptions, and interest in a natural and healthy diet. This study shows that even those consumers who express strong interest in natural food and low acceptance of food chemicals, and who try to make respective food choices, are exposed to contaminants such as phthalates.

  17. The Seismic risk perception in Italy deduced by a statistical sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Pessina, Vera; Peruzza, Laura; Cerbara, Loredana; Crescimbene, Cristiana

    2015-04-01

    In 2014 EGU Assembly we presented the results of a web a survey on the perception of seismic risk in Italy. The data were derived from over 8,500 questionnaires coming from all Italian regions. Our questionnaire was built by using the semantic differential method (Osgood et al. 1957) with a seven points Likert scale. The questionnaire is inspired the main theoretical approaches of risk perception (psychometric paradigm, cultural theory, etc.) .The results were promising and seem to clearly indicate an underestimation of seismic risk by the italian population. Based on these promising results, the DPC has funded our research for the second year. In 2015 EGU Assembly we present the results of a new survey deduced by an italian statistical sample. The importance of statistical significance at national scale was also suggested by ISTAT (Italian Statistic Institute), considering the study as of national interest, accepted the "project on the perception of seismic risk" as a pilot study inside the National Statistical System (SISTAN), encouraging our RU to proceed in this direction. The survey was conducted by a company specialised in population surveys using the CATI method (computer assisted telephone interview). Preliminary results will be discussed. The statistical support was provided by the research partner CNR-IRPPS. This research is funded by Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC).

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors among college students: Knowledge, perception, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Shurmur, Scott W; Pullen, Carol H; Yates, Bernice C

    2017-04-01

    To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience sampling. College students were knowledgeable about cardiovascular risk factors but did not perceive themselves at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors was correlated with the lifetime risk estimates (ρ = .17, p = .048), and perception of cardiovascular risk was positively associated with 30-year CVD risk estimates (ρ = .16, p = .048). More than 50% of the participants had 1 or more cardiovascular risk factors. High knowledge level of cardiovascular risk factors was not sufficient to lower cardiovascular risks within this study population, but changing perception of cardiovascular risk factors may play a bigger role in reducing long-term cardiovascular risks.

  19. Risques et perceptions des risques. Analyse historique et critique. / Risks and risks perceptions. Historical and critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kermisch, Céline

    2008-01-01

    Etude historique des conditions d’émergence du champ de recherches de la perception des risques ;analyse critique du paradigme psychométrique et de la théorie culturaliste, ainsi que des conceptions du risque qui les sous-tend. /Historical study of the emergence conditions of risk perception as a research field; critical analysis of the psychometric paradigm and cultural theory, as well as of the underlying risk conceptions.

  20. Health literacy and the perception of risk in a breast cancer family history clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, E J; Kelly, J; Lehane, E A; Livingstone, V; Cotter, B; Butt, A; O'Sullivan, M J; O Connell, F; Redmond, H P; Corrigan, M A

    2016-11-28

    Informed consent is an essential component of medical practice, and especially so in procedural based specialties which entail varying degrees of risk. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women, and as such is the focus of extensive research and significant media attention. Despite this, considerable misperception exists regarding the risk of developing breast cancer. This study aims to examine the accuracy of risk perception of women attending a breast cancer family history clinic, and to explore the relationship between risk perception accuracy and health literacy. A cross-sectional study of women attending a breast cancer family history clinic (n = 86) was carried out, consisting of a patient survey and a validated health literacy assessment. Patients' perception of personal and population breast cancer risk was compared to actual risk as calculated by a validated risk assessment tool. Significant discordance between real and perceived risks was observed. The majority (83.7%) of women overestimated their personal lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, as well as that of other women of the same age (89.5%). Health literacy was considered potentially inadequate in 37.2% of patients; there was a correlation between low health literacy and increased risk perception inaccuracy across both personal ten-year (rs = 0.224, p = 0.039) and general ten-year population estimations. (rs = 0.267, p = 0.013). Inaccuracy in risk perception is highly prevalent in women attending a breast cancer family history clinic. Health literacy inadequacy is significantly associated with this inaccuracy. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prior storm experience moderates water surge perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Webster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme water speeds and how does their perception affect perceived risk? Prior research has focused on the characteristics of moving water that can reduce human stability or balance. The current research presents the first experiment on people's perceptions of risk and moving water at different speeds and depths. METHODS: Using a randomized within-person 2 (water depth: 0.45, 0.90 m ×3 (water speed: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 m/s experiment, we immersed 76 people in moving water and asked them to estimate water speed and the risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people increasingly overestimated water speeds as actual water speeds increased or as water depth increased. Water speed perceptions mediated the direct positive relationship between actual water speeds and perceptions of risk; the faster the moving water, the greater the perceived risk. Participants' prior experience with rip currents and tropical cyclones moderated the strength of the actual-perceived water speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced no rip currents or fewer storms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a clearer understanding of water speed and risk perception, which may help communicate the risks associated with anticipated floods and tropical cyclones.

  2. Effects of alternative styles of risk information on EMF risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Elstein, Arthur; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Risk scenarios characterized by exposures to new technologies with unknown health effects, together with limited appreciation of benefits pose a challenge to risk communication. The present report illustrates this situation through a study of the perceived risk from mobile phones and mobile masts in residential areas. Good information should objectively convey the current state of knowledge. The research question is then how to inform lay people so that they trust and understand the information. We used an Internet-based survey with 1687 Danish participants randomized to three types of information about radiation from mobile phones and masts. The objective was to study whether different types of information were rated as equally useful, informative, comprehensible, and trustworthy. Moreover, an important issue was whether information would influence risk perception and intended behavior. The conclusion is that lay people rate information about risks associated with a new and largely unknown technology more useful and trustworthy when provided with brief statements about how to handle the risk, rather than more lengthy technical information about why the technology may or may not entail health hazards. Further, the results demonstrate that information may increase concern among a large proportion of the population, and that discrepancies exist between expressed concern and intended behavior.

  3. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  4. Skin cancer risk perceptions: a comparison across ethnicity, age, education, gender, and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, Kesha J; You, Zhiying; Fouad, Mona; Elmets, Craig

    2012-05-01

    Studies of noncutaneous and cutaneous malignancies support the hypothesis that poor risk-perception status contributes to health disparity. We evaluated skin cancer (SC) risk perceptions across race and other demographic markers using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) and compared them to discover differences in perception that may contribute to the disparities in SC diagnosis and treatment. Respondents with no history of SC were randomly selected to answer questions assessing perceived risk and knowledge of preventive strategies of SC. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations between perceptions of SC and demographic variables including self-described race, age, sex, education, income, and health insurance status. Blacks, the elderly, and people with less education perceived themselves as at lower risk of developing SC. They, along with Hispanics, were also more likely to believe that one cannot lower their SC risk and that there are so many different recommendations on how to prevent SC that it makes it difficult to know which ones to follow. Lower education also correlated with greater reluctance to have a skin examination. HINTS is a cross-sectional instrument, thus it only provides a snapshot of SC perceptions. Uncertainty and altered perceptions are more common in the SC risk perceptions of ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those with less education. These are the same groups that are subject to disparities in SC outcomes. Educational programs directed at these demographic groups may help to reduce the SC-related health disparities. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters

    OpenAIRE

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding...

  6. Information needs and risk perception as predictors of risk information seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.F.J.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a theoretical framework that describes the importance of public's information sufficiency, risk perception, and self-efficacy as predictors of intended risk information seeking behaviour. Based on theoretical assumptions, measurement instruments for relevant concepts were

  7. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in general practice: mismatch between cardiovascular risk and patients' risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, T; van Steenkiste, B; Stoffers, H E J H; Timmermans, D R M; Grol, R

    2007-01-01

    Guidelines on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasize identifying high-risk patients for more intensive management, but patients' misconceptions of risk hamper implementation. Insight is needed into the type of patients that general practitioners (GPs) encounter in their cardiovascular prevention activities. How appropriate are the risk perceptions and worries of patients with whom GPs discuss CVD risks? What determines inappropriate risk perception? Cross-sectional study in 34 general practices. The study included patients aged 40 to 70 years with whom CVD risk was discussed during consultation. After the consultation, the GPs completed a registration form, and patients completed a questionnaire. Correlations between patients' actual CVD risk and risk perceptions were analyzed. In total, 490 patients were included. In 17% of the consultations, patients were actually at high risk. Risk was perceived inappropriately by nearly 4 in 5 high-risk patients (incorrect optimism) and by 1 in 5 low-risk patients (incorrect pessimism). Smoking, hypertension, and obesity were determinants of perceiving CVD risk as high, whereas surprisingly, diabetic patients did not report any anxiety about their CVD risk. Men were more likely to perceive their CVD risk inappropriately than women. In communicating CVD risk, GPs must be aware that they mostly encounter low-risk patients and that the perceived risk and worry do not necessarily correspond with the actual risk. Incorrect perceptions of CVD risk among men and patients with diabetes were striking.

  8. Evaluating Risk Perception based on Gender Differences for Mountaineering Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanto Novie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In average 26 death events in mountaineering per year for the time span from 2003 to 2012 is reported. The number of women dying during the mountaineering is significantly smaller than males (3.5 deaths male for one female death. This study aims to analyze the differences of risk perception based on gender and provide recommendations as education basic to prevent accidents in mountaineering. This study utilizes the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Delphi Method. A total of 200 mountaineer respondents (100 males and 100 females participated in this study. The independent variable in this study was gender. The dependent variable was risk perception including perception toward the serious accident, perception toward the probability of accident event as well as anxiety level and perception of efficacy and self-efficacy. The study result showed that the risk perception of women is higher than men with significant difference (p-value = 0.019. The recommendations from Delphi method result are by developing a positive mental attitude, showing about the risks that exist in nature, implementing Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT to raise awareness of the safety of ownself, following the climbing or mountaineer school, and using instructors to give lessons about safety in outdoor activities.

  9. Predictors of HIV, HIV Risk Perception, and HIV Worry Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joan T; Rosenberg, Nora E; Vansia, Dhrutika; Phanga, Twambilile; Bhushan, Nivedita L; Maseko, Bertha; Brar, Savvy K; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Tang, Jennifer H; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Pettifor, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa have high HIV prevalence and incidence. We sought to understand which HIV risk factors individually and in combination contribute to risk, and whether these factors are associated with HIV worry and risk perception. This study is ongoing at 4 public health centers in Lilongwe, Malawi (2016-2017). AGYW of 15-24 years old were recruited to participate in a study assessing 4 models of service delivery. At each health center, participants completed a baseline survey assessing socioeconomic, behavioral, biomedical, and partnership characteristics; self-reported HIV status; and, if HIV-uninfected, HIV risk perception (high versus low or none) and HIV worry (any versus none). We analyzed associations between baseline characteristics and HIV prevalence, risk perception, and worry. Among 1000 AGYW, median age was 19 years (IQR: 17-21). Thirty-three participants reported being HIV-infected. Fifteen characteristics were associated with HIV infection. Having more risk factors was associated with higher HIV prevalence (≤4 factors, 0.5%; 5-8 factors, 6%; >8 factors, 21%). Having more risk factors was also associated with higher risk perception (P risk factors, 52% did not consider themselves to be at high risk and 21% did not report any HIV worry. Most AGYW perceive little risk of HIV acquisition, even those at highest risk. As a critical gap in the HIV prevention cascade, accurate risk perception is needed to tailor effective and sustained combination prevention strategies for this vulnerable population.

  10. Association of Mothers’ Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Bhatia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the associations of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010–2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no, controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05. The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women’s self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  11. Conditional risk assessment of adolescents' electronic cigarette perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Gansky, Stuart A; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Couch, Elizabeth T; Essex, Gwen; Walsh, Margaret M

    2015-05-01

    To adapt an established instrument for measuring adolescents' cigarette-related perceptions for new application with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In this exploratory study, 104 male high school students (40% tobacco ever-users) estimated the probability of potential e-cigarette risks (eg, lung cancer) or benefits (eg, look cool). We calculated associations between risk/benefit composite scores, ever-use, and use intention for e-cigarettes, and analogously, for combustible cigarettes. E-cigarette ever-use was associated with lower perceived risks, with adjusted differences versus never-users greater for e-cigarettes than for cigarettes. Risk composite score was inversely associated, and benefit score positively associated, with e-cigarette ever-use and use intention. Conditional risk assessment characterized adolescents' perceived e-cigarette risk/benefit profile, with potential utility for risk-perception measurement in future studies.

  12. Unconventional Gas Development in the USA: Exploring the Risk Perception Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John D; Rupp, John A; Schenk, Olga

    2015-10-01

    Unconventional gas development (UGD) is growing rapidly in the United States. Drawing on insights from risk perception and risk governance theories and recent public opinion surveys, we find that UGD is an emerging technology that is likely to be perceived as risky, even though objective risk assessments suggest that risks are low and controllable through best risk management practices. Perceived risk varies significantly depending on the state and locality but perceptions of risk appear to be increasing as the technology is used more widely in the United States and as organized opponents of the technology intensify their efforts. Risk perceptions are attenuated somewhat because of the perceived benefits of UGD and compensation schemes for individuals and communities. The types of triggering events necessary for large-scale social amplification and stigmatization have not yet occurred but awareness of UGD is growing and organized opposition has been sufficient to cause prohibitions of UGD in some U.S. states and localities. Additional directions for social science research on public reactions to UGD are recommended. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Perceptions of HIV transmission risk in commercial and public sex venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) that occur in sexually charged venues (e.g., bathhouse, sex club, public park) are a target for research and intervention due to concerns about the role these venues may have in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, these efforts often exclude how individuals perceive HIV risk in terms of sex venue use. This paper analyzes how venue-specific perceptions of HIV transmission risk differ across venues and by onsite sexual behavior. METHOD: Cross-sectional data collected using an Internet survey completed by 139 MSM who attended at least one sex venue (e.g., bathhouse, sex club, gym/health club, public park) in the past month. RESULTS: Risk perceptions were highest for bathhouses and sex clubs, though no significant differences were detected between any of the venues. With few exceptions, men who reported not engaging in sex or low-risk behaviors (i.e., masturbation or mutual masturbation) during venue attendance perceived higher risks than those who engaged in high-risk behaviors (i.e., anal sex). Interestingly, risk perceptions of public bathrooms, parks, and video/buddy booths were lower for attendees who reported unprotected oral sex with ejaculation than men who reported safer or riskier behaviors. CONCLUSION: These findings provide important insights into how MSM perceive HIV risk in sex venues and highlight a need for expanded outreach and education in locations where sexual risk taking may be underestimated.

  14. GPs' Perceptions of Cardiovascular Risk and Views on Patient Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Paulsen, Maja Skov

    2015-01-01

    Objective. General practitioners' (GPs') perception of risk is a cornerstone of preventive care. The aims of this interview study were to explore GPs' professional and personal attitudes and experiences regarding treatment with lipid-lowering drugs and their views on patient compliance. Methods...... patient compliance, and (3) GPs' own risk management. There were substantial differences in the attitudes concerning all three themes. Conclusions. The substantial differences in the GPs' personal and professional risk perceptions may be a key to understanding why GPs do not always follow cardiovascular...

  15. Affect, risk perception and future optimism after the tsunami disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vastfjall

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental events such as natural disasters may influence the public's affective reactions and decisions. Shortly after the 2004 Tsunami disaster we assessed how affect elicited by thinking about this disaster influenced risk perceptions and future time perspective in Swedish undergraduates not directly affected by the disaster. An experimental manipulation was used to increase the salience of affect associated with the disaster. In Study 1 we found that participants reminded about the tsunami had a sense that their life was more finite and included fewer opportunities than participants in the control condition (not reminded about the tsunami. In Study 2 we found similar effects for risk perceptions. In addition, we showed that manipulations of ease-of-thought influenced the extent to which affect influenced these risk perceptions, with greater ease of thoughts being associated with greater perceived risks.

  16. Adolescents' Perception of Risk and Challenge: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodham, Karen; Brewer, Helen; Mistral, Willm; Stallard, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Concern has been mounting about the increasing numbers of adolescents who engage in risky behaviours. This qualitative study aimed to identify adolescents' perception of risk and explored the factors that adolescents felt influenced their decisions about engaging in risky behaviours. The results indicated that adolescents perceived risk to be…

  17. Traders' Perception of Cooking Smoke as a Risk Factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood pneumonia is the foremost killer of under-fives. Indoor air pollution by smoke from cooking fuel is a major risk factor for childhood pneumonia. The knowledge of caregivers about risk factors can facilitate the practice of appropriate preventive measures. This study set out to evaluate the perception of ...

  18. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. ... Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23.0. The level of statistical significance was set at ... Increased media campaign about its risks and preventive measures is urgently needed. Keywords: ...

  19. A study of the perception of health risks among college students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenggang; Fan, Jingbo

    2013-05-27

    The present survey was designed to investigate the perception of health risks among college students in China. The data are the responses of a sample of 3,069 college students at one university to surveys that include measures of several dimensions of public judgments about fifteen specific hazards. Chinese college students conveyed their concerns as falling into three broad categories: Environmental (e.g., global warming, natural catastrophes, the ozone hole, air pollution, chemical pollution, pesticides in food), Technological (e.g., nuclear power stations, thermal power, genetically modified food, medical X-rays), and Social (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, overtime study or work, mental stress, motor vehicle accidents). The data were collected with a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the levels of perceived risk according to the percent of "high risk" responses as well as the mean response values. Generally, the hazards that were perceived as posing the greatest health risk were those belonging to the social health risks; items related to technology risks received the lowest percentage of "high health risk" rankings. Traditional environmental risks such as natural catastrophes, pollution issues (chemical pollution, air pollution), and pesticides in food were ranked as being relatively high risks. The respondents were less concerned about new emerging issues and long-term environmental risks (global warming). In this survey, motor vehicle accidents were considered to be a "high health risk" by the greatest percentage of respondents. Generally speaking, the female respondents' degree of recognition of health risks is higher than that of male respondents. Only for the item of smoking was the male respondents' degree higher than that of females. There is also a geographic imbalance in the health risk perceptions. The degree of recognition of health risks from respondents in municipalities is generally lower than that of

  20. Parental risk perception and influenza vaccination of children in daycare centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offutt-Powell, T N; Ojha, R P; Qualls-Hampton, R; Stonecipher, S; Singh, K P; Cardarelli, K M

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available about perceptions of influenza vaccination of parents with healthy children in daycare. Therefore, we systematically explored the relationship between parental risk perception and influenza vaccination in children attending daycare. We distributed a self-administered paper survey to parents of children aged 6-59 months attending licensed daycare centres in Tarrant County, Texas. We used conditional logistic regression with penalized conditional likelihood to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% profile likelihood confidence limits (PL) for parental risk-perception factors and influenza vaccination. A high level of parental prevention behaviours (OR 9.1, 95% PL 3.2, 31) and physician recommendation (OR 8.2, 95% PL 2.7, 30) had the highest magnitudes of association with influenza vaccination of healthy children in daycare. Our results provide evidence about critical determinants of influenza vaccination of healthy children in daycare, which could help inform public health interventions aimed at increasing influenza vaccination coverage in this population.

  1. Identification of population groups at very high risk for frequent perception of stress in slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana; Pahor, Majda; Bilban, Marjan

    2005-02-01

    To identify population groups at very high risk for frequent perception of stress and thus enable more focused planning of prevention actions in Slovenia. Data originate from the national survey carried out in 2001 on health behavior of 15,379 adults aged 25-64. The overall response rate of the mailed questionnaire was 64%, with 9,043 questionnaires eligible for analysis. Binary multiple logistic regression was used to determine the impact of gender, age, education, employment, self-assessed social class, type of residence community, and geographical region on the prevalence of frequent stress perception. The highest odds for stress were registered in women (OR(women vs men)=1.39, Pgroup at very high risk for frequent stress perception with at least minor difficulties in coping with these feelings, requiring specific public health measures to be introduced in this group.

  2. The neural bases underlying social risk perception in purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental

  3. Awareness and risk perception of hepatitis B infection among auxiliary healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Agarwal, Anveeta

    2013-07-01

    Auxiliary healthcare workers (AHCWs) have a higher risk of occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus infection than the general population. Daily handling and exposure to biomedical wastes, blood, and its products make the AHCWs vulnerable to blood borne diseases among which Hepatitis B is one of the world's most common and serious infectious diseases. To evaluate the HBV infection related awareness and occupational risk perception among AHCWs. Survey. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in M. S. Ramaiah Medical and Dental Hospitals among 300 auxiliary health workers which comprised of laboratory technicians, hygienists, laundry workers, and the housekeeping staff. After acquiring ethical clearance and informed written consent, they were explained about the objective of the study and were requested to fill a standard questionnaire. The data was compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. SPSS Software Version 19. Our survey revealed that 90.03% of the respondents were aware of hepatitis B infection (HBI) and 67.2% answered questions correctly on risk perception. Only 37% of the respondents correctly answered questions on biomedical waste management. Overall, an adequate awareness and a moderate occupational risk perception about HBI were found among the study group. However, knowledge regarding hospital waste disposal was found to be insufficient. Our vision aims at a nation committed to combat silent epidemic of viral hepatitis infection.

  4. Pacemaker patients' perception of unsafe activities: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqeel, Masooma; Shafquat, Azam; Salahuddin, Nawal

    2008-11-14

    Cardiac pacing is a recognized and widely used treatment for patients presenting with bradycardia. Physicians expect patients to return to normal activities almost immediately post implantation. However, patients themselves may perceive interference to pacemaker function by various routine activities and devices, and hence continue to lead restricted, disabled lives. The aim of this study is to determine if routine activities are perceived by pacemaker patients to interfere with their device function. A descriptive cross sectional survey was carried out on consecutive patients at the pacemaker clinic at a public hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. A 47-question tool was developed and tested. Patients' perceptions of safety of performing various routine activities, along with socio-demographic data were recorded. The final sample included 93 adult patients (45% males). 41% were illiterate. 77.4% recalled receiving counselling at implantation, predominantly from the implanting physician and house staff. A considerable proportion of patients considered many routine activities unsafe including driving automobiles (28%), passing through metal detectors (31%), bending over (37%), and sleeping on the side of the pacemaker (30%). Also considered unsafe were operation of household appliances--TV/VCR (television/video cassette recorders) (53%), irons (55%)) and electrical wall switches (56%). For nearly all variables neither literacy nor history of counselling improved incorrect perceptions. This study shows that our pacemaker patients perceive many routine activities as unsafe, potentially leading to disabling life style modifications. The tremendous investment in pacemaker technology to improve patient performance is not going to pay dividends if patients continue to remain disabled due to incorrect perceptions. Further studies are required to determine the reasons for these misperceptions, and to determine if these problems also exist in, and hinder, other patient populations.

  5. Pacemaker patients' perception of unsafe activities: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafquat Azam

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac pacing is a recognized and widely used treatment for patients presenting with bradycardia. Physicians expect patients to return to normal activities almost immediately post implantation. However, patients themselves may perceive interference to pacemaker function by various routine activities and devices, and hence continue to lead restricted, disabled lives. The aim of this study is to determine if routine activities are perceived by pacemaker patients to interfere with their device function. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey was carried out on consecutive patients at the pacemaker clinic at a public hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. A 47-question tool was developed and tested. Patients' perceptions of safety of performing various routine activities, along with socio-demographic data were recorded. Results The final sample included 93 adult patients (45% males. 41% were illiterate. 77.4% recalled receiving counselling at implantation, predominantly from the implanting physician and house staff. A considerable proportion of patients considered many routine activities unsafe including driving automobiles (28%, passing through metal detectors (31%, bending over (37%, and sleeping on the side of the pacemaker (30%. Also considered unsafe were operation of household appliances- TV/VCR (television/video cassette recorders (53%, irons (55% and electrical wall switches (56%. For nearly all variables neither literacy nor history of counselling improved incorrect perceptions. Conclusion This study shows that our pacemaker patients perceive many routine activities as unsafe, potentially leading to disabling life style modifications. The tremendous investment in pacemaker technology to improve patient performance is not going to pay dividends if patients continue to remain disabled due to incorrect perceptions. Further studies are required to determine the reasons for these misperceptions, and to determine if these

  6. Surveying air traffic control specialist perception of scheduling regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darrius E.

    While there have been several studies conducted on air traffic controller fatigue, there is a lack of research on the subject since the scheduling policy changes that took place in 2012. The effectiveness of these changes has yet to be measured. The goal of this study was to investigate air traffic control specialist views towards the number of hours scheduled between shifts, changes in perception since 2012 regulation changes, and external factors that impact fatigue. A total of 54 FAA air traffic control specialist completed an online questionnaire. The results from the survey showed that the majority of respondents felt the 2012 regulation changes were not sufficient to address fatigue issues, and work with some amount sleep deprivation. The factors that appeared to have the most significant effect on fatigue included facility level, age group, availability of recuperative breaks, and children under 18 in the home.

  7. Are non-native plants perceived to be more risky? Factors influencing horticulturists' risk perceptions of ornamental plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Humair

    Full Text Available Horticultural trade is recognized as an important vector in promoting the introduction and dispersal of harmful non-native plant species. Understanding horticulturists' perceptions of biotic invasions is therefore important for effective species risk management. We conducted a large-scale survey among horticulturists in Switzerland (N = 625 to reveal horticulturists' risk and benefit perceptions from ornamental plant species, their attitudes towards the regulation of non-native species, as well as the factors decisive for environmental risk perceptions and horticulturists' willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Our results suggest that perceived familiarity with a plant species had a mitigating effect on risk perceptions, while perceptions of risk increased if a species was perceived to be non-native. However, perceptions of the non-native origin of ornamental plant species were often not congruent with scientific classifications. Horticulturists displayed positive attitudes towards mandatory trade regulations, particularly towards those targeted against known invasive species. Participants also expressed their willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Yet, positive effects of risk perceptions on the willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior were counteracted by perceptions of benefits from selling non-native ornamental species. Our results indicate that the prevalent practice in risk communication to emphasize the non-native origin of invasive species can be ineffective, especially in the case of species of high importance to local industries and people. This is because familiarity with these plants can reduce risk perceptions and be in conflict with scientific concepts of non-nativeness. In these cases, it might be more effective to focus communication on well-documented environmental impacts of harmful species.

  8. Scale Perception Bias in the Valuation of Environmental Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Arana, Jorge E.; León, Carmelo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The valuation of environmental risks is commonly approached with the utilization of stated preference methods such as contingent valuation. In these methods, money is utilized as the scale that reflects the individual?s underlying utility function. However, this scale can vary across individuals due to different perceptions on what are the right or appropriate bounds for willingness to pay. In this paper we test for scale perception bias and propose a correction method bas...

  9. Exposure Knowledge and Risk Perception of RF EMF

    OpenAIRE

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Peter M. Wiedemann; Varsier, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU-Project Low EMF Exposure Future Networks (LEXNET), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere. We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception (RP). Therefore we evaluated respondents’ ...

  10. Targeting Family Risk Factors in the Context of Treating Youth Depression: A Survey of Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gilbert R.; Buckholdt, Kelly E.; Olsen, James P.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Davis, Genevieve L.; Gamble, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the practices and perceptions of psychologists related to targeting family risk factors when treating youth depression. Participants were practicing psychologists recruited through the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology (N = 279). Psychologists completed a brief anonymous survey about addressing…

  11. Consumers' health perceptions of three types of milk: a survey in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, A.E.M.; Worsley, A.

    2003-01-01

    A survey was conducted among 345 randomly selected shoppers in Melbourne, Australia, to identify their perceptions of the healthiness of whole milk, reduced fat milk and soy milk and to investigate demographic influences on health perceptions and types of milk consumption. The survey revealed major

  12. 76 FR 70827 - Proposed Information Collection (Supplier Perception Survey) Activity; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Supplier Perception Survey) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY... Supplier Perception Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900-0751. Type of Review: Extension of previously approved... customers and to help develop key performance indicators in acquisition and logistics operations across VA...

  13. 77 FR 7244 - Agency Information Collection (Supplier Perception Survey) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Supplier Perception Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... Perception Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900-2900-0751. Type of Review: Extension of previously approved...

  14. Perception of Corruption in 36 Major Chinese Cities: Based on Survey of 1,642 Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuguang; Cheng, Wenhao

    2012-01-01

    Perception surveys remain an important tool to measure corruption. However, most existing perception surveys only analyze corruption at the national or international level, and do not provide information about corruption at local levels. But it is corruption in local areas that really influences the everyday life of ordinary people. In order to…

  15. Public Perception of Extreme Cold Weather-Related Health Risk in a Cold Area of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jie; Lan, Li; Yang, Chao; Wang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Huang, Ganlin; Li, Tiantian

    2017-08-01

    A need exists for public health strategies regarding extreme weather disasters, which in recent years have become more frequent. This study aimed to understand the public's perception of extreme cold and its related health risks, which may provide detailed information for public health preparedness during an extreme cold weather event. To evaluate public perceptions of cold-related health risk and to identify vulnerable groups, we collected responses from 891 participants in a face-to-face survey in Harbin, China. Public perception was measured by calculating the score for each perception question. Locals perceived that extreme cold weather and related health risks were serious, but thought they could not avoid these risks. The significant difference in perceived acceptance level between age groups suggested that the elderly are a "high health risk, low risk perception" group, meaning that they are relatively more vulnerable owing to their high susceptibility and low awareness of the health risks associated with extreme cold weather. The elderly should be a priority in risk communication and health protective interventions. This study demonstrated that introducing risk perception into the public health field can identify vulnerable groups with greater needs, which may improve the decision-making of public health intervention strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:417-421).

  16. Physical and biological dosimetry for risk perception in radioprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Ademir Amaral

    2005-01-01

    The increase in ionizing radiation (IR) applications, especially nuclear, has been followed by the growth of public concern for the potential associated risks. The public’s perception of such risks is often based on the philosophy that IR is harmful at any exposure level. On the other hand, although radiation workers have knowledge about the nature of IR and its potential health effects, the relationship between absorbed dose and risk is not well understood, principally for low doses. This re...

  17. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk perception and communication in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, Alexander; Hugman, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    In this narrative review, a brief summary of theoretical approaches to risk perception is followed by an analysis of some of the special factors influencing risk perception and risk communication in sub-Saharan Africa. Examples of recent and emergent local medicines and vaccine controversies in several countries are given along with evidence and analysis of how they were managed. These demonstrate, among other things, the extent to which ethnic, religious and cultural issues influence popular perception, and the power of rumour and anecdote in shaping public opinion and official responses to events. Where safety monitoring systems exist, they are in their infancy, with limited capacity for data collection, credible scientific review, effective public communication and robust crisis management. Although increasing democratic freedoms, including less restricted media, and evolving health systems are addressing the challenges and give hope for further progress, there are still deep and intractable issues that inhibit transparent and effective risk communication and stand in the way of African populations comprehending medicines and their risks in safer and more balanced ways. Some proposals for future change and action are offered, including the pursuit of a deeper understanding of local and national values, assumptions and beliefs that drive risk perception; tailoring public health planning and communications to specifically-targeted regions and populations; strengthening of safety surveillance and data-collection systems; giving higher priority to medicines safety issues in healthcare training and public education.

  19. [Spanish adolescents' low perception of risk in alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Relinque, Cristian; Arroyo, Gonzalo Del Moral; Ferrer, Belén Martínez; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu

    2017-08-07

    According to recent studies, Spanish adolescents show low perception of risk in alcohol consumption. The current study aims to analyze the factors that favor this low perception based on the opinion of a group of 32 professional experts on adolescence, family, school, mass media, and local policies. A qualitative methodology was used, based on Grounded Theory, using information from 5 focus groups guided by semi-structured interviews. Twelve factors or subcategories were identified, grouped in 4 general categories: short-term risk, immediacy, and perception of invulnerability ("adolescent thinking" category); benevolent view of alcohol, normalization of consumption, and alcohol-entertainment binomial ("social norms" category); parents' habitual consumption, verbal/non-verbal inconsistency in parental model, risk-free consumption depicted in the mass media, consumption with positive results in the media ("social models" category); and excessive health content, long-term risk ("preventive discourse" category). After discussing the results in the context of the current scientific literature, the article offers various proposals for increasing risk perception in adolescents: stronger impact of contents on short-term risks of alcohol; educational strategies targeted to adolescents to include agents of socialization, especially parents; and policies centered on the substance and reduction of supply.

  20. Channel Contract Behavior: the Role of Risk Attitudes, Risk Perceptions, and Channel Members' Market Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Wansink, B.

    2004-01-01

    By integrating elements of both marketing and finance, we show how risk influences channel contract behavior. We model risk behavior as the interaction between risk attitude and risk perception (IRAP). An analysis of the joint channel decisions of 208 producers, wholesalers, and processors provides

  1. Laboratory Animal Workers' Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning Occupational Risk and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Eric D; Alexander, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the risk perceptions and attitudes of laboratory animal care workers toward biologic safety. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of laboratory animal workers toward occupational and injury risk. Subscribers to the CompMed and TechLink listservs (n = 4808) were surveyed electronically, and 5.3% responded; data from 215 respondents were included in the final analysis. Primary variables of interest included AALAS certifications status, level of education, and responses to Likert-scale questions related to attitudes and perceptions of occupational risk and injury. Nonparametric (χ(2)) testing and measures of central tendency and dispersion were used to analyze and describe the data. According to 88.6% of respondents, biologic safety training is provided with information about zoonotic diseases of laboratory animals. Level of education was significantly related to perception of importance regarding wearing personal protective equipment. Participants indicated that appropriate support from coworkers and management staff is received, especially when performance and perception are hindered due to stress and fatigue. Laboratory animal staff are susceptible to injury and exposure to dangerous organisms and toxic substances. For this reason, to maximize safety, yearly biologic safety training should be provided, the importance of protective equipment adherence strengthened, and the culture of safety made a priority within the institution.

  2. Laboratory Animal Workers’ Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning Occupational Risk and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Eric D; Alexander, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the risk perceptions and attitudes of laboratory animal care workers toward biologic safety. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of laboratory animal workers toward occupational and injury risk. Subscribers to the CompMed and TechLink listservs (n = 4808) were surveyed electronically, and 5.3% responded; data from 215 respondents were included in the final analysis. Primary variables of interest included AALAS certifications status, level of education, and responses to Likert-scale questions related to attitudes and perceptions of occupational risk and injury. Nonparametric (χ2) testing and measures of central tendency and dispersion were used to analyze and describe the data. According to 88.6% of respondents, biologic safety training is provided with information about zoonotic diseases of laboratory animals. Level of education was significantly related to perception of importance regarding wearing personal protective equipment. Participants indicated that appropriate support from coworkers and management staff is received, especially when performance and perception are hindered due to stress and fatigue. Laboratory animal staff are susceptible to injury and exposure to dangerous organisms and toxic substances. For this reason, to maximize safety, yearly biologic safety training should be provided, the importance of protective equipment adherence strengthened, and the culture of safety made a priority within the institution. PMID:27423148

  3. Local Perception of Risk to Livelihoods in the Semi-Arid Landscape of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Bunting

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deem many regions of southern Africa as vulnerable landscapes due to changing climatic regimes, ecological conditions, and low adaptive capacity. Typically in highly vulnerable regions, multiple livelihood strategies are employed to enable sustainable development. In Botswana, livelihood strategies have diversified over time to include tourism and other non-agricultural activities. While such diversification and development have been studied, little is known about how locals perceive livelihood risks. This article analyzes perceptions of risk through a risk hazards framework. During the summer of 2010, 330 surveys were completed within seven villages in northern Botswana and the Caprivi Strip of Namibia. During the survey respondents were asked to list the biggest threats/challenges to their livelihoods. Responses were grouped into categories of risk according to the capital assets on which livelihoods depend: natural, physical, financial, human, and social. A risk mapping procedure was utilized, for which indices of severity, incidence, and risk were calculated. It is hypothesized that people’s perception of risk is directly dependent on environmental conditions and employment status of the household. Results indicate that problems related to natural and financial assets are the greatest source of risk to livelihoods. Furthermore, flood, drought, and other measures of climate variability are perceived as influential, typically negatively, to livelihood strategies.

  4. Jet reliability study Survey and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, G.

    2015-07-01

    Culham Center for Fusion Energy (CCFE) in UK has been contracted to undertake a second Deuterium-Tritium Experiment (DTE2) using Join European Torus (JET) in 2017, in support of technical developments for the ITER project. In order to manage risks of delay or early project termination CCFE has adopted a risk based inspection (RBI) process to identify the systems which could influence the successful delivery of DTE2 and in turn to identify by a basic risk assessment process those systems or components which require mitigating action in order to minimize risk. In this context, the primary purpose of the RBI is to address issues of reliability and satisfactory functionality in a similar way to that which a power plant operator would take to address its commercial risks in the event of loss of generating capacity. The objective of this presentation is describe the activities developed for Idom to deliver the survey, interviews and risk assessment of different systems of JET with the aim to identify the critical components and system that could affect the operation of JET during the DTE2 experiment. (Author)

  5. How is the older road users’ perception of risk constructed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Kjær, Marlene Rishøj

    2011-01-01

    in their driving behaviour, but there is no unequivocal proof for this in the research literature. The present study aims to help to understand the risk perception of this group by studying how older persons construct their perceptions about risk and safety. The study uses material from focus groups conducted...... limitations but by perceiving other road users behaving dangerously. While the self-regulation practices adapted by the participants may have been responses to age-related changes, they were constructed as practices based on the driver’s skills, experience and preferences, and presented as responses...

  6. Online versus conventional shopping: consumers' risk perception and regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, Bob M

    2007-10-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a prevention focus. The findings in Study 1 demonstrate these effects by using self-report measures for risk perception and prevention focus. In Study 2, we replicated these findings and demonstrated that the effect of an online shopping environment carries over to behavior in a domain unrelated to shopping.

  7. Evolving perceptions of security - US National Security surveys 1993--1995. Progress report, September 30, 1995--November 14, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This study analyzes findings from a national survey of 2,490 randomly selected members of the US public conducted between September 30 and November 14, 1995. It provides an over time comparison of public perceptions about nuclear weapons risks and benefits and key nuclear policy issues between 1993 and 1995. Other areas of investigation include policy preferences regarding nuclear proliferation, terrorism, US/Russian nuclear cooperation, and personal security. Public perceptions of post-cold war security were found to be evolving in unexpected ways. The perceived threat of nuclear conflict involving the US had not declined, and the threat of nuclear conflict between other countries and fears of nuclear proliferation and terrorism had increased. Perceived risks associated with managing the US nuclear arsenal were also higher. Perceptions of external and domestic benefits from US nuclear weapons were not declining. Support was found for increasing funding for nuclear weapons safety, training, and maintenance, but most respondents favored decreasing funding for developing and testing new nuclear weapons. Strong support was evident for programs and funding to prevent nuclear proliferation and terrorism. Though skeptical that nuclear weapons can be eliminated, most respondents supported reducing the US nuclear arsenal, banning nuclear test explosions, and ending production of fissile materials to make nuclear weapons. Statistically significant relationships were found between perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits and policy and spending preferences. Demographic variables and basic social and political beliefs were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and policy and spending options.

  8. A Study of the Perception of Health Risks among College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenggang; Fan, Jingbo

    2013-01-01

    The present survey was designed to investigate the perception of health risks among college students in China. The data are the responses of a sample of 3,069 college students at one university to surveys that include measures of several dimensions of public judgments about fifteen specific hazards. Chinese college students conveyed their concerns as falling into three broad categories: Environmental (e.g., global warming, natural catastrophes, the ozone hole, air pollution, chemical pollution, pesticides in food), Technological (e.g., nuclear power stations, thermal power, genetically modified food, medical X-rays), and Social (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, overtime study or work, mental stress, motor vehicle accidents). The data were collected with a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the levels of perceived risk according to the percent of “high risk” responses as well as the mean response values. Generally, the hazards that were perceived as posing the greatest health risk were those belonging to the social health risks; items related to technology risks received the lowest percentage of “high health risk” rankings. Traditional environmental risks such as natural catastrophes, pollution issues (chemical pollution, air pollution), and pesticides in food were ranked as being relatively high risks. The respondents were less concerned about new emerging issues and long-term environmental risks (global warming). In this survey, motor vehicle accidents were considered to be a “high health risk” by the greatest percentage of respondents. Generally speaking, the female respondents’ degree of recognition of health risks is higher than that of male respondents. Only for the item of smoking was the male respondents’ degree higher than that of females. There is also a geographic imbalance in the health risk perceptions. The degree of recognition of health risks from respondents in municipalities is generally

  9. A Study of the Perception of Health Risks among College Students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present survey was designed to investigate the perception of health risks among college students in China. The data are the responses of a sample of 3,069 college students at one university to surveys that include measures of several dimensions of public judgments about fifteen specific hazards. Chinese college students conveyed their concerns as falling into three broad categories: Environmental (e.g., global warming, natural catastrophes, the ozone hole, air pollution, chemical pollution, pesticides in food, Technological (e.g., nuclear power stations, thermal power, genetically modified food, medical X-rays, and Social (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, overtime study or work, mental stress, motor vehicle accidents. The data were collected with a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the levels of perceived risk according to the percent of “high risk” responses as well as the mean response values. Generally, the hazards that were perceived as posing the greatest health risk were those belonging to the social health risks; items related to technology risks received the lowest percentage of “high health risk” rankings. Traditional environmental risks such as natural catastrophes, pollution issues (chemical pollution, air pollution, and pesticides in food were ranked as being relatively high risks. The respondents were less concerned about new emerging issues and long-term environmental risks (global warming. In this survey, motor vehicle accidents were considered to be a “high health risk” by the greatest percentage of respondents. Generally speaking, the female respondents’ degree of recognition of health risks is higher than that of male respondents. Only for the item of smoking was the male respondents’ degree higher than that of females. There is also a geographic imbalance in the health risk perceptions. The degree of recognition of health risks from respondents in municipalities

  10. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  11. The Tripartite Model of Risk Perception (TRIRISK): Distinguishing Deliberative, Affective, and Experiential Components of Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Persoskie, Alexander; Avishai-Yitshak, Aya; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-10-01

    Although risk perception is a key predictor in health behavior theories, current conceptions of risk comprise only one (deliberative) or two (deliberative vs. affective/experiential) dimensions. This research tested a tripartite model that distinguishes among deliberative, affective, and experiential components of risk perception. In two studies, and in relation to three common diseases (cancer, heart disease, diabetes), we used confirmatory factor analyses to examine the factor structure of the tripartite risk perception (TRIRISK) model and compared the fit of the TRIRISK model to dual-factor and single-factor models. In a third study, we assessed concurrent validity by examining the impact of cancer diagnosis on (a) levels of deliberative, affective, and experiential risk perception, and (b) the strength of relations among risk components, and tested predictive validity by assessing relations with behavioral intentions to prevent cancer. The tripartite factor structure was supported, producing better model fit across diseases (studies 1 and 2). Inter-correlations among the components were significantly smaller among participants who had been diagnosed with cancer, suggesting that affected populations make finer-grained distinctions among risk perceptions (study 3). Moreover, all three risk perception components predicted unique variance in intentions to engage in preventive behavior (study 3). The TRIRISK model offers both a novel conceptualization of health-related risk perceptions, and new measures that enhance predictive validity beyond that engendered by unidimensional and bidimensional models. The present findings have implications for the ways in which risk perceptions are targeted in health behavior change interventions, health communications, and decision aids.

  12. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Adolescent Risk Behavior Participation and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaar, Nicole R.; Williams, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate emotional intelligence as a predictor of adolescent risk participation and risk perception. While research has suggested that certain personality traits relate to adolescent risk behavior and perception, the extent to which emotional intelligence relates to risk behavior participation and perception is…

  13. How investor perceptions drive actual trading and risk-taking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors' perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risk-taking behavior? To answer this

  14. Risk perception, motives and behaviours in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, P; Salamé, J; Waked, M; Barbour, B; Zeidan, N; Baldi, I

    2014-07-03

    Risky behaviours among young people are relatively frequent, with several motives and attitudes lying behind. Our objective was to evaluate the role of risk perception, attractiveness and motives for risk behaviour taking among university students in Lebanon. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students in public and private universities. Items of risk intake and perception scale, attractiveness of risky behaviours, and motives for risky behaviours were assessed, in addition to cigarette and waterpipe smoking and dependence, alcohol problematic consumption and mental distress scale. After verifying the validity of scales and reliability in the university students' population, we found that risk perception was associated with lower risk intake, while risk attractiveness was a driver for it. Moreover, motives differed in their driving of risky behaviour, a particular point was that women indicated more goal achievement objectives, the latter concept was associated with lower risk taking. University students in Lebanon, women in particular, demonstrated wiser behaviour and may benefit from heath education programme to increase their awareness about risky behaviours. Identifying other personal, environmental, social and psychological predictors may also be important to improve effectiveness of these programmes.

  15. Gambler Risk Perception: A Mental Model and Grounded Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how gamblers perceive risk or the role of risk perception in disordered gambling. The purpose of the current study therefore was to obtain data on lay gamblers' beliefs on these variables and their effects on decision-making, behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Fifteen regular lay gamblers (non-problem/low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers) completed a semi-structured interview following mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Gambler interview data was compared to an expert 'map' of risk-perception, to identify comparative gaps or differences associated with harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and themes emerging from the data. The preliminary findings suggested that gambler accounts supported the presence of expert conceptual constructs, and to some degree the role of risk perception in protecting against or increasing vulnerability to harm and disordered gambling. Gambler accounts of causality, meaning, motivation, and strategy were highly idiosyncratic, and often contained content inconsistent with measures of disordered gambling. Disordered gambling appears heavily influenced by relative underestimation of risk and overvaluation of gambling, based on explicit and implicit analysis, and deliberate, innate, contextual, and learned processing evaluations and biases.

  16. Parents' perceptions of autism spectrum disorder etiology and recurrence risk and effects of their perceptions on family planning: Recommendations for genetic counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Christina G; McCarthy Veach, Patricia; Lian, Fengqin; Schimmenti, Lisa; LeRoy, Bonnie S

    2009-10-01

    Knowledge about the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is increasing, but causes remain elusive for most cases. Genetic counselors are positioned to help families that have children with ASDs despite uncertainty regarding etiology. To determine how genetic counselors might best provide services, an anonymous survey was conducted with 255 parents whose children were diagnosed on the autism spectrum. Questions concerned: 1) their perceptions of ASD cause(s) and 2) recurrence risk, 3) whether perceived risk affected family planning decisions, 4) whether parents had received genetic services, and 5) how genetic counselors might assist families. The most prevalent perceived cause was genetic influences (72.6%). Most parents' recurrence risk perceptions were inaccurately high and significantly affected family planning. Only 10% had seen a genetic professional related to an ASD. Parents provided several suggestions for genetic counselor best practices. Findings indicate the importance of genetic counselor awareness of parent perceptions in order to best help families who have children with ASDs.

  17. Living in a tinderbox: wildfire risk perceptions and mitigating behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Christopher M. Barth

    2013-01-01

    The loss of homes to wildfires is an important issue in the USA and other countries. Yet many homeowners living in fire-prone areas do not undertake mitigating actions, such as clearing vegetation, to decrease the risk of losing their home. To better understand the complexity of wildfire risk-mitigation decisions and the role of perceived risk, we conducted a survey of...

  18. Risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in poultry husbandry by citizens, poultry farmers and poultry veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, M; Poortvliet, P M; Ekkel, E D; Kemp, B; Stassen, E N

    2017-11-17

    Differences in risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in various poultry husbandry systems by various stakeholder groups, may affect the acceptability of those husbandry systems. Therefore, the objective was to gain insight into risk perceptions of citizens, poultry farmers, and poultry veterinarians regarding food safety and public health hazards in poultry husbandry systems, and into factors explaining these risk perceptions. We surveyed risk perceptions of Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat, avian influenza introduction in laying hens, and altered dioxin levels in eggs for the most commonly used broiler and laying hen husbandry systems in Dutch citizens (n = 2,259), poultry farmers (n = 100), and poultry veterinarians (n = 41). Citizens perceived the risks of the three hazards in the indoor systems higher and in the outdoor systems lower than did the professionals. Citizens reported higher concerns regarding aspects reflecting underlying psychological factors of risk perception compared to professionals. Professionals indicated a relatively low level of personal control, which might imply risk denial. Of the socio-demographic characteristics, gender and childhood residence were associated with risk perceptions. The influence of other factors of risks perception are discussed. It is suggested that risk perceptions of all stakeholder groups are influenced by affect, stigma, and underlying values. To adapt current or new husbandry systems that can count on societal support, views of key stakeholders and multiple aspects such as animal welfare, public health, food safety, and underlying values should be considered integrally. When trade-offs, such as between animal welfare and public health have to be made, insight into underlying values might help to find consensus among stakeholders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  19. The predictors of glucose screening: the contribution of risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavielle, Pilar; Wacher, Niels

    2014-06-04

    The prevention of type 2 diabetes is a challenge for health institutions. Periodic blood glucose screening in subjects at risk for developing diabetes may be necessary to implement preventive measures in patients prior to the manifestation of the disease and to efficiently diagnose diabetes. Not only medical aspects, but also psychological and social factors, such as the perception of risk (the individuals' judgment of the likelihood of experiencing an adverse event) influence healthy or preventive behaviors. It is still unknown if risk perception can have an effect on health behaviors aimed at reducing the risk of diabetes (glucose screening). The objective of study was to identify factors that influence glucose screening frequency. Eight hundred randomized interviews, which were stratified by socioeconomic level, were performed in Mexico City. We evaluated the perception of risk of developing diabetes, family history, health status and socioeconomic variables and their association with glucose screening frequency. Of the study participants, 55.6% had not had their glucose levels measured in the last year, whereas 32.8% of the subjects reported having monitored their glucose levels one to three times per year and 11.5% had their levels monitored four or more times per year. Risk perception was significantly associated with the frequency of blood glucose screening. Having a first-degree relative with diabetes, being older than 45 years and belonging to a middle socioeconomic level increased the probability of subjects seeing a doctor for glucose screening. Glucose screening is a complex behavior that involves the subjects' perception of threat, defined as feeling vulnerable to the development of diabetes, which is determined by the subject's environment and his previous experience with diabetes.

  20. Environmental risk: perception and target with local versus global evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury-Bahi, Ghozlane

    2008-02-01

    This research addressed environmental risk perception depending on the target evaluated and on the category of hazard (technological and chemical hazards, climate change, loss of biodiversity). Correlations between environmental risk assessment and pro-environmental behavioural intentions were also tested. In a sample of 113 French adults, 15 different environmental risks were evaluated for four different risk targets (oneself, the inhabitants of the town, the inhabitants of the country, and humanity). As expected, environmental hazards were perceived as a greater risk for larger areas. Moreover, risks difficult to conceptualise, which contain both high uncertainty and long-term consequences (climate change, loss of biodiversity) are perceived as less risk to oneself and to the inhabitants of the town and the country of residence than more concrete and immediate risks (technological and chemical). Only the technological and chemical hazards significantly predict pro-environmental behavioural intentions.

  1. Whose reality counts? Factors affecting the perception of volcanic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Katharine; Barclay, Jenni; Pidgeon, Nick

    2008-05-01

    Understanding how people perceive risk has become increasingly important for improving risk communication and reducing risk associated conflicts. This paper builds upon findings, methodologies and lessons learned from other fields to help understand differences between scientists, authorities and the public. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse underlying attitudes and judgements during an ongoing volcanic crisis on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat. Specific differences between the public, authorities and scientists were found to have been responsible for misunderstandings and misinterpretations of information and roles, resulting in differing perceptions of acceptable risk. Difficulties in the articulation and understanding of uncertainties pertaining to the volcanic risk led to a situation in which the roles of hazard monitoring, risk communication and public protection became confused. In addition, social, economic and political forces were found to have distorted risk messages, leading to a public reliance upon informal information networks. The implications of these findings for volcanic risk management and communication are discussed.

  2. Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Simşekoğlu, Özlem; Lind, Hans Brende; Jørgensen, Stig Halvard; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2014-11-01

    There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. GPs' Perceptions of Cardiovascular Risk and Views on Patient Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Paulsen, Maja Skov

    2015-01-01

    Objective. General practitioners' (GPs') perception of risk is a cornerstone of preventive care. The aims of this interview study were to explore GPs' professional and personal attitudes and experiences regarding treatment with lipid-lowering drugs and their views on patient compliance. Methods. ...

  4. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess the level of awareness of, and perception of risk for, cervical cancer among women attending ... 5Community Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospitals, Osogbo, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Original ... secondary, and tertiary health-care services – located in.

  5. Online versus conventional shopping: Consumers' risk perception and regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kerkhof, P.; Fennis, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a

  6. Online versus Conventional Shopping: Consumers' Risk Perception and Regulatory Focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a

  7. The perception of midwives regarding psychosocial risk assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnant women who lack psychosocial support may experience stress, anxiety and depression that could possibly affect foetal wellbeing. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore and describe the perception of psychosocial risk assessment and psychosocial care by midwives providing antenatal care to ...

  8. Assessment of Sexual Behaviour, Attitude and Risk Perception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess sexual behaviour, attitudes and risk perception about HIV/AIDS among out-of-school anti-AIDS club member and non-member youths in Mettu and Bedelle towns. The study applied a case control study design. The cases are club members those registered in the out-of-school anti-AIDS clubs and actively ...

  9. Risk Perceptions in Diabetic Patients Who Have Experienced Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Mikkel Lindskov; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Colding-Jørgensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    focused on common and less serious AEs, thus disregarding rare and more serious events. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that experience of AEs, related to either medicines or disease, constitutes an important factor of patient risk perception. We therefore propose that serious adverse experiences should...

  10. Perception of environmental health risks among workers in a food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Workplace safety relies partially on workers' ability to recognize hazards that could result in personal injury. This study aimed to determine the perception of industrial workers to the environmental risks that they are exposed to and their practice of self protection through the use of PPE. Methods: It was a ...

  11. A Research into Evaluation of Basketball Athletes' Risk Perception Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the risk perception levels of Basketball athletes in Turkish League teams according to some variables. In this research the "general screening model," which is one of the descriptive screening methods, was used. While the population of the study consists of athletes actively engaged in the Turkish…

  12. The role of knowledge in students’ flood-risk perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, A.; Kuiper, W; van der Schee, J.A.; Schoonenboom, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    Until now, flood-risk perception in the Netherlands has been solely studied as it relates to adults. This exploratory study focused on 15-year-old students who have taken geography courses for 3 years. Since geography education focuses on the formation of knowledge and understanding with respect to

  13. The role of knowledge in students’ flood-risk perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, A.; Kuiper, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072937181; van der Schee, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072719575; Schoonenboom, J.

    2013-01-01

    Until now, flood-risk perception in the Netherlands has been solely studied as it relates to adults. This exploratory study focused on 15-year-old students who have taken geography courses for 3 years. Since geography education focuses on the formation of knowledge and understanding with respect to

  14. Students' Risk Perceptions of Nanotechnology Applications: Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant; Jones, Gail; Taylor, Amy; Forrester, Jennifer; Robertson, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Scientific literacy as a goal of a science education reform remains an important discourse in the research literature and is a key component of students' understanding and acceptance of emergent technologies like nanotechnology. This manuscript focuses on undergraduate engineering students' perceptions of the risks and benefits posed by…

  15. A qualitative study of alcohol risk perceptions among drinkers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem drinking status, the availability of alternative substitutes to drinking and, drinking motives together determine alcohol risk perceptions and drinking behavior. Therefore, in order to fully understand drinking behavior, the influences of drinking motives, personal experiences, drinking status, availability of alcohol ...

  16. Knowledge, Risk Perception and Vaccination against Hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    vaccination. HB vaccination among them is very poor as is their perception of their occupational risk for the disease. Continuing education, training and vaccine provision are recommended to address this important healthcare need. Keywords: Hepatitis B; primary healthcare workers;. Nigeria. Correspondence: Dr J.C. ...

  17. Risk Perceptions among Users of Commercial Motorcycles in Cities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the perceptions of the risk associated with the use of motorcycles as public transport among commuters in three cities (Ado-Ekiti, Ile-Ife and Ondo) of south western Nigeria. Data used for the study were collected through stratified sampling techniques from six hundred and sixty-five users of commercial ...

  18. Influence of Risk Perception on Attitudes and Norms Regarding Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig W

    2017-10-11

    The use of electronic cigarettes has grown substantially over the last few years. Currently, about 4% of adults use electronic cigarettes, about 16% of high school students report use in the past 30 days, as do approximately 11-25% of college students. A hallmark of the reduction in tobacco use has been the shift in social norms concerning smoking in public. Such norms may also drive views on acceptability of public electronic cigarette use. While normative factors have been given attention, little substantive application of the literature on risk perception has been brought to bear. The overall aim of this study was to place a cognitive-affective measure of risk perception within a model that also includes social cues for e-cigarettes, addictiveness beliefs, and tobacco use to predict perceived social acceptability for public use of e-cigarettes. To do so, a cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted among a sample of undergraduate students at a Western university (n = 395). A structural equation model showed that the acceptability of public e-cigarette use was influenced by social cues, beliefs about addiction, and cognitive risk perception, even after controlling for nicotine use. What is revealed is that cognitive assessment of e-cigarette risk and perception of addictiveness had a suppressing effect on perceived acceptability of public vaping, while greater exposure to social cues exerted a countervailing effect. This is evidence of the role that risk perception and social norms may play in the increases in electronic cigarette use that have been observed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Risk perceptions and behavioral context: U.S. Forest Service fire management professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Carpenter, Edwin H.; Cortner, Hanna J.; Cleaves, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Fire managers from the U.S. Forest Service were surveyed to determine which decision factors most strongly influenced their fire‐risk decisions. Safety, the resources at risk, public opinion, and the reliability of information were important influences on these decisions. This research allowed direct comparison between fire managers’ perceptions of factor importance and how their fire‐risk decisions changed in response to those factors. These risk decisions were highly responsive to changes in context (an escaped wildfire decision versus a prescribed burning decision) as well as to changing factors. The results demonstrate the utility of using scenarios in risk research and the vital importance of context in studying risk‐taking behavior. Research which attempts to remove risk decisions from their real‐world context may well distort the nature of risk‐taking behavior.

  20. Social dataset analysis and mapping tools for Risk Perception: resilience, people preparation and communication tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Guarin, Graciela; Garcia, Carolina; Frigerio, Simone

    2010-05-01

    management, to know in advance the different levels of risk perception and preparedness existing among several sectors of the population. Knowing where the most vulnerable population is located may optimize the use of resources, better direct the initial efforts and organize the evacuation and attention procedures. As part of the CBEWS, a comprehensive survey was applied in the study area to measure, among others features, the levels of risk perception, preparation and information received about natural hazards. After a statistical and direct analysis on a complete social dataset recorded, a spatial information distribution is actually in progress. Based on boundaries features (municipalities and sub-districts) of Italian Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a local scale background has been granted (a private address level is not accessible for privacy rules so the local districts-ID inside municipality has been the detail level performed) and a spatial location of the surveyed population has been completed. The geometric component has been defined and actually it is possible to create a local distribution of social parameters derived from perception questionnaries results. A lot of raw information and social-statistical analysis offer different mirror and "visual concept" of risk perception. For this reason a concrete complete GeoDB is under working for the complete organization of the dataset. By a technical point of view the environment for data sharing is based on a complete open source web-service environment, to offer manually-made and user-friendly interface to this kind of information. Final aim is to offer different switches of dataset, using the same scale prototype and data hierarchical structure, to provide and compare social location of risk perception in the most detailed level.

  1. Do we see how they perceive risk? An integrated analysis of risk perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nini; Wang, Xueqing; Griffin, Mark A; Wu, Chunlin; Liu, Bingsheng

    2017-09-01

    While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers' direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers' risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perception of Climate Risk among Rural Farmers in Vietnam: Consistency within Households and with the Empirical Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Alison C; Anderson, C Leigh

    2017-03-01

    Rural farmers in Vietnamese communes perceive climate risk and potential impacts on livelihood within a complex context that may influence individual and household decisions. In a primary survey of 1,145 residents of the Thach Ha district of Ha Tinh province, we gathered data regarding perception about stability in climate, potential risks to livelihood, demographic characteristics, orientation toward risk, and interest in expanding economic activity. Temporal analysis of meteorological and economic indicator data forms an empirical basis for comparison with human perception. We ask the basic question: Are rural farmers' perceptions of climate consistent with the historical record and reproducible within households? We find that respondents do perceive climate anomalies, with some anchoring on recent extreme events as revealed by climate observational data, and further that spouses disproportionately share perceptions relative to randomly simulated pairings. To put climate-related risk perception in a larger context, we examine patterns across a range of risks to livelihood faced by farmers (livestock disease, pests, markets, health), using dimension reduction techniques. We find that our respondents distinguish among potential causes of low economic productivity, with substantial emphasis on climate-related impacts. They do not express uniform concern across risks, but rather average patterns reveal common modes and distinguish climate concern. Still, among those expressing concern about climate-related risks to livelihood we do not find an association with expressed intention to pursue changes in economic activity as a risk management response. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Perceptions of Risk and Vulnerability Following Exposure to a Major Natural Disaster: The Calgary Flood of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Alexa; Árvai, Joseph

    2017-10-23

    Many studies have examined the general public's flood risk perceptions in the aftermath of local and regional flooding. However, relatively few studies have focused on large-scale events that affect tens of thousands of people within an urban center. Similarly, in spite of previous research on flood risks, unresolved questions persist regarding the variables that might influence perceptions of risk and vulnerability, along with management preferences. In light of the opportunities presented by these knowledge gaps, the research reported here examined public perceptions of flood risk and vulnerability, and management preferences, within the city of Calgary in the aftermath of extensive flooding in 2013. Our findings, which come from an online survey of residents, reveal that direct experience with flooding is not a differentiating factor for risk perceptions when comparing evacuees with nonevacuees who might all experience future risks. However, we do find that judgments about vulnerability-as a function of how people perceive physical distance-do differ according to one's evacuation experience. Our results also indicate that concern about climate change is an important predictor of flood risk perceptions, as is trust in government risk managers. In terms of mitigation preferences, our results reveal differences in support for large infrastructure projects based on whether respondents feel they might actually benefit from them. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. We are at risk, and so what? Place attachment, environmental risk perceptions and preventive coping behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Fornara, Ferdinando; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta

    2015-01-01

    Place attachment regulates people-environment transactions across various relevant environmental-psychological processes. However, there is no consensus about its role in the relationship between environmental risk perception and coping behaviours. Since place attachment is strongly related to pl...

  5. Risk perception after genetic counseling in patients with increased risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Johanna; Platten, Ulla; Lindgren, Gunilla; Nilsson, Bo; Arver, Brita; Lindblom, Annika; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2009-08-23

    Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices 12.The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling. The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period. Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants.The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations.The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in population. Difference in risk perception for children

  6. Risk perception after genetic counseling in patients with increased risk of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rantala Johanna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices 12. The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling. Methods The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period. Results Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants. The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations. The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in

  7. Consumers' Risk Perception of Household Cleaning and Washing Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Miesler, Linda; Siegrist, Michael

    2017-04-01

    A large share of accidental and nonaccidental poisonings are caused by household cleaning and washing products, such as drain cleaner or laundry detergent. The main goal of this article was to investigate consumers' risk perception and misconceptions of a variety of cleaning and washing products in order to inform future risk communication efforts. For this, a sorting task including 33 commonly available household cleaning and washing products was implemented. A total of 60 female consumers were asked to place the cleaning and washing products on a reference line 3 m in length with the poles "dangerous" and "not dangerous." The gathered data were analyzed qualitatively and by means of multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and linear regression. The dimensionality of the sorting data suggests that both analytically (i.e., written and graphical hazard notes and perceived effectiveness) and intuitively driven risk judgments (i.e., eco vs. regular products) were applied by the participants. Furthermore, results suggest the presence of misconceptions, particularly related to consumers' perceptions of eco cleaning products, which were generally regarded as safer than their regular counterparts. Future risk communication should aim at dispelling these misconceptions and promoting accurate risk perceptions of particular household cleaning and washing products. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk. The research model with three hypotheses to explained the relationship and influenced between the constructs that perception of quality perception of risk and purchase decision. In these empirical studied treated 366 respondents from customer of retail supermarkets in West Java - Indonesia. Results of research founded a significant negative relationship between perception of quality and perception of risk. As well as the behavior of perception of quality and the perception of risk has a significant influenced on purchase decision. Retail self-service needs to improve the perception of quality and reduces the risk perception of the consumers if purchasing behavior of consumers want increase on organic products. This studied was useful in raising awareness of self-service retail and consumers for environmentally friendly products.

  9. Lay and expert perceptions of zoonotic risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Lassen, Jesper; Robinson, P.

    2005-01-01

    concepts of risk and hence are bound more or less to talk at cross-purposes. This paper suggests an alternative analysis: In the light of moral theory, the conflicting perspectives can be understood as a genuine moral conflict. When this conflict is conceptualised, a rational dialogue becomes possible....... The paper reports a series of qualitative interviews with lay people and experts on zoonotic food risks. The interviews are used to reconstruct the values underlying some of the dominant perspectives. The conflict between these stylised perspectives is then analysed with the help of moral theory. Finally...

  10. Tourists’ Risk Perception and the Use of Mobile Devices in Beach Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc González-Reverté

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The perceived risk of tourists’ use of smartphones is a key issue in shaping the tourist experience in terms of sustainability, as it can affect the behaviour of tourists and influence their satisfaction with that experience. However, little empirical research exists on the relationship between tourists’ risk perception and the perceived value of mobile device usage. This paper measures the association between tourists’ perceived risk of mobile device usage and several variables that demonstrate the perceived usefulness of mobile devices: utility, hedonic value and future intention of use. A survey on tourists’ use of smartphones was conducted in 2016 and, by means of a cluster analysis, four groups of tourists were identified with significant differences in their perception of the risk and use value of smartphones. Differences between tourists suggest that a single digital tourist profile does not exist and that tourism destinations and smart tourism DMOs (destination marketing organisations should include risk perception in their management agenda. This will allow them to achieve a better understanding of tourist behaviour and to adapt the commercialisation of tourism products and services to a wide range of tourism needs. In addition, four regression models were applied to measure the association between the risk and perceived usefulness of mobile devices. On the one hand, dependence on mobile devices was associated positively with the perceived usefulness of mobile devices. On the other hand, the tourists surveyed saw privacy risk as having a major negative impact on the tourist experience, although it did not affect their perceived utility value and future use of mobile devices. Smart tourism destination managers should bear in mind that privacy risk issues related to the use of mobile devices must be integrated into an ethical perspective when marketing a destination.

  11. An exploratory study on perceptions of seismic risk and mitigation in two districts of Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraybar, Korel; Okazaki, Kenji; Ilki, Alper

    2010-01-01

    Istanbul is one of the world's cities most vulnerable to seismic events. According to seismologists, the probability of a severe earthquake in the next 30 years is approximately 40 per cent. Following an outline of the seismicity of this vital Turkish city and a summary of current seismic risks and mitigation studies, this paper presents the results of a survey conducted in two districts of Istanbul, Avcilar and Bakirkoy. The survey comprised some 60 questions on the seismic risk perceptions of individuals and requested basic personal data, such as on age, education level, employment type, financial income, and gender. Despite various differences among the survey population, such as academic background and level of financial income, responses were surprisingly similar, especially in terms of having no plan for a safer house. The data may help those planning mitigation programmes and public awareness campaigns on preparedness and particularly mitigation in highly vulnerable regions.

  12. Decision Science, Risk Perception, and Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Marie Zapien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision scientists have revealed and described, through empirical study, the ways in which we tend to make decisions, and in particular, the ways we make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and that involve risk. The findings from these studies demonstrate the heuristics we use in making judgments and ways in which we process information compared with subject matter experts and logical and statistical principles. These findings have been applied to public policy issues and environmental safety, among other areas of social and political import, but have largely not been applied to our understanding of important personal decisions that are also made under uncertainty and risk and which have important personal and sometimes social consequences. This article aims to consider extra-marital affairs as an example of a personal decision that is made under uncertainty and with risk, and to apply decision science models to the decision-making that occurs in these cases. The hope is that decision scientists, psychologists, and clinicians who treat instances of infidelity, as well as the public, can benefit from what is known about how these decisions are made, which so often lead to regret. Theoretical implications for other personal decisions made under uncertainty with risk will be discussed.

  13. DIFFUSION AND PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother’s consumption of...

  14. Disaster Preparedness activities in Havana: the study of the Community leaders´ Perception of risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Gaeta Carrillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk reduction and build resilience in order to prevent some disasters require not just well coordinated authorities, a sound legislation and strong institutions. It is also vital to involve the local communities in preventive measures. The design of community training and community based preparedness activities is not ofen planned properly and is done without enough information, leading to a breakdown in the intervention. Based on personal and group interviews and a survey, this study performs an exploration of community leaders´ perceptions about risks in Havana that strengthens or constrains preventive measures and enhance or not response capacities. information that helps to design capacity building activities at studied community.

  15. Business travelers' risk perception of infectious diseases: where are the knowledge gaps, and how serious are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynberg, Elke; Toner, Sharyn; Wendt, Judy K; Visser, Leo G; Breederveld, Daan; Berg, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have explored the risk perception of frequent business travelers (FBT) toward malaria. However, less is known about their knowledge of other infectious diseases. This study aimed to identify knowledge gaps by determining the risk perception of FBT toward 11 infectious diseases. Our retrospective web-based survey assessed the accuracy of risk perception among a defined cohort of FBT for 11 infectious diseases. We used logistic regression and the chi-square test to determine the association of risk perception with source of travel advice, demographic variables, and features of trip preparation. Surveys were returned by 63% of the 608 self-registered FBT in Rijswijk, and only the 328 completed questionnaires that adhered to our inclusion criteria were used for analysis. The majority (71%) sought pre-travel health advice and used a company health source (83%). Participants seeking company travel health advice instead of external had significantly more accurate risk knowledge (p = 0.03), but more frequently overestimated typhoid risk (odds ratio = 2.03; 95% confidence interval = 1.23-3.34). While underestimation of disease risk was on average 23% more common than overestimation, HIV risk was overestimated by 75% of FBT. More accurate knowledge among FBT seeking company health advice demonstrates that access to in-company travel clinics can improve risk perception. However, there is an obvious need for risk knowledge improvement, given the overall underestimation of risk. The substantial overestimation of HIV risk is probably due to both public and in-company awareness efforts. Conversely, typhoid risk overestimation was statistically associated with seeking company health advice, and therefore specifically reflects the high focus on typhoid fever within Shell's travel clinic. This study serves as a reminder that a knowledge gap toward infectious diseases besides malaria still exists. Our article will explore the future requirements for more

  16. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the risk perception of residents near a nuclear power plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Ying; Han, Yuting; Hammitt, James K; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-03

    We assessed the influence of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA) on the Chinese public's attitude and acceptance of nuclear power plants in China. Two surveys (before and after the FNA) were administered to separate subsamples of residents near the Tianwan nuclear power plant in Lianyungang, China. A structural equation model was constructed to describe the public acceptance of nuclear power and four risk perception factors: knowledge, perceived risk, benefit, and trust. Regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between acceptance of nuclear power and the risk perception factors while controlling for demographic variables. Meanwhile, we assessed the median public acceptable frequencies for three levels of nuclear events. The FNA had a significant impact on risk perception of the Chinese public, especially on the factor of perceived risk, which increased from limited risk to great risk. Public acceptance of nuclear power decreased significantly after the FNA. The most sensitive groups include females, those not in public service, those with lower income, and those living close to the Tianwan nuclear power plant. Fifty percent of the survey respondents considered it acceptable to have a nuclear anomaly no more than once in 50 y. For nuclear incidents and serious incidents, the frequencies are once in 100 y and 150 y, respectively. The change in risk perception and acceptance may be attributed to the FNA. Decreased acceptance of nuclear power after the FNA among the Chinese public creates additional obstacles to further development of nuclear power in China and require effective communication strategies.

  17. Risk perception and management in smallholder dairy farming in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, K.; Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies on smallholder dairy farmers' risk perceptions and management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research of developing countries. This study focuses on farmers' risk perception and management strategies of smallholder dairy farms in urban and

  18. Risk perception of medicinal marijuana in medical students from northeast Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Guzman Sandra; Palacios-Ríos Dionicio; Nava-Obregon Teresa A; Arredondo-Mendoza Julio C; Alcalá-Alvarado Olga V; Alonso-Bracho Sofía A; Becerril-Gaitan Daniela A; González-Santiago Omar

    2017-01-01

    This article discribe by the first time the risk perception of medicinal marijuana in medical students. The evaluation was done with a scale of 10 cm, similar to other studies that analyze risk perception to prescription drugs.

  19. Risks perception of electromagnetic fields in Taiwan: the influence of psychopathology and the degree of sensitivity to electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Lin, Yi-Ping; Hu, Fu-Chang; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the perceived health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and factors associated with risk perception in non-Western countries. Psychological conditions and risk perception have been postulated as factors that facilitate the attribution of health complaints to environmental factors. This study investigated people's perceived risks of EMFs and other environmental sources, as well as the relationships between risk perception, psychopathology, and the degree of self-reported sensitivity to EMFs. A total of 1,251 adults selected from a nationwide telephone interviewing system database responded to a telephone survey about the relationships between environmental sources and human health. The interview included questions assessing participants' psychiatric conditions and the presence and degree of sensitivity to EMFs. One hundred and seventy participants were self-identified as having sensitivity to EMFs, and 141 met the criteria for psychiatric conditions without EMF sensitivity. More than half of the survey respondents considered power lines and mobile phone base stations to affect people's health to a big extent. Higher sensitivity to EMFs, psychopathology, being female, being married, more years of education, and having a catastrophic illness had positive associations with perceived risks of EMF-related environmental sources as well as for all environmental sources combined. We observed no moderating effect of psychopathology on the association between degree of sensitivity to EMF and risk perception. Thus, psychopathology had influence on general people's risk perception without having influence on the relationship between people's degree of sensitivity to EMF and risk perception. The plausible explanations are discussed in the text. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility Communication and Perception: Media and Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Banu Dincer; Caner Dincer

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to examine how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) projects are perceived from both an individual and organizational perspective. Using the framework used in studies on diffusion of innovations, the spread of CSR projects are examined. An online survey to identify individuals’ CSR and communication channel perception as well as interviews with CSR practitioners to have an organizational perspective is realized. Companies are using CSR as a tool to meet various objectives such...

  1. Understanding gaps between the risk perceptions of wildland-urban interface (WUI) residents and wildfire professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Meldrum; Patricia A. Champ; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Travis Warziniack; Christopher M. Barth; Lilia C. Falk

    2015-01-01

    Research across a variety of risk domains finds that the risk perceptions of professionals and the public differ. Such risk perception gaps occur if professionals and the public understand individual risk factors differently or if they aggregate risk factors into overall risk differently. The nature of such divergences, whether based on objective inaccuracies or on...

  2. Illness behavior and perception of risk among victims of the Chernobyl disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, J.M. [Utrecht University Hospital, Dept. of Psychiatry (Netherlands); Van Den Bout, J. [Utrecht University, Dept. of Clinical and Health Psychology (Netherlands)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: several national and international studies have demonstrated that the accident with the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl in 1986 had a strong impact on the health perception among the inhabitants of the surrounding regions. It has been postulated that psychological factors play an important role in the development of health complaints among these populations, which probably outweighs the role of radiobiological factors (Lee, 1996). The results of a large scale health survey conducted among inhabitants of the Gomel region in Belarus, not for from Chernobyl, have shown higher rates of physical and psychological complaints and higher medical consumption among inhabitants of the exposed region in comparison to the inhabitants of a socio-economically comparable but unexposed region (Havenaar et al. 1997). High rates of self-reported health problems and a higher prevalence of anxiety disorders were especially prominent among mothers with young children and evacuees. In this paper we examine the possible etiological role of risk perceptions and worries related to the nuclear disaster in the exposed and unexposed samples. The findings support the hypothesis that cognitive factors related to the disaster, and especially risk perception, play a significant role in the development of the observed health complaints among the exposed population. A general model is presented to clarify the role of risk perception in the occurrence of non-specific health complaints after real or imaginary exposure to toxic agents in the environment. (authors)

  3. Parents’ and students’ perceptions of college alcohol risk: The role of parental risk perception in intentions to communicate about alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Napper, Lucy E.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBRIE, JOSEPH W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims to examine discrepancies in parents’ and college students’ perceptions of alcohol risk and the role of perceived risk in predicting parents’ intentions to discuss alcohol with their child. In total, 246 college student-parent dyads (56.1% female students, 77.2% mothers) were recruited from a mid-size university. Participants completed measures of absolute likelihood, comparative likelihood, and severity of alcohol consequences. In comparison to students, parents perceiv...

  4. Condom use, risk perception, and HIV knowledge: a comparison across sexes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammers J

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith Lammers,1 Sweder JG van Wijnbergen,2 Daan Willebrands3 1Academic Medical Center, 2Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Amsterdam, 3Atradius Credit Insurance, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Background: This paper analyzes how different types of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV knowledge influences condom use across the sexes. Methods: The empirical work was based on a household survey conducted among 1979 households of a representative group of stallholders in Lagos, Nigeria in 2008. Condom use during last sexual intercourse was analyzed using a multivariate model corrected for clustering effects. The data included questions on socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of the existence of HIV, HIV prevention, HIV stigma, intended pregnancy, and risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex. Results: A large HIV knowledge gap between males and females was observed. Across the sexes, different types of knowledge are important in condom use. Low-risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex and not knowing that condoms prevent HIV infection appear to be the best predictors for risky sexual behavior among men. For females, stigma leads to lower condom use. Obviously, lack of knowledge on where condoms are available (9.4% and 29.1% of male and female respondents, respectively reduced condom use in both males and females. Conclusion: The results call for programmatic approaches to differentiate between males and females in the focus of HIV prevention campaigns. Moreover, the high predictive power of high-risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex (while correcting for other HIV knowledge indicators calls for further exploration on how to influence these risk perceptions in HIV prevention programs. Keywords: Africa, condom, males, females, HIV/AIDS, knowledge, prevention, risk perception

  5. Risk Perceptions in Diabetic Patients Who Have Experienced Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Mikkel Lindskov; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Colding-Jørgensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasingly, patients are expected to influence decisions previously reserved for regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and healthcare professionals. Individual patients have previously represented their patient population when rare, serious adverse events (AEs) were weighed...... as part of a benefit-risk assessment. However, the degree of heterogeneity of the patient population is critical for how accurately they can be represented by individuals. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore patients' risk perception of rare, serious adverse effects of medicines with regard to blood......, perceptions of the terms rare and serious, and overall levels of risk aversion. A thematic analysis of the interviews, including a consensus discussion, was carried out. RESULTS: Interestingly, respondents rarely made a clear distinction between medicines-induced AEs and complications related to disease...

  6. Academically at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist high school biology pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Heidi

    Successful completion of the Living Environment, one state's high school biology course, is a state graduation requirement. The academically at-risk students enrolled in one suburban public high school had been disproportionately unsuccessful at achieving a passing grade in this course. In response, a constructivist biology curriculum was created to address the needs of at-risk students in a heterogeneous ability classroom. There is a gap in current research on students' perceptions of their learning experiences; consequently, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to obtain at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist-based curriculum and to clarify what aspects of the Living Environment course assisted in their success. Eight academically at-risk students who successfully passed the Living Environment course were surveyed to seek their perceptions of the curricular and pedagogical change. These data were analyzed using the typological method with the inclusion of both inductive and predetermined categories. The students stated a preference for group work and active engagement. They also found that the binder system introduced in the course kept them better organized and helped them increase academic performance. Students perceived that effort was required but was rewarding. Findings derived from this study may contribute to social change by assisting teachers in tailoring curriculum and pedagogical decisions. This study provided a voice for the academically at-risk student and, in doing so, may contribute to social change by providing insight to teachers and administrators that can help students succeed academically, increase graduation rates, and enhance employment opportunities.

  7. The Impact of Project Role on Perceptions of Risk and Performance in Information Technology Software Development: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okongo, James

    2014-01-01

    The failure rate of information technology (IT) development projects is a significant concern for today's organizations. Perceptions of IT project risk and project performance have been identified as important factors by scholars studying the topic, and Wallace, Keil, and Rai (2004a) developed a survey instrument to measure how dimensions of…

  8. Perceptions of Risk and Sex-Specific Social Norms in Explaining Alcohol Consumption among College Students: Implications for Campus Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to expand the assessment of two explanatory models of drinking behavior--perceptions of risk and social norms--and determine their relationship to dimensions of alcohol involvement in a multivariate evaluation. The Alcohol and Drug Survey was administered to a sample (N = 235) of college students from a university in the…

  9. Perception of risk of HIV and sexual risk behaviors among University students: implication for planning interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Yitayal; Alemu, Abebe; Assefa, Abate; Tesfaye, Berihun; Gibermedhin, Etsegenet; Amare, Misiker

    2014-03-19

    The university environment offers great opportunity for HIV high-risk behaviors, including unsafe sex and multiple partnerships. Despite recently gained decline of the overall incidence of HIV infection, still significant proportion of youth population are at high risk of HIV infection. The aims of this study were to assess the perception of HIV risk and factors associated with risk perception among students at University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted between February and April, 2012 among health science students. A total of 384 students were involved in the study using stratified sampling technique. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were employed. P-value university students.

  10. Testicular cancer among African American college men: knowledge, perceived risk, and perceptions of cancer fatalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Barbara D; Ross, Louie; Wilkerson, Donoria; Brooks, Patrice; Cooper, Dexter

    2007-03-01

    African American men present at later stages of testicular cancer and have higher mortality rates than Caucasian men. Lack of awareness, beliefs, and access to care may influence this disparity. Guided by the Powe fatalism model, this comparative study assessed knowledge of testicular cancer, perceived risk, and cancer fatalism among African American and Caucasian men who attended selected colleges and universities. Data were collected using the Powe Fatalism Inventory, the Testicular Cancer Knowledge Survey, and the Perceived Cancer Risk Survey. The majority (n = 190) of men were African American (70%), and the remainder were Caucasian. African American men were significantly younger than Caucasian men. African American men also had lower testicular cancer knowledge scores, higher perceptions of cancer fatalism, and lower perceived risk for the disease. Rates of testicular cancer screening were low for all the men. Research should focus on further understanding the relationship between cancer fatalism and health-promoting behaviors among African American men.

  11. Flash Flood Risk Perception in an Italian Alpine Region. From Research into Adaptive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolobig, A.; de Marchi, B.; Borga, M.

    2009-04-01

    Flash floods are characterised by short lead times and high levels of uncertainty. Adaptive strategies to face them need to take into account not only the physical characteristics of the hydro-geological phenomena, but also peoples' risk perceptions, attitudes and behaviours in case of an emergency. It is quite obvious that a precondition for an effective adaptation, e.g. in the case of a warning, is the awareness of being endangered. At the same time the perceptions of those at risk and their likely actions inform hazard warning strategies and recovery programmes following such events. Usually low risk awareness or "wrong perceptions" of the residents are considered among the causes of an inadequate preparedness or response to flash floods as well as a symptom of a scarce self-protection culture. In this paper we will focus on flood risk perception and on how research on this topic may contribute to design adaptive strategies and give inputs to flood policy decisions. We will report on a flood risk perception study of the population residing in four villages in an Italian Alpine Region (Trentino Alto-Adige), carried out between October 2005 and January 2006. A total of 400 standardised questionnaires were submitted to local residents by face to face interviews. The surveys were preceded by focus groups with officers from agencies in charge of flood risk management and semi-structured and in-depth interviews with policy, scientific and technical experts. Survey results indicated that people are not so worried about hydro-geological phenomena, and think that their community is more endangered than themselves. The knowledge of the territory and danger sources, the unpredictability of flash floods and the feeling of safety induced by structural devices are the main elements which make the difference in shaping residents' perceptions. The study also demonstrated a widespread lack of adoption of preparatory measures among residents, together with a general low

  12. Perceptions and experiences of research participants on gender-based violence community based survey: implications for ethical guidelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandisa Sikweyiya

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore how survey respondents perceived their experiences and the impact of participating in a survey, and to assess adverse consequences resulting from participation. DESIGN: Qualitative study involving purposefully selected participants who had participated in a household-based survey. METHODS: This qualitative study was nested within a survey that investigated the prevalence of gender-based violence perpetration and victimization with adult men and women in South Africa. 13 male- and 10 female-in-depth interviews were conducted with survey respondents. RESULTS: A majority of informants, without gender-differences, perceived the survey interview as a rare opportunity to share their adverse and or personal experiences in a 'safe' space. Gender-differences were noted in reporting perceptions of risks involved with survey participation. Some women remained fearful after completing the survey, that should breach of confidentiality or full survey content disclosure occur, they may be victimized by partners as a punishment for survey participation without men's approval. A number of informants generally discussed their survey participation with others. However, among women with interpersonal violence history or currently in abusive relationships, full survey content disclosure was done with fear; the partner responses were negative, and few women reported receiving threatening remarks but none reported being assaulted. In contrast no man reported adverse reaction by others. Informants with major life adversities reported that the survey had made them to relive the experiences causing them sadness and pain at the time. No informant perceived the survey as emotionally harmful or needed professional support because of survey questions. Rather the vast majority perceived benefit from survey participation. CONCLUSION: Whilst no informant felt answering the survey questions had caused them emotional or physical harm, some were distressed

  13. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  14. Public perceptions and attitudes to biological risks: Saudi Arabia and regional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Saud Ali; Rezgui, Yacine; Li, Haijiang

    2016-10-01

    Saudi Arabia has experienced frequent occurrences of biological disasters due to a wide range of generator factors, including natural disasters and epidemics. A national survey (n=1,164) was conducted across 13 regions of Saudi Arabia to examine public perceptions to the risk of a biological disaster. The primary results reveal: (a) a degree of knowledge about biological threats such as SARS and H5N1 flu, despite the lack of individual experience with disasters; (b) age, gender, education and faith are positively related to the perception of biological risk; and (c) a number of important community resilience factors exist, including faith, education and willingness. This study concludes that the development of adapted resilience strategies in disaster management can be achieved through public education and training involving cooperation with official organisations and religious authorities in the country to increase public awareness, knowledge and skills in mitigating biological threats. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  15. Perception of risk and subjective health among victims of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenaar, J M; de Wilde, E J; van den Bout, J; Drottz-Sjöberg, B M; van den Brink, W

    2003-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 had a strong impact on the subjective health of the inhabitants in the surrounding regions and that the majority of these health complaints appear to be stress-related. An epidemiological survey among the adult population of the Gomel region in Belarus near Chernobyl showed higher rates of self-reported health problems, psychological distress and medical service use in this region than in a comparable unexposed region. This paper presents an analysis of data on cognitive factors that were collected in this study. The findings support the hypothesis that cognitive variables such as risk perception and sense of control play an important role as mediating factors in the explanation of the observed health differences between the exposed and non-exposed regions. A tentative model is presented to further clarify the role of risk perception in the occurrence of non-specific health complaints after such ecological disasters.

  16. Evaluation of the role of risk perception in stakeholder engagement to prevent lead exposure in an urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harclerode, Melissa A; Lal, Pankaj; Vedwan, Neeraj; Wolde, Bernabas; Miller, Michael E

    2016-12-15

    Stakeholder engagement is a vital sustainable remediation practice for obtaining useful feedback and identifying societal needs. Evaluating and integrating risk perception of stakeholders into remediation and outreach efforts allows for greater insight, increases the likelihood of success and ultimately, benefits the community by protecting its members from environmental hazards. In this study, we identified risk perception factors that influenced residents' level of concern for mitigating their exposure to elevated concentrations of lead in household paint and historic fill material. Risk perception factors were assessed by an in-person survey conducted in public green spaces. The analysis of survey participants' responses indicated that their perception of risk to exposed lead was mostly influenced by the presence of hazardous materials in close proximity to their residence, the ability to address pollution, and awareness, interest, and individual accountability in mitigating environmental risks. Responses also revealed that residents considered risk of lead and soil pollution as less menacing than the presence of more immediate and perceptible risks posed by factors such as air and water pollution. In addition, the community seemed to exhibit "optimism bias" and did not identify itself at high risk to susceptible and immediate hazards, including lead exposure. This lack of concern over lead exposure created a significant obstacle to community participation in state-led education and outreach programs. By integrating risk perception analysis and increasing stakeholder engagement, we can bring more attention to this issue, educate the public about the threat of lead pollution, and efficiently use financial resources to implement a more sustainable solution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Map Your Hazards! - an Interdisciplinary, Place-Based Educational Approach to Assessing Natural Hazards, Social Vulnerability, Risk and Risk Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, B. D.; McMullin-Messier, P. A.; Schlegel, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    'Map your Hazards' is an educational module developed within the NSF Interdisciplinary Teaching about Earth for a Sustainable Future program (InTeGrate). The module engages students in place-based explorations of natural hazards, social vulnerability, and the perception of natural hazards and risk. Students integrate geoscience and social science methodologies to (1) identify and assess hazards, vulnerability and risk within their communities; (2) distribute, collect and evaluate survey data (designed by authors) on the knowledge, risk perception and preparedness within their social networks; and (3) deliver a PPT presentation to local stakeholders detailing their findings and recommendations for development of a prepared, resilient community. 'Map your Hazards' underwent four rigorous assessments by a team of geoscience educators and external review before being piloted in our classrooms. The module was piloted in a 300-level 'Volcanoes and Society' course at Boise State University, a 300-level 'Environmental Sociology' course at Central Washington University, and a 100-level 'Natural Disasters and Environmental Geology' course at the College of Western Idaho. In all courses students reported a fascination with learning about the hazards around them and identifying the high risk areas in their communities. They were also surprised at the low level of knowledge, inaccurate risk perception and lack of preparedness of their social networks. This successful approach to engaging students in an interdisciplinary, place-based learning environment also has the broad implications of raising awareness of natural hazards (survey participants are provided links to local hazard and preparedness information). The data and preparedness suggestions can be shared with local emergency managers, who are encouraged to attend the student's final presentations. All module materials are published at serc.carleton.edu/integrate/ and are appropriate to a wide range of classrooms.

  18. A Comprehensive Survey on Student Perceptions of Cyberbullying at a Major Metropolitan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James P.; Molluzzo, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents are featured daily in the news. The authors of this study examine the perceptions of students on cyberbullying at a major metropolitan university. From the findings of a student survey, the authors learn of high levels of perceptions on incidents as an issue but…

  19. Methodologies for measuring travelers' risk perception of infectious diseases: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Shruti; Régner, Isabelle; Brouqui, Philippe; Gautret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies in the past have stressed the importance of travelers' psychology and perception in the implementation of preventive measures. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the methodologies used in studies reporting on travelers' risk perception of infectious diseases. A systematic search for relevant literature was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. There were 39 studies identified. In 35 of 39 studies, the methodology used was that of a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey based on questionnaires. One study used a combination of questionnaires and a visual psychometric measuring instrument called the 'pictorial representation of illness and self-measurement" or PRISM. One study used a self-representation model (SRM) method. Two studies measured psychosocial factors. Valuable information was obtained from KAP surveys showing an overall lack of knowledge among travelers about the most frequent travel-associated infections and associated preventive measures. This methodological approach however, is mainly descriptive, addressing knowledge, attitudes, and practices separately and lacking an examination of the interrelationships between these three components. Another limitation of the KAP method is underestimating psychosocial variables that have proved influential in health related behaviors, including perceived benefits and costs of preventive measures, perceived social pressure, perceived personal control, unrealistic optimism and risk propensity. Future risk perception studies in travel medicine should consider psychosocial variables with inferential and multivariate statistical analyses. The use of implicit measurements of attitudes could also provide new insights in the field of travelers' risk perception of travel-associated infectious diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological aspects of food safety risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    Most consumers are not microbiologists and spend little time worrying about food safety. Evolution and civilisation have provided us with abilities to avoid the more serious risks, and in practice we tend to use these abilities quite well. However, there are certain conditions under which...... problematic food safety behaviours are likely to occur. The presentation will begin with an overview of the relevant psychological mechanisms that regulate approach and avoidance behaviour with respect to potentially hazardous foods. Learned representations of familiarity and reward value act as safety......: pleasure is tied to approach, surprise to orientation, disgust to avoidance. These mechanisms operate permanently and in an almost automatic manner. Problematic food safety behaviours often result when (a) easily detectable cues for spoilage or contamination do not exist, (b) when the diagnosticity...

  1. The Importance of Substance-Related Sexual Victimization: Impact on Substance Use and Risk Perception in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Sheffer, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    Data on risk perception, sexual victimization, and substance use were obtained via surveys from 496 female college students to determine what factors influence risk perception using a written vignette in which participants make a hypothetical decision to leave a potentially risky situation. Experiences of substance-related (SR) victimization, rather than forcible victimization, were associated with significantly delayed risk perception. SR victimization victims reported feeling uncomfortable significantly later and leaving the scenario significantly later than non-victims. SR victimization victims also had significantly higher scores on heavy episodic drinking (HED), marijuana use, alcohol-related tolerance, and blackouts. Both substance use (HED and marijuana use) and alcohol-related problems (tolerance and blackouts) mediated the link between SR victimization and risk perception in the form of behavioral leave response. In contrast, only HED and tolerance mediated the link between SR victimization and risk recognition. Findings suggest the importance of differentiating types of victimization in predicting risk perception and of addressing substance use in sexual victimization risk reduction interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. A Survey of Sleep Medicine Physician Perceptions on the Surgical Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swope, Jonathan J; Couey, Marcus A; Wilson, James W; Jundt, Jonathon S

    2017-05-01

    Surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) varies by specialty. Our survey sought to answer 3 principal questions: 1) To which surgical specialists are sleep physicians referring patients for upper airway surgery? 2) Which surgical treatment do sleep specialists find to be most effective in treating OSA? 3) Do sleep medicine physicians believe that maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) is worthwhile to patients who are surgical candidates? We formulated a cross-sectional survey. The study sample was obtained by identifying all practices that advertised as sleep medicine specialists in Houston, Texas, by using Internet searches. Physicians who treated children were excluded. Seventy-nine surveys were hand delivered to offices in the greater Houston area; the survey included 6 questions to determine referral and surgical preferences for OSA. Variable responses included years in practice, specialty, and a comments section. A 10-point Likert scale was used to assess sleep medicine physicians' referral patterns and perceptions regarding surgical treatment of OSA. Numerical data were analyzed by calculating mean values and by dividing responses into "disagree" (5). Twenty-six surveys were returned. More sleep medicine physicians referred patients to ear, nose, and throat surgeons (52%) than to oral and maxillofacial surgeons (20%). MMA was viewed as the most effective surgery (72%), followed by "none" (16%), "other" (8%), and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (4%). More respondents viewed the benefits versus risks as favorable for MMA (44%) than for uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (29%). The results of this survey show that sleep medicine physicians in the greater Houston area view MMA as the most favorable and effective surgical option for treating OSA. Although MMA was most often referred for, more respondents refer patients to ear, nose, and throat surgeons than to oral and maxillofacial surgeons for surgical management of OSA. Years in practice displayed no correlation in

  3. HIV sexual risk behaviors and perception of risk among college students: implications for planning interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogun Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The college environment offers great opportunity for HIV high-risk behaviors, including unsafe sex and multiple partnerships. While the overall incidence of HIV infection has seen some decline in recent years, rates of HIV infection among young adults have not seen a proportionate decline. As in the general population, African American young adults have been disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study examined the sexual risk behaviors and perception of HIV risk of students in a predominantly African American commuter urban university in the Midwest. Methods Students enrolled in randomly selected general education courses completed a paper and pencil survey. Data were collected in Fall 2007, and univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows v.16. Results The sample included 390 students, the majority (83% of whom were never married and 87% were sexually experienced. Among males reporting male partnerships those who used marijuana (OR = 17.5, p = 0.01 and those who used alcohol along with illegal drugs (OR = 8.8, p = 0.03 were significantly more likely to report multiple partnerships. Among females reporting male partnerships, those 30 years and older were significantly less likely (OR = 0.09, p = 0.03 to report having multiple male partners. There were significant differences in condom use last sex (p = 0.01 and consistent condom use (p = 0.002 among the different age groups. Older students were less likely to report condom use. Females age 30 years and older (OR = 3.74, p = 0.05 and respondents age 20–29 years (OR = 2.41, p = 0.03 were more likely to report inconsistent condom use than those below 20 years. Marijuana use was correlated with inconsistent condom use (p = 0.02 and alcohol with not using condom last sex among females. Perception of HIV risk was generally poor with 54% of those age 30 years and older, 48.1% of 20–29 year olds, and 57.9% of those

  4. Middle East respiratory syndrome-related knowledge, preventive behaviours and risk perception among nursing students during outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Soo; Choi, Jeong Sil

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to survey nursing students' Middle East respiratory syndrome-related knowledge, preventive behaviours and risk perception to examine the correlations among the variables during a Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak. Middle East respiratory syndrome is a new viral respiratory illness. Nursing students who engage in clinical practice at hospitals may have been exposed to Middle East respiratory syndrome infection during the Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. Participants (n = 249) were nursing students in their third or fourth year of the programme who were engaged in clinical practice for eight hours per day at the tertiary hospitals with Middle East respiratory syndrome patients. Knowledge, preventive behaviours and risk perception related to Middle East respiratory syndrome were measured using scales developed through a preliminary survey and validity testing. The subjects' knowledge level of Middle East respiratory syndrome was 84·4%; their practice of preventive behaviours was rated at 44·5%; and their risk perception rating was 2·4 out of 5. Middle East respiratory syndrome-related risk perception was significantly different according to gender and Middle East respiratory syndrome education. Middle East respiratory syndrome-related knowledge was significantly correlated with preventive behaviours and risk perception. Considering the low scores for items regarding knowledge and preventive behaviours, it is necessary to develop effective and systematic publicity and education programmes for nursing students. Enhancing Middle East respiratory syndrome-related knowledge by considering cooperation between hospitals and universities will sharpen nursing students' risk perception of the disease and effectively increase their preventive behaviours. Similar to other emerging infectious diseases, Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreaks may occur in other countries. The

  5. Risk Perception and the Psychology of Natural Hazard Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.; Weber, E. U.

    2014-12-01

    In the preparedness phase of the disaster cycle, willingness to invest resources in prevention and mitigation doesn't depend only on quantitative judgments of the probability of a disaster. People also evaluate the risks of situations in qualitative ways. Psychological studies of risk perception have shown that risk attitudes toward everyday technologies and activities (e.g., electric power, air travel, smoking) can be mapped onto two orthogonal dimensions: how unknown the risks seem, and how dread or severe they feel. Previously, this psychometric approach to risk perception has focused mostly on man-made risks (e.g., Fischhoff et al. 1978, Slovic 1987). In this paper we examine how natural hazards fit into the established unknown/dread risk space. Hazards that are high on the unknown dimension of risk tend to be perceived as having effects that are unknown to science and to the exposed, uncontrollable, and new. Hazards that rank high on the dread/severity dimension are seen as immediate, catastrophic, highly dreaded on a gut level, new, and likely to be fatal. Perceived risk tends to be highest for hazards that are both high on the dread dimension and low on the unknown dimension. We find that weather-related hazards rank lowest on both dimensions: blizzards, heat waves, hailstorms, fog, and ice storms are all feel very known and not particularly dread. The exception for this group is hurricanes and tornadoes, which are viewed as more similar to geophysical hazards and mass movements: high on dread, though not particularly unknown. Two notable outliers are climate change and sea-level rise, which are both considered very unknown (higher than any other natural hazard save sinkholes), and not at all dread (less dread even than fog and dust storms). But when compared with perceptions of technological hazards, nearly every natural hazard ranks as more dread than any technology or activity, including nuclear power. Man-made hazards fall with technologies, rather than

  6. Flood risk perception and adaptation capacity: a contribution to the socio-hydrology debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Maris, Fotios; Paparrizos, Spyridon; Thaler, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Dealing with flood hazard and risk requires approaches rooted in both natural and social sciences, which provided the nexus for the ongoing debate on socio-hydrology. Various combinations of non-structural and structural flood risk reduction options are available to communities. Focusing on flood risk and the information associated with it, developing risk management plans is required but often overlooks public perception of a threat. The perception of risk varies in many different ways, especially between the authorities and the affected public. It is because of this disconnection that many risk management plans concerning floods have failed in the past. This paper examines the private adaptation capacity and willingness with respect to flooding in two different catchments in Greece prone to multiple flood events during the last 20 years. Two studies (East Attica and Evros) were carried out, comprised of a survey questionnaire of 155 and 157 individuals, from a peri-urban (East Attica) and a rural (Evros) area, respectively, and they focused on those vulnerable to periodic (rural area) and flash floods (peri-urban area). Based on the comparisons drawn from these responses, and identifying key issues to be addressed when flood risk management plans are implemented, improvements are being recommended for the social dimension surrounding such implementation. As such, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on human-environment interaction in socio-hydrology.

  7. Flood risk perception and adaptation capacity: a contribution to the socio-hydrology debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuchs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with flood hazard and risk requires approaches rooted in both natural and social sciences, which provided the nexus for the ongoing debate on socio-hydrology. Various combinations of non-structural and structural flood risk reduction options are available to communities. Focusing on flood risk and the information associated with it, developing risk management plans is required but often overlooks public perception of a threat. The perception of risk varies in many different ways, especially between the authorities and the affected public. It is because of this disconnection that many risk management plans concerning floods have failed in the past. This paper examines the private adaptation capacity and willingness with respect to flooding in two different catchments in Greece prone to multiple flood events during the last 20 years. Two studies (East Attica and Evros were carried out, comprised of a survey questionnaire of 155 and 157 individuals, from a peri-urban (East Attica and a rural (Evros area, respectively, and they focused on those vulnerable to periodic (rural area and flash floods (peri-urban area. Based on the comparisons drawn from these responses, and identifying key issues to be addressed when flood risk management plans are implemented, improvements are being recommended for the social dimension surrounding such implementation. As such, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on human–environment interaction in socio-hydrology.

  8. Perceptions of cancer risk factors and socioeconomic status. A French study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Fressard, Lisa; Bocquier, Aurélie; Verger, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The present paper investigates on lay people's beliefs regarding cancer risk factors' and their correlates, especially people's socioeconomic status (SES), as they may heavily contribute to social health inequalities. We used data from the 2010 Baromètre Cancer, a national representative telephone survey conducted in France (N = 3359, age 15-75, participation rate 52%). Respondents differentiate behavioral factors (smoking, drinking, unprotected sun exposure, etc.), environmental risk factors (air pollution, chemicals in food, etc.) and psychosocial risk factors (stress, painful experiences, etc.) for cancer. Those with a higher SES were more likely to emphasize behavioral and psychosocial factors, while those with an intermediate SES were more likely to do so for environmental ones. Perceived financial vulnerability was associated to higher perceptions for both environmental and psychosocial factors. After adjustment on socio-demographic background and SES, respondents who emphasized behavioral risk factors were less prone to endorse fatalistic attitudes (considering that nothing can be done to avoid cancer), while those who emphasized environmental risk factors were more prone to do so, and were also more frequently daily smokers. These results suggest that lay people's beliefs regarding cancer risk factors are shaped by their conceptions regarding one's body and health, and especially their health locus of control, as the tendency to either emphasize behavioral or environmental factors was correlated to fatalistic attitudes. Prevention campaigns designed to tackle lay people's perceptions regarding cancer risk factors should not consider they simply reflect ignorance or misinformation, as they are embedded in social and cultural contexts.

  9. Perceptions of football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Zech

    Full Text Available Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player's perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%. It included categories with (1 history of lower extremity injuries, (2 perceptions regarding risk factors and (3 regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2% had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1% and environmental factors (25.9%. The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25% and uninjured players (0.0%. Nearly all players (91.5% perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%. Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes.

  10. The role of risk perception in making flood risk management more effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchecker, M.; Salvini, G.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Semenzin, E.; Maidl, E.; Marcomini, A.

    2013-11-01

    Over the last few decades, Europe has suffered from a number of severe flood events and, as a result, there has been a growing interest in probing alternative approaches to managing flood risk via prevention measures. A literature review reveals that, although in the last decades risk evaluation has been recognized as key element of risk management, and risk assessment methodologies (including risk analysis and evaluation) have been improved by including social, economic, cultural, historical and political conditions, the theoretical schemes are not yet applied in practice. One main reason for this shortcoming is that risk perception literature is mainly of universal and theoretical nature and cannot provide the necessary details to implement a comprehensive risk evaluation. This paper therefore aims to explore a procedure that allows the inclusion of stakeholders' perceptions of prevention measures in risk assessment. It proposes to adopt methods of risk communication (both one-way and two-way communication) in risk assessment with the final aim of making flood risk management more effective. The proposed procedure not only focuses on the effect of discursive risk communication on risk perception, and on achieving a shared assessment of the prevention alternatives, but also considers the effects of the communication process on perceived uncertainties, accepted risk levels, and trust in the managing institutions. The effectiveness of this combined procedure has been studied and illustrated using the example of the participatory flood prevention assessment process on the Sihl River in Zurich, Switzerland. The main findings of the case study suggest that the proposed procedure performed well, but that it needs some adaptations for it to be applicable in different contexts and to allow a (semi-) quantitative estimation of risk perception to be used as an indicator of adaptive capacity.

  11. Current features on risk perception and risk communication of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Tomoko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1997-03-01

    Health effects and risks of radiation and radionuclides are being misunderstood by many members of general public. Many peoples have fear and anxieties for radiation. So far, the health effects from radiation at low dose and low dose rate have not been cleared on biological aspects. Then, we have quantitatively estimated health risks of low-dose radiation on the basis of linear dose response relationship without threshold from the viewpoints of radiation protection by using both epidemiological data, such as atomic bomb survivors, and some models and assumptions. It is important for researchers and relevant persons in radiation protection to understand the process of risk estimation of radiation and to communicate an exact knowledge of radiation risks of the public members. (author)

  12. Pesticide Risk Communication, Risk Perception, and Self-Protective Behaviors among Farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among College Students: Knowledge, Perception, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T.; Zimmerman, Lani M.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Shurmur, Scott W.; Pullen, Carol H.; Yates, Bernice C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. Participants: The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience…

  14. Responding to crises and disasters: the role of risk attitudes and risk perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Grossman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Discussions are taking place both in the United States and in Europe about how governments should respond to both disasters and crises, and how citizens' non-desirable behaviour might be managed with respect to such disasters. Here we examine the role that risk attitudes and risk perceptions play in

  15. Risk Perception for Developing Diabetes among Non-diabetic Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez; José Leonardo Bonilla Romero; Ernesto Vicente Peña; Miriam Costa Cruz; Gisela Zerquera Trujillo

    2016-01-01

    Background: the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased in recent decades and this trend is expected to continue. Objective: to determine the risk perception for developing type 2 diabetes among non-diabetic individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving non-diabetic individuals in the catchment area of the doctor-and-nurse office No.15 of the Manuel Fajardo Polyclinic in Cienfuegos was conducted between May 2013 and June 2014. The universe consisted of 11...

  16. Perceptions of risk from nanotechnologies and trust in stakeholders: a cross sectional study of public, academic, government and business attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Adam; Gillespie, James; Rolfe, Margaret; Smith, Wayne

    2015-04-26

    Policy makers and regulators are constantly required to make decisions despite the existence of substantial uncertainty regarding the outcomes of their proposed decisions. Understanding stakeholder views is an essential part of addressing this uncertainty, which provides insight into the possible social reactions and tolerance of unpredictable risks. In the field of nanotechnology, large uncertainties exist regarding the real and perceived risks this technology may have on society. Better evidence is needed to confront this issue. We undertook a computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey of the Australian public and a parallel survey of those involved in nanotechnology from the academic, business and government sectors. Analysis included comparisons of proportions and logistic regression techniques. We explored perceptions of nanotechnology risks both to health and in a range of products. We examined views on four trust actors. The general public's perception of risk was significantly higher than that expressed by other stakeholders. The public bestows less trust in certain trust actors than do academics or government officers, giving its greatest trust to scientists. Higher levels of public trust were generally associated with lower perceptions of risk. Nanotechnology in food and cosmetics/sunscreens were considered riskier applications irrespective of stakeholder, while familiarity with nanotechnology was associated with a reduced risk perception. Policy makers should consider the disparities in risk and trust perceptions between the public and influential stakeholders, placing greater emphasis on risk communication and the uncertainties of risk assessment in these areas of higher concern. Scientists being the highest trusted group are well placed to communicate the risks of nanotechnologies to the public.

  17. Perception of the risk to electromagnetic RF fields in INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Gallastegi; Ana Jiménez-Zabala; Loreto Santa-Marina; Juan-José Aurrekoetxea; Mikel Ayerdi; Aitana Lertxundi; Mikel Basterrechea; Jesús Ibarluzea

    2016-01-01

    Perception of environmental risks to the population is a priority issue for the bodies and administrations responsible for managing them. There are few studies on the perception of the risk to RF, but all of them report high levels of concern. This study describes and analyzes the RF risk perception of mothers belonging to the INMA-Gipuzkoa project.Data on perception were collected by means of two questionnaires given to mothers in two different periods. During pregnancy, 625 mothers chose th...

  18. Personal vs. intrinsic melanoma risk awareness: results of the EDIFICE Melanoma survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, C; Lebbe, C; Ricard, S; Saiag, P; Grange, F; Mortier, L; Lhomel, C; Sassolas, B

    2015-02-01

    The efficiency of skin cancer prevention programmes is strongly correlated with the information dispensed, and with the level of risk awareness, of the overall population on one hand, and on the other, of specific sub-populations, according to their risk profiles. The primary objective of this analysis was to establish a correlation between individual perceptions of the risk of developing a melanoma, and the recognized intrinsic risk factors for a given individual. Secondary objectives were to assess factors that are potentially associated with acceptable, high or low perception of melanoma risk. The EDIFICE Melanoma survey was conducted in 2011 via telephone interviews of a representative sample of 1502 individuals aged 18 and older in the French population. Although most respondents (73%) had a true estimation of their intrinsic risk for melanoma, those who did not (underestimation, 17%; overestimation, 10%) had an attitude towards environmental risk factors (sun exposure, sun protection, sunbed use) that did not compensate for this misplaced perception. Skin cancer prevention messages need to be reinforced, new methods of evaluating understanding of the messages need to be implemented, and both need to be included into personal risk assessment. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Affect-laden imagery and risk taking: the mediating role of stress and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traczyk, Jakub; Sobkow, Agata; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process.

  20. RISK PERCEPTION AND DIFFUSION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most recent NHANES data reveals that approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily bec...

  1. Understanding Gaps Between the Risk Perceptions of Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) Residents and Wildfire Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, James R; Champ, Patricia A; Brenkert-Smith, Hannah; Warziniack, Travis; Barth, Christopher M; Falk, Lilia C

    2015-09-01

    Research across a variety of risk domains finds that the risk perceptions of professionals and the public differ. Such risk perception gaps occur if professionals and the public understand individual risk factors differently or if they aggregate risk factors into overall risk differently. The nature of such divergences, whether based on objective inaccuracies or on differing perspectives, is important to understand. However, evidence of risk perception gaps typically pertains to general, overall risk levels; evidence of and details about mismatches between the specific level of risk faced by individuals and their perceptions of that risk is less available. We examine these issues with a paired data set of professional and resident assessments of parcel-level wildfire risk for private property in a wildland-urban interface community located in western Colorado, United States. We find evidence of a gap between the parcel-level risk assessments of a wildfire professional and numerous measures of residents' risk assessments. Overall risk ratings diverge for the majority of properties, as do judgments about many specific property attributes and about the relative contribution of these attributes to a property's overall level of risk. However, overall risk gaps are not well explained by many factors commonly found to relate to risk perceptions. Understanding the nature of these risk perception gaps can facilitate improved communication by wildfire professionals about how risks can be mitigated on private lands. These results also speak to the general nature of individual-level risk perception. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Risk and risk perception of knee osteoarthritis in the US: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, G L; Katz, J N; Losina, E

    2016-04-01

    We sought to investigate risk perception among an online cohort of younger US adults compared with calculated risk estimates. We recruited a population-based cohort 25-44 years of age with no history of knee osteoarthritis (OA) using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, an online marketplace used extensively for behavioral research. After collecting demographic and risk factor information, we asked participants to estimate their 10-year and lifetime risk of knee OA. We compared perceived risk with risk derived from the OA risk calculator (OA Risk C), an online tool built on the basis of the validated OA Policy Model. 375 people completed the study. 21% reported having 3+ risk factors for OA, 25% reported two risk factors, and 32% reported one risk factor. Using the OA Risk C, we calculated a mean lifetime OA risk of 25% and 10-year risk of 4% for this sample. Participants overestimated their lifetime and 10-year OA risk at 48% and 26%, respectively. We found that obesity, female sex, family history of OA, history of knee injury, and occupational exposure were all significantly associated with greater perceived lifetime risk of OA. Risk factors are prevalent in this relatively young cohort. Participants consistently overestimated their lifetime risk and showed even greater overestimation of their 10-year risk, suggesting a lack of knowledge about the timing of OA onset. These data offer insights for awareness and risk interventions among younger persons at risk for knee OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cleaning products, environmental awareness and risk perception in Merida, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Magnolia Martínez-Peña

    Full Text Available Cleaning products are associated with many health and environmental problems. Contamination of water resources by cleaning products is more likely to occur with septic tanks as sewage treatment systems especially in karstic terrains. We explored women's ideas about water sources and the risk cleaning products pose to health and sewage in Mérida, a city in the Yucatán peninsula of Mexico. Women were unaware of the city's water management system. We found a positive and statistically significant association between risk perception and environmental awareness, education level and employment status. We suggest developing education and risk communication strategies to inform residents about the hydro-geological features in the Yucatán, the vulnerability of its karstic aquifer and the health and environmental risks associated with cleaning agents.

  4. Volcanic risk perception in the Campi Flegrei area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, T.; Barberi, F.; Davis, M. S.; Isaia, R.; Nave, R.

    2013-03-01

    The Campi Flegrei which includes part of the city of Naples, is an active volcanic system; its last eruption occurred in 1538 AD. More recently two significant crises occurred between 1969 and 72 and 1982-84 and were accompanied by ground movements (bradyseism) and seismic activity, forcing people of the town of Pozzuoli to be evacuated. Since 1984 development of a volcanic emergency plan has been underway. In 2000 Civil Protection published a risk map which defined the Red Zone, an area highly at risk from pyroclastic flows, which would need to be evacuated before an eruption. The first study to evaluate the volcanic risk perceptions of the people living within the Campi Flegrei area was completed in spring 2006, resulting in the largest sample ever studied on this topic except for one on Vesuvio area residents by Barberi et al. (2008). A 46 item questionnaire was distributed to 2000 of the approximately 300,000 residents of the Campi Flegrei Red Zone, which includes three towns and four neighborhoods within the city of Naples. A total of 1161 questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 58%. Surveys were distributed to junior high and high school students, as well as to adult members of the general population. Results indicated that unlike issues such as crime, traffic, trash, and unemployment, volcanic hazards are not spontaneously mentioned as a major problem facing their community. However, when asked specific questions about volcanic risks, respondents believe that an eruption is likely and could have serious consequences for themselves and their communities and they are quite worried about the threat. Considering the events of 1969-72 and 1982-84, it was not surprising that respondents indicated earthquakes and ground deformations as more serious threats than eruptive phenomena. Of significant importance is that only 17% of the sample knows about the existence of the Emergency Plan, announced in 2001, and 65% said that they have not received

  5. The evolution of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy--Canadian consumer and producer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this study the dynamics of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) held by Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers were evaluated. Since the first domestic case of BSE in 2003, Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers have needed to make decisions on whether or not their purchasing/production behavior should change. Such changes in their behavior may relate to their levels of risk perceptions about BSE, risk perceptions that may be evolving over time and be affected by BSE media information available. An econometric analysis of the behavior of consumers and cow-calf producers might identify the impacts of evolving BSE risk perceptions. Risk perceptions related to BSE are evaluated through observed market behavior, an approach that differs from traditional stated preference approaches to eliciting risk perceptions at a particular point in time. BSE risk perceptions may be specified following a Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) derived from sociology, psychology, and economics. Based on the SARF, various quality and quantity indices related to BSE media information are used as explanatory variables in risk perception equations. Risk perceptions are approximated using a predictive difference approach as defined by Liu et al. (1998). Results showed that Canadian consumer and cow-calf producer risk perceptions related to BSE have been amplified or attenuated by both quantity and quality of BSE media information. Government policies on risk communications need to address the different roles of BSE information in Canadian consumers' and cow-calf producers' behavior.

  6. Online Survey of US Dermatologists' Sunscreen Opinions: Perceptions, Recommendation Factors, and Self-Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farberg, Aaron S; Rigel, Adam C; Rigel, Darrell S

    2016-09-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology and dermatologists' themselves, have recommended public education and patient counseling regarding sunscreen. The purpose of this study was to determine US dermatologists' actual sunscreen perceptions as well as their recommendations and personal usage. 540 practicing US dermatologists responded to an online survey that assessed each physician's perception of safety and efficacy of sunscreen, recommendation factors, and personal usage. Dermatologists have an overall positive view of sunscreen. 99% of dermatologists agree that regular sunscreen use helps lower skin cancer risk, reduces subsequent photoaging, and recommend their family/friends use sunscreen. Most dermatologists believe that oxybenzone and retinyl palmitate are safe in sunscreen (86% and 85%, respectively). Dermatologists used multiple sunscreen recommendation criteria including Sun Protection Factor (SPF) level, broad spectrum protection, cosmetic elegance/feel, and photostability (96%, 98%, 85%, and 68%, respectively). The use of sunscreen remains a critical part of sun protection. Therefore, it is important to assess and understand the perspective and patient recommendations provided by dermatologists. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1121-1123.

  7. A study on the risk perception of light pollution and the process of social amplification of risk in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Choi, Jae Wook; Lee, Eunil; Cho, Yong Min; Ahn, Hyung Rae

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the risk perception level of each light pollution type was analyzed, and the effects of the variables (e.g., psychometric paradigm factor, trust in the government, etc.) on the process of the increase in the risk perception were analyzed. For the sample population (1096 persons) in Korea, the risk perception levels of each light pollution type and other environmental and health risk factors were compared, and the relative magnitude was examined. In addition, to test which variables affect the group with high-risk perception of each light pollution type, a logistic regression analysis was performed. For the group with highest risk perception of light pollution, the odds ratios (OR) of all psychometric paradigms (excluding controllability) increased compared to those of the group with low-risk perception. Additionally, the level showing the acquisition of information from the media and the recollection level of media criticism on each light pollution type showed a statistically significant increase. Especially, the risk perception of light trespass increased as trust in the government decreased. The significance of this study includes the finding that the public's risk perception of light pollution was significantly affected by the psychometric paradigm factors. Moreover, this study analyzed the differences of the variables that affect the increase in the risk perception of each light pollution type and provided a theoretical framework that can practically reflect the strategy for the risk communication of light pollution.

  8. HIV testing and risk perceptions: a qualitative analysis of secondary school students in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Aluzimbi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of self-reported HIV testing and risk behavior among sexually active adolescents and youth in secondary schools in Kampala Uganda. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted between June and October 2010 among secondary school students in Kampala, Uganda. Forty eight (48 students across the 54 schools were purposively selected for the qualitative sub-study based on their responses to particular questions. We thematically analyzed 28 interviews for our qualitative study using Nvivo software. Drug and alcohol use coupled with peers pressure impaired students’ perceptions towards HIV risk and therefore increased their susceptibility to HIV risk behaviors. Of the 28 scripts analyzed, 82% (23/28 had ever had sexual partners, 79% (22/28 were currently sexually active, and 57% (16/28 had ever been tested for HIV. In conclusion, most adolescents interviewed did not perceive HIV testing to be important to HIV prevention and reported low perception of susceptibility to HIV infection. Development of an adolescent HIV prevention model is important in improving uptake of HIV services.

  9. Women's perceptions of breast cancer screening. Spanish screening programme survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Cañada, José M; Rosado-Varela, Petra; Expósito-Álvarez, Inmaculada; González-Guerrero, Macarena; Nieto-Vera, Juan; Benítez-Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2014-12-01

    Participants in breast cancer screening programmes may benefit from early detection but may also be exposed to the risks of overdiagnosis and false positives. We surveyed a sample of Spanish women to assess knowledge, information sources, attitudes and psychosocial impact. A total of 434 breast cancer screening programme participants aged 45-69 years were administered questionnaires regarding knowledge, information sources, attitudes and psychosocial impact. Scores of 5 or more (out of 10) and 12 or less (out of 24) were established as indicating adequate knowledge and a positive attitude, respectively. Psychosocial impact was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Cancer Worry Scale. Only 42 women (9.7%) had adequate knowledge. The mean (SD) knowledge score was 2.97 (1.16). Better educated women and women without previous false positives had higher scores. The main sources of information were television, press, Andalusian Health Service documentation and family and friends. Most participants (99.1%) had a positive attitude, with a mean (SD) score of 3.21 (2.66). Mean (SD) scores for anxiety, depression and cancer worry were 1.86 (3.26), 0.72 (1.99) and 9.4 (3.04), respectively. Women have a very positive attitude to breast cancer screening, but are poorly informed and use television as their main information source. They experience no negative psychosocial impact from participation in such programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure Knowledge and Risk Perception of RF EMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Varsier, Nadège

    2014-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU-Project Low EMF Exposure Future Networks (LEXNET), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere. We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception (RP). Therefore we evaluated respondents' RP of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF RP is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features - except distance - do influence people's general RF EMF RP. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF RP of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher RP, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and RP. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries.

  11. Individual Differences in Children's Risk Perception and Appraisals in Outdoor Play Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Child characteristics including age, gender, risk-taking behaviour and sensation seeking are thought to influence children's ability to appraise risks. The present study investigated children's risk perceptions and appraisals in the context of common outdoor physical play activities. Risk perceptions and appraisal of four- and five-year olds were…

  12. Sociodemographic differences in myocardial infarction risk perceptions among people with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Weinman, John; French, David P

    2007-01-01

    This study examines sociodemographic differences in myocardial infarction (MI) risk perceptions among people with coronary heart disease (CHD) (N = 3130). Two variables for comparative risk perceptions were computed: (1) own risk compared to that of an average person; and (2) own risk compared...

  13. THE RISK PERCEPTION OF TRANSPORT–GENERATED AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta GATERSLEBEN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study that is part of a multidisciplinary project examining the relationship between transport, air pollution and health in Guildford, a medium sized town in the UK. Real-time air quality monitoring revealed low levels of air pollution through vehicle emissions. However, the residents of the town claim that there is an air pollution problem, perceptions reinforced by visual and sensory feedback, i.e., people see dust, feel irritations to their eyes, noses and throats and smell exhaust fumes. It is shown that the higher people believe air pollution levels to be the more responsible they feel and the less trust they have in local authorities and technological developments. Beliefs about the health consequences of air pollution are not related to responsibility and trust. The findings support other studies on risk perception that have shown that people find a risk less acceptable when they have a lower trust in risk managers. It is concluded that these findings are of importance for the environmental education of the public generally and risk communication by local authorities in particular.

  14. Recurrence risk perception and quality of life following treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Sarah T; Janz, Nancy K; Griffith, Kent A; Jagsi, Reshma; Friese, Christopher R; Kurian, Allison W; Hamilton, Ann S; Ward, Kevin C; Morrow, Monica; Wallner, Lauren P; Katz, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about different ways of assessing risk of distant recurrence following cancer treatment (e.g., numeric or descriptive). We sought to evaluate the association between overestimation of risk of distant recurrence of breast cancer and key patient-reported outcomes, including quality of life and worry. We surveyed a weighted random sample of newly diagnosed patients with early-stage breast cancer identified through SEER registries of Los Angeles County & Georgia (2013-14) ~2 months after surgery (N = 2578, RR = 71%). Actual 10-year risk of distant recurrence after treatment was based on clinical factors for women with DCIS & low-risk invasive cancer (Stg 1A, ER+, HER2-, Gr 1-2). Women reported perceptions of their risk numerically (0-100%), with values ≥10% for DCIS & ≥20% for invasive considered overestimates. Perceptions of "moderate, high or very high" risk were considered descriptive overestimates. In our analytic sample (N = 927), we assessed factors correlated with both types of overestimation and report multivariable associations between overestimation and QoL (PROMIS physical & mental health) and frequent worry. 30.4% of women substantially overestimated their risk of distant recurrence numerically and 14.7% descriptively. Few factors other than family history were significantly associated with either type of overestimation. Both types of overestimation were significantly associated with frequent worry, and lower QoL. Ensuring understanding of systemic recurrence risk, particularly among patients with favorable prognosis, is important. Better risk communication by clinicians may translate to better risk comprehension among patients and to improvements in QoL.

  15. A sequential model to link contextual risk, perception and public support for flood adaptation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Small, Mitchell J

    2017-10-01

    The economic damage from coastal flooding has dramatically increased over the past several decades, owing to rapid development in shoreline areas and possible effects of climate change. To respond to these trends, it is imperative for policy makers to understand individuals' support for flood adaptation policy. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data on flood risk, this study investigates coastal residents' support for two adaptation policy measures: incentives for relocation and funding for educational programs on emergency planning and evacuation. Specifically, this study explores the interactive relationships among contextual flood risks, perceived flood risks and policy support for flood adaptation, with the effects of social-demographic variables being controlled. Age, gender, race and partisanship are found to significantly affect individuals' policy support for both adaptation measures. The contextual flooding risks, indicated by distance from the coast, maximum wind speed and peak height of storm surge associated with the last hurricane landfall, and percentage of high-risk flood zone per county, are shown to impact one's perceptions of risk, which in turn influence one's support for both policy measures. The key finding -risk perception mediates the impact of contextual risk conditions on public support for flood management policies - highlights the need to ensure that the public is well informed by the latest scientific, engineering and economic knowledge. To achieve this, more information on current and future flood risks and options available for mitigation as well as risk communication tools are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah; Ria Yuli Angliawati

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk...

  17. Determinants of Farmers’ Climate Risk Perceptions in Agriculture—A Rural Ghana Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Ndamani; Tsunemi Watanabe

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the socio-economic predictors of farmers’ perceptions about climate risk in agriculture. The levels of risk perception among different farmers’ wealth groups are also investigated. A total of 100 farmers in the Lawra district of Ghana are randomly selected and interviewed. Data is obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. A climate risk perception index (CRPI) is derived and applied to assess the degree of perceived risk among...

  18. The perception and knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Željko; Sonicki, Zdenko; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia

    2012-06-01

    To assess perceptions, knowledge, and awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among medical students (freshmen and graduating students). A descriptive cross-sectional survey based on an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in 2008 on 443 medical students - 228 freshmen on their enrollment day and 214 students on the day of their final exam at the University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Croatia. The perception and knowledge of some CVD risk factors, eg, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and metabolic syndrome as well as of lipid-lowering therapy important for CVD prevention was significantly better among graduating students but was still not sufficient. Only 66% of graduating students reported that they would prescribe lipid-lowering therapy to high risk patients. Disappointingly, many graduating students were smoking (30.4%) and had low-awareness of obesity as an important CVD risk factor. These results suggest an urgent need to improve medical students' knowledge of obesity and low physical activity as important CVD risk factors and of the methods for increasing low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and for smoking cessation. All this provides a rationale for modifying the university core curriculum to include more information concerning these issues.

  19. Substance use disorders among registered nurses: prevalence, risks and perceptions in a disciplinary jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyk, Diane

    2015-01-01

    To investigate substance use disorders, impaired practice and health risks among nurses in a disciplinary jurisdiction. The relationship between substance-related risks to patient safety, nurse health and discipline is understudied. A convenience sample of 4064 registered nurses responded to an Internet survey in 2010. Self-reports were given to psychometrically robust measures of health, substance use disorders and organisational support. Perceptions on the treatment and disposition of impaired nurses were also asked. The prevalence of substance use disorders was similar to the general population. Most nurses' coded high risk for impaired practices were working, unknown by their employer/regulator and not receiving treatment. When compared with nurse-peers, their health and organisational support were compromised. Nurse-peers viewed impaired nurses as having a treatable illness that their employers/regulators should assist and afford confidentiality. In this jurisdiction, discipline was not rated as effective for risk mitigation, supportive of nurses with substance use disorders or in alignment with nurse perceptions. Nursing managers play a significant role in addressing substance-related issues among nurses and can be key to influencing the outcomes of these difficult situations. For these reasons, it is important they recognize the ineffectiveness of discipline for substance-related risk mitigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The association between exposure and psychological health in earthquake survivors from the Longmen Shan Fault area: the mediating effect of risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, exposure refers to survivors who suffered from life-changing situations, such as personal injuries, the deaths or injury of family members, relatives or friends or the loss of or damage to personal or family property, as a result of the earthquake. The mediating effect of risk perception on the exposure and psychological health in survivors from the Longmen Shan Fault area and the moderating effect of social support on the relationship between risk perception and psychological health were both examined. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a local Longmen Shan Fault area near the epicenter of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV, the standard Chinese 12-item Short Form (SF-12v2, and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS were used to interview 2,080 earthquake survivors in the period one-year after the earthquake. Based on the environment and the characteristics of the Longmen Shan Fault area, a risk perception questionnaire was developed to evaluate survivor risk perception. Factor and regression analyses were conducted to determine the hypothetical relations. Results The analyses provided effective support for the hypothesized model. Survivor risk perception was classified into direct risk perception and indirect risk perception. Survivor direct risk perception was found to play a partial mediating role in the relationship between exposure and the two domains (Physical component summary (PCS and the Mental component summary (MCS of psychological health. Survivor indirect risk perception was found to have a only partial mediating effect on the association between exposure and MCS. Social support was found to moderate the influence of risk perception on psychological health. Conclusion Risk communication should be considered in future post-earthquake psychological assistance programs and social support strategies could also be

  1. Perception of risk of HIV infections and sexual behaviour of the sexually active university students in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomazana, Njabulo; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to establish university students' perceptions of risk of HIV infections. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 345 sexually active students at two universities in Zimbabwe (one state and one private). Results revealed that above a quarter of the respondents felt at risk of getting HIV due to their regular partners' sexual behaviours and more than half felt at risk of getting HIV due to their casual partners' sexual behaviours. In addition, a third of the respondents acknowledged the HIV risk due to their own sexual behaviours. More state university respondents felt exposed to HIV infections due to own sexual behaviours than their private university counterparts. Despite these revelations, only 66.56% had earlier thought of their chances of getting infected with HIV. Personal HIV risk perceptions were low, reported by 27.76% of the sexually active respondents. Almost all respondents described their fellows' sexual behaviours as either risky or very risky.

  2. Neural correlates of risk perception during real-life risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmälzle, Ralf; Häcker, Frank; Renner, Britta; Honey, Christopher J; Schupp, Harald T

    2013-06-19

    During global health crises, such as the recent H1N1 pandemic, the mass media provide the public with timely information regarding risk. To obtain new insights into how these messages are received, we measured neural data while participants, who differed in their preexisting H1N1 risk perceptions, viewed a TV report about H1N1. Intersubject correlation (ISC) of neural time courses was used to assess how similarly the brains of viewers responded to the TV report. We found enhanced intersubject correlations among viewers with high-risk perception in the anterior cingulate, a region which classical fMRI studies associated with the appraisal of threatening information. By contrast, neural coupling in sensory-perceptual regions was similar for the high and low H1N1-risk perception groups. These results demonstrate a novel methodology for understanding how real-life health messages are processed in the human brain, with particular emphasis on the role of emotion and differences in risk perceptions.

  3. Factors associated with the risk perception and purchase decisions of Fukushima-related food in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dalnim; Seo, Songwon; Song, Min Kyoung; Lee, Hyang Ki; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo

    2017-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the risk level perceived by Koreans on the radioactive contamination of Japanese food that is being distributed in Korea remains high. Many of these perceptions are based on subjective risk perception rather than an objective measure with scientific evidence, which makes communicating risks more difficult; therefore, it is critical to understand factors associated with risk perception for effective risk communication. In this study, we identified variables that are associated with buying tendencies and opinions about the regulatory policy of Japanese seafood after the accident. A survey was conducted with 1045 adults aged over 20 years in Korea. The majority (68.8%) responded that they would not purchase Japanese seafood when radioactivity levels in the food were non-detectable. Moreover, 82.2% responded that the current levels of import restrictions on Japanese seafood must be maintained. Despite many concerns regarding the exposure to radiation and the effects from food products following the Fukushima accident, the opportunities to encounter and to collect correct information remain limited and average radioactive knowledge scores were low (3.63 out of 9). Of the various characteristics associated with purchase decisions and agreement on the current import restraints of Japanese seafood, trust levels in the government and the mass media for providing information on radioactivity were major factors that influenced risk perception. While the scope of this study was limited to seafood, it is very closely tied to daily lives, where we revealed differences about risk perceptions and agreement on import restraints of Japanese seafood per a complex mixture of individual characteristics and the surrounding environment. These results provide useful information to understand the risk perception of the potential radioactive contamination of food and to predict the public's responses to food consumption and import

  4. Mentoring perception and academic performance: an Academic Health Science Centre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Patel, Vanash; Garas, George; Ashrafian, Hutan; Shetty, Kunal; Sevdalis, Nick; Panzarasa, Pietro; Darzi, Ara; Paroutis, Sotirios

    2016-10-01

    To determine the association between professors' self-perception of mentoring skills and their academic performance. Two hundred and fifteen professors from Imperial College London, the first Academic Health Science Centre (AHSC) in the UK, were surveyed. The instrument adopted was the Mentorship Skills Self-Assessment Survey. Statement scores were aggregated to provide a score for each shared core, mentor-specific and mentee-specific skill. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate their relationship with quantitative measures of academic performance (publications, citations and h-index). There were 104 professors that responded (response rate 48%). There were no statistically significant negative correlations between any mentoring statement and any performance measure. In contrast, several mentoring survey items were positively correlated with academic performance. The total survey score for frequency of application of mentoring skills had a statistically significant positive association with number of publications (B=0.012, SE=0.004, p=0.006), as did the frequency of acquiring mentors with number of citations (B=1.572, SE=0.702, p=0.030). Building trust and managing risks had a statistically significant positive association with h-index (B=0.941, SE=0.460, p=0.047 and B=0.613, SE=0.287, p=0.038, respectively). This study supports the view that mentoring is associated with high academic performance. Importantly, it suggests that frequent use of mentoring skills and quality of mentoring have positive effects on academic performance. Formal mentoring programmes should be considered a fundamental part of all AHSCs' configuration. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Perceptions of Social Support, Empowerment and Youth Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…

  6. Should Associations between HIV-Related Risk Perceptions and Behaviors or Intentions Be Positive or Negative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Hiyi; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Xiang, Weina; Gu, Jing; Wang, Zixin

    2012-01-01

    Risk perceptions are important in HIV research and interventions; mixed results were found between HIV-related perceptions and behaviors. We interviewed 377 sexually active injecting drug users in China, finding mixed associations between HIV-related risk perception assessed by two general measures and two previous risk behaviors (syringe sharing: p.05) – partially supporting the ‘reflective hypothesis’ that reflection on previous behaviors increases risk perceptions. When we use specific measures for risk perceptions (HIV transmission via unprotected sex with specific types of sex partner and via syringe sharing) and use behavioral intention to adopt protective risk behaviors (condom use and avoid syringe sharing totally) as dependent variables, positive significant associations were observed – supporting the motivational hypothesis that risk perceptions motivate one to adopt protective behaviors. The direction and significance of the associations of concern depends on types of measures used. It has important implications on research design, data interpretation and services. PMID:23284896

  7. A descriptive Survey on Teachers' Perception of EFL Writing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... develop practical skills and put into action their beliefs regarding writing and its teaching, and 3) the Ministry of Education and other responsible bodies need to offer trainings to preparatory school English language teachers on the implementation of the process approach to writing. Key Terms: Perception, belief, practice ...

  8. A descriptive Survey on Teachers' Perception of EFL Writing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    constructing acceptable paragraphs and essays. Students' poor experience of writing in high school could be the main factor for their poor writing performance. This means, partly, teachers at high school level may not teach writing at all or may give the skill little attention, and their perception about writing and how it should.

  9. Consumers' health perceptions of three types of milk: a survey in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, A E M; Worsley, A

    2003-04-01

    A survey was conducted among 345 randomly selected shoppers in Melbourne, Australia, to identify their perceptions of the healthiness of whole milk, reduced fat milk and soy milk and to investigate demographic influences on health perceptions and types of milk consumption. The survey revealed major differences in shoppers' perceptions of the three types of milk along the themes of bone health, weight control, disease prevention, and, allergy and disease causation. Generally whole milk was perceived more negatively than soy or reduced fat milk. There were few demographic differences in the shoppers' perceptions of the three products. Reported consumption of reduced fat milk was more frequent among women and elderly people, and whole milk consumption was positively related to parenthood. The findings suggest that previous marketing and education campaigns have been effective but the widespread uncertainty and erroneous beliefs about milk products suggest that many consumers have not assimilated new findings about milk products. This represents a challenge for industry and public health practitioners.

  10. Examining the Effects of Objective Hurricane Risks and Community Resilience on Risk Perceptions of Hurricanes at the County Level in the U.S. Gulf Coast: An Innovative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Wanyun; Gardezi, Maaz; Xian, Siyuan

    2017-01-01

    Community risk perceptions can influence their abilities to cope with coastal hazards such as hurricanes and coastal flooding.Our study presents an initial effort to examine the relationship between community resilience and risk perception at the county level, through innovative construction of aggregate variables. Utilizing the 2012 Gulf Coast Climate Change Survey merged with historical hurricane data and community resilience indicators, we first apply a spatial statistical model to constru...

  11. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment at the Time of Screening Mammography: Perceptions and Clinical Management Outcomes for Women at High Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, Nichole A; Byrne, Lindsey; Collins, Christy; Reynolds, Kelly; Bell, Jeffrey G

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of a breast cancer risk assessment (BCRA) at the time of screening mammogram. Women whose BCRA indicated a high risk for cancer received a letter with instructions for breast health care and genetic counseling if appropriate. After 6 months this group received surveys to evaluate their risk perception and their recall of, and compliance with, recommendations. We also explored the impact of other variables such as a recommendation for genetic counseling and physician communication with the women. After the BCRA, the majority of high risk women reported no change in their perceived risk of cancer. A woman's perceived risk of cancer after a BCRA was significantly associated with her recall of recommendations for breast health care, but not with compliance. A recommendation for genetic counseling was not significantly related to women's perceived risk of cancer after the BCRA. Ten percent of women who should have obtained genetic counseling actually completed an appointment. Women who discussed their BCRA results with their physicians were more compliant with a six month breast exam with a doctor (53% vs 17%, p = 0.018). Overall, women felt that the BCRA was helpful and did not cause undue stress or anxiety. Although the cohort's compliance with recommendations was suboptimal, physicians' interactions with their patients may have a positive influence on their compliance.

  12. Risk factor for phlebitis: a questionnaire study of nurses' perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Dragana; Simin, Dragana; Zec, Davor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to assess nurses' perceptions of risk factors for the development of phlebitis, with a special focus on the perception of phlebitic potentials of some infusion medications and solutions. Method: a cross-sectional questionnaire study, which included a sample of 102 nurses. Results: Nurses recognized some factors that may reduce the incidence of phlebitis; however, more than half of the nurses were unaware that the material and diameter of the cannula can affect the incidence rate of phlebitis. Furthermore,underlying disease and high pH of medications or solutions were identified as potential risk factors, whereas low pH and low osmolality were not. Nurses identified Vancomycin and Benzylpenicillin antibiotics with the strongest phlebitic potential. Among other medications and intravenous fluids, Aminophylline, Amiodaronehydrochloride and Potassium chloride 7.4% were identified as potentially causing phlebitis. Conclusion: predisposing factors for phlebitis relating to patients and administered therapy were identified by nurses, while some cannula related risk factors, in particular its physicochemical properties and the time for cannula replacement, were not fully perceived. PMID:26444170

  13. Healthy children's identification and risk perception of medicines in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Ben; Williams, Sian E; Gard, Paul R; MacAdam, Angela B

    2012-01-01

    Children's understanding of medicines has an impact on their behavior toward those medicines, and yet there has been a paucity of studies exploring this area. To assess children's ability to identify and to explore their risk perceptions of medicines. One hundred eighty-two children aged 4 to 11 years at 2 primary schools in England completed a worksheet containing photos of foods and pharmaceutical products. Children were asked to identify what the picture showed and classify it as "good for them," "bad for them," or "sometimes good/sometimes bad for them." Responses were marked as correct if they identified an item without the need for exact identification. Where an item was correctly identified, risk perception was analyzed. Children correctly identified 5 of the 7 pictures as a form of medicine (mean=5.10, standard deviation=1.51), and identification was positively correlated with age (ρ=0.59, Pwhite (71.4% correct, 95% CI=64.9-78) or pink tablets (33.5% correct, 95% CI=26.7-40.4). There was a significant shift with age in the perceptions of the children as they changed from reporting that medicines were good for them to reporting that they were sometimes good and sometimes bad for them. This held for all medicines (χ(2) tests, P<.05) except for the cream and the inhaler. As children get older, they become better at identifying medicines, and they become more likely to see their potential risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptions of mumps and MMR vaccination among university students in England: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton-Maggs, Diane; Conrad, David; Keenan, Alex; Lamden, Ken; Ghebrehewet, Sam; Vivancos, Roberto

    2012-07-20

    Mumps is easily preventable through vaccination. Investigation of a number of recent mumps outbreaks in universities in the North West of England, however, found that affected students were either not vaccinated or only partially vaccinated. An online survey of students (n=2456) attending five universities in the region was undertaken during 2010 to establish MMR vaccination status, knowledge of mumps and willingness to take up vaccination if offered. Regression analysis was undertaken to identify characteristics of unimmunized students to ascertain likely target groups for future vaccination campaigns. Students least likely to be fully vaccinated with MMR included males; those not registered with a GP; first year students; mature students; and those with poor knowledge of mumps. A high proportion of students were willing to accept MMR vaccination if offered at university. Those least likely to take up vaccination included students not registered with a GP; mature students; and those who did not consider mumps to be a serious disease. The survey also highlighted that misconceptions remain about both the MMR vaccine safety and perceptions of risk/benefit of the vaccine. Encouraging registration with a GP and awareness raising should be a key part of campaigns to improve vaccination uptake among university students. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perception survey on the value of the hospital pharmacist at the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles García-Martín

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the perception and evaluation of the Emergency pharmacist by the medical and nursing staff at the Emergency department.Methods: A multicenter study based on a survey sent to the Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacists (SEFH for Emergency pharmacists (EPh to distribute among the Emergency staff. Descriptive statistics were used, with a 95% confidence interval.Results: 102 (12% questionnaires were completed by 73 Emergency Physicians (71.6% and 29 Emergency Nurses (28.4%, out of 835 surveys sent. The most common pharmaceutical activities, and perceived as more relevant for patient safety, were: consultation solution, prescription validation, and medication reconciliation. 63% of respondents supported the prospective review of high-risk medications, while 89% believed that the Pharmacist improves the quality of care. EPh are considered useful for training healthcare staff and patients, and 77% of respondents considered them as an integral member of the team. They would resort more to Pharmacists if they were present at the hospital department.Conclusions: The results show the acceptance of Hospital Pharmacists in the Emergency Department; their functions are known and valued. They are considered an integral member of the team, who will provide safety and improve patient care. Medication reconciliation and prescription validation are highlighted because of their relevance in terms of safety. Further studies are needed to assess health outcomes and their economic impact.

  16. Small Pilot Survey on Parents’ Perception of the Relationship between Children and Pets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Russo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since companion animals are taking on more important roles in family life, the aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of parents about the relationship between their children and pets. A number of parents were asked to fill in a questionnaire; the principal topics were: pet ownership, pet care, relationship between pets and children, and sources of information about pet management. Eighty-two parents completed the survey; 71.4% of them already had pets before having children; pet care and health has emerged to be rather important, since 96.4% of the pets are taken to the veterinarian at least once a year; moreover, the great majority of the parents (97.2% were not worried about the possible risks, linked to pets, pertaining to their child’s health. The present survey confirms that pets are mostly considered as members of the family, and not only as a benefit for the children. Moreover, the relationship between children and pets is basically seen as a positive experience for children.

  17. Colorado Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.

    This report describes the results of a survey conducted in 1993. The report was written to stimulate useful discussions among educators, parents, and youth about ways to increase informed support for effective, school-based comprehensive health programs. The survey was designed by national experts to measure the extent to which adolescents engage…

  18. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Michael N.; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Background Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. Methods This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine resid...

  19. Children’s perception on obesity and quality of life: a Mexican survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rendón-Macías, Mario-Enrique; Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Villasís-Keever, Miguel-Ángel; Pérez-García, Celia

    2014-01-01

    Background Child obesity has become a major health problem worldwide. In order to design successful intervention strategies, it is necessary to understand how children perceive obesity and its consequences. Methods With the aim to evaluate scholar children perception of obesity as a significant factor on the quality of life, we developed and validated the “Obesity impact on the quality of life perception-questionnaire” (ObI-Q). We surveyed 1335 healthy children aged 6–12 years, randomly selec...

  20. Understanding Perceptions and Attitudes to Risk in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Clayton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasingly complex and rapidly-evolving array of risks presents one of the greatest challenges for decision-makers in all sectors, including the transport and tourism industry. The prospects of an international destination can be profoundly damaged in minutes as a result of a major outbreak of infectious disease, a natural disaster or a terrorist incident. It is therefore vital to understand the changing nature of risk and the ways that risks are perceived and understood, especially as people tend to respond to the perception of risks rather than actual risks, which means that their responses are not always rational and can even expose them to more danger. The first part of this paper assesses the understanding of risk, and why social, cultural and psychological factors influence the response to threat, the second part looks at the application of this approach to tourism, and the third part sets out a model that can capture the relevant variables for the tourism industry.

  1. Exploring Students' Ideas about Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Power Using Risk Perception Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Due to increased energy demand, Turkey is continuing to explore the possibilities of introducing nuclear power. Gaining acceptance from local populations, however, may be problematic because nuclear power has a negative image and risk perceptions are complicated by a range of psychological and cultural factors. In this study, we explore the views…

  2. Effects of alternative styles of risk information on EMF risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Elstein, Arthur; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    radiation from mobile phones and masts. The objective was to study whether different types of information were rated as equally useful, informative, comprehensible, and trustworthy. Moreover, an important issue was whether information would influence risk perception and intended behavior. The conclusion...

  3. Do Maternal Caregiver Perceptions of Childhood Obesity Risk Factors and Obesity Complications Predict Support for Prevention Initiatives Among African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua; Wright, Alesha R

    2017-07-01

    Objectives African American maternal caregiver support for prevention of childhood obesity may be a factor in implementing, monitoring, and sustaining children's positive health behaviors. However, little is known about how perceptions of childhood obesity risk factors and health complications influence caregivers' support of childhood obesity prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine if childhood obesity risk factors and health complications were associated with maternal caregivers' support for prevention initiatives. Methods A convenience sample of maternal caregivers (N = 129, ages 22-65 years) completed the childhood obesity perceptions (COP) survey. A linear regression was conducted to determine whether perceptions about childhood obesity risk factors and subsequent health complications influenced caregivers' support for prevention strategies. Results Caregivers' perceptions of childhood obesity risk factors were moderate (M = 3.4; SD = 0.64), as were their perceptions of obesity-related health complications (M = 3.3; SD = 0.75); however, they perceived a high level of support for prevention strategies (M = 4.2; SD = 0.74). In the regression model, only health complications were significantly associated with caregiver support (β = 0.348; p Childhood obesity prevention efforts should emphasize health complications by providing education and strategies that promote self-efficacy and outcome expectations among maternal caregivers.

  4. Characteristics of risk-taking behaviors, HIV and AIDS knowledge, and risk perception among young males in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Zhang, J; Detels, R; Li, V C; Cheng, H; Duan, S; Li, Z; Dong, L; Huang, S; Jia, M; Bi, X

    1997-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to describe risk-taking behaviors and to assess the knowledge and risk perception of HIV and AIDS among young males aged 18 to 29 years in 82 villages in Longchuan, Yunnan, China, in 1994. Information on demographic, behavioral, and drug-using factors, and knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, and risk perception was collected using an interviewer-administered anonymous questionnaire. A total of 1,548 individuals were interviewed and 433 drug users, including 52 nonsharing injectors and 140 sharing injectors, were identified. Over half the individuals scored 0 on HIV knowledge, but knowledge was greater among nonsharing drug injectors. Most drug injectors had initiated drug injection after 1990. The reported incidence continues to increase in all three major ethnic groups. Sharing of equipment was common (73%) among injectors. Drug users were four times more likely to have had premarital or extramarital sex, but condoms were used by only 2.5%. Thus, factors promoting spreading of HIV are common in this area. We recommend that a community-based intervention program, targeting both young men and women, be implemented and evaluated in Longchuan as soon as possible.

  5. Audience segmentation as a social-marketing tool in health promotion: use of the risk perception attitude framework in HIV prevention in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, Rajiv N; Brown, Jane; Mkandawire, Glory; Folda, Lisa; Böse, Kirsten; Creel, Alisha H

    2009-12-01

    We sought to determine whether individuals' risk perceptions and efficacy beliefs could be used to meaningfully segment audiences to assist interventions that seek to change HIV-related behaviors. A household-level survey of individuals (N=968) was conducted in 4 districts in Malawi. On the basis of responses about perceptions of risk and beliefs about personal efficacy, we used cluster analysis to create 4 groups within the risk perception attitude framework: responsive (high risk, strong efficacy), avoidance (high risk, weak efficacy), proactive (low risk, strong efficacy), and indifference (low risk, weak efficacy). We ran analysis of covariance models (controlling for known predictors) to determine how membership in the risk perception attitude framework groups would affect knowledge about HIV, HIV-testing uptake, and condom use. A significant association was found between membership in 1 or more of the 4 risk perception attitude framework groups and the 3 study variables of interest: knowledge about HIV (F8, 956=20.77; Psegmentation technique that can be used to determine whether messages should augment perceptions of risk, beliefs about personal efficacy, or both.

  6. Risk perceptions, risk attitudes and the formation of consumer acceptance of Genetically Modified (GM) food

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Font, Montserrat; Gil Roig, José María

    2009-01-01

    The influence of risk perception and risk attitudes in the process of accepting genetically modified (GM) food is often ignored, and particularly whether both constructs (latent variables) have a combined effect in explaining consumer acceptance. Similarly, the inclusion of organic product standards juxtaposed to GM food is unknown. This paper attempts to shed some light on this question by examining the decision making process through the use of structural equation modeling (SEM). We use sur...

  7. Parental Perceptions of Obesity and Obesity Risk Associated With Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary L; McClellan, Wendy; Raman, Sripriya; Sherman, Ashley; Guest, Erin; August, Keith

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is well established and ranges anywhere from 29% to 69% depending on the study. We sought to explore the awareness of parents of survivors of childhood ALL regarding the increased risk of obesity and their perceptions regarding the overall health of their child. One hundred twenty-one parents of 99 survivors of pediatric ALL completed surveys regarding perceptions of obesity risk in survivors. Eighty percent of parents of overweight and obese survivors correctly identified their child as "a little overweight" or "overweight." Few parents recalled discussing weight gain (21%) or obesity risk (36%) with their practitioner. Parents that did recall having these discussions and/or reported a decreased level of posttherapy activity in their child were more likely to be concerned about their child's weight status. Improved awareness and education regarding the risk of obesity and associated comorbid conditions may provide an avenue for future prevention of obesity in survivors of pediatric ALL. Discussion and education regarding a healthy lifestyle, including proper diet and exercise, should be incorporated early in routine patient visits.

  8. Climate Change Perceptions of NY State Farmers: The Role of Risk Perceptions and Adaptive Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno; Burnham, Morey; Terracina-Hartman, Carol; Sopchak, Amanda R.; Selfa, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is expected to severely impact agricultural practices in many important food-producing regions, including the Northeast United States. Changing climate conditions, such as increases in the amount of rainfall, will require farmers to adapt. Yet, little is known with regard to farmers' perceptions and understandings about climate change, especially in the industrialized country context. This paper aims at overcoming this research limitation, as well as determining the existing contextual, cognitive, and psychological barriers that can prevent adoption of sustainable practices of farmers in New York State. The study is framed within the adaptive capacity and risk perception literature, and is based on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with farmers in 21 farms in two counties in Central New York. The results reveal diverging views about the long-term consequences of climate change. Results also reveal that past experience remains as the most important source of information that influences beliefs and perceptions about climate change, confirming previous research.

  9. Climate Change Perceptions of NY State Farmers: The Role of Risk Perceptions and Adaptive Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno; Burnham, Morey; Terracina-Hartman, Carol; Sopchak, Amanda R; Selfa, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is expected to severely impact agricultural practices in many important food-producing regions, including the Northeast United States. Changing climate conditions, such as increases in the amount of rainfall, will require farmers to adapt. Yet, little is known with regard to farmers' perceptions and understandings about climate change, especially in the industrialized country context. This paper aims at overcoming this research limitation, as well as determining the existing contextual, cognitive, and psychological barriers that can prevent adoption of sustainable practices of farmers in New York State. The study is framed within the adaptive capacity and risk perception literature, and is based on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with farmers in 21 farms in two counties in Central New York. The results reveal diverging views about the long-term consequences of climate change. Results also reveal that past experience remains as the most important source of information that influences beliefs and perceptions about climate change, confirming previous research.

  10. Florida Red Tide Knowledge and Risk Perception: Is there a need for tailored messaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret M; Studts, Jamie

    2014-02-01

    Harmful algal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, occur throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Recent research efforts sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and others found that Florida red tide causes both acute and possibly chronic health effects from the toxic aerosols. Florida red tide also demonstrated significant social and economic impacts to both coastal residents and visitors. In conjunction with the research, persistent outreach efforts were conducted over the 11 year period. The goal of this project was to assess potential needs for tailored messaging needed among different red tide information user groups. Survey participants included 303 local residents, both with asthma and without, and 'snowbirds (seasonal residents that reside in the Sarasota area for more than 3 months but less than 6 months/year), also both with asthma and without. The questionnaire assessed Florida red tide knowledge and risk perception regarding Florida red tide using items drawn from two previously published surveys to allow comparison. Our results reveal that overall knowledge of Florida red tide has not changed. We found that knowledge was consistent across our selected groups and also did not vary by age, gender and education level. However, knowledge regarding consumption of seafood during Florida red tide has declined. Risk perception increased significantly for people who have asthma. Individuals responsible for public health communication regarding Florida red tide and human health concerns need to continue to pursue more effective outreach messages and delivery methods.

  11. Governance implications of nanomaterials companies' inconsistent risk perceptions and safety practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeman, Cassandra D. [University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Sociology (United States); Baumgartner, Lynn; Carr, Benjamin M.; Fish, Allison M.; Meyerhofer, John D. [UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Satterfield, Terre A. [University of California, Santa Barbara, NSF Center for Nanotechnology and Society (United States); Holden, Patricia A. [UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Harthorn, Barbara Herr, E-mail: harthorn@cns.ucsb.edu [University of California, Santa Barbara, NSF Center for Nanotechnology and Society (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Current research on the nanotechnology industry indicates its downstream expansion at a rapid pace, while toxicological research and best practices for environmental health and safety are still being developed. Companies that use and/or produce engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have enormous potential to influence safe-handling practices for ENMs across the product life cycle. Knowledge of both industry practices and leaders' perceptions of risk is vital for understanding how companies will act to control potential environmental and health risks. This article reports results from a new international survey of nanomaterials companies in 14 countries. In this survey, company participants reported relatively high levels of uncertainty and/or perceived risk with regard to ENMs. However, these perspectives were not accompanied by expected risk-avoidant practices or preferences for regulatory oversight. A majority of companies indicated 'lack of information' as a significant impediment to implementing nano-specific safety practices, but they also reported practices that were inconsistent with widely available guidance. Additionally, in the absence of safe-handling regulations, companies reported nano-specific health and safety programs that were narrow in scope. Taken together, these findings indicate that health and safety guidance is not reaching industry. While industry leaders' reluctance toward regulation might be expected, their own reported unsafe practices and recognition of possible risks suggest a more top-down approach from regulators is needed to protect workers and the environment.

  12. Risky-Play at School. Facilitating Risk Perception and Competence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrysen, Ann; Bertrands, Els; Leyssen, Leene; Smets, Lieve; Vanderspikken, Anja; De Graef, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Recent research indicates that risk competence and perception can be improved through the learning environment. The project "Riscki" examined how risk perception and risk competence in young children between three and eight years of age can be observed and measured within the classroom and school context. An intensive package of…

  13. Consumer familiarity with foods and the perception of risks and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in familiarity with food products may influence how information about the risks and benefits about foods is used in forming risk and benefit perceptions. In two experimental studies, the risk and benefit perceptions of student participants, for four foods (familiar or unfamiliar) were

  14. Risk Perception of Plastic Pollution: Importance of Stakeholder Involvement and Citizen Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    2017-01-01

    Risk perception has a significant impact on how society reacts to a given risk. There have been cases where a mismatch between the actual risk and the perception of it has led to poor decisions on societal initiatives, such as inappropriate regulatory measures. It is therefore important that the ...

  15. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  16. Risk perception and emotional coping: a pathway for behavioural addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Grivel, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes current concepts of the working memory with regard to its role within emotional coping strategies. In particular, it focuses on the fact that the limited capacity of the working memory to process now-relevant information can be turned into an advantage, when the individual is occupied by dealing with unpleasant emotion. Based on a phenomenon known as dual-task interference (DTI), this emotion can be chased by intense arousal due to clearly identifiable external stressors. Thus, risk perception might be used as a 'DTI inductor' that allows avoidance of unpleasant emotion. Successful mastery of risk adds a highly relevant dopaminergic component to the overall experience. The resulting mechanism of implicit learning may contribute to the development of a behavioural addiction. Besides its putative effects in the development of a behavioural addiction, the use of DTI might be of a more general interest for the clinical practice, especially in the field of psychotherapy. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. [Operational aspects of risk perception in the electromagnetic fields exposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennarola, E; Barletta, R; Quarto, E; Pennarola, R

    2007-01-01

    The increase of electromagnetic fields exposition is being associated with the increase of risk perception in the people exposed due to the uncertainty of the biological and sanitary effects. Research is being carried out on the symptomatology shown by the 45 people living near power-lines in the Benevento area and consequently exposed to electromagnetic fields. The measure of the magnetic and electric field was in the normal range while the people showed most symptoms in the subjective and behavioural sphere. The research findings suggest that risk assessement should take into account the subjectivity of the people exposed as shown in the special questionnaires with the aim of reducing the subjective and behavioural symptomatology for developing a new environmental medicine.

  18. Health risks occurring when color is percepted under led lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kaptsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of color perception under LED lighting. We revealed that inadequate perception of a signal color by a driver led to greater risks of transport accidents. We reviewed both Jung-Helmholtz three-color hypothesis and a modern one based on fiber-optical approach to functioning of "Mueller cells and cones" system. We made an attempt to explain a number of effects related to visibility curves and time delays when defining color of light signals. Our research on assessing influence exerted by LED lighting on functional state and working capacity of railway workers during which we applied occupational selection techniques revealed negative changes. We proved there was a decrease in functional resistance to color sense between red and green signals as well as longer response time for complicated sight-motor reaction and significant decrease in readiness to emergency actions (resistance to monotony in examined individuals. The article also contains data on time peculiarities which are characteristic for defining signals color in relation to red signal (650 nm. We showed that when red color LEDs with wave length much shorter than 650 nm were used in signaling devices it caused risks of inadequate color detection, longer reaction to inhibiting signals, and greater possibility of transport accidents and negative events in everyday life. These peculiarities should be taken into account when designing traffic lights and other signaling devices which provide transport safety. We also proved that signaling traffic lights for transport systems should be designed allowing for physiology of color perception by a human visual analyzer; application of LEDs with wave length shorter than 650 nm should be absolutely excluded

  19. Perceptions of psychosocial hazards, work-related stress and workplace priority risks in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortum, Evelyn; Leka, Stavroula; Cox, Tom

    2011-01-01

    During the last few decades, major global developments in the world of work include an international trend to shift production to developing countries, with wide variations in working conditions and exposure to traditional and emerging occupational risks, such as psychosocial risks. The latter have rarely been addressed or explored in developing and economically-emerging country contexts while we find an abundant body of research from industrialized countries. The research presented, which is part of a larger study, explored the perception of multi-disciplinary experts from different regions, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), of the nature of psychosocial hazards, and work-related stress, as well as their views on workplace priorities that require urgent attention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 experts from developing countries which were subjected to thematic analysis. A two-tiered Delphi survey was completed by 74 experts in the first round with 53 of these experts completing the survey in the second round. Psychosocial hazards and work-related stress were mostly seen as interchangeable in terms of source and effect and all participants perceived them as concern to their workforce. Through the interviews and the Delphi surveys they allude to our contemporary understanding of psychosocial risks. Workplace risks of priority differed by region but primarily work-related stress, injury and accident prevention, and substance abuse and risk behaviors were reported to require urgent attention. The current lack of awareness and research in the area of psychosocial risks and work-related stress hampers action in developing countries. International experts should support the exchange of information and the development of interventions in workplaces in developing countries with a view to integrating these emerging risks into comprehensive occupational health and safety policy frameworks to make such approaches more effective.

  20. Lung cancer risk perception and distress: difference by smoking status, and role of physical activity and race among US population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Mathur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: cigarette smoking is the greatest known risk factor for lung cancer, and people with different smoking status may process risk information differently. While psychological distress has been linked with smoking status, little is known about the impact of distress on lung cancer perception or the moderating role of physical activity and race. This study explores the association of lung cancer perception and distress and investigates the effects of physical activity and race on that association.Methods: the study uses a national, biennial survey (the Health Information National Trends Survey that was designed to collect nationally representative data on the American public’s need for, access to, and use of cancer-related information using a cross-sectional, complex sample survey design. Out of 5 586 participants, 1 015 were current smokers, 1 599 were former smokers, 2 877 were never smokers. Of the sample, 1 765 participants answered the lung cancer risk perception question and had no personal history of lung cancer. Statistical analysis contrasts smokers, former smokers, and never smokers to examine the association of lung cancer perception and distress and the moderating role of physical activity and race.Results: distress and lung cancer risk perception were significantly positively associated (p value < 0.001. Respondents who were current smokers and were distressed had very high odds of agreeing that they have a somewhat high chance (odds ratio=900.8, CI: 94.23, 8 611.75; p value < 0.001 or a very high chance (odds ratio=500.44 CI: 56.53, 4 430.02, p value < 0.001 of developing lung cancer in the future as compared to not distressed never smokers. However, race and physical activity status did not significantly affect perception of risk. Perceptions of risk are important precursors of health change.Conclusions: elevated distress level and higher perceived risk, in addition to physical activity status and race, could potentially

  1. Neural Correlates of Risk Perception: HIV vs. Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eBarth

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on HIV risk perception suggest that people may rely on impressions they have about the safety of their partner. Previous studies show that individuals perceived as 'risky' regarding HIV elicit a differential brain response in both earlier (~200 - 350 ms and later (~350 - 700 ms time windows compared to those perceived as safe. This raises the question whether this ERP response is specific to contagious life-threatening diseases or a general mechanism triggered by life-threatening but non-contagious diseases. In the present study, we recorded dense sensor EEG while participants (N = 36 evaluated photographs of unacquainted individuals for either HIV or leukemia risk. The ERP results replicated previous findings revealing earlier and later differential brain responses towards individuals perceived as high risk for HIV. However, there were no significant ERP differences for high vs. low leukemia risk. Rather than reflecting a generic response to disease, the present findings suggest that intuitive judgments of HIV risk are at least in part specific to sexually transmitted diseases.

  2. Do beef risk perceptions or risk attitudes have a greater effect on the beef purchase decisions of Canadian consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is applied in this study to group Canadian households by two characteristics, their risk perceptions and risk attitudes toward beef. There are some similarities in demographic profiles, meat purchases, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) media recall between the cluster that perceives beef to be the most risky and the cluster that has little willingness to accept the risks of eating beef. There are similarities between the medium risk perception cluster and the medium risk attitude cluster, as well as between the cluster that perceives beef to have little risk and the cluster that is most willing to accept the risks of eating beef. Regression analysis shows that risk attitudes have a larger impact on household-level beef purchasing decisions than do risk perceptions for all consumer clusters. This implies that it may be more effective to undertake policies that reduce the risks associated with eating beef, instead of enhancing risk communication to improve risk perceptions. Only for certain clusters with higher willingness to accept the risks of eating beef might enhancing risk communication increase beef consumption significantly. The different role of risk perceptions and risk attitudes in beef consumption needs to be recognized during the design of risk management policies.

  3. Physical and biological dosimetry for risk perception in radioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Amaral

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in ionizing radiation (IR applications, especially nuclear, has been followed by the growth of public concern for the potential associated risks. The public’s perception of such risks is often based on the philosophy that IR is harmful at any exposure level. On the other hand, although radiation workers have knowledge about the nature of IR and its potential health effects, the relationship between absorbed dose and risk is not well understood, principally for low doses. This report presents an overview of physical and biological dosimetry as complementary methodologies, as well as their possible contribution for improving risk perception in radioprotection.O crescente aumento das aplicações das radiações ionizantes, em particular as radiações de origem nuclear, tem sido acompanhado pelo aumento do interesse público em relação aos riscos associados a essas aplicações. A percepção de tais riscos por parte da população é freqüentemente baseada na filosofia que a radiação ionizante é perigosa independentemente dos níveis de exposição. Por outro lado, apesar dos trabalhadores ocupacionalmente expostos terem conhecimento da natureza da IR e seus possíveis efeitos á saúde, a relação entre dose absorvida e risco não é bem entendida por estes, em particular para baixos valores de dose. Este artigo resume aspectos da dosimetria física e biológica como metodologias complementares na melhoria da percepção dos riscos em radioproteção.

  4. Association between risk perception, subjective knowledge, and depression in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hissei; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Fukutomi, Eriko; Wada, Taizo; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Chen, Wen-Ling; Tanaka, Mire; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fujisawa, Michiko; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2015-05-30

    Risk perception is one of the core factors in theories of health behavior promotion. However, the association between knowledge, risk perception, and depressed mood in depression is unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between subjective knowledge, risk perception, and objective scores of depression in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. A total of 747 elderly participants (mean age: 76.1, female: 59.8%) who completed the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) along with items assessing subjective knowledge and risk perception were included in the analysis. We assessed the correlation between subjective knowledge and risk perception, and then compare GDS-15 scores by level of subjective knowledge and risk perception. Subjective knowledge was weakly associated with risk perception and related to lower GDS-15 scores in a dose-response pattern, which did not change after adjusting for age, gender, basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL, years of education and history of depression. There was no significant association between risk perception and GDS-15 scores. The relationship between knowledge, risk perception, and depressed mood in younger generations is unclear, but warrants examination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Precautionary Principle and Risk Perception: Experimental Studies in the EMF Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter M. Wiedemann; Holger Schütz

    2005-01-01

    .... We present results from two experimental studies that indicate that precautionary measures may trigger concerns, amplify EMF-related risk perceptions, and lower trust in public health protection...

  6. The risk perception paradox--implications for governance and communication of natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachinger, Gisela; Renn, Ortwin; Begg, Chloe; Kuhlicke, Christian

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the main insights from selected literature on risk perception, particularly in connection with natural hazards. It includes numerous case studies on perception and social behavior dealing with floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcano eruptions, wild fires, and landslides. The review reveals that personal experience of a natural hazard and trust--or lack of trust--in authorities and experts have the most substantial impact on risk perception. Cultural and individual factors such as media coverage, age, gender, education, income, social status, and others do not play such an important role but act as mediators or amplifiers of the main causal connections between experience, trust, perception, and preparedness to take protective actions. When analyzing the factors of experience and trust on risk perception and on the likeliness of individuals to take preparedness action, the review found that a risk perception paradox exists in that it is assumed that high risk perception will lead to personal preparedness and, in the next step, to risk mitigation behavior. However, this is not necessarily true. In fact, the opposite can occur if individuals with high risk perception still choose not to personally prepare themselves in the face of a natural hazard. Therefore, based on the results of the review, this article offers three explanations suggesting why this paradox might occur. These findings have implications for future risk governance and communication as well as for the willingness of individuals to invest in risk preparedness or risk mitigation actions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Perception of the risk to electromagnetic RF fields in INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Gallastegi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perception of environmental risks to the population is a priority issue for the bodies and administrations responsible for managing them. There are few studies on the perception of the risk to RF, but all of them report high levels of concern. This study describes and analyzes the RF risk perception of mothers belonging to the INMA-Gipuzkoa project.Data on perception were collected by means of two questionnaires given to mothers in two different periods. During pregnancy, 625 mothers chose the five relevant environmental issues in their place of residence from a list of 16. When their children were 8, 386 mothers rated, on a scale from 0 to 10, their perception of their levels of exposure to RF and the health risk derived from such exposure.During pregnancy, 31.8 % of mothers chose proximity to RF antennas as one of the 5 most important environmental problems. When their children were 8, 98.0 % and 90.3 % of women reported medium or high perception values (between 5 and 10 regarding exposure and health risk, respectively. A moderate correlation was found between exposure perception and risk perception (0.5. There is no association between RF exposure perception and actual levels measured inside homes.Knowing the factors associated with the perception of risks by the population will be useful to manage them properly.

  8. A common vision of energy risk? Energy securitisation and company perceptions of risk in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Stoddard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, energy security is provided by EU institutions, member states and commercial energy companies. However, despite the important role companies play in the provision of European energy security, it is not immediately evident to what extent the interests of the internationally operating energy firms are in line with the energy security preferences held by EU institutions. Analysing this relationship from the perspective of perceptions of energy security and energy business risk, this paper examines the extent to which there is a convergence between the energy securitisation of the European Commission and the observation of business risk as perceived by major European and international energy firms. It finds that while there are some significant areas where Commission securitisation contradicts energy company interests (e.g. climate change and energy prices there is also a high degree of convergence, in particular regarding perceptions of upstream political risk.

  9. Perception of the Risks of Ebola, Enterovirus-E68 and Influenza Among Emergency Department Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren K. Whiteside

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emerging infectious diseases often create concern and fear among the public. Ebola virus disease (EVD and enterovirus (EV-68 are uncommon viral illnesses compared to influenza. The objective of this study was to determine risk for these viral diseases and then determine how public perception of influenza severity and risk of infection relate to more publicized but less common emerging infectious diseases such as EVD and EV-68 among a sample of adults seeking care at an emergency department (ED in the United States. Methods: We included consenting adults who sought care in two different urban EDs in Seattle, WA in November 2014. Excluded were those who were not fluent in English, in police custody, had decreased level of consciousness, a psychiatric emergency, or required active resuscitation. Patients were approached to participate in an anonymous survey performed on a tablet computer. Information sought included demographics, medical comorbidities, risk factors for EVD and EV-68, and perceptions of disease likelihood, severity and worry for developing EVD, EV-68 or influenza along with subjective estimates of the number of people who have died of each virus over the year in the United States. Results: A total of 262 (88.5% participation rate patients participated in the survey. Overall, participants identified that they were more likely to get influenza compared to EVD (p<0.001 or EV-68 (p<0.001, but endorsed worry and concern about getting both EVD and EV-68 despite having little or no risk for these viral diseases. Nearly two-thirds (64% of participants had at-least one risk factor for an influenza-related complication. Most participants (64% believed they could get influenza in the next 12 months. Only 52% had received a seasonal influenza vaccine. Conclusion: Perception of risk for EVD, EV-68 and influenza is discordant with actual risk as well as self-reported use of preventive care. Influenza is a serious public health

  10. Understanding Health Information Seeking: A Test of the Risk Perception Attitude Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Katherine L; Bell, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The authors used the Risk Perception Attitude framework, which is grounded in the Extended Parallel Process Model, to predict people's intentions to seek health information. In an online survey, 689 participants recruited from a crowdsource website were queried about their anticipated health information seeking, perceived risk, and efficacy in response to four scenarios pertaining to hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, alcohol dependence, and diabetes. Each participant was categorized for each scenario as responsive (higher risk, higher efficacy), avoidant (higher risk, lower efficacy), proactive (lower risk, higher efficacy), or indifferent (lower risk, lower efficacy). As predicted, responsive individuals were more likely to seek information than avoidant individuals, but only in three of the four scenarios. Also as expected, there was no difference between proactive and indifferent individuals' likelihood of seeking health information for any scenario. Risk and efficacy, while significant predictors of anticipated health information seeking, left much of the variance unexplained. An analysis of the reasons for information seeking and nonseeking among nonconforming cases suggests that a wider range of influences on health information seeking should be investigated, including curiosity, prior knowledge, social expectations, and situational norms.

  11. Psychological Vulnerability and Earthquake Risk Perception in Bucharest/Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Cretu, Zeno; Armas, Iuliana; Stanciugelu, Irina

    2010-05-01

    The importance of studying the relationship with the natural hazard events from a psycho-social perspective is fundamental by the experience with past disasters as much as by the research in the field that proved that the people's psychologic structures may constitute a starting point for risk reduction. People's psycho-behavioural patterns contain conscious or unconscious references to the environmental risk, thus creating certain adjustment strategies and mechanisms, with a certain degree of psychological vulnerability. In modern man's case, the high level of awareness in front of natural dangers, doubled by the perception of the environment's unsafety, experienced as a lack of control, brings to attention nowadays the problematic of the analysis of natural risk perception, as a main factor in the adjustment of human communities' capacity of adapting to the natural environment's dynamics. The major objective of this present work is, based on the development of an efficient evaluation methodology, to identify specific relational patterns to seismic risk in Bucharest, function the characteristics of the urban environment, the social, economical and psychological vulnerability, with results that can be applied for disaster management. For explaining human reactions and the way in which they perceive and evaluate the psychological resources, on a daily basis, but also in risk situations (earthquakes), a multi-modal questionnaire was conceived through qualitative methods (a focus group, along with experts from the Public and Administrative Sciences National School, Risk Communication Center). The questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence, in which were included different type of questions (with single or multiple answers, open questions etc), and also questions using different scaling methods. The items caught cognitive elements (expectations, anticipations and negative or positive judgments regarding risk element), affective (feelings) and behavioral

  12. [Risk perception of the general public of cell phone towers and cancer: trend and associated factors, 2005-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Vergélys, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess risk perception related to living near a cell phone tower based on data from two national telephone surveys conducted in France in 2005 and 2010. In 2005, 48.5% of French people aged 16-75 years considered that living near a cell phone tower increases the risk of cancer, compared to 68.9% in 2010. In addition, the number of ?don't know' responses decreased. The increase in risk perception was far greater than the increase in perceptions related to other potential environmental factors of cancer (nuclear power plant, air pollution, chemically-treated food). In 2005, the perceived risk of cancer due to exposure to cell phone tower radiation was correlated to gender, level of income, size of town and sensitivity to other environmental causes of cancer. However, these correlations were weaker in 2010. This risk perception may reflect non-specific fears and a lack of trust in the authorities, but is also rooted in a local context.

  13. The Effect of Business Environment and Entrepreneurs’ Gender on Perception of Financial Risk in The Smes Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozubíková Ludmila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are crucial, and not only for the Czech economy. Their sustainable growth is important for the economy of most European countries. Because of this, the issues surrounding their financing, government support and public perception are widely discussed. The problems connected with external financing of SMEs are closely related to effective management of financial risk, which can minimize competition, create better financial structure and increase the firm’s competitiveness. Our results of the questionnaire survey in the Czech Republic in 2015 were obtained using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM and revealed a factor which the male sample believed to be an important influence on the perception of financial risk is a bank’s approach to business. This factor is significantly influenced by knowledge, rules and principles including the knowledge of banks’ credit conditions, their transparency and the ability of entrepreneurs to manage financial risks. In the female sample, state and public perception showed to be much more important in the perception of financial risk. Male entrepreneurs mitigate financial risks through a bank’s assistance whereas female entrepreneurs emphasize the role of society.

  14. HIV risk perception and behavior among medically and traditionally circumcised males in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Zungu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC has recently been implemented as a strategy for reducing the risk of heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, there is some concern that VMMC may lead to low risk perception and more risky sexual behavior. This study investigated HIV risk perception and risk behaviors among men who have undergone either VMMC or traditional male circumcision (TMC compared to those that had not been circumcised. Methods Data collected from the 2012 South African national population-based household survey for males aged 15 years and older were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression, and relative risk ratios (RRRs with 95 % confidence interval (CI were used to assess factors associated with each type of circumcision relative no circumcision. Results Of the 11,086 males that indicated that they were circumcised or not, 19.5 % (95 % CI: 17.9–21.4 were medically circumcised, 27.2 % (95 % CI: 24.7–29.8 were traditionally circumcised and 53.3 % (95 % CI: 50.9–55.6 were not circumcised. In the final multivariate models, relative to uncircumcised males, males who reported VMMC were significantly more likely to have had more than two sexual partners (RRR = 1.67, p = 0.009, and males who reported TMC were significantly less likely to be low risk alcohol users (RRR = 0.72, p < 0.001. Conclusion There is a need to strengthen and improve the quality of the counselling component of VMMC with the focus on education about the real and present risk for HIV infection associated with multiple sexual partners and alcohol abuse following circumcision.

  15. FLOOD HAZARDS PERCEPTION. THE RESULT OF AN OPINION SURVEY MADE IN THE LITTLE TOWNS FROM LOWER ARIEŞ CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA URCAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood hazards perception. The result of an opinion survey made in the little towns from lower Arieş corridor. This paper has been prepared based on information obtained from a survey conducted on a sample of 560 residents from the towns of Turda and Câmpia Turzii, residing in areas with different degrees of exposure to the risk of flooding. The residents were questioned about the floods they had suffered and gave varied responses to the degree of flood damage on the population, to the amount of information and the degree of insurance against floods. The questionnaire was structured on different aspects that emphasized: identification, level of experience, knowledge and information; the perception of the causes that generated and amplified floods; the perception involving authorities in prevention and mitigation of flood damage; availability for implementation of voluntary actions, the degree of insurance and aid to flood. In this study it was taken into account the location of households, the previous flood experience, the age and the education level of the respondents.

  16. Reported off-leash frequency and perception of risk for gastrointestinal parasitism are not associated in owners of urban park-attending dogs: A multifactorial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anya F; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Rock, Melanie J; Massolo, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Associations between park use and infections with gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in dogs (Canis familiaris) have been previously observed, suggesting park use may pose risks for infection in dogs, and potentially, in humans. This study was conducted to establish the overall level of perceived risk of parasitism in dogs, the frequency of unleashing dogs in parks, and to determine if dog owners' risk perceptions of parasite transmission among humans and dogs are associated with the reported frequency of unleashing dogs. From June to September 2010, 635 surveys were administered to dog owners in nine city parks in Calgary, Alberta, by the lead author to explore dog-walking behaviors in parks under differing leashing regulations. From these, a subset of 316 questionnaires were analyzed to examine associations between behavioral and dog demographic factors, risk perception and acceptability of perceived risks of dog and human parasitism, and education regarding parasitism in dogs and humans. Multivariate statistics were conducted using three separate Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) decision trees to model risk perception of dogs becoming parasitized while in the park, risk perception of zoonotic transmission, and off-leash frequency. Predictors included recreational behaviors, dog demographics, risk perception of park-based and zoonotic transmission, education regarding parasites, and leashing regulations (e.g. on-leash, off-leash, or mixed management parks). The perceived risk of park-based transmission was relatively higher than perception of zoonotic transmission and the majority of people unleashed their dogs at least some of the time. Risk perception was not associated with off-leash frequency in dogs and risk perception and off-leash frequency were associated with factors other than each other. The results suggest owners may underestimate the potential risks for parasitism related to some dog-walking behaviours, and are relevant for public and

  17. Rural junior high school students' risk factors for and perceptions of teen-age parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K L; Price, J H; Thompson, C L; Schmalzried, H D

    1998-10-01

    A sample consisting of 689 junior high school rural adolescents was surveyed about their perceptions of being a teen parent and their current sexual behavior. A risk factor analysis also was conducted to determine factors that significantly predict whether adolescents had engaged in sexual intercourse. Results indicate that one in nine adolescents had engaged in sexual intercourse (11%). The risk factor analyses showed that smoking and efficacy expectations of not engaging in sexual intercourse were significant predictors for both genders. For the most part, adolescents responded positively on four constructs: 1) attitudes toward being a teen parent; 2) efficacy expectations of not engaging in sexual intercourse; 3) benefits of being a teen parent; and 4) and barriers to being a teen parent. However, when analyses were conducted for males and females separately, females scored higher on each factor. Overall, results indicate these teens recognized problems that may occur from being a teen parent.

  18. Street racing video games and risk-taking driving: An Internet survey of automobile enthusiasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Seeley, Jane; Wiesenthal, David L; Wickens, Christine M; Fischer, Peter; Mann, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among risky driving attitudes, self-perceptions as a risky driver, playing of "drive'em up" (which rewarded players for frequent traffic and other violations) and "circuit" racing video games as well as self-reported risky driving through a web-based survey of car and racing club members in relation to a socio-cognitive model of the effects of racing video game playing. An Internet questionnaire was developed and included: (1) self-perceptions as a risky driver scales (Driver Thrill Seeking and Competitive Attitude Toward Driving); (2) attitudes regarding street racing; (3) street racing video game playing, and (4) self-reported risky driving (Risk-Taking Driving Scale). A sequential logistic regression was performed entering age and driving exposure as control variables in the first block, self-perceptions as a risky driver in the second block, attitudes in the third block and playing "drive'em up" and "circuit" racing games in the last block to examine their effects on self-reported risk-taking driving. A total of 503 survey respondents were included in the analyses and only 20% reported any risk-taking driving. Higher score on the Competitive Attitude Toward Driving Scale, more positive attitudes toward street racing, and more frequent reported playing of "drive'em up" video games were associated with higher odds on the self-reported Risk-Taking Driving Scale. However, the Driver Thrill Seeking Scale and "circuit" video game playing failed to predict self-reported risk-taking driving. Self-perceptions as a risky driver, positive attitudes toward risky driving and "drive'em up" street-racing games, but not "circuit" racing games, are associated with increased risk-taking driving. These findings are congruent with experimental studies in which games that reward driving violations increased risk taking, suggesting that risk taking may be a function of type of street racing game played by affecting self-perceptions

  19. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence about health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Sioen, Isabelle; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the gap between consumer perception and scientific evidence related to health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption. Consumer perceptions from a cross-sectional survey in March 2003 in Belgium were compared with scientific evidence based on a literature review. A quota sampling procedure was used with age as quota control variable. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire including health benefit beliefs from fish, fish content and effect beliefs for nutrients and harmful substances. Adults (n=429), who were the main person responsible for food purchasing in the household (284 women; 145 men), aged 18-83 years, from different regional, education, family size and income groups. Fish is predominantly perceived as a healthy food that reduces risk for coronary heart disease, which corroborates scientific evidence. This perception is stronger among women than among men. In contrast with scientific evidence, 46% of the consumers believe that fish contains dietary fibre, whereas less than one-third is aware that fish contains omega-3 fatty acids and that this nutrient has a positive impact on human health. The gap between perception and evidence is larger among consumers with lower education. In general, consumers are better aware of the content and effect of harmful substances than of nutrients in fish. Despite conclusive evidence about the content and positive effect of omega-3 fatty acids in fish, related consumer awareness and beliefs are poor and often wrong. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about the health benefits of fish consumption.

  20. Perception on the Risk of the Sonora River Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Aragonés

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the “psychometric paradigm” of risk perception to the heavy mineral spill in the Sonora River (Mexico. A total of 241 inhabitants of the polluted area with a mean age of 46.3 years participated in the study, completing an interview questionnaire at the onset of the disaster. The results allow us to establish a profile of the 18 characteristics comprising the model and a multiple regression analysis shows that some characteristics of the dimensions of dread risk and unknown risk explain a percentage of the magnitude of the perceived risk. In addition, the behaviors recommended by the authorities were classified by the participants according to their estimated usefulness. Significant differences were observed. Avoiding contact with the water was considered the most effective, followed by recommendations on the use of the water, with actions related to the environment and how to avoid pollution being considered the least effective. In sum, the strategy deployed allows us to observe how the victims perceive the disaster and organize the behaviors proposed by the authorities.

  1. Sound Levels and Risk Perceptions of Music Students During Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Matilde A; Amorim, Marta; Silva, Manuela V; Neves, Paula; Sousa, Aida; Inácio, Octávio

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that professional musicians are at risk of hearing damage due to the exposure to high sound pressure levels during music playing. However, it is important to recognize that the musicians' exposure may start early in the course of their training as students in the classroom and at home. Studies regarding sound exposure of music students and their hearing disorders are scarce and do not take into account important influencing variables. Therefore, this study aimed to describe sound level exposures of music students at different music styles, classes, and according to the instrument played. Further, this investigation attempted to analyze the perceptions of students in relation to exposure to loud music and consequent health risks, as well as to characterize preventive behaviors. The results showed that music students are exposed to high sound levels in the course of their academic activity. This exposure is potentiated by practice outside the school and other external activities. Differences were found between music style, instruments, and classes. Tinnitus, hyperacusis, diplacusis, and sound distortion were reported by the students. However, students were not entirely aware of the health risks related to exposure to high sound pressure levels. These findings reflect the importance of starting intervention in relation to noise risk reduction at an early stage, when musicians are commencing their activity as students.

  2. Perceived recurrence risk of having another affected child: A survey on parents of children with autism spectrum disorders in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Huang, Tse-Yang; Ye, Jia; Zhao, Shixi; Chen, Lei-Shih

    2017-12-18

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have a significant genetic predisposition. The recurrence risk of ASD ranges from 3% to 18.7% for parents having one affected child. As recurrence risk perceptions have important implications for family planning, prenatal preparation, and future children managements, absolute and relative recurrence risk perceptions of having another affected child among Taiwanese parents of children with ASD were assessed. This study collected quantitative survey data from 415 Taiwanese parents who had one child with ASD. Participants reported their absolute recurrence risk of having another child with ASD was 33.4%. Compared to other parents with normally-developing children, merely 49.8% of participants perceived higher relative recurrence risk. By controlling for the sociodemographic characteristics, participants' absolute recurrence risk perceptions were significantly predicted by their perceived genetic causes of ASD and family history of ASD. Yet, participants' relative recurrence risk perceptions were significantly associated with only the perceived genetic etiology. Taiwanese parents of children diagnosed with ASD had an incorrect understanding of their absolute and relative recurrence risks. To facilitate informed decision-making in family planning, healthcare providers should discuss absolute and relative recurrence risks as well as genetic causes of ASD with this particular group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Survey of Undergraduate Student Perceptions and Use of Nutrition Information Labels in a University Dining Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Olivia D.; Roberto, Christina A.; Kim, Jane H.; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine undergraduate student perceptions and reported use of nutrition information labels in campus dining halls.Design: Paper surveys were administered to a convenience sample of undergraduates. Setting: This study was conducted at an urban United States university. Method: A survey about perceptions and use of nutrition…

  4. Preparing for local adaptation: Understanding flood risk perceptions in Pittsburgh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Parodi, G.; Klima, K.

    2016-12-01

    In cities such as Pittsburgh, aging and insufficient infrastructure contributes to flashfloods and numerous combined sewer overflows annually, contaminating streets, basements and waterways. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate this problem by causing more intense and more frequent extreme events in Western Pennsylvania. For a storm water adaptation plan to be implemented successfully, the City of Pittsburgh will need informed public support. One way to achieve public understanding and support is through effective communication of the risks, benefits, and uncertainties of local flooding hazards and adaptation methods. In order to develop risk communications effectively, the City and its partners will need to know what knowledge and attitudes the residents of Pittsburgh already hold about flood risks. To that end we surveyed 1,376 Pittsburgh residents on a variety of flood risk topics through an online or paper survey in Fall 2015. On balance, residents were relatively knowledgeable about storm water and see the City's current infrastructure as being inadequate to meet future risk. Moreover, they see the risk of runoff events as increasing and especially among those who live in hazardous flood areas. Residents expressed interest in having a dedicated fund to deal with runoff events. Among those queried about their willingness-to-pay, those asked to pay $15 were most interested in a dedicated fund and for green infrastructure (as opposed to gray infrastructure) in particular. Finally, while most residents favored green infrastructure in terms of its attractiveness and perceived affects on mitigating climate change many did not see it as effective at addressing flooding as gray infrastructure. We found people understand the risk and are open to doing something about it. However, more guidance and information on appropriate ways to adapt locally in terms that make sense to residents could enhance informed support for adaptation measures.

  5. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Murakami

    Full Text Available In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249 aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello's guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station, evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on

  6. Human Perceptions Mirror Realities of Carnivore Attack Risk for Livestock: Implications for Mitigating Human-Carnivore Conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R B Miller

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict is challenging to quantify because it is shaped by both the realities and people's perceptions of carnivore threats. Whether perceptions align with realities can have implications for conflict mitigation: misalignments can lead to heightened and indiscriminant persecution of carnivores whereas alignments can offer deeper insights into human-carnivore interactions. We applied a landscape-scale spatial analysis of livestock killed by tigers and leopards in India to model and map observed attack risk, and surveyed owners of livestock killed by tigers and leopards for their rankings of threats across habitats to map perceived attack risk. Observed tiger risk to livestock was greatest near dense forests and at moderate distances from human activity while leopard risk was greatest near open vegetation. People accurately perceived spatial differences between tiger and leopard hunting patterns, expected greater threat in areas with high values of observed risk for both carnivores. Owners' perception of threats largely did not depend on environmental conditions surrounding their village (spatial location, dominant land-use or observed carnivore risk. Surveys revealed that owners who previously lost livestock to carnivores used more livestock protection methods than those who had no prior losses, and that owners who had recently lost livestock for the first time expressed greater interest in changing their protection methods than those who experienced prior losses. Our findings suggest that in systems where realities and perceptions of carnivore risk align, conservation programs and policies can optimize conservation outcomes by (1 improving the effectiveness of livestock protection methods and (2 working with owners who have recently lost livestock and are most willing to invest effort in adapting protection strategies to mitigate human-carnivore conflict.

  7. Human Perceptions Mirror Realities of Carnivore Attack Risk for Livestock: Implications for Mitigating Human-Carnivore Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R. B.; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Schmitz, Oswald J.

    2016-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is challenging to quantify because it is shaped by both the realities and people’s perceptions of carnivore threats. Whether perceptions align with realities can have implications for conflict mitigation: misalignments can lead to heightened and indiscriminant persecution of carnivores whereas alignments can offer deeper insights into human-carnivore interactions. We applied a landscape-scale spatial analysis of livestock killed by tigers and leopards in India to model and map observed attack risk, and surveyed owners of livestock killed by tigers and leopards for their rankings of threats across habitats to map perceived attack risk. Observed tiger risk to livestock was greatest near dense forests and at moderate distances from human activity while leopard risk was greatest near open vegetation. People accurately perceived spatial differences between tiger and leopard hunting patterns, expected greater threat in areas with high values of observed risk for both carnivores. Owners’ perception of threats largely did not depend on environmental conditions surrounding their village (spatial location, dominant land-use or observed carnivore risk). Surveys revealed that owners who previously lost livestock to carnivores used more livestock protection methods than those who had no prior losses, and that owners who had recently lost livestock for the first time expressed greater interest in changing their protection methods than those who experienced prior losses. Our findings suggest that in systems where realities and perceptions of carnivore risk align, conservation programs and policies can optimize conservation outcomes by (1) improving the effectiveness of livestock protection methods and (2) working with owners who have recently lost livestock and are most willing to invest effort in adapting protection strategies to mitigate human-carnivore conflict. PMID:27617831

  8. Survey of mental health nurses' attitudes towards risk assessment, risk assessment tools and positive risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, C; Gill, A; Doyle, L; Morrissey, J; Higgins, A

    2016-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Risk assessment and safety planning are a core aspect of the role of the mental health nurse. Conflicting views exist on the value of risk assessment tools. Few studies have examined mental health nurses' attitudes towards risk, including use of tools and the role of positive risk in recovery. WHAT THE PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Mental health nurses view risk assessment as a core dimension of their role and not merely an exercise to fulfil organizational clinical safety and governance obligations. The majority of nurses hold positive attitudes towards therapeutic or positive risk, and consider creative risk taking as vital to people's recovery. The majority of nurses believe that risk assessment tools facilitate professional decision making, however, some are concerned that tools may negatively impact upon therapeutic relationships. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Ongoing education on the use of risk assessment tools is required to minimize views that their use is incompatible with therapeutic engagement, and to enable nurses to develop confidence to engage with positive risk and to allow service users make decisions and take responsibility. Introduction Risk assessment and safety planning are considered core components of the role of the mental health nurse; however, little is known about nurses' attitudes towards risk assessment, use of tools to assess risk or therapeutic risk taking. Aim This study aimed to explore mental health nurses' attitudes towards completing risk assessments, use of tools as an aid, and therapeutic or positive risk. Method An anonymous survey which included 13 attitudinal statements, rated on a five-point Likert scale, was completed by 381 mental health nurses working in adult services in Ireland. Findings Findings indicate strong support for the practice of risk assessment in mental health practice. The vast majority of nurses believe that risk assessment tools facilitate professional

  9. Cardiovascular risk profile and lifestyle habits in a cohort of Italian cardiologists (from the SOCRATES Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Zito, Giovanni; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2013-07-15

    Cardiologists' cardiovascular profile and lifestyle habits are poorly known worldwide. To offer a snapshot of the personal health habits of Italian cardiologists, the Survey on Cardiac Risk Profile and Lifestyle Habits in a Cohort of Italian Cardiologists (SOCRATES) was undertaken. A Web-based electronic self-reported survey, accessible through a dedicated Web site, was used for data entry, and data were transferred through the Web to a central database. The survey was divided into 4 sections: baseline characteristics, medical illnesses and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle habits, and selected medication use. The e-mail databases of 3 national scientific societies were used to survey a large and representative sample of Italian cardiologists. During the 3-month period of the survey, 1,770 of the 5,240 cardiologists contacted (33.7%) completed and returned ≥1 sections of the questionnaire. More than 49% of the participants had 1 of the 5 classic risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, active smoking, diabetes, and previous vascular events). More than 28% of respondents had 2 to 5 risk factors, and only 22.1% had none and therefore, according to age and gender, could be considered at low to intermediate risk. Despite the reported risk factors, >90% of cardiologists had a self-reported risk perception quantified as mild, such as low or intermediate. Furthermore, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, and stress at work or at home were commonly reported, as well as limited use of cardiovascular drugs, such as statins or aspirin. In conclusion, the average cardiovascular profile of Italian cardiologist is unlikely to be considered ideal or even favorable according to recent statements and guidelines regarding cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Survey and Perception of Farmers on Okra ( Abelmoschus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty okra farms in twenty locations in the rain-forest agroecology of Kwara State, Nigeria were surveyed. The objectives were to study the socio-economic characteristics of okra farmers and ascertain the incidence of okra diseases. Disease incidence was estimated based on thirty (30) plant observations ...

  11. Impact of a primary care based intervention on breast cancer knowledge, risk perception and concern: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Karliner, Leah S; Tice, Jeffrey A; Kerlikowske, Karla; Gregorich, Steven; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Pasick, Rena J; Chen, Alice; Quinn, Jessica; Kaplan, Celia P

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the effects of a tablet-based, breast cancer risk education intervention for use in primary care settings (BreastCARE) on patients' breast cancer knowledge, risk perception and concern. From June 2011-August 2012, we enrolled women from two clinics, aged 40-74 years with no personal breast cancer history, and randomized them to the BreastCARE intervention group or to the control group. All patients completed a baseline telephone survey and risk assessment (via telephone for controls, via tablet computer in clinic waiting room prior to visit for intervention). All women were categorized as high or average risk based on the Referral Screening Tool, the Gail model or the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium model. Intervention patients and their physicians received an individualized risk report to discuss during the visit. All women completed a follow-up telephone survey 1-2 weeks after risk assessment. Post-test comparisons estimated differences at follow-up in breast cancer knowledge, risk perception and concern. 580 intervention and 655 control women completed follow-up interviews. Mean age was 56 years (SD = 9). At follow-up, 73% of controls and 71% of intervention women correctly perceived their breast cancer risk and 22% of controls and 24% of intervention women were very concerned about breast cancer. Intervention patients had greater knowledge (≥75% correct answers) of breast cancer risk factors at follow-up (24% vs. 16%; p = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, there were no differences in correct risk perception or concern, but intervention patients had greater knowledge ([OR] = 1.62; 95% [CI] = 1.19-2.23). A simple, practical intervention involving physicians at the point of care can improve knowledge of breast cancer without increasing concern. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01830933. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Patient knowledge and perception of antibiotics: A questionnaire survey in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Rikke Vognbjerg; Plejdrup Hansen, Malene; Lauridsen, Gitte Bruun

    2015-01-01

    of antibiotics. Objectives: This study aimed to study patient knowledge and perceptions of antibiotic treatment and to explore possible associations between patient gender, age, and educational level and accurate knowledge of antibiotics. Design/Methods: As part of an Audit Project Odense project a questionnaire...... survey was conducted during winter 2014. Patients aged ≥18 years consulting their GP with symptoms of ARI were requested to fill in a questionnaire on knowledge and perception of antibiotic treatment. Socio-demographic information was obtained. Results: 361 patients completed the questionnaire (response...... as an important factor in the development of resistant bacteria. Points for discussion: To what extent does patient knowledge and perception on antibiotics influence the GP when considering prescribing antibiotics? How can knowledge of patient perception of ARIs and antibiotics be helpful in the consultation room?...

  13. A Comprehensive Survey on Cyberbullying Perceptions at a Major Metropolitan University--Faculty Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molluzzo, John C.; Lawler, James; Manneh, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents are featured daily in the news. The authors of this study examine the perceptions of faculty on cyberbullying at a major metropolitan university. From the findings of a survey distributed to faculty in all schools of the university, the authors learn of high…

  14. A survey of users\\' perception and use of ICT resources in Kennet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the perception and use of ICT resources in Kenneth Dike library by postgraduate students of the university of Ibadan .The survey research design was adopted and 208 postgraduate students participated in the study. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS and results revealed that the use of ICT ...

  15. Validity and Appropriate Uses of the Revised Technology Uses and Perceptions Survey (TUPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Huggins-Manley, A. Corinne; Dawson, Kara; Agaçli-Dogan, Nihan; Dogan, Selcuk

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore validity evidence and appropriate uses of the revised Technology Uses and Perceptions Survey (TUPS) designed to measure in-service teacher perspectives about technology integration in K-12 schools and classrooms. The revised TUPS measures 10 domains, including Access and Support; Preparation of Technology…

  16. Be My Guest: A Survey of Mass Communication Students' Perception of Guest Speakers